WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling studies demonstrated

  1. 111In-chloride thorax scintigraphic study for demonstration of pulmonary edema: Canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Deland, F.H.; Simmons, G.H.; Coupa, J.; Domstad, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary edema induced by injections of oleic acid was demonstrated using 111 In-chloride lung/heart image in five anesthetized dogs. The anesthetized dogs were positioned under a gamma camera interfaced to a computer. After 111 In-chloride IV injections, dynamic data were recorded at 1 frame/min before and after induced pulmonary edema. The computer generated the curve of the lung-to-heart activity ratio; the ratio rose from 0.5-0.6 at baseline to 0.85-1.5 at th end of the study in the dogs. At the end of each study, the removed lungs demonstrated edematous fluid, and a few red blood cells were seen in the alveoli. The results indicating pulmoinary edema exhibited in the 111 In-chloride lung-to-heart ratio obtained froma computerized gamma camera were compatable with the pathological results. Since 111 In-chloride instantly binds to plasma transferrin, an excellent intravascular imaging agent, leakage of this tracer into alveoli indicates loss of membranous wall competence. Pulmonary edema, as in the adult respiratory distress syndrome, is sometimes difficult to diagnose; and this 111 In-chloride lung-to-heart imaging technique may be potentially useful. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2015-01-01

    for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Several by-products are also formed, which disturb and act as inhibitors downstream. The objective of this study is to formulate and validate a large scale hydrothermal pretreatment dynamic model based on mass and energy balances, together with a complex conversion mechanism......Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose...

  3. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control.

  4. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Conditioning Engineers BIM Building Information Model BLCC building life cycle costs BPA Building Performance Analysis CAD computer assisted...utilizes information on operations, geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generating Three-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Models ( BIM ...executed a demonstration of Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy

  5. Quantitative aspects of the cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with tetrazolium salts studied in a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.; Sanders, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The enzyme cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) with several tetrazolium salts has been studied with an artificial model of polyacrylamide films in corporated with the enzyme, which enabled teh correlation of cytochemical and biochemical data. In the model films no

  6. Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.

  7. Demonstrating sustainable energy: A review-based model of sustainable energy demonstration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94

  9. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  10. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  11. A Simple Demonstration Model of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device constructed from a wire screen, a large beaker, beans, and oats is described. It provides a simple and effective visual model of the phenomenon of osmosis and, by extension, the origin of other colligative properties of solutions.

  12. Facility Modeling Capability Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sadasivan, Pratap [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aleman, Sebastian E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chiswell, Steven R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A joint effort has been initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savanah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) office of Proliferation Detection, to develop and validate a flexible framework for simulating effluents and emissions from spent fuel reprocessing facilities. These effluents and emissions can be measured by various on-site and/or off-site means, and then the inverse problem can ideally be solved through modeling and simulation to estimate characteristics of facility operation such as the nuclear material production rate. The flexible framework called Facility Modeling Toolkit focused on the forward modeling of PUREX reprocessing facility operating conditions from fuel storage and chopping to effluent and emission measurements.

  13. FVB/NJ mice demonstrate a youthful sensitivity to noise-induced hearing loss and provide a useful genetic model for the study of neural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Maria K; Li, Xin; Wang, Juemei; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Friedman, Rick A

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP), a panel of 100 strains, has been employed in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to study complex traits in mice. Hearing is a complex trait and the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is a widely used model for age-related hearing loss (ARHI) and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The CBA/CaJ strain's youthful sensitivity to noise and limited age-related loss led us to attempt to identify additional strains segregating a similar phenotype for our panel. FVB/NJ is part of the HMDP and has been previously described as having a similar ARHI phenotype to CBA/CaJ. For these reasons, we have studied the FVB/NJ mouse for ARHI and NIHL phenotypes in hopes of incorporating its phenotype into HMDP studies. We demonstrate that FVB/NJ exhibits ARHI at an earlier age than CBA/CaJ and young FVB/NJ mice are vulnerable to NIHL up until 10 to 12 weeks. This suggests that FVB/NJ may be used as an additional genetic model for neural forms of progressive hearing loss and for the study of youthful sensitivity to noise.

  14. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  15. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David Andrew; Hill, R.; Gehin, J.; Gougar, Hans David; Strydom, Gerhard; Heidet, F.; Kinsey, J.; Grandy, Christopher; Qualls, A.; Brown, Nicholas; Powers, J.; Hoffman, E.; Croson, D.

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power's share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) broader commitment to pursuing an 'all of the above' clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate 'advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear

  16. Assessing policy options for increasing the use of renewable energy for sustainable development: Modelling energy scenarios for Sichuan, China. A UN-ENERGY demonstration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    policies to increase the share of renewables in the energy supply mix of Sichuan, China. It was initiated in response to the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation's call to 'with a sense of urgency, substantially increase the global share of renewable energy sources'. The study again combines the IAEA models for analyzing national energy systems with data provided by UNEP, DESA and other public sources. It is important to note that this is a demonstration study, not a comprehensive analysis of policy options for Sichuan, but it provides generic insights on policy options to promote the use of renewable energy sources. The study also demonstrates the kind of policy work that UN-Energy can undertake as it seeks to evolve the joint capacity of the UN system to assist nations in facing the energy challenges of the 21st century. UN-Energy seeks to institutionalize a collaborative approach in an area that has not previously been subject to such approaches in the UN system. UNEnergy would appreciate views by readers of our reports in order to guide our future work

  17. Demonstration tokamak-power-plant study (DEMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    A study of a Demonstration Tokamak Power Plant (DEMO) has been completed. The study's objective was to develop a conceptual design of a prototype reactor which would precede commercial units. Emphasis has been placed on defining and analyzing key design issues and R and D needs in five areas: noninductive current drivers, impurity control systems, tritium breeding blankets, radiation shielding, and reactor configuration and maintenance features. The noninductive current drive analysis surveyed a wide range of candidates and selected relativistic electron beams for the reference reactor. The impurity control analysis considered both a single-null poloidal divertor and a pumped limiter. A pumped limiter located at the outer midplane was selected for the reference design because of greater engineering simplicity. The blanket design activity focused on two concepts: a Li 2 O solid breeder with high pressure water cooling and a lead-rich Li-Pb eutectic liquid metal breeder (17Li-83Pb). The reference blanket concept is the Li 2 O option with a PCA structural material. The first wall concept is a beryllium-clad corrugated panel design. The radiation shielding effort concentrated on reducing the cost of bulk and penetration shielding; the relatively low-cost outborad shield is composed of concrete, B 4 C, lead, and FE 1422 structural material

  18. Demonstrating the improvement of predictive maturity of a computational model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atamturktur, Huriye S [CLEMSON UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an improvement of predictive capability brought to a non-linear material model using a combination of test data, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and calibration. A model that captures increasingly complicated phenomena, such as plasticity, temperature and strain rate effects, is analyzed. Predictive maturity is defined, here, as the accuracy of the model to predict multiple Hopkinson bar experiments. A statistical discrepancy quantifies the systematic disagreement (bias) between measurements and predictions. Our hypothesis is that improving the predictive capability of a model should translate into better agreement between measurements and predictions. This agreement, in turn, should lead to a smaller discrepancy. We have recently proposed to use discrepancy and coverage, that is, the extent to which the physical experiments used for calibration populate the regime of applicability of the model, as basis to define a Predictive Maturity Index (PMI). It was shown that predictive maturity could be improved when additional physical tests are made available to increase coverage of the regime of applicability. This contribution illustrates how the PMI changes as 'better' physics are implemented in the model. The application is the non-linear Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) strength model applied to Beryllium metal. We demonstrate that our framework tracks the evolution of maturity of the PTW model. Robustness of the PMI with respect to the selection of coefficients needed in its definition is also studied.

  19. Quantitative aspects of the cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with tetranitro BT studied in a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.

    1980-01-01

    The cytochemical determination of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) with tetranitro blue tetrazolium (TNBT) was studied with model films of polyacrylamide gel incorporating purified enzyme. This model system enabled a quantitative study to be made of different parameters

  20. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 (ae-B20H17NH3), administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  1. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  2. A prospective, randomized, controlled study demonstrating a novel, effective model of transfer of care between physicians: the 5 Cs of consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Chad S; Afshar, Yalda; Sardar, Gurkiran; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Ankel, Felix; Schwartz, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether a standardized consultation model in the emergency department (ED), the 5 Cs of Consultation (Contact, Communicate, Core Question, Collaboration, and Closing the Loop), would improve physicians' ability to relay appropriate information and communicate successfully during a consultation. This was a prospective, randomized study at a large, academic, urban, tertiary care medical center in Chicago. Forty-three emergency medicine (EM) and EM/internal medicine (EM/IM) residents were randomized into two groups, an intervention group and an unstructured group, stratified by postgraduate year (PGY). Intervention group participants received an interactive educational session on the 5 Cs of Consultation, a standardized consultation model. Intervention and unstructured groups placed two simulated consultation phone calls, based on pretested simulated patient cases, to a standardized consultant. Three raters, naive to the consultation model and blinded to group assignments, individually assessed recordings of each call using a seven-item, five-point global rating scale (GRS). Finally, an attending surgeon and an attending psychiatrist each rated respective cases using a single global rating to provide validity evidence for the scale. Residents trained with the 5 Cs model communicated significantly better, regardless of PGY and clinical case. The intervention group had significantly higher mean GRS scores than the unstructured group (4.1 vs. 3.5, F(1,39) = 33.5, p effectiveness of consultation communication from the ED. Residents trained with the 5 Cs of Consultation scored better on consultation assessments compared with untrained residents. Training programs should consider adopting standardized consultation models. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Pulsatile fluidic pump demonstration and predictive model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.G.; Holland, W.D.

    1986-04-01

    Pulsatile fluidic pumps were developed as a remotely controlled method of transferring or mixing feed solutions. A test in the Integrated Equipment Test facility demonstrated the performance of a critically safe geometry pump suitable for use in a 0.1-ton/d heavy metal (HM) fuel reprocessing plant. A predictive model was developed to calculate output flows under a wide range of external system conditions. Predictive and experimental flow rates are compared for both submerged and unsubmerged fluidic pump cases

  4. Performance of the demonstration model of DIOS FXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Sakurai, Ikuya; Masuda, Tadashi; Torii, Tatsuharu; Matsushita, Kohji; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2009-08-01

    To search for warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), a small satellite mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor ) is planned and a specially designed four-stage X-ray telescope (FXT) has been developed as the best fit optics to have a wide field of view and large effective area. Based on the previous design work and mirror fabrication technology used in the Suzaku mission, we made small demonstration model of DIOS FXT. This model has focal length of 700 mm consisting of quadrant housing and four-stage mirror sets with different radii of 150 - 180 mm and each stage mirror hight of 40 mm. We performed X-ray measurement for one set of four-stage mirror with a radius of 180 mm. From the results of the optical and X-ray measurement, it was found that tighter control were required for positioning and fabrication process of each mirror even to get angular resolution of several arcmin.

  5. Demonstration of the Ability of RCAS to Model Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Cotrell, J.

    2003-08-01

    In recent years, the wind industry has sponsored the development, verification, and validation of comprehensive aeroelastic simulators, which are used for wind turbine design, certification, and research. Unfortunately, as wind turbines continue to grow in size and sometimes exhibit unconventional design characteristics, the existing codes do not always support the additional analysis features required for proper design. The development history, functionality, and advanced nature of RCAS (Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System) make this code a sensible option. RCAS is an aeroelastic simulator developed over a 4-year cooperative effort amongst the U.S. Army's Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, Advanced Rotorcraft Technology (ART), Inc., and the helicopter industry. As its name suggests, RCAS was created for the rotorcraft industry but developed as a general purpose code for modeling the aerodynamic and structural response of any system with rotating and nonrotating subsystems (such as wind turbines). To demonstrate that RCAS can analyze wind turbines, models of a conventional, 1.5-MW, 3-bladed, upwind, horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) are created in RCAS and wind turbine analysis codes FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) and ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). Using these models, a side-by-side comparison of structural response predictions is performed under several test scenarios.

  6. On direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles modelling and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Kristina

    2005-03-01

    In this thesis, direct hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems in vehicles are investigated through modelling, field tests and public acceptance surveys. A computer model of a 50 kW PEM fuel cell system was developed. The fuel cell system efficiency is approximately 50% between 10 and 45% of the rated power. The fuel cell auxiliary system, e.g. compressor and pumps, was shown to clearly affect the overall fuel cell system electrical efficiency. Two hydrogen on-board storage options, compressed and cryogenic hydrogen, were modelled for the above-mentioned system. Results show that the release of compressed gaseous hydrogen needs approximately 1 kW of heat, which can be managed internally with heat from the fuel cell stack. In the case of cryogenic hydrogen, the estimated heat demand of 13 kW requires an extra heat source. A phase change based (PCM) thermal management solution to keep a 50 kW PEM fuel cell stack warm during dormancy in a cold climate (-20 deg C) was investigated through simulation and experiments. It was shown that a combination of PCM (salt hydrate or paraffin wax) and vacuum insulation materials was able to keep a fuel cell stack from freezing for about three days. This is a simple and potentially inexpensive solution, although development on issues such as weight, volume and encapsulation materials is needed. Two different vehicle platforms, fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles, were used to study the fuel consumption and the air, water and heat management of the fuel cell system under varying operating conditions, e.g. duty cycles and ambient conditions. For a compact vehicle, with a 50 kW fuel cell system, the fuel consumption was significantly reduced, {approx}50 %, compared to a gasoline-fuelled vehicle of similar size. A bus with 200 kW fuel cell system was studied and compared to a diesel bus of comparable size. The fuel consumption of the fuel cell bus displayed a reduction of 33-37 %. The performance of a fuel

  7. Radiographic demonstration of small intestinal villi on routine clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, D.W.; Ott, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic demonstration of the small intestinal villi is reported. The villi were demonstrable with both single- and double-contrast methods on routine clinical studies. The primary requirement for their delineation appears to be employment of a high-resolution radiographic system. (orig.) [de

  8. Demonstration of a Model Averaging Capability in FRAMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P. D.; Castleton, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in model structure can be incorporated in risk assessment using multiple alternative models and model averaging. To facilitate application of this approach to regulatory applications based on risk or dose assessment, a model averaging capability was integrated with the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) version 2 software. FRAMES is a software platform that allows the non-parochial communication between disparate models, databases, and other frameworks. Users have the ability to implement and select environmental models for specific risk assessment and management problems. Standards are implemented so that models produce information that is readable by other downstream models and accept information from upstream models. Models can be linked across multiple media and from source terms to quantitative risk/dose estimates. Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools are integrated. A model averaging module was implemented to accept output from multiple models and produce average results. These results can be deterministic quantities or probability distributions obtained from an analysis of parameter uncertainty. Output from alternative models is averaged using weights determined from user input and/or model calibration results. A model calibration module based on the PEST code was implemented to provide FRAMES with a general calibration capability. An application illustrates the implementation, user interfaces, execution, and results of the FRAMES model averaging capabilities.

  9. Comparative study of the influence of lecture and demonstration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching methods are teacher's skills and manipulations on the subject matter and the desired responses from the learner. With the application of effective method, the teaching of agricultural science will be facilitated. The study compared the influence of lecture method and demonstration method on the teaching of ...

  10. Demonstration Model of Self Inductance Using Relay Using an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    utilizes manual control and a complex electronic circuit to oscillate the relay. The glow of the neon bulb due to back emf from the coil and transformer was used to demonstrate the concept. In the present article, we first elaborate ... Q terminals, the current flow through the coil produces an electromagnetic field in the vicinity of ...

  11. Modelling, Construction, and Testing of a Simple HTS Machine Demonstrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction, modeling and experimental testing of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototype employing second generation (2G) coated conductors in the field winding. The prototype is constructed in a simple way, with the purpose of having an inexpensive way...

  12. Desk-top model buildings for dynamic earthquake response demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, A. Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Models of buildings that illustrate dynamic resonance behavior when excited by hand are designed and built. Two types of buildings are considered, one with columns stronger than floors, the other with columns weaker than floors. Combinations and variations of these two types are possible. Floor masses and column stiffnesses are chosen in order that the frequency of the second mode is approximately five cycles per second, so that first and second modes can be excited manually. The models are expected to be resonated by hand by schoolchildren or persons unfamiliar with the dynamic resonant response of tall buildings, to gain an understanding of structural behavior during earthquakes. Among other things, this experience will develop a level of confidence in the builder and experimenter should they be in a high-rise building during an earthquake, sensing both these resonances and other violent shaking.

  13. Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

    1989-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. A demonstration of dose modeling at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, T.B.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-11-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently revising the regulatory guidance for high-level nuclear waste disposal. In its draft form, the guidelines contain dose limits. Since this is likely to be the case in the final regulations, it is essential that the US Department of Energy be prepared to calculate site-specific doses for any potential repository location. This year, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has made a first attempt to estimate doses for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada as part of a preliminary total-systems performance assessment. A set of transport scenarios was defined to assess the cumulative release of radionuclides over 10,000 years under undisturbed and disturbed conditions at Yucca Mountain. Dose estimates were provided for several of the transport scenarios modeled. The exposure scenarios used to estimate dose in this total-systems exercise should not, however, be considered a definitive set of scenarios for determining the risk of the potential repository. Exposure scenarios were defined for waterborne and surface contamination that result from both undisturbed and disturbed performance of the potential repository. The exposure scenarios used for this analysis were designed for the Hanford Site in Washington. The undisturbed performance scenarios for which exposures were modeled are gas-phase release of 14 C to the surface and natural breakdown of the waste containers with waterborne release. The disturbed performance scenario for which doses were estimated is exploratory drilling. Both surface and waterborne contamination were considered for the drilling intrusion scenario

  15. A Case Study of Three Satellite Technology Demonstration School Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Gordon

    The Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) represented a cooperative and complex effort involving federal, regional, state and local interests and demonstrated the feasibility of media distribution by communication satellite of social services for rural audiences. As part of a comprehensive evaluation plan, the summative data base was augmented…

  16. Demonstrator study for micro-ranging-laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Hartmut; Bernhardt, Bodo; Pereira do Carmo, J.

    2017-11-01

    Within ESA's Innovation Triangle Initiative (ITI) a demonstrator breadboard for a micro-ranging-laser device "MYLRAD" has been developed. Its working principle is the measurement of the round-trip delay time of a laser beam as a phase shift. The demonstrator consists of the laser diode (30 mW, square wave AM), optics, APD detector, narrowband preamplifier, limiter, and a phase digitiser based on a novel noise-shaping synchroniser (NSS) circuit; this works without ADCs and can be built from rad-hard components for space. The system timing and the digitiser algorithm are performed by an FPGA. The demonstrator has been tested at ranges from 1 m to 30 m. With a static non-cooperative target an RMS noise of 1 mm at a result rate of 60 Hz was reached. The demonstrator needs less than 2.5 W power.

  17. Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

    Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

  18. Village demonstration of biogas technology: an Egyptian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Halwagi, M.M.; Abdel Dayem, A.M.; Hamad, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Biomass is among the principal renewable energy resources available to Egyptian villages; in addition to converting wastes into useful energy (biogas), the anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes produces a slurry that can be used as a fertilizer, improves sanitation, and can be easily adapted using locally available materials and labor. After a preliminary sociological survey, the NRC selected Al Manawat, a traditional Egyptian village, for the first demonstration site. Concomitant with the family energy requirements, availability of digester feed materials, and site characteristics, a modified Indian-type family size unit was designed and erected. The digester, with an effective volume of 320 ft/sub 3/, is connected to both a latrine and an animal shed. A preliminary technoeconomic appraisal and an assessment of the social impact indicate that under village conditions and particularly with the heavily subsidized fuel prices, the digester's main benefit to the farmer is the considerable saving in manure transport.

  19. Reentry blackout prediction for atmospheric reentry demonstrator mission considering uncertainty in chemical reaction rate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minseok; Kihara, Hisashi; Abe, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    A numerical simulation model of plasma flows and electromagnetic waves around a vehicle was developed to predict a radio frequency blackout. Plasma flows in the shock layer and the wake region were calculated using a computational fluid dynamics technique with a three-dimensional model. A finite-catalytic wall condition known to affect plasma properties, such as the number density of electrons, was considered for accurate prediction. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of uncertainty in the chemical reaction rate model on evaluating a radio frequency blackout. The behavior of electromagnetic waves in plasma was investigated using a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method. Numerical simulations of reentry blackout were performed for the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator mission at various altitudes. The plasma flows and the complex movement of electromagnetic waves around the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator vehicle were clarified. The predicted signal loss profile was then directly compared with the experimental flight data to validate the present models. The numerical results generally reproduced the trends over altitudes of the measured data. It is suggested that the present simulation model can be used to investigate the radio frequency blackout and signal loss of electromagnetic waves in the communication of a reentry vehicle. It was confirmed that high associative ionization reaction rates contribute to reducing the electron density in the wake region and radio frequency blackout. It is suggested that the accuracy of predicting the signal loss improved when considering the uncertainty in the chemical reaction model for associative ionizations.

  20. Endoscopic simulator curriculum improves colonoscopy performance in novice surgical interns as demonstrated in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Rattner, David W; Gee, Denise W

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether independent virtual endoscopic training accelerates the acquisition of endoscopic skill by novice surgical interns. Nine novice surgical interns participated in a prospective study comparing colonoscopy performance in a swine model before and after an independent simulator curriculum. An independent observer evaluated each intern for the ability to reach the cecum within 20 min and technical ability as determined by Global Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Skills--Colonoscopy (GAGES-C) score and performance compared. In addition, at the conclusion of training, a post test of two basic simulated colonoscopy modules was completed and metrics evaluated. As a control, three attending physicians who routinely perform colonoscopy also completed colonoscopy in the swine model. Prior to endoscopic training, one (11 %) intern successfully intubated the cecum in 19.56 min. Following training, six (67 %) interns reached the cecum with mean time of 9.2 min (p curriculum intern times demonstrated the experts to be significantly faster (p curriculum demonstrated significantly improved GI Mentor™ performance in the efficiency (79 vs. 67.1 %, p = 0.05) and time to cecum (3.37 vs. 5.59 min, p = 0.01) metrics. No other significant difference was demonstrated in GAGES-C categories or other simulator parameter. Simulator training on the GI Mentor™ alone significantly improved endoscopic skills in novice surgical interns as demonstrated in a swine model. This study also identified parameters on the GI Mentor™ that could indicate 'clinical readiness'. This study supports the role for endoscopic simulator training in surgical resident education as an adjunct to clinical experience.

  1. Inlet Trade Study for a Low-Boom Aircraft Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Slater, John W.; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion integration for low-boom supersonic aircraft requires careful inlet selection, placement, and tailoring to achieve acceptable propulsive and aerodynamic performance, without compromising vehicle sonic boom loudness levels. In this investigation, an inward-turning streamline-traced and axisymmetric spike inlet are designed and independently installed on a conceptual low-boom supersonic demonstrator aircraft. The airframe was pre-shaped to achieve a target ground under-track loudness of 76.4 PLdB at cruise using an adjoint-based design optimization process. Aircraft and inlet performance characteristics were obtained by solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isolated cruise inlet performance including total pressure recovery and distortion were computed and compared against installed inlet performance metrics. Evaluation of vehicle near-field pressure signatures, along with under- and off-track propagated loudness levels is also reported. Results indicate the integrated axisymmetric spike design offers higher inlet pressure recovery, lower fan distortion, and reduced sonic boom. The vehicle with streamline-traced inlet exhibits lower external wave drag, which translates to a higher lift-to-drag ratio and increased range capability.

  2. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  3. A Low-Cost Approach for Rapidly Creating Demonstration Models for Hands-On Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzli, Kristoph-Dietrich; Kunberger, Tanya; O'Neill, Robert; Badir, Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Demonstration models allow students to readily grasp theory and relate difficult concepts and equations to real life. However drawbacks of using these demonstration models are that they are can be costly to purchase from vendors or take a significant amount of time to build. These two limiting factors can pose a significant obstacle for adding…

  4. Demonstrations and verification of debris bed models in the MEDICI reactor cavity code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebilcock, W.R.; Bergeron, K.D.; Gorham-Bergeron, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The MEDICI reactor cavity model is under development at Sandia National Laboratories to provide a simple but realistic treatment of ex-vessel severe accident phenomena. Several demonstration cases have been run and are discussed as illustrations of the model's capabilities. Verification of the model with experiments has supplied confidence in the model

  5. Development of a Terrestrial Modeling System: The China-wide Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q.; Dai, Y.; Zheng, X.; Ye, A.; Chen, Z.; Shangguang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A terrestrial modeling system (TMS) is being developed at Beijing Normal University. The purposes of TMS are (1) to provide a land surface parameterization scheme fully capable of being coupled with and climate and Earth system models of different scales; (2) to provide a standalone platform for simulation and prediction of land surface processes; and (3) to provide a platform for studying human-Earth system interactions. This system will build on and extend existing capabilities at BNU, including the Common Land Model (CoLM) system, high-resolution atmospheric forcing data sets, high-resolution soil and vegetation data sets, and high-performance computing facilities and software. This presentation describes the system design and demonstrates the initial capabilities of TMS in simulating water and energy fluxes over the continental China for a multi-year period.

  6. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  7. Demonstrating the value of community-based ('citizen science') observations for catchment modelling and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Parkin, Geoff; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Large, Andy; Quinn, Paul; Gibson, Ceri

    2017-05-01

    Despite there being well-established meteorological and hydrometric monitoring networks in the UK, many smaller catchments remain ungauged. This leaves a challenge for characterisation, modelling, forecasting and management activities. Here we demonstrate the value of community-based ('citizen science') observations for modelling and understanding catchment response as a contribution to catchment science. The scheme implemented within the 42 km2 Haltwhistle Burn catchment, a tributary of the River Tyne in northeast England, has harvested and used quantitative and qualitative observations from the public in a novel way to effectively capture spatial and temporal river response. Community-based rainfall, river level and flood observations have been successfully collected and quality-checked, and used to build and run a physically-based, spatially-distributed catchment model, SHETRAN. Model performance using different combinations of observations is tested against traditionally-derived hydrographs. Our results show how the local network of community-based observations alongside traditional sources of hydro-information supports characterisation of catchment response more accurately than using traditional observations alone over both spatial and temporal scales. We demonstrate that these community-derived datasets are most valuable during local flash flood events, particularly towards peak discharge. This information is often missed or poorly represented by ground-based gauges, or significantly underestimated by rainfall radar, as this study clearly demonstrates. While community-based observations are less valuable during prolonged and widespread floods, or over longer hydrological periods of interest, they can still ground-truth existing traditional sources of catchment data to increase confidence during characterisation and management activities. Involvement of the public in data collection activities also encourages wider community engagement, and provides important

  8. Low-Volatility Model Demonstrates Humidity Affects Environmental Toxin Deposition on Plastics at a Molecular Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Collin, William R; Yang, Pei; Chen, Zhan; Duhaime, Melissa

    2016-02-02

    Despite the ever-increasing prevalence of plastic debris and endocrine disrupting toxins in aquatic ecosystems, few studies describe their interactions in freshwater environments. We present a model system to investigate the deposition/desorption behaviors of low-volatility lake ecosystem toxins on microplastics in situ and in real time. Molecular interactions of gas-phase nonylphenols (NPs) with the surfaces of two common plastics, poly(styrene) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), were studied using quartz crystal microbalance and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. NP point sources were generated under two model environments: plastic on land and plastic on a freshwater surface. We found the headspace above calm water provides an excellent environment for NP deposition and demonstrate significant NP deposition on plastic within minutes at relevant concentrations. Further, NP deposits and orders differently on both plastics under humid versus dry environments. We attributed the unique deposition behaviors to surface energy changes from increased water content during the humid deposition. Lastly, nanograms of NP remained on microplastic surfaces hours after initial NP introduction and agitating conditions, illustrating feasibility for plastic-bound NPs to interact with biota and surrounding matter. Our model studies reveal important interactions between low-volatility environmental toxins and microplastics and hold potential to correlate the environmental fate of endocrine disrupting toxins in the Great Lakes with molecular behaviors.

  9. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at University at Albany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Xiong, Zeyu [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects—a distributed GSHP system at a new 500-bed apartment-style student residence hall at the University at Albany. This case study is based on the analysis of detailed design documents, measured performance data, published catalog data of heat pump equipment, and actual construction costs. Simulations with a calibrated computer model are performed for both the demonstrated GSHP system and a baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system to determine the energy savings and other related benefits achieved by the GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, as well as the pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the demonstrated GSHP system compared with the baseline HVAC system. This case study also identifies opportunities for improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  10. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  11. The development and demonstration of integrated models for the evaluation of severe accident management strategies - SAMEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, M.L.; Peers, K.; Kersting, E.; Fassmann, W.; Tuomisto, H.; Lundstroem, P.; Helle, M.; Gustavsson, V.; Jacobsson, P.

    2001-01-01

    This study is concerned with the further development of integrated models for the assessment of existing and potential severe accident management (SAM) measures. This paper provides a brief summary of these models, based on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods and the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) approach, and their application to a number of case studies spanning both preventive and mitigative accident management regimes. In the course of this study it became evident that the starting point to guide the selection of methodology and any further improvement is the intended application. Accordingly, such features as the type and area of application and the confidence requirement are addressed in this project. The application of an integrated ROAAM approach led to the implementation, at the Loviisa NPP, of a hydrogen mitigation strategy, which requires substantial plant modifications. A revised level 2 PSA model was applied to the Sizewell B NPP to assess the feasibility of the in-vessel retention strategy. Similarly the application of PSA based models was extended to the Barseback and Ringhals 2 NPPs to improve the emergency operating procedures, notably actions related to manual operations. A human reliability analysis based on the Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR) and Technique For Human Error Rate (THERP) models was applied to a case study addressing secondary and primary bleed and feed procedures. Some aspects pertinent to the quantification of severe accident phenomena were further examined in this project. A comparison of the applications of PSA based approach and ROAAM to two severe accident issues, viz hydrogen combustion and in-vessel retention, was made. A general conclusion is that there is no requirement for further major development of the PSA and ROAAM methodologies in the modelling of SAM strategies for a variety of applications as far as the technical aspects are concerned. As is demonstrated in this project, the

  12. Integrated spatiotemporal modelling of bioenergy production potentials, agricultural land use, and related GHG balances; demonstrated for Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Floortje; Verstegen, Judith A.; Zheliezna, Tetiana; Drozdova, Olga; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study shows how bioenergy potential and total greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of land-use change and agricultural intensification can be modeled in an integrated way. The modeling framework is demonstrated for first- and second-generation ethanol production in Ukraine for the timeframe 2010-2030

  13. A hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images (HydroSat): A case study of the Nile River demonstrating the future Sentinel-2 capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salama, M.; Radwan, M.; van der Velde, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images, hereafter HydroSat. HydroSat corrects images for atmospheric interferences and simultaneously retrieves water quality variables. An application of HydroSat to Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)

  14. A High-Resolution Terrestrial Modeling System (TMS): A Demonstration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q.; Dai, Y.; Zheng, X.; Ye, A.; Ji, D.; Chen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes a terrestrial modeling system (TMS) developed at Beijing Normal University. The TMS is designed to be driven by multi-sensor meteorological and land surface observations, including those from satellites and land based observing stations. The purposes of the TMS are (1) to provide a land surface parameterization scheme fully capable of being coupled with the Earth system models; (2) to provide a standalone platform for retrospective historical simulation and for forecasting of future land surface processes at different space and time scales; and (3) to provide a platform for studying human-Earth system interactions and for understanding climate change impacts. This system is built on capabilities among several groups at BNU, including the Common Land Model (CoLM) system, high-resolution atmospheric forcing data sets, high resolution land surface characteristics data sets, data assimilation and uncertainty analysis platforms, ensemble prediction platform, and high-performance computing facilities. This presentation intends to describe the system design and demonstrate the capabilities of TMS with results from a China-wide application.

