WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling studies demonstrated

  1. Force Allocation Modeling in Support of Contingency Operations - Demonstration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a in task t for mission m • Capu = total number of units of type u available for assignment • Cu = cost for each unit u deployed The model to...x^ < Capu for each unit u (3.3) m x^ > 0 integer for each (u, m) pair (3.4) (3.1) represents the objective of minimizing system cost. We...scenario s • Ratsm = minimum requirement of action a in task t for mission m, scenario s 14 • Capu = total number of units of type u available for

  2. Inductrack demonstration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-03

    A small-scale model track of a new type of magnetic levitation system (dubbed the ``Inductrack`` system), and a passively magnetically levitated cart, has been designed, constructed and operated. The track consists of a close-packed array of rectangular levitation coils, 15 centimeters in width transversely and 20 meters in length. The array of coils is inductively loaded above and below its lower horizontal section with ferrite tiles. Paralleling the levitation coils on each side are aluminum-channel rails on which ride auxiliary wheels attached to the cart. The cart has, on its lower surface and on its sides, fore and aft, special arrays (``Halbach arrays``) of permanent magnet bars that produce a strong periodic magnetic field below the cart. This magnetic field, when the cart is in motion, induces repelling currents in the Inductrack coils, levitating it and centering it transversely. When mechanically launched (with a pulley- and-weight system) at speeds substantially above a ``transition speed`` of about 2 meters per second, the cart levitated and flew stably down the track, settling to rest on its wheels near the end of the track. In the last phase of the program an electromagnetic launching section consisting of another array of coils, connected to pulse-driver circuits, was added at the beginning of the track. Aided by an initial launch (from stretched ``bungee`` cords), this electromagnetic launching system was operated successfully, resulting again in levitation and subsequent stable flight of the cart.

  3. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  4. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose...... for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Several by-products are also formed, which disturb and act as inhibitors downstream. The objective of this study is to formulate and validate a large scale hydrothermal pretreatment dynamic model based on mass and energy balances, together with a complex conversion mechanism...... of the process, outlining the value of the model for simulation, control design, and optimization for full-scale applications....

  5. /sup 111/In-chloride thorax scintigraphic study for demonstration of pulmonary edema: Canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih Weijen; Deland, F.H.; Simmons, G.H.; Coupa, J.; Domstad, P.A.; Lee Luyuan

    1986-04-01

    Pulmonary edema induced by injections of oleic acid was demonstrated using /sup 111/In-chloride lung/heart image in five anesthetized dogs. The anesthetized dogs were positioned under a gamma camera interfaced to a computer. After /sup 111/In-chloride IV injections, dynamic data were recorded at 1 frame/min before and after induced pulmonary edema. The computer generated the curve of the lung-to-heart activity ratio; the ratio rose from 0.5-0.6 at baseline to 0.85-1.5 at th end of the study in the dogs. At the end of each study, the removed lungs demonstrated edematous fluid, and a few red blood cells were seen in the alveoli. The results indicating pulmoinary edema exhibited in the /sup 111/In-chloride lung-to-heart ratio obtained from a computerized gamma camera were compatable with the pathological results. Since /sup 111/In-chloride instantly binds to plasma transferrin, an excellent intravascular imaging agent, leakage of this tracer into alveoli indicates loss of membranous wall competence. Pulmonary edema, as in the adult respiratory distress syndrome, is sometimes difficult to diagnose; and this /sup 111/In-chloride lung-to-heart imaging technique may be potentially useful.

  6. Demonstration of an advanced circulation fludized bed coal combustor phase 1: Cold model study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, R. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1993-03-20

    It was found that there was a strong dependence of the density profile on the secondary air injection location and that there was a pronounced solid separation from the conveying gas, due to the swirl motion. Furthermore, the swirl motion generated strong internal circulation patterns and higher slip velocities than in the case of nonswirl motion as in an ordinary circulating fluidized bed. Radial solids flux profiles were measured at different axial locations. The general radial profile in a swirling circulating fluidized bed indicated an increased downward flow of solids near the bed walls, and strong variations in radial profiles along the axial height. For swirl numbers less than 0.9, which is typical for swirling circulating fluidized beds, there is no significant increase in erosion due to swirl motion inside the bed. Pending further investigation of swirl motion with combustion, at least from our cold model studies, no disadvantages due to the introduction of swirl motion were discovered.

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose for...... of the process, outlining the value of the model for simulation, control design, and optimization for full-scale applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    sustainable building . Models produced through the REM process can be updated and accessed continually, thus allowing energy managers to continuously explore...time and cost of audits 4. Review the energy analysis findings under the High Performance and Sustainable Building Guiding Principles Compliance

  9. Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.

  10. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Stimulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenton T. Cladouhos, Matthew Clyne, Maisie Nichols,; Susan Petty, William L. Osborn, Laura Nofziger

    2011-10-23

    As a part of Phase I of the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration project, several data sets were collected to characterize the rock volume around the well. Fracture, fault, stress, and seismicity data has been collected by borehole televiewer, LiDAR elevation maps, and microseismic monitoring. Well logs and cuttings from the target well (NWG 55-29) and core from a nearby core hole (USGS N-2) have been analyzed to develop geothermal, geochemical, mineralogical and strength models of the rock matrix, altered zones, and fracture fillings (see Osborn et al., this volume). These characterization data sets provide inputs to models used to plan and predict EGS reservoir creation and productivity. One model used is AltaStim, a stochastic fracture and flow software model developed by AltaRock. The software's purpose is to model and visualize EGS stimulation scenarios and provide guidance for final planning. The process of creating an AltaStim model requires synthesis of geologic observations at the well, the modeled stress conditions, and the stimulation plan. Any geomechanical model of an EGS stimulation will require many assumptions and unknowns; thus, the model developed here should not be considered a definitive prediction, but a plausible outcome given reasonable assumptions. AltaStim is a tool for understanding the effect of known constraints, assumptions, and conceptual models on plausible outcomes.

  11. Aligning the demonstration model of CHEOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, M.; Biondi, F.; Marafatto, L.; Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Magrin, D.; Ragazzoni, R.; Viotto, V.; Gullieuszik, M.; Farisato, G.; Lessio, L.; Portaluri, E.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Marinai, M.; Novi, A.; Pompei, C.; Piazza, D.; Beck, T.; Cessa, V.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExOPlanets Satellite) is an ESA Small Mission, planned to be launched in mid-2018 and whose main goal is the photometric precise characterization of radii of exoplanets orbiting bright stars (Vflight representative and whose mechanics provides the same interfaces of the flight model, but is not thermally representative. In this paper, we describe CHEOPS Demonstration Model handling, integration, tests, alignment and characterization, emphasizing the verification of the uncertainties in the optical quality measurements introduced by the starlight simulator and the way the alignment and optical surfaces are measured.

  12. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STeiner, D.; Bettis, E. S.; Huxford, T. J.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of the ORNL Fusion Power Demonstration Study (Demo study) is to develop a plan for demonstrating, in this century, the commercial feasibility of fusion power based on the tokamak concept. The two-year study was initiated in FY 1976, and this interim report summarizes the results for FY 1976. Major results include: (1) the outline of a three-phase plan for demonstrating the commercial feasibility of tokamak fusion power in this century; (2) a parametric analysis of tokamak costs which provides the economic basis for the demonstration plan; and (3) a critical evaluation of the technological directions, design approaches, and plasma characteristics which serve as the technical basis for the demonstration plan.

  13. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  14. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  15. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  16. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Meijer, S; Mertens, S; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

  18. Background model for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, T S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fullmer, A; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; Leon, J; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2016-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing a system containing 44 kg of high-purity Ge (HPGe) detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale to ~15 meV. To realize this, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials and analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements. Preliminary background results obtained during the engineering runs of the Demonstrator are pre...

  19. Demonstration Model of Self Inductance Using Relay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-01

    Using an electrical component like a relay, the phenomenonof self inductance caneasily be demonstrated to undergraduatestudents. By wiring simple electrical components like relay,neon bulb and a DC power supply, intermittent backelectromotive force (emf) can be generated in the range from60 to 100 volt. The glowing of neon bulb provides visualevidence for the generation of large back emf due to selfinductance.

  20. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  1. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  2. Facility Modeling Capability Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sadasivan, Pratap [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aleman, Sebastian E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chiswell, Steven R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A joint effort has been initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savanah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) office of Proliferation Detection, to develop and validate a flexible framework for simulating effluents and emissions from spent fuel reprocessing facilities. These effluents and emissions can be measured by various on-site and/or off-site means, and then the inverse problem can ideally be solved through modeling and simulation to estimate characteristics of facility operation such as the nuclear material production rate. The flexible framework called Facility Modeling Toolkit focused on the forward modeling of PUREX reprocessing facility operating conditions from fuel storage and chopping to effluent and emission measurements.

  3. A case study demonstrating analysis of stormflows, concentrations, and loads of nutrients in highway runoff and swale discharge with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory; Jones, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Decisionmakers need information about the quality and quantity of stormwater runoff, the risk for adverse effects of runoff on receiving waters, and the potential effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce these risks. The Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) uses Monte Carlo methods to generate stormflows, concentrations, and loads from a highway site and an upstream basin to provide needed risk-based information. SELDM was designed to help inform water-management decisions for streams and lakes receiving runoff from a highway or other land-use site. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of SELDM and a hypothetical case study demonstrating the type of risk-based information that SELDM can provide. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were selected as example constituents because nutrients are a common concern throughout the Nation and data for receiving waters, highway runoff, and the performance of best management practices (BMPs) are readily available for these constituents. 

  4. FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION MODEL OF ECOLOGICAL DEMONSTRATION AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ya-juan; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; WANG Shu-tong; WANG Jin-feng

    2005-01-01

    Ecological demonstration area (EDA) is an authorized nomination, which should be assessed from several aspects, including ecological, social, environmental, economic ones and so on. It is difficult to advance an exact developing level index of EDA due to its indicator system's complexity and disequilibrium. In this paper, a framework of indicators was set to evaluate, monitor and examine the comprehensive level of ecological demonstration area (EDA). Fuzzy logic method was used to develop the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (FCEM), which could quantitatively reveal the developing degree of EDA. Huiji District of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, one of the 9th group of national EDAs, was taken as a study case. The framework of FCEM for the integrated system included six subsystems, which were social, economic, ecological, rural, urban and accessorial description ones. The research would be valuable in the comprehensive quantitative evaluation of EDA and would work as a guide in the construction practices of Huiji ecological demonstration area.

  5. A Simple Model of Hox Genes: Bone Morphology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmaefsky, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Visual demonstrations of abstract scientific concepts are effective strategies for enhancing content retention (Shmaefsky 2004). The concepts associated with gene regulation of growth and development are particularly complex and are well suited for teaching with visual models. This demonstration provides a simple and accurate model of Hox gene…

  6. Detection of in situ mammary cancer in a transgenic mouse model: in vitro and in vivo MRI studies demonstrate histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S A; Fan, X; Zamora, M; Foxley, S; River, J; Newstead, G M; Karczmar, G S [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Conzen, S D [Department of Medicine and Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 2115, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Krausz, T [Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, MC 6101, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: gskarczm@uchicago.edu

    2008-10-07

    Improving the prevention and detection of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is expected to lower both morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. Transgenic mouse models can be used as a 'test bed' to develop new imaging methods and to evaluate the efficacy of candidate preventive therapies. We hypothesized that despite its microscopic size, early murine mammary cancer, including DCIS, might be accurately detected by MRI. C3(1) SV40 TAg female mice (n = 23) between 10 and 18 weeks of age were selected for study. Eleven mice were subjected to in vitro imaging using a T{sub 2}-weighted spin echo sequence and 12 mice were selected for in vivo imaging using a T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo, a T{sub 2}-weighted spin echo and high spectral and spatial resolution imaging sequences. The imaged glands were carefully dissected, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded, and then H and E stained sections were obtained. The ratio of image-detected versus histologically detected cancers was obtained by reviewing the MR images and H and E sections independently and using histology as the gold standard. MR images were able to detect 12/12 intramammary lymph nodes, 1/1 relatively large ({approx}5 mm) tumor, 17/18 small ({approx}1 mm) tumors and 13/16 ducts distended with DCIS greater than 300 {mu}m. Significantly, there were no false positives-i.e., image detection always corresponded to a histologically detectable cancer in this model. These results indicate that MR imaging can reliably detect both preinvasive in situ and early invasive mammary cancers in mice with high sensitivity. This technology is an important step toward the more effective use of non-invasive imaging in pre-clinical studies of breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  7. Detection of in situ mammary cancer in a transgenic mouse model: in vitro and in vivo MRI studies demonstrate histopathologic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S. A.; Conzen, S. D.; Fan, X.; Krausz, T.; Zamora, M.; Foxley, S.; River, J.; Newstead, G. M.; Karczmar, G. S.

    2008-10-01

    Improving the prevention and detection of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is expected to lower both morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. Transgenic mouse models can be used as a 'test bed' to develop new imaging methods and to evaluate the efficacy of candidate preventive therapies. We hypothesized that despite its microscopic size, early murine mammary cancer, including DCIS, might be accurately detected by MRI. C3(1) SV40 TAg female mice (n = 23) between 10 and 18 weeks of age were selected for study. Eleven mice were subjected to in vitro imaging using a T2-weighted spin echo sequence and 12 mice were selected for in vivo imaging using a T1-weighted gradient echo, a T2-weighted spin echo and high spectral and spatial resolution imaging sequences. The imaged glands were carefully dissected, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded, and then H&E stained sections were obtained. The ratio of image-detected versus histologically detected cancers was obtained by reviewing the MR images and H&E sections independently and using histology as the gold standard. MR images were able to detect 12/12 intramammary lymph nodes, 1/1 relatively large (~5 mm) tumor, 17/18 small (~1 mm) tumors and 13/16 ducts distended with DCIS greater than 300 µm. Significantly, there were no false positives—i.e., image detection always corresponded to a histologically detectable cancer in this model. These results indicate that MR imaging can reliably detect both preinvasive in situ and early invasive mammary cancers in mice with high sensitivity. This technology is an important step toward the more effective use of non-invasive imaging in pre-clinical studies of breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  8. NMR studies demonstrate a unique AAB composition and chain register for a heterotrimeric type IV collagen model peptide containing a natural interruption site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianxi; Sun, Xiuxia; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2015-10-02

    All non-fibrillar collagens contain interruptions in the (Gly-X-Y)n repeating sequence, such as the more than 20 interruptions found in chains of basement membrane type IV collagen. Two selectively doubly labeled peptides are designed to model a site in type IV collagen with a GVG interruption in the α1(IV) and a corresponding GISLK sequence within the α2(IV) chain. CD and NMR studies on a 2:1 mixture of these two peptides support the formation of a single-component heterotrimer that maintains the one-residue staggering in the triple-helix, has a unique chain register, and contains hydrogen bonds at the interruption site. Formation of hydrogen bonds at interruption sites may provide a driving force for self-assembly and chain register in type IV and other non-fibrillar collagens. This study illustrates the potential role of interruptions in the structure, dynamics, and folding of natural collagen heterotrimers and forms a basis for understanding their biological role.

  9. Reliability Model Demonstration Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    091 093 de it bOO mi kowen 04035 release ezzz slot st scz ossO12 as scz 081 091 095 co it 1O0 cr dberg 04032 fix full nri queve logic/enz ap3201 ae...excessive execution time oss037 os scx 121 124 124 co st gOO ml dcrou 07973 iaps-94c cent trace hang oss037 ol lbx 121 124 125 co sd bOO cr dparp 07964...101 ruz 110 rwz 139 rzz 100 Simulation as sad 104 saz 064 sbd 151 sbz 064 scd 119 scz 081 sdz 142 sez 068 skz 163 slz 097 smi 064 srz 118 ssz 127 stz

  10. Power system modelling for a tactical railgun demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putley, D.; Spikings, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a prefeasibility study of electromagnetic launchers for a tactical applications demonstrator are described. The object of this work was to study the power system requirements for a 12 MJ (kinetic energy) railgun system which would be used to demonstrate the accuracy and lethality of hypervelocity projectiles (up to 3.5 km/s) fired from a railgun. Theoretical work is presented as a basis for scoping calculations to determine the required pulse energies for a railgun power system, as a function of the required projectile peak-to-mean-acceleration ratio; this shows that the introduction of a requirement for a low peak-to-mean ratio increases the barrel energy demand for a given total muzzle energy. Results are also presented from the numerical analysis of both capacitor and homopolar generator systems.

  11. Demonstration of the Ability of RCAS to Model Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Cotrell, J.

    2003-08-01

    In recent years, the wind industry has sponsored the development, verification, and validation of comprehensive aeroelastic simulators, which are used for wind turbine design, certification, and research. Unfortunately, as wind turbines continue to grow in size and sometimes exhibit unconventional design characteristics, the existing codes do not always support the additional analysis features required for proper design. The development history, functionality, and advanced nature of RCAS (Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System) make this code a sensible option. RCAS is an aeroelastic simulator developed over a 4-year cooperative effort amongst the U.S. Army's Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, Advanced Rotorcraft Technology (ART), Inc., and the helicopter industry. As its name suggests, RCAS was created for the rotorcraft industry but developed as a general purpose code for modeling the aerodynamic and structural response of any system with rotating and nonrotating subsystems (such as wind turbines). To demonstrate that RCAS can analyze wind turbines, models of a conventional, 1.5-MW, 3-bladed, upwind, horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) are created in RCAS and wind turbine analysis codes FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) and ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). Using these models, a side-by-side comparison of structural response predictions is performed under several test scenarios.

  12. Modelling coaching practice: the role of instruction and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nicola J; Franks, Ian M

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, we review the empirical literature pertaining to the effectiveness of instructions and movement demonstrations. Initially, we examine existing theories and approaches that try to explain the process of skill acquisition so as to determine implications of these theories for instructional provision. This is followed by an evaluation of studies in the motor learning literature in which pre-practice information has been manipulated. Explicit learning strategies are contrasted to implicit and discovery learning methods, and current explanations for instructional effects are discussed in terms of such mechanisms as effects-related attentional focus and movement variability. In the final sections, we review data from our own laboratory where pre-practice information has been manipulated during the learning of a novel bimanual coordination task. From these studies, proposals are made to try and explain how pre-practice information works to effect the process of skill acquisition, including the selection and execution of a response and the processing of associated feedback. An important role is given to the existing skills of the learner in understanding the instructions and performing the desired movement. Finally, we suggest some practical implications of this empirical evidence for the teaching of motor skills.

  13. Demonstrative pronouns in Spanish : a discourse-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulaica Hernández, Iker

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation constitutes an exploration into the discourse anaphoric properties of Spanish demonstrative anaphors esto eso and aquello (cf. this/that). This basic issue, largely ignored in the studies of Spanish linguistics so far, is fully addressed here from a semantic and pragmatic perspecti

  14. Environmental modeling in data-sparse regions: Mozambique demonstrator case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Niebuhr, E.; Rashid, K.; Escobar, V. M.; Andreadis, K.; Njoku, E. G.; Neal, J. C.; Voisin, N.; Pappenberger, F.; Phanthuwongpakdee, N.; Bates, P. D.; Chao, Y.; Moller, D.; Paron, P.

    2014-12-01

    Long time-series computations of seasonal and flood event inundation volumes from archived forecast rainfall events for the Lower Zambezi basin (Mozambique), using a coupled hydrology-hydrodynamic model, are correlated and regressed with satellite soil moisture observations and NWP rainfall forecasts as predictors for inundation volumes. This dynamic library of volume predictions can then be re-projected onto the topography to generate the corresponding floodplain and wetland inundation dynamics, including periods of flood and low flows. Especially for data-poor regions, the application potential of such a library of data is invaluable as the modeling chain is greatly simplified and readily available. The library is flexible, portable and transitional. Furthermore, deriving environmental indicators from this dynamic look-up catalogue would be relatively straightforward. Application fields are various and here we present conceptually a few that we plan to research in more detail and on some of which we already collaborate with other scientists and international institutions, though at the moment largely on an unfunded basis. The primary application is to implement an early warning system for flood inundation relief operations and flood inundation mitigation and resilience. Having this flood inundation warning system set up adequately would also allow looking into long-term predictions of crop productivity and consequently food security. Another potentially high-impact application is to relate flood inundation dynamics to disease modeling for public health monitoring and prediction, in particular focusing on Malaria. Last but not least, the dynamic inundation library we are building can be validated and complemented with advanced airborne radar imagery of flooding and inundated wetlands to study changes in wetland ecology and biodiversity with unprecedented detail in data-poor regions, in this case in particular the important wetlands of the Zambezi Delta.

  15. Demonstration of Design Verification Model of Rubidium Frequency Standard

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosal, Bikash; Nandanwar, Satish; Banik, Alak; Dasgupta, K S; Saxena, G M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report the development of the design verification model (DVM) of Rb atomic frequency standard. The Rb atomic frequency standard or clock has two distinct parts. One is the Physics Package where the hyperfine transitions produce the clock signal in the integrated filter cell configuration and the other is the electronic circuits which generate the resonant microwave hyperfine frequency, phase modulator and phase sensitive detector. In this paper the details of the Rb Physics package and the electronic circuits are given. The effect of putting the photo detector inside the microwave cavity is studied and reported with its effect on the resonance signal profile. The Rb clock frequency stability measurements have also been discussed.

  16. A simple demonstration when studying the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Valery; Varaksina, Ekaterina

    2016-06-01

    The paper proposes a lecture experiment that can be demonstrated when studying the equivalence principle formulated by Albert Einstein. The demonstration consists of creating stroboscopic photographs of a ball moving along a parabola in Earth's gravitational field. In the first experiment, a camera is stationary relative to Earth's surface. In the second, the camera falls freely downwards with the ball, allowing students to see that the ball moves uniformly and rectilinearly relative to the frame of reference of the freely falling camera. The equivalence principle explains this result, as it is always possible to propose an inertial frame of reference for a small region of a gravitational field, where space-time effects of curvature are negligible.

  17. Demonstration Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study ESTCP PROJECT # MM-0838

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika

    2010-02-15

    In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation will require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This characterization study was be the second phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years. The FY06 Defense Appropriation contained funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). ESTCP responded by conducting a UXO Discrimination Study at the former Camp Sibert, AL. The results of this first demonstration were very encouraging. Although conditions were favorable at this site, a single target of interest (4.2-in mortar) and benign topography and geology, all of the classification approaches demonstrated were able to correctly identify a sizable fraction of the anomalies as arising from non-hazardous items that could be safely left in the ground. To build upon the success of the first phase of this study

  18. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  19. An Acoustic Demonstration Model for CW and Pulsed Spectrosocopy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, Torben; Mäder, Heinrich; Trueman, Trevor; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    High school and undergraduate students have often difficulties if new concepts are introduced in their physics or chemistry lectures. Lecture demonstrations and references to more familiar analogues can be of great help to the students in such situations. We have developed an experimental setup to demonstrate the principles of cw absorption and pulsed excitation - emission spectroscopies, using acoustical analogues. Our radiation source is a speaker and the detector is a microphone, both controlled by a computer sound card. The acoustical setup is housed in a plexiglas box, which serves as a resonator. It turns out that beer glasses are suitable samples; this also helps to keep the students interested! The instrument is controlled by a LabView program. In a cw experiment, the sound frequency is swept through a certain frequency range and the microphone response is recorded simultaneously as function of frequency. A background signal without sample is recorded, and background subtraction yields the beer glass spectrum. In a pulsed experiment, a short sound pulse is generated and the microphone is used to record the resulting emission signal of the beer glass. A Fourier transformation of the time domain signal gives then the spectrum. We will discuss the experimental setup and show videos of the experiments.

  20. Modelling, Construction, and Testing of a Simple HTS Machine Demonstrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction, modeling and experimental testing of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototype employing second generation (2G) coated conductors in the field winding. The prototype is constructed in a simple way, with the purpose of having an inexpensive w...

  1. Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

    1989-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. The Use of Demonstrative Pronoun and Demonstrative Determiner "This" in Upper-Level Student Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustipa, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrative "this" is worthy to investigate because of the role of "this" as a common cohesive device in academic writing. This study attempted to find out the variables underlying the realization of demonstrative "this" in graduate-student writing of Semarang State University, Indonesia. The data of the study were…

  3. A Study of a nuclear hydrogen production demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa and others [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ki Kwang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang Deog [Korea Institute od Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The current energy supply system is burdened environmental and supply problems. The concept of a hydrogen economy has been actively discussed worldwide. KAERI has set up a plan to demonstrate massive production of hydrogen using a VHTR by the early 2020s. The technological gap to meet this goal was identified during the past few years. The hydrogen production process, a process heat exchanger, the efficiency of an I/S thermochemical cycle, the manufacturing of components, the analysis tools of VHTR, and a coated particle fuel are key areas that require urgent development. Candidate NHDD plant designs based on a 200 MWth VHTR core and I/S thermochemical process have been studied and some of analysis results are presented in this paper.

  4. A Semantic Study of German and Chinese Demonstratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores, analyzes, and compares the usage of German and Chinese demonstratives. Discourse and textual uses of the forms will be considered as well as their locative and temporal uses. I observe that in both languages the demonstratives can be used to refer to referents. However, they depart from the common assumption that…

  5. Use of interactive lecture demonstrations: A ten year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Thornton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The widely held constructivist view of learning advocates student engagement via interactivity. Within the physics education research community, several specific interactive strategies have been developed to enhance conceptual understanding. One such strategy, the Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD is designed for large lecture classes and, if measured using specific conceptual surveys, is purported to provide learning gains of up to 80%. This paper reports on learning gains for two different Projects over ten years. In Project 1, the ILDs were implemented from 1999 to 2001 with students who had successfully completed senior high school physics. The learning gains for students not exposed to the ILDs were in the range 13% to 16% while those for students exposed to the ILDs was 31% to 50%. In Project 2, the ILDs were implemented from 2007 to 2009 with students who had not studied senior high school physics. Since the use of ILDs in Project 1 had produced positive results, ethical considerations dictated that all students be exposed to ILDs. The learning gains were from 28% to 42%. On the one hand it is pleasing to note that there is an increase in learning gains, yet on the other, we note that the gains are nowhere near the claimed 80%. This paper also reports on teacher experiences of using the ILDs, in Project 2.

  6. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  7. Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

    Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

  8. A demonstrative model of a lunar base simulation on a personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The initial demonstration model of a lunar base simulation is described. This initial model was developed on the personal computer level to demonstrate feasibility and technique before proceeding to a larger computer-based model. Lotus Symphony Version 1.1 software was used to base the demonstration model on an personal computer with an MS-DOS operating system. The personal computer-based model determined the applicability of lunar base modeling techniques developed at an LSPI/NASA workshop. In addition, the personnal computer-based demonstration model defined a modeling structure that could be employed on a larger, more comprehensive VAX-based lunar base simulation. Refinement of this personal computer model and the development of a VAX-based model is planned in the near future.

  9. A new teaching model for demonstrating the movement of the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Joe; Refsland, Jason; Iovino, Lee; Holley, Gary; Laws, Tyler; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The extraocular muscles consist of the superior, inferior, lateral, and medial rectus muscles and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. This study aimed to create a new teaching model for demonstrating the function of the extraocular muscles. A coronal section of the head was prepared and sutures attached to the levator palpebral superioris muscle and six extraocular muscles. Tension was placed on each muscle from a posterior approach and movement of the eye documented from an anterior view. All movements were clearly seen less than that of the inferior rectus muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric teaching model for demonstrating the movements of the extraocular muscles. Clin. Anat. 30:733-735, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  11. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongchun eHan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina’s next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  12. Webcams for bird detection and monitoring: a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  13. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  14. Demonstrating the value of community-based ('citizen science') observations for catchment modelling and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Parkin, Geoff; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Large, Andy; Quinn, Paul; Gibson, Ceri

    2017-05-01

    Despite there being well-established meteorological and hydrometric monitoring networks in the UK, many smaller catchments remain ungauged. This leaves a challenge for characterisation, modelling, forecasting and management activities. Here we demonstrate the value of community-based ('citizen science') observations for modelling and understanding catchment response as a contribution to catchment science. The scheme implemented within the 42 km2 Haltwhistle Burn catchment, a tributary of the River Tyne in northeast England, has harvested and used quantitative and qualitative observations from the public in a novel way to effectively capture spatial and temporal river response. Community-based rainfall, river level and flood observations have been successfully collected and quality-checked, and used to build and run a physically-based, spatially-distributed catchment model, SHETRAN. Model performance using different combinations of observations is tested against traditionally-derived hydrographs. Our results show how the local network of community-based observations alongside traditional sources of hydro-information supports characterisation of catchment response more accurately than using traditional observations alone over both spatial and temporal scales. We demonstrate that these community-derived datasets are most valuable during local flash flood events, particularly towards peak discharge. This information is often missed or poorly represented by ground-based gauges, or significantly underestimated by rainfall radar, as this study clearly demonstrates. While community-based observations are less valuable during prolonged and widespread floods, or over longer hydrological periods of interest, they can still ground-truth existing traditional sources of catchment data to increase confidence during characterisation and management activities. Involvement of the public in data collection activities also encourages wider community engagement, and provides important

  15. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at University at Albany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Xiong, Zeyu [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects—a distributed GSHP system at a new 500-bed apartment-style student residence hall at the University at Albany. This case study is based on the analysis of detailed design documents, measured performance data, published catalog data of heat pump equipment, and actual construction costs. Simulations with a calibrated computer model are performed for both the demonstrated GSHP system and a baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system to determine the energy savings and other related benefits achieved by the GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, as well as the pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the demonstrated GSHP system compared with the baseline HVAC system. This case study also identifies opportunities for improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  16. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  17. Integrated spatiotemporal modelling of bioenergy production potentials, agricultural land use, and related GHG balances; demonstrated for Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Floortje; Verstegen, Judith A.; Zheliezna, Tetiana; Drozdova, Olga; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study shows how bioenergy potential and total greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of land-use change and agricultural intensification can be modeled in an integrated way. The modeling framework is demonstrated for first- and second-generation ethanol production in Ukraine for the timeframe 2010-2030

  18. A hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images (HydroSat): A case study of the Nile River demonstrating the future Sentinel-2 capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salama, M.S.; Radwan, M.; van der Velde, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images, hereafter HydroSat. HydroSat corrects images for atmospheric interferences and simultaneously retrieves water quality variables. An application of HydroSat to Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)

  19. A mechanistic model for electricity consumption on dairy farms: Definition, validation, and demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Murphy, M.; Shallo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to define and demonstrate a mechanistic model that enables dairy farmers to explore the impact of a technical or managerial innovation on electricity consumption, associated CO2 emissions, and electricity costs. We, therefore, (1) defined a model for electricity consumption on dair

  20. Giant Atomic and Molecular Models and Other Lecture Demonstration Devices Designed for Concrete Operational Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1983-01-01

    Describes the design, construction, and use of oversize lecture-demonstration atomic/molecular models. These models appeal to both concrete and formal operational students. Also describes construction and use of an "spdf" sandwich board and an experiment using attribute blocks. (JN)

  1. Partners Plus: Families and Caregivers in Partnerships. Model Demonstration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Corrine W.; Frank, Adrienne; Ownby, Lisa L.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of Partners Plus: Families and Caregivers in Partnerships, a model demonstration project designed to expand respite care options for families of children (birth to 8 years old) with disabilities. The program uses a natural and family-centered model that involves families in the design,…

  2. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the Analytic Process Model Demonstration Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Research Note 86-06 THE COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL : OPERATIONS HANDBOOK FOR THE ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL DE ONSTRATION PACKAGE Ronald G...ic Process Model ; Operations Handbook; Tutorial; Apple; Systems Taxonomy Mod--l; Training System; Bradl1ey infantry Fighting * Vehicle; BIFV...8217. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - ~ . - - * m- .. . . . . . . item 20. Abstract -continued companion volume-- "The Analytic Process Model for

  3. A Comparative Study of VaR Model and Its Demonstration Based on Monte Carlo Simulation%基于蒙特卡洛模拟的VaR模型及其模拟实证对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻为民

    2014-01-01

    在对VaR模型基本思想介绍基础上,构建基于蒙特卡洛模拟的VaR计算模型,并结合Matlab2012a计算软件,分别计算基于随机模拟和历史模拟的金融市场VaR数值,并在同类型模拟方法下进行横向对比分析。研究结果表明:t分布模型在高置信水平条件下较标准正态分布模型具有更高的精度要求和优势,且对于金融收益率数据的表征更为合理科学;2013年我国股指期货市场结构较2012年发生较大程度变化,且系统风险有进一步扩大趋势。%Based on the introduction of VaR Model, this paper builds a VaR calculation model with Monte Carlo Simulation, calculates the VaR values in financial market by random simulation and historical simulation combining with Matlab 2012a calculation software and makes a lateral comparative analysis through the same type simulation. The result shows that, compared to the standardized normal distribution model, t distribution model has high precision requirement and advantage in the condition of the high confidence level and the characterization of financial returns is more reasonable. The structure of stock index futures market in 2013 has changed a lot and the system risk has the trend of being enlarged.

  4. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A. R.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E. M.; Emig, J.; Flocke, N.; Fiuza, F.; Forest, C. B.; Foster, J.; Graziani, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryu, D.; Ryutov, D.; Weide, K.; White, T. G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.

    2017-04-01

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through simulation campaigns using FLASH, a highly capable radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that we have developed, and large-scale three-dimensional simulations on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. The simulation results indicate that the experimental platform may be capable of reaching a turbulent plasma state and determining the dynamo amplification. We validate and compare our numerical results with a small subset of experimental data using synthetic diagnostics.

  5. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeferacos, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Rigby, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bott, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bell, A. R. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bingham, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX, United Kingdom; Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, United Kingdom; Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France; Cattaneo, F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Churazov, E. M. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching, Germany; Space Research Institute (IKI), Moscow 117997, Russia; Emig, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Flocke, N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Fiuza, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Forest, C. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Foster, J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, West Berkshire, RG7 4PR, United Kingdom; Graziani, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Katz, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Koenig, M. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation de Lasers Intenses, UMR7605, CNRS CEA, Université Paris VI Ecole Polytechnique, France; Li, C. -K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Meinecke, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Park, H. -S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Ryu, D. [Department of Physics, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798, South Korea; Ryutov, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Weide, K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; White, T. G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Reville, B. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom; Miniati, F. [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland; Schekochihin, A. A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lamb, D. Q. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA

    2017-03-22

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through simulation campaigns using FLASH, a highly capable radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that we have developed, and large-scale three-dimensional simulations on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. The simulation results indicate that the experimental platform may be capable of reaching a turbulent plasma state and determining the dynamo amplification. We validate and compare our numerical results with a small subset of experimental data using synthetic diagnostics.

  6. A Desk-top tutorial Demonstration of Model-based Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, John Z.; Elshanti, Ali; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a demonstration on the model-based approach for fault detection has been presented. The aim of this demo is to provide students a desk-top tool to start learning model-based approach. The demo works on a traditional three-tank system. After a short review of the model-based approach, this paper emphasizes on two difficulties often asked by students when they start learning model-based approach: how to develop a system model and how to generate residual for fault detection. The ...

  7. Demonstration of finite element simulations in MOOSE using crystallographic models of irradiation hardening and plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This report describes the implementation of a crystal plasticity framework (VPSC) for irradiation hardening and plastic deformation in the finite element code, MOOSE. Constitutive models for irradiation hardening and the crystal plasticity framework are described in a previous report [1]. Here we describe these models briefly and then describe an algorithm for interfacing VPSC with finite elements. Example applications of tensile deformation of a dog bone specimen and a 3D pre-irradiated bar specimen performed using MOOSE are demonstrated.

  8. Observational learning of a baseball-pitch: the effect of different model demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effects of observing different model demonstrations inclusive video, stick-figure and point-light models on observational learning of a Baseball pitch. 41 young adults performed 5 pretest trials, three blocks of 10 acquisition trials, and two retention tests of 5 trials in 10 min and one week after the last acquisition block. Kinematic pattern, movement form, and movement time of overall movement and movement phases were measured as depen...

  9. Direct start - from model to demo vehicle; Der Direktstart - Vom Modell zum Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulzer, A.; Laubender, J.; Moessner, D.; Sieber, U. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany); Lauff, U. [Etas GmbH (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    To start an engine with the use of nothing but combustion energy - the realization of this notion comprised the main theme of a project at the corporate sector research and advance engineering of Robert Bosch GmbH. With thermodynamic investigations as a starting point, Etas tools provided the power needed to demonstrate and analyse several different starting modes within a short period of time in a vehicle. (orig.)

  10. 75 FR 14582 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services-Special Demonstration Programs-Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services--Special Demonstration Programs--Model...) Served by State Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Agencies AGENCY: Office of Special Education and... Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.235L. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and...

  11. 75 FR 47798 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services-Special Demonstration Programs-Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services--Special Demonstration Programs--Model...) Served by State Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Agencies AGENCY: Office of Special Education and... Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.235L. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative...

  12. Demonstration of Advanced EMI Models for Live-Site UXO Discrimination at San Luis Obispo, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    32 Demonstration report Advanced EMI models for SLO SERDP 1572 v August 2012 List of Acronyms AIC Akaike Information Criterion ...APG Aberdeen Proving Ground BIC Bayesian Information Criterion BUD Berkeley UXO Discriminator cm Centimeter DLL Dynamic Link...the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data

  13. Experimental study on thermal stratification in a reactor hot plenum of a Japanese demonstration LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Tomonari [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.; Yamamoto, K.; Takakuwa, M.; Kajiwara, H.; Watanabe, O.; Akamatsu, K.

    1997-12-31

    Thermal stratification which occurs in a reactor hot plenum after reactor trip has been regarded as one of the most serious phenomena in the thermal-hydraulics of LMFBR. Using a 1/8th scale water model, an experimental study has been conducted to estimate the thermal stratification for a Japanese demonstration LMFBR (DFBR). In the present study, reactor trip was simulated by changing the core outlet temperature with maintaining a constant flow rate. Temperature distribution was measured during the transient and detailed phenomena have been acquired in the study. A severe density interface on structural integrity occurs in a hot plenum under the thermal stratification. Experimental results for temperature gradient and rising speed of the density interface were estimated based on a similarity rule so that an actual condition in the DFBR could be fully discerned. (author)

  14. Multi-objectives fuzzy optimization model for ship form demonstration based on information entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Selecting optimization ship form scheme is an important content in the process of concept design of ship. Multi-objective fuzzy decision-making model for ship form demonstration is set up according to the fuzzy pattern-recognition theory. Weight coefficients of each target of ship form scheme are determined by information entropy and individual subjective partiality. This model is used to select the optimal ship form scheme,the example shows that the model is exact and the result is credible. It can provide a reference for choosing the optimization scheme of ship form.

  15. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the APM (Analytic Process Model) Demonstration Package. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Analytic Process Model for System Design and Measurement: A Computer-Aided Tool for Analyzing Training Systems and Other Human-Machine Systems. A...separate companion volume--The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model : Operations Handbook for the APM Demonstration Package is also available under

  16. The Eight-Year Study: From Evaluative Research to a Demonstration Project, 1930—1940.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Watras

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1932 to 1940, the Progressive Education Association (PEA conducted its Eight-Year Study. At first, the study appeared to be a poorly funded comparison of two groups of students in secondary schools. During the last four years, as more financial support became available, the Eight-Year Study became a broadly based demonstration of a wide range of educational innovations. For contemporary educators, the story of the Eight-Year Study represents an opportunity to reconsider popular principles of program evaluation such as utilization-focused evaluation or program theory in evaluation. Rather than set plans in advance, the PEA members seemed to follow the ideas of John Dewey; they allowed the purposes to widen and broaden as the study evolved. In this way, the Eight-Year Study represented a model of democratic policy evaluation. Its tentative type of planning allowed people to set and to change their own purposes in line with the needs of the wider organization. Part of the reason that the study changed direction was it gathered more financial support and could add consultants who worked in distinct program elements. In addition, the lack of consistency matched the varied nature that characterized the founding members of the PEA. Its democratic framework may have enabled the Eight-Year Study to become the PEA’s abiding contribution to American education.

  17. Technical elements, demonstration projects, and fiscal models in Medicaid managed care for people with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, T A; Walsh, K K; Criscione, T

    1997-08-01

    We presented a general model of the structure and functioning of managed care and described elements (provider networks, fiscal elements, risk estimation, case-mix, management information systems, practice parameters, and quality improvement) critical to service delivery for people with developmental disabilities. A number of technical elements of managed care systems were delineated and reviewed in relation to the inclusion of people with developmental disabilities. Several managed care demonstration projects were described and, finally, a multi-year hypothetical budget model, including long-term care, was presented as a framework for considering how managed care affects specific service structures. Implications for people with developmental disabilities were discussed.

  18. Presentation on the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC): A Working Model and Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Vican, L.