  15. Demonstration of finite element simulations in MOOSE using crystallographic models of irradiation hardening and plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This report describes the implementation of a crystal plasticity framework (VPSC) for irradiation hardening and plastic deformation in the finite element code, MOOSE. Constitutive models for irradiation hardening and the crystal plasticity framework are described in a previous report [1]. Here we describe these models briefly and then describe an algorithm for interfacing VPSC with finite elements. Example applications of tensile deformation of a dog bone specimen and a 3D pre-irradiated bar specimen performed using MOOSE are demonstrated.

  16. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  17. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  18. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  19. Quantitative and empirical demonstration of the Matthew effect in a study of career longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-04

    The Matthew effect refers to the adage written some two-thousand years ago in the Gospel of St. Matthew: "For to all those who have, more will be given." Even two millennia later, this idiom is used by sociologists to qualitatively describe the dynamics of individual progress and the interplay between status and reward. Quantitative studies of professional careers are traditionally limited by the difficulty in measuring progress and the lack of data on individual careers. However, in some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, success, and prowess, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. Here we demonstrate testable evidence of the age-old Matthew "rich get richer" effect, wherein the longevity and past success of an individual lead to a cumulative advantage in further developing his or her career. We develop an exactly solvable stochastic career progress model that quantitatively incorporates the Matthew effect and validate our model predictions for several competitive professions. We test our model on the careers of 400,000 scientists using data from six high-impact journals and further confirm our findings by testing the model on the careers of more than 20,000 athletes in four sports leagues. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  20. Thermal Modeling and Testing of the Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Edison program is intending to launch the Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) project, a swarm of 8 1.5U cubesats in the fall of 2014 to demonstrate intra-swarm communications and multi-point in situ space physics data acquisition. Due to late changes in the duty cycles of various components, potential overheating issues appeared. In addition, it was determined that capacity loss due to the coldness of the batteries was unacceptable, so mitigation was required. This paper will discuss the thermal modeling, testing, and results of the EDSN mission.

  1. Oregano demonstrates distinct tumour-suppressive effects in the breast carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Kello, Martin; Kajo, Karol; Kruzliak, Peter; Výbohová, Desanka; Mojžiš, Ján; Adamkov, Marián; Fialová, Silvia; Veizerová, Lucia; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Statelová, Dagmar; Grančai, Daniel; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-04-01

    There has been a considerable interest in the identification of natural plant foods for developing effective agents against cancer. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of oregano in the in vivo and in vitro breast cancer model were evaluated. Lyophilized oregano (ORE) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, in vitro evaluation in MCF-7 cells was carried out. Low-dose ORE suppressed tumour frequency by 55.5 %, tumour incidence by 44 %, and tumour volume by 44.5 % compared to control animals. Analysis of rat tumour cells showed Ki67, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase after low-dose ORE treatment. High-dose ORE lengthened tumour latency by 12.5 days; moreover, Bcl-2, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase in carcinoma cells were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas in both treated groups. In vitro studies showed that ORE decreased survival and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. In ORE-treated MCF-7 cells, an increase in cells expressing sub-G 0 /G 1 DNA content and an increase in the percentage of annexin V/PI positive MCF-7 cells were observed. In vitro, both caspase-dependent and possible non-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways were found. The deactivation of anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were observed in the ORE-treated MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a distinct tumour-suppressive effect of oregano in the breast cancer model.

  2. A phantom model demonstration of tomotherapy dose painting delivery, including managed respiratory motion without motion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mo Xiaohu; McCall, Keisha C; Mackie, Thomas R [Department of Medical Physics, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 111 Highland Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Schubert, Leah K [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Westerly, David C, E-mail: mwkissick@wisc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2010-05-21

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate a potential alternative scenario for accurate dose-painting (non-homogeneous planned dose) delivery at 1 cm beam width with helical tomotherapy (HT) in the presence of 1 cm, three-dimensional, intra-fraction respiratory motion, but without any active motion management. A model dose-painting experiment was planned and delivered to the average position (proper phase of a 4DCT scan) with three spherical PTV levels to approximate dose painting to compensate for hypothetical hypoxia in a model lung tumor. Realistic but regular motion was produced with the Washington University 4D Motion Phantom. A small spherical Virtual Water(TM) phantom was used to simulate a moving lung tumor inside of the LUNGMAN(TM) anthropomorphic chest phantom to simulate realistic heterogeneity uncertainties. A piece of 4 cm Gafchromic EBT(TM) film was inserted into the 6 cm diameter sphere. TomoTherapy, Inc., DQA(TM) software was used to verify the delivery performed on a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II(TM) device. The dose uncertainty in the purposeful absence of motion management and in the absence of large, low frequency drifts (periods greater than the beam width divided by the couch velocity) or randomness in the breathing displacement yields very favorable results. Instead of interference effects, only small blurring is observed because of the averaging of many breathing cycles and beamlets and the avoidance of interference. Dose painting during respiration with helical tomotherapy is feasible in certain situations without motion management. A simple recommendation is to make respiration as regular as possible without low frequency drifting. The blurring is just small enough to suggest that it may be acceptable to deliver without motion management if the motion is equal to the beam width or smaller (at respiration frequencies) when registered to the average position.

  3. A phantom model demonstration of tomotherapy dose painting delivery, including managed respiratory motion without motion management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mo Xiaohu; McCall, Keisha C; Mackie, Thomas R; Schubert, Leah K; Westerly, David C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate a potential alternative scenario for accurate dose-painting (non-homogeneous planned dose) delivery at 1 cm beam width with helical tomotherapy (HT) in the presence of 1 cm, three-dimensional, intra-fraction respiratory motion, but without any active motion management. A model dose-painting experiment was planned and delivered to the average position (proper phase of a 4DCT scan) with three spherical PTV levels to approximate dose painting to compensate for hypothetical hypoxia in a model lung tumor. Realistic but regular motion was produced with the Washington University 4D Motion Phantom. A small spherical Virtual Water(TM) phantom was used to simulate a moving lung tumor inside of the LUNGMAN(TM) anthropomorphic chest phantom to simulate realistic heterogeneity uncertainties. A piece of 4 cm Gafchromic EBT(TM) film was inserted into the 6 cm diameter sphere. TomoTherapy, Inc., DQA(TM) software was used to verify the delivery performed on a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II(TM) device. The dose uncertainty in the purposeful absence of motion management and in the absence of large, low frequency drifts (periods greater than the beam width divided by the couch velocity) or randomness in the breathing displacement yields very favorable results. Instead of interference effects, only small blurring is observed because of the averaging of many breathing cycles and beamlets and the avoidance of interference. Dose painting during respiration with helical tomotherapy is feasible in certain situations without motion management. A simple recommendation is to make respiration as regular as possible without low frequency drifting. The blurring is just small enough to suggest that it may be acceptable to deliver without motion management if the motion is equal to the beam width or smaller (at respiration frequencies) when registered to the average position.

  4. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist model demonstrates that nocturnal hot flashes interrupt objective sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E; White, David

    2013-12-01

    Sleep interruption is often reported by women with hot flashes and night sweats (or vasomotor symptoms, VMS). Although women report that VMS awaken them, polysomnography (PSG) studies have not consistently supported this contention. We mimicked menopause using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to investigate whether VMS increase awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO). VMS, serum estradiol, and at-home PSGs (two pretreatment, two posttreatment) were measured before and after 4 weeks on GnRHa. Regression models were used to determine the effect of increasing VMS frequency on awakenings and WASO, as measured objectively and subjectively. Twenty-nine healthy women (mean 27.3 y). Academic medical center. Depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg). Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed on GnRHa. Persistent VMS were reported by 69% of women. The number of nighttime VMS correlated directly with the degree of sleep disturbance. Each additional reported nighttime VMS was associated with a 62% increase from baseline in PSG-measured WASO (P = 0.007), a 3% increase in awakenings (P = 0.05), and 6% increase in %N1 sleep (P = 0.02). Nighttime VMS were also associated with increased perceived WASO (312%; P = 0.02), awakenings (16%; P = 0.007), Insomnia Severity Index (P = 0.03), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03) scores, and decreased perceived sleep efficiency (P = 0.01). Objectively recorded nighttime VMS correlated with PSG-measured WASO (rs = 0.45, P = 0.02). This menopause model demonstrates that nighttime vasomotor symptoms correlate with increased sleep fragmentation. These findings are consistent with a specific contribution of vasomotor symptoms to polysomnography-measured sleep interruption suggesting that nighttime vasomotor symptoms interrupt sleep in the setting of menopause.

  5. Presentation on the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC): A Working Model and Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Vican, L.

    2015-12-01

    Physical analog models and demonstrations can be effective educational tools for helping instructors teach abstract concepts in the Earth, planetary, and space sciences. Reducing the learning challenges for students using physical analog models and demonstrations, however, can often increase instructors' workload and budget because the cost and time needed to produce and maintain such curriculum materials is substantial. First, this presentation describes a working model for the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC) to support instructors' use of physical analog models and demonstrations in the science classroom. The working model is based on a combination of instructional resource models developed by the Association of College & Research Libraries and by the Physics Instructional Resource Association. The MEDL-CMC aims to make the curriculum materials available for all science courses and outreach programs within the institution where the MEDL-CMC resides. The sustainability and value of the MEDL-CMC comes from its ability to provide and maintain a variety of physical analog models and demonstrations in a wide range of science disciplines. Second, the presentation then reports on the development, progress, and future of the MEDL-CMC at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Development of the UCLA MEDL-CMC was funded by a grant from UCLA's Office of Instructional Development and is supported by the Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences. Other UCLA science departments have recently shown interest in the UCLA MEDL-CMC services, and therefore, preparations are currently underway to increase our capacity for providing interdepartmental service. The presentation concludes with recommendations and suggestions for other institutions that wish to start their own MEDL-CMC in order to increase educational effectiveness and decrease instructor workload. We welcome an interuniversity collaboration to

  6. Thermal Modeling in Support of the Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Edison program is intending to launch a swarm of at least 8 small satellites in 2013. This swarm of 1.5U Cubesats, the Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) project, will demonstrate intra-swarm communications and multi-point in-situ space physics data acquisition. In support of the design and testing of the EDSN satellites, a geometrically accurate thermal model has been constructed. Due to the low duty cycle of most components, no significant overheating issues were found. The predicted mininum temperatures of the external antennas are low enough, however, that some mitigation may be in order. The development and application of the model will be discussed in detail.

  7. A volcanic event forecasting model for multiple tephra records, demonstrated on Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaschke, Magret; Cronin, Shane J.; Bebbington, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Robust time-varying volcanic hazard assessments are difficult to develop, because they depend upon having a complete and extensive eruptive activity record. Missing events in eruption records are endemic, due to poor preservation or erosion of tephra and other volcanic deposits. Even with many stratigraphic studies, underestimation or overestimation of eruption numbers is possible due to mis-matching tephras with similar chemical compositions or problematic age models. It is also common to have gaps in event coverage due to sedimentary records not being available in all directions from the volcano, especially downwind. Here, we examine the sensitivity of probabilistic hazard estimates using a suite of four new and two existing high-resolution tephra records located around Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand. Previous estimates were made using only single, or two correlated, tephra records. In this study, tephra data from six individual sites in lake and peat bogs covering an arc of 120° downwind of the volcano provided an excellent temporal high-resolution event record. The new data confirm a previously identified semi-regular pattern of variable eruption frequency at Mt. Taranaki. Eruption intervals exhibit a bimodal distribution, with eruptions being an average of 65 years apart, and in 2% of cases, centuries separate eruptions. The long intervals are less common than seen in earlier studies, but they have not disappeared with the inclusion of our comprehensive new dataset. Hence, the latest long interval of quiescence, since AD 1800, is unusual, but not out of character with the volcano. The new data also suggest that one of the tephra records (Lake Rotokare) used in earlier work had an old carbon effect on age determinations. This shifted ages of the affected tephras so that they were not correlated to other sites, leading to an artificially high eruption frequency in the previous combined record. New modelled time-varying frequency estimates suggest a 33

  8. The Eight-Year Study: From Evaluative Research to a Demonstration Project, 1930—1940.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Watras

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1932 to 1940, the Progressive Education Association (PEA conducted its Eight-Year Study. At first, the study appeared to be a poorly funded comparison of two groups of students in secondary schools. During the last four years, as more financial support became available, the Eight-Year Study became a broadly based demonstration of a wide range of educational innovations. For contemporary educators, the story of the Eight-Year Study represents an opportunity to reconsider popular principles of program evaluation such as utilization-focused evaluation or program theory in evaluation. Rather than set plans in advance, the PEA members seemed to follow the ideas of John Dewey; they allowed the purposes to widen and broaden as the study evolved. In this way, the Eight-Year Study represented a model of democratic policy evaluation. Its tentative type of planning allowed people to set and to change their own purposes in line with the needs of the wider organization. Part of the reason that the study changed direction was it gathered more financial support and could add consultants who worked in distinct program elements. In addition, the lack of consistency matched the varied nature that characterized the founding members of the PEA. Its democratic framework may have enabled the Eight-Year Study to become the PEA’s abiding contribution to American education.

  9. 3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.M.; Ashby, E.

    1997-03-01

    Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools.

  10. Demonstration of Advanced EMI Models for Live-Site UXO Discrimination at Waikoloa, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    SITE UXO DISCRIMINATION AT WAIKOLOA, HAWAII 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Fridon Shubitidze Thayer...UXO demonstration study at the former Waikoloa Maneuver Area (WMA) in Waikoloa, Hawaii , under ESTCP Munitions Response Project MR-201227. 15

  11. A novel automated rodent tracker (ART), demonstrated in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Brett M; Yap, Moi Hoon; Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Sharp, Paul S; Grant, Robyn A

    2018-04-15

    Generating quantitative metrics of rodent locomotion and general behaviours from video footage is important in behavioural neuroscience studies. However, there is not yet a free software system that can process large amounts of video data with minimal user interventions. Here we propose a new, automated rodent tracker (ART) that uses a simple rule-based system to quickly and robustly track rodent nose and body points, with minimal user input. Tracked points can then be used to identify behaviours, approximate body size and provide locomotion metrics, such as speed and distance. ART was demonstrated here on video recordings of a SOD1 mouse model, of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, aged 30, 60, 90 and 120days. Results showed a robust decline in locomotion speeds, as well as a reduction in object exploration and forward movement, with an increase in the time spent still. Body size approximations (centroid width), showed a significant decrease from P30. ART performed to a very similar accuracy as manual tracking and Ethovision (a commercially available alternative), with average differences in coordinate points of 0.6 and 0.8mm, respectively. However, it required much less user intervention than Ethovision (6 as opposed to 30 mouse clicks) and worked robustly over more videos. ART provides an open-source option for behavioural analysis of rodents, performing to the same standards as commercially available software. It can be considered a validated, and accessible, alternative for researchers for whom non-invasive quantification of natural rodent behaviour is desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling and Simulation of National Electronic Product Code Network Demonstrator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, John P. T.

    The National Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network Demonstrator Project (NDP) was the first large scale consumer goods track and trace investigation in the world using full EPC protocol system for applying RFID technology in supply chains. The NDP demonstrated the methods of sharing information securely using EPC Network, providing authentication to interacting parties, and enhancing the ability to track and trace movement of goods within the entire supply chain involving transactions among multiple enterprise. Due to project constraints, the actual run of the NDP was 3 months only and was unable to consolidate with quantitative results. This paper discusses the modelling and simulation of activities in the NDP in a discrete event simulation environment and provides an estimation of the potential benefits that can be derived from the NDP if it was continued for one whole year.

  13. Electrostatic micro-actuator with a pre-charged series capacitor: modeling, design, and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyun-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jeong Oen; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2014-01-01

    As a powerful method to reduce actuation voltage in an electrostatic micro-actuator, we propose and investigate an electrostatic micro-actuator with a pre-charged series capacitor. In contrast to a conventional electrostatic actuator, the injected pre-charges into the series capacitor can freely modulate the pull-in voltage of the proposed actuator even after the completion of fabrication. The static characteristics of the proposed actuator were investigated by first developing analytical models based on a parallel-plate capacitor model. We then successfully designed and demonstrated a micro-switch with a pre-charged series capacitor. The pull-in voltage of the fabricated micro-switch was reduced from 65.4 to 0.6 V when pre-charged with 46.3 V. The on-resistance of the fabricated micro-switch was almost the same as the initial one, even when the device was pre-charged, which was demonstrated for the first time. All results from the analytical models, finite element method simulations, and measurements were in good agreement with deviations of less than 10%. This work can be favorably adapted to electrostatic micro-switches which need a low actuation voltage without noticeable degradation of performance. (paper)

  14. A mechanistic model for electricity consumption on dairy farms: definition, validation, and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; Shalloo, L; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to define and demonstrate a mechanistic model that enables dairy farmers to explore the impact of a technical or managerial innovation on electricity consumption, associated CO2 emissions, and electricity costs. We, therefore, (1) defined a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms (MECD) capable of simulating total electricity consumption along with related CO2 emissions and electricity costs on dairy farms on a monthly basis; (2) validated the MECD using empirical data of 1yr on commercial spring calving, grass-based dairy farms with 45, 88, and 195 milking cows; and (3) demonstrated the functionality of the model by applying 2 electricity tariffs to the electricity consumption data and examining the effect on total dairy farm electricity costs. The MECD was developed using a mechanistic modeling approach and required the key inputs of milk production, cow number, and details relating to the milk-cooling system, milking machine system, water-heating system, lighting systems, water pump systems, and the winter housing facilities as well as details relating to the management of the farm (e.g., season of calving). Model validation showed an overall relative prediction error (RPE) of less than 10% for total electricity consumption. More than 87% of the mean square prediction error of total electricity consumption was accounted for by random variation. The RPE values of the milk-cooling systems, water-heating systems, and milking machine systems were less than 20%. The RPE values for automatic scraper systems, lighting systems, and water pump systems varied from 18 to 113%, indicating a poor prediction for these metrics. However, automatic scrapers, lighting, and water pumps made up only 14% of total electricity consumption across all farms, reducing the overall impact of these poor predictions. Demonstration of the model showed that total farm electricity costs increased by between 29 and 38% by moving from a day and night tariff to a flat

  15. Modelling Plane Geometry: the connection between Geometrical Visualization and Algebraic Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L. R.; Jardim, D. F.; da Silva, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The teaching and learning of Mathematics contents have been challenging along the history of the education, both for the teacher, in his dedicated task of teaching, as for the student, in his arduous and constant task of learning. One of the topics that are most discussed in these contents is the difference between the concepts of proof and demonstration. This work presents an interesting discussion about such concepts considering the use of the mathematical modeling approach for teaching, applied to some examples developed in the classroom with a group of students enrolled in the discipline of Geometry of the Mathematics curse of UFVJM.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  17. Demonstrating and implementing innovative technologies: Case studies from the USDOE Office of Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Koegler, K.J.; Mamiya, L.S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes elements of success for demonstration, evaluation, and transfer for deployment of innovative technologies for environmental restoration. They have been compiled from lessons learned through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development's Volatile Organic Compounds in Arid Soil Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The success of the VOC-Arid ID program was determined by the rapid development demonstration, and transfer for deployment of technologies to operational sites that improve on safety, cost, and/or schedule of performance over baseline technologies. The VOC-Arid ID successfully fielded more than 25 innovative technology field demonstrations; several of the technologies demonstrated have been successfully transferred for deployment Field demonstration is a critical element in the successful transfer of innovative technologies into environmental restoration operations. The measures of success for technology demonstrations include conducting the demonstration in a safe and controlled environment and generating the appropriate information by which to evaluate the technology. However, field demonstrations alone do not guarantee successful transfer for deployment There are many key elements throughout the development and demonstration process that have a significant impact on the success of a technology. This paper presents key elements for a successful technology demonstration and transfer for deployment identified through the experiences of the VOC-Arid ID. Also, several case studies are provided as examples

  18. Calibration of complex models through Bayesian evidence synthesis: a demonstration and tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Jit, Mark; Sharples, Linda; DeAngelis, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Summary Decision-analytic models must often be informed using data which are only indirectly related to the main model parameters. The authors outline how to implement a Bayesian synthesis of diverse sources of evidence to calibrate the parameters of a complex model. A graphical model is built to represent how observed data are generated from statistical models with unknown parameters, and how those parameters are related to quantities of interest for decision-making. This forms the basis of an algorithm to estimate a posterior probability distribution, which represents the updated state of evidence for all unknowns given all data and prior beliefs. This process calibrates the quantities of interest against data, and at the same time, propagates all parameter uncertainties to the results used for decision-making. To illustrate these methods, the authors demonstrate how a previously-developed Markov model for the progression of human papillomavirus (HPV16) infection was rebuilt in a Bayesian framework. Transition probabilities between states of disease severity are inferred indirectly from cross-sectional observations of prevalence of HPV16 and HPV16-related disease by age, cervical cancer incidence, and other published information. Previously, a discrete collection of plausible scenarios was identified, but with no further indication of which of these are more plausible. Instead, the authors derive a Bayesian posterior distribution, in which scenarios are implicitly weighted according to how well they are supported by the data. In particular, we emphasise the appropriate choice of prior distributions and checking and comparison of fitted models. PMID:23886677

  19. Health Marketing for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Shaniece; Blaine, Rachel E; Palamé, Megan; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-03-01

    This case study describes the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD) health marketing campaign, examines the strategies used in such campaigns, and offers lessons learned to improve health marketing for future interventions. MA-CORD Health Marketing Components and Implementation. The three main components were an outdoor printed advertisement and texting campaign, social media with a focus on Facebook, and the Summer Passport Program, an event-based initiative in parks for children. The advertisements consisted of billboards, bus advertisements, and handouts. The text messaging component, which required families to actively text a keyword to join, had a low opt-in rate. Facebook page "likes" increased from 1,024 to 1,453 in New Bedford and from 175 to 1,091 in Fitchburg. Fitchburg received technical assistance and paid for ads on Facebook. The Summer Passport participation in parks ranged from 120 to 875 children with participation in the free park lunch program doubling in Fitchburg. Key lessons learned are engage communication experts from each community at the beginning of the project, use text messaging components with in-person staff onsite to assist participants in the opt-in process, build momentum for a Facebook presence through purchasing Facebook advertisements, and partner with local park departments for programming.

  20. An investigation into electromagnetic force models: differences in global and local effects demonstrated by selected problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Felix A.; Rickert, Wilhelm; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the implications of various electromagnetic force models in macroscopic situations. There is an ongoing academic discussion which model is "correct," i.e., generally applicable. Often, gedankenexperiments with light waves or photons are used in order to motivate certain models. In this work, three problems with bodies at the macroscopic scale are used for computing theoretical model-dependent predictions. Two aspects are considered, total forces between bodies and local deformations. By comparing with experimental data, insight is gained regarding the applicability of the models. First, the total force between two cylindrical magnets is computed. Then a spherical magnetostriction problem is considered to show different deformation predictions. As a third example focusing on local deformations, a droplet of silicone oil in castor oil is considered, placed in a homogeneous electric field. By using experimental data, some conclusions are drawn and further work is motivated.

  1. The Development of a Structural Equation Model to Demonstrate the Correlations between Marijuana Use and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherding, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the effects of marijuana on academic and social involvement in undergraduates using a structural equation model. The study was conducted at a midsized comprehensive community college in the Midwest and was guided by Astin's (1985) theory of student involvement. A survey link was e-mailed to all 4,527 eligible…

  2. Conditional mouse models demonstrate oncogene-dependent differences in tumor maintenance and recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Furth, Priscilla A

    2003-01-01

    Diversity in the pathophysiology of breast cancer frustrates therapeutic progress. We need to understand how mechanisms activated by specific combinations of oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and hormonal signaling pathways govern response to therapy and prognosis. A recent series of investigations conducted by Chodosh and colleagues offers new insights into the similarities and differences between specific oncogenic pathways. Expression of three oncogenes relevant to pathways activated in human breast cancers (c-myc, activated neu and Wnt1) were targeted to murine mammary epithelial cells using the same transgenic tetracycline-responsive conditional gene expression system. While the individual transgenic lines demonstrate similarly high rates of tumor penetrance, rates of oncogene-independent tumor maintenance and recurrence following initial regression are significantly different, and are modifiable by mutations in specific cooperating oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressor gene expression. The experiments make three notable contributions. First, they illustrate that rates of tumor regression and recurrence following initial regression are dependent upon the pathways activated by the initiating oncogene. The experiments also demonstrate that altered expression or mutation of specific cooperating oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes results in different rates of tumor regression and recurrence. Finally, they exemplify the power of conditional mouse models for elucidating how specific molecular mechanisms give rise to the complexity of human cancer

  3. Competitive exclusion: an ecological model demonstrates how research metrics can drive women out of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hapgood, K.

    2012-12-01

    While universities are often perceived within the wider population as a flexible family-friendly work environment, continuous full-time employment remains the norm in tenure track roles. This traditional career path is strongly re-inforced by research metrics, which typically measure accumulated historical performance. There is a strong feedback between historical and future research output, and there is a minimum threshold of research output below which it becomes very difficult to attract funding, high quality students and collaborators. The competing timescales of female fertility and establishment of a research career mean that many women do not exceed this threshold before having children. Using a mathematical model taken from an ecological analogy, we demonstrate how these mechanisms create substantial barriers to pursuing a research career while working part-time or returning from extended parental leave. The model highlights a conundrum for research managers: metrics can promote research productivity and excellence within an organisation, but can classify highly capable scientists as poor performers simply because they have not followed the traditional career path of continuous full-time employment. Based on this analysis, we make concrete recommendations for researchers and managers seeking to retain the skills and training invested in female scientists. We also provide survival tactics for women and men who wish to pursue a career in science while also spending substantial time and energy raising their family.

  4. Learning to make technology work - a study of learning in technology demonstration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutherland Olsen, Dorothy; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2014-01-01

    participants, including users. The aim of the project is usually to test the technology and promote changes in users habits, while learning is frequently cited as the main outcome. In this paper we review existing studies of demonstration projects and try to gain an overview of the main aims and effects......Building working demonstrations of new technologies within sustainable energy and transport has become an important activity in the move towards a more energy efficient society. The work involved in building these demonstrations is usually organised in a project with a variety of different...

  5. Conceptual design study for the demonstration reactor of JSFR. (1) Current status of JSFR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayafune, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji; Aoto, Kazumi; Ohshima, Jun; Ito, Takaya

    2011-01-01

    JAEA is now conducting 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT)' project for the commercialization before 2050s. A demonstration reactor of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is planned to start operation around 2025. In the FaCT project, conceptual design study on the demonstration reactor has been performed since 2007 to determine the referential reactor specifications for the next stage design work from 2011 for the licensing and construction. Plant performance as a demonstration reactor for the 1.5 GWe commercial reactor JSFR is being compared between 750 MWe and 500 MWe plant designs. By using the results of conceptual design study, output power will be determined during year of 2010. This paper describes development status of key technologies and comparison between 750 MWe and 500 MWe plants with the view points of demonstration ability for commercial JSFR plant. (author)

  6. Applicability and perspectives of natural analogues as ''demonstration'' of PAGIS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1989-01-01

    In PAGIS Project the safety of the geological disposal system is based on the multibarrier concept, which is reflected in the calculation approach where for all options the behaviour of each barrier is modeled. In the present scheme all the models used for the performance assessment of the disposal options have been considered as a chain of codes describing the behaviour of the different barriers. For each of these, one or more possibilities of verification by Natural Analogue is presented. A set of Tables has been prepared which shows the sequence of phenomena considered for each disposal option. A review of the N.A. as far studied or simply recognized allowed a check to be made on the possibility of verification of the barrier models with the ''long term experiments'' offered by the geological evidence

  7. Demonstration of fundamental statistics by studying timing of electronics signals in a physics-based laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Shaun E.; Semkow, Thomas M.; Remling, David J.; Bradt, Clayton J.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed accessible methods to demonstrate fundamental statistics in several phenomena, in the context of teaching electronic signal processing in a physics-based college-level curriculum. A relationship between the exponential time-interval distribution and Poisson counting distribution for a Markov process with constant rate is derived in a novel way and demonstrated using nuclear counting. Negative binomial statistics is demonstrated as a model for overdispersion and justified by the effect of electronic noise in nuclear counting. The statistics of digital packets on a computer network are shown to be compatible with the fractal-point stochastic process leading to a power-law as well as generalized inverse Gaussian density distributions of time intervals between packets.

  8. A review on regional convection-permitting climate modeling: Demonstrations, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prein, Andreas F; Langhans, Wolfgang; Fosser, Giorgia; Ferrone, Andrew; Ban, Nikolina; Goergen, Klaus; Keller, Michael; Tölle, Merja; Gutjahr, Oliver; Feser, Frauke; Brisson, Erwan; Kollet, Stefan; Schmidli, Juerg; van Lipzig, Nicole P M; Leung, Ruby

    2015-06-01

    Regional climate modeling using convection-permitting models (CPMs; horizontal grid spacing climate information on regional to local scales compared to traditionally used large-scale models (LSMs; horizontal grid spacing >10 km). CPMs no longer rely on convection parameterization schemes, which had been identified as a major source of errors and uncertainties in LSMs. Moreover, CPMs allow for a more accurate representation of surface and orography fields. The drawback of CPMs is the high demand on computational resources. For this reason, first CPM climate simulations only appeared a decade ago. In this study, we aim to provide a common basis for CPM climate simulations by giving a holistic review of the topic. The most important components in CPMs such as physical parameterizations and dynamical formulations are discussed critically. An overview of weaknesses and an outlook on required future developments is provided. Most importantly, this review presents the consolidated outcome of studies that addressed the added value of CPM climate simulations compared to LSMs. Improvements are evident mostly for climate statistics related to deep convection, mountainous regions, or extreme events. The climate change signals of CPM simulations suggest an increase in flash floods, changes in hail storm characteristics, and reductions in the snowpack over mountains. In conclusion, CPMs are a very promising tool for future climate research. However, coordinated modeling programs are crucially needed to advance parameterizations of unresolved physics and to assess the full potential of CPMs.

  9. Source and kinetics of interleukin-6 in humans during exercise demonstrated by a minimally invasive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anders Dyhr; Falahati, Ali; Steensberg, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a novel and non-invasive model to explore whether: (1) exercise-induced increases in systemic levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other cytokines can be ascribed to local production in working muscle; and (2) how acute release of retained blood from an exerci......The objective of this study was to use a novel and non-invasive model to explore whether: (1) exercise-induced increases in systemic levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other cytokines can be ascribed to local production in working muscle; and (2) how acute release of retained blood from...... was inhibited for 18 min by inflating a cuff around the thigh as proximally as possible immediately following exercise. On the control occasion venous outflow was not inhibited. Venous blood samples were collected from an arm vein at 2-min intervals after exercise. During inhibition of venous outflow from...

  10. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier

  11. Development of a Pharmacoeconomic Model to Demonstrate the Effect of Clinical Pharmacist Involvement in Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourth, Heather; Nelson, Jordan; Spoutz, Patrick; Morreale, Anthony P

    2018-05-01

    A data collection tool was developed and nationally deployed to clinical pharmacists (CPs) working in advanced practice provider roles within the Department of Veterans Affairs to document interventions and associated clinical outcomes. Intervention and short-term clinical outcome data derived from the tool were used to populate a validated clinical outcomes modeling program to predict long-term clinical and economic effects. To predict the long-term effect of CP-provided pharmacotherapy management on outcomes and costs for patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline patient demographics and biomarkers were extracted for type 2 diabetic patients having > 1 encounter with a CP using the tool between January 5, 2013, and November 20, 2014. Treatment biomarker values were extracted 12 months after the patient's initial visit with the CP. The number of visits with the CP was extracted from the electronic medical record, and duration of visit time was quantified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. Simulation modeling was performed on 3 patient cohorts-those with a baseline hemoglobin A1c of 8% to < 9%, 9% to < 10%, and ≥ 10%-to estimate long-term cost and clinical outcomes using modeling based on pivotal trial data (the Archimedes Model). A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the extent to which our results were dependent on assumptions related to program effectiveness and costs. A total of 7,310 patients were included in the analysis. Analysis of costs and events on 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year time horizons demonstrated significant reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), myocardial infarctions (MIs), episodes of acute heart failure, foot ulcers, and foot amputations in comparison with a control group receiving usual guideline-directed medical care. In the cohort with a baseline A1c of ≥ 10%, the absolute risk reduction was 1.82% for MACE, 1.73% for MI, 2.43% for acute heart failure, 5.38% for foot ulcers, and 2.03% for foot amputations. The

  12. Classroom Demonstration and Interactive Model of Sea-Level Control on Lateral and Vertical Facies Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.; Pound, K. S.; Jones, M. H.; Schmitt, L.; Campbell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding and visualizing the role that relative sea-level change plays in controlling vertical and lateral facies changes; they also struggle with explanations of regional facies patterns and changes as sea-level dependant. This interactive, dynamic, in-class model has been developed to build their understanding both of this topic, and of the nature of predictive scientific models. The model can be used as a follow-up to field observations, or to pre-teach concepts. The model assumes a land-ocean transect that is divided into 5 sedimentary settings. Each setting in the land-ocean transect is associated with sediment grain size that decreases basinward; the most basinward component is carbonate. In the model, seven 10-cm diameter see-through tubes are set up to represent `cores' spread along the land-ocean transect. Brightly-colored plastic beads are used to represent sediment deposited in each of the sedimentary settings. At the start, the position of the shoreline (sea level) is fixed between the fluvial (tube 2) and beach (tube 3) sediments. Students then deposit beads that represent their sediment type in the each tube. Other students control the sea-level marker, which can be raised or lowered, and students with the sediment (beads) move shoreward or basinward accordingly, and deposit their sediments (beads) in the appropriate tube. This produces a simple visual record (tubes with layers of distinctly colored beads) that show the idealized sedimentary consequences of relative sea-level change. After large-scale patterns in facies changes have been demonstrated and discussed, students can manipulate variables such as supply and rate. Students can fill a basin using a sequence of events they determine, and other student groups can interpret their cores. The learning and approach of this model can be extended to include real sediment (gravel, sand, silt, mud) deposited in cardboard tubes that are then opened and treated as cores

  13. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Duval

    Full Text Available To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3 was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3 which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the

  14. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

  15. Demonstration of a geostatistical approach to physically consistent downscaling of climate modeling simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A downscaling approach based on multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is presented. The key concept underlying MPS is to sample spatial patterns from within training images, which can then be used in characterizing the relationship between different variables across multiple scales. The approach is used here to downscale climate variables including skin surface temperature (TSK), soil moisture (SMOIS), and latent heat flux (LH). The performance of the approach is assessed by applying it to data derived from a regional climate model of the Murray-Darling basin in southeast Australia, using model outputs at two spatial resolutions of 50 and 10 km. The data used in this study cover the period from 1985 to 2006, with 1985 to 2005 used for generating the training images that define the relationships of the variables across the different spatial scales. Subsequently, the spatial distributions for the variables in the year 2006 are determined at 10 km resolution using the 50 km resolution data as input. The MPS geostatistical downscaling approach reproduces the spatial distribution of TSK, SMOIS, and LH at 10 km resolution with the correct spatial patterns over different seasons, while providing uncertainty estimates through the use of multiple realizations. The technique has the potential to not only bridge issues of spatial resolution in regional and global climate model simulations but also in feature sharpening in remote sensing applications through image fusion, filling gaps in spatial data, evaluating downscaled variables with available remote sensing images, and aggregating/disaggregating hydrological and groundwater variables for catchment studies.

  16. Demonstration of a modelling-based multi-criteria decision analysis procedure for prioritisation of occupational risks from manufactured nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Alstrup Jensen, Keld; Gottardo, Stefania; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Maccalman, Laura; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Several tools to facilitate the risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) have been developed. Most of them require input data on physicochemical properties, toxicity and scenario-specific exposure information. However, such data are yet not readily available, and tools that can handle data gaps in a structured way to ensure transparent risk analysis for industrial and regulatory decision making are needed. This paper proposes such a quantitative risk prioritisation tool, based on a multi-criteria decision analysis algorithm, which combines advanced exposure and dose-response modelling to calculate margins of exposure (MoE) for a number of MN in order to rank their occupational risks. We demonstrated the tool in a number of workplace exposure scenarios (ES) involving the production and handling of nanoscale titanium dioxide, zinc oxide (ZnO), silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of this application demonstrated that bag/bin filling, manual un/loading and dumping of large amounts of dry powders led to high emissions, which resulted in high risk associated with these ES. The ZnO MN revealed considerable hazard potential in vivo, which significantly influenced the risk prioritisation results. In order to study how variations in the input data affect our results, we performed probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, which demonstrated that the performance of the proposed model is stable against changes in the exposure and hazard input variables.

  17. Model operation to improve energy consumption efficiency in developing countries. Demonstration study (investigation project) on material preheating equipment for an electric furnace (using reduced iron as a raw material); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo. Denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi (kangen tetsu genryo) ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu (chosa jigyo) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Investigations were given on a device technology that can obtain energy saving and environment preserving effects in electric furnace iron making using reduced iron as a raw material. The effects can be obtained by continuously charging into an electric furnace the reduced iron supplied from an iron ore reducing plant while the iron is kept hot. The investigations were carried by sending survey groups to India and Mexico who are producing reduced iron, and Egypt and Malaysia who possess iron reducing technologies, and by analyzing the actual conditions of reduced iron manufacturing equipment and electric furnace facilities. In addition, retrieval, collection and analysis were performed on technical data and information on reduced iron available inside and outside the country. As a result, a proposal was made to select India as a site to execute the demonstration study on the hot reduced iron insertion technology. The reasons for the selection are: India has a large number of steel mills that have iron reducing facilities and electric furnaces; the country is geographically convenient for Japanese research institutes to implement the demonstration study; the country`s DRI production is the largest in the south-eastern Asia; and electric power cost is high. 92 refs., 49 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Fruit peel polyphenols demonstrate substantial anti-tumour effects in the model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Kapinová, Andrea; Kello, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Mahmood, Silvia; Murin, Radovan; Viera, Tischlerová; Mojžiš, Ján; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kassayová, Monika; Bojková, Bianka; Stollárová, Nadežda; Dobrota, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with cancer; thus, it is proposed that an extract of phytochemicals as present in whole fruits, vegetables, or grains may have anti-carcinogenic properties. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of fruit peel polyphenols (Flavin7) in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Lyophilized substance of Flavin7 (F7) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration, and mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis and proliferation after F7 treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were performed. High-dose F7 suppressed tumour frequency by 58 % (P 0.05) in comparison with the control rats, whereas lower dose of F7 was less effective. Histopathological analysis of tumours showed significant decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas after high-dose F7 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat carcinoma cells in vivo found a significant increase in caspase-3 expression and significant decrease in Bcl-2, Ki67, and VEGFR-2 expression in the high-dose group. Both doses demonstrated significant positive effects on plasma lipid metabolism in rats. F7 significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in vitro in MTT assay by dose- and time-dependent manner compared to control. F7 prevented cell cycle progression by significant enrichment in G1 cell populations. Incubation with F7 showed significant increase in the percentage of annexin V-/PI-positive MCF-7 cells and DNA fragmentation. Our results reveal a substantial tumour-suppressive effect of F7 in the breast cancer model. We propose that the effects of phytochemicals present in this fruit extract are responsible for observed potent anti-cancer activities.

  19. A near-real-time material accountancy model and its preliminary demonstration in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, K.; Ihara, H.; Nishimura, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Sawahata, T.

    1983-01-01

    The study of a near-real-time (n.r.t.) material accountancy system as applied to small or medium-sized spent fuel reprocessing facilities has been carried out since 1978 under the TASTEX programme. In this study, a model of the n.r.t. accountancy system, called the ten-day-detection-time model, was developed and demonstrated in the actual operating plant. The programme was closed on May 1981, but the study has been extended. The effectiveness of the proposed n.r.t. accountancy model was evaluated by means of simulation techniques. The results showed that weekly material balances covering the entire process MBA could provide sufficient information to satisfy the IAEA guidelines for small or medium-sized facilities. The applicability of the model to the actual plant has been evaluated by a series of field tests which covered four campaigns. In addition to the material accountancy data, many valuable operational data with regard to additional locations for an in-process inventory, the time needed for an in-process inventory, etc., have been obtained. A CUMUF (cumulative MUF) chart of the resulting MUF data in the C-1 and C-2 campaigns clearly showed that there had been a measurement bias across the process MBA. This chart gave a dramatic picture of the power of the n.r.t. accountancy concept by showing the nature of this bias, which was not clearly shown in the conventional material accountancy data. (author)

  20. Construction and modelling of a thermoelectric oxide module (TOM) as a demonstrator - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomes, P.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2010-08-15

    The project aims at the development of better thermoelectric materials for the direct conversion of solar heat into electricity. The maximum output power P{sub max} and the efficiency {eta} of the conversion was measured on a series of four-leg thermoelectric oxide modules (TOM). The modules were constructed by combining two p-type (La{sub 1.98}Sr{sub 0.02}CuO{sub 4}) and two n-type (CaMn{sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3}) thermoelements connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. The temperature gradient {Delta}T was provided by a High-Flux Solar Simulator source (HFSS) which generates a spectrum similar to solar radiation. This project was intended to be a feasibility study for the utilization of high temperature solar heat, which could not previously be demonstrated due to the low temperature stability of conventional materials. The direct conversion was proven by this study. The measurements show an almost linear temperature profile along the thermoelectric legs. However, the maximum output power resulted in 88.8 mW for a TOM with a leg length of 5 mm at {Delta}T = 622 K and has yet to be optimized by improving the converter design and the applied materials. The highest conversion efficiency {eta} was found for a heat flux of 4 to 8 W cm{sup -2}. The dependence of {eta} on the leg length was studied as well as the influence of a graphite coating on the hot Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface on {Delta}T, P{sub max} and {eta}. (authors)

  1. A gnotobiotic mouse model demonstrates that dietary fiber protects against colorectal tumorigenesis in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Dallas R; Holley, Darcy; Collins, Leonard B; Montgomery, Stephanie A; Whitmore, Alan C; Hillhouse, Andrew; Curry, Kaitlin P; Renner, Sarah W; Greenwalt, Alicia; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Godfrey, Virginia; Heise, Mark T; Threadgill, Deborah S; Han, Anna; Swenberg, James A; Threadgill, David W; Bultman, Scott J

    2014-12-01

    Whether dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer is controversial because of conflicting results from human epidemiologic studies. However, these studies and mouse models of colorectal cancer have not controlled the composition of gut microbiota, which ferment fiber into short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Butyrate is noteworthy because it has energetic and epigenetic functions in colonocytes and tumor-suppressive properties in colorectal cancer cell lines. We used gnotobiotic mouse models colonized with wild-type or mutant strains of a butyrate-producing bacterium to demonstrate that fiber does have a potent tumor-suppressive effect but in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner. Furthermore, due to the Warburg effect, butyrate was metabolized less in tumors where it accumulated and functioned as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to stimulate histone acetylation and affect apoptosis and cell proliferation. To support the relevance of this mechanism in human cancer, we demonstrate that butyrate and histone-acetylation levels are elevated in colorectal adenocarcinomas compared with normal colonic tissues. These results, which link diet and microbiota to a tumor-suppressive metabolite, provide insight into conflicting epidemiologic findings and suggest that probiotic/prebiotic strategies can modulate an endogenous HDAC inhibitor for anticancer chemoprevention without the adverse effects associated with synthetic HDAC inhibitors used in chemotherapy. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Design of demand side response model in energy internet demonstration park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.

  3. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  4. Galleria mellonella infection model demonstrates high lethality of ST69 and ST127 uropathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed F Alghoribi

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50 and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF. Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (10(4 colony-forming units/larvae showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P≤0.0001, including ST69 (P<0.02, but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18 was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131.

  5. Structural analysis of closure cap barriers: A pre-test study for the Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chung; Pelfrey, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project (BMDP) is a field demonstration study to determine the construction/installation requirements, permeability, and subsidence performance characteristics of a composite barrier. The composite barrier will consist of on-site sandy-clay blanketed by a bentonite mat and a flexible High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner (also called flexible membrane liner). Construction of one control test pad and three bentonite test pads are planned. The control test pad will be used to establish baseline data. Underneath the composite clay cap is a four feet thick loose sand layer in which cavities will be created by evacuation of sand. The present work provides a mathematical model for the BMDP. The mathematical model will be used to simulate the mechanical and structural responses of the composite clay cap during the testing processes. Based upon engineering experience and technical references, a set of nominal soil parameters have been selected

  6. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  7. Elder mediation in theory and practice: study results from a national caregiver mediation demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Mediation is a process through which a third party facilitates discussion among disputing parties to help them identify interests and ideally reach an amicable solution. Elder mediation is a growing subspecialty to address conflicts involving older adults, primarily involving caregiving or finances. Mediation is theorized to empower participants but critics argue that it can exacerbate power imbalances among parties and coerce consensus. These contested claims are examined through study of a national caregiver mediation demonstration project. Study implications underscore the importance of gerontological social work expertise to ensure the empowerment of vulnerable older adults in mediation sessions.

  8. Engineering Model Propellant Feed System Development for an Iodine Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload, providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cu cm and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high (Delta)v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. 3, 4 Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature (system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum chamber (it is under 10(exp -6) torr at -75 C), making it possible to 'cryopump' the propellant with lower-cost recirculating refrigerant-based systems as opposed to using liquid nitrogen or low temperature gaseous helium cryopanels. In the present paper, we describe the design and testing of the engineering model propellant feed system for iSAT (see Fig. 1). The feed system is based around an iodine propellant reservoir and two proportional control

  9. Fostering young children's interest in numeracy through demonstration of its value: the Footsteps Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Yeshe

    2017-07-01

    Children's early mathematical abilities are fundamental to their later academic achievement. An interest in mathematics in the early years is likely to establish a positive attitude to later mathematical learning, hopefully sustaining continued interest in mathematics and mathematical learning. Approaches to early mathematics teaching in the early years, however, are typically adult-initiated, which may fail to capture children's interest. Given the importance of children's motivation and sustained interest, the study described here strove to spark children's interests in mathematical problems in everyday life. The study sought to determine if children would incorporate more numeracy-related concepts into their free play if exposed to adult demonstrations of age-appropriate numeracy activities such as patterning. For at least 15 min three times weekly, participating children's parents and educators demonstrated numeracy problem-solving nearby, while children engaged in other activities. Demonstrations were thought to ascribe social value to the problem-solving activities. If children became interested in participating, adults told them to wait until the demonstrations finished, further indicating social value. Results show these children chose to play with numeracy-related activities in their free play time at preschool significantly more than children in a control group. These results suggest that seeking to foster children's interest in mathematics through child-initiated play, rather than prescribing adult-initiated mathematics activities, may be an important means of laying the foundation for lifelong mathematics learning. Ascribing social value to numeracy applications is proposed as a new approach to teaching mathematics in the early years.

  10. 77 FR 69604 - Applications for New Awards; Model Demonstration Projects on Promoting Reentry Success Through...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Effectiveness of Corrections-Based Work and Academic and Vocational Education Programs.'' In The Oxford Handbook... mentoring programs. (iii) For each partner entity selected in paragraphs (a)(3)(ii)(A) and (a)(3)(ii)(B... Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The purpose of the PRSCEO program is to demonstrate the benefits...

  11. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  12. A Functional Model of the Digital Extensor Mechanism: Demonstrating Biomechanics with Hair Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Beth A.; Youdas, James W.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Krause, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The action of muscles about joints can be explained through analysis of their spatial relationship. A functional model of these relationships can be valuable in learning and understanding the muscular action about a joint. A model can be particularly helpful when examining complex actions across multiple joints such as in the digital extensor…

  13. Landscape-based population viability models demonstrate importance of strategic conservation planning for birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; D. Todd. Jones-Farland

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at multiple scales. By combining habitat and demographic modeling, landscape-based population viability models effectively relate small-scale habitat and landscape patterns to regional population...

  14. Mathematical modeling of the drying of extruded fish feed and its experimental demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo; Simonsen, B.; Løvgreen, S.

    This paper present a mathematical model for the drying of extruded fish feed pellets. The model relies on conservation balances for moisture and energy. Sorption isotherms from literature are used together with diffusion and transfer coefficients obtained from dual parameter regression analysis...

  15. Demonstration of leapfrogging for implementing nonlinear model predictive control on a heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Upasana Manimegalai; Govindarajan, Anand; Rhinehart, R Russell

    2016-01-01

    This work reveals the applicability of a relatively new optimization technique, Leapfrogging, for both nonlinear regression modeling and a methodology for nonlinear model-predictive control. Both are relatively simple, yet effective. The application on a nonlinear, pilot-scale, shell-and-tube heat exchanger reveals practicability of the techniques. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of some of the projects in Canada planned to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of processes using waste heat. Most of the studies are in the planning stage; few field demonstrations are yet in operation in any of the three arbitrary categories of waste heat - high-grade heat (100-200 deg C), medium-grade heat (30-100 deg C), and low-grade heat (below 30 deg C). The survey indicates that, while there is long-term potential in several of the approaches, the time has arrived to start finding some hard facts. (author)

  17. Efficient solar hydrogen production by photocatalytic water splitting: From fundamental study to pilot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ximin; Liu, Huan; Li, Mingtao; Shen, Shaohua; Liu, Guanjie; Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Lijin; Guo, Penghui [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic water splitting with solar light is one of the most promising technologies for solar hydrogen production. From a systematic point of view, whether it is photocatalyst and reaction system development or the reactor-related design, the essentials could be summarized as: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). Optimization of these two issues are therefore given special attention throughout our study. In this review, the state of the art for the research of photocatalytic hydrogen production, both outcomes and challenges in this field, were briefly reviewed. Research progress of our lab, from fundamental study of photocatalyst preparation to reactor configuration and pilot level demonstration, were introduced, showing the complete process of our effort for this technology to be economic viable in the near future. Our systematic and continuous study in this field lead to the development of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar rector for the first time. We have demonstrated the feasibility for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light. The exiting challenges and difficulties for this technology to proceed from successful laboratory photocatalysis set-up up to an industrially relevant scale are also proposed. These issues have been the object of our research and would also be the direction of our study in future. (author)

  18. Adult Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates anabolic response to sclerostin antibody treatment with increased bone mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, B P; White, L E; Salemi, J D; Ominsky, M S; Caird, M S; Marini, J C; Kozloff, K M

    2014-08-01

    Treatments to reduce fracture rates in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta are limited. Sclerostin antibody, developed for treating osteoporosis, has not been explored in adults with OI. This study demonstrates that treatment of adult OI mice respond favorably to sclerostin antibody therapy despite retention of the OI-causing defect. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk. Although OI fracture risk is greatest before puberty, adults with OI remain at risk of fracture. Antiresorptive bisphosphonates are commonly used to treat adult OI, but have shown mixed efficacy. New treatments which consistently improve bone mass throughout the skeleton may improve patient outcomes. Neutralizing antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) are a novel anabolic therapy that have shown efficacy in preclinical studies by stimulating bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Scl-Ab in an adult 6 month old Brtl/+ model of OI that harbors a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly > Cys substitution on Col1a1. Six-month-old WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated with Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2×/week) or Veh for 5 weeks. OCN and TRACP5b serum assays, dynamic histomorphometry, microCT and mechanical testing were performed. Adult Brtl/+ mice demonstrated a strong anabolic response to Scl-Ab with increased serum osteocalcin and bone formation rate. This anabolic response led to improved trabecular and cortical bone mass in the femur. Mechanical testing revealed Scl-Ab increased Brtl/+ femoral stiffness and strength. Scl-Ab was successfully anabolic in an adult Brtl/+ model of OI.

  19. Demonstrating the Ecosystem Effects of Armored Suckermouth Catfishes (Loricariidae): A Feasibility Study Using Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    populations of suckermouth catfishes, with some recent field studies even suggesting that the group represents an ecological niche unoccupied by sympatric...commercial fisheries (Mendoza-Alfaro et al. 2009), birds (Bunkeley-Williams et al. 1994), and aquatic mammals (Nico 2010; Nico et al., 2009...mimic natural habitat. Mesocosms are medium-sized models of aquatic ecosystems that offer several advantages over field and laboratory studies. They

  20. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  1. Chinese Basic Pension Substitution Rate: A Monte Carlo Demonstration of the Individual Account Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bei; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Xuan

    2008-01-01

    At the end of 2005, the State Council of China passed ”The Decision on adjusting the Individual Account of Basic Pension System”, which adjusted the individual account in the 1997 basic pension system. In this essay, we will analyze the adjustment above, and use Life Annuity Actuarial Theory to establish the basic pension substitution rate model. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to prove the rationality of the model. Some suggestions are put forward associated with the substitution rate ac...

  2. Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

  3. Modeling the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrates an exponential increase in burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Chris; Razavi, Homie; Loomba, Rohit; Younossi, Zobair; Sanyal, Arun J

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent in the United States, where they are a growing cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and increasingly an indicator for liver transplantation. A Markov model was used to forecast NAFLD disease progression. Incidence of NAFLD was based on historical and projected changes in adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Assumptions were derived from published literature where available and validated using national surveillance data for incidence of NAFLD-related HCC. Projected changes in NAFLD-related cirrhosis, advanced liver disease, and liver-related mortality were quantified through 2030. Prevalent NAFLD cases are forecasted to increase 21%, from 83.1 million (2015) to 100.9 million (2030), while prevalent NASH cases will increase 63% from 16.52 million to 27.00 million cases. Overall NAFLD prevalence among the adult population (aged ≥15 years) is projected at 33.5% in 2030, and the median age of the NAFLD population will increase from 50 to 55 years during 2015-2030. In 2015, approximately 20% of NAFLD cases were classified as NASH, increasing to 27% by 2030, a reflection of both disease progression and an aging population. Incidence of decompensated cirrhosis will increase 168% to 105,430 cases by 2030, while incidence of HCC will increase by 137% to 12,240 cases. Liver deaths will increase 178% to an estimated 78,300 deaths in 2030. During 2015-2030, there are projected to be nearly 800,000 excess liver deaths. With continued high rates of adult obesity and DM along with an aging population, NAFLD-related liver disease and mortality will increase in the United States. Strategies to slow the growth of NAFLD cases and therapeutic options are necessary to mitigate disease burden. (Hepatology 2018;67:123-133). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for

  4. Modelled female sale options demonstrate improved profitability in northern beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethe, G E; Holmes, W E

    2008-12-01

    To examine the impact of improving the average value of cows sold, the risk of decreasing the number weaned, and total sales on the profitability of northern Australian cattle breeding properties. Gather, model and interpret breeder herd performances and production parameters on properties from six beef-producing regions in northern Australia. Production parameters, prices, costs and herd structure were entered into a herd simulation model for six northern Australian breeding properties that spay females to enhance their marketing options. After the data were validated by management, alternative management strategies were modelled using current market prices and most likely herd outcomes. The model predicted a close relationship between the average sale value of cows, the total herd sales and the gross margin/adult equivalent. Keeping breeders out of the herd to fatten generally improves their sale value, and this can be cost-effective, despite the lower number of progeny produced and the subsequent reduction in total herd sales. Furthermore, if the price of culled cows exceeds the price of culled heifers, provided there are sufficient replacement pregnant heifers available to maintain the breeder herd nucleus, substantial gains in profitability can be obtained by decreasing the age at which cows are culled from the herd. Generalised recommendations on improving reproductive performance are not necessarily the most cost-effective strategy to improve breeder herd profitability. Judicious use of simulation models is essential to help develop the best turnoff strategies for females and to improve station profitability.

  5. [Exploration and demonstration study on drug combination from clinical real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yong-yan

    2014-09-01

    Drug combination is extensive in the clinical real world,which is an important part and the inherent requirements of the post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The key issues and technology include multi-domain and multi-disciplinary such as the rationality, efficacy and safety evaluation of combination drug starting from clinical real world, study on component in vivo and mechanism of combination drug, the risk/benefit assessment and cost-benefit evaluation of combination drug and so on. The topic has been studied as clinical demonstration on combination therapy of variety of diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, insomnia, depression, hepatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis and ectopic pregnancy. Meanwhile, multi-disciplinary dynamic innovation alliance of clinical drug combination has been presented, which can promote the academic development and improving service ability and level of TCM.

  6. Underwater wireless optical communications: From system-level demonstrations to channel modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we discuss about recent experimental advances in underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) over various underwater channel water types using different modulation schemes as well as modelling and describing the statistical properties of turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels using laser beam intensity fluctuations measurements.

  7. Integrating the Demonstration Orientation and Standards-Based Models of Achievement Goal Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Heather Marie

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory and thus, the empirical measures stemming from the research, are currently divided on two conceptual approaches, namely the reason versus aims-based models of achievement goals. The factor structure and predictive utility of goal constructs from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Strategies (PALS) and the latest two versions…

  8. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  9. Model-Trained Neural Networks and Electronic Holography Demonstrated to Detect Damage in Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Fite, E. Brian; Mehmed, Oral; Thorp, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Detect Damage in Blades Electronic holography can show damaged regions in fan blades at 30 frames/sec. The electronic holograms are transformed by finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks to visualize the damage. The trained neural networks are linked with video and graphics to visualize the bending-induced strain distribution, which is very sensitive to damage. By contrast, it is very difficult to detect damage by viewing the raw, speckled, characteristic fringe patterns. For neural-network visualization of damage, 2 frames or 2 fields are used, rather than the 12 frames normally used to compute the displacement distribution from electronic holograms. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, finite element models are used to compute displacement and strain distributions for the vibration modes of undamaged and cracked blades. A model of electronic time-averaged holography is used to transform the displacement distributions into finite-element-resolution characteristic fringe patterns. Then, a feedforward neural network is trained with the fringe-pattern/strain-pattern pairs, and the neural network, electronic holography, and video are implemented on a workstation. Now that the neural networks have been tested successfully at 30 frames/sec on undamaged and cracked cantilevers, the electronic holography and neural-network processing are being adapted for onsite damage inspection of twisted fan blades and rotormounted blades. Our conclusion is that model-trained neural nets are effective when they are trained with good models whose application is well understood. This work supports the aeromechanical testing portion of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Project.

  10. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET. Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1 mL/kg/d, DHI-2 group (DHI 2 mL/kg/d, and DHI-4 group (DHI 4 mL/kg/d. AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN, glial marker (GFAP, vascular density factor (vWF, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with 18F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  11. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R ampersand D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined

  12. Improvement, Verification, and Refinement of Spatially Explicit Exposure Models in Risk Assessment - SEEM Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Exposure Model UCL upper confidence limit USACHPPM U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection...Health Promotion and Preventative Medicine (USACHPPM) (2004). The median BAF for soil to earthworms was 3.342 and was selected from Table 4.2 of the...renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site. Ecotoxicology . 2:243-256 (as cited in Sample, B.E., and G.W

  13. Polymeric Materials Models in the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Tech Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    in its best form (originally intended for automotive crash safety), is inadequate, has usability issues, and lacks the biofidelity to determine the...VALTS is a vertical impact simulator that allows laboratory test simulation of vertical accelerative loading of various UBB loading profiles and...but can be time consuming with large or long- running models since many individual simulations must be run to converge upon a solution. Since the

  14. Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    requires detailed models from the small scales (chemical reactions, soot evolution) to the largest scales (energy containing turbulence features). The...was a mixture of 75% n- dodecane and 25% m-xylene by volume. Table 2 and 3 contain relevant information for all fuels considered in this investigation...beam, and h the height above the burner. By measuring the integral extinction and utilizing the Lambert- Beer formula IhLaser = I0Laser;hexpZ0 L

  15. Nitrogen removal assessment through nitrification rates and media biofilm accumulation in an IFAS process demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pusker; Thomas, Wes; Schafran, Gary; Bott, Charles; Rutherford, Bob; Waltrip, David

    2011-12-15

    An IFAS demonstration study was conducted at the 76,000 m(3)/day (20MGD) James River Wastewater Treatment Plant (JRTP) located in Newport News, Virginia by converting one fully-aerobic conventional aeration basin with dedicated secondary clarification to a 7041 m(3)/day (8404 m(3)/day max month) IFAS train in a modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) configuration. During the study, biomass concentrations on the biofilm carriers were monitored (weekly) as well as nitrogen species concentrations in the IFAS reactor to quantify the nitrogen transformations occurring within the demonstration tank. In a related effort, nitrification kinetics for ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria were monitored on a weekly basis for IFAS media alone, IFAS process mixed liquor without media, and IFAS mixed liquor and media together in an effort to identify the location of nitrification activity (i.e. on the media or in the suspended culture) in the IFAS process. Biomass quantity on the media was generally observed to be inversely related to temperature except during a period when an auxiliary carbon source contaminated with fungi was introduced. Both ammonia oxidizing and nitrite oxidizing bacterial activity were elevated on the carriers compared to the suspended culture (AOB(media): 4.97 mgNOx/gMLSS/hr; AOB(suspended): 1.72 mgNOx/gMLSS/hr; NOB(media): 7.55 mgNOx/gMLSS/hr; NOB(suspended): 0.82 mgNOx/gMLSS/hr) during all periods of the study. In-basin nitrification rates calculated based on nitrogen profiling efforts averaged 0.90 mgNOx/m(2)/day which was in good agreement with the average of 0.89 mgNOx/m(2)/day for IFAS mixed liquor and media from batch testing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  17. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  18. Bayesian maximum entropy integration of ozone observations and model predictions: an application for attainment demonstration in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Serre, Marc L

    2010-08-01

    States in the USA are required to demonstrate future compliance of criteria air pollutant standards by using both air quality monitors and model outputs. In the case of ozone, the demonstration tests aim at relying heavily on measured values, due to their perceived objectivity and enforceable quality. Weight given to numerical models is diminished by integrating them in the calculations only in a relative sense. For unmonitored locations, the EPA has suggested the use of a spatial interpolation technique to assign current values. We demonstrate that this approach may lead to erroneous assignments of nonattainment and may make it difficult for States to establish future compliance. We propose a method that combines different sources of information to map air pollution, using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) Framework. The approach gives precedence to measured values and integrates modeled data as a function of model performance. We demonstrate this approach in North Carolina, using the State's ozone monitoring network in combination with outputs from the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) modeling system. We show that the BME data integration approach, compared to a spatial interpolation of measured data, improves the accuracy and the precision of ozone estimations across the state.