    2015-12-01

    Physical analog models and demonstrations can be effective educational tools for helping instructors teach abstract concepts in the Earth, planetary, and space sciences. Reducing the learning challenges for students using physical analog models and demonstrations, however, can often increase instructors' workload and budget because the cost and time needed to produce and maintain such curriculum materials is substantial. First, this presentation describes a working model for the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC) to support instructors' use of physical analog models and demonstrations in the science classroom. The working model is based on a combination of instructional resource models developed by the Association of College & Research Libraries and by the Physics Instructional Resource Association. The MEDL-CMC aims to make the curriculum materials available for all science courses and outreach programs within the institution where the MEDL-CMC resides. The sustainability and value of the MEDL-CMC comes from its ability to provide and maintain a variety of physical analog models and demonstrations in a wide range of science disciplines. Second, the presentation then reports on the development, progress, and future of the MEDL-CMC at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Development of the UCLA MEDL-CMC was funded by a grant from UCLA's Office of Instructional Development and is supported by the Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences. Other UCLA science departments have recently shown interest in the UCLA MEDL-CMC services, and therefore, preparations are currently underway to increase our capacity for providing interdepartmental service. The presentation concludes with recommendations and suggestions for other institutions that wish to start their own MEDL-CMC in order to increase educational effectiveness and decrease instructor workload. We welcome an interuniversity collaboration to

  19. Trajectory Learning for Robot Programming by Demonstration Using Hidden Markov Model and Dynamic Time Warping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, A; Mantegh, I; Irish, A; Janabi-Sharifi, F

    2012-08-01

    The main objective of this paper is to develop an efficient method for learning and reproduction of complex trajectories for robot programming by demonstration. Encoding of the demonstrated trajectories is performed with hidden Markov model, and generation of a generalized trajectory is achieved by using the concept of key points. Identification of the key points is based on significant changes in position and velocity in the demonstrated trajectories. The resulting sequences of trajectory key points are temporally aligned using the multidimensional dynamic time warping algorithm, and a generalized trajectory is obtained by smoothing spline interpolation of the clustered key points. The principal advantage of our proposed approach is utilization of the trajectory key points from all demonstrations for generation of a generalized trajectory. In addition, variability of the key points' clusters across the demonstrated set is employed for assigning weighting coefficients, resulting in a generalization procedure which accounts for the relevance of reproduction of different parts of the trajectories. The approach is verified experimentally for trajectories with two different levels of complexity.

  20. Calibration of complex models through Bayesian evidence synthesis: a demonstration and tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher H; Jit, Mark; Sharples, Linda D; De Angelis, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Decision-analytic models must often be informed using data that are only indirectly related to the main model parameters. The authors outline how to implement a Bayesian synthesis of diverse sources of evidence to calibrate the parameters of a complex model. A graphical model is built to represent how observed data are generated from statistical models with unknown parameters and how those parameters are related to quantities of interest for decision making. This forms the basis of an algorithm to estimate a posterior probability distribution, which represents the updated state of evidence for all unknowns given all data and prior beliefs. This process calibrates the quantities of interest against data and, at the same time, propagates all parameter uncertainties to the results used for decision making. To illustrate these methods, the authors demonstrate how a previously developed Markov model for the progression of human papillomavirus (HPV-16) infection was rebuilt in a Bayesian framework. Transition probabilities between states of disease severity are inferred indirectly from cross-sectional observations of prevalence of HPV-16 and HPV-16-related disease by age, cervical cancer incidence, and other published information. Previously, a discrete collection of plausible scenarios was identified but with no further indication of which of these are more plausible. Instead, the authors derive a Bayesian posterior distribution, in which scenarios are implicitly weighted according to how well they are supported by the data. In particular, we emphasize the appropriate choice of prior distributions and checking and comparison of fitted models.

  1. 3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.M.; Ashby, E.

    1997-03-01

    Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools.

  2. Selective IRAK4 Inhibition Attenuates Disease in Murine Lupus Models and Demonstrates Steroid Sparing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhgaonkar, Shailesh; Ranade, Sourabh; Nagar, Jignesh; Subramani, Siva; Prasad, Durga Shiv; Karunanithi, Preethi; Srivastava, Ratika; Venkatesh, Kamala; Selvam, Sabariya; Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Mariappan, T Thanga; Saxena, Ajay; Fan, Li; Stetsko, Dawn K; Holloway, Deborah A; Li, Xin; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Wen-Pin; Ruepp, Stefan; Nair, Satheesh; Santella, Joseph; Duncia, John; Hynes, John; McIntyre, Kim W; Carman, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    The serine/threonine kinase IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 is a critical regulator of innate immunity. We have identified BMS-986126, a potent, highly selective inhibitor of IRAK4 kinase activity that demonstrates equipotent activity against multiple MyD88-dependent responses both in vitro and in vivo. BMS-986126 failed to inhibit assays downstream of MyD88-independent receptors, including the TNF receptor and TLR3. Very little activity was seen downstream of TLR4, which can also activate an MyD88-independent pathway. In mice, the compound inhibited cytokine production induced by injection of several different TLR agonists, including those for TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9. The compound also significantly suppressed skin inflammation induced by topical administration of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. BMS-986126 demonstrated robust activity in the MRL/lpr and NZB/NZW models of lupus, inhibiting multiple pathogenic responses. In the MRL/lpr model, robust activity was observed with the combination of suboptimal doses of BMS-986126 and prednisolone, suggesting the potential for steroid sparing activity. BMS-986126 also demonstrated synergy with prednisolone in assays of TLR7- and TLR9-induced IFN target gene expression using human PBMCs. Lastly, BMS-986126 inhibited TLR7- and TLR9-dependent responses using cells derived from lupus patients, suggesting that inhibition of IRAK4 has the potential for therapeutic benefit in treating lupus. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Structural Finite Element Model Updating Using Vibration Tests and Modal Analysis for NPL footbridge - SHM demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E.; Middleton, C.; Koo, K.; Crocker, L.; Brownjohn, J.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results from collaboration between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Sheffield on an ongoing research project at NPL. A 50 year old reinforced concrete footbridge has been converted to a full scale structural health monitoring (SHM) demonstrator. The structure is monitored using a variety of techniques; however, interrelating results and converting data to knowledge are not possible without a reliable numerical model. During the first stage of the project, the work concentrated on static loading and an FE model of the undamaged bridge was created, and updated, under specified static loading and temperature conditions. This model was found to accurately represent the response under static loading and it was used to identify locations for sensor installation. The next stage involves the evaluation of repair/strengthening patches under both static and dynamic loading. Therefore, before deliberately introducing significant damage, the first set of dynamic tests was conducted and modal properties were estimated. The measured modal properties did not match the modal analysis from the statically updated FE model; it was clear that the existing model required updating. This paper introduces the results of the dynamic testing and model updating. It is shown that the structure exhibits large non-linear, amplitude dependant characteristics. This creates a difficult updating process, but we attempt to produce the best linear representation of the structure. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the most sensitive locations for planned damage/repair scenarios and is used to decide whether additional sensors will be necessary.

  4. Structural Finite Element Model Updating Using Vibration Tests and Modal Analysis for NPL footbridge - SHM demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, E; Crocker, L [Structural health monitoring, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Middleton, C; Koo, K; Brownjohn, J, E-mail: elena.barton@npl.co.uk, E-mail: C.J.Middleton@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: k.koo@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: louise.crocker@npl.co.uk, E-mail: j.brownjohn@sheffield.ac.uk [University of Sheffield, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Vibration Engineering Research Section, Sir Frederick Mappin Building Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    This paper presents the results from collaboration between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Sheffield on an ongoing research project at NPL. A 50 year old reinforced concrete footbridge has been converted to a full scale structural health monitoring (SHM) demonstrator. The structure is monitored using a variety of techniques; however, interrelating results and converting data to knowledge are not possible without a reliable numerical model. During the first stage of the project, the work concentrated on static loading and an FE model of the undamaged bridge was created, and updated, under specified static loading and temperature conditions. This model was found to accurately represent the response under static loading and it was used to identify locations for sensor installation. The next stage involves the evaluation of repair/strengthening patches under both static and dynamic loading. Therefore, before deliberately introducing significant damage, the first set of dynamic tests was conducted and modal properties were estimated. The measured modal properties did not match the modal analysis from the statically updated FE model; it was clear that the existing model required updating. This paper introduces the results of the dynamic testing and model updating. It is shown that the structure exhibits large non-linear, amplitude dependant characteristics. This creates a difficult updating process, but we attempt to produce the best linear representation of the structure. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the most sensitive locations for planned damage/repair scenarios and is used to decide whether additional sensors will be necessary.

  5. A Demonstration of a Systematic Item-Reduction Approach Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen; Harvey, Milton

    2012-01-01

    Establishing model parsimony is an important component of structural equation modeling (SEM). Unfortunately, little attention has been given to developing systematic procedures to accomplish this goal. To this end, the current study introduces an innovative application of the jackknife approach first presented in Rensvold and Cheung (1999). Unlike…

  6. Electrostatic micro-actuator with a pre-charged series capacitor: modeling, design, and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Oen Lee, Jeong; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2014-06-01

    As a powerful method to reduce actuation voltage in an electrostatic micro-actuator, we propose and investigate an electrostatic micro-actuator with a pre-charged series capacitor. In contrast to a conventional electrostatic actuator, the injected pre-charges into the series capacitor can freely modulate the pull-in voltage of the proposed actuator even after the completion of fabrication. The static characteristics of the proposed actuator were investigated by first developing analytical models based on a parallel-plate capacitor model. We then successfully designed and demonstrated a micro-switch with a pre-charged series capacitor. The pull-in voltage of the fabricated micro-switch was reduced from 65.4 to 0.6 V when pre-charged with 46.3 V. The on-resistance of the fabricated micro-switch was almost the same as the initial one, even when the device was pre-charged, which was demonstrated for the first time. All results from the analytical models, finite element method simulations, and measurements were in good agreement with deviations of less than 10%. This work can be favorably adapted to electrostatic micro-switches which need a low actuation voltage without noticeable degradation of performance.

  7. A mechanistic model for electricity consumption on dairy farms: definition, validation, and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; Shalloo, L; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to define and demonstrate a mechanistic model that enables dairy farmers to explore the impact of a technical or managerial innovation on electricity consumption, associated CO2 emissions, and electricity costs. We, therefore, (1) defined a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms (MECD) capable of simulating total electricity consumption along with related CO2 emissions and electricity costs on dairy farms on a monthly basis; (2) validated the MECD using empirical data of 1yr on commercial spring calving, grass-based dairy farms with 45, 88, and 195 milking cows; and (3) demonstrated the functionality of the model by applying 2 electricity tariffs to the electricity consumption data and examining the effect on total dairy farm electricity costs. The MECD was developed using a mechanistic modeling approach and required the key inputs of milk production, cow number, and details relating to the milk-cooling system, milking machine system, water-heating system, lighting systems, water pump systems, and the winter housing facilities as well as details relating to the management of the farm (e.g., season of calving). Model validation showed an overall relative prediction error (RPE) of less than 10% for total electricity consumption. More than 87% of the mean square prediction error of total electricity consumption was accounted for by random variation. The RPE values of the milk-cooling systems, water-heating systems, and milking machine systems were less than 20%. The RPE values for automatic scraper systems, lighting systems, and water pump systems varied from 18 to 113%, indicating a poor prediction for these metrics. However, automatic scrapers, lighting, and water pumps made up only 14% of total electricity consumption across all farms, reducing the overall impact of these poor predictions. Demonstration of the model showed that total farm electricity costs increased by between 29 and 38% by moving from a day and night tariff to a flat

  8. A novel extended Granger Causal Model approach demonstrates brain hemispheric differences during face recognition learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two main approaches in exploring causal relationships in biological systems using time-series data are the application of Dynamic Causal model (DCM and Granger Causal model (GCM. These have been extensively applied to brain imaging data and are also readily applicable to a wide range of temporal changes involving genes, proteins or metabolic pathways. However, these two approaches have always been considered to be radically different from each other and therefore used independently. Here we present a novel approach which is an extension of Granger Causal model and also shares the features of the bilinear approximation of Dynamic Causal model. We have first tested the efficacy of the extended GCM by applying it extensively in toy models in both time and frequency domains and then applied it to local field potential recording data collected from in vivo multi-electrode array experiments. We demonstrate face discrimination learning-induced changes in inter- and intra-hemispheric connectivity and in the hemispheric predominance of theta and gamma frequency oscillations in sheep inferotemporal cortex. The results provide the first evidence for connectivity changes between and within left and right inferotemporal cortexes as a result of face recognition learning.

  9. A spaceborne synthetic aperture radiometer simulated by the TUD demonstration model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    1994-01-01

    The TUD synthetic aperture radiometer demonstration model consists of a 2-channel X-band correlation radiometer with two horn antennas and an antenna mounting structure enabling the horns to be mounted in relevant positions within a certain aperture. The cross correlation of the signals from the ...... samples of the visibility function followed by an image reconstruction procedure which is based on the inverse Fourier transform. The system has been used to simulate a spaceborne instrument (MIRAS) in order to validate the image reconstruction processing...

  10. Modeling Weather in the Ionosphere using the Navy's Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S. E.; Sassi, F.; Zawdie, K.; McCormack, J. P.; Coker, C.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has recently developed a ground-to-space atmosphere-ionosphere prediction capability, the Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES). HITIDES is the U.S. Navy's first coupled, physics-based, atmosphere-ionosphere model, one in which the atmosphere extends from the ground to the exobase ( 500 km altitude) and the ionosphere reaches several 10,000 km in altitude. HITIDES has been developed by coupling the extended version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM-X) with NRL's ionospheric model, Sami3 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI3). Integrated into this model are the effects of drivers from atmospheric weather (day-to-day meteorology), the Sun, and the changing high altitude composition. To simulate specific events, HITIDES can be constrained by data analysis products or observations. We have performed simulations of the ionosphere during January-February 2010 in which lower atmospheric weather patterns have been introduced using the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System-Advanced Level Physics High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) data assimilation products. The same time period has also been simulated using the new atmospheric forecast model, the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), which has replaced NOGAPS-ALPHA. The two simulations are compared with each other and with observations of the low latitude ionosphere. We will discuss the importance of including lower atmospheric meteorology in ionospheric simulations to capture day-to-day variability as well as large-scale longitudinal structure in the low-latitude ionosphere. In addition, we examine the effect of the variability on HF radio wave propagation by comparing simulated ionograms calculated from the HITIDES ionospheric specifications to ionosonde measurements.

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation on Demonstration Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives on the Basis of AHP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of AHP method,this paper establishes comprehensive evaluation model of demonstration farmers’ specialized cooperatives,uses the Delphi method and AHP software to assign scientific and objective weight to 7 criteria in criteria layer and 27 indices in index layer,and evaluate the overall level of 153 farmers’ specialized cooperatives whose main business is fruits and vegetables in Region R.The results show that the overall operation level of farmers’ specialized cooperatives is common;democratic and financial management is open;the information-based level and social sensation are not insufficient;the marking results of questionnaire is basically scientific and objective.This paper discusses the new way to evaluate operation level of farmers’ specialized cooperatives,and puts forward relevant countermeasures and suggestions as follows:promote the information-based level of demonstration cooperatives;strengthen the service capacity of demonstration cooperatives;use means of science and technology to promote product quality;amplify social sensation of farmers’ specialized cooperatives.

  12. Application of numerical modeling in a clean-coal demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, C.E. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.); Laursen, T.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.); Bellanca, C.; Duong, H. (Dayton Power and Light, Aberdeen, OH (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Currently, utility boilers equipped with cell burners comprise 13% of pre-NSPS coal-fired generating capacity. The cell burner rapidly mixes the pulverized coal and combustion air resulting in rapid combustion and high NO[sub x] generation. A US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean-Coal Technology Demonstration project is underway at Dayton Power Light's J. M. Stuart Station to demonstrate the Low-NO[sub x] Cell[trademark] burner (LNCB[trademark]) on a 605-MWe utility boiler originally equipped with cell burners. The LNCB[trademark] is designed to reduce NO[sub x] emissions by delaying the mixing of the coal and the combustion air without boiler pressure part modifications. Preliminary post-retrofit testing results showed unexpectedly high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H[sub 2]S) concentrations below the lowest burner row. The substoichiometric operation of the lowest burner row caused the relatively high concentrations in the lower furnace. Babcock Wilcox's flow, combustion, and heat transfer models were used to predict the CO concentrations in the lower furnace. The predictions were compared to field measurements for three different operating conditions. Based on this validation, the models were used to evaluate several methods for mitigating the CO concentrations. The results of this analysis are presented and discussed. The most attractive alternative was selected and will be implemented during the spring of 1992. The effectiveness of the new alternative will be available when the installation is complete and testing resumes.

  13. Application of numerical modeling in a clean-coal demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, C.E. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Laursen, T.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.; Bellanca, C.; Duong, H. [Dayton Power and Light, Aberdeen, OH (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Currently, utility boilers equipped with cell burners comprise 13% of pre-NSPS coal-fired generating capacity. The cell burner rapidly mixes the pulverized coal and combustion air resulting in rapid combustion and high NO{sub x} generation. A US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean-Coal Technology Demonstration project is underway at Dayton Power & Light`s J. M. Stuart Station to demonstrate the Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} burner (LNCB{trademark}) on a 605-MWe utility boiler originally equipped with cell burners. The LNCB{trademark} is designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions by delaying the mixing of the coal and the combustion air without boiler pressure part modifications. Preliminary post-retrofit testing results showed unexpectedly high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) concentrations below the lowest burner row. The substoichiometric operation of the lowest burner row caused the relatively high concentrations in the lower furnace. Babcock & Wilcox`s flow, combustion, and heat transfer models were used to predict the CO concentrations in the lower furnace. The predictions were compared to field measurements for three different operating conditions. Based on this validation, the models were used to evaluate several methods for mitigating the CO concentrations. The results of this analysis are presented and discussed. The most attractive alternative was selected and will be implemented during the spring of 1992. The effectiveness of the new alternative will be available when the installation is complete and testing resumes.

  14. Assessing the condition of bayous and estuaries: Bayou Chico Gulf of Mexico demonstration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, K.; Acevedo, M.; Waller, T.; Kennedy, J.; Simons, J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Environmental Science Program; Mayer, F.; Lewis, M. [Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Walker, W. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, MS (United States). Gulf Coast Research Lab.; Ammann, L. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration study was conducted in May 1994 on Bayou Chico to assess the utility of various assessment and measurement endpoints in determining the condition of bayous and estuaries. Bayou Chico has water quality problems attributed to its low flushing rate and urban/industrial land use in its watershed. The sampling scheme assessed the within-sampling station and spatial variability of measurement endpoints. Fourteen sampling stations in Bayou Chico and 3 stations in Pensacola Bay were selected based on an intensified EMAP sampling grid. Time and space coordinated sampling was conducted for: sediment contaminants and properties, sediment toxicity, water quality, benthic infauna, zooplankton and phytoplankton populations. Fish and crabs were also collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers and organic chemical residues. Primary productivity was measured via the light bottle dark bottle oxygen method and via diurnal oxygen measurements made with continuous recording data sondes. Stream sites were evaluated for water and sediment quality, water and sediment toxicity, benthic invertebrates and fish. Watershed analyses included assessment of land use/landcover (via SPOT and TM images), soils, pollution sources (point and non-point) and hydrography. These data were coordinated via an Arc/Info GIS system for display and spatial analysis. 1994 survey data were used to parameterize environmental fate models such as SWMM (Storm Water Management Model), DYNHYD5 (WASP5 hydrodynamics model) and WASP5 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) to make predictions about the dynamics and fate of chemical contaminants in Bayou Chico. This paper will present an overview, and report on the results in regards to within-site and spatial variability in Bayou Chico. Conclusions on the efficacy of the assessment and measurement endpoints in evaluating the condition (health) of Bayou Chico will be presented.

  15. Learning to make technology work - a study of learning in technology demonstration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutherland Olsen, Dorothy; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2014-01-01

    Building working demonstrations of new technologies within sustainable energy and transport has become an important activity in the move towards a more energy efficient society. The work involved in building these demonstrations is usually organised in a project with a variety of different...... participants, including users. The aim of the project is usually to test the technology and promote changes in users habits, while learning is frequently cited as the main outcome. In this paper we review existing studies of demonstration projects and try to gain an overview of the main aims and effects...

  16. Bilateral Killian-Jamieson diverticula demonstrated by videofluoroscopic swallowing study: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Scheeren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a 56-year-old male patient complaining of dysphagia for solids and food impaction, submitted to videofluoroscopic swallowing study that demonstrated the presence of two esophageal diverticula. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study was critical in the identification and diagnosis of the diverticula, an esophageal cause of dysphagia.

  17. Experiment and Modeling of ITER Demonstration Discharges in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Myung [ORNL; Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ferron, J.R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Holcomb, C T [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Jackson, G. L. [General Atomics; Lao, L. L. [General Atomics; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego; Owen, Larry W [ORNL; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Politzer, P. A. [General Atomics, San Diego; Prater, R. [General Atomics; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics

    2011-01-01

    DIII-D is providing experimental evaluation of 4 leading ITER operational scenarios: the baseline scenario in ELMing H-mode, the advanced inductive scenario, the hybrid scenario, and the steady state scenario. The anticipated ITER shape, aspect ratio and value of I/{alpha}B were reproduced, with the size reduced by a factor of 3.7, while matching key performance targets for {beta}{sub N} and H{sub 98}. Since 2008, substantial experimental progress was made to improve the match to other expected ITER parameters for the baseline scenario. A lower density baseline discharge was developed with improved stationarity and density control to match the expected ITER edge pedestal collisionality ({nu}*{sub e} {approx} 0.1). Target values for {beta}{sub N} and H{sub 98} were maintained at lower collisionality (lower density) operation without loss in fusion performance but with significant change in ELM characteristics. The effects of lower plasma rotation were investigated by adding counter-neutral beam power, resulting in only a modest reduction in confinement. Robust preemptive stabilization of 2/1 NTMs was demonstrated for the first time using ECCD under ITER-like conditions. Data from these experiments were used extensively to test and develop theory and modeling for realistic ITER projection and for further development of its optimum scenarios in DIII-D. Theory-based modeling of core transport (TGLF) with an edge pedestal boundary condition provided by the EPED1 model reproduces T{sub e} and T{sub i} profiles reasonably well for the 4 ITER scenarios developed in DIII-D. Modeling of the baseline scenario for low and high rotation discharges indicates that a modest performance increase of {approx} 15% is needed to compensate for the expected lower rotation of ITER. Modeling of the steady-state scenario reproduces a strong dependence of confinement, stability, and noninductive fraction (f{sub NI}) on q{sub 95}, as found in the experimental I{sub p} scan, indicating that

  18. Laboratory model of the cardiovascular system for experimental demonstration of pulse wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Nestorović, Zorica; Djurić, Biljana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Žikić, Dejan

    2017-03-01

    The velocity by which a disturbance moves through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is among the key parameters in hemodynamics. Investigation of wave propagation through the fluid-filled elastic tube has a great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. Here, we present a laboratory model of the cardiovascular system. We have designed an experimental setup which can help medical and nursing students to properly learn and understand basic fluid hemodynamic principles, pulse wave and the phenomenon of wave propagation in blood vessels. Demonstration of wave propagation allowed a real time observation of the formation of compression and expansion waves by students, thus enabling them to better understand the difference between the two waves, and also to measure the pulse wave velocity for different fluid viscosities. The laboratory model of the cardiovascular system could be useful as an active learning methodology and a complementary tool for understanding basic principles of hemodynamics.

  19. Competitive exclusion: an ecological model demonstrates how research metrics can drive women out of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hapgood, K.

    2012-12-01

    While universities are often perceived within the wider population as a flexible family-friendly work environment, continuous full-time employment remains the norm in tenure track roles. This traditional career path is strongly re-inforced by research metrics, which typically measure accumulated historical performance. There is a strong feedback between historical and future research output, and there is a minimum threshold of research output below which it becomes very difficult to attract funding, high quality students and collaborators. The competing timescales of female fertility and establishment of a research career mean that many women do not exceed this threshold before having children. Using a mathematical model taken from an ecological analogy, we demonstrate how these mechanisms create substantial barriers to pursuing a research career while working part-time or returning from extended parental leave. The model highlights a conundrum for research managers: metrics can promote research productivity and excellence within an organisation, but can classify highly capable scientists as poor performers simply because they have not followed the traditional career path of continuous full-time employment. Based on this analysis, we make concrete recommendations for researchers and managers seeking to retain the skills and training invested in female scientists. We also provide survival tactics for women and men who wish to pursue a career in science while also spending substantial time and energy raising their family.

  20. A Monte-Carlo based model of the AX-PET demonstrator and its experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solevi, P; Oliver, J F; Gillam, J E; Bolle, E; Casella, C; Chesi, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Fanti, V; Heller, M; Lai, M; Lustermann, W; Nappi, E; Pauss, F; Rudge, A; Ruotsalainen, U; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Séguinot, J; Stapnes, S; Weilhammer, P; Tuna, U; Joram, C; Rafecas, M

    2013-08-21

    AX-PET is a novel PET detector based on axially oriented crystals and orthogonal wavelength shifter (WLS) strips, both individually read out by silicon photo-multipliers. Its design decouples sensitivity and spatial resolution, by reducing the parallax error due to the layered arrangement of the crystals. Additionally the granularity of AX-PET enhances the capability to track photons within the detector yielding a large fraction of inter-crystal scatter events. These events, if properly processed, can be included in the reconstruction stage further increasing the sensitivity. Its unique features require dedicated Monte-Carlo simulations, enabling the development of the device, interpreting data and allowing the development of reconstruction codes. At the same time the non-conventional design of AX-PET poses several challenges to the simulation and modeling tasks, mostly related to the light transport and distribution within the crystals and WLS strips, as well as the electronics readout. In this work we present a hybrid simulation tool based on an analytical model and a Monte-Carlo based description of the AX-PET demonstrator. It was extensively validated against experimental data, providing excellent agreement.

  1. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Yen, P. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier.

  2. AB45. URO-MCP-1 mice: a model demonstrating UCPPS hallmark symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objective Excessive production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) has been observed in various inflammatory, chronic pain, and bladder overactive conditions. We have observed that over half of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) express elevated MCP-1 in the urine. This study was to develop a mouse model that secretes MCP-1 by the urothelium to facilitate the study of IC/BPS in humans. Methods A 4.9 Kb transgene consisting of the uroplaki...

  3. Fire vs. Metal: A Laboratory Study Demonstrating Microbial Responses to Soil Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberger, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Incubation studies are traditionally used in soil microbiology laboratory classes to demonstrate microbial respiration and N mineralization-immobilization processes. Sometimes these exercises are done to calculate a N balance in N fertilizer-amended soils. However, examining microbial responses to environmental perturbations would appeal to soil…

  4. A Correlational Study Examining Demonstrated Emotional Intelligence and Perceptions of School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chris James

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study with a correlational design, this research investigated whether certified teachers' ratings of their school leader's demonstrated emotional intelligence behaviors correlated with the teacher's perceptions of school climate. A sample of 42 graduate and post baccalaureate students from a Mid-Atlantic region college accessed a…

  5. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Duval

    Full Text Available To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3 was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3 which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the

  6. Demonstration of a geostatistical approach to physically consistent downscaling of climate modeling simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A downscaling approach based on multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is presented. The key concept underlying MPS is to sample spatial patterns from within training images, which can then be used in characterizing the relationship between different variables across multiple scales. The approach is used here to downscale climate variables including skin surface temperature (TSK), soil moisture (SMOIS), and latent heat flux (LH). The performance of the approach is assessed by applying it to data derived from a regional climate model of the Murray-Darling basin in southeast Australia, using model outputs at two spatial resolutions of 50 and 10 km. The data used in this study cover the period from 1985 to 2006, with 1985 to 2005 used for generating the training images that define the relationships of the variables across the different spatial scales. Subsequently, the spatial distributions for the variables in the year 2006 are determined at 10 km resolution using the 50 km resolution data as input. The MPS geostatistical downscaling approach reproduces the spatial distribution of TSK, SMOIS, and LH at 10 km resolution with the correct spatial patterns over different seasons, while providing uncertainty estimates through the use of multiple realizations. The technique has the potential to not only bridge issues of spatial resolution in regional and global climate model simulations but also in feature sharpening in remote sensing applications through image fusion, filling gaps in spatial data, evaluating downscaled variables with available remote sensing images, and aggregating/disaggregating hydrological and groundwater variables for catchment studies.

  7. The economics of preventing hospital falls: demonstrating ROI through a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Brown, Diane S; Aydin, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cost savings associated with implementing nursing approaches to prevent in-hospital falls. Hospital rating programs often report fall rates, and performance-based payment systems force hospitals to bear the costs of treating patients after falls. Some interventions have been demonstrated as effective for falls prevention. Costs of falls-prevention programs, financial savings associated with in-hospital falls reduction, and achievable fall rate improvement are measured using published literature. Net costs are calculated for implementing a falls-prevention program as compared with not making improvements in patient fall rates. Falls-prevention programs can reduce the cost of treatment, but in many scenarios, the costs of falls-prevention programs were greater than potential cost savings. Falls-prevention programs need to be carefully targeted to patients at greatest risk in order to achieve cost savings.

  8. Model operation to improve energy consumption efficiency in developing countries. Demonstration study (investigation project) on material preheating equipment for an electric furnace (using reduced iron as a raw material); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo. Denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi (kangen tetsu genryo) ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu (chosa jigyo) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Investigations were given on a device technology that can obtain energy saving and environment preserving effects in electric furnace iron making using reduced iron as a raw material. The effects can be obtained by continuously charging into an electric furnace the reduced iron supplied from an iron ore reducing plant while the iron is kept hot. The investigations were carried by sending survey groups to India and Mexico who are producing reduced iron, and Egypt and Malaysia who possess iron reducing technologies, and by analyzing the actual conditions of reduced iron manufacturing equipment and electric furnace facilities. In addition, retrieval, collection and analysis were performed on technical data and information on reduced iron available inside and outside the country. As a result, a proposal was made to select India as a site to execute the demonstration study on the hot reduced iron insertion technology. The reasons for the selection are: India has a large number of steel mills that have iron reducing facilities and electric furnaces; the country is geographically convenient for Japanese research institutes to implement the demonstration study; the country`s DRI production is the largest in the south-eastern Asia; and electric power cost is high. 92 refs., 49 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Biophysical modeling of high field diffusion MRI demonstrates micro-structural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Immense heterogeneity in symptoms of depression causes difficulty in diagnosis, and to date, there are no established biomarkers or imaging methods to examine depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) induced...... anhedonia is considered to be a realistic model of depression in studies of animal subjects. Stereological and neuronal tracing techniques have demonstrated persistent remodeling of microstructure in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMS brains. Recent developments in diffusion MRI (d...... changes in CMS rat brains and these parameters might have value in clinical diagnosis of depression and for evaluation of treatment efficacy....

  10. Demonstration of a modelling-based multi-criteria decision analysis procedure for prioritisation of occupational risks from manufactured nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Alstrup Jensen, Keld; Gottardo, Stefania; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Maccalman, Laura; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Several tools to facilitate the risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) have been developed. Most of them require input data on physicochemical properties, toxicity and scenario-specific exposure information. However, such data are yet not readily available, and tools that can handle data gaps in a structured way to ensure transparent risk analysis for industrial and regulatory decision making are needed. This paper proposes such a quantitative risk prioritisation tool, based on a multi-criteria decision analysis algorithm, which combines advanced exposure and dose-response modelling to calculate margins of exposure (MoE) for a number of MN in order to rank their occupational risks. We demonstrated the tool in a number of workplace exposure scenarios (ES) involving the production and handling of nanoscale titanium dioxide, zinc oxide (ZnO), silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of this application demonstrated that bag/bin filling, manual un/loading and dumping of large amounts of dry powders led to high emissions, which resulted in high risk associated with these ES. The ZnO MN revealed considerable hazard potential in vivo, which significantly influenced the risk prioritisation results. In order to study how variations in the input data affect our results, we performed probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, which demonstrated that the performance of the proposed model is stable against changes in the exposure and hazard input variables.

  11. GAMA: multi-level and complex environment for agent-based models and simulations (demonstration)

    OpenAIRE

    Drogoul, Alexis; Amouroux, Edouard; Caillou, Philippe; Gaudou, Benoit; Grignard, Arnaud; Marilleau, Nicolas; Taillandier, Patrick; Vavaseur, Maroussia; Vo, Duc-An; Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Agent-based models are now used in numerous application domains (ecology, social sciences, etc.) but their use is still impeded by the lack of generic yet ready-to-use tools sup- porting the design and the simulation of complex models in- tegrating multiple level of agency and realistic environments. The GAMA modeling and simulation platform is proposed to address such issues. It allows modelers to build com- plex models thanks to high-level modeling language, various ...

  12. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  13. Construction and modelling of a thermoelectric oxide module (TOM) as a demonstrator - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomes, P.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2010-08-15

    The project aims at the development of better thermoelectric materials for the direct conversion of solar heat into electricity. The maximum output power P{sub max} and the efficiency {eta} of the conversion was measured on a series of four-leg thermoelectric oxide modules (TOM). The modules were constructed by combining two p-type (La{sub 1.98}Sr{sub 0.02}CuO{sub 4}) and two n-type (CaMn{sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3}) thermoelements connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. The temperature gradient {Delta}T was provided by a High-Flux Solar Simulator source (HFSS) which generates a spectrum similar to solar radiation. This project was intended to be a feasibility study for the utilization of high temperature solar heat, which could not previously be demonstrated due to the low temperature stability of conventional materials. The direct conversion was proven by this study. The measurements show an almost linear temperature profile along the thermoelectric legs. However, the maximum output power resulted in 88.8 mW for a TOM with a leg length of 5 mm at {Delta}T = 622 K and has yet to be optimized by improving the converter design and the applied materials. The highest conversion efficiency {eta} was found for a heat flux of 4 to 8 W cm{sup -2}. The dependence of {eta} on the leg length was studied as well as the influence of a graphite coating on the hot Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface on {Delta}T, P{sub max} and {eta}. (authors)

  14. Haida Gwaii / Queen Charlotte Islands demonstration tidal power plant feasibility study : summary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, A. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Remote communities may benefit from using tidal energy in terms of reduced diesel fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. A study was conducted to assess the feasibility for a tidal demonstration project on the Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Islands. Candidate communities were scanned for resource potential, load profile, infrastructure distribution and community interest. This presentation focused on choosing an appropriate site for a given tidal power technology. Three hotspots in Masset Sound were identified as well as one hotspot at Juskatla Narrows. Technology providers were solicited for information on unit performance, cost, and trials to date. The presentation noted that demonstration or future commercial deployment is limited by resource and by the ability of the grid to accommodate tidal power. The presentation concluded with next steps which include publishing the study. tabs., figs.

  15. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  16. Demonstration of Therapeutic Equivalence of Fluconazole Generic Products in the Neutropenic Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier M; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Zuluaga, Andres F; Agudelo, Maria; Vesga, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Some generics of antibacterials fail therapeutic equivalence despite being pharmaceutical equivalents of their innovators, but data are scarce with antifungals. We used the neutropenic mice model of disseminated candidiasis to challenge the therapeutic equivalence of three generic products of fluconazole compared with the innovator in terms of concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, analytical chemistry (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry), in vitro susceptibility testing, single-dose serum pharmacokinetics in infected mice, and in vivo pharmacodynamics. Neutropenic, five week-old, murine pathogen free male mice of the strain Udea:ICR(CD-2) were injected in the tail vein with Candida albicans GRP-0144 (MIC = 0.25 mg/L) or Candida albicans CIB-19177 (MIC = 4 mg/L). Subcutaneous therapy with fluconazole (generics or innovator) and sterile saline (untreated controls) started 2 h after infection and ended 24 h later, with doses ranging from no effect to maximal effect (1 to 128 mg/kg per day) divided every 3 or 6 hours. The Hill's model was fitted to the data by nonlinear regression, and results from each group compared by curve fitting analysis. All products were identical in terms of concentration, chromatographic and spectrographic profiles, MICs, mouse pharmacokinetics, and in vivo pharmacodynamic parameters. In conclusion, the generic products studied were pharmaceutically and therapeutically equivalent to the innovator of fluconazole.

  17. Demonstration of Therapeutic Equivalence of Fluconazole Generic Products in the Neutropenic Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Some generics of antibacterials fail therapeutic equivalence despite being pharmaceutical equivalents of their innovators, but data are scarce with antifungals. We used the neutropenic mice model of disseminated candidiasis to challenge the therapeutic equivalence of three generic products of fluconazole compared with the innovator in terms of concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, analytical chemistry (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in vitro susceptibility testing, single-dose serum pharmacokinetics in infected mice, and in vivo pharmacodynamics. Neutropenic, five week-old, murine pathogen free male mice of the strain Udea:ICR(CD-2 were injected in the tail vein with Candida albicans GRP-0144 (MIC = 0.25 mg/L or Candida albicans CIB-19177 (MIC = 4 mg/L. Subcutaneous therapy with fluconazole (generics or innovator and sterile saline (untreated controls started 2 h after infection and ended 24 h later, with doses ranging from no effect to maximal effect (1 to 128 mg/kg per day divided every 3 or 6 hours. The Hill's model was fitted to the data by nonlinear regression, and results from each group compared by curve fitting analysis. All products were identical in terms of concentration, chromatographic and spectrographic profiles, MICs, mouse pharmacokinetics, and in vivo pharmacodynamic parameters. In conclusion, the generic products studied were pharmaceutically and therapeutically equivalent to the innovator of fluconazole.

  18. Elder mediation in theory and practice: study results from a national caregiver mediation demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Mediation is a process through which a third party facilitates discussion among disputing parties to help them identify interests and ideally reach an amicable solution. Elder mediation is a growing subspecialty to address conflicts involving older adults, primarily involving caregiving or finances. Mediation is theorized to empower participants but critics argue that it can exacerbate power imbalances among parties and coerce consensus. These contested claims are examined through study of a national caregiver mediation demonstration project. Study implications underscore the importance of gerontological social work expertise to ensure the empowerment of vulnerable older adults in mediation sessions.

  19. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  20. Design of demand side response model in energy internet demonstration park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.

  1. INTERNET RESOURCES SEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CHEMISTRY STUDYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Naumenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of methodology of organization of search and application of Resources of the Internet is examined for demonstration of technological processes at the study of chemistry in senior school and higher educational establishments of І-ІІ levels of accreditation. Realization of positions of the new State standard of the base and complete secondary education needs creation of the certain methodical going near organization of search and use in the educational process of Resources of the Internet, that can be used in a course of chemistry for demonstration of their practical using, including technological processes. Considerable attention is devoted to advices for teachers in relation to methodology of the use of Resources of the Internet at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory work, other forms of students’ educational-searching activity.

  2. Fostering young children's interest in numeracy through demonstration of its value: the Footsteps Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Yeshe

    2017-07-01

    Children's early mathematical abilities are fundamental to their later academic achievement. An interest in mathematics in the early years is likely to establish a positive attitude to later mathematical learning, hopefully sustaining continued interest in mathematics and mathematical learning. Approaches to early mathematics teaching in the early years, however, are typically adult-initiated, which may fail to capture children's interest. Given the importance of children's motivation and sustained interest, the study described here strove to spark children's interests in mathematical problems in everyday life. The study sought to determine if children would incorporate more numeracy-related concepts into their free play if exposed to adult demonstrations of age-appropriate numeracy activities such as patterning. For at least 15 min three times weekly, participating children's parents and educators demonstrated numeracy problem-solving nearby, while children engaged in other activities. Demonstrations were thought to ascribe social value to the problem-solving activities. If children became interested in participating, adults told them to wait until the demonstrations finished, further indicating social value. Results show these children chose to play with numeracy-related activities in their free play time at preschool significantly more than children in a control group. These results suggest that seeking to foster children's interest in mathematics through child-initiated play, rather than prescribing adult-initiated mathematics activities, may be an important means of laying the foundation for lifelong mathematics learning. Ascribing social value to numeracy applications is proposed as a new approach to teaching mathematics in the early years.

  3. Glucosamine Supplementation Demonstrates a Negative Effect On Intervertebral Disc Matrix in an Animal Model of Disc Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lloydine; Vo, Nam; Coehlo, J. Paulo; Dong, Qing; Bechara, Bernard; Woods, Barrett; Hempen, Eric; Hartman, Robert; Preuss, Harry; Balk, Judith; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Laboratory based controlled in vivo study Objective To determine the in vivo effects of oral glucosamine sulfate on intervertebral disc degeneration Summary of Background Data Although glucosamine has demonstrated beneficial effect in articular cartilage, clinical benefit is uncertain. A CDC report from 2009 reported that many patients are using glucosamine supplementation for low back pain (LBP), without significant evidence to support its use. Because disc degeneration is a major contributor of LBP, we explored the effects of glucosamine on disc matrix homeostasis in an animal model of disc degeneration. Methods Eighteen skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups: control, annular puncture, glucosamine, and annular puncture+glucosamine. Glucosamine treated rabbits received daily oral supplementation with 107mg/day (weight based equivalent to human 1500mg/day). Annular puncture surgery involved puncturing the annulus fibrosus (AF) of 3 lumbar discs with a 16G needle to induce degeneration. Serial MRIs were obtained at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks. Discs were harvested at 20 weeks for determination of glycosaminoglycan(GAG) content, relative gene expression measured by RT-PCR, and histological analyses. Results The MRI index and NP area of injured discs of glucosamine treated animals with annular puncture was found to be lower than that of degenerated discs from rabbits not supplemented with glucosamine. Consistent with this, decreased glycosaminoglycan was demonstrated in glucosamine fed animals, as determined by both histological and GAG content. Gene expression was consistent with a detrimental effect on matrix. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the net effect on matrix in an animal model in vivo, as measured by gene expression, MRI, histology, and total proteoglycan is anti-anabolic. This raises concern over this commonly used supplement, and future research is needed to establish the clinical relevance of these

  4. Galleria mellonella infection model demonstrates high lethality of ST69 and ST127 uropathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed F Alghoribi

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50 and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF. Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (10(4 colony-forming units/larvae showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P≤0.0001, including ST69 (P<0.02, but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18 was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131.