  19. An in silico model to demonstrate the effects of Maspin on cancer cell dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun, M A; Farid, D M; Ravenhil, L; Hossain, M A; Fall, C; Bass, R

    2016-01-07

    Most cancer treatments efficacy depends on tumor metastasis suppression, where tumor suppressor genes play an important role. Maspin (Mammary Serine Protease Inhibitor), an non-inhibitory serpin has been reported as a potential tumor suppressor to influence cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis in in vitro and in vivo experiments in last two decades. Lack of computational investigations hinders its ability to go through clinical trials. Previously, we reported first computational model for maspin effects on tumor growth using artificial neural network and cellular automata paradigm with in vitro data support. This paper extends the previous in silico model by encompassing how maspin influences cell migration and the cell-extracellular matrix interaction in subcellular level. A feedforward neural network was used to define each cell behavior (proliferation, quiescence, apoptosis) which followed a cell-cycle algorithm to show the microenvironment impacts over tumor growth. Furthermore, the model concentrates how the in silico experiments results can further confirm the fact that maspin reduces cell migration using specific in vitro data verification method. The data collected from in vitro and in silico experiments formulates an unsupervised learning problem which can be solved by using different clustering algorithms. A density based clustering technique was developed to measure the similarity between two datasets based on the number of links between instances. Our proposed clustering algorithm first finds the nearest neighbors of each instance, and then redefines the similarity between pairs of instances in terms of how many nearest neighbors share the two instances. The number of links between two instances is defined as the number of common neighbors they have. The results showed significant resemblances with in vitro experimental data. The results also offer a new insight into the dynamics of maspin and establish as a metastasis suppressor gene

  20. DEMONSTRATION COMPUTER MODELS USE WHILE SOLVING THE BUILDING OF THE CUT OF THE CYLINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna O. Gulivata

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of material presented in the article is the use of effective methods to illustrate the geometric material for the development of spatial imagination of students. As one of the ways to improve problem solving offer to illustrate the use of display computer model (DCM investigated objects created by the software environment PowerPoint. The technique of applying DCM while solving the problems to build a section of the cylinder makes it allows to build effective learning process and promotes the formation of spatial representations of students taking into account their individual characteristics and principles of differentiated instruction.

  1. A Prototype Lip Balm: Summary of Three Dermatological Studies Demonstrating Safety and Acceptability for Sensitive Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Stephanie

    Data were generated from three studies to assess the tolerability and acceptability of a prototype cosmetic lip balm. Dermatological assessments of topical compatibility (primary and cumulative irritability and sensitization), photoirritant and topical photosensitizer potential, and acceptability for safe use of a prototype cosmetic lip balm on sensitive skin are summarized. In Study 1, the product was applied to the volunteers' backs under a semiocclusive patch followed by patch removal/reapplication over 6 weeks to assess the irritant and allergic potential of the product. Dermatological assessments were performed at the beginning and end of the study or when there was evidence of positivity or adverse event. Study 2 was conducted by applying the product to the volunteers' backs under a semiocclusive patch, followed by patch removal/reapplication and irradiation of the test area with ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation at various intervals over 5 weeks. Dermatological assessments were performed to assess the product's role in the induction of photoirritancy and photosensitization. Clinical and subjective assessments for acceptability were obtained during Study 3 in volunteers with a diagnosis of sensitive skin and those who used the product as per instructions for use during the study period. The data generated from the three studies demonstrated no evidence of primary or cumulative dermal irritation or of dermal sensitization. In addition, no photoirritation potential or photosensitization potential was observed. As assessed by dermatologic monitoring and subject diary entries, the prototype lip balm did not cause irritation or sensitization reactions when used for 28 days in volunteers with a diagnosis of sensitive skin. Based on these findings, the prototype lip balm can be considered suitable for use for people with sensitive skin.

  2. The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES): A UAV-Based Science Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Croskey, C. L.; Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Houser, J. G.; Kim, H. S.; Mach, D. M.; Mitchell, J. D.; Stoneburner, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)- based project that investigated thunderstorms in the vicinity of the Florida Everglades in August 2002. ACES was conducted to investigate storm electrical activity and its relationship to storm morphology, and to validate satellite-based lightning measurements. In addition, as part of the NASA sponsored UAV-based science demonstration program, this project provided a scientifically useful demonstration of the utility and promise of UAV platforms for Earth science and applications observations. ACES employed the Altus II aircraft, built by General Atomics - Aeronautical Systems, Inc. Key science objectives simultaneously addressed by ACES are to: (1) investigate lightning-storm relationships, (2) study storm electrical budgets, and provide Lightning Imaging Sensor validation. The ACES payload included electrical, magnetic, and optical sensors to remotely characterize the lightning activity and the electrical environment within and around thunderstorms. ACES contributed important electrical and optical measurements not available from other sources. Also, the high altitude vantage point of the UAV observing platform (up to 55,000 feet) provided cloud-top perspective. By taking advantage of its slow flight speed (70 to 100 knots), long endurance, and high altitude flight, the Altus was flown near, and when possible, over (but never into) thunderstorms for long periods of time that allowed investigations to be conducted over entire storm life cycles. An innovative real time weather system was used to identify and vector the aircraft to selected thunderstorms and safely fly around these storms, while, at the same time monitor the weather near our base of operations. In addition, concurrent ground-based observations that included radar (Miami and Key West WSRBD, NASA NPOL), satellite imagery, and lightning (NALDN and Los Alamos EDOT) enable the UAV measurements to be more completely

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex(trademark) fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package

  4. A pure Hubbard model with demonstrable pairing adjacent to the Mott-insulating phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, J D; Long, M W

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a Hubbard model on a particular class of geometries, and consider the effect of doping the highly spin-degenerate Mott-insulating state with a microscopic number of holes in the extreme strong-coupling limit. The geometry is quite general, with pairs of atomic sites at each superlattice vertex, and a highly frustrated inter-atomic connectivity: the one-dimensional realization is a chain of edge-sharing tetrahedra. The sole model parameter is the ratio of intra-pair to inter-pair hopping matrix elements. If the intra-pair hopping is negligible then introducing a microscopic number of holes results in a ferromagnetic Nagaoka groundstate. Conversely, if the intra-pair hopping is comparable with the inter-pair hopping then the groundstate is low spin with short-ranged spin correlations. We exactly solve the correlated motion of a pair of holes in such a state and find that, in 1d and 2d, they form a bound pair on a length scale that increases with diminishing binding energy. This result is pertinent to the long-standing problem of hole motion in the CuO 2 planes of the high-temperature superconductors: we have rigorously shown that, on our frustrated geometry, the holes pair up and a short-ranged low-spin state is generated by hole motion alone

  5. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Phelps, T.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  6. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    , formulating a research problem as well as writing techniques as deeply integrated elements of the academic work process. The importance of creating an engaging and supportive learning environment: When teaching subjects such as plagiarism and study skills, the student can easily be constructed as a cheater...... and a poor student by discourse that emphasizes rule-breaking or which highlights poor study skills rather than focusing on knowledge building. This view of the student as “untrustworthy” (McGregor, 1960) can be communicated not only through explicit discourse; it can be implicit in the design of learning......In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning...

  7. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Jr., Hugh [CDH Energy Corp., Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  8. A Teachers’ Perspective of Inclusive Education for Students With Special Needs in a Model Demonstration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbis Ballhysa

    2011-01-01

    Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  9. A modelling approach demonstrating micromechanical changes in the tibial cemented interface due to in vivo service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, P.; Miller, M.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Mann, K.A.; Janssen, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Post-operative changes in trabecular bone morphology at the cement-bone interface can vary depending on time in service. This study aims to investigate how micromotion and bone strains change at the tibial bone-cement interface before and after cementation. This work discusses whether the morphology

  10. A modelling approach demonstrating micromechanical changes in the tibial cemented interface due to in vivo service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Priyanka; Miller, Mark A.; Verdonschot, Nico; Mann, Kenneth A.; Janssen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Post-operative changes in trabecular bone morphology at the cement-bone interface can vary depending on time in service. This study aims to investigate how micromotion and bone strains change at the tibial bone-cement interface before and after cementation. This work discusses whether the morphology

  11. The role of the state in sustainable energy transitions: A case study of large smart grid demonstration projects in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Wu, Yun-Ying; Ip, Jasper Chi-man; Hills, Peter Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Smart grids represent one of the most significant evolutionary changes in energy management systems as they enable decentralised energy systems, the use of large-scale renewable energy as well as major improvements in demand-side-management. Japan is one of the pioneers in smart grid deployment. The Japanese model is characterised by a government-led, community-oriented, and business-driven approach with the launch of four large-scale smart-community demonstration projects. Our case study of large smart grid demonstration projects in Japan found that the Japanese government has demonstrated its high governing capacity in terms of leadership, recombinative capacity, institutional capacity, enabling capacity, and inducement capacity. However, the major limitations of the government in introducing some critical regulatory changes have constrained the smart grid deployment from advancing to a higher-order form of smart grid developments. This paper calls for more attention to be given to the importance of regulatory changes that are essential to overcome the technological lock-in, and the complementary roles of non-state actors such as the business sector and consumers to strengthen the governing capacity of the state. - Highlights: • Smart grids introduce evolutionary changes in energy management systems. • The Japanese model is government-led, community-oriented, and business-driven. • The Japanese government has demonstrated its high governing capacity. • But the limitations of the government have constrained the smart grid developments. • More attention needs to be given to regulatory changes and non-state actors

  12. Demonstration of a sustainable community-based model of care across the palliative care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Janet H; Whitten, Elizabeth; Morris, John; Hooper, Richelle Nugent; Wheeler, Jane L; Kamal, Arif; Abernethy, Amy P

    2012-12-01

    In the U.S., the number of hospital-based palliative care programs has increased rapidly, but availability of outpatient palliative care remains limited. Multiple barriers impede the financial viability of these programs. Four Seasons, a nonprofit organization in western North Carolina, delivers a full spectrum of palliative care in hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, patients' homes, and outpatient clinics; its catchment area encompasses approximately 350,000 people. Initially focused on hospice care, Four Seasons added its palliative care program in 2003. Before the inquiry described herein, financial losses from outpatient palliative care (2003-2008) were escalating. We explored organizational and financial barriers to sustainability of palliative care, so as to 1) identify reasons for financial losses; 2) devise and implement solutions; and 3) develop a sustainable model for palliative care delivery across settings, including the outpatient setting. In 2008, Four Seasons's palliative care program served 305 patients per day (average) with 10.5 providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants); financial losses approached $400,000 per year. We used Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement cycles to identify challenges to and inefficiencies in service provision, developed targeted strategies for overcoming identified barriers to cost-efficiency, instituted these measures, and tracked results. In 2011, Four Seasons served 620 palliative care patients per day (average) with 14 providers; financial losses decreased by 40%. With health care reform promoting integration of care across settings, outpatient palliative care will gain importance in the health care continuum. Process changes can help reduce financial losses that currently impede outpatient palliative care programs. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Force Modeling and State Propagation for Navigation and Maneuver Planning for the Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, C.; Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J.; Hawes, D.; Carrico, J.

    2013-09-01

    The state propagation accuracy resulting from different choices of gravitational force models and orbital perturbations is investigated for a pair of CubeSats flying in formation in low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate on-board state propagation is necessary to autonomously plan maneuvers and perform proximity operations and docking safely. The ability to perform high-precision navigation is made especially challenging by the limited computer processing power available on-board the spacecraft. Propagation accuracy is investigated both in terms of the absolute (chief) state and the relative (deputy relative to chief) state. Different perturbing effects are quantified and related directly to important mission factors such as maneuver accuracy, fuel use (mission lifetime), and collision prediction/avoidance (mission safety). The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The primary orbital perturbation affecting spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) is the Earth oblateness, or J2, perturbation. Provided that a spacecraft does not have an extremely high area-to-mass ratio or is not flying at a very low altitude, the effect of J2 will usually be greater than that of atmospheric drag, which will typically be the next largest perturbing force in LEO. After these perturbations, factors such as higher-order Earth gravitational parameters, third-body perturbations, and solar radiation pressure will follow in magnitude but will have much less noticeable effects than J2 and drag. For spacecraft formations, where relative dynamics and not

  14. A CASE STUDY OF PROMOTING FRESH BEEF THROUGH IN-STORE DEMONSTRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, David B.; Gray, Morgan D.; Brooker, John R.

    1992-01-01

    In-store demonstrations are becoming a popular way of promoting foods at the retail level. However, little information is available to guide store managers and marketers in the design and implementation of these promotions. A test demonstration for shoulder and top blade steaks is used to estimate the effects of discretionary components of this promotional strategy. Marketing implications are drawn.

  15. Core Design Studies for a 600 MWe Demonstration TRU Burner Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Sang Ji [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The conceptual core design of the demonstration sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) for TRU burning is being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The main objective of demonstration reactor for the construction and operation is to test and demonstrate the TRU fuel, the operation of the large sized (1500 MWth) sodium fast reactor and the TRU burning capability of commercial burner reactor. In this paper, a 600 MWe demonstration burner core design is presented. It is scheduled to use the uranium fuel for start core due to the uncertainty of the demonstration of TRU fuel, and to change core fuel to the LTRU core fuel from LWR spent fuel and core fuel to the MTRU core which consists of the LMR spent fuel and the self recycled fuel progressively so that total 4 cores having the different function, which consists of uranium core, LTRU core, MTRU core and Mod.MTRU core, were designed

  16. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  17. Modeling bark beetles and fuels on landscapes: A demonstration of ArcFuels and a discussion of possible model enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. McMahan; Alan A. Ager; Helen Maffei; Jane L. Hayes; Eric L. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The Westwide Pine Beetle Model and the Fire and Fuels Extension were used to simulate a mountain pine beetle outbreak under different fuel treatment scenarios on a 173,000 acre landscape on the Deschutes National Forest. The goal was to use these models within ArcFuels to analyze the interacting impacts of bark beetles and management activities on landscape fuel...

  18. SKI-178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Jeremy A; Dick, Taryn E; Sharma, Arati; Doi, Kenichiro; Hegde, Shailaja; Tan, Su-Fern; Geffert, Laura M; Fox, Todd E; Sharma, Arun K; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Kester, Mark; Loughran, Thomas P; Paulson, Robert F; Claxton, David F; Wang, Hong-Gang; Yun, Jong K

    2017-01-01

    To further characterize the selectivity, mechanism-of-action and therapeutic efficacy of the novel small molecule inhibitor, SKI-178. Using the state-of-the-art Cellular Thermal Shift Assay (CETSA) technique to detect "direct target engagement" of proteins intact cells, in vitro and in vivo assays, pharmacological assays and multiple mouse models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, we demonstrate that SKI-178 directly target engages both Sphingosine Kinase 1 and 2. We also present evidence that, in addition to its actions as a Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, SKI-178 functions as a microtubule network disrupting agent both in vitro and in intact cells. Interestingly, we separately demonstrate that simultaneous SphK inhibition and microtubule disruption synergistically induces apoptosis in AML cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SKI-178 is well tolerated in normal healthy mice. Most importantly, we demonstrate that SKI-178 has therapeutic efficacy in several mouse models of AML. SKI-178 is a multi-targeted agent that functions both as an inhibitor of the SphKs as well as a disruptor of the microtubule network. SKI-178 induced apoptosis arises from a synergistic interaction of these two activities. SKI-178 is safe and effective in mouse models of AML, supporting its further development as a multi-targeted anti-cancer therapeutic agent.

  19. Conceptual design study for the demonstration reactor of JSFR. (3) Safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Akihiro; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Kubo, Shigenobu; Fujimura, Ken; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the result of conceptual safety design and evaluation for the demonstration plant of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR), which was preliminarily conducted for providing information necessary to decide the plant specification for further design study. The plant major specifications except for output power and safety design concept are almost the same as those of the commercial JSFR. A set of safety evaluation for typical design basis events (DBEs) is mainly focused here, which was conducted for the 750 MWe design. Safety analyses for DBEs evaluation were performed on the basis of conservative assumptions using a one-dimensional flow network code with point kinetics. For representative DBEs, transient over power type events and loss of flow type events were analyzed. The long-term loss-of-offsite power event was also calculated to evaluate the natural circulation decay heat removal system. All analytical results showed to meet tentative safety criteria, thus it was confirmed that the safety design concept of JSFR is feasible against DBEs. (author)

  20. Cross flow filtration for radwaste applications reverse osmosis demonstration case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkmus, D.

    1995-01-01

    Today's radwaste economic and regulatory scenarios signify the importance in the improvement of operational practices to reduce generator liabilities. This action is largely due to the rising cost dealing with burial sites and the imposed waste volume restriction. To control the economical burdens associated with waste burial and to comply with stricter environmental regulations, NPP's are attempting to modify their radwaste system(s) design and operating philosophy by placing a major emphasis on waste volume reduction and processing techniques. The utilization of reverse osmosis technology as a means for treatment of process and wastewater streams in the nuclear power industry has been investigated for many years. This paper will outline reverse osmosis theory and highlight performance data for process and waste stream purification applications. Case studies performed at 5 nuclear plants have been outlined. The demonstrations were performed on a widely variety of process stream for both a PWR and BWR application. The data provided by the pilot systems, the equipment design, and the economical impact a reverse osmosis unit will have on producing treated (high purity) are as follows

  1. A gas radiation property model applicable to general combustion CFD and its demonstration in oxy-fuel combustion simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Singh, Shashank; Romero, Sergio Sanchez

    2017-01-01

    As a good compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy, the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) is often used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of combustion processes for evaluating gas radiative properties. However, the WSGGMs still have practical limitations (e...... and practically accurate and applicable to general combustion CFD, is presented, programmed and verified. The model is implemented in CFD simulation of a 0.8 MW oxy-fuel furnace, via which the applicability and usefulness of the model in combustion CFD is demonstrated. On the contrary, the usefulness.......g., difficult to naturally accommodate different combustion environments or accurately address species variations in a flame or properly account for the impacts of participating species other than H2O and CO2) fostering different WSGGMs. In this paper, a gas radiation model, computationally efficient...

  2. Case Studies in Neuroscience: A dissociation of balance and posture demonstrated by camptocormia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, R J; Gurfinkel, V S; Kraakevik, J; Nutt, J G; Horak, F B

    2018-01-01

    Upright stance in humans requires an intricate exchange between the neural mechanisms that control balance and those that control posture; however, the distinction between these control systems is hard to discern in healthy subjects. By studying balance and postural control of a participant with camptocormia - an involuntary flexion of the trunk during standing that resolves when supine - a divergence between balance and postural control was revealed. A kinematic and kinetic investigation of standing and walking showed a stereotyped flexion of the upper body by almost 80° over a few minutes, and yet the participant's ability to control center of mass within the base of support and to compensate for external perturbations remained intact. This unique case also revealed the involvement of automatic, tonic control of the paraspinal muscles during standing and the effects of attention. Although strength was reduced and MRI showed a reduction in muscle mass, there was sufficient strength to maintain an upright posture under voluntary control and when using geste antagoniste maneuvers or "sensory tricks" from visual, auditory, and haptic biofeedback. Dual tasks that either increased or decreased the attention given to postural alignment would decrease or increase the postural flexion, respectively. The custom-made "twister" device that measured axial resistance to slow passive rotation revealed abnormalities in axial muscle tone distribution during standing. The results suggest that the disorder in this case was due to a disruption in the automatic, tonic drive to the postural muscles and that myogenic changes were secondary. NEW & NOTEWORTHY By studying an idiopathic camptocormia case with a detailed biomechanical and sensorimotor approach, we have demonstrated unique insights into the neural control of human bipedalism 1) balance and postural control cannot be considered the same neural process, as there is a stereotyped abnormal flexed posture, without balance

  3. Russian design studies of the DEMO-S demonstration fusion power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B.; Belyakov, V.; Borisov, A.; Kirillov, I.; Shatalov, G.; Sokolov, Yu.; Strebkov, Yu.; Vasiliev, N. [Kurchatov Institut (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Different concepts for a fusion power plant have been studied in Russia since 1975. Researchers have considered power facilities using tokamaks, stellarators and inertial fusion devices. Tokamak reactors appear the most promising at this stage of science development. Application of fusion reactors for generation of electricity, production of domestic and industrial heat, hydrogen production, transmutation of non-fissionable isotopes into fissionable ones, water desalination, and burning out of minor actinides was considered. Conceptual design studies of a tokamak-based demonstration fusion reactor have been carried out since 1991. The preferred concept was selected, which was a steady-state operating tokamak with superconducting magnets, one-null divertor configuration and a high contribution of bootstrap current into plasma current drive. The general reactor layout was determined. Plasma characteristics were optimized. Two most attractive blanket concepts were analyzed: (1) a He-cooled ceramic (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) design for tritium breeding, using ferritic steel as structural material, and (2) a blanket using liquid Li as tritium breeding material and coolant and a V-Cr-Ti alloy as structural material. The studies were supported by neutronic, heat-hydraulic and mechanical calculations. A conventional type of water or Li cooled divertor targets with maximum heat load of {proportional_to}10 MW/m{sup 2} was chosen. Blankets of both types require Be as a neutron multiplier and have to be replaced after the integral fusion neutron load on the first wall reaches 10 MW/m{sup 2}. Heat to electricity conversion schemes enable operation with net efficiency of 34% for the He-coolant design and 40% for the liquid Li one. Aspects of radioactive waste management and scarce materials refabrication are considered. In particular, a radiochemical extraction technology for separation of V alloy components and their purification from activation products after reactor

  4. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  5. Studies and research concerning BNFP: process monitoring and process surveillance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kight, H R

    1979-11-01

    Computerized methods of monitoring process functions and alarming off-standard conditions were implemented and demonstrated during the FY 1979 Uranium Run. In addition, prototype applications of instruments for the purpose of tamper indication and surveillance were tested.

  6. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    data constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  9. Modeling U-Shaped Exposure-Response Relationships for Agents that Demonstrate Toxicity Due to Both Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Brittany; Farrell, Patrick J; Birkett, Nicholas; Krewski, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Essential elements such as copper and manganese may demonstrate U-shaped exposure-response relationships due to toxic responses occurring as a result of both excess and deficiency. Previous work on a copper toxicity database employed CatReg, a software program for categorical regression developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to model copper excess and deficiency exposure-response relationships separately. This analysis involved the use of a severity scoring system to place diverse toxic responses on a common severity scale, thereby allowing their inclusion in the same CatReg model. In this article, we present methods for simultaneously fitting excess and deficiency data in the form of a single U-shaped exposure-response curve, the minimum of which occurs at the exposure level that minimizes the probability of an adverse outcome due to either excess or deficiency (or both). We also present a closed-form expression for the point at which the exposure-response curves for excess and deficiency cross, corresponding to the exposure level at which the risk of an adverse outcome due to excess is equal to that for deficiency. The application of these methods is illustrated using the same copper toxicity database noted above. The use of these methods permits the analysis of all available exposure-response data from multiple studies expressing multiple endpoints due to both excess and deficiency. The exposure level corresponding to the minimum of this U-shaped curve, and the confidence limits around this exposure level, may be useful in establishing an acceptable range of exposures that minimize the overall risk associated with the agent of interest. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Complete study demonstrating the absence of rhabdovirus in a distinct Sf9 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available A putative novel rhabdovirus (SfRV was previously identified in a Spodoptera frugiperda cell line (Sf9 cells [ATCC CRL-1711 lot 58078522] by next generation sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analysis. We performed an extensive analysis of our Sf9 cell bank (ATCC CRL-1711 lot 5814 [Sf9L5814] to determine whether this virus was already present in cells obtained from ATCC in 1987. Inverse PCR of DNA isolated from Sf9 L5814 cellular DNA revealed integration of SfRV sequences in the cellular genome. RT-PCR of total RNA showed a deletion of 320 nucleotides in the SfRV RNA that includes the transcriptional motifs for genes X and L. Concentrated cell culture supernatant was analyzed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and revealed a single band at a density of 1.14 g/ml. This fraction was further analysed by electron microscopy and showed amorphous and particulate debris that did not resemble a rhabdovirus in morphology or size. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that the protein composition did not contain the typical five rhabdovirus structural proteins and LC-MS/MS analysis revealed primarily of exosomal marker proteins, the SfRV N protein, and truncated forms of SfRV N, P, and G proteins. The SfRV L gene fragment RNA sequence was recovered from the supernatant after ultracentrifugation of the 1.14 g/ml fraction treated with diethyl ether suggesting that the SfRV L gene fragment sequence is not associated with a diethyl ether resistant nucleocapsid. Interestingly, the 1.14 g/ml fraction was able to transfer baculovirus DNA into Sf9L5814 cells, consistent with the presence of functional exosomes. Our results demonstrate the absence of viral particles in ATCC CRL-1711 lot 5814 Sf9 cells in contrast to a previous study that suggested the presence of infectious rhabdoviral particles in Sf9 cells from a different lot. This study highlights how cell lines with different lineages may present different virosomes and therefore no general conclusions can

  11. Design study of coated conductor direct drive wind turbine generator for small scale demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting field windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 6...

  12. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  13. Probabilistic tsunami inundation map based on stochastic earthquake source model: A demonstration case in Macau, the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Wang, Yu; Chan, Chung-Han; Qiu, Qiang; Weiss, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Current tsunami inundation maps are commonly generated using deterministic scenarios, either for real-time forecasting or based on hypothetical "worst-case" events. Such maps are mainly used for emergency response and evacuation planning and do not include the information of return period. However, in practice, probabilistic tsunami inundation maps are required in a wide variety of applications, such as land-use planning, engineer design and for insurance purposes. In this study, we present a method to develop the probabilistic tsunami inundation map using a stochastic earthquake source model. To demonstrate the methodology, we take Macau a coastal city in the South China Sea as an example. Two major advances of this method are: it incorporates the most updated information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust; it integrates a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns are generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. When aggregated the large amount of inundation simulation results, we analyze the uncertainties associated with variability of earthquake rupture location and slip distribution. We also explore how tsunami hazard evolves in Macau in the context of sea level rise. Our results suggest Macau faces moderate tsunami risk due to its low-lying elevation, extensive land reclamation, high coastal population and major infrastructure density. Macau consists of four districts: Macau Peninsula, Taipa Island, Coloane island and Cotai strip. Of these Macau Peninsula is the most vulnerable to tsunami due to its low-elevation and exposure to direct waves and refracted waves from the offshore region and reflected waves from mainland. Earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw8.0 in the northern Manila trench would likely cause hazardous inundation in Macau. Using a stochastic source model, we are able to derive a spread of potential tsunami impacts for earthquakes

  14. Rodent models for studying empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Sehoon; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-11-01

    Empathy is the important capacity to recognize and share emotions with others. Recent evidence shows that rodents possess a remarkable affective sensitivity to the emotional state of others and that primitive forms of empathy exist in social lives of rodents. However, due to the ambiguous definitional boundaries between empathy, emotional contagion and other related terms, distinct components of empathic behaviors in rodents need to be clarified. Hence, we review recent experimental studies demonstrating that rodents are able to share emotions with others. Specifically, we highlight several behavioral models that examine different aspects of rodent empathic behaviors in response to the various distress of conspecifics. Experimental approaches using rodent behavioral models will help elucidate the neural circuitry of empathy and its neurochemical association. Integrating these findings with corresponding experiments in humans will ultimately provide novel insights into therapeutic interventions for mental disorders associated with empathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Demonstration of Effects on Tropical Cyclone Forecasts with a High Resolution Global Model from Variation in Cumulus Convection Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Cohen, Charles; Mackaro, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is a system of models that have been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to support NASA's earth science research in data analysis, observing system modeling and design, climate and weather prediction, and basic research. The work presented used GEOS-5 with 0.25o horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels (up to 0.01 hP) resolving both the troposphere and stratosphere, with closer packing of the levels close to the surface. The model includes explicit (grid-scale) moist physics, as well as convective parameterization schemes. Results will be presented that will demonstrate strong dependence in the results of modeling of a strong hurricane on the type of convective parameterization scheme used. The previous standard (default) option in the model was the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme, which uses a quasi-equilibrium closure. In the cases shown, this scheme does not permit the efficient development of a strong storm in comparison with observations. When this scheme is replaced by a modified version of the Kain-Fritsch scheme, which was originally developed for use on grids with intervals of order 25 km such as the present one, the storm is able to develop to a much greater extent, closer to that of reality. Details of the two cases will be shown in order to elucidate the differences in the two modeled storms.

  16. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chung Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke

  17. Case Study of The ARRA-Funded GSHP Demonstration at the Natural Sources Building, Montana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-04-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects was proposed by Montana Tech of the University of Montana for a 56,000 sq ft, newly constructed, on-campus research facility – the Natural Resources Building (NRB) located in Butte, Montana. This demonstrated GSHP system consists of a 50 ton water-to-water heat pump and a closed-loop ground heat exchanger with two redundant 7.5 hp constant-speed pumps to use water in the nearby flooded mines as a heat source or heat sink. It works in conjunction with the originally installed steam HX and an aircooled chiller to provide space heating and cooling. It is coupled with the existing hot water and chilled water piping in the building and operates in the heating or cooling mode based on the outdoor air temperature. The ground loop pumps operate in conjunction with the existing pumps in the building hot and chilled water loops for the operation of the heat pump unit. The goal of this demonstration project is to validate the technical and economic feasibility of the demonstrated commercial-scale GSHP system in the region, and illustrate the feasibility of using mine waters as the heat sink and source for GSHP systems. Should the demonstration prove satisfactory and feasible, it will encourage similar GSHP applications using mine water, thus help save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The actual performance of the system is analyzed with available measured data for January through July 2014. The annual energy performance is predicted and compared with a baseline scenario, with the heating and cooling provided by the originally designed systems. The comparison is made in terms of energy savings, operating cost savings, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Finally

  18. Do English and Chinese EQ-5D versions demonstrate measurement equivalence? an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Swee-Cheng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although multiple language versions of health-related quality of life instruments are often used interchangeably in clinical research, the measurement equivalence of these versions (especially using alphabet vs pictogram-based languages has rarely been assessed. We therefore investigated the measurement equivalence of English and Chinese versions of the EQ-5D, a widely used utility-based outcome instrument. Methods In a cross-sectional study, either EQ-5D version was administered to consecutive outpatients with rheumatic diseases. Measurement equivalence of EQ-5D item responses and utility and visual analog scale (EQ-VAS scores between these versions was assessed using multiple regression models (with and without adjusting for potential confounding variables, by comparing the 95% confidence interval (95%CI of score differences between these versions with pre-defined equivalence margins. An equivalence margin defined a magnitude of score differences (10% and 5% of entire score ranges for item responses and utility/EQ-VAS scores, respectively which was felt to be clinically unimportant. Results Sixty-six subjects completed the English and 48 subjects the Chinese EQ-5D. The 95%CI of the score differences between these versions overlapped with but did not fall completely within pre-defined equivalence margins for 4 EQ-5D items, utility and EQ-VAS scores. For example, the 95%CI of the adjusted score difference between these EQ-5D versions was -0.14 to +0.03 points for utility scores and -11.6 to +3.3 points for EQ-VAS scores (equivalence margins of -0.05 to +0.05 and -5.0 to +5.0 respectively. Conclusion These data provide promising evidence for the measurement equivalence of English and Chinese EQ-5D versions.