  5. Efficient solar hydrogen production by photocatalytic water splitting: From fundamental study to pilot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ximin; Liu, Huan; Li, Mingtao; Shen, Shaohua; Liu, Guanjie; Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Lijin; Guo, Penghui [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic water splitting with solar light is one of the most promising technologies for solar hydrogen production. From a systematic point of view, whether it is photocatalyst and reaction system development or the reactor-related design, the essentials could be summarized as: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). Optimization of these two issues are therefore given special attention throughout our study. In this review, the state of the art for the research of photocatalytic hydrogen production, both outcomes and challenges in this field, were briefly reviewed. Research progress of our lab, from fundamental study of photocatalyst preparation to reactor configuration and pilot level demonstration, were introduced, showing the complete process of our effort for this technology to be economic viable in the near future. Our systematic and continuous study in this field lead to the development of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar rector for the first time. We have demonstrated the feasibility for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light. The exiting challenges and difficulties for this technology to proceed from successful laboratory photocatalysis set-up up to an industrially relevant scale are also proposed. These issues have been the object of our research and would also be the direction of our study in future. (author)

  6. Demonstrating the Model Nature of the High-Temperature Superconductor HgBa2CuO4+d

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, Neven; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Xudong; Cho, Yong-Chan; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Yu, Guichuan; Greven, Martin; /SLAC, SSRL /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Jilin U. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2008-09-30

    The compound HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} (Hg1201) exhibits a simple tetragonal crystal structure and the highest superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) among all single Cu-O layer cuprates, with T{sub c} = 97 K (onset) at optimal doping. Due to a lack of sizable single crystals, experimental work on this very attractive system has been significantly limited. Thanks to a recent breakthrough in crystal growth, such crystals have now become available. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to identify suitable heat treatment conditions to systematically and uniformly tune the hole concentration of Hg1201 crystals over a wide range, from very underdoped (T{sub c} = 47 K, hole concentration p {approx} 0.08) to overdoped (T{sub c} = 64 K, p {approx} 0.22). We then present quantitative magnetic susceptibility and DC charge transport results that reveal the very high-quality nature of the studied crystals. Using XPS on cleaved samples, we furthermore demonstrate that it is possible to obtain large surfaces of good quality. These characterization measurements demonstrate that Hg1201 should be viewed as a model high-temperature superconductor, and they provide the foundation for extensive future experimental work.

  7. Engineering Model Propellant Feed System Development for an Iodine Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    chamber (it is under 10(exp -6) torr at -75 C), making it possible to 'cryopump' the propellant with lower-cost recirculating refrigerant-based systems as opposed to using liquid nitrogen or low temperature gaseous helium cryopanels. In the present paper, we describe the design and testing of the engineering model propellant feed system for iSAT (see Fig. 1). The feed system is based around an iodine propellant reservoir and two proportional control valves (PFCVs) that meter the iodine flow to the cathode and anode. The flow is split upstream of the PFCVs to both components can be fed from a common reservoir. Testing of the reservoir is reported to demonstrate that the design is capable of delivering the required propellant flow rates to operate the thruster. The tubing and reservoir are fabricated from hastelloy to resist corrosion by the heated gaseous iodine propellant. The reservoir, tubing, and PFCVs are heated to ensure the sublimed propellant will not re-deposit within the feed system. Heating is accomplished through a number of individual zones to control the overall power expended on heating the system and insulation is employed to minimize the amount of power used to heat the system prior to thruster operation.

  8. Polymeric Materials Models in the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Tech Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    virtual modeling tool has been developed to support the design and development of the WIAMan ATD. Material characterization is one of the critical...accelerative loading simulations using 2 different modeling platforms (LS-DYNA and Velodyne). The approaches to derive the material parameters...analytical tool to predict the response of the ATD to vertical accelerative loading. The analytical finite-element model (FEM) provided a virtual tool

  9. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  10. Improvement, Verification, and Refinement of Spatially Explicit Exposure Models in Risk Assessment - SEEM Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TRV toxicity reference value TWEM Terrestrial Wildlife...and the heterogeneity of contamination (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA], 1997; 1998). An understanding of how individuals experience ...Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 9 4.0 SITE DESCRIPTIONS Two sites were identified for the demonstration of SEEM:  The

  11. Mathematical modeling of the drying of extruded fish feed and its experimental demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo; Simonsen, B.; Løvgreen, S.

    This paper present a mathematical model for the drying of extruded fish feed pellets. The model relies on conservation balances for moisture and energy. Sorption isotherms from literature are used together with diffusion and transfer coefficients obtained from dual parameter regression analysis...

  12. Landscape-based population viability models demonstrate importance of strategic conservation planning for birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; D. Todd. Jones-Farland

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at multiple scales. By combining habitat and demographic modeling, landscape-based population viability models effectively relate small-scale habitat and landscape patterns to regional population...

  13. Demonstration of leapfrogging for implementing nonlinear model predictive control on a heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Upasana Manimegalai; Govindarajan, Anand; Rhinehart, R Russell

    2016-01-01

    This work reveals the applicability of a relatively new optimization technique, Leapfrogging, for both nonlinear regression modeling and a methodology for nonlinear model-predictive control. Both are relatively simple, yet effective. The application on a nonlinear, pilot-scale, shell-and-tube heat exchanger reveals practicability of the techniques.

  14. A Functional Model of the Digital Extensor Mechanism: Demonstrating Biomechanics with Hair Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Beth A.; Youdas, James W.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Krause, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The action of muscles about joints can be explained through analysis of their spatial relationship. A functional model of these relationships can be valuable in learning and understanding the muscular action about a joint. A model can be particularly helpful when examining complex actions across multiple joints such as in the digital extensor…

  15. Initial Development and Pilot Study Design of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations for ASTRO 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; French, D. A; Gutierrez, Joseph V; Sanchez, Richard L; Slater, Timothy F.; Tatge, Coty

    2014-06-01

    Interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs) have repeatedly shown to be effective tools for improving student achievement in the context of learning physics. As a first step toward systematic development of interactive lecture demonstrations in ASTRO 101, the introductory astronomy survey course, a systematic review of education research, describing educational computer simulations (ECSs) reveals that initial development requires a targeted study of how ASTRO 101 students respond to ECSs in the non-science majoring undergraduate lecture setting. In this project we have adopted the process by which ILDs were designed, pilot-tested, and successfully implemented in the context of physics teaching (Sokoloff & Thornton, 1997; Sokoloff & Thornton, 2004). We have designed the initial pilot-test set of ASTRO 101 ILD instructional materials relying heavily on ECSs. Both an instructor’s manual and a preliminary classroom-ready student workbook have been developed, and we are implementing a pilot study to explore their effectiveness in communicating scientific content, and the extent to which they might enhance students’ knowledge of and perception about astronomy and science in general. The study design uses a pre-/post-test quasi-experimental study design measuring students’ normalized gain scores, calculated as per Hake (1998) and Prather (2009), using a slightly modified version of S. Slater’s (2011) Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST combined with other instruments. The results of this initial study will guide the iterative development of ASTRO 101 ILDs that are intended to both be effective at enhancing student achievement and easy for instructors to successfully implement.

  16. Biophysical modeling of high field diffusion MRI demonstrates micro-structural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-11-15

    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Immense heterogeneity in symptoms of depression causes difficulty in diagnosis, and to date, there are no established biomarkers or imaging methods to examine depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) induced anhedonia is considered to be a realistic model of depression in studies of animal subjects. Stereological and neuronal tracing techniques have demonstrated persistent remodeling of microstructure in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMS brains. Recent developments in diffusion MRI (d-MRI) analyses, such as neurite density and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), are able to capture microstructural changes and are considered to be robust tools in preclinical and clinical imaging. The present study utilized d-MRI analyzed with a neurite density model and the DKI framework to investigate microstructure in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen and amygdala regions of CMS rat brains by comparison to brains from normal controls. To validate findings of CMS induced microstructural alteration, histology was performed to determine neurite, nuclear and astrocyte density. d-MRI based neurite density and tensor-based mean kurtosis (MKT) were significantly higher, while mean diffusivity (MD), extracellular diffusivity (Deff) and intra-neurite diffusivity(DL) were significantly lower in the amygdala of CMS rat brains. Deff was also significantly lower in the hippocampus and caudate putamen in stressed groups. Histological neurite density corroborated the d-MRI findings in the amygdala and reductions in nuclear and astrocyte density further buttressed the d-MRI results. The present study demonstrated that the d-MRI based neurite density and MKT can reveal specific microstructural changes in CMS rat brains and these parameters might have value in clinical diagnosis of depression and for evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  17. Adult Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates anabolic response to sclerostin antibody treatment with increased bone mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, B P; White, L E; Salemi, J D; Ominsky, M S; Caird, M S; Marini, J C; Kozloff, K M

    2014-08-01

    Treatments to reduce fracture rates in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta are limited. Sclerostin antibody, developed for treating osteoporosis, has not been explored in adults with OI. This study demonstrates that treatment of adult OI mice respond favorably to sclerostin antibody therapy despite retention of the OI-causing defect. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk. Although OI fracture risk is greatest before puberty, adults with OI remain at risk of fracture. Antiresorptive bisphosphonates are commonly used to treat adult OI, but have shown mixed efficacy. New treatments which consistently improve bone mass throughout the skeleton may improve patient outcomes. Neutralizing antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) are a novel anabolic therapy that have shown efficacy in preclinical studies by stimulating bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Scl-Ab in an adult 6 month old Brtl/+ model of OI that harbors a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly > Cys substitution on Col1a1. Six-month-old WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated with Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2×/week) or Veh for 5 weeks. OCN and TRACP5b serum assays, dynamic histomorphometry, microCT and mechanical testing were performed. Adult Brtl/+ mice demonstrated a strong anabolic response to Scl-Ab with increased serum osteocalcin and bone formation rate. This anabolic response led to improved trabecular and cortical bone mass in the femur. Mechanical testing revealed Scl-Ab increased Brtl/+ femoral stiffness and strength. Scl-Ab was successfully anabolic in an adult Brtl/+ model of OI.

  18. Modeling the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrates an exponential increase in burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Chris; Razavi, Homie; Loomba, Rohit; Younossi, Zobair; Sanyal, Arun J

    2017-08-12

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent in the US, where they are a growing cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and increasingly, an indicator for liver transplantation. A Markov model was used to forecast NAFLD disease progression. Incidence of NAFLD was based on historical and projected changes in adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Assumptions were derived from published literature where available, and validated using national surveillance data for incidence of NAFLD-related HCC. Projected changes in NAFLD-related cirrhosis, advanced liver disease, and liver-related mortality were quantified through 2030. Prevalent NAFLD cases are forecasted to increase 21%, from 83.1 (2015) to 100.9 million (2030), while prevalent NASH cases will increase 63% from 16.52 to 27.00 million cases. Overall NAFLD prevalence among the adult population (aged ≥15 years) is projected at 33.5% in 2030, and the median age of the NAFLD population will increase from 50 to 55 years during 2015-2030. In 2015, approximately 20% of NAFLD cases were classified as NASH, increasing to 27% by 2030, a reflection of both disease progression and an aging population. Incidence of decompensated cirrhosis will increase 168% to 105,430 cases by 2030, while incidence of HCC will increase by 137% to 12,240 cases. Liver deaths will increase 178% to an estimated 78,300 deaths in 2030. During 2015-2030, there are nearly 800,000 excess liver deaths. With continued high rates of adult obesity and DM, and an aging population, NAFLD-related liver disease and mortality will increase in the US. Strategies to slow the growth of NAFLD cases and therapeutic options are necessary to mitigate disease burden. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. eWaterCycle: Live Demonstration of an Operational Hyper Resolution Global Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, N.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Hut, R.; van Meersbergen, M.; Donchyts, G.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2014-12-01

    The eWaterCycle project works towards running an operational hyper-resolution hydrological global model, assimilating incoming satellite data in real time, and making 14 day predictions of floods and droughts.In our approach, we aim to re-use existing models and techniques as much as possible, and make use of standards and open source software wherever we can. To couple the different parts of our system we use the Basic Model Interface (BMI) as developped in the CSDMS community.Starting point of the eWaterCycle project was the PCR-GLOBWB model built by Utrecht University. The software behind this model has been partially re-engineered in order to enable it to run in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment, and to be able to interface using BMI, and run on multiple compute nodes in parallel. The final aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km, (currently 10 x 10km).For the data assimilation we make heavy use of the OpenDA system. This allows us to make use of different data assimilation techniques without the need to implement these from scratch. We have developped a BMI adaptor for OpenDA, allowing OpenDA to use any BMI compatible model. As a data assimilation technique we currently use an Ensemble Kalman Filter, and are working on a variant of this technique optimized for HPC environments.One of the next steps in the eWaterCycle project is to couple the model with a hydrodynamic model. Our system will start a localized simulation on demand based on triggers in the global model, giving detailed flow and flood forecasting in support of navigation and disaster management.We will show a live demo of our system, including real-time integration of satellite data.

  20. [Exploration and demonstration study on drug combination from clinical real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yong-yan

    2014-09-01

    Drug combination is extensive in the clinical real world,which is an important part and the inherent requirements of the post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The key issues and technology include multi-domain and multi-disciplinary such as the rationality, efficacy and safety evaluation of combination drug starting from clinical real world, study on component in vivo and mechanism of combination drug, the risk/benefit assessment and cost-benefit evaluation of combination drug and so on. The topic has been studied as clinical demonstration on combination therapy of variety of diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, insomnia, depression, hepatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis and ectopic pregnancy. Meanwhile, multi-disciplinary dynamic innovation alliance of clinical drug combination has been presented, which can promote the academic development and improving service ability and level of TCM.

  1. Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

  2. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.

  3. Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

  4. A study to demonstrate freedom from Trichinella spp. in domestic pigs in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppers, M E; Rosenberg, G; Graf, R; Eidam, V; Wittwer, C; Zimmermann, W; Gottstein, B; Frey, C F

    2010-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Trichinella spp. Many omnivorous and carnivorous animal species can act as host for this parasite, including domestic pigs. To protect public health, it should be ensured that pork should not contain infective Trichinella larvae. Surveillance for Trichinella spp. can be done using direct (larval detection) and indirect (antibody detection) diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of infection in Swiss domestic pigs. An ELISA was used as the initial screening test, and sera reacting in ELISA were further investigated using both a Western blot for serology and an artificial digestion test with 20 g of diaphragm tissue for larval detection. A total of 7412 adult pigs, 9973 finishing pigs and 2779 free-ranging pigs were tested. Samples from 17 (0.23%) adult pigs, 16 (0.16%) finishing pigs and nine (0.32%) free-ranging pigs were ELISA-positive, but all of these sera were subsequently negative by Western blot and by the artificial digestion method. Based on these findings, an absence of Trichinella infections in adult pigs (target prevalence 0.04%) and finishing pigs (target prevalence 0.03%) can be concluded. The results also demonstrated that the prevalence of Trichinella infections does not exceed 0.11% in free-ranging pigs, the group with the highest risk of exposure.

  5. Solar wind stream evolution at large heliocentric distances - Experimental demonstration and the test of a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Bame, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A stream propagation model which neglects all dissipation effects except those occurring at shock interfaces, was used to compare Pioneer-10 solar wind speed observations, during the time when Pioneer 10, the earth, and the sun were coaligned, with near-earth Imp-7 observations of the solar wind structure, and with the theoretical predictions of the solar wind structure at Pioneer 10 derived from the Imp-7 measurements, using the model. The comparison provides a graphic illustration of the phenomenon of stream steepening in the solar wind with the attendant formation of forward-reverse shock pairs and the gradual decay of stream amplitudes with increasing heliocentric distance. The comparison also provides a qualitative test of the stream propagation model.

  6. [Study on mobile phone based wireless ECG monitoring technology system typical demonstration applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mobile phone platform with wireless real-time ECG monitoring system developed in our lab, this article is dedicated to evaluate its practical value in people test. A series of new conceptual experiments were designed and performed. Particularly, ECG characteristics under different age, gender, health and motion conditions are evaluated. Effects of living habits such as drinking wine, coffee including various psychological conditions such as excitation, anxiety etc. to the ECG response are investigated. The human ECG under different time in a day such as morning, afternoon and late-night was evaluated. These conceptual experiments, which are hard to conduct otherwise using conventional devices, demonstrate the pervasive merits of the new system for fundamental study of heart disease as well as daily healthcare.

  7. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefeng; Song, Fahuan; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Yuyan; He, Yu; Yang, Jiehong; Zhou, Huifen; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Xing, Panke; Wan, Haitong; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET). Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU) group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1 mL/kg/d), DHI-2 group (DHI 2 mL/kg/d), and DHI-4 group (DHI 4 mL/kg/d). AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN), glial marker (GFAP), vascular density factor (vWF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with (18)F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  8. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET. Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1 mL/kg/d, DHI-2 group (DHI 2 mL/kg/d, and DHI-4 group (DHI 4 mL/kg/d. AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN, glial marker (GFAP, vascular density factor (vWF, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with 18F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  9. Multiphoton microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis: demonstration of the pattern of microbial spread in an experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yen; Lo, Wen; Wu, Ruei-Jhih; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lin, Wei-Chou; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the application of multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for imaging and monitoring the disease progress of infectious keratitis in an experimental model, and to investigate the possible correlation of tissue architecture with spreading patterns of pathogens in an experimental model. Porcine eyes are to be obtained from slaughter house and processed and placed in organ culture system. Fungal infections by common pathogens of infectious keratitis are to be induced in porcine cornea buttons. Multiphoton fluorescence and SHG microscopy will be used for imaging and for monitoring the progression and extension of tissue destruction and possibly the pattern of pathogen spreading. We found that SHG imaging is useful in identifying alterations to collagen architecture while autofluorescence microscopy can be used to visualize the fungi and cells within the stroma. In summary, multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy can non-invasively demonstrate and monitor tissue destruction associated with infectious keratitis. The pattern of pathogen spreading and its correlation with the tissue architecture can also be shown, which can be useful for future studies of the tissue-microbial interactions for infectious keratitis.

  10. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  11. Supply Chain Modeling: Downstream Risk Assessment Methodology (DRAM) Demonstration of Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This work was done for Defense Logistics Agency Strategic Materials (DLA SM) to provide the capability to analyze supply chains of strategic and...of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics , 2013). 9 3. Supply Chain Modeling... Logistics , 2013. Kouvelis, Panos, Lingxiu Dong, Onur Boyabatli, and Rong Li. Handbook of Integrated Risk Management in Global Supply Chains Hoboken, NJ

  12. Underestimation of nuclear fuel burnup – theory, demonstration and solution in numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajda Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo methodology provides reference statistical solution of neutron transport criticality problems of nuclear systems. Estimated reaction rates can be applied as an input to Bateman equations that govern isotopic evolution of reactor materials. Because statistical solution of Boltzmann equation is computationally expensive, it is in practice applied to time steps of limited length. In this paper we show that simple staircase step model leads to underprediction of numerical fuel burnup (Fissions per Initial Metal Atom – FIMA. Theoretical considerations indicates that this error is inversely proportional to the length of the time step and origins from the variation of heating per source neutron. The bias can be diminished by application of predictor-corrector step model. A set of burnup simulations with various step length and coupling schemes has been performed. SERPENT code version 1.17 has been applied to the model of a typical fuel assembly from Pressurized Water Reactor. In reference case FIMA reaches 6.24% that is equivalent to about 60 GWD/tHM of industrial burnup. The discrepancies up to 1% have been observed depending on time step model and theoretical predictions are consistent with numerical results. Conclusions presented in this paper are important for research and development concerning nuclear fuel cycle also in the context of Gen4 systems.

  13. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  14. Setting road safety targets in Cambodia : a methodological demonstration using the latent risk time series model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.J.F. Wesemann, P. Bijleveld, F.D. Chhoun, V. & Sann, S.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present the methodology used for estimating forecasts for the number of road traffic fatalities in 2011—2020 in Cambodia based on observed developments in Cambodian road traffic fatalities and motor vehicle ownership in the years 1995—2009. Using the latent risk time series model

  15. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit.

  16. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Phelps, T.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  17. Baca geothermal demonstration project baseline ecosystem studies of cooling tower emission effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, P.; Osterling, R.; Price, D.; Westermeier, J.

    1981-03-01

    Results of baseline studies for boron, arsenic, mercury, and fluorine in vegetation and soil near the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant are provided for the 1980 sampling season. Preliminary results of visual vegetation assessments and population density studies of soil invertebrate fauna are also provided. Foliage samples were collected for chemical analysis on a total of 17 plots on 5 transects. Two to five plant species were sampled at each plot. Samples were collected in June-July and September. Soil samples were collected at each plot during September. Visual vegetation inspections were conducted along each transect. Eighty-eight soil samples were collected for soil invertebrate studies. Boron, arsenic, mercury, and fluorine levels in vegetation were within normal range for natural vegetation and crops. Concentrations of soil arsenic and mercury were comparable to foliage concentrations. Boron concentrations were lower in soil than in foliage, whereas soil fluorine concentrations were considerably higher than foliage concentrations. With the exception of heavy insect infestations in June-July, no vegetation abnormalities were noted. Preliminary soil invertebrate analysis indicated an overall arthropod density of approximately 100,000/m/sup 2/ which appears within the normal range encountered in forest and meadow soil.

  18. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  19. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  20. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Jr., Hugh [CDH Energy Corp., Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  1. Partnership disengagement from primary community care networks (PCCNs: A qualitative study for a national demonstration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng-Chieh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Primary Community Care Network (PCCN Demonstration Project, launched by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI in 2003, is still in progress. Partnership structures in PCCNs represent both contractual clinic-to-clinic and clinic-to-hospital member relationships of organizational aspects. The partnership structures are the formal relationships between individuals and the total network. Their organizational design aims to ensure effective communication, coordination, and integration across the total network. Previous studies have focused largely on how contractual integration among the partnerships works and on its effects. Few studies, however, have tried to understand partnership disengagement in PCCNs. This study explores why some partnerships in PCCNs disengage. Methods This study used a qualitative methodology with semi-structured questions for in-depth interviews. The semi-structured questions were pre-designed to explore the factors driving partnership disengagement. Thirty-seven clinic members who had withdrawn from their PCCNs were identified from the 2003-2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network Lists. Results Organization/participant factors (extra working time spend and facility competency, network factors (partner collaboration, and community factors (health policy design incompatibility, patient-physician relationship, and effectiveness are reasons for clinic physicians to withdraw or change their partnerships within the PCCNs. Conclusions To strengthen partnership relationships, several suggestions are made, including to establish clinic and hospital member relationships, and to reduce administrative work. In addition, both educating the public about the concept of family doctors and ensuring well-organized national health policies could help health care providers improve the integration processes.

  2. DEMONSTRATION COMPUTER MODELS USE WHILE SOLVING THE BUILDING OF THE CUT OF THE CYLINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna O. Gulivata

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of material presented in the article is the use of effective methods to illustrate the geometric material for the development of spatial imagination of students. As one of the ways to improve problem solving offer to illustrate the use of display computer model (DCM investigated objects created by the software environment PowerPoint. The technique of applying DCM while solving the problems to build a section of the cylinder makes it allows to build effective learning process and promotes the formation of spatial representations of students taking into account their individual characteristics and principles of differentiated instruction.

  3. Bayesian maximum entropy integration of ozone observations and model predictions: an application for attainment demonstration in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Serre, Marc L

    2010-08-01

    States in the USA are required to demonstrate future compliance of criteria air pollutant standards by using both air quality monitors and model outputs. In the case of ozone, the demonstration tests aim at relying heavily on measured values, due to their perceived objectivity and enforceable quality. Weight given to numerical models is diminished by integrating them in the calculations only in a relative sense. For unmonitored locations, the EPA has suggested the use of a spatial interpolation technique to assign current values. We demonstrate that this approach may lead to erroneous assignments of nonattainment and may make it difficult for States to establish future compliance. We propose a method that combines different sources of information to map air pollution, using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) Framework. The approach gives precedence to measured values and integrates modeled data as a function of model performance. We demonstrate this approach in North Carolina, using the State's ozone monitoring network in combination with outputs from the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) modeling system. We show that the BME data integration approach, compared to a spatial interpolation of measured data, improves the accuracy and the precision of ozone estimations across the state.

  4. Optimised chronic infection models demonstrate that siderophore 'cheating' in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is context specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Freya; McNally, Alan; da Silva, Ana C; Heeb, Stephan; Diggle, Stephen P

    2017-07-11

    The potential for siderophore mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to attenuate virulence during infection, and the possibility of exploiting this for clinical ends, have attracted much discussion. This has largely been based on the results of in vitro experiments conducted in iron-limited growth medium, in which siderophore mutants act as social 'cheats:' increasing in frequency at the expense of the wild type to result in low-productivity, low-virulence populations dominated by mutants. We show that insights from in vitro experiments cannot necessarily be transferred to infection contexts. First, most published experiments use an undefined siderophore mutant. Whole-genome sequencing of this strain revealed a range of mutations affecting phenotypes other than siderophore production. Second, iron-limited medium provides a very different environment from that encountered in chronic infections. We conducted cheating assays using defined siderophore deletion mutants, in conditions designed to model infected fluids and tissue in cystic fibrosis lung infection and non-healing wounds. Depending on the environment, siderophore loss led to cheating, simple fitness defects, or no fitness effect at all. Our results show that it is crucial to develop defined in vitro models in order to predict whether siderophores are social, cheatable and suitable for clinical exploitation in specific infection contexts.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 11 July 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.103.

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  6. A CASE STUDY OF PROMOTING FRESH BEEF THROUGH IN-STORE DEMONSTRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, David B.; Gray, Morgan D.; Brooker, John R.

    1992-01-01

    In-store demonstrations are becoming a popular way of promoting foods at the retail level. However, little information is available to guide store managers and marketers in the design and implementation of these promotions. A test demonstration for shoulder and top blade steaks is used to estimate the effects of discretionary components of this promotional strategy. Marketing implications are drawn.

  7. Competencies Demonstrated by Municipal Employees during Adaptation to Climate Change: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Blain, Sylvie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Barbier, Pierre-Yves; Freiman, Viktor; Therrien, Jimmy; Langis, Joanne; Lang, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Since coastal communities are already subjected to the impacts of climate change, adaptation has become a necessity. This article presents competencies demonstrated by Canadian municipal employees during an adaptation process to sea level rise. To adapt, the participants demonstrated the following competencies: problem solving (highlighting…

  8. Demonstrating Chirality: Using a Mirror with Physical Models To Show Non-superimposability of Chiral Molecules with Their Mirror Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a remarkable demonstration on chiralty in molecules and the existence of enantiomers, also known as non-superimposable mirror images. Uses a mirror, a physical model of a molecule, and a bit of trickery involving the non-superimposable mirror image. (Author/NB)

  9. Reciprocal transplants demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, Jon; Schemske, Douglas W

    2012-06-01

    To quantify adaptive differentiation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for five years between two European populations, one near the northern edge of the native range (Sweden) and one near the southern edge (Italy). We planted seeds (years 1-3) and seedlings (years 4-5), and estimated fitness as the number of fruits produced per seed or seedling planted. In eight of the 10 possible site × year comparisons, the fitness of the local population was significantly higher than that of the nonlocal population (3.1-22.2 times higher at the southern site, and 1.7-3.6 times higher at the northern site); in the remaining two comparisons no significant difference was recorded. At both sites, the local genotype had higher survival than the nonlocal genotype, and at the Italian site, the local genotype also had higher fecundity. Across years, the relative survival of the Italian genotype at the northern site decreased with decreasing winter soil temperature. The results provide evidence of strong adaptive differentiation between natural populations of A. thaliana and indicate that differences in tolerance to freezing contributed to fitness variation at the northern site. In ongoing work, we explore the functional and genetic basis of this adaptive differentiation.

  10. In silico imaging clinical trials for regulatory evaluation: initial considerations for VICTRE, a demonstration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Aldo; Badal, Andreu; Glick, Stephen; Graff, Christian G.; Samuelson, Frank; Sharma, Diksha; Zeng, Rongping

    2017-03-01

    Expensive and lengthy clinical trials can delay regulatory evaluation and add significant burden that stifles innovation affecting patient access to novel, high-quality imaging technologies. In silico imaging holds promise for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of imaging technologies with much less burden than clinical trials. We define in silico imaging as a computer simulation of an entire imaging system (including source, object, task, and observer components) used for research, development, optimization, technology assessment, and regulatory evaluation of new technology. In this work we describe VICTRE (our study of virtual imaging clinical trials for regulatory evaluation) and the considerations for building an entire imaging pipeline in silico including device (physics), patient (anatomy, disease), and image interpretation models for regulatory evaluation using open-source tools.

  11. Evaluation of GLAS Demonstration Model Loop Heat Pipe Thermal Vacuum Performance with Various Fluid Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Charles; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Grob, Eric; Swanson, Ted; Nikitkin, Michael; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two loop heat pipes (LHPs) are to be used for tight thermal control of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, planned for flight in late 2001. The LHPs are charged with Propylene as a working fluid. One LHP will be used to transport 110 W from a laser a radiator, the other will transport 190 W from electronic boxes to a separate radiator. The application includes a large amount of thermal mass in each LHP system and low initial startup powers. This along with some non-ideal flight design compromises, such as a less than ideal charge level for this design concept with a symmetrical secondary wick, lead to inadequate performance of the flight LHPs during the flight thermal vacuum test in October of 2000. This presentation focuses on identifying; the sources of the flight test difficulties by modifying the charge and test setup of the successfully tested Development Model Loop Heat Pipe (DM LHP). While very similar to the flight design, the DM L14P did have several significant difference in design and method of testing. These differences were evaluated for affect on performance by conforming the DM LHP to look more like the flight units. The major difference that was evaluated was the relative fill level of the working fluid within the concentrically design LHP compensation chamber. Other differences were also assessed through performance testing including starter heater size and "hot biasing" of major interior components. Performance was assessed with respect to startup, low power operation, conductance, and control heater power. The results of the testing showed that performance improves as initial charge increases, and when the starter heater is made smaller. The "hot biasing" of the major components did not appear to have a detrimental effect. As a result of test results of the DM LHP, modifications are being made to the flight units to increase the fluid charge and increase the watt-density of the starter heater.

  12. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  13. TOM - Manufacture and modelling of a demonstration oxide module; TOM, Erstellen und Modellierung eines thermo-elektrischen oxidischen Moduls (TOM) als Demonstrator - Jahresbericht 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomes, P.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA in 2007 on demonstrating the thermoelectric effects of an oxide module. Four-leg oxide-based thermoelectric modules are described which have been produced by combining p and n-type oxide elements. The modules were assembled using a mixture of silver paste along with silver and copper oxide powders. Three types of thermoelectric oxide modules with different thermocouple leg-lengths were examined. In this type of module, p and n-type semiconductor thermocouples are connected electrically in series by highly conducting metal strips using silver with copper oxide and sandwiched between thermally conducting but electrically insulating plates made of corundum. The results obtained are presented in graphical form and discussed.

  14. Pertactin negative Bordetella pertussis demonstrates higher fitness under vaccine selection pressure in a mixed infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarchi, Azadeh; Octavia, Sophie; Luu, Laurence Don Wai; Tay, Chin Yen; Sintchenko, Vitali; Wood, Nicholas; Marshall, Helen; McIntyre, Peter; Lan, Ruiting

    2015-11-17

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease in humans caused by Bordetella pertussis. The use of acellular vaccines (ACV) has been associated with the recent resurgence of pertussis in developed countries including Australia despite high vaccination coverage where B. pertussis strains that do not express pertactin (Prn), a key antigenic component of the ACV, have emerged and become prevalent. In this study, we used an in vivo competition assay in mice immunised with ACV and in naïve (control) mice to compare the proportion of colonisation with recent clinical Prn positive and Prn negative B. pertussis strains from Australia. The Prn negative strain colonised the respiratory tract more effectively than the Prn positive strain in immunised mice, out-competing the Prn positive strain by day 3 of infection. However, in control mice, the Prn positive strain out-competed the Prn negative strain. Our findings of greater ability of Prn negative strains to colonise ACV-immunised mice are consistent with reports of selective advantage for these strains in ACV-immunised humans.

  15. Preliminary study of the decay heat removal strategy for the gas demonstrator allegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Gusztáv, E-mail: gusztav.mayer@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bentivoglio, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.bentivoglio@cea.fr [CEA/DEN/DM2S/STMF/LMES, F-38054, Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Improved decay heat removal strategy was adapted for the 75 MW ALLEGRO MOX core. • New nitrogen injection strategy was proposed for the DEC LOCA transients. • Preliminary CATHARE study shows that most of the investigated transients fulfill criteria. • Further improvements and optimizations are needed for nitrogen injection. - Abstract: The helium cooled Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the six reactor concepts selected in the frame of the Generation IV International Forum. Since no gas cooled fast reactor has ever been built, a medium power demonstrator reactor – named ALLEGRO – is necessary on the road towards the 2400 MWth GFR power reactor. The French Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) completed a wide range of studies during the early stage of development of ALLEGRO, and later the ALLEGRO reactor concept was developed in several European Union projects in parallel with the GFR2400. The 75 MW thermal power ALLEGRO is currently developed in the frame of the European ALLIANCE project. As a result of the collaboration between CEA and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK) new improvements were done in the safety approach of ALLEGRO. A complete Decay Heat Removal (DHR) strategy was devised, relying on the primary circuits as a first way to remove decay heat using pony-motors to drive the primary blowers, and on the secondary and tertiary circuits being able to work in forced or natural circulation. Three identical dedicated loops circulating in forced convection are used as a second way to remove decay heat, and these loops can circulate in natural convection for pressurized transients, providing a third way to remove decay heat in case of accidents when the primary circuit is still under pressure. The possibility to use nitrogen to enhance both forced and natural circulation is discussed. This DHR strategy is supported by a wide range of accident transient simulations performed using the CATHARE2 code

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  17. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    data constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  18. Design study of coated conductor direct drive wind turbine generator for small scale demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting field windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 68...... meters of tape. The active mass of the generators has been investigated as function of the number of poles and a 4 pole generator is suggested as a feasible starting point of an in-field demonstration of the system reliability. An active mass of m = 421 kg and a usage of 3.45 km of tape will be needed...

  19. Powerplant productivity improvement study: demonstration of the DOE/MRI methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-17

    A methodology, distributed by DOE, may be used as a potential tool for the utility industry to assess and evaluate productivity and reliability problems of existing and future units. The model can be used to assess the impact of an improvement project or corrective action on unit productivity parameters such as heat rate, capacity factor, availability, or equivalent availability. The methodology analyzes: the effect of component redundancy on unit equivalent availability; the effect of component reliability on unit equivalent availability; and a component's outage trend to project the component's future outage rate. The first purpose of this study is to illustrate for the utilities how to apply the methodology. Thus, this report contains the analysis performed by applying the methodology at three units of Illinois power plants. The units evaluated were Wood River 5, Quad Cities 1, and Quad Cities 2. A total of 8 improvement projects were evaluated and all outage data and equations used are included in order to facilitate utility reproduction of the given results. The second purpose is to evaluate the methodology as a useful tool for individual utilities; a number of modifications are suggested.

  20. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  1. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chung Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke

  2. Do English and Chinese EQ-5D versions demonstrate measurement equivalence? an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Swee-Cheng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although multiple language versions of health-related quality of life instruments are often used interchangeably in clinical research, the measurement equivalence of these versions (especially using alphabet vs pictogram-based languages has rarely been assessed. We therefore investigated the measurement equivalence of English and Chinese versions of the EQ-5D, a widely used utility-based outcome instrument. Methods In a cross-sectional study, either EQ-5D version was administered to consecutive outpatients with rheumatic diseases. Measurement equivalence of EQ-5D item responses and utility and visual analog scale (EQ-VAS scores between these versions was assessed using multiple regression models (with and without adjusting for potential confounding variables, by comparing the 95% confidence interval (95%CI of score differences between these versions with pre-defined equivalence margins. An equivalence margin defined a magnitude of score differences (10% and 5% of entire score ranges for item responses and utility/EQ-VAS scores, respectively which was felt to be clinically unimportant. Results Sixty-six subjects completed the English and 48 subjects the Chinese EQ-5D. The 95%CI of the score differences between these versions overlapped with but did not fall completely within pre-defined equivalence margins for 4 EQ-5D items, utility and EQ-VAS scores. For example, the 95%CI of the adjusted score difference between these EQ-5D versions was -0.14 to +0.03 points for utility scores and -11.6 to +3.3 points for EQ-VAS scores (equivalence margins of -0.05 to +0.05 and -5.0 to +5.0 respectively. Conclusion These data provide promising evidence for the measurement equivalence of English and Chinese EQ-5D versions.

  3. Case Study of The ARRA-Funded GSHP Demonstration at the Natural Sources Building, Montana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-04-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects was proposed by Montana Tech of the University of Montana for a 56,000 sq ft, newly constructed, on-campus research facility – the Natural Resources Building (NRB) located in Butte, Montana. This demonstrated GSHP system consists of a 50 ton water-to-water heat pump and a closed-loop ground heat exchanger with two redundant 7.5 hp constant-speed pumps to use water in the nearby flooded mines as a heat source or heat sink. It works in conjunction with the originally installed steam HX and an aircooled chiller to provide space heating and cooling. It is coupled with the existing hot water and chilled water piping in the building and operates in the heating or cooling mode based on the outdoor air temperature. The ground loop pumps operate in conjunction with the existing pumps in the building hot and chilled water loops for the operation of the heat pump unit. The goal of this demonstration project is to validate the technical and economic feasibility of the demonstrated commercial-scale GSHP system in the region, and illustrate the feasibility of using mine waters as the heat sink and source for GSHP systems. Should the demonstration prove satisfactory and feasible, it will encourage similar GSHP applications using mine water, thus help save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The actual performance of the system is analyzed with available measured data for January through July 2014. The annual energy performance is predicted and compared with a baseline scenario, with the heating and cooling provided by the originally designed systems. The comparison is made in terms of energy savings, operating cost savings, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Finally

  4. Ampicillin in Combination with Ceftaroline, Cefepime, or Ceftriaxone Demonstrates Equivalent Activities in a High-Inoculum Enterococcus faecalis Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Rice, Louis B; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2016-05-01

    Ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious Enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. Unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. We evaluated E. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. Ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activities similar to those of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against E. faecalis.

  5. Motivational study for an hybrid demonstrator; Dossier de motivation pour un demonstrateur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidron, M.; Fiorini, G.L.; Thomas, J.B. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Flocard, H. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS/IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-15

    This document recalls first the role of hybrid accelerator driven systems (ADS) in the domain of transmutation of long-lived fission products and minor actinides. It presents the specific contribution of these systems in the management of radioactive wastes and their technical feasibility and safety aspects. Then, follows a motivational analysis for the construction of a demonstration facility with its specifications and R and D needs: feasibility, schedule, links with other ADS-related programs, cost, international cooperation, recommendations. (J.S.)

  6. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  7. Factor Analysis Demonstrates a Common Schizoidal Phenotype within Autistic and Schizotypal Tendency: Implications for Neuroscientific Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Talitha C; Crewther, David P

    2014-01-01

    ... schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model...

  8. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  9. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  10. Probabilistic tsunami inundation map based on stochastic earthquake source model: A demonstration case in Macau, the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Wang, Yu; Chan, Chung-Han; Qiu, Qiang; Weiss, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Current tsunami inundation maps are commonly generated using deterministic scenarios, either for real-time forecasting or based on hypothetical "worst-case" events. Such maps are mainly used for emergency response and evacuation planning and do not include the information of return period. However, in practice, probabilistic tsunami inundation maps are required in a wide variety of applications, such as land-use planning, engineer design and for insurance purposes. In this study, we present a method to develop the probabilistic tsunami inundation map using a stochastic earthquake source model. To demonstrate the methodology, we take Macau a coastal city in the South China Sea as an example. Two major advances of this method are: it incorporates the most updated information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust; it integrates a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns are generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. When aggregated the large amount of inundation simulation results, we analyze the uncertainties associated with variability of earthquake rupture location and slip distribution. We also explore how tsunami hazard evolves in Macau in the context of sea level rise. Our results suggest Macau faces moderate tsunami risk due to its low-lying elevation, extensive land reclamation, high coastal population and major infrastructure density. Macau consists of four districts: Macau Peninsula, Taipa Island, Coloane island and Cotai strip. Of these Macau Peninsula is the most vulnerable to tsunami due to its low-elevation and exposure to direct waves and refracted waves from the offshore region and reflected waves from mainland. Earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw8.0 in the northern Manila trench would likely cause hazardous inundation in Macau. Using a stochastic source model, we are able to derive a spread of potential tsunami impacts for earthquakes

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  13. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  16. Feasibility Study of Integrating IDELIX’s Pliable Display Technology into the COPlanS Technology Demonstration Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-31

    Feasibility Study of Integrating IDELIX’s Pliable Display Technology into the COPlanS Technology Demonstration Software Issue Number: Version 1... Technology Demonstration Software 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...Collaborative Operations Planning System (COPlanS) technology demonstration software in the areas of collaboration and data visualization using IDELIX’s Pliable

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  18. In vivo demonstration of ultrasound power delivery to charge implanted medical devices via acute and survival porcine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziemski, Leon; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies are an important step in proving the utility and safety of an ultrasound based implanted battery recharging system. To this end an Ultrasound Electrical Recharging System (USER™) was developed and tested. Experiments in vitro demonstrated power deliveries at the battery of up to 600 mW through 10-15 mm of tissue, 50 mW of power available at tissue depths of up to 50 mm, and the feasibility of using transducers bonded to titanium as used in medical implants. Acute in vivo studies in a porcine model were used to test reliability of power delivery, temperature excursions, and cooling techniques. The culminating five-week survival study involved repeated battery charging, a total of 10.5h of ultrasound exposure of the intervening living tissue, with an average RF input to electrical charging efficiency of 20%. This study was potentially the first long term cumulative living-tissue exposure using transcutaneous ultrasound power transmission to an implanted receiver in situ. Histology of the exposed tissue showed changes attributable primarily due to surgical implantation of the prototype device, and no damage due to the ultrasound exposure. The in vivo results are indicative of the potential safe delivery of ultrasound energy for a defined set of source conditions for charging batteries within implants.

  19. Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrated for NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attractive performance characteristics that are well suited to a number of NASA applications. These rechargeable batteries produce compact, lightweight energy-storage systems with excellent cycle life, high charge/discharge efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. NASA Glenn Research Center's Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs configured to power the liquid-air backpack (LAB) on spacesuit simulators. The demonstration batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes with enhanced low-temperature performance characteristics. The objectives of this effort were to (1) demonstrate practical battery performance under field-test conditions and (2) supply laboratory performance data under controlled laboratory conditions. Advanced electrolyte development is being conducted under the Exploration Technology Development Program by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three field trials were successfully completed at Cinder Lake from September 10 to 12, 2007. Extravehicular activities of up to 1 hr and 50 min were supported, with residual battery capacity sufficient for 30 min of additional run time. Additional laboratory testing of batteries and cells is underway at Glenn s Electrochemical Branch.

  20. The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project Phase 1: Pre-stimulation coupled geomechanical modeling to guide stimulation and monitoring plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, J.; Dobson, P.F.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Garcia, J.; Walters, M.

    2010-10-20

    This paper presents activities and results associated with Phase 1 (pre-stimulation phase) of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The paper presents development of a 3-D geological model, coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) modeling of proposed stimulation injection as well as current plans for stimulation and monitoring of the site. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths of {approx}3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring initiated before the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS and monitoring changes in microseismicity. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11) located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir, in agreement with the conclusions of Nielson and Moore (2000).

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  4. Count rate performance study of the Lausanne ClearPET scanner demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, M. [LPHE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: martin.rey@epfl.ch; Jan, S. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, F-91401 Orsay (France); Vieira, J.-M. [LPHE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mosset, J.-B. [LPHE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Krieguer, M. [IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Comtat, C. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, F-91401 Orsay (France); Morel, C. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, F-13288 Marseille (France)

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents the count rate measurements obtained with the Lausanne partial ring ClearPET scanner demonstrator and compares them against GATE Monte Carlo simulations. For the present detector setup, a maximum single event count rate of 1.1 Mcps is measured or a 250-750 keV energy window. This corresponds to a coincidence count rate of approximately 22 kcps. Good agreements are observed between measured and simulated data. Count rate performance, including Noise Equivalent Count (NEC) curves, are determined and extrapolated for a full ring ClearPET design using GATE Monte Carlo simulations. For a full ring design with three rings of detector modules, NEC is peaking at about 70 kcps for 20 MBq.

  5. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hardy, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bohn, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smart, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Saxena, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kahl, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pratt, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  6. Modeling and Experimental Demonstration of a Hopfield Network Analog-to-Digital Converter with Hybrid CMOS/Memristor Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinjie; Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood; Gao, Ligang; Hoskins, Brian D; Alibart, Fabien; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Theogarajan, Luke; Teuscher, Christof; Strukov, Dmitri B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of building recurrent artificial neural networks with hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/memristor circuits. To do so, we modeled a Hopfield network implementing an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with up to 8 bits of precision. Major shortcomings affecting the ADC's precision, such as the non-ideal behavior of CMOS circuitry and the specific limitations of memristors, were investigated and an effective solution was proposed, capitalizing on the in-field programmability of memristors. The theoretical work was validated experimentally by demonstrating the successful operation of a 4-bit ADC circuit implemented with discrete Pt/TiO2- x /Pt memristors and CMOS integrated circuit components.

  7. In-hardware demonstration of model-independent adaptive tuning of noisy systems with arbitrary phase drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Baily, Scott; Young, Daniel; Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Prokop, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In this work, an implementation of a recently developed model-independent adaptive control scheme, for tuning uncertain and time varying systems, is demonstrated on the Los Alamos linear particle accelerator. The main benefits of the algorithm are its simplicity, ability to handle an arbitrary number of components without increased complexity, and the approach is extremely robust to measurement noise, a property which is both analytically proven and demonstrated in the experiments performed. We report on the application of this algorithm for simultaneous tuning of two buncher radio frequency (RF) cavities, in order to maximize beam acceptance into the accelerating electromagnetic field cavities of the machine, with the tuning based only on a noisy measurement of the surviving beam current downstream from the two bunching cavities. The algorithm automatically responds to arbitrary phase shift of the cavity phases, automatically re-tuning the cavity settings and maximizing beam acceptance. Because it is model independent it can be utilized for continuous adaptation to time-variation of a large system, such as due to thermal drift, or damage to components, in which the remaining, functional components would be automatically re-tuned to compensate for the failing ones. We start by discussing the general model-independent adaptive scheme and how it may be digitally applied to a large class of multi-parameter uncertain systems, and then present our experimental results.

  8. Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa K. Wall, O. Ive, J. Bhagwan, F. Kirwan, W...

  9. Follow-up study of the MASSAHAKE-demonstration plant; MASSAHAKE-demonstraatiolaitoksen seuranta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T. [Pohjois-Satakunnan Massahake Oy, Kankaanpaeae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    First thinnings of high harvesting costs and low timber accumulation have often remained unharvested in Northern Satakunta due to unprofitability of harvesting. One possible solution for the problem is a harvesting chain based on partial-tree harvesting combined with the MASSAHAKE method. The pulpwood-chipping plant owned by Pohjois-Satakunnan MASSAHAKE Oy started operation in May 1995. The objective of this research is to clear-up the technical operability and profitability of the Kankaanpaeae demonstration plant, and the suitability of the products for industrial purposes. The second aim is to develop a delivery method, based on partial-tree harvesting, and the delivery organisation suitable for the conditions in Pohjois-Satakunta. The wood delivery of the MASSAHAKE is concentrated to first thinning forests. The first thinning area, given in the felling plan, located at the delivery area of MASSAHAKE, is 8870 ha/a. This corresponds to 283 000 m{sup 3} pulpwood, the total amount of biomass being 360 000 m{sup 3}. Felling is mainly carried out as labour input using conveyance-felling method. The biomass yield in typical birch first-thinning cut as partial-trees with top diameter of 4 cm is about 40 % higher than in harvesting with short-wood method. The unit costs of harvesting are about a third lower

  10. Demonstration of digital radiographs by means of ink jet-printed paper copies: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Nilsson, J; Lyttkens, K; Andersson, B; Holmer, N G

    1992-11-01

    Different digital medical images have been printed on paper with a continuous ink jet printer, and the quality has been evaluated. The emphasis has been on digital chest radiographs from a computed radiography system. The ink jet printing technique is described as well as the handling of the image data from image source to printer. Different versions of paper prints and viewing conditions were compared to find the optimum alternative. The evaluation has been performed to maximize the quality of the paper images to make them conform with the corresponding film prints and monitor images as much as possible. The continuous ink jet technique offers high-quality prints on paper at a considerably lower cost per copy compared with the cost of a film print. With a future switch-over from diagnosing of digital images on film to diagnosing them on monitors, hard copies for demonstration purposes will occasionally be needed. This need can be filled by ink jet-printed paper copies.

  11. Building America Case Study: Demonstration House of Cold-Climate Solutions for Affordable Housing, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Single family homes in urban areas that are available for renovation by nonprofit developers are often in rough shape (1MM to 2MM nationally). Budgeting has historically focused on improving homes to meet basic housing standards. A rising interest in the long-term impact of homeownership has introduced the need to balance basic needs with home performance. This demonstration project aims to help nonprofit affordable housing developers become familiar with three Building America performance measures, the installation processes, and impacts and benefits of each. A story and a half home in North Minneapolis, MN was presented by Urban Homeworks our local nonprofit partner. The team helped them install three researched upgrade measures: exterior roof insulation or 'overcoat,' exterior foundation insulation, or 'excavationless', and a combined space and water heating HVAC system or 'combi'. To maximize efficiency of application and to address budget issues, the Team worked with Urban Homeworks to identify ways to use volunteers and construction training programs to install the measures. An open invitation to visit the job site was extended to other nonprofit developers and industry partners to encourage dialog about the systems during live installation.

  12. Shallow water analogue of the standing accretion shock instability: experimental demonstration and a two-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglizzo, Thierry; Masset, Frédéric; Guilet, Jérôme; Durand, Gilles

    2012-02-03

    Despite the sphericity of the collapsing stellar core, the birth conditions of neutron stars can be highly nonspherical due to a hydrodynamical instability of the shocked accretion flow. Here we report the first laboratory experiment of a shallow water analogue, based on the physics of hydraulic jumps. Both the experiment and its shallow water modeling demonstrate a robust linear instability and nonlinear properties of symmetry breaking, in a system which is one million times smaller and about one hundred times slower than its astrophysical analogue.

  13. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzinger, J; Thaler, S; Schmid, E;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of seven different, widely applied crop models in predicting heat and drought stress effects. The study was part of a recent suite of model inter-comparisons initiated at European level and constitutes a component that has been...... lacking in the analysis of sources of uncertainties in crop models used to study the impacts of climate change. There was a specific focus on the sensitivity of models for winter wheat and maize to extreme weather conditions (heat and drought) during the short but critical period of 2 weeks after...... or minimum tillage. Since no comprehensive field experimental data sets were available, a relative comparison of simulated grain yields and soil moisture contents under defined weather scenarios with modified temperatures and precipitation was performed for a 2-week period after flowering. The results may...

  14. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: A case demonstrated by a cytogenetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini S Pokale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case with a 4p terminal deletion, evidenced in GTG-banded chromosome study. Phenotypic signs described in the classical Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome were found on clinical examination of our patient.

  15. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY STUDIES IN A CASE OF DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS DEMONSTRATE COMPLEX PATTERNS OF REACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is an autoimmune, clinically pleomorphic, papulovesicular disorder sometimes associated with celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. DH is categorized by subepidermal vesicles and bullae on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and with immunoglobulin A deposits present along the dermal papillary tips on direct immunofluorescence (DIF. Case Report: We describe a 50 year old female that presented with sudden onset pruritus and clinical blisters, predominantly on extensor areas of the extremities. Biopsies for H&E examination, as well as immunohistochemistry (IHC and DIF analysis were performed. Results: H&E examination demonstrated subepidermal blistering; within the blister lumen, numerous neutrophils were present, with occasional eosinophils and lymphocytes also seen. DIF examination revealed linear deposits of IgA along the epidermal basement membrane zone, associated with other immunoglobulins and complement. IHC examination showed similar patterns of reactivity to IgA, and also to other immunoreactants. Cells positive for CD1a were present within the blisters, correlating with S-100 staining. Cells staining positive for CD8, CD45 and occasionally CD4 and Granzyme B were seen not only in the blister lumens, but also around neurovascular packages under the blisters. Finally, CD2 positive cells were found around the upper dermal blood vessels. Discussion: Focal DIF linear IgA deposition is the classic hallmark diagnostic finding in DH. However, it is possible that genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers also play a crucial role in the pathogenesis, often acting via cellular pathways exhibiting disease-associated polymorphisms. In tolerance breakthrough, the initiating antigen presenting cells likely lead to immune system cell differentiation, and activation of adaptive immunity.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  17. Implementation of a Sage-Based Stirling Model Into a System-Level Numerical Model of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Power System (FPS) project is developing a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) to verify the performance and functionality of a subscale version of the FPS reference concept in a relevant environment, and to verify component and system models. As hardware is developed for the TDU, component and system models must be refined to include the details of specific component designs. This paper describes the development of a Sage-based pseudo-steady-state Stirling convertor model and its implementation into a system-level model of the TDU.

  18. The Warm-Cold Study: A Classroom Demonstration of Impression Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symbaluk, Diane G.; Cameron, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure for teaching experimental design to students in the social sciences. Argues that by replicating Solomon Asch's and H. Kelley's classic studies on impression formation, students learn how to conduct experiments, analyze data, and evaluate the significance of research. Provides instructions for implementing the strategy. (DSK)

  19. Bouveret syndrome: Primary demonstration of cholecystoduodenal fistula on MR and MRCP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Singh Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bouveret syndrome is an unusual complication of cholelithiasis which results in upper gastrointestinal obstruction due to a gallstone impacted in the duodenum through a bilio-enteric fistula. We present this rare entity which was primarily diagnosed on magnetic resonance (MR and MR cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP study.

  20. The Warm-Cold Study: A Classroom Demonstration of Impression Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symbaluk, Diane G.; Cameron, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure for teaching experimental design to students in the social sciences. Argues that by replicating Solomon Asch's and H. Kelley's classic studies on impression formation, students learn how to conduct experiments, analyze data, and evaluate the significance of research. Provides instructions for implementing the strategy. (DSK)

  1. Feasibility Study and Demonstration Project for Joint Military/Civilian Trauma Institute with a Burn Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Fundraising : NTI will develop and implement plans for private fundraising throughout the US, with a potential target of up to $50 million. 3 Key...a 501(c)(3), embarking on a private fundraising campaign, applying for State of Texas grants, and hosting a 25 site study are a testament to the

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  3. Prospective cohort study into post-disaster benzodiazepine use demonstrated only short-term increase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, C.J.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Benzodiazepines are typically prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, two complaints often reported after disasters. Benzodiazepines can cause mental or physical dependence, especially when taken for a long time. This study aims at evaluating benzodiazepine use in a disaster-stricken commun

  4. Factor Analysis Demonstrates a Common Schizoidal Phenotype within Autistic and Schizotypal Tendency: Implications for Neuroscientific Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Crewther, David P

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and cognitive dysfunction, particularly social and communication impairments, are shared between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, while evidence for a diametric autism-positive schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model. Items of the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ) were pseudo-randomly combined, and were completed by 449 (162 male, 287 female) non-clinical participants aged 18-40. A factor analysis revealed three factors; the first represented a shared social disorganization phenotype, the second reflected perceptual oddities specific to schizotypy while the third reflected social rigidity specific to autism. The AQ and SPQ were strongly correlated with Factor 1 (AQ: r = 0.75, p schizotypal tendency, which reflects the schizoid phenotype. Discriminating and independent dimensions of schizotypal and autistic tendency exist in Factors 2 and 3, respectively. Current diagnostic protocols could result in different diagnoses depending on the instrument used, suggesting the need for neuromarkers that objectively differentiate autistic and schizotypal traits and resolve the question of commonality versus co-morbidity.

  5. Feasibility and design study of continuously variable capacity refrigeration plant. A demonstration at Safeway plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report concerns a feasibility and design study carried out on a new type of high efficiency refrigeration system for use in supermarkets. The study compared the performance of Margaux Continuously Variable Capacity (CVC) refrigeration equipment with conventional supermarket plant. The tests were carried out at a Presto store in Stanley near Newcastle-upon-Tyne from August 1988 to February 1989. They involved assessment of systems for both chilled food (HT) and frozen food (LT). Significant energy savings were achieved by the CVC equipment. The HT system reduced energy consumption by 56% compared with conventional plant. Measured LT savings were only 13%, although adjustments made for monitoring problems and improved temperature control indicate savings of around 30%. (author)

  6. Zirconia enriched dental adhesive: A solution for OCT contrast enhancement. Demonstrative study by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Rominu, M.; A. MANESCU; Sinescu, C; Negrutiu, M.L.; Topala, F.; Rominu, R.O.; Bradu, Adrian; Jackson, David A; Giuliani, A.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The major aim of this study was to prove the capability of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) method in visualizing the integrity of the adhesive fillings and of the interfaces between the adhesive, tooth structures and composite resin. As zirconium dioxide was added to the composition of the adhesive layer in order to strengthen the backscattered light in the OCT investigation, for a better visualization of the interfaces, the determination of a proper zirconia concentration wa...

  7. Zirconia enriched dental adhesive: A solution for OCT contrast enhancement. Demonstrative study by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Rominu, M.; Manescu, A.; Sinescu, C.; Negrutiu, M.L.; Topala, F.; Rominu, R.O.; Bradu, Adrian; David A. Jackson; Giuliani, A.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The major aim of this study was to prove the capability of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) method in visualizing the integrity of the adhesive fillings and of the interfaces between the adhesive, tooth structures and composite resin. As zirconium dioxide was added to the composition of the adhesive layer in order to strengthen the backscattered light in the OCT investigation, for a better visualization of the interfaces, the determination of a proper zirconia concentration wa...

  8. Demonstration of Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Stephen L; Schartz, Kevin M

    2015-02-01

    The recently released software Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies, written by Kevin Schartz and Stephen Hillis, performs sample size computations for diagnostic reader-performance studies. The program computes the sample size needed to detect a specified difference in a reader performance measure between two modalities, when using the analysis methods initially proposed by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (DBM) and Obuchowski and Rockette (OR), and later unified and improved by Hillis and colleagues. A commonly used reader performance measure is the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve. The program can be used with typical common reader-performance measures which can be estimated parametrically or nonparametrically. The program has an easy-to-use step-by-step intuitive interface that walks the user through the entry of the needed information. Features of the software include the following: (1) choice of several study designs; (2) choice of inputs obtained from either OR or DBM analyses; (3) choice of three different inference situations: both readers and cases random, readers fixed and cases random, and readers random and cases fixed; (4) choice of two types of hypotheses: equivalence or noninferiority; (6) choice of two output formats: power for specified case and reader sample sizes, or a listing of case-reader combinations that provide a specified power; (7) choice of single or multi-reader analyses; and (8) functionality in Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF THE STRATEGY FORMATION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY IN A INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Teodoro Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of strategy formation process with the following starting question: "How the strategy is shaped in an innovative company and how the factors manifesting in the process?". The research builds on a case study of a company considered innovative leader in its industry and a pioneer in providing various services in the area of mobile phone in Brazil. Data collection was through interviews semi-structured with directors and managers involved in strategy formation, supplemented by documents and direct observation. Data analysis is based on the techniques of discourse analysis, from the persuasion strategies suggested by Linhares and Faria (1993. The company's strategy studied can be defined as an entrepreneurial vision, focused on growth supported by a process of diversification of product lines from a new direction composed of three elements: (i componentization; (ii segmentation by products chain and; (iii external to finance leverage in order to resumption of innovative projects. It was concluded that the company's strategy focused on these three factors, supported by a deliberate vision of the future, conditions its historical trajectory type standard cultural, its core values, which acts as a motivator and guide for members of the organization decisions and actions.

  10. Factor analysis demonstrates a common schizoidal phenotype within autistic and schizotypal tendency: Implications for neuroscientific studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Caitlyn Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural and cognitive dysfunction, particularly social and communication impairments are shared between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, while evidence for a diametric autism-positive schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model.Items of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ were pseudo-randomly combined, and were completed by 449 (162 male, 287 female non-clinical participants aged 18-40. A Factor Analysis revealed three factors; the first represented a shared social disorganization phenotype, the second reflected perceptual oddities specific to schizotypy while the third reflected social rigidity specific to autism. The AQ and SPQ were strongly correlated with Factor 1 (AQ: r=.75, p<.001; SPQ: r=.96, p<.001, SPQ score was correlated with Factor 2 (r=.51, p<.001, particularly in Cognitive-Perceptual features (r=.66, p<.001, and AQ score was strongly correlated with Factor 3 (r=.76, p<.001. Furthermore, there was no relationship between Factor 1 and Factor 2.Thus, there is robust evidence for a shared social disorganization phenotype in autistic and schizotypal tendency, which reflects the schizoid phenotype. Discriminating and independent dimensions of schizotypal and autistic tendency exist in Factors 2 and 3 respectively. Current diagnostic protocols could result in different diagnoses depending on the instrument used, suggesting the need for neuromarkers that objectively differentiate autistic and schizotypal traits and resolve the question of commonality versus comorbidity.

  11. Feasibility Study and Demonstration of an Aluminum and Ice Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothee L. Pourpoint

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-water reactions have been proposed and studied for several decades for underwater propulsion systems and applications requiring hydrogen generation. Aluminum and water have also been proposed as a frozen propellant, and there have been proposals for other refrigerated propellants that could be mixed, frozen in situ, and used as solid propellants. However, little work has been done to determine the feasibility of these concepts. With the recent availability of nanoscale aluminum, a simple binary formulation with water is now feasible. Nanosized aluminum has a lower ignition temperature than micron-sized aluminum particles, partly due to its high surface area, and burning times are much faster than micron aluminum. Frozen nanoscale aluminum and water mixtures are stable, as well as insensitive to electrostatic discharge, impact, and shock. Here we report a study of the feasibility of an nAl-ice propellant in small-scale rocket experiments. The focus here is not to develop an optimized propellant; however improved formulations are possible. Several static motor experiments have been conducted, including using a flight-weight casing. The flight weight casing was used in the first sounding rocket test of an aluminum-ice propellant, establishing a proof of concept for simple propellant mixtures making use of nanoscale particles.

  12. Studies on the oxidizing system in Holt's medium for histochemical demonstration of esterase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Blecher, S R

    1978-01-01

    cells contain an esterase activity which is not inhibited by conventional SH blocking agents, nor by high concentrations of FFC. From these results it appears that the mode of action of FFC in Holt's medium is as follows. At low concentrations FFC appears to act primarily as a catalytic agent......Esterase activity in guinea-pig thyroid and mouse epididymis epithelial cells has been studied using 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as substrate. The pattern of esterase activity in the thyroid of the guinea-pig is constant, irrespective of whether ferri-ferrocyanide (FFC) or certain copper compounds...... are used as oxidizing agents in the incubation medium. The intensity of the coloured reaction product is increased when cobalt or manganese are added to the incubation medium. Activity is depressed by high concentrations of FFC when resent in incubation medium or preincubational buffer only. Epididymis...

  13. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  14. A retrospective study demonstrating properties of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Serhat; Dağli, Ulkü; Sarer, Banu; Gürel, Selim; Tözün, Nurdan; Sıvrı, Bülent; Akbaş, Türkay; Sahın, Burhan; Memık, Faruk; Batur, Yücel

    2011-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and peptic ulcer are considered as the major factors for upper gastrointestinal system bleeding. The objective of the study was to determine the sociodemographic and etiologic factors, management and outcome of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal system bleeding in Turkey. Patients who admitted to hospitals with upper gastrointestinal system bleeding and in whom upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed were enrolled in this retrospective study. The detailed data of medical history, comorbid diseases, medications, admission to intensive care units, Helicobacter pylori infection, blood transfusion, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and treatment outcome were documented. The most frequent causes of bleeding (%) were duodenal ulcer (49.4), gastric ulcer (22.8), erosion (9.6), and cancer (2.2) among 1,711 lesions in endoscopic appearances of 1,339 patients from six centers. Seven hundred and four patients were evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection and the test was positive in 45.6% of those patients. Comorbid diseases were present in 59.2% of the patients. The percentage of patients using acetylsalicylic acid and/or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was 54.3%. Bleeding was stopped with medical therapy in 66.9%. Only 3.7% of the patients underwent emergency surgery, and a 1.1% mortality rate was determined. Patients with upper gastrointestinal system bleeding were significantly older, more likely to be male, and more likely to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Though most of the patients were using gastro-protective agents, duodenal and gastric ulcers were the contributing factors in more than 70% of the upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The extensive use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is a hazardous health issue considering the use of these drugs in half of the patients.

  15. Demonstration study of biofilm reactor based rapid biochemical oxygen demand determination of surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyu Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application investigations of rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD online analyzer for surface water in Wuxi, China were carried out since 2013. The analyzer adopted a novel working principle, that is, the oxygen concentration of the sample to be tested was regarded as a reference, and the oxygen consumption by the biofilm reactor (BFR was calculated according to the difference between the reference and sample effluent from BFR. The BFR was fabricated via a cultivation process using naturally occurring microbial seeds from in site surface water. This analytical principle was first presented and clearly clarified, and the impact of microbial endogenous respiration to the measured values was also proposed and analyzed. The improved analyzers were equipped in three application sites with significant differences in BOD concentration, for the purpose of evaluating the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. This study revealed that the online analyzer could continually operate over 30 days without human intervention and additional chemical reagent consumption. The obtained rapid BOD trend line showed that this analyzer could track the fluctuation of the biodegradable organic compound level timely and accurately. The innovative analytical method, as well as the outstanding adaptation and well accuracy rating, provided the highlights for wide applications in the future.

  16. [Demonstration plan used in the study of human reproduction in the district of Sao Paulo. 1967].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eunice Pinho de Castro

    2006-10-01

    This work presents the sampling procedure used to select the sample got for a "Human Reproduction Study in the District of São Paulo" (Brazil), done by the Department of Applied Statistics of "Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo". The procedure tried to solve the situation which resulted from the limitation in cost, time and lack of a frame that could be used in order to get a probability sample in the fixed term of time and with the fixed cost. It consisted in a two stage sampling with dwelling-units as primary units and women as secondary units. At the first stage, it was used stratified sampling in which sub-districts were taken as strata. In order to select primary units, there was a selection of points ("starting points") on the maps of subdistricts by a procedure that was similar to that one called "square grid" but differed from this in several aspects. There were fixed rules to establish a correspondence between each selected "starting point" and a set of three dwelling units where at least one woman of the target population lived. In the selected dwelling units where more than one woman of target population lived, there was a sub-sampling in order to select one of them. In this selection each woman living in the dwelling unit had equal probability of selection. Several "no-answer" cases and correspondent instructions to be followed by the interviewers are presented too.

  17. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  18. Multichannel somato sensory evoked potential study demonstrated abnormalities in cervical cord function in brachial monomelic amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial monomelic amyotrophy (BMMA is known to affect the central cervical cord gray matter resulting in single upper limb atrophy and weakness. Settings and Design: Case series of BMMA patients who underwent somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP studies at a tertiary referral center. Aims: We proposed to record Multichannel Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (MCSSEP from median and ulnar nerves with neck in neutral and neck fully flexed position in 17 patients with classical BMMA seen over three years. Materials and Methods: Recordings were done from both median (MN and ulnar nerves (UN. N9, P9, N13, N20 potentials were recorded and amplitudes measured. SSEPs were performed in 22 age-matched healthy men. Amplitudes of cervical response were calculated by N13/P9 ratio and compared in both positions. Results: Among the controls N13 amplitude was always normal {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.96 in neutral; 0.95 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.82 in neutral; 0.83 in flexed}, and mean amplitudes did not reveal any difference in both conditions ( P >0.05. Among 17 patients N9, P9 and N20 responses were normal in neutral position. Flexion showed no change in latency or amplitude of N9 and N20 responses ( P -0.63 whereas the N13 response was abnormal in at least one tested nerve in the affected limb (MN: P < 0.01; UN: P < 0.01. During flexion, N13 response was abnormal in 14 (82% patients after MN stimulation and in all 17(100% after UN stimulation {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.62 in neutral; 0.38 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.55 in neutral; 0.31 in flexed}. Conclusion: MCSSEP in BMMA with neck flexion caused a significant reduction of the cervical N13 response indicating segmental cervical cord dysfunction.

  19. The demonstration of nonlinear analytic model for the strain field induced by thermal copper filled TSVs (through silicon via

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-elastic strain is induced by through silicon vias (TSV due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the copper (∼18 ppm/ °C and silicon (∼2.8 ppm/ °C when the structure is exposed to a thermal ramp budget in the three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC process. These thermal expansion stresses are high enough to introduce the delamination on the interfaces between the copper, silicon, and isolated dielectric. A compact analytic model for the strain field induced by different layouts of thermal copper filled TSVs with the linear superposition principle is found to have large errors due to the strong stress interaction between TSVs. In this work, a nonlinear stress analytic model with different TSV layouts is demonstrated by the finite element method and the analysis of the Mohr's circle. The characteristics of stress are also measured by the atomic force microscope-raman technique with nanometer level space resolution. The change of the electron mobility with the consideration of this nonlinear stress model for the strong interactions between TSVs is ∼2–6% smaller in comparison with those from the consideration of the linear stress superposition principle only.

  20. Pragmatic trials in primary care. Methodological challenges and solutions demonstrated by the DIAMOND-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsom Melvin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pragmatic randomised controlled trials are often used in primary care to evaluate the effect of a treatment strategy. In these trials it is difficult to achieve both high internal validity and high generalisability. This article will discuss several methodological challenges in designing and conducting a pragmatic primary care based randomised controlled trial, based on our experiences in the DIAMOND-study and will discuss the rationale behind the choices we made. From the successes as well as the problems we experienced the quality of future pragmatic trials may benefit. Discussion The first challenge concerned choosing the clinically most relevant interventions to compare and enable blinded comparison, since two interventions had very different appearances. By adding treatment steps to one treatment arm and adding placebo to both treatment arms both internal and external validity were optimized. Nevertheless, although blinding is essential for a high internal validity, it should be warily considered in a pragmatic trial because it decreases external validity. Choosing and recruiting a representative selection of participants was the second challenge. We succeeded in retrieving a representative relatively large patient sample by carefully choosing (few inclusion and exclusion criteria, by random selection, by paying much attention to participant recruitment and taking the participant's reasons to participate into account. Good and regular contact with the GPs and patients was to our opinion essential. The third challenge was to choose the primary outcome, which needed to reflect effectiveness of the treatment in every day practice. We also designed our protocol to follow every day practice as much as possible, although standardized treatment is usually preferred in trials. The aim of this was our fourth challenge: to limit the number of protocol deviations and increase external validity. Summary It is challenging to design

  1. Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened

  2. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Technical Appendix B: air quality studies. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The plant site studies include: climate, present ambient air quality, construction impacts, and operation impacts. The fuelwood harvest region studies include: present environment and harvesting impacts. The use of the Valley Model for alternative sites analysis is discussed. (MHR)

  3. Demonstrating the Uneven Importance of Fine-Scale Forest Structure on Snow Distributions using High Resolution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the amount of snow in forested mountainous environments, as well as how it may change due to warming and forest disturbance, is critical given its importance for water supply and ecosystem health. Forest canopies affect snow accumulation and ablation in ways that are difficult to observe and model. Furthermore, fine-scale forest structure can accentuate or diminish the effects of forest-snow interactions. Despite decades of research demonstrating the importance of fine-scale forest structure (e.g. canopy edges and gaps) on snow, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of where and when forest structure has the largest impact on snowpack mass and energy budgets. Here, we use a hyper-resolution (1 meter spatial resolution) mass and energy balance snow model called the Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model along with LIDAR-derived forest structure to determine where spatial variability of fine-scale forest structure has the largest influence on large scale mass and energy budgets. SnowPALM was set up and calibrated at sites representing diverse climates in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Then, we compared simulations at different model resolutions (i.e. 1, 10, and 100 m) to elucidate the effects of including versus not including information about fine scale canopy structure. These experiments were repeated for different prescribed topographies (i.e. flat, 30% slope north, and south-facing) at each site. Higher resolution simulations had more snow at lower canopy cover, with the opposite being true at high canopy cover. Furthermore, there is considerable scatter, indicating that different canopy arrangements can lead to different amounts of snow, even when the overall canopy coverage is the same. This modeling is contributing to the development of a high resolution machine learning algorithm called the Snow Water Artificial Network (SWANN) model to generate predictions of snow distributions over much larger domains, which has implications

  4. Effective use of simple computer programmes and clay models to demonstrate the planning and operative steps for teaching and presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Krishnarao Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presenting and demonstrating a surgical procedure in the current era is difficult without good intraoperative pictures and videos. A long, complex, multi-staged surgery is better illustrated by detailed intraoperative images at various stages. Although desirable, it may be difficult due to various reasons. Material and Methods: A simple method of preparing illustrations with pictures/diagrams created on PowerPoint and clay models to recreate the missing links in clinical photographs has been proposed. Results: It is a simple technique with a moderate learning curve. Once familiar with technique, one can effectively use the technique to convey the details in much more clear manner. Conclusion: It is a simple and effective way of communicating through digital images, and gives the audience a 3 dimensional idea about the concept.

  5. A transgenic Drosophila model demonstrates that the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein functions as a eukaryotic Gab adaptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal M Botham

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is associated with a spectrum of diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA protein of H. pylori, which is translocated into host cells via a type IV secretion system, is a major risk factor for disease development. Experiments in gastric tissue culture cells have shown that once translocated, CagA activates the phosphatase SHP-2, which is a component of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK pathways whose over-activation is associated with cancer formation. Based on CagA's ability to activate SHP-2, it has been proposed that CagA functions as a prokaryotic mimic of the eukaryotic Grb2-associated binder (Gab adaptor protein, which normally activates SHP-2. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila model to test this hypothesis by investigating whether CagA can function in a well-characterized Gab-dependent process: the specification of photoreceptors cells in the Drosophila eye. We demonstrate that CagA expression is sufficient to rescue photoreceptor development in the absence of the Drosophila Gab homologue, Daughter of Sevenless (DOS. Furthermore, CagA's ability to promote photoreceptor development requires the SHP-2 phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW. These results provide the first demonstration that CagA functions as a Gab protein within the tissue of an organism and provide insight into CagA's oncogenic potential. Since many translocated bacterial proteins target highly conserved eukaryotic cellular processes, such as the RTK signaling pathway, the transgenic Drosophila model should be of general use for testing the in vivo function of bacterial effector proteins and for identifying the host genes through which they function.

  6. Dynamic metabolism modelling of urban water services--demonstrating effectiveness as a decision-support tool for Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Sægrov, Sveinung; Brattebø, Helge

    2014-09-15

    Urban water services are challenged from many perspectives and different stakeholders demand performance improvements along economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In response, urban water utilities systematically give more attention to criteria such as water safety, climate change adaptation and mitigation, environmental life cycle assessment (LCA), total cost efficiency, and on how to improve their operations within the water-energy-carbon nexus. The authors of this paper collaborated in the development of a 'Dynamic Metabolism Model' (DMM). The model is developed for generic use in the sustainability assessment of urban water services, and it has been initially tested for the city of Oslo, Norway. The purpose has been to adopt a holistic systemic perspective to the analysis of metabolism and environmental impacts of resource flows in urban water and wastewater systems, in order to offer a tool for the examination of future strategies and intervention options in such systems. This paper describes the model and its application to the city of Oslo for the analysis time period 2013-2040. The external factors impacting decision-making and interventions are introduced along with realistic scenarios developed for the testing, after consultation with officials at the Oslo Water and Wastewater Works (Norway). Possible interventions that the utility intends to set in motion are defined and numerically interpreted for incorporation into the model, and changes in the indicator values over the time period are determined. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the DMM, as a decision-support tool for water-wastewater utilities. The scenarios considered and interventions identified do not include all possible scenarios and interventions that can be relevant for water-wastewater utilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facilities Maintenance Demonstration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    soap powder, are causing pitting and cracking. The cleaning materials and equipment were found to be outdated, resulting in slow and tedious cleaning...HABIT ABh (TV HCLIMO (BEFORE-AFTEHi WORK TIME LOG (OAliyBV CHEWI EQUIP/MAT USE LOG (ASIISEDKCOLlltll PROBLEM CHECK LIST (AS USED COLLECTED...Deterger. The concept of using a wall deterger was not viewed as labor saving or more efficient. 8. Hand -Pressurized Sprayers. The concept of using a

  8. Using discrepant events in science demonstrations to promote student engagement in scientific investigations: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Vincent J.

    Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations are a common practice in the science classroom and research has documented some positive effects in terms of student motivation and engagement from their use, the literature also shows that, as traditionally presented, science demonstrations do not always achieve their intended outcomes. This, in turn, suggested the value of investigating what design elements of demonstrations could be used to promote specific instructional goals. Employing action research as a methodology, the proposed study was developed to explore how science demonstrations can be designed so as to most effectively promote student engagement in scientific investigations. More specifically, I was interested in examining the effects of using a discrepant event as part of the demonstration, as a way to create cognitive conflict and, thus, increase interest and engagement. I also investigated the relative merit of the well-researched POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) design versus employing demonstrations that appear to the student to be unplanned (what I will refer to as NOE, or a Naturally Occurring Experience). This study was informed by Constructivism, Situated Cognition and Conceptual Change as theoretical frameworks. The project included the design, implementation and study of an intervention consisting of three instructional units designed to support students' learning of the concepts of density, molecular arrangement of gas particles, and cohesion, respectively. In each of these units, lasting a total of two 80-minute class periods, students were asked to design and conduct an investigation to gain a better understanding of the concept under study. In

  9. Optical techniques as validation tools for finite element modeling of biomechanical structures, demonstrated in bird ear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter; De Greef, Daniël; Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the potential of stroboscopic digital holography and laser vibrometry as tools to gather vibration data and validate modelling results in complex biomechanical systems, in this case the avian middle ear. Whereas the middle ear of all mammal species contains three ossicles, birds only feature one ossicle, the columella. Despite this far simpler design, the hearing range of most birds is comparable to mammals, and is adapted to operate under very diverse atmospheric circumstances. This makes the investigation of the avian middle ear potentially very meaningful, since it could provide knowledge that can improve the design of prosthetic ossicle replacements in humans such as a TORP (Total Ossicle Replacement Prosthesis). In order to better understand the mechanics of the bird's hearing, we developed a finite element model that simulates the transmission of an incident acoustic wave on the eardrum via the middle ear structures to the fluid of the inner ear. The model is based on geometry extracted from stained μCT data and is validated using results from stroboscopic digital holography measurements on the eardrum and LDV measurements on the columella footplate. This technique uses very short high-power laser pulses that are synchronized to the membrane's vibration phase to measure the dynamic response of the bird's eardrum to an incident acoustic stimulus. Vibration magnitude as well as phase relative to the sound wave can be deduced from the results, the latter being of great importance in the elastic characterization of the tympanic membrane. In this work, the setup and results from the optical measurements, as well as the properties and optimization of the finite element model are presented. Observed phase variations across the eardrum's surface on the holography results strongly suggest the presence of internal energy losses in the membrane due to damping. Therefore, a viscoelastic characterisation of the model based on a complex

  10. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  11. A Model of Carbon Capture and Storage with Demonstration of Global Warming Potential and Fossil Fuel Resource Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsiri, Jitsopa

    Increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere influences global climate change even though the level of impact is still unclear. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as an important component of broadly based greenhouse gas reduction measures. Although the other greenhouse gases are more potent, the sheer volume of CO 2 makes it dominant in term of its effect in the atmosphere. To understand the implications, CCS activities should be studied from a full life cycle perspective. This thesis outlines the successful achievement of the objectives of this study in conducting life cycle assessment (LCA), reviewing the carbon dioxide implications only, combining two energy systems, coal-fired electrical generations and CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). LCA is the primary approach used in this study to create a tool for CCS environmental evaluation. The Boundary Dam Power Station (BDPS) and the Weyburn-Midale CO 2 EOR Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, are studied and adopted as case scenarios to find the potential for effective application of CCS in both energy systems. This study demonstrates two levels of retrofitting of the BDPS, retrofit of unit 3 or retrofit of all units, combined with three options for CO 2 geological storage: deep saline aquifer, CO2 EOR, and a combination of deep saline aquifer storage and CO2 EOR. Energy output is considered the product of combining these two energy resources (coal and oil). Gigajoules (GJ) are used as the fundamental unit of measurement in comparing the combined energy types. The application of this tool effectively demonstrates the results of application of a CCS system concerning global warming potential (GWP) and fossil fuel resource use efficiency. Other environmental impacts could be analyzed with this tool as well. In addition, the results demonstrate that the GWP reduction is directly related to resource use efficiency. This means the lower the GWP of CCS, the lower resource use

  12. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelyuk, Maryna; Chin, LiKang; Cao, Xuan; van Oosten, Anne; Shenoy, Vivek B; Janmey, Paul A; Wells, Rebecca G

    2016-01-01

    Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  13. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  16. Practice of Developing Low-carbon Leisure Agriculture in Agricultural Sci-tech Experiment and Demonstration Park: A Case Study of Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan; OUYANG; Huasong; WU; Aiqin; LIU; Huan; YU; Hongmei; FU

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park,as a unique tourist scenic spot,is a new model for the development of low-carbon leisure agriculture.In this paper,with Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park as a study case,the practice of developing a model of low-carbon agricultural science and technology tourism in the park is explored.Main measures for developing low-carbon leisure agriculture in Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park are summarized,including development of low carbon attractors,construction of low carbon facilities,strengthening low-carbon management,building low-carbon environment and so on,according to analysis on the models for development of low-carbon agricultural science tourism in this park.

  17. Dynamic inventory models: an illustrative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adendorff, Kris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study revisits the subject matter of inventory control, a continual part of the activities of wide-ranging organisations internationally. The mathematical model is presented of a particular situation that deals with the regular acquisition of a material required for a production process in a volatile environment of varying demand and fluctuating price. The usual process dynamics are demonstrated against a background of diverse choices of probability density function. The model makes use of Normal and Weibull distributions.