  19. Decontamination demonstration facility (D.D.F) modularization/mobility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility

  20. Motivational study for an hybrid demonstrator; Dossier de motivation pour un demonstrateur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidron, M.; Fiorini, G.L.; Thomas, J.B. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Flocard, H. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS/IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-15

    This document recalls first the role of hybrid accelerator driven systems (ADS) in the domain of transmutation of long-lived fission products and minor actinides. It presents the specific contribution of these systems in the management of radioactive wastes and their technical feasibility and safety aspects. Then, follows a motivational analysis for the construction of a demonstration facility with its specifications and R and D needs: feasibility, schedule, links with other ADS-related programs, cost, international cooperation, recommendations. (J.S.)

  1. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  2. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  3. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  5. Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrated for NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attractive performance characteristics that are well suited to a number of NASA applications. These rechargeable batteries produce compact, lightweight energy-storage systems with excellent cycle life, high charge/discharge efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. NASA Glenn Research Center's Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs configured to power the liquid-air backpack (LAB) on spacesuit simulators. The demonstration batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes with enhanced low-temperature performance characteristics. The objectives of this effort were to (1) demonstrate practical battery performance under field-test conditions and (2) supply laboratory performance data under controlled laboratory conditions. Advanced electrolyte development is being conducted under the Exploration Technology Development Program by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three field trials were successfully completed at Cinder Lake from September 10 to 12, 2007. Extravehicular activities of up to 1 hr and 50 min were supported, with residual battery capacity sufficient for 30 min of additional run time. Additional laboratory testing of batteries and cells is underway at Glenn s Electrochemical Branch.

  6. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at Furman University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Malhotra, Mini [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 26 ground source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects was proposed by Furman University for ten student housing buildings—the North Village located on the campus in Greeneville, South Carolina. All ten buildings are identical in floor plan and construction. Each building is conditioned by an identical GSHP system consisting of 25 water-to-air heat pump (WAHP) units, a closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger (GHX) installed under an adjacent parking lot, and two redundant 7.5 hp variable-speed pumps to circulate water through the GHX and the WAHPs. The actual performance of the GSHP systems is analyzed with available measured data for 2014. The annual energy performance is compared with a baseline scenario in which the building is conditioned by air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) with the minimum allowed efficiencies specified in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (SEER 13 for cooling and 7.8 HSPF for heating) and supplemental electric heaters. The comparison is made in terms of energy savings, operating cost savings, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Finally, limitations in conducting this analysis are identified and recommendations for further improving the operational efficiency of the GSHP systems are made.

  7. Modelling the decadal trend of ecosystem carbon fluxes demonstrates the important role of functional changes in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Jansson, P.E.; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon sinks and stocks. Trends in net ecosystem exchange have been observed in a Danish beech forest and this trend cannot be entirely attributed to changing climatic drivers. This study sought to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed trend......, using a dynamic ecosystem model (CoupModel) and model data fusion with multiple constraints and model experiments. Experiments with different validation datasets showed that a multiple constraints model data fusion approach that included the annual tree growth, the seasonal canopy development......, the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the CO2 fluxes decreased the parameter uncertainty considerably compared to using CO2 fluxes as validation data alone. The fitted model was able to simulate the observed carbon fluxes well (R2=0.8, mean error=0.1gCm−2d−1) but did not reproduce the decadal (1997...

  8. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hardy, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bohn, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smart, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Saxena, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kahl, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pratt, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  9. Demonstration and study of the dispersion of water waves with a computer-controlled ripple tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströbel, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    The design of a ripple tank built in an undergraduate student project is described. Water waves are excited acoustically using computer programmable wave shapes. The projected wave patterns are recorded with a video camera and analyzed quantitatively. From the propagation of wave packets in distilled water at three different depths, the phase and group velocities are measured in the frequency range from 2 to 50 Hz. Good agreement with theory is found. The propagation of wave trains of different shapes is recorded and explained on the basis of the stationary phase approximation. Various types of precursors are detected. For a depth slightly above the critical depth and thus nearly dispersion-free, the solitary-like propagation of a single pulse is observed. In shallow water, the compression of a chirped pulse is demonstrated. Circular waves produced by falling water drops are recorded and analyzed.

  10. Implementation of a Sage-Based Stirling Model Into a System-Level Numerical Model of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Power System (FPS) project is developing a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) to verify the performance and functionality of a subscale version of the FPS reference concept in a relevant environment, and to verify component and system models. As hardware is developed for the TDU, component and system models must be refined to include the details of specific component designs. This paper describes the development of a Sage-based pseudo-steady-state Stirling convertor model and its implementation into a system-level model of the TDU.

  11. Building America Case Study: Demonstration House of Cold-Climate Solutions for Affordable Housing, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Single family homes in urban areas that are available for renovation by nonprofit developers are often in rough shape (1MM to 2MM nationally). Budgeting has historically focused on improving homes to meet basic housing standards. A rising interest in the long-term impact of homeownership has introduced the need to balance basic needs with home performance. This demonstration project aims to help nonprofit affordable housing developers become familiar with three Building America performance measures, the installation processes, and impacts and benefits of each. A story and a half home in North Minneapolis, MN was presented by Urban Homeworks our local nonprofit partner. The team helped them install three researched upgrade measures: exterior roof insulation or 'overcoat,' exterior foundation insulation, or 'excavationless', and a combined space and water heating HVAC system or 'combi'. To maximize efficiency of application and to address budget issues, the Team worked with Urban Homeworks to identify ways to use volunteers and construction training programs to install the measures. An open invitation to visit the job site was extended to other nonprofit developers and industry partners to encourage dialog about the systems during live installation.

  12. Follow-up study of the MASSAHAKE-demonstration plant; MASSAHAKE-demonstraatiolaitoksen seuranta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T. [Pohjois-Satakunnan Massahake Oy, Kankaanpaeae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    First thinnings of high harvesting costs and low timber accumulation have often remained unharvested in Northern Satakunta due to unprofitability of harvesting. One possible solution for the problem is a harvesting chain based on partial-tree harvesting combined with the MASSAHAKE method. The pulpwood-chipping plant owned by Pohjois-Satakunnan MASSAHAKE Oy started operation in May 1995. The objective of this research is to clear-up the technical operability and profitability of the Kankaanpaeae demonstration plant, and the suitability of the products for industrial purposes. The second aim is to develop a delivery method, based on partial-tree harvesting, and the delivery organisation suitable for the conditions in Pohjois-Satakunta. The wood delivery of the MASSAHAKE is concentrated to first thinning forests. The first thinning area, given in the felling plan, located at the delivery area of MASSAHAKE, is 8870 ha/a. This corresponds to 283 000 m{sup 3} pulpwood, the total amount of biomass being 360 000 m{sup 3}. Felling is mainly carried out as labour input using conveyance-felling method. The biomass yield in typical birch first-thinning cut as partial-trees with top diameter of 4 cm is about 40 % higher than in harvesting with short-wood method. The unit costs of harvesting are about a third lower

  13. Experimental and analytical study for demonstration program on shielding of casks for high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Hattorl, S.; Ozaki, S.; Tamaki, H.; Kadotani, H.; Ishizuka, T.; Ishikawa, S.

    1993-01-01

    The following remarks were obtained from the experiment and the DOT 3.5 and the MCNP analyses on the gamma ray and the neutron dose equivalent rates in the cask of interest. 1. The cask has thinner neutron shielding parts around the trunnions. Significant neutrons streaming around the trunnion parts was observed which was also cleared by the MCNP analysis for the 252 Cf source experiment. Accordingly, detailed neutron streaming calculations are required to evaluate the dose levels around the trunnions when loading the vitrified high-level wastes. 2. The room-scattered obstructive neutrons, mainly originating from the neutrons penetrating around the trunnions, at the top and the bottom of the cask are reduced significantly by preparing the water tank at the top and the water layer at the bottom. Therefore, a more accurate experiment is to be carried out in the future shielding experiment especially for neutrons. However, because the water tank and the layer do not exist in the actual high-level wastes transport cask, the experiment without the water tank and layer are not dispensable to demonstrate the transport conditions of the actual cask, too. 3. The gamma-ray and the neutron dose equivalent rate distributions obtained from the DOT 3.5 and the MCNP calculations, respectively, agreed closely with the measured values in the cask areas of interest. Accordingly, the DOT 3.5 code and the MCNP code with the NESX estimator can be employed not only for the shielding analysis of the future experiments, but also for making a safety analysis report of high-level wastes transport casks. (J.P.N.)

  14. Scintigraphic demonstration of inflammatory bowel pathologies in radionuclides Meckel`s diverticular studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavarelle, F

    1998-12-01

    Radionuclide Meckel`s diverticular studies are commonly requested to help distinguish the source of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. However, several aetiologies may contribute to false-positive scan findings, for example inflammatory pathologies such as Crohn`s disease, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis and intussusception, all of which commonly localise pertechnetate. In this paper, two cases of incidental findings on Meckel`s diverticular studies and their impact on patient management will be presented 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Scintigraphic demonstration of inflammatory bowel pathologies in radionuclides Meckel's diverticular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciavarelle, F.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide Meckel's diverticular studies are commonly requested to help distinguish the source of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. However, several aetiologies may contribute to false-positive scan findings, for example inflammatory pathologies such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis and intussusception, all of which commonly localise pertechnetate. In this paper, two cases of incidental findings on Meckel's diverticular studies and their impact on patient management will be presented

  16. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  17. Histomorphometric analyses of area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone prior to grafting procedures - An in vitro study to demonstrate a baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aludden, Hanna; Dahlin, Anna; Starch-Jensen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone, prior to grafting in an in vitro model to demonstrate a histomorphometric baseline. METHODS: Bio-Oss(®) particles were mixed with autogenous bone from pig jaw in three different ra...

  18. The demonstration of nonlinear analytic model for the strain field induced by thermal copper filled TSVs (through silicon via

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-elastic strain is induced by through silicon vias (TSV due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the copper (∼18 ppm/ °C and silicon (∼2.8 ppm/ °C when the structure is exposed to a thermal ramp budget in the three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC process. These thermal expansion stresses are high enough to introduce the delamination on the interfaces between the copper, silicon, and isolated dielectric. A compact analytic model for the strain field induced by different layouts of thermal copper filled TSVs with the linear superposition principle is found to have large errors due to the strong stress interaction between TSVs. In this work, a nonlinear stress analytic model with different TSV layouts is demonstrated by the finite element method and the analysis of the Mohr's circle. The characteristics of stress are also measured by the atomic force microscope-raman technique with nanometer level space resolution. The change of the electron mobility with the consideration of this nonlinear stress model for the strong interactions between TSVs is ∼2–6% smaller in comparison with those from the consideration of the linear stress superposition principle only.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  20. Prospective cohort study into post-disaster benzodiazepine use demonstrated only short-term increase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, C.J.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Benzodiazepines are typically prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, two complaints often reported after disasters. Benzodiazepines can cause mental or physical dependence, especially when taken for a long time. This study aims at evaluating benzodiazepine use in a disaster-stricken

  1. Ground water monitoring system design: the Iowa Coal Project demonstration mine No. 1, a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipp, J.A.; Gulliford, J.B.; Stangl, D.W.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining of Midwestern coals often causes detrimental changes in associated surface and ground water supplies. The Iowa Coal Project was initiated to study the economic feasibility of the surface mining of Iowa's coal and the subsequent reclamation of areas affected by mining. One portion of this study is designated to monitor the hydrogeological impacts of mining on a 40 acre study site in southeastern Iowa. The purpose of this environmental is two fold. The first objective is to monitor the ground water quality of the mine site for alterations caused by acid effluent generated in mining cuts, highwalls, and spoil storage areas. The second objective is to measure the piezometric changes which occur in the geologic materials in and around the mine. A monitoring network of 49 ground water piezometers and sampling tubes has been placed to accomplish these goals. Additional hydrogeologic data pertaining to the materials of the study site were obtained from drilling logs of 35 auger holes and 26 coal exploration holes. Documentation of background conditions was achieved by fitting many of the exploration borings with sampling tubes. All wells are constructed of 1 1/2 and 2 inch PVC pipe with slotted screens surrounded by pea rock. Nesting of several well casings in individual auger holes allows for an analysis of the vertical distribution of the water which is resaturating the spoil. Bentonite backfill in the holes limits leakage between the different materials penetrated in each location.

  2. Fibrinogen Demonstration in Oral Lichen Planus: An Immunofluorescence Study on Archival Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirol, Pallavi D; Naik, Veena; Kale, Alka

    2015-10-01

    Lichen planus is a premalignant condition with minimal diagnostic aids. This study is an attempt to use paraffin embedded sections of lichen planus with immunofluorescein stain and to evaluate the immunofluorescent sections to establish pattern of fibrinogen deposition. Thirty-five paraffin embedded sections of old and new cases of oral lichen planus (study group) and five normal oral mucosa (control group) were chosen. Two sections of each (H & E) case were taken, one was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and another with fluorescein isothiocynate conjugate (FITC) polyclonal rabbit antibody against fibrinogen. Fluorescent findings were examined with a fluorescent microscope. A high statistical significant correlation was found in respect to fluorescence positivity, intensity of fluorescence and distribution of fluorescence each with p direct immunofluorescence staining in routine set up where only formalin fixed tissues are received. Paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining when only formalin fixed tissues are received.

  3. Feasibility and design study of continuously variable capacity refrigeration plant. A demonstration at Safeway plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report concerns a feasibility and design study carried out on a new type of high efficiency refrigeration system for use in supermarkets. The study compared the performance of Margaux Continuously Variable Capacity (CVC) refrigeration equipment with conventional supermarket plant. The tests were carried out at a Presto store in Stanley near Newcastle-upon-Tyne from August 1988 to February 1989. They involved assessment of systems for both chilled food (HT) and frozen food (LT). Significant energy savings were achieved by the CVC equipment. The HT system reduced energy consumption by 56% compared with conventional plant. Measured LT savings were only 13%, although adjustments made for monitoring problems and improved temperature control indicate savings of around 30%. (author)

  4. Studies on DANESS Code Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon

    2009-09-01

    The DANESS code modeling study has been performed. DANESS code is widely used in a dynamic fuel cycle analysis. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used the DANESS code for the Korean national nuclear fuel cycle scenario analysis. In this report, the important models such as Energy-demand scenario model, New Reactor Capacity Decision Model, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Facility History Model, and Fuel Cycle Model are investigated. And, some models in the interface module are refined and inserted for Korean nuclear fuel cycle model. Some application studies have also been performed for GNEP cases and for US fast reactor scenarios with various conversion ratios

  5. Human In Silico Drug Trials Demonstrate Higher Accuracy than Animal Models in Predicting Clinical Pro-Arrhythmic Cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passini, Elisa; Britton, Oliver J; Lu, Hua Rong; Rohrbacher, Jutta; Hermans, An N; Gallacher, David J; Greig, Robert J H; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of cardiotoxicity is critical for drug development. Current animal models raise ethical and translational questions, and have limited accuracy in clinical risk prediction. Human-based computer models constitute a fast, cheap and potentially effective alternative to experimental assays, also facilitating translation to human. Key challenges include consideration of inter-cellular variability in drug responses and integration of computational and experimental methods in safety pharmacology. Our aim is to evaluate the ability of in silico drug trials in populations of human action potential (AP) models to predict clinical risk of drug-induced arrhythmias based on ion channel information, and to compare simulation results against experimental assays commonly used for drug testing. A control population of 1,213 human ventricular AP models in agreement with experimental recordings was constructed. In silico drug trials were performed for 62 reference compounds at multiple concentrations, using pore-block drug models (IC 50 /Hill coefficient). Drug-induced changes in AP biomarkers were quantified, together with occurrence of repolarization/depolarization abnormalities. Simulation results were used to predict clinical risk based on reports of Torsade de Pointes arrhythmias, and further evaluated in a subset of compounds through comparison with electrocardiograms from rabbit wedge preparations and Ca 2+ -transient recordings in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs). Drug-induced changes in silico vary in magnitude depending on the specific ionic profile of each model in the population, thus allowing to identify cell sub-populations at higher risk of developing abnormal AP phenotypes. Models with low repolarization reserve (increased Ca 2+ /late Na + currents and Na + /Ca 2+ -exchanger, reduced Na + /K + -pump) are highly vulnerable to drug-induced repolarization abnormalities, while those with reduced inward current density

  6. Human In Silico Drug Trials Demonstrate Higher Accuracy than Animal Models in Predicting Clinical Pro-Arrhythmic Cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Passini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of cardiotoxicity is critical for drug development. Current animal models raise ethical and translational questions, and have limited accuracy in clinical risk prediction. Human-based computer models constitute a fast, cheap and potentially effective alternative to experimental assays, also facilitating translation to human. Key challenges include consideration of inter-cellular variability in drug responses and integration of computational and experimental methods in safety pharmacology. Our aim is to evaluate the ability of in silico drug trials in populations of human action potential (AP models to predict clinical risk of drug-induced arrhythmias based on ion channel information, and to compare simulation results against experimental assays commonly used for drug testing. A control population of 1,213 human ventricular AP models in agreement with experimental recordings was constructed. In silico drug trials were performed for 62 reference compounds at multiple concentrations, using pore-block drug models (IC50/Hill coefficient. Drug-induced changes in AP biomarkers were quantified, together with occurrence of repolarization/depolarization abnormalities. Simulation results were used to predict clinical risk based on reports of Torsade de Pointes arrhythmias, and further evaluated in a subset of compounds through comparison with electrocardiograms from rabbit wedge preparations and Ca2+-transient recordings in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs. Drug-induced changes in silico vary in magnitude depending on the specific ionic profile of each model in the population, thus allowing to identify cell sub-populations at higher risk of developing abnormal AP phenotypes. Models with low repolarization reserve (increased Ca2+/late Na+ currents and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, reduced Na+/K+-pump are highly vulnerable to drug-induced repolarization abnormalities, while those with reduced inward current density

  7. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Chung; Chung, Wu-Fu; Liu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chen, Li-Fu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Laura; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2015-10-12

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439) who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124) who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years) was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity.

  8. Feasibility Study and Demonstration of an Aluminum and Ice Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothee L. Pourpoint

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-water reactions have been proposed and studied for several decades for underwater propulsion systems and applications requiring hydrogen generation. Aluminum and water have also been proposed as a frozen propellant, and there have been proposals for other refrigerated propellants that could be mixed, frozen in situ, and used as solid propellants. However, little work has been done to determine the feasibility of these concepts. With the recent availability of nanoscale aluminum, a simple binary formulation with water is now feasible. Nanosized aluminum has a lower ignition temperature than micron-sized aluminum particles, partly due to its high surface area, and burning times are much faster than micron aluminum. Frozen nanoscale aluminum and water mixtures are stable, as well as insensitive to electrostatic discharge, impact, and shock. Here we report a study of the feasibility of an nAl-ice propellant in small-scale rocket experiments. The focus here is not to develop an optimized propellant; however improved formulations are possible. Several static motor experiments have been conducted, including using a flight-weight casing. The flight weight casing was used in the first sounding rocket test of an aluminum-ice propellant, establishing a proof of concept for simple propellant mixtures making use of nanoscale particles.

  9. Dynamic metabolism modelling of urban water services--demonstrating effectiveness as a decision-support tool for Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Sægrov, Sveinung; Brattebø, Helge

    2014-09-15

    Urban water services are challenged from many perspectives and different stakeholders demand performance improvements along economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In response, urban water utilities systematically give more attention to criteria such as water safety, climate change adaptation and mitigation, environmental life cycle assessment (LCA), total cost efficiency, and on how to improve their operations within the water-energy-carbon nexus. The authors of this paper collaborated in the development of a 'Dynamic Metabolism Model' (DMM). The model is developed for generic use in the sustainability assessment of urban water services, and it has been initially tested for the city of Oslo, Norway. The purpose has been to adopt a holistic systemic perspective to the analysis of metabolism and environmental impacts of resource flows in urban water and wastewater systems, in order to offer a tool for the examination of future strategies and intervention options in such systems. This paper describes the model and its application to the city of Oslo for the analysis time period 2013-2040. The external factors impacting decision-making and interventions are introduced along with realistic scenarios developed for the testing, after consultation with officials at the Oslo Water and Wastewater Works (Norway). Possible interventions that the utility intends to set in motion are defined and numerically interpreted for incorporation into the model, and changes in the indicator values over the time period are determined. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the DMM, as a decision-support tool for water-wastewater utilities. The scenarios considered and interventions identified do not include all possible scenarios and interventions that can be relevant for water-wastewater utilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the oxidizing system in Holt's medium for histochemical demonstration of esterase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Blecher, S R

    1978-01-01

    Esterase activity in guinea-pig thyroid and mouse epididymis epithelial cells has been studied using 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as substrate. The pattern of esterase activity in the thyroid of the guinea-pig is constant, irrespective of whether ferri-ferrocyanide (FFC) or certain copper compounds...... cells contain an esterase activity which is not inhibited by conventional SH blocking agents, nor by high concentrations of FFC. From these results it appears that the mode of action of FFC in Holt's medium is as follows. At low concentrations FFC appears to act primarily as a catalytic agent...... in oxidation of indoxyl to indigoid. At high concentration FFC acts as an inhibitor of guinea-pig thyroid esterase, by oxidation of SH groups in the active centre. The esterase of mouse epididymis cell type EH 1 is not subject to this inhibition by FFC, presumably because it does not contain accessible SH...

  11. Persistent post-traumatic headache vs. migraine: an MRI study demonstrating differences in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Chong, Catherine D; Peplinski, Jacob; Ross, Katherine; Berisha, Visar

    2017-08-22

    The majority of individuals with post-traumatic headache have symptoms that are indistinguishable from migraine. The overlap in symptoms amongst these individuals raises the question as to whether post-traumatic headache has a unique pathophysiology or if head trauma triggers migraine. The objective of this study was to compare brain structure in individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache (i.e. headache lasting at least 3 months following a traumatic brain injury) attributed to mild traumatic brain injury to that of individuals with migraine. Twenty-eight individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache attributed to mild traumatic brain injury and 28 individuals with migraine underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging on a 3 T scanner. Regional volumes, cortical thickness, surface area and curvature measurements were calculated from T1-weighted sequences and compared between subject groups using ANCOVA. MRI data from 28 healthy control subjects were used to interpret the differences in brain structure between migraine and persistent post-traumatic headache. Differences in regional volumes, cortical thickness, surface area and brain curvature were identified when comparing the group of individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache to the group with migraine. Structure was different between groups for regions within the right lateral orbitofrontal lobe, left caudal middle frontal lobe, left superior frontal lobe, left precuneus and right supramarginal gyrus (p comparing the migraine cohort to healthy controls. In conclusion, persistent post-traumatic headache and migraine are associated with differences in brain structure, perhaps suggesting differences in their underlying pathophysiology. Additional studies are needed to further delineate similarities and differences in brain structure and function that are associated with post-traumatic headache and migraine and to determine their specificity for each of the headache types.

  12. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Rising Prevalence in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Victoria Ping-Yi; Wong, Benjamin ChunYu; Wong, Wai Man; Leung, Wai Keung; Tong, Daniel; Yuen, Man Fung; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is consistently lower in the Chinese than in white populations. Population-based data tracking the time trend of GERD prevalence in Chinese subjects is conflicting. This study examines the population prevalence, risk factors, and time trend associated with GERD in a Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study utilizing a validated GERD questionnaire administered by a telephone survey was performed on 3360 Chinese subjects from Hong Kong. GERD prevalence rates in 2011 were compared with prevalence rates in 2002 and 2006. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the risk factors associated with weekly GERD. A total of 2074 subjects (mean age, 48.1±18.2 y; range 18 to 94; 63.1% female) completed the survey (response rate 61.7%). The prevalence of GERD as defined by the Montreal definition was 3.8%. The prevalence of weekly GERD had increased by 1.3% between 2002 and 2011, which represents an at least 50% relative increase (PGERD was associated with noncardiac chest pain [odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.034-2.9; P=0.037], dyspepsia (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.0-8.8; PGERD rates in the ethnic Chinese have risen over the last decade. Despite this, variables associated with a survey diagnosis of GERD remain ostensibly unchanged. GERD research in East Asia should focus on the factors driving the rapid rise in prevalence rates and the association with more atypical symptoms of GERD.

  13. Demonstration study on direct use of waste vegetable oil as car fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoto, Yasuyuki; Zeeren, Nyamgerel; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Various kinds of vegetable oil and waste cooking oil are in fact used as car fuel all over the world. In general, 'bio-diesel' i.e. fatty acid methyl ester extracted from such oil is utilized as fuel for vehicles. However bio-diesel has some problems such as byproduct and waste materials created during transesterification. An alternative method is the direct use of vegetable oil as car fuel through installation of a heater unit in the car to decrease vegetable oil viscosity. However little data has been reported concerning this method. The authors of this study carried out performance tests on the direct use of waste cooking oil using a car with a heater unit and found its high potential. Moreover, the authors compared the environmental load of direct use with biodiesel and light oil by carrying out life cycle inventory to clarify the superiority of direct use. First, the authors made a car to test waste cooking oil as fuel by equipping a heater unit, filter and sub tank for light oil to a used Toyota Estima Diesel KD-CXR10G. The car can be driven on road using only waste cooking oil, although a little light oil is necessary for starting the engine. The authors, then, carried out chassis dynamo tests and on-road tests using the car. The car showed similar performance and could be driven on road for over half a year without any problems in both cases using either waste cooking oil or light oil as fuel. Next, authors carried out life cycle inventory and compared the environmental loads of direct use of waste cooking oil with biodiesel from waste cooking oil and light oil. The data for life cycle inventory were obtained from tests on direct use, from a factory in Japan for bio-diesel and from the Life Cycle Assessment Society of Japan database for light oil, respectively. The CO 2 emission rates were 73.9, 12.7 and 7.06 [kg-CO 2 / GJ] for light oil, bio-diesel from waste cooking oil and the direct use of waste cooking oil, respectively. The superiority of

  14. A genome-wide association study demonstrates significant genetic variation for fracture risk in Thoroughbred racehorses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Thoroughbred racehorses are subject to non-traumatic distal limb bone fractures that occur during racing and exercise. Susceptibility to fracture may be due to underlying disturbances in bone metabolism which have a genetic cause. Fracture risk has been shown to be heritable in several species but this study is the first genetic analysis of fracture risk in the horse. Results Fracture cases (n = 269) were horses that sustained catastrophic distal limb fractures while racing on UK racecourses, necessitating euthanasia. Control horses (n = 253) were over 4 years of age, were racing during the same time period as the cases, and had no history of fracture at the time the study was carried out. The horses sampled were bred for both flat and National Hunt (NH) jump racing. 43,417 SNPs were employed to perform a genome-wide association analysis and to estimate the proportion of genetic variance attributable to the SNPs on each chromosome using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Significant genetic variation associated with fracture risk was found on chromosomes 9, 18, 22 and 31. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 (62.05 Mb – 62.15 Mb) and one SNP on chromosome 1 (14.17 Mb) reached genome-wide significance (p fracture than cases, p = 1 × 10-4), while a second haplotype increases fracture risk (cases at 3.39 times higher risk of fracture than controls, p = 0.042). Conclusions Fracture risk in the Thoroughbred horse is a complex condition with an underlying genetic basis. Multiple genomic regions contribute to susceptibility to fracture risk. This suggests there is the potential to develop SNP-based estimators for genetic risk of fracture in the Thoroughbred racehorse, using methods pioneered in livestock genetics such as genomic selection. This information would be useful to racehorse breeders and owners, enabling them to reduce the risk of injury in their horses. PMID:24559379

  15. Strain variation in Dermatophilus congolensis demonstrated by cross-protection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, T M; Sutherland, S S; Davies, G

    1991-08-30

    Cross-protection studies were conducted with vaccines prepared from two isolates of Dermatophilus congolensis (designated strain 1 and strain 2). The vaccines were prepared as either heat-inactivated, washed, formalized filamentous phase bacterium, mixed with alum as an adjuvant, and inoculated intramuscularly (type A vaccine) or sedimented live filaments inoculated intradermally (type B vaccine). The vaccinated sheep were challenged with D. congolensis zoospores of one or other strain. Challenge sites were observed for the presence and severity of lesions. Serum antibody levels to D. congolensis were monitored after vaccination and challenge. Type A and B vaccines from both strains produced some reduction in the severity of lesions when sheep were challenged with strain 1 but not with strain 2. Unvaccinated control sheep developed more severe and persistent lesions when challenged with strain 2 than controls challenged with strain 1. Serum antibody levels to the type B vaccine prepared from strain 1 were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than antibody levels to type B vaccine from strain 2. These findings showed there was significant variation in virulence and antigenicity between these two isolates of D. congolensis.

  16. [Demonstration plan used in the study of human reproduction in the district of Sao Paulo. 1967].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eunice Pinho de Castro

    2006-10-01

    This work presents the sampling procedure used to select the sample got for a "Human Reproduction Study in the District of São Paulo" (Brazil), done by the Department of Applied Statistics of "Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo". The procedure tried to solve the situation which resulted from the limitation in cost, time and lack of a frame that could be used in order to get a probability sample in the fixed term of time and with the fixed cost. It consisted in a two stage sampling with dwelling-units as primary units and women as secondary units. At the first stage, it was used stratified sampling in which sub-districts were taken as strata. In order to select primary units, there was a selection of points ("starting points") on the maps of subdistricts by a procedure that was similar to that one called "square grid" but differed from this in several aspects. There were fixed rules to establish a correspondence between each selected "starting point" and a set of three dwelling units where at least one woman of the target population lived. In the selected dwelling units where more than one woman of target population lived, there was a sub-sampling in order to select one of them. In this selection each woman living in the dwelling unit had equal probability of selection. Several "no-answer" cases and correspondent instructions to be followed by the interviewers are presented too.

  17. Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened

  18. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  19. A novel human model of the neurodegenerative disease GM1 gangliosidosis using induced pluripotent stem cells demonstrates inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi-Young; Kwak, Jae Eun; Seol, Binna; Lee, Da Yong; Jeon, Hyejin; Cho, Yee Sook

    2015-09-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene. Insufficient β-gal activity leads to abnormal accumulation of GM1 gangliosides in tissues, particularly in the central nervous system, resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we report an in vitro human GM1 model, based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Neural progenitor cells differentiated from GM1 patient-derived iPSCs (GM1-NPCs) recapitulated the biochemical and molecular phenotypes of GM1, including defective β-gal activity and increased lysosomes. Importantly, the characterization of GM1-NPCs established that GM1 is significantly associated with the activation of inflammasomes, which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Specific inflammasome inhibitors potently alleviated the disease-related phenotypes of GM1-NPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that GM1-NPCs are a valuable in vitro human GM1 model and suggest that inflammasome activation is a novel target pathway for GM1 drug development. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Pre-project study on a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using a nuclear heating reactor in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achour, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives in the first part detailed information on the pre-project study on a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using heating reactor implemented by both Moroccan and Chinese sides. The main findings of the pre-project study are given in the second part. (author)

  1. "Ready To Learn" Transmedia Demonstration Station Study: A Report to the CPB-PBS "Ready to Learn Initiative"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnik, Shelley; Llorente, Carlin

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 Transmedia Demonstration Stations program study is part of the multiyear CPB-PBS "Ready To Learn" summative evaluation initiative by Education Development Center, Inc., (EDC) and SRI International (SRI). Through a series of related studies, the authors are documenting, and, whenever possible, measuring the impact of PBS KIDS…

  2. Dependence of QSAR models on the selection of trial descriptor sets: a demonstration using nanotoxicity endpoints of decorated nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chi-Yu; Chen, Sing-Zuo; Su, Bo-Han; Tseng, Yufeng J; Esposito, Emilio Xavier; Hopfinger, Anton J

    2013-01-28

    Little attention has been given to the selection of trial descriptor sets when designing a QSAR analysis even though a great number of descriptor classes, and often a greater number of descriptors within a given class, are now available. This paper reports an effort to explore interrelationships between QSAR models and descriptor sets. Zhou and co-workers (Zhou et al., Nano Lett. 2008, 8 (3), 859-865) designed, synthesized, and tested a combinatorial library of 80 surface modified, that is decorated, multi-walled carbon nanotubes for their composite nanotoxicity using six endpoints all based on a common 0 to 100 activity scale. Each of the six endpoints for the 29 most nanotoxic decorated nanotubes were incorporated as the training set for this study. The study reported here includes trial descriptor sets for all possible combinations of MOE, VolSurf, and 4D-fingerprints (FP) descriptor classes, as well as including and excluding explicit spatial contributions from the nanotube. Optimized QSAR models were constructed from these multiple trial descriptor sets. It was found that (a) both the form and quality of the best QSAR models for each of the endpoints are distinct and (b) some endpoints are quite dependent upon 4D-FP descriptors of the entire nanotube-decorator complex. However, other endpoints yielded equally good models only using decorator descriptors with and without the decorator-only 4D-FP descriptors. Lastly, and most importantly, the quality, significance, and interpretation of a QSAR model were found to be critically dependent on the trial descriptor sets used within a given QSAR endpoint study.

  3. Using discrepant events in science demonstrations to promote student engagement in scientific investigations: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Vincent J.

    Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations are a common practice in the science classroom and research has documented some positive effects in terms of student motivation and engagement from their use, the literature also shows that, as traditionally presented, science demonstrations do not always achieve their intended outcomes. This, in turn, suggested the value of investigating what design elements of demonstrations could be used to promote specific instructional goals. Employing action research as a methodology, the proposed study was developed to explore how science demonstrations can be designed so as to most effectively promote student engagement in scientific investigations. More specifically, I was interested in examining the effects of using a discrepant event as part of the demonstration, as a way to create cognitive conflict and, thus, increase interest and engagement. I also investigated the relative merit of the well-researched POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) design versus employing demonstrations that appear to the student to be unplanned (what I will refer to as NOE, or a Naturally Occurring Experience). This study was informed by Constructivism, Situated Cognition and Conceptual Change as theoretical frameworks. The project included the design, implementation and study of an intervention consisting of three instructional units designed to support students' learning of the concepts of density, molecular arrangement of gas particles, and cohesion, respectively. In each of these units, lasting a total of two 80-minute class periods, students were asked to design and conduct an investigation to gain a better understanding of the concept under study. In

  4. Advancing the understanding of craving during smoking cessation attempts: a demonstration of the time-varying effect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Vasilenko, Sara A; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Runze; Piper, Megan E

    2014-05-01

    Advancing the understanding of smoking cessation requires a complex and nuanced understanding of behavior change. To this end, ecological momentary assessments (EMA) are now being collected extensively. The time-varying effect model (TVEM) is a statistical technique ideally suited to model processes that unfold as behavior and nicotine dependence change. Coefficients are expressed dynamically over time and are represented as smooth functions of time. The TVEM approach is demonstrated using data from a smoking-cessation trial. Time-varying effects of baseline nicotine dependence (a time-invariant covariate) and negative affect (a time-varying covariate) on urge to smoke during a quit attempt were estimated for monotherapy, combination therapy, and placebo groups. SAS syntax for conducting TVEM is provided so that readers can adapt it for their research. During the first 2 days after quitting, the association between negative affect and craving was significantly stronger among individuals in the placebo group, suggesting an early positive impact of treatment. For the monotherapy and combination therapy groups, during the second week of the quit attempt, baseline dependence was less strongly related to craving compared with the placebo group, indicating a different positive impact of treatments later in the quit attempt. The results reveal information about the underlying dynamics that unfold during a quit attempt and how monotherapy and combination therapy impact those processes. This suggests possible mechanisms to target in an intervention and indicates timepoints that hold the greatest promise for effective treatment. TVEM is a straightforward approach to examining time-varying processes embedded in EMA.

  5. Report for the ASC CSSE L2 Milestone (4873) - Demonstration of Local Failure Local Recovery Resilient Programming Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Teranishi, Keita

    2014-06-01

    Recovery from process loss during the execution of a distributed memory parallel application is presently achieved by restarting the program, typically from a checkpoint file. Future computer system trends indicate that the size of data to checkpoint, the lack of improvement in parallel file system performance and the increase in process failure rates will lead to situations where checkpoint restart becomes infeasible. In this report we describe and prototype the use of a new application level resilient computing model that manages persistent storage of local state for each process such that, if a process fails, recovery can be performed locally without requiring access to a global checkpoint file. LFLR provides application developers with an ability to recover locally and continue application execution when a process is lost. This report discusses what features are required from the hardware, OS and runtime layers, and what approaches application developers might use in the design of future codes, including a demonstration of LFLR-enabled MiniFE code from the Matenvo mini-application suite.

  6. Requirements and feasibility study of flight demonstration of Active Controls Technology (ACT) on the NASA 515 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the NASA 515 airplane as a flight demonstration vehicle, and to develop plans, schedules, and budget costs for fly-by-wire/active controls technology flight validation in the NASA 515 airplane. The preliminary design and planning were accomplished for two phases of flight validation.

  7. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  9. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Perepelyuk

    Full Text Available Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  10. Dabigatran - a continuing exemplar case history demonstrating the need for comprehensive models to optimize the utilization of new drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godman, Brian; Malmström, Rickard E.; Diogene, Eduardo; Jayathissa, Sisira; McTaggart, Stuart; Cars, Thomas; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Baumgärtel, Christoph; Brzezinska, Anna; Bucsics, Anna; Campbell, Stephen; Eriksson, Irene; Finlayson, Alexander; Fürst, Jurij; Garuoliene, Kristina; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hviding, Krystyna; Herholz, Harald; Joppi, Roberta; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Malinowska, Kamila; Pedersen, Hanne B.; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Piessnegger, Jutta; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Spillane, Susan; Tomek, Dominik; Vončina, Luka; Vlahović-Palčevski, Vera; Wale, Janet; Wladysiuk, Magdalena; van Woerkom, Menno; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are effectiveness, safety and/or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed, there are issues in the elderly with dabigatran due to variable drug concentrations, no known antidote and dependence on renal elimination. Published studies showed dabigatran to be cost-effective but there are budget concerns given the prevalence of AF. These concerns resulted in extensive activities pre- to post-launch to manage its introduction. Objective: To (i) review authority activities across countries, (ii) use the findings to develop new models to better manage the entry of new drugs, and (iii) review the implications based on post-launch activities. Methodology: (i) Descriptive review and appraisal of activities regarding dabigatran, (ii) development of guidance for key stakeholder groups through an iterative process, (iii) refining guidance following post launch studies. Results: Plethora of activities to manage dabigatran including extensive pre-launch activities, risk sharing arrangements, prescribing restrictions and monitoring of prescribing post launch. Reimbursement has been denied in some countries due to concerns with its budget impact and/or excessive bleeding. Development of a new model and future guidance is proposed to better manage the entry of new drugs, centering on three pillars of pre-, peri-, and post-launch activities. Post-launch activities include increasing use of patient registries to monitor the safety and effectiveness of new drugs in clinical practice. Conclusion: Models for introducing new drugs are essential to optimize their prescribing especially where concerns. Without such models, new drugs may be withdrawn prematurely and/or struggle for funding. PMID

  11. Dabigatran – an exemplar case history demonstrating the need for comprehensive models to optimise the use of new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGodman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are effectiveness, safety and/ or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF, exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed, there are issues in the elderly with dabigatran due to variable drug concentrations, no known antidote and dependence on renal elimination. Published studies showed dabigatran to be cost-effective but there are budget concerns given the prevalence of AF. These concerns resulted in extensive activities pre- to post-launch to manage its introduction. Objective: To (i review authority activities across countries, (ii use the findings to develop new models to better manage the entry of new drugs, and (iii review the implications based on post-launch activities. Methodology: (i Descriptive review and appraisal of activities regarding dabigatran, (ii development of guidance for key stakeholder groups through an iterative process, (iii refining guidance following post launch studies. Results: Plethora of activities to manage dabigatran including extensive pre-launch activities, risk sharing arrangements, prescribing restrictions and monitoring of prescribing post launch. Reimbursement has been denied in some countries due to concerns with its budget impact and/or excessive bleeding. Development of a new model and future guidance is proposed to better manage the entry of new drugs, centring on three pillars of pre-, peri- and post-launch activities. Post-launch activities include increasing use of patient registries to monitor the safety and effectiveness of new drugs in clinical practice. Conclusion: Models for introducing new drugs are essential to optimise their prescribing especially where concerns. Without such models, new drugs may be withdrawn prematurely and/ or struggle for

  12. General Electric Company study for defining the number of residential and non-residential projects, National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The methodology used to perform the ''Parametric Study'' to define a recommended demonstration program involved a decision making process. In this approach, selective solar buying factors were quantitatively evaluated for influencing key decision makers to install solar HVAC equipment. The selection of the recommended demo level also considered the probability of a decision maker actually seeing a demonstration as a function of how far he is located from a demo and how far he is willing to travel to see one. Demonstration levels of 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 were assumed to determine the effects on Solar HVAC market penetration. The 800 demo level program is recommended to effectively stimulate the private sector to install solar HVAC systems. (WDM)

  13. Between the primate and 'reptilian' brain: Rodent models demonstrate the role of corticostriatal circuits in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A Moses; Tai, Lung-Hao; Zador, Anthony; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2015-06-18

    Decision making can be defined as the flexible integration and transformation of information from the external world into action. Recently, the development of novel genetic tools and new behavioral paradigms has made it attractive to study behavior of all kinds in rodents. By some perspectives, rodents are not an acceptable model for the study of decision making due to their simpler behavior often attributed to their less extensive cortical development when compared to non-human primates. We argue that decision making can be approached with a common framework across species. We review insights from comparative anatomy that suggest the expansion of cortical-striatal connectivity is a key development in evolutionary increases in behavioral flexibility. We briefly review studies that establish a role for corticostriatal circuits in integrative decision making. Finally, we provide an overview of a few recent, highly complementary rodent decision making studies using genetic tools, revealing with new cellular and temporal resolution how, when and where information can be integrated and compared in striatal circuits to influence choice. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  15. Using a CBL Unit, a Temperature Sensor, and a Graphing Calculator to Model the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions as Safe In-Class Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Schuman, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) technology, the graphing calculator, and the cooling and heating of water to model the behavior of consecutive first-order reactions is presented, where B is the reactant, I is the intermediate, and P is the product for an in-class demonstration. The activity demonstrates the spontaneous and consecutive…

  16. Development and Field Testing of a Model to Simulate a Demonstration of Le Chatelier's Principle Using the Wheatstone Bridge Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickner, Edward Henry, Jr.

    An electronic simulation model was designed, constructed, and then field tested to determine student opinion of its effectiveness as an instructional aid. The model was designated as the Equilibrium System Simulator (ESS). The model was built on the principle of electrical symmetry applied to the Wheatstone bridge and was constructed from readily…

  17. Are Sudanese community pharmacists capable to prescribe and demonstrate asthma inhaler devices to patrons? A mystery patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abuzar; Ahmed Hassan, Imad S; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M

    2012-04-01

    Although community pharmacists have become more involved in the care of asthma patients, several studies have assessed pharmacists''ability to illustrate appropriately inhalation technique of different asthma devices. Many studies addressed inappropriate use of asthma devices by patients and pharmacists, in addition to its clinical, humanistic and economic burden. To evaluate community pharmacists' practical knowledge and skills of demonstrating proper inhalation technique of asthma inhaler devices available in Sudan. THREE HUNDRED COMMUNITY PHARMACIES LOCATED AROUND THE THREE MAJOR HOSPITALS IN THE CAPITAL CITY (KHARTOUM) AND FOUR OTHER PROVINCES WERE APPROACHED, AND FOUR ASTHMA DEVICES WERE ASSESSED: Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) (n=105), MDI with Spacer (n=83), Turbuhaler (n=61), and Diskus (n=51). Investigator (a pharmacist) acted as a mystery patient. He selected one device and asked the serving pharmacist to demonstrate how to use the device. Investigator completed a checklist of 9 steps of inhaler device use immediately after leaving the pharmacy. Essential steps derived from published literature were pre-specified for each device. Five evaluation categories were accordingly formulated as follows: optimal technique, adequate technique, poor technique, totally unfamiliar with the device, and does not know. More than half of the pharmacists approached with metered dose inhaler did not know how to use optimal technique (ie all steps correct) all through. A third poorly demonstrated the technique, and only one pharmacist was categorized as being able to demonstrate an "optimal technique". The majority of pharmacists approached with spacing chamber and dry powder inhalers (Turbuhaler and Diskus) either did not know proper technique or were totally unfamiliar with the devices. The majority of community pharmacists, who were expected to educate asthma patients on their dispensed inhalers, lack the basic knowledge of proper use of commonly dispensed asthma inhaler

  18. Are Sudanese community pharmacists capable to prescribe and demonstrate asthma inhaler devices to patrons? A mystery patient study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although community pharmacists have become more involved in the care of asthma patients, several studies have assessed pharmacists’ ability to illustrate appropriately inhalation technique of different asthma devices. Many studies addressed inappropriate use of asthma devices by patients and pharmacists, in addition to its clinical, humanistic and economic burden.Objective: To evaluate community pharmacists’ practical knowledge and skills of demonstrating proper inhalation technique of asthma inhaler devices available in Sudan.Method: Three hundred community pharmacies located around the three major hospitals in the capital city (Khartoum and four other provinces were approached, and four asthma devices were assessed: Metered-dose inhaler (MDI (n=105, MDI with Spacer (n=83, Turbuhaler (n=61, and Diskus (n=51. Investigator (a pharmacist acted as a mystery patient. He selected one device and asked the serving pharmacist to demonstrate how to use the device. Investigator completed a checklist of 9 steps of inhaler device use immediately after leaving the pharmacy. Essential steps derived from published literature were pre-specified for each device. Five evaluation categories were accordingly formulated as follows: optimal technique, adequate technique, poor technique, totally unfamiliar with the device, and does not know.Results: More than half of the pharmacists approached with metered dose inhaler did not know how to use optimal technique (ie all steps correct all through. A third poorly demonstrated the technique, and only one pharmacist was categorized as being able to demonstrate an “optimal technique”. The majority of pharmacists approached with spacing chamber and dry powder inhalers (Turbuhaler and Diskus either did not know proper technique or were totally unfamiliar with the devices.Conclusion: The majority of community pharmacists, who were expected to educate asthma patients on their dispensed inhalers, lack the basic knowledge

  19. Phenome Wide Association Studies demonstrating pleiotropy of genetic variants within FTO with and without adjustment for body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michael Cronin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS have demonstrated utility in validating genetic associations derived from traditional genetic studies as well as identifying novel genetic associations. Here we used an electronic health record (EHR-based PheWAS to explore pleiotropy of genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO, some of which have been previously associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. We used a population of 10,487 individuals of European ancestry with genome-wide genotyping from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE Network and another population of 13,711 individuals of European ancestry from the BioVU DNA biobank at Vanderbilt genotyped using Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. A meta-analysis of the two study populations replicated the well-described associations between FTO variants and obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.25, 95% Confidence Interval=1.11-1.24, p=2.10 x 10 9 and FTO variants and T2D (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.08-1.21, p=2.34 x 10 6. The meta-analysis also demonstrated that FTO variant rs8050136 was significantly associated with sleep apnea (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.07-1.22, p=3.33 x 10 5; however, the association was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI. Novel phenotype associations with obesity-associated FTO variants included fibrocystic breast disease (rs9941349, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.74-0.91, p=5.41x10 5 and trends toward associations with nonalcoholic liver disease and gram-positive bacterial infections. FTO variants not associated with obesity demonstrated other potential disease associations including noninflammatory disorders of the cervix and chronic periodontitis. These results suggest that genetic variants in FTO may have pleiotropic associations, some of which are not mediated by obesity.

  20. Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 2 - Experimental demonstration and modeling for the partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the reactor concept for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Methanol conversion and product selectivities were measured at various overall fluidization

  1. Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Wall3_2013_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1680 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Wall3_2013_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Journal... of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa K. Wall, O. Ive, J. Bhagwan, F. Kirwan, W...

  2. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2016-03-31

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface.

  3. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...

  4. A STUDY DEMONSTRATING EFFICACY OF A PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PANIC DISORDER: IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOANALYTIC RESEARCH, THEORY, AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Sandberg, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic research on psychoanalytic treatments has been limited by several factors, including a belief that clinical experience can demonstrate the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, rendering systematic research unnecessary, the view that psychoanalytic research would be difficult or impossible to accomplish, and a concern that research would distort the treatment being delivered. In recent years, however, many psychoanalysts have recognized the necessity of research in order to obtain a more balanced assessment of the role of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in a contemporary treatment armamentarium, as well as to allow appropriate evaluation and potentially greater acceptance by the broader mental health and medical communities. In this context, studies were conducted of a psychodynamic treatment, Panic-Focused Psycho-dynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP), initially in an open trial and then in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in comparison with a less active treatment, Applied Relaxation Training (ART; Cerny et al. 1984), for adults with primary DSM-IV panic disorder. The results of the RCT demonstrated the efficacy of PFPP in treating panic disorder, and also demonstrated that a psychoanalytic treatment can be systematically evaluated in a mode consistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Two specific features of the methodology, the development of the treatment manual and the operationalization of the adherence instrument, both core building blocks of contemporary psychotherapy outcome research, and their implications for psychoanalytic research are discussed in greater depth. The theoretical, clinical, and educational implications of the PFPP studies are elaborated, and suggestions are made for pursuing further outcome research of psychoanalytic treatments. PMID:19270248

  5. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie; Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS 'pathways,' or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  6. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  7. Personality assessment and model comparison with behavioral data: A statistical framework and empirical demonstration with bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jordan S; Suarez, Scott A

    2017-08-01

    Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers' from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods. In this paper, we propose a statistical framework for primate personality research designed to address these limitations. Our framework synthesizes recently developed mixed-effects modeling approaches for quantifying behavioral variation with an information-theoretic model selection paradigm for confirmatory personality research. After detailing a multi-step analytic procedure for personality assessment and model comparison, we employ this framework to evaluate seven models of personality structure in zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus). We find that differences between sexes, ages, zoos, time of observation, and social group composition contributed to significant behavioral variance. Independently of these factors, however, personality nonetheless accounted for a moderate to high proportion of variance in average behavior across observational periods. A personality structure derived from past rating research receives the strongest support relative to our model set. This model suggests that personality variation across the measured behavioral traits is best described by two correlated but distinct dimensions reflecting individual differences in affiliation and

  8. Solnatide Demonstrates Profound Therapeutic Activity in a Rat Model of Pulmonary Edema Induced by Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiquan; Wang, Dong; Liu, Yunsheng; Yang, Xiaohong; Lucas, Rudolf; Fischer, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    The synthetic peptide solnatide is a novel pharmacologic agent that reduces extravascular lung water, blunts reactive oxygen species production, and improves lung function due to its ability to directly activate the epithelial sodium channel. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of solnatide in pulmonary edema induced by acute hypobaric hypoxia and exercise in rats, which is considered a model for high-altitude pulmonary edema. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to low-altitude control and eight treatment groups. Animals of all groups were subjected to exhaustive exercise in a hypobaric hypoxic environment simulating an altitude of 4,500 meters, followed by simulated ascent to 6,000 meters. After 48 h at 6,000 meters, rats were given sodium chloride, dexamethasone, aminophylline, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor, and NOD-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 inhibitor, or one of three different doses of solnatide, once daily for 3 consecutive days. After 3 days, arterial blood gas, BAL fluid, lung water content, and histologic and ultra-microstructure analyses were performed. Tight junction protein occludin was assayed by using immunohistochemistry. Rats treated with solnatide had significantly lower BAL fluid protein and lung water content than high-altitude control rats. Lungs of solnatide-treated rats were intact and showed less hemorrhage and disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier than those of high-altitude control animals. Occludin expression was significantly higher in solnatide-treated animals, compared with high-altitude control, dexamethasone-, and aminophylline-treated animals. Solnatide reduced pulmonary edema, increased occludin expression, and improved gas-blood barrier function during acute hypobaric hypoxia and exercise in rats. These results provide a rationale for the clinical application of solnatide to patients with pulmonary edema and exposure to a high-altitude hypoxic environment. Copyright © 2016 The

  9. A Demonstration Study on Decomposition of Anntibiotics and Endocrine Disrupters Contained in Sewage Effluent by Mobile Electron Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jung, In Ha

    2012-01-01

    This report described a work plan on advanced sewage treatments focusing on reduction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors and sterilization by radiation in Korea. It included a demonstration study on decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in sewage effluent by MEB(Mobile Electron Beam accelerator). According to the KAERI’s national research plan, basic radiation application working on sterilization, decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in effluent by using radiation were conducted in KAERI’s laboratory for three years. In 2011, a field study on advanced sewage treatment with a MEB was conducted and the results obtained from study played an important role in the acquiring a certification on advanced treatment of sewage effluent by radiation, NET(New Environmental Technology), which is issued by Korea ministry of environment. The field study was carried out over four seasons in order to observe the effect of seasonal temperature changes on decomposition of chemicals contained in effluent of sewage. The major antibiotics and endocrine disruptors with initial concentration of 0.5 mg/l were decomposed completely by the irradiation dose less than 1.5 kGy, and coli form and microorganisms were also sterilized under the same irradiation dose. Toxicity arising by antibiotics on algae was reduced according to irradiation dose. In a future, achievements from the field demonstration study will be transferred to industry. Research on by-products from irradiated antibiotics and toxicity before and after irradiation of antibiotics will be continued in the field with MEB. This information will be useful for the project by radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse, particularly focused on the wastewater containing organic pollutants. (author)

  10. Demonstration of a multiscale modeling technique: prediction of the stress–strain response of light activated shape memory polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beblo, Richard V; Weiland, Lisa Mauck

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a multiscale modeling method applied to light activated shape memory polymers (LASMPs). LASMPs are a new class of shape memory polymer (SMPs) being developed for adaptive structures applications where a thermal stimulus is undesirable. LASMP developmental emphasis is placed on optical manipulation of Young's modulus. A multiscale modeling approach is employed to anticipate the soft and hard state moduli solely on the basis of a proposed molecular formulation. Employing such a model shows promise for expediting down-selection of favorable formulations for synthesis and testing, and subsequently accelerating LASMP development. An empirical adaptation of the model is also presented which has applications in system design once a formulation has been identified. The approach employs rotational isomeric state theory to build a molecular scale model of the polymer chain yielding a list of distances between the predicted crosslink locations, or r-values. The r-values are then fitted with Johnson probability density functions and used with Boltzmann statistical mechanics to predict stress as a function of the strain of the phantom polymer network. Empirical adaptation for design adds junction constraint theory to the modeling process. Junction constraint theory includes the effects of neighboring chain interactions. Empirical fitting results in numerically accurate Young's modulus predictions. The system is modular in nature and thus lends itself well to being adapted to other polymer systems and development applications

  11. a Tool for Crowdsourced Building Information Modeling Through Low-Cost Range Camera: Preliminary Demonstration and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocchiano, F.; Ravanelli, R.; Crespi, M.

    2017-11-01

    Within the construction sector, Building Information Models (BIMs) are more and more used thanks to the several benefits that they offer in the design of new buildings and the management of the existing ones. Frequently, however, BIMs are not available for already built constructions, but, at the same time, the range camera technology provides nowadays a cheap, intuitive and effective tool for automatically collecting the 3D geometry of indoor environments. It is thus essential to find new strategies, able to perform the first step of the scan to BIM process, by extracting the geometrical information contained in the 3D models that are so easily collected through the range cameras. In this work, a new algorithm to extract planimetries from the 3D models of rooms acquired by means of a range camera is therefore presented. The algorithm was tested on two rooms, characterized by different shapes and dimensions, whose 3D models were captured with the Occipital Structure SensorTM. The preliminary results are promising: the developed algorithm is able to model effectively the 2D shape of the investigated rooms, with an accuracy level comprised in the range of 5 - 10 cm. It can be potentially used by non-expert users in the first step of the BIM generation, when the building geometry is reconstructed, for collecting crowdsourced indoor information in the frame of BIMs Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) generation.

  12. Increased bioavailability of celecoxib under fed versus fasted conditions is determined by postprandial bile secretion as demonstrated in a dynamic gastrointestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, Eric; Havenaar, Robert; Shastri, Prathap; Hetsco, Lucy; Vick, Andrew; Sagartz, John

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize physiologically relevant dynamic dissolution testing with the TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) in vitro gastrointestinal model to investigate the bioaccessibility of celecoxib. A single 200-mg dose of celecoxib was evaluated under average adult human physiological conditions simulated in the TIM-1 system. The in vitro data were compared with the clinically established pharmacokinetic data. When expressed as a percent of drug that progresses from the duodenum to the jejunum and ileum compartments (bioaccessible sites), the study demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the total bioaccessibility for celecoxib when co-administered with a high-fat meal as opposed to co-administration with a glass of water (fasted conditions). That increase in bioaccessibility was similar to a 1.2 to 1.6-fold increase in systemic exposure in adults and children following co-administration with a high-fat meal when compared to the exposure measured when celecoxib was co-administered with only water. Following that comparison, the flexibility of the TIM-1 system was used to more specifically investigate individual parameters of gastrointestinal conditions, such as the rate of bile secretion (emptying of the bile bladder) that accompanies high-fat meal consumption. We demonstrated that increased bile secretion after co-administration of a high-fat meal played a more important role in the increased celecoxib bioaccessibility than did the food matrix. This indicates that in humans without a bile bladder the exposure of celecoxib administered with food might be as low as under fasted state.

  13. SUPPORT FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE ARM PROJECT AND DEVELOPMENT OF A FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE GWIS MODEL FOR A VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. DAVID MARTIN; MARK B. MURPHY - STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES, LLC

    1999-12-31

    Strategic Technology Resources, L.L.C. (STR) provided work for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in response to Request for Proposal 005BZ0019-35. The objectives of the work in this project were to: (1) support the completion of the Advanced Reservoir Management (ARM) cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) LA9502037, and (2) support the development of a field demonstration of the LANL-developed Global Weapons Information System (GWIS) model for virtual enterprises. The second objective was contingent upon DOE approval of the Advanced Information Management (AIM) CRADA. At the request of the LANL Technical Representative, the project was granted a no-cost extension to November 30, 1999. As part of the project, STR provided managerial support for the ARM CRADA by: (1) assessing the data resources of the participating companies, (2) facilitating the transfer of technical data to LANL, (3) preparing reports, (4) managing communications between the parties to the ARM CRADA, and (5) assisting with the dissemination of information between the parties to technical professional societies and trade associations. The first phase of the current project was to continue to engage subcontractors to perform tasks in the ARM CRADA for which LANL expertise was lacking. All of the ARM field studies required of the project were completed, and final reports for all of the project studies are appended to this final report. The second phase of the current project was to support the field demonstration of the GWIS model for virtual enterprises in an oilfield setting. STR developed a hypertext Webpage that describes the concept and implementation of a virtual enterprise for reservoir management in the petroleum industry. Contents of the hypertext document are included in this report on the project.

  14. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  15. Editorial: Comfort and discomfort studies demonstrate the need for a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Hallbeck, S.

    2012-01-01

    The term comfort is often seen relating to the marketing of products like chairs, cars, clothing, hand tools and even airplane tickets, while in the scientific literature, the term discomfort shows up often, since it is used in research. Few papers explain the concept of a localized comfort

  16. Imitation Modeling and Institutional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Y. Barbashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of imitation modeling in the conduct of institutional research. The institutional approach is based on the observation of social behavior. To understand a social process means to determine the key rules that individuals use, undertaking social actions associated with this process or phenomenon. This does not mean that institutions determine behavioral reactions, although there are a number of social situations where the majority of individuals follow the dominant rules. If the main laws of development of the institutional patterns are known, one can describe most of the social processes accurately. The author believes that the main difficulty with the analysis of institutional processes is their recursive nature: from the standards of behavior one may find the proposed actions of social agents who follow, obey or violate institutions, but the possibility of reconstructive analysis is not obvious. The author demonstrates how the institutional approach is applied to the analysis of social behavior. The article describes the basic principles and methodology of imitation modeling. Imitation modeling reveals the importance of institutions in structuring social transactions. The article concludes that in the long term institutional processes are not determined by initial conditions.