  18. Use of Mathematical Models in the Design and Performance Evaluation of a Surfactant Flushing Demonstration at the Bachman Road Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriola, L. M.; Drummond, C. D.; Lemke, L. D.; Rathfelder, K. M.; Pennell, K. D.

    2001-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the design and performance evaluation of a surfactant enhanced remediation pilot demonstration conducted in the summer of 2000 at a former dry cleaning facility in Oscoda, Michigan, USA. The unconfined contaminated formation is composed of relatively homogeneous glacial outwash sands, underlain by a thick clay layer. Core samples have revealed the presence of a reasonably persistent coarse sand and gravel layer at a depth of 11-16 feet and a sand/silt/clay transition zone at the base of the aquifer. A narrow tetrachloroethylene (PCE) plume emanates from the suspected source area, beneath the former dry cleaning building, and discharges into Lake Huron, approximately 700 feet down gradient. There is little evidence of microbial plume attenuation at the site. Aqueous samples from multilevel piezometers installed beneath the building have confirmed the presence of residual PCE within the coarse sand and gravel layer and have detected consistently high PCE concentrations at the base of the aquifer. The actual distribution and volume of entrapped PCE, however, is unknown. A surfactant injection and recovery scheme was designed and implemented to effectively flush the identified source area beneath the building. In this scheme, a line of water injection wells was installed behind the surfactant injection points to control surfactant delivery and maximize solubilized plume capture. Prior to surfactant injection, conservative and partitioning tracer tests were also conducted to confirm sweep and estimate source zone mass. Mass recovery calculations indicate that more than 94% of the injected surfactant and approximately 19 liters of PCE were recovered during the test. This volume of DNAPL is consistent with estimated low saturations within the swept zone. Single and multiphase transport models were employed to aid in remedial design and predict system performance. For the model simulations, input parameters were determined from

  19. Reporting guidelines for modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Carol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modelling studies are used widely to help inform decisions about health care and policy and their use is increasing. However, in order for modelling to gain strength as a tool for health policy, it is critical that key model factors are transparent so that users of models can have a clear understanding of the model and its limitations.Reporting guidelines are evidence-based tools that specify minimum criteria for authors to report their research such that readers can both critically appraise and interpret study findings. This study was conducted to determine whether there is an unmet need for population modelling reporting guidelines. Methods We conducted a review of the literature to identify: 1 guidance for reporting population modelling studies; and, 2 evidence on the quality of reporting of population modelling studies. Guidance for reporting was analysed using a thematic approach and the data was summarised as frequencies. Evidence on the quality of reporting was reviewed and summarized descriptively. Results There were no guidelines that specifically addressed the reporting of population modelling studies. We identified a number of reporting guidelines for economic evaluation studies, some of which had sections that were relevant population modelling studies. Amongst seven relevant records, we identified 69 quality criteria that have distinct reporting characteristics. We identified two papers that addressed reporting practices of modelling studies. Overall, with the exception of describing the data used for calibration, there was little consistency in reporting. Conclusions While numerous guidelines exist for developing and evaluating health technology assessment and economic evaluation models, which by extension could be applicable to population modelling studies, there is variation in their comprehensiveness and in the consistency of reporting these methods. Population modelling studies may be an area which would

  20. The NIOSH CROPS Demonstration Project: A Study in New York and Virginia with an Emphasis on Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, David L; McKenzie, Eugene A; Cantis, Douglas; May, John; Sorensen, Julie; Bayes, Barbara; Madden, Erin; Stone, Bruce; Maass, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    The agriculture, forestry, and fishing (AgFF) industry sector has had the highest rate of work-related deaths over the past several years. Tractors are the single largest source of occupational fatalities in this industry sector, and tractor rollovers are the largest category of tractor fatalities. The risk of death due to tractor rollovers has been found to be reduced considerably when rollover protective structures (ROPS) are used in conjunction with seatbelts. Increasing the number of tractors with ROPS and seatbelts is one way in which tractor rollover fatalities can be mitigated. The NIOSH cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project was designed as a demonstration project to determine if CROPS, a type of ROPS, could be retrofitted in the field and were acceptable to farmers. To this end, the CROPS project was successful, with 50 tractors being retrofitted with CROPS in the field. All study participants were asked to complete a pretest, test, and posttest regarding the CROPS retrofit demonstration and their knowledge and attitudes toward ROPS. CROPS demonstrators were the participants who retrofitted their tractors with CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to recruit three to five other participants, known as observers, to watch the demonstration. The rationale was to generate interest in ROPS/CROPS among other farmers and community leaders. Overall, 16% of the participants had youth operating tractors on their farms. Participants reported that 44 youth operated tractors on their farms, more than 25% of these young tractor operators were 4 to 10 years old, and half of the youth operating tractors on participant farms were 13 years old or younger. Only one participant group (demonstrators) included individuals who had all of their tractors protected with ROPS/CROPS for young tractor operators (28%), but they accounted for only one farm each among the New York and Virginia demonstrators. The survey question on ROPS importance did not show an overall

  1. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    the consequences students can expect if they do plagiarize. The second section presents the basic tools for ensuring academic integrity by introducing the basic concepts necessary to avoid plagiarism: quotations, in-text citations and summarizing. A quiz allows students to test their knowledge about plagiarism......., and the designer of the Study Metro shares an educational developer’s perspective on the concept of plagiarism in a podcast in ‘Stop Plagiarism’. Both learning resources reflect a holistic understanding of the academic learning process which views finding information, handling sources, choosing a topic......, formulating a research problem as well as writing techniques as deeply integrated elements of the academic work process. The importance of creating an engaging and supportive learning environment: When teaching subjects such as plagiarism and study skills, the student can easily be constructed as a cheater...

  2. Report for the ASC CSSE L2 Milestone (4873) - Demonstration of Local Failure Local Recovery Resilient Programming Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Teranishi, Keita

    2014-06-01

    Recovery from process loss during the execution of a distributed memory parallel application is presently achieved by restarting the program, typically from a checkpoint file. Future computer system trends indicate that the size of data to checkpoint, the lack of improvement in parallel file system performance and the increase in process failure rates will lead to situations where checkpoint restart becomes infeasible. In this report we describe and prototype the use of a new application level resilient computing model that manages persistent storage of local state for each process such that, if a process fails, recovery can be performed locally without requiring access to a global checkpoint file. LFLR provides application developers with an ability to recover locally and continue application execution when a process is lost. This report discusses what features are required from the hardware, OS and runtime layers, and what approaches application developers might use in the design of future codes, including a demonstration of LFLR-enabled MiniFE code from the Matenvo mini-application suite.

  3. Biodegradation of 4-nitrophenol in a two-phase sequencing batch reactor: concept demonstration, kinetics and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Annesini, M Cristina; Rita, Sara; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to demonstrate the potential of a two-phase sequencing batch reactor in degrading xenobiotics and to evaluate the kinetic parameters leading to a mathematical model of the system. 4-Nitrophenol (4NP), a typical representative of substituted phenols, was selected as the target xenobiotic; this compound has never been remediated in a two-phase bioreactor before. Partition tests were conducted to determine the most appropriate partitioning solvent, and among the three investigated solvents (1-undecanol, 2-undecanone and oleyl alcohol), 2-undecanone was chosen because of its favourable partition coefficient and its negligible emulsion-forming tendencies. Moreover, the selected solvent showed satisfactory biocompatibility characteristics with respect to the biomass, with only minor effects on the intrinsic microbial kinetics. Kinetic tests were then performed in a sequencing batch reactor (2-l volume) operated in both conventional one- and two-phase configurations, with the two-phase system showing a significant improvement in the process kinetics in terms of reduced inhibition and increased maximum removal rate. The obtained kinetic parameters suggest that the two-phase sequencing batch system may find full-scale application, as the maximum removal rate k(max) (approximately 3 mg 4NP mgVSS(-1) day(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of heterotrophic bacteria operating in wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Model for long QT syndrome type 2 using human iPS cells demonstrates arrhythmogenic characteristics in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Lahti

    2012-03-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS is caused by functional alterations in cardiac ion channels and is associated with prolonged cardiac repolarization time and increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Inherited type 2 LQTS (LQT2 and drug-induced LQTS both result from altered function of the hERG channel. We investigated whether the electrophysiological characteristics of LQT2 can be recapitulated in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology. Spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes were differentiated from two iPSC lines derived from an individual with LQT2 carrying the R176W mutation in the KCNH2 (HERG gene. The individual had been asymptomatic except for occasional palpitations, but his sister and father had died suddenly at an early age. Electrophysiological properties of LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes were studied using microelectrode array and patch-clamp, and were compared with those of cardiomyocytes derived from control cells. The action potential duration of LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes was significantly longer than that of control cardiomyocytes, and the rapid delayed potassium channel (IKr density of the LQT2 cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced. Additionally, LQT2-derived cardiac cells were more sensitive than controls to potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, including sotalol, and demonstrated arrhythmogenic electrical activity. Consistent with clinical observations, the LQT2 cardiomyocytes demonstrated a more pronounced inverse correlation between the beating rate and repolarization time compared with control cells. Prolonged action potential is present in LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes derived from a mutation carrier and arrhythmias can be triggered by a commonly used drug. Thus, the iPSC-derived, disease-specific cardiomyocytes could serve as an important platform to study pathophysiological mechanisms and drug sensitivity in LQT2.

  5. Dabigatran – an exemplar case history demonstrating the need for comprehensive models to optimise the use of new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGodman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are effectiveness, safety and/ or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF, exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed, there are issues in the elderly with dabigatran due to variable drug concentrations, no known antidote and dependence on renal elimination. Published studies showed dabigatran to be cost-effective but there are budget concerns given the prevalence of AF. These concerns resulted in extensive activities pre- to post-launch to manage its introduction. Objective: To (i review authority activities across countries, (ii use the findings to develop new models to better manage the entry of new drugs, and (iii review the implications based on post-launch activities. Methodology: (i Descriptive review and appraisal of activities regarding dabigatran, (ii development of guidance for key stakeholder groups through an iterative process, (iii refining guidance following post launch studies. Results: Plethora of activities to manage dabigatran including extensive pre-launch activities, risk sharing arrangements, prescribing restrictions and monitoring of prescribing post launch. Reimbursement has been denied in some countries due to concerns with its budget impact and/or excessive bleeding. Development of a new model and future guidance is proposed to better manage the entry of new drugs, centring on three pillars of pre-, peri- and post-launch activities. Post-launch activities include increasing use of patient registries to monitor the safety and effectiveness of new drugs in clinical practice. Conclusion: Models for introducing new drugs are essential to optimise their prescribing especially where concerns. Without such models, new drugs may be withdrawn prematurely and/ or struggle for

  6. Dabigatran - a continuing exemplar case history demonstrating the need for comprehensive models to optimize the utilization of new drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godman, Brian; Malmström, Rickard E.; Diogene, Eduardo; Jayathissa, Sisira; McTaggart, Stuart; Cars, Thomas; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Baumgärtel, Christoph; Brzezinska, Anna; Bucsics, Anna; Campbell, Stephen; Eriksson, Irene; Finlayson, Alexander; Fürst, Jurij; Garuoliene, Kristina; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hviding, Krystyna; Herholz, Harald; Joppi, Roberta; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Malinowska, Kamila; Pedersen, Hanne B.; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Piessnegger, Jutta; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Spillane, Susan; Tomek, Dominik; Vončina, Luka; Vlahović-Palčevski, Vera; Wale, Janet; Wladysiuk, Magdalena; van Woerkom, Menno; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are effectiveness, safety and/or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed, there are issues in the elderly with dabigatran due to variable drug concentrations, no known antidote and dependence on renal elimination. Published studies showed dabigatran to be cost-effective but there are budget concerns given the prevalence of AF. These concerns resulted in extensive activities pre- to post-launch to manage its introduction. Objective: To (i) review authority activities across countries, (ii) use the findings to develop new models to better manage the entry of new drugs, and (iii) review the implications based on post-launch activities. Methodology: (i) Descriptive review and appraisal of activities regarding dabigatran, (ii) development of guidance for key stakeholder groups through an iterative process, (iii) refining guidance following post launch studies. Results: Plethora of activities to manage dabigatran including extensive pre-launch activities, risk sharing arrangements, prescribing restrictions and monitoring of prescribing post launch. Reimbursement has been denied in some countries due to concerns with its budget impact and/or excessive bleeding. Development of a new model and future guidance is proposed to better manage the entry of new drugs, centering on three pillars of pre-, peri-, and post-launch activities. Post-launch activities include increasing use of patient registries to monitor the safety and effectiveness of new drugs in clinical practice. Conclusion: Models for introducing new drugs are essential to optimize their prescribing especially where concerns. Without such models, new drugs may be withdrawn prematurely and/or struggle for funding. PMID

  7. A novel in vitro model for hematogenous spreading of S. aureus device biofilms demonstrating clumping dispersal as an advantageous dissemination mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Lindhardt Sæderup (Madsen), Kirstine; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2017-01-01

    in the process. Using an in vitro catheter infection model, we studied S. aureus biofilm growth, late-stage dispersal, and reattachment to downstream endothelial cell layers. The ability of the released biofilm material to resist host response and disseminate in vivo was furthermore studied in whole blood......- and phagocyte survival assays, and in a short-term murine infection model. We found that S. aureus biofilms formed in flow of human plasma release biofilm thromboemboli with embedded bacteria and bacteria-secreted polysaccharides. The emboli disseminate as antibiotic and immune resistant vehicles that hold....... aureus from in vivo-like vascular biofilms and their specific properties demonstrated here help explain the pathophysiology associated with S. aureus bloodstream infections....

  8. An in silico agent-based model demonstrates Reelin function in directing lamination of neurons during cortical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Caffrey

    Full Text Available The characteristic six-layered appearance of the neocortex arises from the correct positioning of pyramidal neurons during development and alterations in this process can cause intellectual disabilities and developmental delay. Malformations in cortical development arise when neurons either fail to migrate properly from the germinal zones or fail to cease migration in the correct laminar position within the cortical plate. The Reelin signalling pathway is vital for correct neuronal positioning as loss of Reelin leads to a partially inverted cortex. The precise biological function of Reelin remains controversial and debate surrounds its role as a chemoattractant or stop signal for migrating neurons. To investigate this further we developed an in silico agent-based model of cortical layer formation. Using this model we tested four biologically plausible hypotheses for neuron motility and four biologically plausible hypotheses for the loss of neuron motility (conversion from migration. A matrix of 16 combinations of motility and conversion rules was applied against the known structure of mouse cortical layers in the wild-type cortex, the Reelin-null mutant, the Dab1-null mutant and a conditional Dab1 mutant. Using this approach, many combinations of motility and conversion mechanisms can be rejected. For example, the model does not support Reelin acting as a repelling or as a stopping signal. In contrast, the study lends very strong support to the notion that the glycoprotein Reelin acts as a chemoattractant for neurons. Furthermore, the most viable proposition for the conversion mechanism is one in which conversion is affected by a motile neuron sensing in the near vicinity neurons that have already converted. Therefore, this model helps elucidate the function of Reelin during neuronal migration and cortical development.

  9. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  10. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  11. Full-scale demonstration of in situ cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater 2. Comprehensive analysis of field data using reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rahul K.; Hopkins, Gary D.; Goltz, Mark N.; Gorelick, Steven M.; McCarty, Perry L.

    2002-04-01

    We present an analysis of an extensively monitored full-scale field demonstration of in situ treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination by aerobic cometabolic biodegradation. The demonstration was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California. There are two TCE-contaminated aquifers at the site, separated from one another by a clay aquitard. The treatment system consisted of two recirculating wells located 10 m apart. Each well was screened in both of the contaminated aquifers. Toluene, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide were added to the water in both wells. At one well, water was pumped from the upper aquifer to the lower aquifer. In the other well, pumping was from the lower to the upper aquifer. This resulted in a ``conveyor belt'' flow system with recirculation between the two aquifers. The treatment system was successfully operated for a 410 day period. We explore how well a finite element reactive transport model can describe the key processes in an engineered field system. Our model simulates TCE, toluene, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and microbial growth/death. Simulated processes include advective-dispersive transport, biodegradation, the inhibitory effect of hydrogen peroxide on biomass growth, and oxygen degassing. Several parameter values were fixed to laboratory values or values from previous modeling studies. The remaining six parameter values were obtained by calibrating the model to 7213 TCE concentration data and 6997 dissolved oxygen concentration data collected during the demonstration using a simulation-regression procedure. In this complex flow field involving reactive transport, TCE and dissolved oxygen concentration histories are matched very well by the calibrated model. Both simulated and observed toluene concentrations display similar high-frequency oscillations due to pulsed toluene injection approximately one half hour during each 8 hour period. Simulation results indicate that over the course of the demonstration, 6.9 kg

  12. Are Sudanese community pharmacists capable to prescribe and demonstrate asthma inhaler devices to patrons? A mystery patient study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although community pharmacists have become more involved in the care of asthma patients, several studies have assessed pharmacists’ ability to illustrate appropriately inhalation technique of different asthma devices. Many studies addressed inappropriate use of asthma devices by patients and pharmacists, in addition to its clinical, humanistic and economic burden.Objective: To evaluate community pharmacists’ practical knowledge and skills of demonstrating proper inhalation technique of asthma inhaler devices available in Sudan.Method: Three hundred community pharmacies located around the three major hospitals in the capital city (Khartoum and four other provinces were approached, and four asthma devices were assessed: Metered-dose inhaler (MDI (n=105, MDI with Spacer (n=83, Turbuhaler (n=61, and Diskus (n=51. Investigator (a pharmacist acted as a mystery patient. He selected one device and asked the serving pharmacist to demonstrate how to use the device. Investigator completed a checklist of 9 steps of inhaler device use immediately after leaving the pharmacy. Essential steps derived from published literature were pre-specified for each device. Five evaluation categories were accordingly formulated as follows: optimal technique, adequate technique, poor technique, totally unfamiliar with the device, and does not know.Results: More than half of the pharmacists approached with metered dose inhaler did not know how to use optimal technique (ie all steps correct all through. A third poorly demonstrated the technique, and only one pharmacist was categorized as being able to demonstrate an “optimal technique”. The majority of pharmacists approached with spacing chamber and dry powder inhalers (Turbuhaler and Diskus either did not know proper technique or were totally unfamiliar with the devices.Conclusion: The majority of community pharmacists, who were expected to educate asthma patients on their dispensed inhalers, lack the basic knowledge

  13. Are Sudanese community pharmacists capable to prescribe and demonstrate asthma inhaler devices to patrons? A mystery patient study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abuzar; Ahmed Hassan, Imad S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M.

    Although community pharmacists have become more involved in the care of asthma patients, several studies have assessed pharmacists’'ability to illustrate appropriately inhalation technique of different asthma devices. Many studies addressed inappropriate use of asthma devices by patients and pharmacists, in addition to its clinical, humanistic and economic burden. Objective To evaluate community pharmacists' practical knowledge and skills of demonstrating proper inhalation technique of asthma inhaler devices available in Sudan. Methods Three hundred community pharmacies located around the three major hospitals in the capital city (Khartoum) and four other provinces were approached, and four asthma devices were assessed: Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) (n=105), MDI with Spacer (n=83), Turbuhaler (n=61), and Diskus (n=51). Investigator (a pharmacist) acted as a mystery patient. He selected one device and asked the serving pharmacist to demonstrate how to use the device. Investigator completed a checklist of 9 steps of inhaler device use immediately after leaving the pharmacy. Essential steps derived from published literature were pre-specified for each device. Five evaluation categories were accordingly formulated as follows: optimal technique, adequate technique, poor technique, totally unfamiliar with the device, and does not know. Results More than half of the pharmacists approached with metered dose inhaler did not know how to use optimal technique (ie all steps correct) all through. A third poorly demonstrated the technique, and only one pharmacist was categorized as being able to demonstrate an "optimal technique". The majority of pharmacists approached with spacing chamber and dry powder inhalers (Turbuhaler and Diskus) either did not know proper technique or were totally unfamiliar with the devices. Conclusions The majority of community pharmacists, who were expected to educate asthma patients on their dispensed inhalers, lack the basic knowledge of proper use

  14. Modelling the decadal trend of ecosystem carbon fluxes demonstrates the important role of functional changes in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Jansson, P.E.; van der Linden, Leon;

    2013-01-01

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon sinks and stocks. Trends in net ecosystem exchange have been observed in a Danish beech forest and this trend cannot be entirely attributed to changing climatic drivers. This study sought to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed trend......, the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the CO2 fluxes decreased the parameter uncertainty considerably compared to using CO2 fluxes as validation data alone. The fitted model was able to simulate the observed carbon fluxes well (R2=0.8, mean error=0.1gCm−2d−1) but did not reproduce the decadal (1997......–2009) trend in carbon uptake when global parameter estimates were used. Annual parameter estimates were able to reproduce the decadal scale trend; the yearly fitted posterior parameters (e.g. the light use efficiency) indicated a role for changes in the ecosystem functional properties. A possible role...

  15. Improvement in mechanical properties of jute fibres through mild alkali treatment as demonstrated by utilisation of the Weibull distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aparna; Chakraborty, Sumit; Kundu, Sarada Prasad; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Adhikari, Basudam

    2012-03-01

    Chemically modified jute fibres are potentially useful as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Jute fibres were treated with 0.25%-1.0% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 0.5-48 h. The hydrophilicity, surface morphology, crystallinity index, thermal and mechanical characteristics of untreated and alkali treated fibres were studied.The two-parameter Weibull distribution model was applied to deal with the variation in mechanical properties of the natural fibres. Alkali treatment enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break by 82% and 45%, respectively but decreased the hydrophilicity by 50.5% and the diameter of the fibres by 37%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of model silica-gold core-shell nanohybrid systems to demonstrate plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shibsekhar; Dixit, Chandra K.; Woolley, Robert; O'Kennedy, Richard; McDonagh, Colette

    2012-08-01

    In this work, gold-silica plasmonic nanohybrids have been synthesized as model systems which enable tuning of dye fluorescence enhancement/quenching interactions. For each system, a dye-doped silica core is surrounded by a 15 nm spacer region, which in turn is surrounded by gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The GNPs are either covalently conjugated via mercapto silanization to the spacer or encapsulated in a separate external silica shell. The intermediate spacer region can be either dye doped or left undoped to enable quenching and plasmonic enhancement effects respectively. The study indicates that there is a larger enhancement effect when GNPs are encapsulated in the outer shell compared to the system of external conjugation. This is due to the environmental shielding provided by shell encapsulation compared to the exposure of the GNPs to the solvent environment for the externally conjugated system. The fluorescence signal enhancement of the nanohybrid systems was evaluated using a standard HRP-anti-HRP fluorescence based assay platform.

  17. Fiscal 1996 project on the modeling for effective energy consumption in developing countries under a consignment from NEDO. Recent on the results of the demonstrative study on scrap preheater of electric furnace in the iron making process (for public); 1996 nendo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Seitetsu katei ni okeru denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Indonesia is the biggest iron steel producing country in the ASEAN countries. Most of the production is produced by the electric furnace method in which iron steel scrap is used as a material. However, an energy saving measure in this method, the electric furnace scrap preheater using flue gas, has not yet been spread on a full scale. This R and D is aimed at developing jointly with Indonesia an electric furnace scrap preheater for medium/small size electric furnaces which are adoptable to the present iron making situation in Indonesia and installing it to the electric furnace of the iron making plant in Indonesia for a demonstrative study on energy saving, etc. Spread/expansion of the electric furnace scrap preheater which is an excellent energy saving system targeted expansion of energy saving technology not only of Indonesia, but of ASEAN countries and Japan. In this fiscal year, remodeling of part of the system was made by change of flue gas flow for increasing the energy saving effect, and at the same time, a research study was made of a scrap reheater effective as a total system. Moreover, the paper investigated technical data/information in Japan and overseas. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Feasibility study to demonstrate cardiac imaging using fast kVp switching dual-energy computed tomography: phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav, Priti; Imai, Yasuhiro; Narayanan, Suresh; Dutta, Sandeep; Chandra, Naveen; Hsieh, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography is a novel imaging tool that has the potential to reduce beam hardening artifacts and enhance material separation over conventional imaging techniques. Dual-energy acquisitions can be performed by using a fast kVp technology to switch between acquiring adjacent projections at two distinct x-ray spectra (80 and 140 kVp). These datasets can be used to further compute material density and monochromatic images for better material separation and beam hardening reduction by virtue of the projection domain process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using dual-energy in cardiac imaging for myocardial perfusion detection and coronary artery lumen visualization. Data was acquired on a heart phantom, which consisted of the chambers and aorta filled with Iodine density solution (500 HU @ 120 kVp), a defect region between the aorta and chamber (40 HU @ 120 kVp), two Iodinefilled vessels (400 HU @ 120 kVp) of different diameters with high attenuation (hydroxyapatite) plaques (HAP), and with a 30-cm water equivalent body ring around the phantom. Prospective ECG-gated single-energy and prospective ECG-gated dual-energy imaging was performed. Results showed that the generated monochromatic images had minimal beam hardening artifacts which improved the accuracy and detection of the myocardial defect region. Material density images were useful in differentiating and quantifying the actual size of the plaque and coronary artery lumen. Overall, this study shows that dual-energy cardiac imaging will be a valuable tool for cardiac applications.

  19. In vitro modeling of endothelial interaction with macrophages and pericytes demonstrates Notch signaling function in the vascular microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian W; Du, Jing; Cong, Zhuangzhuang; Cho, Bennet S; Klein, Alyssa M; Dieck, Chelsea L; Chaudhri, Reyhaan A; Cuervo, Henar; Herts, James H; Kitajewski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by complex interactions between endothelial cells and support cells of the vascular microenvironment, such as tissue myeloid cells and vascular mural cells. Multicellular interactions during angiogenesis are difficult to study in animals and challenging in a reductive setting. We incorporated stromal cells into an established bead-based capillary sprouting assay to develop assays that faithfully reproduce major steps of vessel sprouting and maturation. We observed that macrophages enhance angiogenesis, increasing the number and length of endothelial sprouts, a property we have dubbed "angiotrophism." We found that polarizing macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory profile further increased their angiotrophic stimulation of vessel sprouting, and this increase was dependent on macrophage Notch signaling. To study endothelial/pericyte interactions, we added vascular pericytes directly to the bead-bound endothelial monolayer. These pericytes formed close associations with the endothelial sprouts, causing increased sprout number and vessel caliber. We found that Jagged1 expression and Notch signaling are essential for the growth of both endothelial cells and pericytes and may function in their interaction. We observed that combining endothelial cells with both macrophages and pericytes in the same sprouting assay has multiplicative effects on sprouting. These results significantly improve bead-capillary sprouting assays and provide an enhanced method for modeling interactions between the endothelium and the vascular microenvironment. Achieving this in a reductive in vitro setting represents a significant step toward a better understanding of the cellular elements that contribute to the formation of mature vasculature.

  20. Phenome Wide Association Studies demonstrating pleiotropy of genetic variants within FTO with and without adjustment for body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michael Cronin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS have demonstrated utility in validating genetic associations derived from traditional genetic studies as well as identifying novel genetic associations. Here we used an electronic health record (EHR-based PheWAS to explore pleiotropy of genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO, some of which have been previously associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. We used a population of 10,487 individuals of European ancestry with genome-wide genotyping from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE Network and another population of 13,711 individuals of European ancestry from the BioVU DNA biobank at Vanderbilt genotyped using Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. A meta-analysis of the two study populations replicated the well-described associations between FTO variants and obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.25, 95% Confidence Interval=1.11-1.24, p=2.10 x 10 9 and FTO variants and T2D (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.08-1.21, p=2.34 x 10 6. The meta-analysis also demonstrated that FTO variant rs8050136 was significantly associated with sleep apnea (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.07-1.22, p=3.33 x 10 5; however, the association was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI. Novel phenotype associations with obesity-associated FTO variants included fibrocystic breast disease (rs9941349, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.74-0.91, p=5.41x10 5 and trends toward associations with nonalcoholic liver disease and gram-positive bacterial infections. FTO variants not associated with obesity demonstrated other potential disease associations including noninflammatory disorders of the cervix and chronic periodontitis. These results suggest that genetic variants in FTO may have pleiotropic associations, some of which are not mediated by obesity.

  1. Development and Field Testing of a Model to Simulate a Demonstration of Le Chatelier's Principle Using the Wheatstone Bridge Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickner, Edward Henry, Jr.

    An electronic simulation model was designed, constructed, and then field tested to determine student opinion of its effectiveness as an instructional aid. The model was designated as the Equilibrium System Simulator (ESS). The model was built on the principle of electrical symmetry applied to the Wheatstone bridge and was constructed from readily…

  2. Modeling and Demonstrating Regenerative Braking of a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor with Various Deceleration Rates Using V by F Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    functionality and correctness prior to model implementation • Contains Xilinx model building blocks including Xilinx System Generator • Uses Xilinx... System Generator to convert models into computer language code Xilinx • Provides environment for Chipscope and Project Navigator software • Provides

  3. Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: The emptying of household vips: A case study from Goven Mbeki village

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Wall4_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19771 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Wall4_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 DEMONSTRATING... THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL FRANCHISING PRINCIPLES: THE EMPTYING OF HOUSEHOLD VIPS A CASE STUDY FROM GOVEN MBEKI VILLAGE *K WALL 1, O IVE 2, J BHAGWAN 3, F KIRWAN 4, W BIRKHOLTZ 5, N LUPUWANA 6, E SHAYLOR 7 Key words: faecal sludge, schools, franchising...

  4. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    The overall topic of this thesis is within the field of catalysis, were model systems of different complexity have been studied utilizing a multipurpose Ultra High Vacuum chamber (UHV). The thesis falls in two different parts. First a simple model system in the form of a ruthenium single crystal...... is investigated. Second the development of a complex Cu/ZnO nanoparticle model system is described and gas-induced dynamical changes in the model system is investigated. The ruthenium crystal serves as an extremely simple model for studying CO dissociation which is the rate limiting step of the methanation...... process. The Ru(0 1 54) surface is studied by means of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Temperature Programmed Desoprtion (TPD), and Oxygen Titration (OT) experiments. Real space evidence of periodic features on every second monatomic step is observed via STM when the a clean ruthenium surface...

  5. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2016-03-31

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface.

  6. Using a CBL Unit, a Temperature Sensor, and a Graphing Calculator to Model the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions as Safe In-Class Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Schuman, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) technology, the graphing calculator, and the cooling and heating of water to model the behavior of consecutive first-order reactions is presented, where B is the reactant, I is the intermediate, and P is the product for an in-class demonstration. The activity demonstrates the spontaneous and consecutive…

  7. Seasat-A ASVT: Commercial demonstration experiments. Results analysis methodology for the Seasat-A case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The SEASAT-A commercial demonstration program ASVT is described. The program consists of a set of experiments involving the evaluation of a real time data distributions system, the SEASAT-A user data distribution system, that provides the capability for near real time dissemination of ocean conditions and weather data products from the U.S. Navy Fleet Numerical Weather Central to a selected set of commercial and industrial users and case studies, performed by commercial and industrial users, using the data gathered by SEASAT-A during its operational life. The impact of the SEASAT-A data on business operations is evaluated by the commercial and industrial users. The approach followed in the performance of the case studies, and the methodology used in the analysis and integration of the case study results to estimate the actual and potential economic benefits of improved ocean condition and weather forecast data are described.

  8. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  9. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the EC initiative on model quality assessment and emphasizes some of the problems encountered in the selection of data from field tests used in the evaluation process. Further, it discusses the impact of model uncertainties in safety studies of industrial plants. The model...... that most of these have never been through a procedure of evaluation, but nonetheless are used to assist in making decisions that may directly affect the safety of the public and the environment. As a major funder of European research on major industrial hazards, DGXII is conscious of the importance......-tain model is appropriate for use in solving a given problem. Further, the findings from the REDIPHEM project related to dense gas dispersion will be highlighted. Finally, the paper will discuss the need for model quality assessment in safety studies....

  10. A study of mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tarciso Borges

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of mental models is being used in several areas of knowledge in order to study the representations users have about physical systems and events, as well as the content of such representations. However, it cannot be considered a unitary concept. This paper discusses the assumptions envolved in different areas of knowledge and describes a study of the mental model of magnetism held by students and professionals such as electricians physics teachers, and engineers. The identified model stress two aspects: what is the origin of permanent magnets and what is the mechanism of the magnetic interaction.

  11. Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 2 - Experimental demonstration and modeling for the partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the reactor concept for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Methanol conversion and product selectivities were measured at various overall fluidization

  12. Demonstration of Model Assisted Reliability Assessment Protocol on a Proposed Low Frequency Vibration Based Damage Sensing Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    demonstration and broad use of the methodology and protocol. INTRODUCTION The successful deployment of systems for health monitoring of...based damage detection method. An ETrema brand Terfenol-D magnetostrictive actuator was used for band-limited pseudo-random excitation up to 1200 Hz

  13. Catchment scale modelling of changes in pesticide leaching under present and future climate conditions. Demonstrated for two cases in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Keur, P.; Henriksen, H.; Sonnenborg, T.; van Roosmalen, L.; Rosenbom, A. E.; Olesen, J. E.; Kjaer, J.; Jørgensen, L. N.; Christensen, O. B.

    2011-12-01

    A catchment scale model MACRO-MIKE SHE is applied for simulating changes in pesticide concentrations to the aquatic environment. The MACRO model is used to model the effect of changes in climate and pesticide management on pesticide leaching from the unsaturated zone and simulated percolation as well as solute flow is propagated to the MIKE SHE model. The intensity based bias correction method for converting from Regional Climate Modelling data to hydrological input data is the most appropriate method as it best reflects changes in rainfall intensity, and thus also in intensity for MACRO simulated percolation and solute flow. Results show that increased percolation simulated by the MACRO model and propagated to the MIKE SHE model nearly all ends up in increased drainage to the river. Further, pesticide solute entering the saturated zone (SZ) is mainly leaving SZ via drainage (85-94%), base flow (3.8-11.3%) and overland flow (0-3.1 %). Mean concentrations in groundwater (SZ) increase by 30-99% for one type of herbicide under future climatic conditions, whereas mean concentrations decrease for two other types by app. 93 and 91 % respectively. Future climatic conditions lead to higher concentrations in surface water for the first type of herbicides, but to decreased concentrations for the another type of herbicide and insecticide. It is overall concluded that an integrated catchment scale modeling approach is essential for pesticide fate simulation taking account of all possible hydrologic pathways.

  14. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...

  15. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  16. A Drosophila Model of Neuronopathic Gaucher Disease Demonstrates Lysosomal-Autophagic Defects and Altered mTOR Signalling and Is Functionally Rescued by Rapamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönke, Sebastian; Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Woodling, Nathaniel S.; Li, Li; Sirka, Ernestas; Gegg, Matthew; Mills, Kevin; Hardy, John; Bjedov, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) mutations are associated with Gaucher disease (GD), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by functional deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA), a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes glucosylceramide to ceramide and glucose. Neuronopathic forms of GD can be associated with rapid neurological decline (Type II) or manifest as a chronic form (Type III) with a wide spectrum of neurological signs. Furthermore, there is now a well-established link between GBA1 mutations and Parkinson's disease (PD), with heterozygote mutations in GBA1 considered the commonest genetic defect in PD. Here we describe a novel Drosophila model of GD that lacks the two fly GBA1 orthologs. This knock-out model recapitulates the main features of GD at the cellular level with severe lysosomal defects and accumulation of glucosylceramide in the fly brain. We also demonstrate a block in autophagy flux in association with reduced lifespan, age-dependent locomotor deficits and accumulation of autophagy substrates in dGBA-deficient fly brains. Furthermore, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is downregulated in dGBA knock-out flies, with a concomitant upregulation of Mitf gene expression, the fly ortholog of mammalian TFEB, likely as a compensatory response to the autophagy block. Moreover, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin is able to partially ameliorate the lifespan, locomotor, and oxidative stress phenotypes. Together, our results demonstrate that this dGBA1-deficient fly model is a useful platform for the further study of the role of lysosomal-autophagic impairment and the potential therapeutic benefits of rapamycin in neuronopathic GD. These results also have important implications for the role of autophagy and mTOR signaling in GBA1-associated PD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We developed a Drosophila model of neuronopathic GD by knocking-out the fly orthologs of the GBA1 gene, demonstrating abnormal lysosomal pathology in the fly brain. Functioning lysosomes are

  17. An Industrial System Powered by Wind and Coal for Aluminum Production: A Case Study of Technical Demonstration and Economic Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xun Dong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of an isolated industrial power system for aluminum production. The novel concept is that the cost of aluminum electrolysis can be significantly reduced by innovative application of hybrid systems incorporating wind energy and low-grade coal. In addition, the low-grade coal, which sale is not profitable in the market, can be locally consumed by the isolated power system. The power system thus fully utilizes the local resources in an effective and economic manner. However, several technical and economic issues are still of concern because the industrial system is isolated from the state grid. This paper hence discusses these issues and demonstrates the feasibility of such a hybrid power system from the technical and economic perspectives.

  18. A Ground-Based Study on Extruder Standoff Distance for the 3D Printing in Zero Gravity Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Rabenberg, E. M.; Soohoo, H. A.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Bell, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of phase I specimens produced as part of the 3D printing in zero G technology demonstration mission exhibited some differences in structure and performance for specimens printed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and specimens produced on the ground with the same printer prior to its launch. This study uses the engineering test unit for the printer, identical to the unit on ISS, to conduct a ground-based investigation of the impact of the distance between the extruder tip and the build tray on material outcomes. This standoff distance was not held constant for the phase I flight prints and is hypothesized to be a major source of the material variability observed in the phase I data set.

  19. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  20. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  1. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2015-11-30

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  2. Variations in virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli demonstrated by the use of a new in vivo infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Salpingitis and peritonitis are common pathological manifestations observed in egg-laying hens. To improve methods to study these conditions, a surgical model was developed. Initially, eighteen white layers underwent laparotomy with subsequent inoculation of ink, bacteria or sterile broth directly...... into the oviduct. Eight birds inoculated with 0.1 ml blue ink were euthanized immediately after inoculation and the specific site of inoculation was assessed. In all birds, ink was injected into the oviduct between five and seven cm cranial to the isthmus. To demonstrate the use of this approach to cause infection...... of the oviduct, five birds were inoculated with 8.6 × 10(6)CFU of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate. Five control birds received broth with no bacteria. Both infected and control birds were euthanized after 48 h followed by a post mortem examination. Infected birds showed diffuse fibrino-purulent peritonitis...

  3. A spreadsheet-based model demonstrating the nonuniform economic effects of varying reproductive performance in Ohio dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, C; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Frazer, G S

    2005-03-01

    A spreadsheet-based model was developed to estimate the economic effect of varying reproductive performance in dairy herds. Scenarios were created to model an average cow with respect to production, herd lifetime, and reproductive events. Average milk yield per day of life as well as lifetime calf and replacement heifer production were examined. Additional inputs representing milk, feed, semen, calf, and salvage prices were used to calculate net cash flow for each day of herd life for the average cow in a scenario. Economic comparison of different scenarios was accomplished using an equivalent annual cash flow (annuity) methodology.Herd performance measures and prices representative of Ohio dairy herds were used to establish a baseline average cow that had a 160-d calving-to-conception interval [days open (DO)]. Alternative scenarios that differed from baseline in DO, annual culling rate, and feed and milk prices were created to characterize the effects of changes. Under scenario inputs representative of typical Ohio dairy herds, the model indicated that a lower annual culling rate (25%) was preferable to higher annual culling rates (34 or 45%). The model estimated maximum average milk yield per day of life to occur at 110 DO. At 34% annual culling rate, calves and replacement heifers produced per lifetime declined as DO increased; beyond 150 DO, the modeled cow produced less than 1 replacement heifer per lifetime. The model also estimated a loss of $1.37 per cow per year for a 1-d increase in DO beyond 160 d. At 20% higher feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.52 per cow per year; at 20% lower feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.23 per cow per year. Furthermore, the model suggested that the loss associated with a 1-d increase in DO changed as DO changed. Using baseline inputs, the model calculated losses for a 1-d increase of $0.44 per cow per year at 130 DO and $1.71 per cow per year at 190 DO. The nonuniform nature of the cost

  4. Editorial: Comfort and discomfort studies demonstrate the need for a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Hallbeck, S.

    2012-01-01

    The term comfort is often seen relating to the marketing of products like chairs, cars, clothing, hand tools and even airplane tickets, while in the scientific literature, the term discomfort shows up often, since it is used in research. Few papers explain the concept of a localized comfort experien

  5. Editorial: Comfort and discomfort studies demonstrate the need for a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Hallbeck, S.

    2012-01-01

    The term comfort is often seen relating to the marketing of products like chairs, cars, clothing, hand tools and even airplane tickets, while in the scientific literature, the term discomfort shows up often, since it is used in research. Few papers explain the concept of a localized comfort

  6. The National Model for Minority Education and Training Demonstration (NMMETD) Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    NMMETD targeted minority and indigent residents by educating homeowners about the management of onsite systems and assisting residents with funding options for managing, installing, and disseminating information about onsite wastewater systems.