  17. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, Josef; Thaler, S.; Schmid, E.; Strauss, F.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Rötter, R.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Olesen, J. E.; Patil, R. H.; Saylan, L.; Çaldag, B.; Caylak, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2013), s. 813-835 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : crop models * weather conditions * winter wheat * Austria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2013

  18. Constraint-based modeling of heterologous pathways: application and experimental demonstration for overproduction of fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Kuhn; Donoghue, Neil; Kim, Min Kyung; Lun, Desmond S

    2014-10-01

    Constraint-based modeling has been shown, in many instances, to be useful for metabolic engineering by allowing the prediction of the metabolic phenotype resulting from genetic manipulations. But the basic premise of constraint-based modeling-that of applying constraints to preclude certain behaviors-only makes sense for certain genetic manipulations (such as knockouts and knockdowns). In particular, when genes (such as those associated with a heterologous pathway) are introduced under artificial control, it is unclear how to predict the correct behavior. In this paper, we introduce a modeling method that we call proportional flux forcing (PFF) to model artificially induced enzymatic genes. The model modifications introduced by PFF can be transformed into a set of simple mass balance constraints, which allows computational methods for strain optimization based on flux balance analysis (FBA) to be utilized. We applied PFF to the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for free fatty acid (FFA) production-a metabolic engineering problem that has attracted significant attention because FFAs are a precursor to liquid transportation fuels such as biodiesel and biogasoline. We show that PFF used in conjunction with FBA-based computational strain optimization methods can yield non-obvious genetic manipulation strategies that significantly increase FFA production in E. coli. The two mutant strains constructed and successfully tested in this work had peak fatty acid (FA) yields of 0.050 g FA/g carbon source (17.4% theoretical yield) and 0.035 g FA/g carbon source (12.3% theoretical yield) when they were grown using a mixed carbon source of glucose and casamino acids in a ratio of 2-to-1. These yields represent increases of 5.4- and 3.8-fold, respectively, over the baseline strain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Demonstration of pulmonary {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor binding in vivo with [{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl-fenoterol in a guinea pig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helisch, A.; Schirrmacher, E.; Schirrmacher, R.; Buchholz, H.G.; Bartenstein, P. [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Thews, O.; Dillenburg, W.; Tillmanns, J. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Mainz (Germany); Hoehnemann, S.; Roesch, F. [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Wessler, I. [University of Mainz, Institute of Pharmacology, Mainz (Germany); Buhl, R. [University Hospital, Pulmonary Division, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    The new {beta}{sub 2} radioligand (R,R)(S,S) 5-(2-(2-[4-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl]-1-methylethylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl)-benzene-1,3-diol ([{sup 18}F]FE-fenoterol; [{sup 18}F]FEFE), a fluoroethylated derivative of racemic fenoterol, was evaluated in vivo and ex vivo using a guinea pig model. Dynamic PET studies over 60 min with [{sup 18}F]FEFE were performed in nine Hartley guinea pigs in which a baseline (group 1, n=3), a predose (group 2, n=3; 2 mg/kg fenoterol 5 min prior to injection of [{sup 18}F]FEFE) or a displacement study (group 3, n=3; 2 mg/kg fenoterol 5 min post injection of [{sup 18}F]FEFE) was conducted. In all animal groups, the lungs could be visualised and semi-quantified separately by calculating uptake ratios to non-specific binding in the neck area. Premedication with non-radioactive fenoterol and displacement tests showed significant reduction of lung uptake, by 94% and 76%, respectively. These data demonstrate specific binding of the new radioligand to the pulmonary {beta}{sub 2}-receptors in accordance with ex vivo measurements. Therefore, [{sup 18}F]FEFE seems to be suitable for the in vivo visualisation and quantification of the pulmonary {beta}{sub 2}-receptor binding in this animal model. (orig.)

  20. A Ground-Based Study on Extruder Standoff Distance for the 3D Printing in Zero Gravity Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Rabenberg, E. M.; Soohoo, H. A.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Bell, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of phase I specimens produced as part of the 3D printing in zero G technology demonstration mission exhibited some differences in structure and performance for specimens printed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and specimens produced on the ground with the same printer prior to its launch. This study uses the engineering test unit for the printer, identical to the unit on ISS, to conduct a ground-based investigation of the impact of the distance between the extruder tip and the build tray on material outcomes. This standoff distance was not held constant for the phase I flight prints and is hypothesized to be a major source of the material variability observed in the phase I data set.

  1. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  2. BL-7010 demonstrates specific binding to gliadin and reduces gluten-associated pathology in a chronic mouse model of gliadin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder in individuals that carry DQ2 or DQ8 MHC class II haplotypes, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. There is no current treatment other than a gluten-free diet (GFD. We have previously shown that the BL-7010 copolymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate (P(HEMA-co-SS binds with higher efficiency to gliadin than to other proteins present in the small intestine, ameliorating gliadin-induced pathology in the HLA-HCD4/DQ8 model of gluten sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of two batches of BL-7010 to interact with gliadin, essential vitamins and digestive enzymes not previously tested, and to assess the ability of the copolymer to reduce gluten-associated pathology using the NOD-DQ8 mouse model, which exhibits more significant small intestinal damage when challenged with gluten than HCD4/DQ8 mice. In addition, the safety and systemic exposure of BL-7010 was evaluated in vivo (in rats and in vitro (genetic toxicity studies. In vitro binding data showed that BL-7010 interacted with high affinity with gliadin and that BL-7010 had no interaction with the tested vitamins and digestive enzymes. BL-7010 was effective at preventing gluten-induced decreases in villus-to-crypt ratios, intraepithelial lymphocytosis and alterations in paracellular permeability and putative anion transporter-1 mRNA expression in the small intestine. In rats, BL-7010 was well-tolerated and safe following 14 days of daily repeated administration of 3000 mg/kg. BL-7010 did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the genetic toxicity studies. Using complementary animal models and chronic gluten exposure the results demonstrate that administration of BL-7010 is effective and safe and that it is able to decrease pathology associated with gliadin sensitization warranting the progression to Phase I trials in humans.

  3. Measuring thermal behavior in smaller insects: A case study in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrates effects of sex, geographic origin, and rearing temperature on adult behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurohit, Subhash; Schmidt, Paul S

    2016-10-01

    Measuring thermal behavior in smaller insects is particularly challenging. In this study, we describe a new horizontal thermal gradient apparatus designed to study adult thermal behavior in small insects and apply it using D. melanogaster as a model and case study. Specifically, we used this apparatus and associated methodology to examine the effects of sex, geographic origin, and developmental rearing temperature on temperature preferences exhibited by adults in a controlled laboratory environment. The thermal gradient established by the apparatus was stable over diurnal and calendar time. Furthermore, the distribution of adult flies across thermal habitats within the apparatus remained stable following the period of acclimation, as evidenced by the high degree of repeatability across both biological and technical replicates. Our data demonstrate significant and predictable variation in temperature preference for all 3 assayed variables. Behaviorally, females were more sensitive than males to higher temperatures. Flies originating from high latitude, temperate populations exhibited a greater preference for cooler temperatures; conversely, flies originating from low latitude, tropical habitats demonstrated a relative preference for higher temperatures. Similarly, larval rearing temperature was positively associated with adult thermal behavior: low culture temperatures increased the relative adult preference for cooler temperatures, and this response was distinct between the sexes and for flies from the temperate and subtropical geographic regions. Together, these results demonstrate that the temperature chamber apparatus elicits robust, predictable, and quantifiable thermal preference behavior that could readily be applied to other taxa to examine the role of temperature-mediated behavior in a variety of contexts.

  4. High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, James; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Fripp, Matthias; Hoffman, Ian; Petros-Good, Autumn; Blanco, Christian; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Decarbonizing electricity production is central to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Exploiting intermittent renewable energy resources demands power system planning models with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a mixed-integer linear programming model – SWITCH – to analyze least-cost generation, storage, and transmission capacity expansion for western North America under various policy and cost scenarios. Current renewable portfolio standards are shown to be insufficient to meet emission reduction targets by 2030 without new policy. With stronger carbon policy consistent with a 450 ppm climate stabilization scenario, power sector emissions can be reduced to 54% of 1990 levels by 2030 using different portfolios of existing generation technologies. Under a range of resource cost scenarios, most coal power plants would be replaced by solar, wind, gas, and/or nuclear generation, with intermittent renewable sources providing at least 17% and as much as 29% of total power by 2030. The carbon price to induce these deep carbon emission reductions is high, but, assuming carbon price revenues are reinvested in the power sector, the cost of power is found to increase by at most 20% relative to business-as-usual projections. - Highlights: ► Intermittent generation necessitates high-resolution electric power system models. ► We apply the SWITCH planning model to the western North American grid. ► We explore carbon policy and resource cost scenarios through 2030. ► As the carbon price rises, coal generation is replaced with solar, wind, gas and/or nuclear generation ► A 450 ppm climate stabilization target can be met at a 20% or lower cost increase.

  5. Demonstration of a Model-Based Technology for Monitoring Water Quality and Corrosion in Water-Distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    this limited result suggests that real-time operation could have been successful had Fort Drum’s SCADA system updates been completed in time to fully...prohibitively expensive if a SCADA system needs to be installed, and the model will only remain useful if it is properly updated when changes are made to...Fort Drum updated to a new Bristol Babcock SCADA system that uses a database called Polyhedra, which is also ODBC compliant. This required the

  6. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  7. Use of partial order in environmental pollution studies demonstrated by urban BTEX air pollution in 20 major cities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessov, Bulat

    2018-01-01

    Urban air pollution with benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) is a common phenomenon in major cities where the pollution mainly originates from traffic as well as from residential heating. An attempt to rank cities according to their BTEX air pollution is not necessarily straight forward as we are faced with several individual pollutants simultaneously. A typical procedure is based on aggregation of data for the single compounds, a process that not only hides important information but is also subject to compensation effects. The present study applies a series of partial ordering tools to circumvent the aggregation. Based on partial ordering, most important indicators are disclosed, and an average ranking of the cities included in the study is derived. Since air pollution measurements are often subject to significant uncertainties, special attention has been given to the possible effect of uncertainty and/or data noise. Finally, the effect of introducing weight regimes is studied. In a concluding section the gross national income per person (GNI) is brought into play, demonstrating a positive correlation between BTEX air pollution and GNI. The results are discussed in terms of the ability/willingness to combat air pollution in the cities studied. The present study focuses on Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan and compares the data from Almaty to another 19 major cities around the world. It is found that the benzene for Almaty appears peculiar high. Overall Almaty appears ranked as the 8th most BTEX polluted city among the 20 cities included in the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel use of 3D printing model demonstrates the effects of deteriorated trabecular bone structure on bone stiffness and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Meir Max; Black, Margaret Arielle

    2018-02-01

    Trabecular bone structure is crucial to normal mechanical behavior of bones. Studies have shown that osteoporosis negatively affects trabecular bone structure, mainly by reducing bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and thus increasing fracture risk. One major limitation in assessing and quantifying the effect of this structural deterioration is that no two trabecular structures are identical. Thus, when we compare a group of healthy bones against a different group of bones that experienced resorption (i.e. decreased BV/TV) we only discover an "average" mechanical effect. It is impossible to quantify the mechanical effect of individual structural deterioration for each sample, simply because we never have the same sample in both states (intact and deteriorated structure). 3D printing is a new technology that can assist in overcoming this issue. Here we report a preliminary study that compares a healthy 3D printed trabecular bone model with the same model after bone resorption was simulated. Since the deteriorated structural bone model is derived from the healthy one, it is possible to directly estimate (percentage wise) the decrease of tissue stiffness and strength as a result of bone resorption for this specific structure. Our results demonstrate that a relatively small decrease in BV/TV (about 8%) leads to a dramatic decrease in structural strength (24%) and structural stiffness (17%), (P strength decreased from an average of 9.14 ± 2.85MPa to 6.97 ± 2.44MPa, while structural stiffness decreased from an average of 282.5 ± 63.4N/mm to 233.8 ± 51.2N/mm. This study demonstrates that 3D printing is a novel and valuable tool for quantifying the effect of structural deterioration on the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the future, this approach may help us attain better personal fracture risk assessments by CT scanning, 3D printing and mechanically testing individual bone replicas from patients suffering excessive bone resorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Modeling framework for representing long-term effectiveness of best management practices in addressing hydrology and water quality problems: Framework development and demonstration using a Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A.; Flanagan, Dennis C.; Gitau, Margaret W.; McMillan, Sara K.; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Singh, Shweta

    2018-05-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are popular approaches used to improve hydrology and water quality. Uncertainties in BMP effectiveness over time may result in overestimating long-term efficiency in watershed planning strategies. To represent varying long-term BMP effectiveness in hydrologic/water quality models, a high level and forward-looking modeling framework was developed. The components in the framework consist of establishment period efficiency, starting efficiency, efficiency for each storm event, efficiency between maintenance, and efficiency over the life cycle. Combined, they represent long-term efficiency for a specific type of practice and specific environmental concern (runoff/pollutant). An approach for possible implementation of the framework was discussed. The long-term impacts of grass buffer strips (agricultural BMP) and bioretention systems (urban BMP) in reducing total phosphorus were simulated to demonstrate the framework. Data gaps were captured in estimating the long-term performance of the BMPs. A Bayesian method was used to match the simulated distribution of long-term BMP efficiencies with the observed distribution with the assumption that the observed data represented long-term BMP efficiencies. The simulated distribution matched the observed distribution well with only small total predictive uncertainties. With additional data, the same method can be used to further improve the simulation results. The modeling framework and results of this study, which can be adopted in hydrologic/water quality models to better represent long-term BMP effectiveness, can help improve decision support systems for creating long-term stormwater management strategies for watershed management projects.

  10. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  11. Urban Studies: A Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Terry L.; Sundeen, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The urban studies learning model described in this article was found to increase students' self-esteem, imbue a more flexible and open perspective, contribute to the capacity for self-direction, produce increases on the feeling reactivity, spontaneity, and acceptance of aggression scales, and expand interpersonal competence. (Author/WI)

  12. Chemical changes demonstrated in cartilage by synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy in an antibody-induced murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Allyson M.; Selva Nandakumar, Kutty; Holmdahl, Rikard; Tobin, Mark J.; McNaughton, Don; Rowley, Merrill J.

    2011-06-01

    Collagen antibody-induced arthritis develops in mice following passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to type II collagen (CII) and is attributed to effects of proinflammatory immune complexes, but transferred mAbs may react directly and damagingly with CII. To determine whether such mAbs cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation, mice lacking complement factor 5 that do not develop joint inflammation were injected intravenously with two arthritogenic mAbs to CII, M2139 and CIIC1. Paws were collected at day 3, decalcified, paraffin embedded, and 5-μm sections were examined using standard histology and synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). None of the mice injected with mAb showed visual or histological evidence of inflammation but there were histological changes in the articular cartilage including loss of proteoglycan and altered chondrocyte morphology. Findings using FTIRM at high lateral resolution revealed loss of collagen and the appearance of a new peak at 1635 cm-1 at the surface of the cartilage interpreted as cellular activation. Thus, we demonstrate the utility of synchrotron FTIRM for examining chemical changes in diseased cartilage at the microscopic level and establish that arthritogenic mAbs to CII do cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation.

  13. Using the results of a satisfaction survey to demonstrate the impact of a new library service model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powelson, Susan E; Reaume, Renee D

    2012-09-01

     In 2005, the University of Calgary entered into a contract to provide library services to the staff and physicians of Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone (AHS CZ), creating the Health Information Network Calgary (HINC).  A user satisfaction survey was contractually required to determine whether the new library service model created through the agreement with the University of Calgary was successful. Our additional objective was to determine whether information and resources provided through the HINC were making an impact on patient care.  A user satisfaction survey of 18 questions was created in collaboration with AHS CZ contract partners and distributed using the snowball or convenience sample method.  Six hundred and ninety-four surveys were returned. Of respondents, 75% use the HINC library services. More importantly, 43% of respondents indicated that search results provided by library staff had a direct impact on patient care decisions.  Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone staff are satisfied with the new service delivery model, they are taking advantage of the services offered, and using library provided information to improve patient care. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD: Adoption and Reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaniece Criss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues’ 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students’ paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition.

  15. Reliability Demonstration for an Eddy Current NDE Technique Using A Computational Electromagnetic Model-Assisted Approach (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldrin, John C; Knopp, Jeremy; Lindgren, Eric; Annis, Charles; Sabbagh, Harold A; Sabbagh, Elias H; Murphy, R. K

    2006-01-01

    ...) inspection system validation. POD studies provide engineers with data on the reliability of detecting cracks across a distribution of sizes that can be used as an input to probabilistic risk assessment analysis...

  16. North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART at CD4 count >350 cells/μL have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate “real world” programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events. Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes.

  17. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  18. A watershed-based spatially-explicit demonstration of an integrated environmental modeling framework for ecosystem services in the Coal River Basin (WV, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Johnston; Mahion C. Barber; Kurt Wolfe; Mike Galvin; Mike Cyterski; Rajbir Parmar; Luis Suarez

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a spatially-explicit regional assessment of current condition of aquatic ecoservices in the Coal River Basin (CRB), with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The integrated modeling framework (IMF) forecasts water quality and quantity, habitat suitability for aquatic biota, fish biomasses, population densities, ...

  19. AAV vectors expressing LDLR gain-of-function variants demonstrate increased efficacy in mouse models of familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Jacobs, Frank; Wang, Qiang; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Wilson, James M; Rader, Daniel J

    2014-08-29

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder that arises because of loss-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is a candidate for gene therapy using adeno-associated viral vectors. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of LDLR (IDOL) negatively regulate LDLR protein and could dampen adeno-associated viral vector encoded LDLR expression. We sought to create vectors expressing gain-of-function human LDLR variants that are resistant to degradation by human PCSK9 (hPCSK9) and IDOL and thereby enhance hepatic LDLR protein abundance and plasma LDL cholesterol reduction. Amino acid substitutions were introduced into the coding sequence of human LDLR cDNA to reduce interaction with hPCSK9 and human IDOL. A panel of mutant human LDLRs was initially screened in vitro for escape from PCSK9. The variant human LDLR-L318D was further evaluated using a mouse model of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia lacking endogenous LDLR and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic, APOBEC-1 (double knockout). Administration of wild-type human LDLR to double knockout mice, expressing hPCSK9, led to diminished LDLR activity. However, LDLR-L318D was resistant to hPCSK9-mediated degradation and effectively reduced cholesterol levels. Similarly, the LDLR-K809R\\C818A construct avoided human IDOL regulation and achieved stable reductions in serum cholesterol. An adeno-associated viral vector serotype 8.LDLR-L318D\\K809R\\C818A vector that carried all 3 amino acid substitutions conferred partial resistance to both hPCSK9- and human IDOL-mediated degradation. Amino acid substitutions in the human LDLR confer partial resistance to PCSK9 and IDOL regulatory pathways with improved reduction in cholesterol levels and improve on a potential gene therapeutic approach to treat homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia subjects. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Occupancy models to study wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa; Adams, Michael John

    2005-01-01

    Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoccupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy and related parameters. Required data (detection/non-detection information) are relatively simple and inexpensive to collect. Software is available free of charge to aid investigators in occupancy estimation.

  1. A CASE STUDY OF MODELING A TORUS IN DIFFERENT MODELING SOFTWARES

    OpenAIRE

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica; KRASIĆ Sonja; PEJIĆ Petar; TOŠIĆ Zlata

    2017-01-01

    Modeling of the complex geometric shapes requires the use of appropriate softwares. This study analyzes the process of modeling with two different computer softwares, AutoCAD and Rhinoceros. The aim is to demonstrate the similarities and differences between these softwares when used for modeling torus, a double curved geometric surface. The two modeling processes are compared in order to investigate the potentials of these softwares in the modeling of an architectural structure comprising a s...

  2. A mechanical model of stereocilia that demonstrates a shift in the high-sensitivity region due to the interplay of a negative stiffness and an adaptation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changwon; Park, Sukyung

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia are the basic sensory units of nature's inertial sensors and are highly sensitive over broad dynamic ranges, which is a major challenge in the design of conventional engineering sensors. The high sensitivity that is maintained by stereocilia was hypothesized to exist due to a combination of adaptation and negative stiffness mechanisms, which shift the region of highest sensitivity toward the active operation range of the stereocilia bundle. To examine the adaptation hypothesis in terms of its potential applicability to future applications regarding the design of inertial sensors, we developed a mechanical mimicry of the interplay between negative stiffness and the adaptation of the stereocilia that produces spontaneous oscillation of the hair bundle. The mechanical model consists of an inverted pendulum and a fixed T-bar that mimic the interaction of two adjacent stereocilia. To focus on the interaction of one gating spring and the corresponding adaptation motor without the effect of coupling from the other gating springs attached to the neighboring stereocilia, we fixed one bar that contains the adaptation motor. To emulate the negative resistance of the tip-link due to the transient stiffness softening by the gating ion channel, a magnet pair was attached to the top of the inverted pendulum and the fixed T-bar. Readjustment of the tip-link tension by the ‘slipping down and climbing up’ motion of the adaptation molecular motors was demonstrated by the side-to-side movement of the magnet by a step motor. The negative stiffness region was observed near the equilibrium position and shifted with the activation of the adaptation motor. The temporal demonstration of the stiffness shift was measured as a spontaneous oscillation. The results showed that the interplay between the negative stiffness and the adaptation mechanism was mechanically produced by the combination of a repulsive force and its continuous readjustment and is better understood through a

  3. Proposed demonstration projects matrix, commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The Proposed Demonstration Projects Matrix is designed to meet the goals and objectives of ERDA-23A. Selection criteria for the Demonstration Matrix have been established. Phase 0 SHACOB studies have been updated and expanded. Building/location/solar system combinations have been selected for the directed level of 200 commercial demonstrations. The list of demonstrations has been arranged in an effectiveness ranked array. Modeling techniques have been applied to the selection process to enable mechanized generation of similar listings at other demonstration levels. Individual demonstration project selection guidelines have been developed to provide decision criteria among candidate projects. (WDM)

  4. Isotopic Analysis of Fingernails as a USGS Open House Demonstration of the Use of Stable Isotopes in Foodweb Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Choy, D.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS Isotope Tracers Project uses stable isotopes and tritium to add a unique dimension of chemical information to a wide range of environmental investigations. The use and application of isotopes is usually an unfamiliar and even esoteric topic to the general public. Therefore during three USGS open house events, as a public outreach effort, we demonstrated the use of stable isotopes by analyzing nitrogen and carbon isotopes from very small fragments of fingernail from willing participants. We titled the exhibit "You Are What You Eat". The results from all participants were plotted on a graph indicating the general influence of different food groups on the composition of body tissues as represented by fingernails. All participants were assigned a number and no personal-identification information was collected. A subset of participants provided us with an estimate of the number of days a week various foods were eaten and if they were vegetarians, vegans or non-vegetarians. Volunteers from our research group were on hand to explain and discuss fundamental concepts such as how foods attain their isotopic composition, the difference between C3 and C4 plants, the effects of assimilation, trophic enrichment, and the various uses of stable isotopes in environmental studies. The results of the fingernail analyses showed the variation of the range of isotopic compositions among about 400 people at each event, the distinct influence of C4 plants (mainly corn and cane sugar) on our carbon isotopic composition, and the isotopic differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians among other details (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/projects/fingernails/). A poll of visitors attending the open house event in 2006 indicated that "You Are What You Eat" was among the most popular exhibits. Following the first two open house events we were contacted by a group of researchers from Brazil who had completed a very similar study. Our collaboration resulted in a publication in

  5. Exercise induced renal dysfunction demonstrated both in hypertensives and normotensive controls studies by Tc-99m-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuiri, S.; Hayashi, I.; Ohara, T.; Hirata, K.; Sasaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    It was previously reported that the hippurate transport disturbance after exercise is a specific phenomenon to patients with hypertension. The authors' study with Tc-99m-DTPA revealed exercise induced renal dysfunction not only in hypertensives (H) but also in normotensive controls (N). The details of the investigation is presented. Tc-99m-DTPA was intravenously injected at rest and during bicycle ergometric stress to 14 H and 14 N in sitting position. Serial dynamic renal images were taken, of which data were simultaneously stored in a data processor for later analysis. The renogram was drawn setting ROI on each kidney. Peak counts (PC) of vascular phase, peak time (PT) of secretory phase and radioisotope retention rate (RR) at 10 minutes were the parameters being compared between at rest and at exercise. GFR of each kidney was determined. Blood samples were obtained at rest and at the end of exercise for the measurement of aldosterone (ALD), plasma renin activity (PRA) and catecholamines (A, NA). Exercise caused significant lowering of PC, prolongation of PT and increase in RR (10 min. counts/peak counts) both in H and N. GFR (miota/min.) during exercise was significantly lower than at rest in both H (80 +- 22 vs 93.8 +- 16.9, p<0.02) and N (84 +- 17 vs 102 +- 15, p<0.01). ALD, PRA, A and NA are all elevated during exercise both in H and N. None of the rest-exercise differences significantly differed between H and N. The data indicate the exercise induced renal dysfunction demonstrated by Tc-99m-DTPA renograms is not specified to H but can also be observed in N, which may be resulted from the common changes in H and N of GFR and humoral factors

  6. The Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) Inhibitor Acalabrutinib Demonstrates Potent On-Target Effects and Efficacy in Two Mouse Models of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Sarah E M; Montraveta, Arnau; Niemann, Carsten U

    2017-01-01

    into the drinking water.Results: Utilizing biochemical assays, we demonstrate that acalabrutinib is a highly selective BTK inhibitor as compared with ibrutinib. In the human CLL NSG xenograft model, treatment with acalabrutinib demonstrated on-target effects, including decreased phosphorylation of PLCγ2, ERK...... notably, treatment with acalabrutinib resulted in a significant increase in survival compared with mice receiving vehicle.Conclusions: Treatment with acalabrutinib potently inhibits BTK in vivo, leading to on-target decreases in the activation of key signaling molecules (including BTK, PLCγ2, S6, and ERK...

  7. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles is highly relevant to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boost the catalytic activity. The dynamical behavior of the nanoparticles under reducing and oxidizing environments were studied by means of ex situ X...... as the nanoparticles are reduced. The Cu/ZnO nanoparticles are tested on a  µ-reactor platform and prove to be active towards methanol synthesis, making it an excellent model system for further investigations into activity depended morphology changes....

  8. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  9. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Motion Picture Theatre, Museum, Office, Penitentiary , Performing Arts Theater, Police Station, Post Office, Religious Building, Retail, School Or...Family 1.00 0.70 N/A 0.06 0.25 Museum 1.00 1.10 9.75 0.2 0.10 Office 1.34 1.01 18.01 0.2 0.10 Parking Garage 0.30 0.30 N/A 1.5 5.00 Penitentiary

  10. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  11. Mouse genetics and proteomic analyses demonstrate a critical role for complement in a model of DHRD/ML, an inherited macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Donita L.; Fernandez-Godino, Rosario; Kaur, Inderjeet; Speicher, Kaye D.; Harnly, James M.; Lambris, John D.; Speicher, David W.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Macular degenerations, inherited and age related, are important causes of vision loss. Human genetic studies have suggested perturbation of the complement system is important in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The mechanisms underlying the involvement of the complement system are not understood, although complement and inflammation have been implicated in drusen formation. Drusen are an early clinical hallmark of inherited and age-related forms of macular degeneration. We studied one of the earliest stages of macular degeneration which precedes and leads to the formation of drusen, i.e. the formation of basal deposits. The studies were done using a mouse model of the inherited macular dystrophy Doyne Honeycomb Retinal Dystrophy/Malattia Leventinese (DHRD/ML) which is caused by a p.Arg345Trp mutation in EFEMP1. The hallmark of DHRD/ML is the formation of drusen at an early age, and gene targeted Efemp1R345W/R345W mice develop extensive basal deposits. Proteomic analyses of Bruch's membrane/choroid and Bruch's membrane in the Efemp1R345W/R345W mice indicate that the basal deposits comprise normal extracellular matrix (ECM) components present in abnormal amounts. The proteomic analyses also identified significant changes in proteins with immune-related function, including complement components, in the diseased tissue samples. Genetic ablation of the complement response via generation of Efemp1R345W/R345W:C3−/− double-mutant mice inhibited the formation of basal deposits. The results demonstrate a critical role for the complement system in basal deposit formation, and suggest that complement-mediated recognition of abnormal ECM may participate in basal deposit formation in DHRD/ML and perhaps other macular degenerations. PMID:23943789

  12. Case management models for persons who are homeless and mentally ill: the ACCESS demonstration project. Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, M; Samberg, L; Calsyn, R; Blasinsky, M; Landow, W; Goldman, H

    1999-08-01

    Persons who are homeless and mentally ill present unique challenges to service providers and human service systems. In vivo case management approaches such as assertive community treatment (ACT) have shown promise in engaging this population. This paper explores case management models employed within the ACCESS program, a five year, 18-site demonstration program enriching services for homeless persons with serious mental illness. We describe the implementation of case management with ACCESS programs and determine the extent of variation across sites using a measure of fidelity to ACT. While programs reported using four models, much similarity was found among programs on multiple dimensions.

  13. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  14. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R

    2015-03-01

    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Improvement, Verification, and Refinement of Spatially-Explicit Exposure Models in Risk Assessment - FishRand Spatially-Explicit Bioaccumulation Model Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    assessments. Site data provides an indication of current conditions. However, predictive models are required to evaluate the impact of potential...sediment sites. Bioaccumulation modeling approaches range from deriving empirical trophic relationships based on site-specific data, to dynamic...aquatic food webs incorporating site-specific data on trophic levels, species foraging strategies, and feeding preferences. Frequently, the

  16. Proceedings of the workshop on review of dose modeling methods for demonstration of compliance with the radiological criteria for license termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, T.J.; Parrott, J.D.

    1998-05-01

    The workshop was one in a series to support NRC staff development of guidance for implementing the final rule on ''Radiological Criteria for License Termination.'' The workshop topics included discussion of: dose models used for decommissioning reviews; identification of criteria for evaluating the acceptability of dose models; and selection of parameter values for demonstrating compliance with the final rule. The 2-day public workshop was jointly organized by RES and NMSS staff responsible for reviewing dose modeling methods used in decommissioning reviews. The workshop was noticed in the Federal Register (62 FR 51706). The workshop presenters included: NMSS and RES staff, who discussed both dose modeling needs for licensing reviews, and development of guidance related to dose modeling and parameter selection needs; DOE national laboratory scientists, who provided responses to earlier NRC staff-developed questions and discussed their various Federally-sponsored dose models (i.e., DandD, RESRAD, and MEPAS codes); and an EPA scientist, who presented details on the EPA dose assessment model (i.e., PRESTO code). The workshop was formatted to provide opportunities for the attendees to observe computer demonstrations of the dose codes presented. More than 120 workshop attendees from NRC Headquarters and the Regions, Agreement States; as well as industry representatives and consultants; scientists from EPA, DOD, DNFSB, DOE, and the national laboratories; and interested members of the public participated. A complete transcript of the workshop, including viewgraphs and attendance lists, is available in the NRC Public Document Room. This NUREG/CP documents the formal presentations made during the workshop, and provides a preface outlining the workshop's focus, objectives, background, topics and questions provided to the invited speakers, and those raised during the panel discussion. NUREG/CP-0163 also provides technical bases supporting the development of decommissioning

  17. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Si Y.; Hyun, Sinjae

    2013-01-01

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  18. A practical demonstration in modelling diclofenac and propranolol river water concentrations using a GIS hydrology model in a rural UK catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.C.; Keller, V.; Williams, R.J.; Young, A.