  7. Use of partial order in environmental pollution studies demonstrated by urban BTEX air pollution in 20 major cities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessov, Bulat

    2018-01-01

    Urban air pollution with benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) is a common phenomenon in major cities where the pollution mainly originates from traffic as well as from residential heating. An attempt to rank cities according to their BTEX air pollution is not necessarily straight forward as we are faced with several individual pollutants simultaneously. A typical procedure is based on aggregation of data for the single compounds, a process that not only hides important information but is also subject to compensation effects. The present study applies a series of partial ordering tools to circumvent the aggregation. Based on partial ordering, most important indicators are disclosed, and an average ranking of the cities included in the study is derived. Since air pollution measurements are often subject to significant uncertainties, special attention has been given to the possible effect of uncertainty and/or data noise. Finally, the effect of introducing weight regimes is studied. In a concluding section the gross national income per person (GNI) is brought into play, demonstrating a positive correlation between BTEX air pollution and GNI. The results are discussed in terms of the ability/willingness to combat air pollution in the cities studied. The present study focuses on Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan and compares the data from Almaty to another 19 major cities around the world. It is found that the benzene for Almaty appears peculiar high. Overall Almaty appears ranked as the 8th most BTEX polluted city among the 20 cities included in the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence from single nucleotide polymorphism analyses of ADVANCE study demonstrates EFNB3 as a hypertension risk gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Johanne; Wang, Yujia; Raelson, John; Marois-Blanchet, Francois-Christophe; Wu, Zenghui; Luo, Hongyu; Bradley, Edward; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Harrap, Stephen; Hamet, Pavel; Wu, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    EPH kinases and their ligands, ephrins (EFNs), have vital and diverse biological functions. We recently reported that Efnb3 gene deletion results in hypertension in female but not male mice. These data suggest that EFNB3 regulates blood pressure in a sex- and sex hormone-dependent way. In the present study, we conducted a human genetic study to assess the association of EFNB3 single nucleotide polymorphisms with human hypertension risks, using 3,448 patients with type 2 diabetes from the ADVANCE study (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Peterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation). We have observed significant association between 2 SNPs in the 3′ untranslated region or within the adjacent region just 3′ of the EFNB3 gene with hypertension, corroborating our findings from the mouse model. Thus, our investigation has shown that EFNB3 is a hypertension risk gene in certain individuals. PMID:28272517

  9. SUPPORT FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE ARM PROJECT AND DEVELOPMENT OF A FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE GWIS MODEL FOR A VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. DAVID MARTIN; MARK B. MURPHY - STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES, LLC

    1999-12-31

    Strategic Technology Resources, L.L.C. (STR) provided work for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in response to Request for Proposal 005BZ0019-35. The objectives of the work in this project were to: (1) support the completion of the Advanced Reservoir Management (ARM) cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) LA9502037, and (2) support the development of a field demonstration of the LANL-developed Global Weapons Information System (GWIS) model for virtual enterprises. The second objective was contingent upon DOE approval of the Advanced Information Management (AIM) CRADA. At the request of the LANL Technical Representative, the project was granted a no-cost extension to November 30, 1999. As part of the project, STR provided managerial support for the ARM CRADA by: (1) assessing the data resources of the participating companies, (2) facilitating the transfer of technical data to LANL, (3) preparing reports, (4) managing communications between the parties to the ARM CRADA, and (5) assisting with the dissemination of information between the parties to technical professional societies and trade associations. The first phase of the current project was to continue to engage subcontractors to perform tasks in the ARM CRADA for which LANL expertise was lacking. All of the ARM field studies required of the project were completed, and final reports for all of the project studies are appended to this final report. The second phase of the current project was to support the field demonstration of the GWIS model for virtual enterprises in an oilfield setting. STR developed a hypertext Webpage that describes the concept and implementation of a virtual enterprise for reservoir management in the petroleum industry. Contents of the hypertext document are included in this report on the project.

  10. Study design in causal models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The causal assumptions, the study design and the data are the elements required for scientific inference in empirical research. The research is adequately communicated only if all of these elements and their relations are described precisely. Causal models with design describe the study design and the missing data mechanism together with the causal structure and allow the direct application of causal calculus in the estimation of the causal effects. The flow of the study is visualized by orde...

  11. Using optimization models to demonstrate the need for structural changes in training programs for surgical medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jonathan; Kim, Kibaek; Mehrotra, Sanjay; DaRosa, Debra A; Daskin, Mark S; Rodriguez, Heron E

    2013-09-01

    The primary goal of a residency program is to prepare trainees for unsupervised care. Duty hour restrictions imposed throughout the prior decade require that residents work significantly fewer hours. Moreover, various stakeholders (e.g. the hospital, mentors, other residents, educators, and patients) require them to prioritize very different activities, often conflicting with their learning goals. Surgical residents' learning goals include providing continuity throughout a patient's pre-, peri-, and post-operative care as well as achieving sufficient surgical experience levels in various procedure types and participating in various formal educational activities, among other things. To complicate matters, senior residents often compete with other residents for surgical experience. This paper features experiments using an optimization model and a real dataset. The experiments test the viability of achieving the above goals at a major academic center using existing models of delivering medical education and training to surgical residents. It develops a detailed multi-objective, two-stage stochastic optimization model with anticipatory capabilities solved over a rolling time horizon. A novel feature of the models is the incorporation of learning curve theory in the objection function. Using a deterministic version of the model, we identify bounds on the achievement of learning goals under existing training paradigms. The computational results highlight the structural problems in the current surgical resident educational system. These results further corroborate earlier findings and suggest an educational system redesign is necessary for surgical medical residents.

  12. A phase 2 study of lower-dose, indomethacin submicron particle capsules demonstrates early onset of acute pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvelian, Garen; Hochberg, Marc C; Daniels, Stephen E; Altman, Roy D; Young, Clarence L

    2014-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are efficacious for the treatment of acute and chronic pain; however, they have the potential for serious adverse events (AEs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of investigational, lower-dose, indomethacin submicron particle capsules compared with placebo in a study of patients with postsurgical pain. This phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, and placebo-controlled study enrolled 203 patients (18 to 50 y old) following extraction of ≥ 2 third molars who experienced moderate-to-severe pain intensity ≤ 6 hours after surgery. Patients received indomethacin submicron particle capsules (20 or 40 mg), celecoxib 400 mg, or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the sum of total pain relief over 0 to 8 hours (TOTPAR-8) determined from the area under the curve for pain relief over 0 to 8 hours following administration of the study drug, where pain relief was measured on a 0 to 4 scale. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Mean ± SE TOTPAR-8 scores were 10.8 ± 1.4 (indomethacin submicron particle capsules 20 mg), 12.6 ± 1.3 (indomethacin submicron particle capsules 40 mg), 14.8 ± 1.3 (celecoxib), and 3.0 ± 1.3 (placebo; Pcapsules treatment groups demonstrated better mean TOTPAR over 4 hours than placebo (Pcapsules provide good overall pain relief in patients with postsurgical pain and are generally well tolerated. Indomethacin submicron particle capsules are a potentially promising option for treatment of acute pain and warrant further study.

  13. Demonstration of pulmonary {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor binding in vivo with [{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl-fenoterol in a guinea pig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helisch, A.; Schirrmacher, E.; Schirrmacher, R.; Buchholz, H.G.; Bartenstein, P. [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Thews, O.; Dillenburg, W.; Tillmanns, J. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Mainz (Germany); Hoehnemann, S.; Roesch, F. [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Wessler, I. [University of Mainz, Institute of Pharmacology, Mainz (Germany); Buhl, R. [University Hospital, Pulmonary Division, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    The new {beta}{sub 2} radioligand (R,R)(S,S) 5-(2-(2-[4-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl]-1-methylethylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl)-benzene-1,3-diol ([{sup 18}F]FE-fenoterol; [{sup 18}F]FEFE), a fluoroethylated derivative of racemic fenoterol, was evaluated in vivo and ex vivo using a guinea pig model. Dynamic PET studies over 60 min with [{sup 18}F]FEFE were performed in nine Hartley guinea pigs in which a baseline (group 1, n=3), a predose (group 2, n=3; 2 mg/kg fenoterol 5 min prior to injection of [{sup 18}F]FEFE) or a displacement study (group 3, n=3; 2 mg/kg fenoterol 5 min post injection of [{sup 18}F]FEFE) was conducted. In all animal groups, the lungs could be visualised and semi-quantified separately by calculating uptake ratios to non-specific binding in the neck area. Premedication with non-radioactive fenoterol and displacement tests showed significant reduction of lung uptake, by 94% and 76%, respectively. These data demonstrate specific binding of the new radioligand to the pulmonary {beta}{sub 2}-receptors in accordance with ex vivo measurements. Therefore, [{sup 18}F]FEFE seems to be suitable for the in vivo visualisation and quantification of the pulmonary {beta}{sub 2}-receptor binding in this animal model. (orig.)

  14. Demonstration of a Relocatable Regional Ocean Atmosphere Modeling System with Coastal Autonomous Sampling Networks: Turbulence Characterization from an AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    pipe (N line, inshore), the downstream pipe (A line, inshore) and the detached jet (A line offshore ), at a variety of depths in the core of the features...R. A. Weller, and R. Pinkel. 1986. Diurnal cycling: Observations and models of the upper ocean response to diurnal heating, cooling, and wind

  15. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: A Demonstration of the Utility of the Rasch Model. IR Applications. Volume 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. This paper addresses the erroneous assumptions institutional researchers often make with regard to survey research and provides an alternative method to producing more valid and reliable measures. Rasch measurement models are discussed and…

  16. MCTSSA Software Reliability Handbook, Volume II: Data Collection Demonstration and Software Reliability Modeling for a Multi-Function Distributed System

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidewind, Norman F.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is threefold. Specifically, it: Serves as a reference guide for implementing standard software reliability practices at Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity and aids in applying the software reliability model; Serves as a tool for managing the software reliability program; and Serves as a training aid. U.S. Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity, Camp Pendleton, CA. RLACH

  17. Demonstration of a Model-Based Technology for Monitoring Water Quality and Corrosion in Water-Distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Maintenance Division, Direc- torate of Public Works • Ed Rohr – Chief, Utilities Branch • John Field, Telemetry Systems Engineer The Commander of...about effects of the instal- lation’s dual water supplies on operation of the water-distribution system. 5.2 Recommendations 5.2.1 Applicability Model

  18. Constraint-based modeling of heterologous pathways: application and experimental demonstration for overproduction of fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Kuhn; Donoghue, Neil; Kim, Min Kyung; Lun, Desmond S

    2014-10-01

    Constraint-based modeling has been shown, in many instances, to be useful for metabolic engineering by allowing the prediction of the metabolic phenotype resulting from genetic manipulations. But the basic premise of constraint-based modeling-that of applying constraints to preclude certain behaviors-only makes sense for certain genetic manipulations (such as knockouts and knockdowns). In particular, when genes (such as those associated with a heterologous pathway) are introduced under artificial control, it is unclear how to predict the correct behavior. In this paper, we introduce a modeling method that we call proportional flux forcing (PFF) to model artificially induced enzymatic genes. The model modifications introduced by PFF can be transformed into a set of simple mass balance constraints, which allows computational methods for strain optimization based on flux balance analysis (FBA) to be utilized. We applied PFF to the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for free fatty acid (FFA) production-a metabolic engineering problem that has attracted significant attention because FFAs are a precursor to liquid transportation fuels such as biodiesel and biogasoline. We show that PFF used in conjunction with FBA-based computational strain optimization methods can yield non-obvious genetic manipulation strategies that significantly increase FFA production in E. coli. The two mutant strains constructed and successfully tested in this work had peak fatty acid (FA) yields of 0.050 g FA/g carbon source (17.4% theoretical yield) and 0.035 g FA/g carbon source (12.3% theoretical yield) when they were grown using a mixed carbon source of glucose and casamino acids in a ratio of 2-to-1. These yields represent increases of 5.4- and 3.8-fold, respectively, over the baseline strain.

  19. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  20. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal] and limited [p.o (oral] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment.

  1. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD): Adoption and Reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Shaniece; Cheung, Lilian; Giles, Catherine; Gortmaker, Steven; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-04-05

    The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD) was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues' 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students' paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition.

  2. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD: Adoption and Reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaniece Criss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues’ 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students’ paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition.

  3. A DN-mda5 transgenic zebrafish model demonstrates that Mda5 plays an important role in snakehead rhabdovirus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, K A; Charette, J R; Pietraszewski, M J; Wingfield, D J; Shim, J S; Millard, P J; Kim, C H

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is a member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family, which is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that detects viral nucleic acids. Here we show an Mda5-dependent response to rhabdovirus infection in vivo using a dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish. Dominant-negative mda5 zebrafish embryos displayed an impaired antiviral immune response compared to wild-type counterparts that can be rescued by recombinant full-length Mda5. To our knowledge, we have generated the first dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish and demonstrated a critical role for Mda5 in the antiviral response to rhabdovirus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliability study of a special decay heat removal system of a gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano, E-mail: luciano.burgazzi@enea.it

    2014-12-15

    The European roadmap toward the development of generation IV concepts addresses the safety and reliability assessment of the special system designed for decay heat removal of a gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator (GFRD). The envisaged system includes the combination of both active and passive means to accomplish the fundamental safety function. Failure probabilities are calculated on various system configurations, according to either pressurized or depressurized accident events under investigation, and integrated with probabilities of occurrence of corresponding hardware components and natural circulation performance assessment. The analysis suggests the improvement of measures against common cause failures (CCF), in terms of an appropriate diversification among the redundant systems, to reduce the system failure risk. Particular emphasis is placed upon passive system reliability assessment, being recognized to be still an open issue, and the approach based on the functional reliability is adopted to address the point. Results highlight natural circulation as a challenging factor for the decay heat removal safety function accomplishment by means of passive devices. With the models presented here, the simplifying assumptions and the limited scenarios considered according to the level of definition of the design, where many systems are not yet established, one can conclude that attention has to be paid to the functional aspects of the passive system, i.e. the ones not pertaining to the “hardware” of the system. In this article the results of the analysis are discussed, where the effects of the analytical assumptions, design options, accident managements on the reliability are examined. The design diversity of the components undergoing CCFs can be effective for the improvement and some accident management measures are also possible by making use of the long grace period in GFRD.

  5. Measuring the adoption of consistent use of condoms using the stages of change model. AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, D J; Galavotti, C; Fishbein, M; Chan, D K

    1996-01-01

    The stages of behavior change model has been used to understand a variety of health behaviors. Since consistent condom use has been promoted as a risk-reduction behavior for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, an algorithm for staging the adoption of consistent condom use during vaginal sex was empirically developed using three considerations: HIV prevention efficacy, analogy with work on staging other health-related behaviors, and condom use data from groups at high risk for HIV infection. This algorithm suggests that the adoption of consistent condom use among persons at high risk can be meaningfully measured with the model. However, variations in the algorithm details affect both the interpretation of stages and apportionment of persons across stages.

  6. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  7. Innovation in health economic modelling of service improvements for longer-term depression: demonstration in a local health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Jonathan; Kearns, Ben; Brennan, Alan; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Thomas; Saxon, David; Kilgarriff-Foster, Alexis; Thake, Anna; Chambers, Eleni; Hutten, Rebecca

    2013-04-26

    The purpose of the analysis was to develop a health economic model to estimate the costs and health benefits of alternative National Health Service (NHS) service configurations for people with longer-term depression. Modelling methods were used to develop a conceptual and health economic model of the current configuration of services in Sheffield, England for people with longer-term depression. Data and assumptions were synthesised to estimate cost per Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Three service changes were developed and resulted in increased QALYs at increased cost. Versus current care, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for a self-referral service was £11,378 per QALY. The ICER was £2,227 per QALY for the dropout reduction service and £223 per QALY for an increase in non-therapy services. These results were robust when compared to current cost-effectiveness thresholds and accounting for uncertainty. Cost-effective service improvements for longer-term depression have been identified. Also identified were limitations of the current evidence for the long term impact of services.

  8. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  9. A school-based human papillomavirus vaccination program in barretos, Brazil: final results of a demonstrative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The implementation of a public HPV vaccination program in several developing countries, especially in Latin America, is a great challenge for health care specialists. AIM: To evaluate the uptake and the three-dose completion rates of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Barretos (Brazil. METHODS: THE STUDY INCLUDED GIRLS WHO WERE ENROLLED IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND WHO REGULARLY ATTENDED THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (MEAN AGE: 11.9 years. A meeting with the parents or guardians occurred approximately one week before the vaccination in order to explain the project and clarify the doubts. The quadrivalent vaccine was administered using the same schedule as in the product package (0-2-6 months. The school visits for regular vaccination occurred on previously scheduled dates. The vaccine was also made available at Barretos Cancer Hospital for the girls who could not be vaccinated on the day when the team visited the school. RESULTS: Among the potential candidates for vaccination (n = 1,574, the parents or guardians of 1,513 girls (96.1% responded to the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 1,389 parents or guardians agreed to participate in the program (acceptance rate = 91.8%. The main reason for refusing to participate in the vaccination program was fear of adverse events. The vaccine uptake rates for the first, second, and third doses were 87.5%, 86.3% and 85.0%, respectively. The three-dose completion rate was 97.2%. CONCLUSIONS: This demonstrative study achieved high rates of vaccination uptake and completion of three vaccine doses in children 10-16 years old from Brazil. The feasibility and success of an HPV vaccination program for adolescents in a developing country may depend on the integration between the public health and schooling systems.

  10. North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART at CD4 count >350 cells/μL have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate “real world” programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events. Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes.

  11. Chemical changes demonstrated in cartilage by synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy in an antibody-induced murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Allyson M.; Selva Nandakumar, Kutty; Holmdahl, Rikard; Tobin, Mark J.; McNaughton, Don; Rowley, Merrill J.

    2011-06-01

    Collagen antibody-induced arthritis develops in mice following passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to type II collagen (CII) and is attributed to effects of proinflammatory immune complexes, but transferred mAbs may react directly and damagingly with CII. To determine whether such mAbs cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation, mice lacking complement factor 5 that do not develop joint inflammation were injected intravenously with two arthritogenic mAbs to CII, M2139 and CIIC1. Paws were collected at day 3, decalcified, paraffin embedded, and 5-μm sections were examined using standard histology and synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). None of the mice injected with mAb showed visual or histological evidence of inflammation but there were histological changes in the articular cartilage including loss of proteoglycan and altered chondrocyte morphology. Findings using FTIRM at high lateral resolution revealed loss of collagen and the appearance of a new peak at 1635 cm-1 at the surface of the cartilage interpreted as cellular activation. Thus, we demonstrate the utility of synchrotron FTIRM for examining chemical changes in diseased cartilage at the microscopic level and establish that arthritogenic mAbs to CII do cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation.

  12. Run-off studies demonstrate parallel transport behaviour for a marker of poultry fecal contamination and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidhaas, J; Garner, E; Basden, T; Harwood, V J

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether poultry litter marker gene LA35 is correlated with pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in run-off from poultry litter-amended plots. A rainfall simulator with various vegetative filter strip lengths was employed to evaluate the correlation of a microbial source tracking (MST) marker for poultry feces/litter (the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 [LA35] measured by quantitative PCR) with pathogens and FIB in run-off. LA35 was correlated with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Bacteroidales levels. Salmonella was present at low concentration in litter, but became undetectable by qPCR in run-off. Escherichia coli, LA35 and Staph. aureus exhibited mass-based first flush behaviour in the run-off. Correlation of LA35 with FIB and pathogens in run-off from poultry litter-amended fields suggest comparable transport mechanisms and that LA35 is a useful tracer for harmful bacteria in the environment released from poultry litter. To protect human health, an effective marker for poultry fecal contamination should exhibit similar fate and transport characteristics compared to pathogens. This study is among the first to demonstrate such a relationship in run-off for a MST marker. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. A Pilot-scale Demonstration of Reverse Osmosis Unit for Treatment of Coal-bed Methane Co-produced Water and Its Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱智; 刘新春; 余志晟; 张洪勋; 琚宜文

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the first demonstration project in China for treatment of coal-bed methane(CBM) co-produced water and recycling.The work aims to provide a research and innovation base for solving the pollution problem of CBM extraction water.The reverse osmosis(RO) unit is applied to the treatment of CBM co-produced water.The results indicate that system operation is stable,the removal efficiency of the total dissolved solids(TDS) is as high as 97.98%,and Fe,Mn,and F-are almost completely removed.There is no suspended solids(SS) detected in the treated water.Furthermore,a model for the RO membrane separation process is developed to describe the quantitative relationship between key physical quantities-membrane length,flow velocity,salt concentration,driving pressure and water recovery rate,and the water recovery restriction equation based on mass balance is developed.This model provides a theoretical support for the RO system design and optimization.The TDS in the CBM co-produced water are removed to meet the "drinking water standards" and "groundwater quality standards" of China and can be used as drinking water,irrigation water,and livestock watering.In addition,the cost for treatment of CBM co-produced water is assessed,and the RO technology is an efficient and cost-effective treatment method to remove pollutants.

  14. Alignment of Configuration and Documentation for Highly Engineered Complex Product Configuration Systems: a Demonstration from a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Adequate documentation is critical for successful implementation, maintenance and further developments of product configuration system (PCS) specially in companies making complex and highly engineered products. This article is based on experience of modelling and utilizing a PCS from an Engineer......-To-Order (ETO), where the main focus is on the challenges concerned with the documentation of the PCS, both in the development and production phase. Aligning the development of the PCS with an automatic documentation system creates value. Using the suggested method for documentation facilitates the following...... activities: (1) iterative testing of the system during the development, (2) communication with domain experts, (3) documentation and maintenance, and finally (4) updates without spending a lot of time and resources. This article is supplemented with a case study from an ETO company where the method...

  15. Alignment of Configuration and Documentation for Highly Engineered Complex Product Configuration Systems: a Demonstration from a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Adequate documentation is critical for successful implementation, maintenance and further developments of product configuration system (PCS) specially in companies making complex and highly engineered products. This article is based on experience of modelling and utilizing a PCS from an Engineer......-To-Order (ETO), where the main focus is on the challenges concerned with the documentation of the PCS, both in the development and production phase. Aligning the development of the PCS with an automatic documentation system creates value. Using the suggested method for documentation facilitates the following...... activities: (1) iterative testing of the system during the development, (2) communication with domain experts, (3) documentation and maintenance, and finally (4) updates without spending a lot of time and resources. This article is supplemented with a case study from an ETO company where the method...

  16. Demonstration program for small-scale straw fuel systems. Pre-study for the Swedish Energy Agency; Demonstrationsprogram foer smaaskaliga straabraenslesystem. Foerstudie foer Energimyndigheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Wahlberg, Cecilia (Hushaallningssaellskapet, Stockholm (Sweden)); Arkeloev, Olof (LRF Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-02-15

    Energy crops from arable land is still an almost entirely untapped potential as a fuel for heating. Canary grass, straw and hemp could eventually form an important part of the raw-material from agriculture. For this production to increase and become a viable alternative to conventional farming it is required, however, that the whole production chain from cultivation to end-use is developed. The aim of this pilot study has been to make suggestions for the design of a Demonstration project of small-scale fuel straw-crops. The programme's vision is to within 6 years build up a number of demonstration plants for small-scale briquetting/pelletizing of straw fuels in different parts of the country. In addition, potential producers of raw materials and other actors in the programme will be made aware what opportunities and conditions there are to process the agro-fuels in small-scale production facilities. The overall objective of the programme is to increase knowledge about how straw fuels and/or residues can be used as raw material in small-scale production of briquettes/pellets, and enhance the understanding of how producers take part in different business models. In the short term, the objective of the programme to build up a network of pellets and briquettes producing demonstration. Within the activities of the programme it is proposed that demonstration is built up of at least 7 different places in the country. This is in order to be able to gain experience on the basis of local and regional conditions. Demonstration refers both to demonstrate the entire chain with existing proven technology, and to improve technologies, reduce costs and make the production and user experience. On the other hand, the intention may be to test the new technology. Demonstration refers to smaller installations and with a production capacity of plants should vary from about 100 to 500 kg/h produced fuel. Operations are limited to the supply of raw material, cultivation and harvest

  17. Exploring barriers to participation and adoption of telehealth and telecare within the Whole System Demonstrator trial: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, Caroline; Rogers, Anne; Bowen, Robert; Bower, Peter; Hirani, Shashivadan; Cartwright, Martin; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Knapp, Martin; Barlow, James; Hendy, Jane; Chrysanthaki, Theti; Bardsley, Martin; Newman, Stanton P

    2012-01-01

    ...: the Whole System Demonstrator (WSD) project. It explores barriers to participation and adoption of TH and TC from the perspective of people who declined to participate or withdrew from the trial...

  18. In vitro and in vivo models for peritonitis demonstrate unchanged neutrophil migration after exposure to dialysis fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welten, AG; Zareie, M.; Born, van den J.; Wee, P.M. ter; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Driesprong, BA; Mul, FP; Hordijk, PL; Beelen, R.H.J.; Hekking, LH

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrent infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients may alter the abdominal wall resulting in an impairment of its dialysis capacity. In this study we investigated both in vitro and in vivo the effects of mesothelial exposure to dialysis fluids on the migration of neutrophils and t

  19. Isotopic Analysis of Fingernails as a USGS Open House Demonstration of the Use of Stable Isotopes in Foodweb Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Choy, D.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS Isotope Tracers Project uses stable isotopes and tritium to add a unique dimension of chemical information to a wide range of environmental investigations. The use and application of isotopes is usually an unfamiliar and even esoteric topic to the general public. Therefore during three USGS open house events, as a public outreach effort, we demonstrated the use of stable isotopes by analyzing nitrogen and carbon isotopes from very small fragments of fingernail from willing participants. We titled the exhibit "You Are What You Eat". The results from all participants were plotted on a graph indicating the general influence of different food groups on the composition of body tissues as represented by fingernails. All participants were assigned a number and no personal-identification information was collected. A subset of participants provided us with an estimate of the number of days a week various foods were eaten and if they were vegetarians, vegans or non-vegetarians. Volunteers from our research group were on hand to explain and discuss fundamental concepts such as how foods attain their isotopic composition, the difference between C3 and C4 plants, the effects of assimilation, trophic enrichment, and the various uses of stable isotopes in environmental studies. The results of the fingernail analyses showed the variation of the range of isotopic compositions among about 400 people at each event, the distinct influence of C4 plants (mainly corn and cane sugar) on our carbon isotopic composition, and the isotopic differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians among other details (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/projects/fingernails/). A poll of visitors attending the open house event in 2006 indicated that "You Are What You Eat" was among the most popular exhibits. Following the first two open house events we were contacted by a group of researchers from Brazil who had completed a very similar study. Our collaboration resulted in a publication in

  20. Biodegradable beta-Tri-Calciumphosphate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate enhanced three component bone adhesive demonstrates biocompatibility without evidence of systemic toxicity in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Natali B; Brinke, Nina; Heiss, Christian; Skorupa, Agnes B; Peters, Fabian; Kraus, Ralf; Schnettler, Reinhard; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    Bone gluing is an attractive surgical technique; however, its use in patients is hampered by a variety of side effects. Therefore, it was the aim of this ethically approved study to evaluate a novel biodegradable beta-Tri-Calciumphosphate (beta-TCP, Cerasorb)-enhanced bone adhesive regarding its toxicity and biocompatibility in a rabbit model. Fifty healthy New Zealand White rabbits were assigned in the study (n = 21) and sham-operated control group (n = 29). In the study group, a cylindrical part (4.6 x 10.0 mm) of the proximal tibia and distal femur was removed, reimplanted, and bone adhesive was applied. Blinded physical examination and sampling for hematology, clinical chemistry, and acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP)) was performed before surgery and after 12, 24, 48, 72, 240, and 504 h. Significant findings of the physical examination included a slightly higher grading of warmth (p = 0.0019) and pain (p < 0.0001) of the wound 240 h after surgery in the study group. No significant differences between albumin, haptoglobin, CRP, and urea concentrations in both groups were evident, whereas the study group demonstrated significantly lower leukocyte count, total protein, and globulin concentrations (p < 0.0001). As expected, both groups showed a marked transient increase in muscle enzymes (Creatine Kinase and Aspartate Aminotransferase) following the surgery (p < 0.0001). Twelve to 24 h after surgery, a significant decrease in ionized calcium from 1.38 +/- 0.12 mmol/L to 1.06 +/- 0.13 mmol/L was noted in the study group (p < 0.0001). The results clearly indicated that the novel beta-TCP-enhanced bone adhesive showed good biocompatibility without significant evidence of acute or subacute local or systemic toxicity.

  1. A Graphical Simulation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for Use as an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment and to Demonstrate the Concept of Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David L.; Terry, Ronald E.

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrating petroleum engineering concepts in undergraduate laboratories often requires expensive and time-consuming experiments. To eliminate these problems, a graphical simulation technique was developed for junior-level laboratories which illustrate vapor-liquid equilibrium and the use of mathematical modeling. A description of this…

  2. Terrestrial Radar Interferometry: The current state-of-the-art demonstrated by real-world slope stability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Michael; Thomas, Adam; Holley, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Risk associated with natural terrain is typically mapped and monitored using established geodetic, geotechnical and remote sensing (satellite and airborne) techniques; however such techniques can pose challenges related to health and safety, cost and the density and frequency of measurements. Terrestrial Radar Interferometry (TRI) systems offer users new capabilities in the mapping and monitoring of ground displacements, and more specifically, slope stability. Use of portable radar systems that facilitate quick deployment and data acquisition, rapid and long distance scanning, and the ability to function and operate in most weather conditions, are revolutionising the terrestrial survey industry. This work presents a summary of the capabilities, limitations and applications of a state-of-the-art TRI system. The system is quick to deploy, allowing data acquisition within tens of minutes of arrival on site and requiring little or no permanent site infrastructure. Imaging scans are typically completed in less than 1 minute for a field of view of up to 360°, with repeat scans possible at up to 1-2 minute intervals. The system gives an azimuth resolution of around 8 m at distances of 1 km, with the capability to image slopes at distances of between 50 m and 10 km from the sensor with a deformation accuracy of less than 1 mm. These capabilities represent a significant advance over more traditional stability monitoring methods. The benefits of the TRI technology will be demonstrated through various natural and artificial slope stability case studies. Measurements on artificial slopes in environments such as quarries and open-cast mines allow benchmarking of capabilities across a variety of surface characteristics and failure mechanisms. These results allow an informed consideration of the applicability in various natural slope stability applications, and enable discussion on how TRI can meet the additional challenges encountered in natural environments.

  3. Exploring barriers to participation and adoption of telehealth and telecare within the Whole System Demonstrator trial: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telehealth (TH and telecare (TC interventions are increasingly valued for supporting self-care in ageing populations; however, evaluation studies often report high rates of non-participation that are not well understood. This paper reports from a qualitative study nested within a large randomised controlled trial in the UK: the Whole System Demonstrator (WSD project. It explores barriers to participation and adoption of TH and TC from the perspective of people who declined to participate or withdrew from the trial. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 people who declined to participate in the trial following explanations of the intervention (n = 19, or who withdrew from the intervention arm (n = 3. Participants were recruited from the four trial groups (with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, or social care needs; and all came from the three trial areas (Cornwall, Kent, east London. Observations of home visits where the trial and interventions were first explained were also conducted by shadowing 8 members of health and social care staff visiting 23 people at home. Field notes were made of observational visits and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes. Results Barriers to adoption of TH and TC associated with non-participation and withdrawal from the trial were identified within the following themes: requirements for technical competence and operation of equipment; threats to identity, independence and self-care; expectations and experiences of disruption to services. Respondents held concerns that special skills were needed to operate equipment but these were often based on misunderstandings. Respondents’ views were often explained in terms of potential threats to identity associated with positive ageing and self-reliance, and views that interventions could undermine self-care and coping. Finally, participants were reluctant to

  4. Study on Alzheimer's disease model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the main brain lesion in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP). The amount of NFT is positively correlated with clinical degree of dementia in AD. It is also well studied that the major component of NFT is abnormally hyperphosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau that is caused by an imbalance of protein kinase and protein phosphatase (PP). To reconstitute a specific AD model based on the above hypothesis, we have injected separately calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKKII) activator, bradykinin and PP-2B inhibitor, cyclosporin A into rat hippocampus in the present study. The results showed that the injection of bradykinin caused learning and memory deficient in rats as well as Alzheimer-like tau phosphorylation, including Ser-262/356, Thr-231/235 and Ser-396/404. On the other hand, the injection of cyclosporin A induced the same phosphorylation sites as above except Ser-262/356, however, it did not mimic rat behavior abnormality as bradykinin injection did. The data suggested that activating of CaMKII and the phosphorylation of Ser-262/356 at tau might responsible for the lesion of learning and memory in our model rats. We also incubated PP-2A and PP-1 inhibitor, okadaic acid with human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), and found that (1) inhibition of above PPs induced Alzheimer-like phosphorylation and accumulation of neurofilaments, and Alzheimer-like microtubule disruption, (2) melatonin showed certain protection of the cell from okadaic acid toxicity. The data obtained from this study is significant in AD specific model study.

  5. Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) Lumbar Spine Model Validation: Development, Testing, and Analysis of Physical and Computational Models of the WIAMan Lumbar Spine Materials Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    6400 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-DPW...Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Lumbar Spine Materials Demonstrator. A primary objective of this work was to generate experimental data for FEM validation...Lumbar Spine Materials Demonstrator 1 1.2.1 WIAMan ATD Lumbar Spine Assembly 1 1.2.2 Materials Consideration 2 1.2.3 Test Method 3 2. Preliminary

  6. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  7. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  8. 基于 IDEAS 的联合论证元模型%Joint demonstration meta-model based on IDEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭贤四; 朱刚; 王红; 毕红葵; 高婷

    2015-01-01

    To unify the architecture data modeling in the joint demonstration pattern,joint demonstration meta-model (JDM2)is proposed based on international defense enterprise architecture specification(IDEAS). Business object reference ontology(BORO),IDEAS and department of defense meta-model (DM2 )are intro-duced,the causes that the DM2 do not apply to describe joint demonstration content and the merits of DM2’s three layers from the perspective of design mechanism are analyzed.The merits of DM2 are made up of conceptu-al data model(CDM),logical data model(LDM)and physical exchange schema(PES).Finally,the conceptual data model and the logical data model in JDM2 are presented based on joint demonstration space,ontology theo-ry,ideas of DM2 design and IDEAS.The JDM2 has been proved feasible with an example.%为统一描述联合论证模式中体系结构数据,基于《国际国防企业体系结构规范》(international de-fense enterprise architecture specification,IDEAS)提出了联合论证元模型(joint demonstration meta-model, JDM2)。首先,介绍了业务对象参考本体(business object reference ontology,BORO)、IDEAS 和国防部元模型(department of defense meta-model,DM2),从设计机理方面剖析了 DM2不适用于描述联合论证内容的根本原因以及 DM2概念数据模型(conceptual data model,CDM)、逻辑数据模型(logical data model,LDM)和物理交换规范(physical exchange schema,PES)3层结构的优点;然后,借鉴本体理论和 DM2设计思想基于联合论证空间提出了 JDM2中的概念数据模型;在概念数据模型基础上基于 IDEAS 规范构建了 JDM2中的逻辑数据模型。最后通过实例说明了 JDM2的可行性。

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  10. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Technical Appendix J: alternatives studies. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollom, M. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of a wide range of alternatives to the proposed action, the commercial demonstration of an industrial cogenerating facility fired with wood fuels is provided. An extensive effort has been devoted to the evaluation of all reasonable alternatives to this project. A number of possible actions were also briefly considered, but, for various reasons, they were found not to be appropriate at present for a commercial-scale demonstration of an alternative energy source. The critical characteristics of the wood-fueled commercial demonstration project at Westbrook are considered to be: industrial cogeneration of power; the production of 510,000 pounds per hour of industrial process steam; the production of approximately twenty-five megawatts of electric generating capacity, some of which would be available to a public utility in southern Maine; and the consumption of 2,000 tons of wood fuel per day. Each of the alternatives examined in this appendix offers a different option for one or several of the characteristics of the project listed above. As a whole, the appendix describes the range of possible actions that the US Department of Energy and its contractors have considered.

  11. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R

    2015-03-01

    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Lithium-ion Battery Demonstration for the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William; Baldwin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in a portable life support system (PLSS) on spacesuit simulators. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, over-discharge and over-temperature. The 500-gram batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 38 watts over 103 minutes of discharge time (130 Wh/kg). Battery design details are described and field and laboratory test results are summarized.

  13. Proceedings of the workshop on review of dose modeling methods for demonstration of compliance with the radiological criteria for license termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, T.J.; Parrott, J.D. [eds.

    1998-05-01

    The workshop was one in a series to support NRC staff development of guidance for implementing the final rule on ``Radiological Criteria for License Termination.`` The workshop topics included discussion of: dose models used for decommissioning reviews; identification of criteria for evaluating the acceptability of dose models; and selection of parameter values for demonstrating compliance with the final rule. The 2-day public workshop was jointly organized by RES and NMSS staff responsible for reviewing dose modeling methods used in decommissioning reviews. The workshop was noticed in the Federal Register (62 FR 51706). The workshop presenters included: NMSS and RES staff, who discussed both dose modeling needs for licensing reviews, and development of guidance related to dose modeling and parameter selection needs; DOE national laboratory scientists, who provided responses to earlier NRC staff-developed questions and discussed their various Federally-sponsored dose models (i.e., DandD, RESRAD, and MEPAS codes); and an EPA scientist, who presented details on the EPA dose assessment model (i.e., PRESTO code). The workshop was formatted to provide opportunities for the attendees to observe computer demonstrations of the dose codes presented. More than 120 workshop attendees from NRC Headquarters and the Regions, Agreement States; as well as industry representatives and consultants; scientists from EPA, DOD, DNFSB, DOE, and the national laboratories; and interested members of the public participated. A complete transcript of the workshop, including viewgraphs and attendance lists, is available in the NRC Public Document Room. This NUREG/CP documents the formal presentations made during the workshop, and provides a preface outlining the workshop`s focus, objectives, background, topics and questions provided to the invited speakers, and those raised during the panel discussion. NUREG/CP-0163 also provides technical bases supporting the development of decommissioning

  14. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, Sinjae [Mercer University, Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  15. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, Sinjae [Mercer University, Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  16. Efficient Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Demonstration House of Cold-Climate Solutions for Affordable Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schirber, C. Ojczyk, and R. Jacobson

    2016-05-01

    Single family homes in urban areas that are available for renovation by nonprofit developers are often in rough shape (1MM to 2MM nationally). Budgeting has historically focused on improving homes to meet basic housing standards. A rising interest in the long-term impact of homeownership has introduced the need to balance basic needs with home performance. This demonstration project aims to help nonprofit affordable housing developers become familiar with three Building America performance measures, the installation processes, and impacts and benefits of each. A story and a half home in North Minneapolis, MN was presented by Urban Homeworks our local nonprofit partner. The team helped them install three researched upgrade measures: exterior roof insulation or 'overcoat,' exterior foundation insulation, or 'excavationless', and a combined space and water heating HVAC system or 'combi.'

  17. A practical demonstration in modelling diclofenac and propranolol river water concentrations using a GIS hydrology model in a rural UK catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajo@ceh.ac.uk; Keller, V. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Williams, R.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Young, A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    An existing GIS hydrology water quality model, LF2000-WQX, was applied to predict the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and propranalol in catchments. As a practical exercise the predominantly rural Tamar (UK) catchment was chosen. Consumption, excretion, and fate data were used to estimate the pharmaceutical input load for the model. The predicted concentrations throughout most of the catchment were 1 ng/L or less under low flow (90th percentile) conditions. However, at a few locations, downstream of small sewage treatment plants, concentrations above 25 ng/L were predicted. This exercise shows that it is relatively straightforward to predict the concentrations of new and emerging organic microcontaminants in real catchments using existing GIS hydrology water quality models. Further testing will be required to establish their accuracy. - A GIS hydrology model was used to predict pharmaceutical concentration hot spots in a rural catchment.

  18. A Lagrangian stochastic model to demonstrate multi-scale interactions between convection and land surface heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsakhoo, Zahra; Shao, Yaping

    2017-04-01

    Near-surface turbulent mixing has considerable effect on surface fluxes, cloud formation and convection in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Its quantifications is however a modeling and computational challenge since the small eddies are not fully resolved in Eulerian models directly. We have developed a Lagrangian stochastic model to demonstrate multi-scale interactions between convection and land surface heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer based on the Ito Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) for air parcels (particles). Due to the complexity of the mixing in the ABL, we find that linear Ito SDE cannot represent convections properly. Three strategies have been tested to solve the problem: 1) to make the deterministic term in the Ito equation non-linear; 2) to change the random term in the Ito equation fractional, and 3) to modify the Ito equation by including Levy flights. We focus on the third strategy and interpret mixing as interaction between at least two stochastic processes with different Lagrangian time scales. The model is in progress to include the collisions among the particles with different characteristic and to apply the 3D model for real cases. One application of the model is emphasized: some land surface patterns are generated and then coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).

  19. Demonstrating freedom from disease using multiple complex data sources 2: Case study-Classical swine fever in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, P.A.J.; Cameron, A.R.; Barfod, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    A method for quantitative evaluation of surveillance for disease freedom has been presented in the accompanying paper (Martin et al., 2007). This paper presents an application of the methods, using as an example surveillance for classical swine fever (CSF) in Denmark in 2005. A scenario tree model......) associated with age and location (county), and disease clustering within herds. A surveillance time period of one month was used in the analysis. Records for the year 2005 were analysed, representing 25,332 samples from 3528 herds; all were negative for CSF-specific antibodies. Design prevalences of 0...

  20. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  1. A socio-economic study along with impact assessment for laterite based technology demonstration for arsenic mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; Roy, Anirban; Mukherjee, Raka; Mondal, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Sankha; Chatterjee, Somak; Mukherjee, Munmun; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; De, Sirshendu

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic contamination mitigation technologies have been adsorption-based, but the most widely-used and traditionally available adsorbents suffered inherent limitations, including cost infeasibility and problems associated with regeneration and disposal of the spent adsorbent. The present technology is based on indigenously developed activated laterite prepared from the naturally and abundantly available material, and can hence easily be scaled up for community usage and large scale implementation. The total arsenic removal capacity is 32.5mg/g, which is the highest among all naturally occurring arsenic adsorbents. A major issue in earlier adsorbents was that during regeneration, the adsorbed arsenic would be released back into the environment (leaching), and would eventually contaminate the groundwater again. But the adsorbent in this filter does not require regeneration during its five-year lifespan and does not leach upon disposal. An attempt is made to test and demonstrate the practical implementation of the technology - its effectiveness and viability in three community (primary schools - one in Malda and two in north 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India) and 20 household filters, catering to over 5000 people in different areas of West Bengal exposed to high arsenic contamination of groundwater (ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg/l). The work also focuses on the social impact of the real life technological solution on the lives on the affected people in the worst hit arsenic affected communities, perhaps the greatest public health risk emergency of the decade.

  2. Feasibility Study for a Near Term Demonstration of Laser-Sail Propulsion from the Ground to Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Johnson, Les; Thomas, Herbert D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the body of research related to the concept of propellant-less in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser (HEL) to provide momentum to an ultra-lightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. It has been suggested that the capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination make it possible to investigate the practicalities of a ground to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail 2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously by Forward, Landis, or Marx. [1,2,3] A more detailed investigation of accessing LightSail 2 from Santa Rosa Island on Eglin Air Force Base on the United States coast of the Gulf of Mexico is provided to show expected results in a specific case.

  3. Feasibility Study for a Near Term Demonstration of Laser-Sail Propulsion from the Ground to Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E.; Johnson, L.; Thomas, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper adds to the body of research related to the concept of propellant-less in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser (HEL) to provide momentum to an ultra-lightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. It has been suggested that the capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination make it possible to investigate the practicalities of a ground to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail 2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously by Forward, Landis, or Marx. [1,2,3] A more detailed investigation of accessing LightSail 2 from Santa Rosa Island on Eglin Air Force Base on the United States coast of the Gulf of Mexico is provided to show expected results in a specific case.

  4. Crystal study and econometric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An econometric model was developed that can be used to predict demand and supply figures for crystals over a time horizon roughly concurrent with that of NASA's Space Shuttle Program - that is, 1975 through 1990. The model includes an equation to predict the impact on investment in the crystal-growing industry. Actually, two models are presented. The first is a theoretical model which follows rather strictly the standard theoretical economic concepts involved in supply and demand analysis, and a modified version of the model was developed which, though not quite as theoretically sound, was testable utilizing existing data sources.

  5. A pilot Virtual Observatory (pVO) for integrated catchment science - Demonstration of national scale modelling of hydrology and biogeochemistry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, J. E.; Bloomfield, J. P.; Johnes, P. J.; MacLeod, C.; Reaney, S.

    2010-12-01

    There are many challenges in developing effective and integrated catchment management solutions for hydrology and water quality issues. Such solutions should ideally build on current scientific evidence to inform policy makers and regulators and additionally allow stakeholders to take ownership of local and/or national issues, in effect bringing together ‘communities of practice’. A strategy being piloted in the UK as the Pilot Virtual Observatory (pVO), funded by NERC, is to demonstrate the use of cyber-infrastructure and cloud computing resources to investigate better methods of linking data and models and to demonstrate scenario analysis for research, policy and operational needs. The research will provide new ways the scientific and stakeholder communities come together to exploit current environmental information, knowledge and experience in an open framework. This poster presents the project scope and methodologies for the pVO work dealing with national modelling of hydrology and macro-nutrient biogeochemistry. We evaluate the strategies needed to robustly benchmark our current predictive capability of these resources through ensemble modelling. We explore the use of catchment similarity concepts to understand if national monitoring programs can inform us about the behaviour of catchments. We discuss the challenges to applying these strategies in an open access and integrated framework and finally we consider the future for such virtual observatory platforms for improving the way we iteratively improve our understanding of catchment science.

  6. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  7. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  8. A Comparative Study of Competency-Based Courses Demonstrating a Potential Measure of Course Quality and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    While competency-based education is growing, standardized tools for evaluating the unique characteristics of course design in this domain are still under development. This preliminary research study evaluated the effectiveness of a rubric developed for assessing course design of competency-based courses in an undergraduate Information Technology…

  9. A Comparative Study of Competency-Based Courses Demonstrating a Potential Measure of Course Quality and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    While competency-based education is growing, standardized tools for evaluating the unique characteristics of course design in this domain are still under development. This preliminary research study evaluated the effectiveness of a rubric developed for assessing course design of competency-based courses in an undergraduate Information Technology…

  10. Digitally Curious: A Qualitative Case Study of Students' Demonstrations of Curiosity in a Technology-Rich Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Curiosity is an important construct for educators as it is connected with knowledge and higher-order thinking, goal-oriented behavior, motivation, and persistence. It is also negatively correlated with boredom and anxiety. While research documents this strong connection between learning and curiosity, no studies existed exploring curiosity in a…

  11. Industry Application ECCS / LOCA Integrated Cladding/Emergency Core Cooling System Performance: Demonstration of LOTUS-Baseline Coupled Analysis of the South Texas Plant Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vaghetto, Rodolfo [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vanni, Alessandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Neptune, Kaleb [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Under the auspices of the DOE LWRS Program RISMC Industry Application ECCS/LOCA, INL has engaged staff from both South Texas Project (STP) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU) to produce a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) model including reactor core, clad/fuel design and systems thermal hydraulics based on the South Texas Project (STP) nuclear power plant, a 4-Loop Westinghouse PWR. A RISMC toolkit, named LOCA Toolkit for the U.S. (LOTUS), has been developed for use in this generic PWR plant model to assess safety margins for the proposed NRC 10 CFR 50.46c rule, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance during LOCA. This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermalhydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results. Within this context, a multi-physics best estimate plus uncertainty (MPBEPU) methodology framework is proposed.

  12. Dipyridamole, cold pressor test, and demonstration of endothelial dysfunction: a PET study of myocardial perfusion in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S;

    2003-01-01

    Much evidence suggests endothelial dysfunction to be present in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and to be important for the development of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial function in the coronary vessels may be studied in various ways. We compared the effect of cold pressor testing...... coronary disease, endothelial dysfunction is strongly suggested by an impaired increase in CBF both to dipyridamole and to CPT. This dysfunction was reversed by infusion of an ACE inhibitor. Although ACE inhibition during CPT did induce significant increases in CBF in the patients, the changes during ACE...

  13. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  14. Effect of hierarchically aligned fibrin hydrogel in regeneration of spinal cord injury demonstrated by tractography: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxia; Yao, Shenglian; Xie, Sheng; Wang, Xiumei; Chang, Feiyan; Luo, Jie; Wang, Jingming; Fu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have reported that scaffold or cell-based transplantation may improve functional recovery following SCI, but no imaging information regarding regeneration has been provided to date. This study used tractography to show the regenerating process induced by a new biomaterial-aligned fibrin hydrogel (AFG). A total of eight canines subjected to SCI procedures were assigned to the control or the AFG group. AFG was implanted into the SCI lesion immediately after injury in 5 canines. A follow-up was performed at 12 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic effect including the hindlimb functional recovery, anisotropy and continuity of fibers on tractography. Using tractography, we found new fibers running across the SCI in three canines of the AFG group. Further histological examination confirmed limited glial scarring and regenerated nerve fibers in the lesions. Moreover, Repeated Measures Analysis revealed a significantly different change in fractional anisotropy (FA) between the two groups during the follow-up interval. An increase in FA during the post injury time interval was detected in the AFG group, indicating a beneficial effect of AFG in the rehabilitation of injured axons. Using tractography, AFG was suggested to be helpful in the restoration of fibers in SCI lesions, thus leading to promoted functional recovery. PMID:28067245

  15. Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheim Heiman FL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods In this demonstration study we performed a cross-over study in which non-smoking participants that worked at least 4 hours per day on the street in Hanoi were randomly allocated to specific respirator wearing sequences for a duration of 2 weeks. Urines were collected after each period, i.e. twice per week, at the end of the working day to measure hydroxy PAHs (OH-PAH using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was the urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP. Results Forty-four participants (54.5% male, median age 40 years were enrolled with the majority being motorbike taxi drivers (38.6% or street vendors (34.1%. The baseline creatinine corrected urinary level for 1-OHP was much higher than other international comparisons: 1020 ng/g creatinine (IQR: 604–1551. Wearing a R95 mask had no significant effect on 1-OHP levels: estimated multiplicative effect 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09 or other OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.11-0.96. Conclusions High levels of urine OH-PAHs were found in Hanoi street workers. No effect was seen on urine OH-PAH levels by wearing R95 particulate respirators in an area of high urban air pollution, except for 1-OHN. A lack of effect may be de to gaseous phase PAHs that were not filtered efficiently by the respirator. The high levels of urinary OH-PAHs found, urges for effective

  16. Deriving Physical Properties from Broadband Photometry with Prospector: Description of the Model and a Demonstration of its Accuracy Using 129 Galaxies in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Leja, Joel; Conroy, Charlie; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Byler, Nell

    2016-01-01

    Broadband photometry of galaxies measures an unresolved mix of complex stellar populations, gas, and dust. Interpreting these data is a challenge for models: many studies have shown that properties derived from modeling galaxy photometry are uncertain by a factor of two or more, and yet answering key questions in the field now requires higher accuracy than this. Here, we present a new model framework specifically designed for these complexities. Our model, Prospector-$\\alpha$, includes dust attenuation and re-radiation, a flexible attenuation curve, nebular emission, stellar metallicity, and a 6-component nonparametric star formation history. The flexibility and range of the parameter space, coupled with MCMC sampling within the Prospector inference framework, is designed to provide unbiased parameters and realistic error bars. We assess the accuracy of the model with aperture-matched optical spectroscopy, which was excluded from the fits. We compare spectral features predicted solely from fits to the broadba...

  17. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

  18. Prospective demonstration of brain plasticity after intensive abacus-based mental calculation training: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. L.; Wu, T. H.; Cheng, M. C.; Huang, Y. H.; Sheu, C. Y.; Hsieh, J. C.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Abacus-based mental calculation is a unique Chinese culture. The abacus experts can perform complex computations mentally with exceptionally fast speed and high accuracy. However, the neural bases of computation processing are not yet clearly known. This study used a BOLD contrast 3T fMRI system to explore the brain activation differences between abacus experts and non-expert subjects. All the acquired data were analyzed using SPM99 software. From the results, different ways of performing calculations between the two groups were seen. The experts tended to adopt efficient visuospatial/visuomotor strategy (bilateral parietal/frontal network) to process and retrieve all the intermediate and final results on the virtual abacus during calculation. By contrast, coordination of several networks (verbal, visuospatial processing and executive function) was required in the normal group to carry out arithmetic operations. Furthermore, more involvement of the visuomotor imagery processing (right dorsal premotor area) for imagining bead manipulation and low level use of the executive function (frontal-subcortical area) for launching the relatively time-consuming sequentially organized process was noted in the abacus expert group than in the non-expert group. We suggest that these findings may explain why abacus experts can reveal the exceptional computational skills compared to non-experts after intensive training.

  19. Prospective demonstration of brain plasticity after intensive abacus-based mental calculation training: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.L. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wu, T.H. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Chien-Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, M.C. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.H. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Sheu, C.Y. [Department of Radiology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 92, Section 2, Chungshan North Road, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.C. [Integrated Brain Research Unit, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.S. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw

    2006-12-20

    Abacus-based mental calculation is a unique Chinese culture. The abacus experts can perform complex computations mentally with exceptionally fast speed and high accuracy. However, the neural bases of computation processing are not yet clearly known. This study used a BOLD contrast 3T fMRI system to explore the brain activation differences between abacus experts and non-expert subjects. All the acquired data were analyzed using SPM99 software. From the results, different ways of performing calculations between the two groups were seen. The experts tended to adopt efficient visuospatial/visuomotor strategy (bilateral parietal/frontal network) to process and retrieve all the intermediate and final results on the virtual abacus during calculation. By contrast, coordination of several networks (verbal, visuospatial processing and executive function) was required in the normal group to carry out arithmetic operations. Furthermore, more involvement of the visuomotor imagery processing (right dorsal premotor area) for imagining bead manipulation and low level use of the executive function (frontal-subcortical area) for launching the relatively time-consuming sequentially organized process was noted in the abacus expert group than in the non-expert group. We suggest that these findings may explain why abacus experts can reveal the exceptional computational skills compared to non-experts after intensive training.

  20. On eco-planning for an eco-demonstration park (EDP) and sustainability-Case study of the Luhua EDP in the Chongming Island of Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The background,concept,connotation,principles,and methods ofeco-planning for an Eco-Demonstration Park (EDP) and sustainability were examined based on a case study of the Luhua EDP in the Chongming Island of Shanghai,China,which is an important part of Shanghai Eco-city planning and construction in the 21st century.By analyzing natural,social and economic conditions,calculating population using the land capacity eco-model,eco-function zoning,and eco-construction,an innovative eco-industrial structure and technical chain were formulated.A comprehensive eco-planning scheme for the EDP was proposed,including planning and management strategies for subsystems of efficient industry,good quality human settlement,high standard eco-construction and eco-tourism as well as effective environmental protection and attractive landscape.The EDP should be an area with coordinated and sustainable economic,social and environmental subsystems.Eco-planning for the EDP should be a very important part of eco-city planning and sustainability.The paper aims to set up a theoretical framework and practical basis for eco-planning and promoting harmony between human and nature.

  1. Analysis of two heterologous flowering genes in ¤Brachypodium distachyon¤ demonstrates its potential as a grass model plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Lenk, I.; Jensen, Christian S.

    2006-01-01

    including close phylogenetic relationship to the temperate grasses, vernalisation requirement, high transformation efficiency, small genome size and a rapid life cycle. These requirements are all fulfilled by the small annual grass Brachypodium distachyon. As a first step towards implementing this plant......Despite the great contribution of model organisms, such as Arabidopsis and rice to understand biological processes in plants, these models are less valuable for functional studies of particular genes from temperate grass crop species. Therefore a new model plant is required, displaying features...... generation within the first year upon transformation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  3. Plasma lysosphingomyelin demonstrates great potential as a diagnostic biomarker for Niemann-Pick disease type C in a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W D Welford

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C is a devastating, neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder which is characterised by variable manifestation of visceral signs, progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration and premature death, caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. Due to the complexity of diagnosis and the availability of an approved therapy in the EU, improved detection of NP-C may have a huge impact on future disease management. At the cellular level dysfunction or deficiency of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein leads to a complex intracellular endosomal/lysosomal trafficking defect, and organ specific patterns of sphingolipid accumulation. Lysosphingolipids have been shown to be excellent biomarkers of sphingolipidosis in several enzyme deficient lysosomal storage disorders. Additionally, in a recent study the lysosphingolipids, lysosphingomyelin (SPC and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph, appeared to be elevated in the plasma of three adult NP-C patients. In order to investigate the clinical utility of SPC and GlcSph as diagnostic markers, an in-depth fit for purpose biomarker assay validation for measurement of these biomarkers in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Plasma SPC and GlcSph are stable and can be measured accurately, precisely and reproducibly. In a retrospective analysis of 57 NP-C patients and 70 control subjects, median plasma SPC and GlcSph were significantly elevated in NP-C by 2.8-fold and 1.4-fold respectively. For miglustat-naïve NP-C patients, aged 2-50 years, the area under the ROC curve was 0.999 for SPC and 0.776 for GlcSph. Plasma GlcSph did not correlate with SPC levels in NP-C patients. The data indicate excellent potential for the use of lysosphingomyelin in NP-C diagnosis, where it could be used to identify NP-C patients for confirmatory genetic testing.

  4. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  5. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  6. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Study on Macro-traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangGe; GuowuZhang; BaojunYuan; KepingLi

    2004-01-01

    Macro-traffic model is an effective tool for supporting traffic programmer to This article is based on the software products VISEM (demand model) and VISUM (supply model) from PTV Company of Germany, and studies macro-traffic model on the basis of considering that traffic system is an interactive system of between a supply system and a demand system.

  8. Mapping temporal dynamics in social interactions with unified structural equation modeling: A description and demonstration revealing time-dependent sex differences in play behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Adriene M; Beekman, Charles; Molenaar, Peter C M; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-07-01

    Developmental science is rich with observations of social interactions, but few available methodological and statistical approaches take full advantage of the information provided by these data. The authors propose implementation of the unified structural equation model (uSEM), a network analysis technique, for observational data coded repeatedly across time; uSEM captures the temporal dynamics underlying changes in behavior at the individual level by revealing the ways in which a single person influences - concurrently and in the future - other people. To demonstrate the utility of uSEM, the authors applied it to ratings of positive affect and vigor of activity during children's unstructured laboratory play with unfamiliar, same-sex peers. Results revealed the time-dependent nature of sex differences in play behavior. For girls more than boys, positive affect was dependent upon peers' prior positive affect. For boys more than girls, vigor of activity was dependent upon peers' current vigor of activity.

  9. Deriving Physical Properties from Broadband Photometry with Prospector: Description of the Model and a Demonstration of its Accuracy Using 129 Galaxies in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Joel; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Conroy, Charlie; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Byler, Nell

    2017-03-01

    Broadband photometry of galaxies measures an unresolved mix of complex stellar populations, gas, and dust. Interpreting these data is a challenge for models: many studies have shown that properties derived from modeling galaxy photometry are uncertain by a factor of two or more, and yet answering key questions in the field now requires higher accuracy than this. Here, we present a new model framework specifically designed for these complexities. Our model, Prospector- α, includes dust attenuation and re-radiation, a flexible attenuation curve, nebular emission, stellar metallicity, and a six-component nonparametric star formation history. The flexibility and range of the parameter space, coupled with Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling within the Prospector inference framework, is designed to provide unbiased parameters and realistic error bars. We assess the accuracy of the model with aperture-matched optical spectroscopy, which was excluded from the fits. We compare spectral features predicted solely from fits to the broadband photometry to the observed spectral features. Our model predicts Hα luminosities with a scatter of ∼0.18 dex and an offset of ∼0.1 dex across a wide range of morphological types and stellar masses. This agreement is remarkable, as the Hα luminosity is dependent on accurate star formation rates, dust attenuation, and stellar metallicities. The model also accurately predicts dust-sensitive Balmer decrements, spectroscopic stellar metallicities, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mass fractions, and the age- and metallicity-sensitive features Dn4000 and Hδ. Although the model passes all these tests, we caution that we have not yet assessed its performance at higher redshift or the accuracy of recovered stellar masses.

  10. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  11. Investigation of energy transport in DIII-D High-β P EAST-demonstration discharges with the TGLF turbulent and NEO neoclassical transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Staebler, G. M.; Lao, L. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; McClenaghan, J.; Li, G.; Ding, S.; Qian, J.; Wan, B.; Xu, G. S.; Solomon, W.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Energy transport analyses of the DIII-D high-{β\\text{P}} EAST-demonstration discharges have been performed using the TGYRO transport package with the TGLF turbulent and NEO neoclassical transport models under the OMFIT integrated modeling framework. Ion energy transport is shown to be dominated by neoclassical transport and ion temperature profiles predicted by TGYRO agree closely with the experimental measured profiles for these high-{β\\text{P}} discharges. Ion energy transport is largely insensitive to reductions in the E× B flow shear stabilization. The Shafranov shift is shown to play a role in the suppression of the ion turbulent energy transport below the neoclassical level. Electron turbulent energy transport is under-predicted by TGLF and a significant shortfall in the electron energy transport over the whole core plasma is found with TGLF predictions for these high-{β\\text{P}} discharges. TGYRO can successfully predict the experimental ion and electron temperature profiles by artificially increasing the saturated turbulence level for ETG driven modes used in TGLF.

  12. Empirical Covariance Modeling for 21 cm Power Spectrum Estimation: A Method Demonstration and New Limits from Early Murchison Widefield Array 128-Tile Data

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Joshua S; Hewitt, Jacqueline N; Tegmark, Max; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Carroll, P; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hernquist, L; Hurley-Walker, N; Jacobs, D C; Kim, H S; Kittiwisit, P; Lenc, E; Line, J; Loeb, A; McKinley, B; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Offringa, A R; Paul, S; Pindor, B; Pober, J C; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Sethi, S; Shankar, N Udaya; Subrahmanyan, R; Sullivan, I; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S J; Trott, C; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Wyithe, S; Bernardi, G; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, A A; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Lonsdale, C J; McWhirter, S R; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Srivani, K S; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2015-01-01

    The separation of the faint cosmological background signal from bright astrophysical foregrounds remains one of the most daunting challenges of mapping the high-redshift intergalactic medium with the redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen. Advances in mapping and modeling of diffuse and point source foregrounds have improved subtraction accuracy, but no subtraction scheme is perfect. Precisely quantifying the errors and error correlations due to missubtracted foregrounds allows for both the rigorous analysis of the 21 cm power spectrum and for the maximal isolation of the "EoR window" from foreground contamination. We present a method to infer the covariance of foreground residuals from the data itself in contrast to previous attempts at a priori modeling. We demonstrate our method by setting limits on the power spectrum using a 3 h integration from the 128-tile Murchison Widefield Array. Observing between 167 and 198 MHz, we find at 95% confidence a best limit of Delta^2(k) < 3.7 x 10^4 mK^2 at comovin...

  13. A novel spontaneous model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) using a primary prostate cancer derived cell line demonstrating distinct stem-like characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner-Foreman, Naomi; Vadakekolathu, Jayakumar; Laversin, Stéphanie A; Mathieu, Morgan G; Reeder, Stephen; Pockley, A Graham; Rees, Robert C; Boocock, David J

    2017-01-17

    Cells acquire the invasive and migratory properties necessary for the invasion-metastasis cascade and the establishment of aggressive, metastatic disease by reactivating a latent embryonic programme: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we report the development of a new, spontaneous model of EMT which involves four phenotypically distinct clones derived from a primary tumour-derived human prostate cancer cell line (OPCT-1), and its use to explore relationships between EMT and the generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in prostate cancer. Expression of epithelial (E-cadherin) and mesenchymal markers (vimentin, fibronectin) revealed that two of the four clones were incapable of spontaneously activating EMT, whereas the others contained large populations of EMT-derived, vimentin-positive cells having spindle-like morphology. One of the two EMT-positive clones exhibited aggressive and stem cell-like characteristics, whereas the other was non-aggressive and showed no stem cell phenotype. One of the two EMT-negative clones exhibited aggressive stem cell-like properties, whereas the other was the least aggressive of all clones. These findings demonstrate the existence of distinct, aggressive CSC-like populations in prostate cancer, but, importantly, that not all cells having a potential for EMT exhibit stem cell-like properties. This unique model can be used to further interrogate the biology of EMT in prostate cancer.

  14. Modeling minor actinide multiple recycling in a lead-cooled fast reactor to demonstrate a fuel cycle without long-lived nuclear waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisz Przemysław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of closed nuclear fuel cycle seems to be the most promising options for the efficient usage of the nuclear energy resources. However, it can be implemented only in fast breeder reactors of the IVth generation, which are characterized by the fast neutron spectrum. The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR was defined and studied on the level of technical design in order to demonstrate its performance and reliability within the European collaboration on ELSY (European Lead-cooled System and LEADER (Lead-cooled European Advanced Demonstration Reactor projects. It has been demonstrated that LFR meets the requirements of the closed nuclear fuel cycle, where plutonium and minor actinides (MA are recycled for reuse, thereby producing no MA waste. In this study, the most promising option was realized when entire Pu + MA material is fully recycled to produce a new batch of fuel without partitioning. This is the concept of a fuel cycle which asymptotically tends to the adiabatic equilibrium, where the concentrations of plutonium and MA at the beginning of the cycle are restored in the subsequent cycle in the combined process of fuel transmutation and cooling, removal of fission products (FPs, and admixture of depleted uranium. In this way, generation of nuclear waste containing radioactive plutonium and MA can be eliminated. The paper shows methodology applied to the LFR equilibrium fuel cycle assessment, which was developed for the Monte Carlo continuous energy burnup (MCB code, equipped with enhanced modules for material processing and fuel handling. The numerical analysis of the reactor core concerns multiple recycling and recovery of long-lived nuclides and their influence on safety parameters. The paper also presents a general concept of the novel IVth generation breeder reactor with equilibrium fuel and its future role in the management of MA.

  15. Development and demonstration of a Lagrangian dispersion modeling system for real-time prediction of smoke haze pollution from biomass burning in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Denise; Burgin, Laura; Gan, Christopher; Hort, Matthew; Jones, Andrew; Shaw, Felicia; Witham, Claire; Zhang, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    Transboundary smoke haze caused by biomass burning frequently causes extreme air pollution episodes in maritime and continental Southeast Asia. With millions of people being affected by this type of pollution every year, the task to introduce smoke haze related air quality forecasts is urgent. We investigate three severe haze episodes: June 2013 in Maritime SE Asia, induced by fires in central Sumatra, and March/April 2013 and 2014 on mainland SE Asia. Based on comparisons with surface measurements of PM10 we demonstrate that the combination of the Lagrangian dispersion model NAME with emissions derived from satellite-based active-fire detection provides reliable forecasts for the region. Contrasting two fire emission inventories shows that using algorithms to account for fire pixel obscuration by cloud or haze better captures the temporal variations and observed persistence of local pollution levels. Including up-to-date representations of fuel types in the area and using better conversion and emission factors is found to more accurately represent local concentration magnitudes, particularly for peat fires. With both emission inventories the overall spatial and temporal evolution of the haze events is captured qualitatively, with some error attributed to the resolution of the meteorological data driving the dispersion process. In order to arrive at a quantitative agreement with local PM10 levels, the simulation results need to be scaled. Considering the requirements of operational forecasts, we introduce a real-time bias correction technique to the modeling system to address systematic and random modeling errors, which successfully improves the results in terms of reduced normalized mean biases and fractional gross errors.

  16. Experimental demonstration of nonbilocal quantum correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Dylan J; Bennet, Adam J; Branciard, Cyril; Pryde, Geoff J

    2017-04-01

    Quantum mechanics admits correlations that cannot be explained by local realistic models. The most studied models are the standard local hidden variable models, which satisfy the well-known Bell inequalities. To date, most works have focused on bipartite entangled systems. We consider correlations between three parties connected via two independent entangled states. We investigate the new type of so-called "bilocal" models, which correspondingly involve two independent hidden variables. These models describe scenarios that naturally arise in quantum networks, where several independent entanglement sources are used. Using photonic qubits, we build such a linear three-node quantum network and demonstrate nonbilocal correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality tailored for bilocal models. Furthermore, we show that the demonstration of nonbilocality is more noise-tolerant than that of standard Bell nonlocality in our three-party quantum network.

  17. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  18. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  19. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  20. Evaluation Of Microdosing Strategies For Studies In Preclinical Drug Development: Demonstration Of Linear Pharmacokinetics In Dogs Of A Nucleoside Analogue Over A 50-Fold Dose Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, P; Vogel, J S; Rose, M J; Ubick, E A; Brunner, J E; Wallace, M A; Adelsberger, J K; Baker, M P; Henderson, P T; Pearson, P G; Baillie, T A

    2004-04-22

    The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was validated successfully and utilized to study the pharmacokinetics and disposition in dogs of a preclinical drug candidate (Compound A), after oral and intravenous administration. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether Compound A displayed linear kinetics across sub-pharmacological (microdose) and pharmacological dose ranges in an animal model, prior to initiation of a human microdose study. The AMS-derived disposition properties of Compound A were comparable to data obtained via conventional techniques such as LC-MS/MS and liquid scintillation counting analyses. Thus, Compound A displayed multiphasic kinetics and possessed low plasma clearance (4.4 mL/min/kg), a long terminal elimination half-life (19.4 hr) and high oral bioavailability (82%). Currently there are no published comparisons of the kinetics of a pharmaceutical compound at pharmacological versus sub-pharmacological doses employing microdosing strategies. The present study thus provides the first description of the pharmacokinetics of a drug candidate assessed under these two dosing regimens. The data demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic properties of Compound A were similar following dosing at 0.02 mg/kg as at 1 mg/kg, indicating that in the case of Compound A, the kinetics of absorption, distribution and elimination in the dog appear to be linear across this 50-fold dose range. Moreover, the exceptional sensitivity of AMS provided a pharmacokinetic profile of Compound A, even following a microdose, which revealed aspects of the disposition of this agent that were inaccessible by conventional techniques. The applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are broad ranging and vary from studying environmental and ecological issues such as the isotopic composition of the atmosphere, soil and water (Hughen et al., 2000; Beck et al., 2001; Keith-Roach et al., 2001; Mironov et al., 2002), to archaeology and volcanology

  1. Replication and validation of higher order models demonstrated that a summary score for the EORTC QLQ-C30 is robust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesinger, Johannes M.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; Fayers, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    that arise because of multiple testing when making comparisons based on the 15 outcomes generated by this questionnaire and may reduce sample size requirements for health-related quality of life studies using the QLQ-C30 questionnaire when an overall summary score is a relevant primary outcome.......OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate the higher order measurement structure of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30), with the aim of generating a summary score. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using pretreatment QLQ-C30 data (N...... = 3,282), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses to test seven previously evaluated higher order models. We compared the summary score(s) derived from the best performing higher order model with the original QLQ-C30 scale scores, using tumor stage, performance status, and change over time (N = 244...

  2. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  3. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    -1990s from anchovy to sardine dominance. Simulated averaged weights- and lengths-at-age did not vary much across decades, and movement patterns showed anchovy located close to the coast while sardine were more dispersed and farther offshore. Albacore predation on anchovy and sardine was concentrated near the coast in two pockets near the Monterey Bay area and equatorward of Cape Mendocino. Predation mortality from fishing boats was concentrated where sardine age-1 and older individuals were located close to one of the five ports. We demonstrated that it is feasible to perform multi-decadal simulations of a fully-coupled end-to-end model, and that this can be done for a model that follows individual fish and boats on the same 3-dimensional grid as the hydrodynamics. Our focus here was on proof of principle and our results showed that we solved the major technical, bookkeeping, and computational issues. We discuss the next steps to increase computational speed and to include important biological differences between anchovy and sardine. In a companion paper (Fiechter et al., 2015), we further analyze the historical simulation in the context of the various hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the sardine and anchovy cycles.

  4. Statistical models for stability studies

    OpenAIRE

    Uwimpuhwe, Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Stability studies are conducted at all phases of the drug development cycle, with the main objective of having a stable product on market. In this project we aimed at evaluating if the shelf life could be extended from 24 (current shelf life) to 36 months, quantifying pharmaceutical stability such as shelf life, release limit, degradation rate ( annually and at the end of both shelf lives) and consumer/producer risk. The assay data are longitudinal from 50 different batches, whi...

  5. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2010-01-01

    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  6. New models of hematogenous ovarian cancer metastasis demonstrate preferential spread to the ovary and a requirement for the ovary for abdominal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Lan G; Burgos-Ojeda, Daniela; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen; Bai, Shoumei; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggest that many high-grade serous "ovarian" cancers (HGSOC) start in the fallopian tube. Cancer cells are then recruited to the ovary and then spread diffusely through the abdomen. The mechanism of ovarian cancer spread was thought to be largely due to direct shedding of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity with vascular spread being of limited importance. Recent work challenges this dogma, suggesting hematogenous spread of ovarian cancer may play a larger role in ovarian cancer cell metastasis than previously thought. One reason the role of vascular spread of ovarian cancer has not been fully elucidated is the lack of easily accessible models of vascular ovarian cancer metastasis. Here, we present 3 metastatic models of ovarian cancer which confirm the ability of ovarian cancer to hematogenously spread. Strikingly, we observe a high rate of metastasis to the ovary with the development of ascites in these models. Interestingly, oophorectomy resulted in a complete loss of peritoneal metastases and ascites. Taken together, our data indicate that hematogenously disseminated HGSOC cells have a unique tropism for the ovary and that hematogenous spread in ovarian cancer may be more common than appreciated. Furthermore, our studies support a critical role for the ovary in promoting HGSOC cell metastasis to the abdomen. The models developed here represent important new tools to evaluate both the mechanism of cancer cell recruitment to the ovary and understand and target key steps in ovarian cancer metastasis.

  7. Study of LPG Release & Dispersion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Shanjun; Peng Xiangwei

    2003-01-01

    The current applicable release & dispersion models are reviewed. A typical model is developed on the basis of LPG storage conditions in China and the authors' research. The study is focused on the relationship between LPG composition and release rate, and on the influence of buildings or structures located in the surrounding area on the dispersion of gas plume. The established model is compared with existing models by the use of published field test data.

  8. QCD and Standard Model Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Carl A [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Our group has focused on using jets in STAR to investigate the longitudinal and transverse spin structure of the proton. We performed measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production that provide the strongest evidence to date that the gluons in the proton with x>0.05 are polarized. We also made the first observation of the Collins effect in pp collisions, thereby providing an important test of the universality of the Collins fragmentation function and opening a new tool to probe quark transversity in the proton. Our studies of forward rapidity electromagnetic jet-like events raise serious question whether the large transverse spin asymmetries that have been seen for forward inclusive hadron production arise from conventional 2 → 2 parton scattering. This is the final technical report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER40765. It covers activities during the period January 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.

  9. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  10. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    develop fulminant hepatitis, acute hepatitis, or chronic liver disease after adoptive transfer, and others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Among HCV transgenic mice, most develop no disease, but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model, and HCC in another. Although mice are not susceptible to HBV and HCV, their ability to replicate these viruses and to develop liver diseases characteristic of human infections provides opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics In the search for the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection, two viral proteins, the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV and the HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV, have been shown to possess oncogenic potential through transgenic mouse studies, indicating the direct involvement of the hepatitis viruses in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    This may explain the very high frequency of HCC in patients with HCV or HBV infection.

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees.

    Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate

  11. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  12. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  13. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  14. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  15. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  16. Mouse Models for Studying Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bryna S M; Allen, Terri J

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a term used to describe kidney damage cause by diabetes. With DN as one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease worldwide, there is a strong need for appropriate animal models to study DN pathogenesis and develop therapeutic strategies. To date, most experiments are carried out in mouse models as opposed to other species for several reasons including lower cost, ease of handling, and easy manipulation of the mouse genome to generate transgenic and knockout animals. This unit provides detailed insights and technical knowledge in setting up one of the most widely used models of DN, the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model. This model has been extensively exploited to study the mechanism of diabetic renal injury. The advantages and limitations of the STZ model and the availability of other genetic models of DN are also discussed.

  17. The Construction of Physics Classroom Experiment Demonstration Model Based on VR Technology%基于VR技术的生物课堂演示实验教学模式的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾凤梅

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the theory basis of the physics classroom experiment demonstration model based on virtual reality technology. It also talks about its content, the intrinsic mechanism, characteristics, as well as the differences and similarities with other forms of study. The model can effectively perform the interaction between teaching and learning, get the students involved in the classroom experiment demonstration teaching, so that to stir the students' initiative to participate in classroom teaching demonstration and make them perform the experiments independently.%探索了基于VR技术的中学生物课堂演示实验教学模式的理论基础,对课堂演示实验学习的内涵、内在机制、特征以及与其他学习方式的区别与联系作了阐述。该模式能够实现有效的教学交往和互动,让学生主动参与到课堂演示教学中来,以发挥学生主体的积极性、主动性,让学生在以后的实验课上能够完全独立地完成实验。

  18. Modelling of human low frequency sound localization acuity demonstrates dominance of spatial variation of interaural time difference and suggests uniform just-noticeable differences in interaural time difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna C G Smith

    Full Text Available Sound source localization is critical to animal survival and for identification of auditory objects. We investigated the acuity with which humans localize low frequency, pure tone sounds using timing differences between the ears. These small differences in time, known as interaural time differences or ITDs, are identified in a manner that allows localization acuity of around 1° at the midline. Acuity, a relative measure of localization ability, displays a non-linear variation as sound sources are positioned more laterally. All species studied localize sounds best at the midline and progressively worse as the sound is located out towards the side. To understand why sound localization displays this variation with azimuthal angle, we took a first-principles, systemic, analytical approach to model localization acuity. We calculated how ITDs vary with sound frequency, head size and sound source location for humans. This allowed us to model ITD variation for previously published experimental acuity data and determine the distribution of just-noticeable differences in ITD. Our results suggest that the best-fit model is one whereby just-noticeable differences in ITDs are identified with uniform or close to uniform sensitivity across the physiological range. We discuss how our results have several implications for neural ITD processing in different species as well as development of the auditory system.

  19. Reactive puff model SCICHEM: Model enhancements and performance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, B.; Karamchandani, P. K.; Sykes, R. I.; Henn, D. S.; Knipping, E.

    2015-09-01

    The SCICHEM model incorporates complete gas phase, aqueous and aerosol phase chemistry within a state-of-the-science Gaussian puff model SCIPUFF (Second-order Closure Integrated Puff). The model is a valuable tool that can be used to calculate the impacts of a single source or a small number of sources on downwind ozone and PM2.5. The model has flexible data requirements: it can be run with routine surface and upper air observations or with prognostic meteorological model outputs and source emissions are specified in a simple text format. This paper describes significant advances to the dispersion and chemistry components of the model in the latest release, SCICHEM 3.0. Some of the major advancements include modeling of skewed turbulence for convective boundary layer and updated chemistry schemes (CB05 gas phase chemical mechanism; AERO5 aerosol and aqueous modules). The results from SCICHEM 3.0 are compared with observations from a tracer study as well as aircraft measurements of reactive species in power plant plumes from two field studies. The results with the tracer experiment (Copenhagen study) show that the incorporation of skewed turbulence improves the calculation of tracer dispersion and transport. The comparisons with the Cumberland and Dolet Hills power plume measurements show good correlation between the observed and predicted concentrations of reactive gaseous species at most downwind distances from the source.

  20. Eicosanoid profiling in an orthotopic model of lung cancer progression by mass spectrometry demonstrates selective production of leukotrienes by inflammatory cells of the microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Poczobutt

    Full Text Available Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid(1 (AA, which is released by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2. AA is metabolized through three major pathways, cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LO and cytochrome P450, to produce a family of eicosanoids, which individually have been shown to have pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities in cancer. However, cancer progression likely depends on complex changes in multiple eicosanoids produced by cancer cells and by tumor microenvironment and a systematic examination of the spectrum of eicosanoids in cancer has not been performed. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS to quantitate eicosanoids produced during lung tumor progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model of lung cancer, in which Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cells are injected into lungs of syngeneic mice. The presence of tumor increased products of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways in a time-dependent fashion. Comparing tumors grown in cPLA2 knockout vs wild-type mice, we demonstrated that prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2a were produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME, but leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 production required cPLA2 expression in the TME. Using flow cytometry, we recovered tumor-associated neutrophils and 2 types of tumor-associated macrophages from tumor-bearing lungs and we defined their distinct eicosanoid profiles by LC/MS/MS. The combination of flow cytometry and LC/MS/MS unravels the complexity of eicosanoid production in lung cancer and provides a rationale to develop therapeutic strategies that target select cell populations to inhibit specific classes of eicosanoids.

  1. Eicosanoid profiling in an orthotopic model of lung cancer progression by mass spectrometry demonstrates selective production of leukotrienes by inflammatory cells of the microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczobutt, Joanna M; Gijon, Miguel; Amin, Jay; Hanson, Dwight; Li, Howard; Walker, Deandra; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Lu, Xian; Murphy, Robert C; Nemenoff, Raphael A

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid(1) (AA), which is released by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). AA is metabolized through three major pathways, cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO) and cytochrome P450, to produce a family of eicosanoids, which individually have been shown to have pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities in cancer. However, cancer progression likely depends on complex changes in multiple eicosanoids produced by cancer cells and by tumor microenvironment and a systematic examination of the spectrum of eicosanoids in cancer has not been performed. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to quantitate eicosanoids produced during lung tumor progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model of lung cancer, in which Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells are injected into lungs of syngeneic mice. The presence of tumor increased products of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways in a time-dependent fashion. Comparing tumors grown in cPLA2 knockout vs wild-type mice, we demonstrated that prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2a) were produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME), but leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) production required cPLA2 expression in the TME. Using flow cytometry, we recovered tumor-associated neutrophils and 2 types of tumor-associated macrophages from tumor-bearing lungs and we defined their distinct eicosanoid profiles by LC/MS/MS. The combination of flow cytometry and LC/MS/MS unravels the complexity of eicosanoid production in lung cancer and provides a rationale to develop therapeutic strategies that target select cell populations to inhibit specific classes of eicosanoids.

  2. Spatial Modeling of Geometallurgical Properties: Techniques and a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Jared L., E-mail: jdeutsch@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Palmer, Kevin [Teck Resources Limited (Canada); Deutsch, Clayton V.; Szymanski, Jozef [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Etsell, Thomas H. [University of Alberta, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    High-resolution spatial numerical models of metallurgical properties constrained by geological controls and more extensively by measured grade and geomechanical properties constitute an important part of geometallurgy. Geostatistical and other numerical techniques are adapted and developed to construct these high-resolution models accounting for all available data. Important issues that must be addressed include unequal sampling of the metallurgical properties versus grade assays, measurements at different scale, and complex nonlinear averaging of many metallurgical parameters. This paper establishes techniques to address each of these issues with the required implementation details and also demonstrates geometallurgical mineral deposit characterization for a copper–molybdenum deposit in South America. High-resolution models of grades and comminution indices are constructed, checked, and are rigorously validated. The workflow demonstrated in this case study is applicable to many other deposit types.

  3. Using Markov State Models to Study Self-Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Perkett, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude.

  4. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  5. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS) - NMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan; Boutin, Celine; Aguiar, Pedro

    2014-06-01

    The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30-50 µl for HR-MAS) for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl) whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS). As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  6. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS µNMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eWong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30–50 µl for HR-MAS for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS. As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  7. Human embryonic stem cells carrying an unbalanced translocation demonstrate impaired differentiation into trophoblasts: an in vitro model of human implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiz, A; Kalma, Y; Frumkin, T; Telias, M; Carmon, A; Amit, A; Ben-Yosef, D

    2015-03-01

    Carriers of the balanced translocation t(11;22), the most common reciprocal translocation in humans, are at high risk of creating gametes with unbalanced translocation, leading to repeated miscarriages. Current research models for studying translocated embryos and the biological basis for their implantation failure are limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) carrying the unbalanced chromosomal translocation t(11;22) can provide an explanation for repeated miscarriages of unbalanced translocated embryos. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and karyotype analysis were performed to analyze the t(11;22) in embryos during PGD and in the derived hESC line. The hESC line was characterized by RT-PCR and FACS analysis for pluripotent markers. Directed differentiation to trophoblasts was carried out by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). Trophoblast development was analyzed by measuring β-hCG secretion, by β-hCG immunostaining and by gene expression of trophoblastic markers. We derived the first hESC line carrying unbalanced t(11;22), which showed the typical morphological and molecular characteristics of a hESC line. Control hESCs differentiated into trophoblasts secreted increasing levels of β-hCG and concomitantly expressed the trophoblast genes, CDX2, TP63, KRT7, ERVW1, CGA, GCM1, KLF4 and PPARG. In contrast, differentiated translocated hESCs displayed reduced and delayed secretion of β-hCG concomitant with impaired expression of the trophoblastic genes. The reduced activation of trophoblastic genes may be responsible for the impaired trophoblastic differentiation in t(11;22)-hESCs, associated with implantation failure in unbalanced t(11;22) embryos. Our t(11;22) hESCs are presented as a valuable human model for studying the mechanisms underlying implantation failure.

  8. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid: A Stochastic Model Checking Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Zhu, Huibiao; Huang, Heqing

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology functions to the physical elements of a system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues that require novel methods and applications. In this context, an important issue is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this technical report, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker.

  9. Distal spike initiation zone location estimation by morphological simulation of ionic current filtering demonstrated in a novel model of an identified Drosophila motoneuron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Günay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying ion channel currents generated distally from the recording site is difficult because of artifacts caused by poor space clamp and membrane filtering. A computational model can quantify artifact parameters for correction by simulating the currents only if their exact anatomical location is known. We propose that the same artifacts that confound current recordings can help pinpoint the source of those currents by providing a signature of the neuron's morphology. This method can improve the recording quality of currents initiated at the spike initiation zone (SIZ that are often distal to the soma in invertebrate neurons. Drosophila being a valuable tool for characterizing ion currents, we estimated the SIZ location and quantified artifacts in an identified motoneuron, aCC/MN1-Ib, by constructing a novel multicompartmental model. Initial simulation of the measured biophysical channel properties in an isopotential Hodgkin-Huxley type neuron model partially replicated firing characteristics. Adding a second distal compartment, which contained spike-generating Na+ and K+ currents, was sufficient to simulate aCC's in vivo activity signature. Matching this signature using a reconstructed morphology predicted that the SIZ is on aCC's primary axon, 70 μm after the most distal dendritic branching point. From SIZ to soma, we observed and quantified selective morphological filtering of fast activating currents. Non-inactivating K+ currents are filtered ∼3 times less and despite their large magnitude at the soma they could be as distal as Na+ currents. The peak of transient component (NaT of the voltage-activated Na+ current is also filtered more than the magnitude of slower persistent component (NaP, which can contribute to seizures. The corrected NaP/NaT ratio explains the previously observed discrepancy when the same channel is expressed in different cells. In summary, we used an in vivo signature to estimate ion channel location and recording

  10. Endothelial damage in major depression patients is modulated by SSRI treatment, as demonstrated by circulating biomarkers and an in vitro cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vilchez, I; Diaz-Ricart, M; Navarro, V; Torramade, S; Zamorano-Leon, J; Lopez-Farre, A; Galan, A M; Gasto, C; Escolar, G

    2016-01-01

    There is a link between depression, cardiovascular events and inflammation. We have explored this connection through endothelial dysfunction, using in vivo and in vitro approaches. We evaluated circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with major depression at their diagnosis (MD-0) and during antidepressant treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, for 8 and 24 weeks (MD-8 and MD-24). Results were always compared with matched healthy controls (CON). We measured in vivo circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in blood samples, and assessed plasma levels of soluble von Willebrand factor (VWF) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). CEC counts, soluble VWF and VCAM-1 were statistically elevated in MD-0 (Pcultured in the presence of sera from each study group. Elevated expression of the inflammation marker intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and oxidative stress, with lower presence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and higher reactive oxygen species production, were found in cells exposed to MD-0 sera (Pcultured endothelial cells reproducing endothelial dysfunction in naive patients with major depression, demonstrating endothelial damage and inflammation at diagnosis, and recovering with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment for 24 weeks. PMID:27598970

  11. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  12. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  13. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  14. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  15. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  16. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  17. Case Studies in Modelling, Control in Food Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassey, J; Barone, A; Montague, G A; Sabou, V

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of modelling and control in increasing food process efficiency and ensuring product quality. Various approaches to both modelling and control in food processing are set in the context of the specific challenges in this industrial sector and latest developments in each area are discussed. Three industrial case studies are used to demonstrate the benefits of advanced measurement, modelling and control in food processes. The first case study illustrates the use of knowledge elicitation from expert operators in the process for the manufacture of potato chips (French fries) and the consequent improvements in process control to increase the consistency of the resulting product. The second case study highlights the economic benefits of tighter control of an important process parameter, moisture content, in potato crisp (chips) manufacture. The final case study describes the use of NIR spectroscopy in ensuring effective mixing of dry multicomponent mixtures and pastes. Practical implementation tips and infrastructure requirements are also discussed.

  18. Evaluation Of Microdosing Strategies For Studies In Preclinical Drug Development: Demonstration Of Linear Pharmacokinetics In Dogs Of A Nucleoside Analogue Over A 50-Fold Dose Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, P; Vogel, J S; Rose, M J; Ubick, E A; Brunner, J E; Wallace, M A; Adelsberger, J K; Baker, M P; Henderson, P T; Pearson, P G; Baillie, T A

    2004-04-22

    The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was validated successfully and utilized to study the pharmacokinetics and disposition in dogs of a preclinical drug candidate (Compound A), after oral and intravenous administration. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether Compound A displayed linear kinetics across sub-pharmacological (microdose) and pharmacological dose ranges in an animal model, prior to initiation of a human microdose study. The AMS-derived disposition properties of Compound A were comparable to data obtained via conventional techniques such as LC-MS/MS and liquid scintillation counting analyses. Thus, Compound A displayed multiphasic kinetics and possessed low plasma clearance (4.4 mL/min/kg), a long terminal elimination half-life (19.4 hr) and high oral bioavailability (82%). Currently there are no published comparisons of the kinetics of a pharmaceutical compound at pharmacological versus sub-pharmacological doses employing microdosing strategies. The present study thus provides the first description of the pharmacokinetics of a drug candidate assessed under these two dosing regimens. The data demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic properties of Compound A were similar following dosing at 0.02 mg/kg as at 1 mg/kg, indicating that in the case of Compound A, the kinetics of absorption, distribution and elimination in the dog appear to be linear across this 50-fold dose range. Moreover, the exceptional sensitivity of AMS provided a pharmacokinetic profile of Compound A, even following a microdose, which revealed aspects of the disposition of this agent that were inaccessible by conventional techniques. The applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are broad ranging and vary from studying environmental and ecological issues such as the isotopic composition of the atmosphere, soil and water (Hughen et al., 2000; Beck et al., 2001; Keith-Roach et al., 2001; Mironov et al., 2002), to archaeology and volcanology

  19. Understanding exercise uptake and adherence for people with chronic conditions: a new model demonstrating the importance of exercise identity, benefits of attending and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, C; Taket, A

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the factors influencing uptake and adherence to exercise for people with chronic conditions from different ages, genders and ethnicities is important for planning exercise services. This paper presents evidence supporting a new model of exercise uptake and adherence applicable to people with chronic conditions from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds. The study is based on 130 semi-structured interviews with people with chronic conditions, including both those who did and those who did not attend exercise services, and supporters of those who attended. Analysis followed the guidelines of 'framework analysis'. Results show that three factors were particularly important in influencing adherence behavior: (i) exercise identity, (ii) support and (iii) perceived benefits of attending. Social and cultural identities impacted on willingness to exercise, importance of exercise and perceived appropriateness of exercising. Having at least one supporter providing different types of support was associated with high levels of attendance. Those people who valued the social and psychological benefits of attending were more likely to be high attenders. The new model illustrates interaction between these three factors and discusses how these can be taken into account when planning exercise services for people with chronic conditions drawn from diverse socio-demographic groups.

  20. A Randomized Comparison between Video Demonstration and Verbal Instruction in Improving Rota Haler Technique in Children with Persistent Asthma: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugom, Archana; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh

    2017-06-01

    Inhalation therapy is the cornerstone in management of asthma. Failure to use the device properly is one of the factors incriminated in poor control of asthma. To compare the technique of rota haler use in children with persistent asthma immediately after receiving either verbal instruction or a video based demonstration and again at one month following intervention. A total of 28 children, older than six years attending the childhood asthma clinic of our hospital, who were prescribed rota halers for the first time and who were technique naïve were enrolled into the study, after obtaining informed consent from the parents after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were then randomly assigned to either verbal instructions (group of 14) or video demonstration group (group of 14), for teaching them the rota haler technique. Their technique was then assessed using a modified version of the inhaler device assessment tool immediately after education and one month after the intervention. The proportions of children with good technique in both groups at both time points were compared. There was no significant difference in the baseline variables like age, gender, location, socio-economic status and disease duration between both groups. The proportion of children achieving good technique was significantly more in the video group than the oral instruction group at immediate assessment and also at one month post intervention with an odds of 8 and 23.40 respectively (p=0.0262 and 0.0075 respectively). Video demonstration is effective in improving the technique of rota haler use at immediate assessment and at one month post intervention. Further studies are needed to validate this study and to assess factors that predict successful device use.

  1. Direct demonstration of tissue uptake of an inhaled drug: proof-of-principle study using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehniger, Thomas E; Végvári, Akos; Rezeli, Melinda; Prikk, Kaiu; Ross, Peeter; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Edula, Goutham; Sepper, Ruth; Marko-Varga, György

    2011-11-01

    Drug therapy is often directed to specific organ and tissue compartments where the mode of action of the compound affects specifically targeted biological processes. However, the direct measurement of drug uptake in terms of a time kinetic and concentrations attained at the local sites has not been readily available as a clinical index for most drugs. A proof-of-principle study was conducted to test the utility of applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to demonstrate the qualitative distribution pattern of a locally administered drug within tissue sites of targeted action. Here we have measured the occurrence of an inhaled bronchodilator, the muscarinic receptor antagonist ipratropium, within human bronchial biopsies obtained by fiber optic bronchoscopy shortly after dosing exposure. Cryo-preserved biopsy samples from five subjects being evaluated for airway obstruction or potential tumor development were prepared as thin frozen sections. Samples coated with a MALDI matrix were analyzed by a MALDI LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer at large (100 μm) and small (30 μm) raster sizes. Our results demonstrate that ipratropium is rapidly absorbed into the airway wall. Ipratropium parent ion (m/z 332.332) and daughter ions (m/z 166.2 and 290.2) were coincidently partitioned within submucosal spaces containing targeted airway smooth muscle in four out of five subjects. The signal intensity of ipratropium fragment ions provided estimates that local drug concentrations between 3 and 80 nM were achieved within the airway wall. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study in applying MALDI-MSI to demonstrate the localization of a drug administered at therapeutic levels. The study highlights the potential benefit of MALDI-MSI to provide important measurements of drug efficacy in clinical settings.

  2. Study on kinetic model of microwave thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic model parameters for toluene conversion under microwave thermocatalytic treatment were evaluated. The kinetic rate constants were determined using integral method based on experimental data and coupled with Arrhenius equation for obtaining the activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The model provides a good agreement with the experimental data. The kinetic model was also validated with standard error of 3% on average. The extrapolation of the model showed a reasonable trend to predict toluene conversion and product yield both in thermal and catalytic treatments. Under microwave irradiation, activation energy of toluene conversion was lower in the range of 3-27 kJ mol(-1) compared to those of conventional heating reported in the literatures. The overall reaction rate was six times higher compared to conventional heating. As a whole, the kinetic model works better for tar model removal in the absence of gas reforming within a level of reliability demonstrated in this study.

  3. Study on Kinetics for Desulfurization of Model Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jianhua; Zhou Yuenan; Liu Lin; Wang Yue; Xing Jinjuan; Lü Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, by means of the experiments for desulfurization of model diesel through oxi-dative extraction, the changes associated with the rate of desulfurization of diesel and the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides in diesel were explored. Through studying the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides and the principle of solvent extraction, the kinetic equation of desulfurization via oxidative extraction were determined. By means of the evaluation of model parameters and curve fitting, the reaction order between organic sulfide and sulfone, the intrinsic oxidation rate constant of organic sulfide and sulfone, and the equilibrium constant between suifone in model diesel and extractive sol-vent were determined. The experimental values of the desulfurization rate and the theoretical values of the corresponding model equation had closely demonstrated that the desulfurization reaction rate had high accuracy. And the reaction kinetics could provide an important basis for diesel desulfurization process in the future.

  4. Applying the Land Use Portfolio Model to Estimate Natural-Hazard Loss and Risk - A Hypothetical Demonstration for Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, Laura B.

    2008-01-01

    -MH currently performs analyses for earthquakes, floods, and hurricane wind. HAZUS-MH loss estimates, however, do not account for some uncertainties associated with the specific natural-hazard scenarios, such as the likelihood of occurrence within a particular time horizon or the effectiveness of alternative risk-reduction options. Because of the uncertainties involved, it is challenging to make informative decisions about how to cost-effectively reduce risk from natural-hazard events. Risk analysis is one approach that decision-makers can use to evaluate alternative risk-reduction choices when outcomes are unknown. The Land Use Portfolio Model (LUPM), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), is a geospatial scenario-based tool that incorporates hazard-event uncertainties to support risk analysis. The LUPM offers an approach to estimate and compare risks and returns from investments in risk-reduction measures. This paper describes and demonstrates a hypothetical application of the LUPM for Ventura County, California, and examines the challenges involved in developing decision tools that provide quantitative methods to estimate losses and analyze risk from natural hazards.

  5. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  6. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  7. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  8. Functional models of power electronic components for system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Yang, Lifeng; Dravid, Narayan

    1991-01-01

    A novel approach to model power electronic circuits has been developed to facilitate simulation studies of system-level issues. The underlying concept for this approach is to develop an equivalent circuit, the functional model, that performs the same functions as the actual circuit but whose operation can be simulated by using larger time step size and the reduction in model complexity, the computation time required by a functional model is significantly shorter than that required by alternative approaches. The authors present this novel modeling approach and discuss the functional models of two major power electronic components, the DC/DC converter unit and the load converter, that are being considered by NASA for use in the Space Station Freedom electric power system. The validity of these models is established by comparing the simulation results with available experimental data and other simulation results obtained by using a more established modeling approach. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by incorporating these models into a power system model and simulating the system responses and interactions between components under various conditions.

  9. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  10. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  11. 北京城市洪涝模型建设与典型示范%Construction and demonstration of urban flood modeling in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 刘洪伟; 潘兴瑶; 邸苏闯

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization, the ratio of impervious area in river basins has increased greatly. It resulted in the increase of peak flood discharges, reduction of time of concentrations, and expanding threat of flood disasters. Especially, under the unified planning and overall management of channels and drainage systems for urban rivers, the rainfall-runoff relationship is changed greatly at urban river basin scale. Considering the complex and uncertainty of urban flood disasters, this paper proposes a technical framework of urban flood model, and taking Qinghe River as an example to construct the model. The river flood diversion capacity is rechecked. The indicator levels of early warning of river flood are refined with quantified the relationship between flood peak and rainfall depth. The watershed flood risk characteristics are also addressed based on the model. This study would provide a guide to flood control and storm water utilization assessment in the watershed of urban area.%伴随城市快速发展,城市不透水面积持续增加,使得在同等降雨条件下流域内洪峰流量增加、峰现时间缩短,洪涝灾害威胁扩大.城市水利工程众多,虽然城市排水管网和河道都经过全面整治,但随着城区面积增加,城区防洪排涝河道和管网的服务范围、下垫面状况、排水单元和沟渠、支流发生了显著改变,河网的产汇流过程也发生了较大变化.针对城市洪涝灾害发生的复杂性和不确定性特点,提出北京市洪涝模型构建技术框架,并以清河流域为典型流域构建洪涝模型,分别从不同下垫面和降雨条件下河网排洪能力复核、河道防洪预警指标细化、城市洪涝风险量化等方面构建基于洪涝模拟的城市防汛安全调度技术体系.

  12. A History of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Upgrading at BP--from Catalyst Screening Studies to Full Scale Demonstration in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Conversion of Fischer-Tropsch wax into high quality synthetic crude or finished transportation fuels such as premium diesel has been studied over the past 15 years within BP. Catalyst screening and selection was carried out in dedicated micro-reactors and pilot plants, whose designs are critical to the performance selection. Variation in catalyst composition and defining the gas to oil feed ratios with the operating temperature are a few of the parameters studied. Product selection and maximizing diesel yield combined with stability (catalyst life) were the ultimate drivers. The selected catalyst was then tested under commercial conditions in a dedicated 300 barrel per day demonstration plant. The products were also tested in engines to assess their combustion characteristics.

  13. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  14. Engineering study of a 20 MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Final report for the period ending October 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The Research and Engineering Operation of Bechtel Corporation conducted an engineering study of a 20-MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Ten alternative designs were evaluated. Basically, the configurations proposed for the demonstration plants are those of the mature plants which would follow. The designs of the individual plants are based on the cell designs and the means used to house the cells. Initially, proposed cell designs from five manufacturers were considered. To conform with the level of effort allowed for this engineering study, two manufacturers' cells (one open-tank design and one sealed cell design) were selected by ERDA and Bechtel as being representative. These designs formed the basis for the detailed evaluation conducted in this study. The plant and battery configurations evaluated in the study are a large open-tank cell, configured in rows and housed in four buildings; a sealed cell, configured in a single layer of close packed rows in a single building; a sealed cell, configured in a three-tiered arrangement in a single building; and a sealed cell, configured with groups of cells housed in weatherproof modules and placed outdoors. Annual operating costs based on these mature plant costs show lead--acid load-leveling plants are generally not economically competitive with the alternatives when no consideration is given to their other possible benefits to the power system. However, application of credits (e.g., transmission line or spinning reserve credits) can make such plants economically competitive with gas turbine peaking units in specific situations. 46 figures, 25 tables. (RWR)

  15. Demonstration Study for Reliability Assessment of SHM Systems Incorporating Model-Assisted Probability of Detection Approach (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    02.50.-r, 81.70.-q INTRODUCTION The successful deployment of systems for health monitoring of structures depends on appropriate verification... magnetostrictive actuator was used for band-limited pseudo-random excitation up to 1200 Hz, and the dynamic response of the plate was recorded using eight

  16. Data Modeling, Feature Extraction, and Classification of Magnetic and EMI Data, ESTCP Discrimination Study, Camp Sibert, AL. Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    the geophysical quantity in question (magnetic field in [nano- Tesla ] nT, amplitude of EMI response at a given time-channel, etc.) at each of the...required to UXOLab LinPing Song (UBC- GIF) Analyst Perform single and cooperative inversions Nicolas Lhomme (UBC-GIF) Analyst Perform single and

  17. Simple model to study heterogeneous electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Junior, Edison; Lopes, Ana Carolina G.; Suffredini, Hugo B.; Homem-de-Mello, Paula

    2015-01-01

    New electrocatalyst materials have been proposed to increase the performance of fuel cells. Experimental studies show that Pt and Pb metallic and oxide materials are quite efficient in the oxidation of alcohols and small organic molecules such as formic acid in advanced fuel cells. This work proposes a model for studying morphologically heterogeneous catalysts through quantum chemistry methods such as density functional calculations. For testing the model, we have experimentally studied the adsorption of small organic molecules, namely formic acid and methanol, on Pt and Pb electrodes. All methodologies we have tested can be employed for this kind of study, but M06 functional results correlate best with previous simulations of homogeneous catalysts and with experimental data obtained for homogeneous and heterogeneous electrodes. Our model indicates that the presence of a Pt-Pb interface is responsible for higher adsorption energies of these molecules, most likely due to the orientation of the organic molecules that should facilitate the oxidation process.

  18. Study on Strand Space Model Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI QingGuang(季庆光); QING SiHan(卿斯汉); ZHOU YongBin(周永彬); FENG DengGuo(冯登国)

    2003-01-01

    The growing interest in the application of formal methods of cryptographic pro-tocol analysis has led to the development of a number of different ways for analyzing protocol. Inthis paper, it is strictly proved that if for any strand, there exists at least one bundle containingit, then an entity authentication protocol is secure in strand space model (SSM) with some smallextensions. Unfortunately, the results of attack scenario demonstrate that this protocol and the Yahalom protocol and its modification are de facto insecure. By analyzing the reasons of failure offormal inference in strand space model, some deficiencies in original SSM are pointed out. In orderto break through these limitations of analytic capability of SSM, the generalized strand space model(GSSM) induced by some protocol is proposed. In this model, some new classes of strands, oraclestrands, high order oracle strands etc., are developed, and some notions are formalized strictly in GSSM, such as protocol attacks, valid protocol run and successful protocol run. GSSM can thenbe used to further analyze the entity authentication protocol. This analysis sheds light on why thisprotocol would be vulnerable while it illustrates that GSSM not only can prove security protocolcorrect, but also can be efficiently used to construct protocol attacks. It is also pointed out thatusing other protocol to attack some given protocol is essentially the same as the case of using themost of protocol itself.

  19. Demonstration of the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of a novel hemostatic agent, ankaferd blood stopper, on vascular tissue in a rat aortic bleeding model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Aylin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS is a folkloric medicinal plant extract used as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. This experimental study investigated the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of ABS on vascular tissue in a rat model of aortic bleeding. Methods Four groups of 11 Wistar albino rats were used. The abdominal aortas of the rats were wounded; an ABS-soaked tampon was applied to rats in Groups 1 and 3, and a plain gauze tampon was applied to rats in Groups 2 and 4 until the bleeding stopped. The bleeding time was recorded. Immediately following sacrificing, the arteriotomy sites from Groups 1 and 2 were removed. The abdominal incisions in Groups 3 and 4 were closed following hemostasis. On Day 7 of the study, Group 3 and 4 rats were sacrificed and the abdominal aorta arteriotomy sites were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Results The mean bleeding time in 15 animals in Groups 2 and 4 was 4.9 ± 0.6 s, and in 22 animals in Groups 1 and 3 was 3.1 ± 0.6 s. Distal aortic occlusion was not observed on either Day 1 or 7 in any group. Significantly more widespread and dense endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS staining was observed in Group 1 animals than Group 2. On Days 1 and 7 after application of ABS, histopathological changes, consisting of necrosis, inflammation, and endothelial cell loss, in the rat abdominal aortas did not differ between Groups 1 and 2. The basophilic discoloration in the ABS group on the operation day was a result of a foreign body reaction and hemosiderin-loaded histiocyte accumulation, which occurred on Day 7. Conclusions In this study, hemostasis was successfully achieved with ABS in rat abdominal aortas. No histopathological change was found in the rat abdominal aortas between the ABS and control groups on Days 1 and 7. Further studies on the long-term effects of foreign body reactions and hemosiderin-loaded histiocyte

  20. Steroid hormones partition to distinct sites in a model membrane bilayer: direct demonstration by small-angle X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, G A; Rubin, R T; Mason, R P

    1998-01-19

    The classical, genomic mechanisms of steroid hormone action cannot account for their rapid cellular effects. Membrane-bound steroid receptors have been partially characterized, but many rapid steroid effects occur in the absence of steroid-protein binding. Although it has been proposed that these effects could be due to steroid-induced biophysical alterations of the cell membrane, only indirect supporting evidence for this hypothesis has been forthcoming. In the present study, the ability of cortisol and estradiol (E2), natural steroids of different lipophilicity, to induce alterations in a model membrane (lecithin) bilayer was examined directly by small-angle X-ray diffraction under physiologic-like conditions. Within minutes, both steroids partitioned to distinct sites in the membrane. With increasing membrane cholesterol content, cortisol was displaced toward the polar headgroup region of the phospholipid bilayer, whereas E2 was displaced in the opposite direction, toward the nonpolar hydrocarbon core. Membrane-based partition coefficients (Kp[mem]) for both steroids (>100:1) were highest at those cholesterol concentrations that displaced the steroids toward the headgroup region (high cholesterol for cortisol; low for E2). Both steroids, when located in the headgroup region, increased overall bilayer width by 3-4 A, a change that could modulate the structure and function of integral membrane proteins independent from steroid effects on the genome.

  1. A warehouse design decision model: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S. (Ed.); Carvalho, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Today’s competitive and volatile market requires flexibility, quality and efficiency from the logistics operations. In this context, warehouses are an important link of the logistic chain and warehouse management plays an important role over customer's service. Throughout this work we analyze a mathematical model aiming to support warehouse management decisions. A case study is used for that purpose and the model jointly identifies product allocation to the functional areas in the warehouse, ...

  2. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  3. Studying a Chaotic Spiking Neural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a chaotic spiking neuron model are being studied mathematically and experimentally. The Nonlinear Dynamic State neuron (NDS is analysed to further understand the model and improve it.Chaos has many interesting properties such as sensitivity to initial conditions, space filling, control and synchronization. As suggested by biologists, these properties may be exploited and play vital role in carrying out computational tasks in human brain. The NDS model has some limitations; in thus paper the model is investigated to overcomesome of these limitations in order to enhance the model. Therefore,the model’s parameters are tuned and the resulted dynamics are studied. Also, the discretization method of the model is considered. Moreover, a mathematical analysis is carried out to reveal the underlying dynamics of the model after tuning of its parameters. The results of the aforementioned methods revealedsome facts regarding the NDS attractor and suggest the stabilization of a large number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs which might correspond to memories in phase space

  4. STUDYING A CHAOTIC SPIKING NEURAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a chaotic spiking neuron model are being studied mathematically and experimentally. The Nonlinear Dynamic State neuron (NDS is analysed to further understand the model and improve it. Chaos has many interesting properties such as sensitivity to initial conditions, space filling, control and synchronization. As suggested by biologists, these properties may be exploited and play vital role in carrying out computational tasks in human brain. The NDS model has some limitations; in thus paper the model is investigated to overcome some of these limitations in order to enhance the model. Therefore, the model’s parameters are tuned and the resulted dynamics are studied. Also, the discretization method of the model is considered. Moreover, a mathematical analysis is carried out to reveal the underlying dynamics of the model after tuning of its parameters. The results of the aforementioned methods revealed some facts regarding the NDS attractor and suggest the stabilization of a large number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs which might correspond to memories in phase space.

  5. Study on Modeling Technology in Digital Reactor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓平; 罗月童; 童莉莉

    2004-01-01

    Modeling is the kernel part of a digital reactor system. As an extensible platform for reactor conceptual design, it is very important to study modeling technology and develop some kind of tools to speed up preparation of all classical computing models. This paper introduces the background of the project and basic conception of digital reactor. MCAM is taken as an example for modeling and its related technologies used are given. It is an interface program for MCNP geometry model developed by FDS team (ASIPP & HUT), and designed to run on windows system. MCAM aims at utilizing CAD technology to facilitate creation of MCNP geometry model. There have been two ways for MCAM to utilize CAD technology:(1) Making use of user interface technology in aid of generation of MCNP geometry model;(2) Making use of existing 3D CAD model to accelerate creation of MCNP geometry model. This paper gives an overview of MCAM's major function. At last, several examples are given to demonstrate MCAM's various capabilities.

  6. Computational Study of a Primitive Life Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, Mircea

    We present a computational study of a primitive life model. The calculation involves a discrete treatment of a partial differential equation and some details of that problems are explained. We show that the investigated model is equivalent to a diffusively coupled logistic lattice. The bifurcation diagrams were calculated for different values of the control parameters. The obtained diagrams have shown that the time dependence of the population of the investigated model exhibits transitions between ordered and chaotic behavior. We have investigated also the patterns formation in this system.

  7. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  8. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  9. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  10. The benzodiazepine diazepam demonstrates the usefulness of Syrian hamsters as a model for anxiety testing: evaluation of other classes of anxiolytics in comparison to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Robert L; Lungwitz, Elizabeth; Batista, Natalia; Hester, Ian; Huntley, Christina; Peacock, Alyssa; Delagrange, Philippe; Millan, Mark J

    2011-03-17

    Clinical evidence in humans suggests that there is some linkage between dysfunction in the timing of circadian rhythms and certain types of depression. In animal models, Syrian hamsters have been used extensively to study the pharmacology of circadian rhythms, while rats and mice are used to screen putative anxiolytics/antidepressant compounds. It would be beneficial to be able to test anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds in hamsters in conjunction with circadian rhythm studies. Therefore, in this study, Syrian hamsters were used in three experimental paradigms to evaluate anxiety: the elevated plus maze, the t-tube, and the open field Thatcher-Britton conflict test. Diazepam, tested with 2mg/kg and 5mg/kg intraperitoneal injections, was found to induce anxiolytic activity in each of the three tests. Hamsters were more likely to spend time in the open arms in the plus maze, displayed more exploratory behavior in the t-tube, and were quicker to enter a brightly lit exposed field in the Thatcher-Britton conflict test following injections of diazepam. Diazepam (2mg/kg) was also tested at three times during the 24-h day in the elevated plus maze: at the beginning and end of the lights-on period (Zeitgeber times 23 and 11, respectively) and once in the dark just before the room lights came on (Zeitgeber time 20). Diazepam induced anxiolytic activity only at Zeitgeber 23. Therefore, the following known and putative anxiolytic compounds were also evaluated in each of the three tests at Zeitgeber 23: citalopram, the neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists GR205171 and vestipitant, the corticotropin releasing factor(1) receptor antagonist CP154526, the cannabinoid receptor(1) agonist CP55940, the serotonin(6) receptor antagonist SB399885, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor(5) antagonists fenobam and MTEP. Vestipitant displayed some anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze, but this effect was not confirmed with GR205171. None of the other compounds displayed any

  11. Demonstrating Predictive Confidence for a Paradigm Dissolver Model Using Methods for Evaluating Higher Order Moments: A “Case Study” for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Peltz, James J.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation performs sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification up to 3rd-order (including covariance and skewness), and forward and inverse predictive modeling for a dissolver model of interest to nonproliferation. The original results presented in this dissertation highlight the effects of uncertainties which necessarily characterize measurements and computations, and the reduction in the predicted uncertainties by combining optimally the experimental and computational information.

  12. Experimental Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Demonstration at the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and built five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in spacesuit simulators as a part of the 2007 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) activity at Cinder Lake, Arizona. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, overdischarge and over-temperature. The 500-g experimental batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 22 W for 2.5 hr with a minimum voltage of 13 V. When discharged at the maximum expected power output of 38.5 W, the batteries operated for 103 min of discharge time, achieving a specific energy of 130 Wh/kg. This report summarizes design details and safety considerations. Results for field trials and laboratory testing are summarized.

  13. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  14. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analys

  15. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    it received a lot of attention from the local population. Demonstration personnel, both Coast Guard and contractors, were asked to be receptive to...www.uscg.mil/top/missions/ . Counter-Drug Interdiction and Alien Migrant Interdiction operations are currently not included. In the non-Polar regions

  16. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  17. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  18. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  19. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are no

  20. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  1. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  2. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  3. Constructing Virtual Training Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Taylor, Russ-Eft, & Chan, 2005). BMT is based on Bandura’s social learning theory (Hogan, Hakel, & Decker, 1986). Utilizing the model provided by... social learning theory , BMT includes processes such as modeling, a retention process, behavioral rehearsal, feedback, and methods of training transfer

  4. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-22

    Russ-Eft, & Chan, 2005). BMT is based on Bandura’s social learning theory (Hogan, Hakel, & Decker, 1986). Utilizing the model provided by social ... learning theory , BMT includes processes such as modeling, a retention process, behavioral rehearsal, feedback, and methods of training transfer to

  5. Constructing Training Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-16

    training (BMT) is one of the most extensively used training methods available to modern organizations [25]. BMT is based on Bandura’s social learning theory [13...Utilizing the model provided by social learning theory , BMT includes processes such as modeling, a retention process, behavioral rehearsal

  6. In Vivo Models to Study Chemokine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, F A; Boff, D; Teixeira, M M

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines are essential mediators of leukocyte movement in vivo. In vitro assays of leukocyte migration cannot mimic the complex interactions with other cell types and matrix needed for cells to extravasate and migrate into tissues. Therefore, in vivo strategies to study the effects and potential relevance of chemokines for the migration of particular leukocyte subsets are necessary. Here, we describe methods to study the effects and endogenous role of chemokine in mice. Advantages and pitfalls of particular models are discussed and we focus on description in model's joint and pleural cavity inflammation and the effects and relevance of CXCR2 and CCR2 ligands on cell migration.

  7. Geophysical demonstration of the absence of correlation between lineaments and hydrogeologically usefull fractures: Case study of the Sanon hard rock aquifer (central northern Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Donissongou Dimitri; Koïta, Mahamadou; Biaou, Chabi Angelbert; Outoumbe, Eli; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Yacouba, Hamma; Guérin, Roger

    2017-05-01

    The conceptualization of hard rock aquifers in terms of their geometry and structure has undergone considerable progress over the last two decades. Despite these advances, hydrogeologists are still divided by the models used to describe two central concepts: (i) the influence of weathering processes on hydraulic conductivity; (ii) the influence of tectonics on the hydraulic conductivity of hard rock aquifers. In order to provide further insight into this debate, the present study proposes a conceptual model for hard rock aquifers, based on an integrated hydrogeological and geophysical approach, using information acquired at different scales. The data and observations used for this case study were derived from the Sanon experimental site, located in Burkina Faso, which is presently exposed to a Sudano-Sahelian climate. The methodological approach consisted firstly in developing a description of the site's weathering profile at the scale of a borehole, based on lithologs and electrical resistivity logs. In a second step, the site's ridge to ridge (longitudinal) weathering profile was established from several 2D resistivity sections crossing a maximum number of lineament structures, which in some prior studies were considered to be the superficial manifestation of tectonic fractures. The results show that at that scale the weathering profile is comprised of three main layers, which from top to bottom are referred to as: the saprolite, the fissured layer and the fresh rock. This weathering profile model is consistent with other models proposed in recent years, suggesting that the hydraulic conductivity of hard rock aquifers is a consequence of weathering processes, rather than tectonic fracturing. Tectonic fractures are not visible on the 2D sections of the ridge to ridge profiles, and the lineaments originally thought to be overground representations of tectonic fractures are likely to have different origins. The lack of a substantial correlation between tectonic

  8. Toward sustainability: a case study demonstrating transdisciplinary learning through the selection and use of indicators in a decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Cynthia; Cimorelli, Alan; Mazzarella, Christine; Jenkins, Bill

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to use a case study example to demonstrate how a transparent, transdisciplinary approach to decision making allows the US Environmental Protection Agency Region III (USEPA Region III) to fulfill its decision-making responsibilities while taking critical steps toward engaging in sustainability discussions. The case study goals were to use information about environmental condition to inform staff and fiscal resource prioritization and allocation for the federal 2010 fiscal year. This article will use a select group of 3 indicators to show 1) that data are not the same as indicators, 2) the feasibility of using disparate data in the same analysis, and 3) specific discussions about indicators can lead to transdisciplinary learning, supporting more informed decision making. We show that, when used in a transdisciplinary learning process, these indicator lessons provide a stepping stone for organizations like USEPA Region III to consider sustainability as more than just a lofty, ethical concept. Instead, these kinds of organizations can more routinely and substantively address sustainability through a progression of individual decisions. We discuss how sustainability can be linked to decision making through a process that requires stakeholders to articulate and confront their values. In this process, selecting indicators and understanding what those choices imply regarding the issues that are highlighted and the population affected is part of the assessment of environmental condition, which is the focus of the case study.

  9. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  10. STP 4-06 Model-Based Technical Data in Procurement, 3D PDF Technology Data Demonstration Project. Phase 1 Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DESIGNATED BY OTHER OFFICIAL DOCUMENTATION. LMI © 2015. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. iii Contents BACKGROUND ...Demonstration Project.” BACKGROUND In addressing the issue of using three dimensional (3D) technical data in procure- ments, the Defense Logistics...provided copies of the files in these figures and two other 3D PDF files to product data subject matter experts ( SMEs ) at three of DLA’s primary-level

  11. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J

    2007-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity‐related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated. PMID:17127722

  12. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J

    2007-04-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated.

  13. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A

    1998-07-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  14. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  15. Morphogenesis of Vertisols:A Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIURONG-LIANG; HUANGRUI-CAI; 等

    1994-01-01

    Studies on Vertisols of Southwes China show that the distribution of organic matter,mechanical compositon,carbonates and spore-pollen in their profiles exhibits a definite differentiation and the radiocarbon age has a functional variation with soil depth,which sugests that pedoturbation model is a kind of incomplete model for genetic study and that the distubance and inversion of solums of Vertisol are not as rapid and absolute as expected.In further consideration of the characters of swelling pressure and shear strength of Vertisol,vertic soil and other zonal soils.it is speculated that soil mechanics model is more adaptable for interpreting the morphogenesis of vertisols without any contradiction with soil properties.

  16. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  17. The Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Merriman, J; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Avignone, F T; Back, H O; Combs, D C; Leviner, L E; Young, A R; Barabash, A S; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I; Yumatov, V; Bergevin, M; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J A; Loach, J C; Martin, R D; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Vetter, K; Bertrand, F E; Cooper, R J; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Yu, C -H; Boswell, M; Elliott, S R; Gehman, V M; Hime, A; Kidd, M F; LaRoque, B H; Rielage, K; Ronquest, M C; Steele, D; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Gusey, K; Kochetov, O; Shirchenko, M; Timkin, V; Yakushev, E; Busch, M; Esterline, J; Tornow, W; Christofferson, C D; Horton, M; Howard, S; Sobolev, V; Collar, J I; Fields, N; Creswick, R J; Doe, P J; Johnson, R A; Knecht, A; Leon, J; Marino, M G; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G; Wolfe, B A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Hazama, R; Nomachi, M; Shima, T; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Howe, M A; MacMullin, S; Phillips, D G; Snavely, K J; Strain, J; Vorren, K; Guiseppe, V E; Keller, C; Mei, D -M; Perumpilly, G; Thomas, K; Zhang, C; Hallin, A L; Keeter, K J; Mizouni, L; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program including background reduction techniques is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% in 76Ge is given.

  18. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  19. A preclinical orthotopic model for glioblastoma recapitulates key features of human tumors and demonstrates sensitivity to a combination of MEK and PI3K pathway inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Meskini, Rajaa; Iacovelli, Anthony J; Kulaga, Alan; Gumprecht, Michelle; Martin, Philip L; Baran, Maureen; Householder, Deborah B; Van Dyke, Terry; Weaver Ohler, Zoë

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the highest grade malignant brain tumor, are mostly ineffective, and better preclinical model systems are needed to increase the successful translation of drug discovery efforts into the clinic. Previous work describes a genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model that contains perturbations in the most frequently dysregulated networks in GBM (driven by RB, KRAS and/or PI3K signaling and PTEN) that induce development of Grade IV astrocytoma with properties of the human disease. Here, we developed and characterized an orthotopic mouse model derived from the GEM that retains the features of the GEM model in an immunocompetent background; however, this model is also tractable and efficient for preclinical evaluation of candidate therapeutic regimens. Orthotopic brain tumors are highly proliferative, invasive and vascular, and express histology markers characteristic of human GBM. Primary tumor cells were examined for sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs. PI3K and MAPK pathway inhibitors, when used as single agents, inhibited cell proliferation but did not result in significant apoptosis. However, in combination, these inhibitors resulted in a substantial increase in cell death. Moreover, these findings translated into the in vivo orthotopic model: PI3K or MAPK inhibitor treatment regimens resulted in incomplete pathway suppression and feedback loops, whereas dual treatment delayed tumor growth through increased apoptosis and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Analysis of downstream pathway components revealed a cooperative effect on target downregulation. These concordant results, together with the morphologic similarities to the human GBM disease characteristics of the model, validate it as a new platform for the evaluation of GBM treatment.

  20. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.