    2007-01-01

    An existing GIS hydrology water quality model, LF2000-WQX, was applied to predict the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and propranalol in catchments. As a practical exercise the predominantly rural Tamar (UK) catchment was chosen. Consumption, excretion, and fate data were used to estimate the pharmaceutical input load for the model. The predicted concentrations throughout most of the catchment were 1 ng/L or less under low flow (90th percentile) conditions. However, at a few locations, downstream of small sewage treatment plants, concentrations above 25 ng/L were predicted. This exercise shows that it is relatively straightforward to predict the concentrations of new and emerging organic microcontaminants in real catchments using existing GIS hydrology water quality models. Further testing will be required to establish their accuracy. - A GIS hydrology model was used to predict pharmaceutical concentration hot spots in a rural catchment

  19. A practical demonstration in modelling diclofenac and propranolol river water concentrations using a GIS hydrology model in a rural UK catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajo@ceh.ac.uk; Keller, V. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Williams, R.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Young, A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    An existing GIS hydrology water quality model, LF2000-WQX, was applied to predict the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and propranalol in catchments. As a practical exercise the predominantly rural Tamar (UK) catchment was chosen. Consumption, excretion, and fate data were used to estimate the pharmaceutical input load for the model. The predicted concentrations throughout most of the catchment were 1 ng/L or less under low flow (90th percentile) conditions. However, at a few locations, downstream of small sewage treatment plants, concentrations above 25 ng/L were predicted. This exercise shows that it is relatively straightforward to predict the concentrations of new and emerging organic microcontaminants in real catchments using existing GIS hydrology water quality models. Further testing will be required to establish their accuracy. - A GIS hydrology model was used to predict pharmaceutical concentration hot spots in a rural catchment.

  20. A MEDL Collection Showcase: A Collection of Hands-on Physical Analog Models and Demonstrations From the Department of Geosciences MEDL at Virginia Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Geosciences Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) will present a suite of hands-on physical analog models from our curriculum materials collection used to teach about a wide range of geoscience processes. Many of the models will be equipped with Vernier data collection sensors, which visitors will be encouraged to explore on-site. Our goal is to spark interest and discussion around the affordances of these kinds of curriculum materials. Important topics to discuss will include: (1) How can having a collection of hands-on physical analog models be used to effectively produce successful broader impacts activities for research proposals? (2) What kinds of learning outcomes have instructors observed when teaching about temporally and spatially challenging concepts using physical analog models? (3) What does it take for an institution to develop their own MEDL collection? and (4) How can we develop a community of individuals who provide on-the-ground support for instructors who use physical analog models in their classroom.

  1. Wireless amplified nuclear MR detector (WAND) for high-spatial-resolution MR imaging of internal organs: preclinical demonstration in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunqi; Yu, Xin; Chen, Der-Yow; Dodd, Stephen; Bouraoud, Nadia; Pothayee, Nikorn; Chen, Yun; Beeman, Scott; Bennett, Kevin; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Koretsky, Alan

    2013-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging deep-lying internal organs at high spatial resolution by imaging kidney glomeruli in a rodent model with use of a newly developed, wireless amplified nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) detector. This study was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee at the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurologic Disorder and Stroke. As a preclinical demonstration of this new detection technology, five different millimeter-scale wireless amplified nuclear MR detectors configured as double frequency resonators were chronically implanted on the medial surface of the kidney in five Sprague-Dawley rats for MR imaging at 11.7 T. Among these rats, two were administered gadopentetate dimeglumine to visualize renal tubules on T1-weighted gradient-refocused echo (GRE) images, two were administered cationized ferritin to visualize glomeruli on T2*-weighted GRE images, and the remaining rat was administered both gadopentetate dimeglumine and cationized ferritin to visualize the interleaved pattern of renal tubules and glomeruli. The image intensity in each pixel was compared with the local tissue signal intensity average to identify regions of hyper- or hypointensity. T1-weighted images with 70-μm in-plane resolution and 200-μm section thickness were obtained within 3.2 minutes to image renal tubules, and T2*-weighted images of the same resolution were obtained within 5.8 minutes to image the glomeruli. Hyperintensity from gadopentetate dimeglumine enabled visualization of renal tubules, and hypointensity from cationic ferritin enabled visualization of the glomeruli. High-spatial-resolution images have been obtained to observe kidney microstructures in vivo with a wireless amplified nuclear MR detector.

  2. Crystal study and econometric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An econometric model was developed that can be used to predict demand and supply figures for crystals over a time horizon roughly concurrent with that of NASA's Space Shuttle Program - that is, 1975 through 1990. The model includes an equation to predict the impact on investment in the crystal-growing industry. Actually, two models are presented. The first is a theoretical model which follows rather strictly the standard theoretical economic concepts involved in supply and demand analysis, and a modified version of the model was developed which, though not quite as theoretically sound, was testable utilizing existing data sources.

  3. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    evaluation group (MEG) is a European initiative on evaluation of technical models used within the major industrial hazard area and is supported by the EC DGXII, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development. Closely related to MEG is REDIPHEM, which is the acronym of a research project supported...... by the EC Environment Research Programme focusing on assessment of the quality of experimental data and models for dense gas dispersion created within the EC funded research programmes. Technical models are used in a number of areas of industrial hazards assessment. It is becoming more and more apparent...... of ensuring that model development is of a standard that is commensurate with the importance of model use. The aim of MEG is to improve the culture in which models are developed and used and so ensure that technical models used in all aspects of major hazard evaluation are up to date with technical...

  4. Efficient Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Demonstration House of Cold-Climate Solutions for Affordable Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schirber, C. Ojczyk, and R. Jacobson

    2016-05-01

    Single family homes in urban areas that are available for renovation by nonprofit developers are often in rough shape (1MM to 2MM nationally). Budgeting has historically focused on improving homes to meet basic housing standards. A rising interest in the long-term impact of homeownership has introduced the need to balance basic needs with home performance. This demonstration project aims to help nonprofit affordable housing developers become familiar with three Building America performance measures, the installation processes, and impacts and benefits of each. A story and a half home in North Minneapolis, MN was presented by Urban Homeworks our local nonprofit partner. The team helped them install three researched upgrade measures: exterior roof insulation or 'overcoat,' exterior foundation insulation, or 'excavationless', and a combined space and water heating HVAC system or 'combi.'

  5. Formal Modeling in a Commercial Setting: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, A.; Chechik, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a case study conducted in collaboration with Nortel to demonstrate the feasibility of applying formal modeling techniques to telecommunication systems. A formal description language, SDL, was chosen by our qualitative CASE tool evaluation to model a multimedia-messaging system described by an 80-page natural language specification. Our model was used to identify errors in the software requirements document and to derive test suites, shadowing the existing development proc...

  6. Demonstrating freedom from disease using multiple complex data sources 2: Case study-Classical swine fever in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, P.A.J.; Cameron, A.R.; Barfod, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    A method for quantitative evaluation of surveillance for disease freedom has been presented in the accompanying paper (Martin et al., 2007). This paper presents an application of the methods, using as an example surveillance for classical swine fever (CSF) in Denmark in 2005. A scenario tree model......) associated with age and location (county), and disease clustering within herds. A surveillance time period of one month was used in the analysis. Records for the year 2005 were analysed, representing 25,332 samples from 3528 herds; all were negative for CSF-specific antibodies. Design prevalences of 0...

  7. Epidemiological studies that ignore mechanism of disease causation are flawed and mechanistic evidence demonstrates that vaccines cause autism

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugham, Vinu

    2017-01-01

    Since vaccinologists are themselves ignorant of vaccine mechanisms, how can we expect epidemiologists to understand the mechanisms? So most epidemiological studies ignore mechanism of adverse event causation. If you ignore mechanism, you cannot design the study with appropriate controls. So the results of such epidemiological studies have to be discarded due to confounding. Proven mechanism involved in cow's milk contaminated vaccines causing folate receptor antibody related autism is des...

  8. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksglaede, K.; Thommesen, P.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examinated. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed ≥5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. Results: The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. Conclusion: The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved. (orig.)

  9. Study plan for conducting a section 316(a) demonstration: K-Reactor cooling tower, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.

    1991-02-01

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) began operation in 1954. The K-Reactor pumped secondary cooling water from the Savannah River and discharged directly to the Indian Grave Branch, a tributary of Pen Branch which flows to the Savannah River. During earlier operations, the temperature and discharge rates of cooling water from the K-reactor were up to approximately 70 degree C and 400 cfs, substantially altering the thermal and flow regimes of this stream. These discharges resulted in adverse impacts to the receiving stream and wetlands along the receiving stream. As a component of a Consent Order (84-4-W as amended) with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated the alternatives for cooling thermal effluents from K Reactor and concluded that a natural draft recirculating cooling tower should be constructed. The cooling tower will mitigate thermal and flow factors that resulted in the previous impacts to the Indian Grave/Pen Branch ecosystem. The purpose of the proposed biological monitoring program is to provide information that will support a Section 316(a) Demonstration for Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch when K-Reactor is operated with the recirculating cooling tower. The data will be used to determine that Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch support Balanced Indigenous Communities when K-Reactor is operated with a recirculating cooling tower. 4 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab

  10. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksglaede, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.

    1999-01-01

    To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examined. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed >= 5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved

  11. Angiographically demonstrated coronary collaterals predict residual viable myocardium in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. A regional metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Masumi; Ii, Masaaki; Nakakoji, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Angiographical demonstration of coronary collateral circulation may suggest the presence of residual viable myocardium. The development of coronary collaterals was judged according to Rentrop's classification in 37 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 13 control patients with chest pain syndrome. The subjects with myocardial infarction were divided into 2 groups: 17 patients with the main branch of the left coronary artery clearly identified by collateral blood flow from the contralateral coronary artery [Coll (+) group, male/female 10/7, mean age 56.6 years] and 20 patients with obscure coronary trunk [Coll (-) group, male/female 16/4, mean age 54.9 years]. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and examination of local myocardial metabolism were carried out by measuring the flux of lactic acid under dipyridamole infusion load. Coronary stenosis of 99% or total occlusion was found in only 5 of 20 patients (25%) in the Coll (-) group but in 16 of 17 patients (94%) in the Coll (+) group (p<0.001). Redistribution of myocardial scintigraphy was found in 11 of 15 patients (73%) in the Coll (+) group, but only 3 of 18 patients (17%) in the Coll (-) group (p<0.01). The myocardial lactic acid extraction rate was -13.2±17.0% in the Coll (+) group, but 9.1±13.2% in the Coll (-) group (p<0.001). These results suggest that coronary collateral may contribute to minimizing the infarct area and to prediction of the presence of viable myocardium. (author)

  12. Industry Application ECCS / LOCA Integrated Cladding/Emergency Core Cooling System Performance: Demonstration of LOTUS-Baseline Coupled Analysis of the South Texas Plant Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vaghetto, Rodolfo [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vanni, Alessandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Neptune, Kaleb [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Under the auspices of the DOE LWRS Program RISMC Industry Application ECCS/LOCA, INL has engaged staff from both South Texas Project (STP) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU) to produce a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) model including reactor core, clad/fuel design and systems thermal hydraulics based on the South Texas Project (STP) nuclear power plant, a 4-Loop Westinghouse PWR. A RISMC toolkit, named LOCA Toolkit for the U.S. (LOTUS), has been developed for use in this generic PWR plant model to assess safety margins for the proposed NRC 10 CFR 50.46c rule, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance during LOCA. This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermalhydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results. Within this context, a multi-physics best estimate plus uncertainty (MPBEPU) methodology framework is proposed.

  13. Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify component's ageing by operational data analysis-A case study for the ageing PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, Andrei; Atwood, Corwin L.; Kirchsteiger, Christian; Patrik, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a case study on 'Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis', which was done in the frame of the EC JRC Ageing PSA Network. Several techniques: visual evaluation, nonparametric and parametric hypothesis tests, were proposed and applied in order to demonstrate the capacity, advantages and limitations of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis. Engineering considerations are out of the scope of the present study

  14. A socio-economic study along with impact assessment for laterite based technology demonstration for arsenic mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; Roy, Anirban; Mukherjee, Raka; Mondal, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Sankha; Chatterjee, Somak; Mukherjee, Munmun; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; De, Sirshendu

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic contamination mitigation technologies have been adsorption-based, but the most widely-used and traditionally available adsorbents suffered inherent limitations, including cost infeasibility and problems associated with regeneration and disposal of the spent adsorbent. The present technology is based on indigenously developed activated laterite prepared from the naturally and abundantly available material, and can hence easily be scaled up for community usage and large scale implementation. The total arsenic removal capacity is 32.5mg/g, which is the highest among all naturally occurring arsenic adsorbents. A major issue in earlier adsorbents was that during regeneration, the adsorbed arsenic would be released back into the environment (leaching), and would eventually contaminate the groundwater again. But the adsorbent in this filter does not require regeneration during its five-year lifespan and does not leach upon disposal. An attempt is made to test and demonstrate the practical implementation of the technology - its effectiveness and viability in three community (primary schools - one in Malda and two in north 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India) and 20 household filters, catering to over 5000 people in different areas of West Bengal exposed to high arsenic contamination of groundwater (ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg/l). The work also focuses on the social impact of the real life technological solution on the lives on the affected people in the worst hit arsenic affected communities, perhaps the greatest public health risk emergency of the decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  16. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  17. 77 FR 37059 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... advantages and disadvantages of using a study with an active control. Examples are provided to illustrate... with access to the Internet may obtain the draft guidance at either http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary...

  18. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  19. Battlescale Forecast Model Sensitivity Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauter, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    .... Changes to the surface observations used in the Battlescale Forecast Model initialization led to no significant changes in the resulting forecast values of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, or wind direction...

  20. Study of Thermomechanical Properties of The Epoxy-Impregnated Cable Composite for a 15 T Nb3Sn Dipole Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Krave, Steve; Zlobin, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of the thermomechanical properties of the composite of cable/insulation/epoxy impregnation are important for the design, fabrication and operation of superconducting accelerator magnets. As a part of the 15 T dipole magnet development at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), we studied the thermomechanical properties of cable stack that represents the cable composites in the 15 T dipole. The measurements include thermal contraction and strain-stress characterization under compressive load along the principal directions. The cable stack samples show hysteresis behaviour in loading-unloading cycles, which is found to be most dramatic along the azimuthal direction. Also, the choice of insulation material/procedure is found to strongly impact the bonding between cables and epoxy/cable layers. The cable stacks measured in this study use E-glass tape wrapping insulation and show weaker bonding to cables than similar cable stacks using S-2 glass sleeves insulation previously studied.

  1. Proper context: Comparison studies demonstrate that United States food-animal production antimicrobial uses have minimal impact on antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (US) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses "substantially drive" antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comparison...

  2. A Comparative Study of Competency-Based Courses Demonstrating a Potential Measure of Course Quality and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    While competency-based education is growing, standardized tools for evaluating the unique characteristics of course design in this domain are still under development. This preliminary research study evaluated the effectiveness of a rubric developed for assessing course design of competency-based courses in an undergraduate Information Technology…

  3. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Technical Appendix E: socioeconomic studies. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    The socioeconomic studies of the present plant site community and fuelwood harvest region include the following: population, housing, income and employment, education, community services, health and social services, crime, and economic base. The potential plant impacts on the following are discussed: employment, income, state revenues, population, housing, education, community services, health services, and the wood products industry. (MHR)

  4. Demonstrating full-scale post-combustion CO2 capture for coal-fired power plants through dynamic modelling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal, Adekola; Wang, Meihong; Stephenson, Peter; Obi, Okwose

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to provide insights into the design and operation of full-scale post-combustion CO2 capture for a 500MWe sub-critical power plant through dynamic modelling and simulation. The development and validation of the dynamic models of the power plant and CO2 capture plant are described. In addition, the scale-up of the CO2 capture plant from pilot plant scale (where it was validated) to full scale is discussed. Subsequently the manner in which the two plant models were linked is disc...

  5. Dipyridamole, cold pressor test, and demonstration of endothelial dysfunction: a PET study of myocardial perfusion in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2003-01-01

    (CPT) with that of dipyridamole, a pharmacologic vasodilator, on coronary blood flow (CBF) measured by PET in NIDDM patients and healthy volunteers. In addition, we studied the effect of acute angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the flow response. METHODS: Ten NIDDM patients and 10......Much evidence suggests endothelial dysfunction to be present in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and to be important for the development of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial function in the coronary vessels may be studied in various ways. We compared the effect of cold pressor testing...... control subjects participated. Myocardial perfusion was determined at baseline, during CPT, and after dipyridamole infusion by PET using intravenous (13)N-ammonia. RESULTS: Resting CBF was similar in NIDDM patients and in control subjects. CPT increased CBF by 20% in the control group, whereas no increase...

  6. Structural studies demonstrating a bacteriophage-like replication cycle of the eukaryote-infecting Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Eyal; Dadosh, Tali; Rechav, Katya; Unger, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental stage in viral infection is the internalization of viral genomes in host cells. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms and factors responsible for the genome internalization process remain poorly understood. Here we report our observations, derived from diverse imaging methods on genome internalization of the large dsDNA Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1). Our studies reveal that early infection stages of this eukaryotic-infecting virus occurs by a bacteriophage-like pathway, whereby PBCV-1 generates a hole in the host cell wall and ejects its dsDNA genome in a linear, base-pair-by-base-pair process, through a membrane tunnel generated by the fusion of the virus internal membrane with the host membrane. Furthermore, our results imply that PBCV-1 DNA condensation that occurs shortly after infection probably plays a role in genome internalization, as hypothesized for the infection of some bacteriophages. The subsequent perforation of the host photosynthetic membranes presumably enables trafficking of viral genomes towards host nuclei. Previous studies established that at late infection stages PBCV-1 generates cytoplasmic organelles, termed viral factories, where viral assembly takes place, a feature characteristic of many large dsDNA viruses that infect eukaryotic organisms. PBCV-1 thus appears to combine a bacteriophage-like mechanism during early infection stages with a eukaryotic-like infection pathway in its late replication cycle. PMID:28850602

  7. Structural studies demonstrating a bacteriophage-like replication cycle of the eukaryote-infecting Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Milrot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental stage in viral infection is the internalization of viral genomes in host cells. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms and factors responsible for the genome internalization process remain poorly understood. Here we report our observations, derived from diverse imaging methods on genome internalization of the large dsDNA Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1. Our studies reveal that early infection stages of this eukaryotic-infecting virus occurs by a bacteriophage-like pathway, whereby PBCV-1 generates a hole in the host cell wall and ejects its dsDNA genome in a linear, base-pair-by-base-pair process, through a membrane tunnel generated by the fusion of the virus internal membrane with the host membrane. Furthermore, our results imply that PBCV-1 DNA condensation that occurs shortly after infection probably plays a role in genome internalization, as hypothesized for the infection of some bacteriophages. The subsequent perforation of the host photosynthetic membranes presumably enables trafficking of viral genomes towards host nuclei. Previous studies established that at late infection stages PBCV-1 generates cytoplasmic organelles, termed viral factories, where viral assembly takes place, a feature characteristic of many large dsDNA viruses that infect eukaryotic organisms. PBCV-1 thus appears to combine a bacteriophage-like mechanism during early infection stages with a eukaryotic-like infection pathway in its late replication cycle.

  8. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production: A thermodynamic energy balance of a model system to demonstrate net energy feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babson, David M.; Bellman, Karen; Prakash, Shaurya; Fennell, Donna E.

    2013-01-01

    During anaerobic digestion, organic matter is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, and organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia. Generally, ammonia is recycled as a fertilizer or removed via nitrification–denitrification in treatment systems; alternatively it could be recovered and catalytically converted to hydrogen, thus supplying additional fuel. To provide a basis for further investigation, a theoretical energy balance for a model system that incorporates anaerobic digestion, ammonia separation and recovery, and conversion of the ammonia to hydrogen is reported. The model Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system energy demands including heating, pumping, mixing, and ammonia reforming were subtracted from the total energy output from methane and hydrogen to create an overall energy balance. The energy balance was examined for the ADBH system operating with a fixed feedstock loading rate with C:N ratios (gC/gN) ranging from 136 to 3 which imposed corresponding total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations of 20–10,000 mg/L. Normalizing total energy potential to the methane potential alone indicated that at a C:N ratio of 17, the energy output was greater for the ADBH system than from anaerobic digestion generating only methane. Decreasing the C:N ratio increased the methane content of the biogas comprising primarily methane to >80% and increased the ammonia stripping energy demand. The system required 23–34% of the total energy generated as parasitic losses with no energy integration, but when internally produced heat and pressure differentials were recovered, parasitic losses were reduced to between 8 and 17%. -- Highlights: •Modeled an integrated Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system. •Demonstrated positive net energy produced over a range of conditions by ADBH. •Demonstrated significant advantages of dual fuel recovery for energy gain by >20%. •Suggested system design considerations for energy recovery with

  9. An HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Demonstration Project and Safety Study for Young MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Sybil; Rudy, Bret; Landovitz, Raphael; Kapogiannis, Bill; Siberry, George; Rutledge, Brandy; Liu, Nancy; Brothers, Jennifer; Mulligan, Kathleen; Zimet, Gregory; Lally, Michelle; Mayer, Ken; Anderson, Peter; Kiser, Jennifer; Rooney, Jim; Wilson, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are a key population for implementation of PrEP interventions. This open-label study examined adherence to PrEP and assessed sexual behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in 12 U.S. cities. Methods Eligible participants were 18–22 year old HIV-uninfected MSM who reported HIV transmission risk behavior in the past 6 months. Participants were provided daily TDF/FTC (Truvada®). Study visits occurred at baseline, monthly through week 12, then quarterly through week 48. Dried blood spots (DBS) were serially collected for the quantification of tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP). Results Between March-September 2013, 2186 individuals were approached and 400 were found to be preliminarily eligible. Of those 400, 277 were scheduled for an in-person screening visit and 200 were enrolled (mean age=20.2; 54.5% Black, 26.5% Latino). Diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including urethral and rectal chlamydial/gonococcal infection and syphilis, at baseline was 22% and remained high across visits. At week 4, 56% of participants had TFV-DP levels consistent with ≥4 pills/week. By week 48, 34% of participants had TFV-DP levels consistent with ≥4 pills/week, with a noticeable drop-off occurring at Week 24. Four HIV seroconversions occurred on study (3.29/100 person-years). Condomless sex was reported by >80% of participants and condomless anal sex with last partner was associated with higher TFV-DP levels. Conclusions Acceptability of PrEP was high and most participants achieved protective drug levels during monthly visits. As visit frequency decreased, so did adherence. YMSM in the US may need PrEP access in youth-friendly settings with tailored adherence support and potentially augmented visit schedules. PMID:27632233

  10. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  11. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  12. CLINICAL STUDIES OF RENAL MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES WITH AGING - DEMONSTRATING BY USING 99mTc-DMSA SCINTIGRAPHY -

    OpenAIRE

    細川, 進一; 川村, 寿一; 友吉, 唯夫; 吉田, 修

    1980-01-01

    We studied the change of renal shape due to development and aging by using 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy. In pediatric age group, the angle between renal longitudinal axis and the lumbar vertebrae is small but becomes larger with aging. The renal size grows with aging in the adult age group, and becomes largest. In geriatric age group it decreases with aging. The stability of renal position is marked in the adult age group, but in the pediatric and geriatric age group it seemed unstable. Rena...

  13. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  14. Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheim Heiman FL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods In this demonstration study we performed a cross-over study in which non-smoking participants that worked at least 4 hours per day on the street in Hanoi were randomly allocated to specific respirator wearing sequences for a duration of 2 weeks. Urines were collected after each period, i.e. twice per week, at the end of the working day to measure hydroxy PAHs (OH-PAH using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was the urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP. Results Forty-four participants (54.5% male, median age 40 years were enrolled with the majority being motorbike taxi drivers (38.6% or street vendors (34.1%. The baseline creatinine corrected urinary level for 1-OHP was much higher than other international comparisons: 1020 ng/g creatinine (IQR: 604–1551. Wearing a R95 mask had no significant effect on 1-OHP levels: estimated multiplicative effect 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09 or other OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.11-0.96. Conclusions High levels of urine OH-PAHs were found in Hanoi street workers. No effect was seen on urine OH-PAH levels by wearing R95 particulate respirators in an area of high urban air pollution, except for 1-OHN. A lack of effect may be de to gaseous phase PAHs that were not filtered efficiently by the respirator. The high levels of urinary OH-PAHs found, urges for effective

  15. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  17. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

  18. Intestinal metabolism of PAH: in vitro demonstration and study of its impact on PAH transfer through the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavret, Severine; Feidt, Cyril

    2005-01-01

    Food would seem to be one of the main ways of animal and human contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In vivo studies suggest a transfer in intestinal epithelium by diffusion, which appears extensively governed by the physicochemical properties of PAHs, particularly lipophilicity. However, other mechanisms, such as metabolism, are considered to intervene. Our work aimed at testing in vitro intestinal metabolism and defining its impact on transepithelial transport of PAHs. Caco-2 cells were cultivated on permeable filters and incubated with 14 C-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), pyrene (Pyr), and phenanthrene (Phe), which differ in their physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cells were able to metabolize the compounds. In basal media, Phe appeared to be the least hydroxylated molecule (45% after a 6-h exposure), followed by Pyr (65%) and finally BaP (96%). Inhibition of PAH metabolism showed a determinant effect on kinetics profiles. Transfer in the basal compartment of BaP, Pyr, and Phe radioactivities was, respectively, 26, 4, and 2 times lower with inhibitors, corroborating that intestinal metabolism of PAHs would have a positive impact on their transfer, an impact that increased with their lipophilicity. Furthermore, after a 6-h incubation, metabolites were also detected in apical medium. These findings suggested that intestinal metabolism might play a key role in intestinal barrier permeability and thus in the bioavailability of tested micropollutants

  19. Prospective demonstration of brain plasticity after intensive abacus-based mental calculation training: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.L. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wu, T.H. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Chien-Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, M.C. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.H. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Sheu, C.Y. [Department of Radiology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 92, Section 2, Chungshan North Road, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.C. [Integrated Brain Research Unit, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.S. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw

    2006-12-20

    Abacus-based mental calculation is a unique Chinese culture. The abacus experts can perform complex computations mentally with exceptionally fast speed and high accuracy. However, the neural bases of computation processing are not yet clearly known. This study used a BOLD contrast 3T fMRI system to explore the brain activation differences between abacus experts and non-expert subjects. All the acquired data were analyzed using SPM99 software. From the results, different ways of performing calculations between the two groups were seen. The experts tended to adopt efficient visuospatial/visuomotor strategy (bilateral parietal/frontal network) to process and retrieve all the intermediate and final results on the virtual abacus during calculation. By contrast, coordination of several networks (verbal, visuospatial processing and executive function) was required in the normal group to carry out arithmetic operations. Furthermore, more involvement of the visuomotor imagery processing (right dorsal premotor area) for imagining bead manipulation and low level use of the executive function (frontal-subcortical area) for launching the relatively time-consuming sequentially organized process was noted in the abacus expert group than in the non-expert group. We suggest that these findings may explain why abacus experts can reveal the exceptional computational skills compared to non-experts after intensive training.

  20. Prospective demonstration of brain plasticity after intensive abacus-based mental calculation training: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. L.; Wu, T. H.; Cheng, M. C.; Huang, Y. H.; Sheu, C. Y.; Hsieh, J. C.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Abacus-based mental calculation is a unique Chinese culture. The abacus experts can perform complex computations mentally with exceptionally fast speed and high accuracy. However, the neural bases of computation processing are not yet clearly known. This study used a BOLD contrast 3T fMRI system to explore the brain activation differences between abacus experts and non-expert subjects. All the acquired data were analyzed using SPM99 software. From the results, different ways of performing calculations between the two groups were seen. The experts tended to adopt efficient visuospatial/visuomotor strategy (bilateral parietal/frontal network) to process and retrieve all the intermediate and final results on the virtual abacus during calculation. By contrast, coordination of several networks (verbal, visuospatial processing and executive function) was required in the normal group to carry out arithmetic operations. Furthermore, more involvement of the visuomotor imagery processing (right dorsal premotor area) for imagining bead manipulation and low level use of the executive function (frontal-subcortical area) for launching the relatively time-consuming sequentially organized process was noted in the abacus expert group than in the non-expert group. We suggest that these findings may explain why abacus experts can reveal the exceptional computational skills compared to non-experts after intensive training.

  1. A CASE STUDY OF MODELING A TORUS IN DIFFERENT MODELING SOFTWARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the complex geometric shapes requires the use of appropriate softwares. This study analyzes the process of modeling with two different computer softwares, AutoCAD and Rhinoceros. The aim is to demonstrate the similarities and differences between these softwares when used for modeling torus, a double curved geometric surface. The two modeling processes are compared in order to investigate the potentials of these softwares in the modeling of an architectural structure comprising a shell of the torus. After a detailed comparative analysis, the essential characteristics and shortcomings of these programs are emphasized and they were used to recommend the more appropriate one.

  2. BIOMOVS: an international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1988-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (author)

  3. BIOMOVS: An international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1987-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (orig.)

  4. Subjective and Objective Measures of Hypersomnolence Demonstrate Divergent Associations with Depression among Participants in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Finn, Laurel A; Hagen, Erika W; Mignot, Emmanuel; Peppard, Paul E

    2016-04-15

    To examine associations of depression with habitual sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and objective sleep propensity in a nonclinical population. Data from adults participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study were utilized in analyses. There were 1,287 adults (3,324 observations) who were used in the analysis of subjective hypersomnolence measures; 1,155 adults (2,981 observations) were used in the analysis of objective sleep propensity assessed by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Repeated-measures logistic regression estimated associations between presence of depression (defined as modified Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale ≥ 50 or use of antidepressant medications) and three primary hypersomnolence measures: subjective excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] ≥ 11), self-reported sleep duration ≥ 9 h/d, and objective sleep propensity (MSLT mean sleep latency caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol use, sleep disordered breathing, as well as insomnia and sleep duration when appropriate, estimated odd ratios (95% confidence interval) for depression were: 1.56 (1.31,1.86) for ESS ≥ 11; 2.01 (1.49, 2.72) for habitual sleep time ≥ 9 h; and 0.76 (0.63-0.92) for MSLT mean sleep latency depression, with subjective sleepiness and excessive sleep duration associated with increased odds of depression, but objective sleep propensity as measured by the MSLT associated with decreased odds of depression. Further research is indicated to explain this paradox and the impact of different hypersomnolence measures on the course of mood disorders. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 467. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. Plasma lysosphingomyelin demonstrates great potential as a diagnostic biomarker for Niemann-Pick disease type C in a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W D Welford

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C is a devastating, neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder which is characterised by variable manifestation of visceral signs, progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration and premature death, caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. Due to the complexity of diagnosis and the availability of an approved therapy in the EU, improved detection of NP-C may have a huge impact on future disease management. At the cellular level dysfunction or deficiency of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein leads to a complex intracellular endosomal/lysosomal trafficking defect, and organ specific patterns of sphingolipid accumulation. Lysosphingolipids have been shown to be excellent biomarkers of sphingolipidosis in several enzyme deficient lysosomal storage disorders. Additionally, in a recent study the lysosphingolipids, lysosphingomyelin (SPC and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph, appeared to be elevated in the plasma of three adult NP-C patients. In order to investigate the clinical utility of SPC and GlcSph as diagnostic markers, an in-depth fit for purpose biomarker assay validation for measurement of these biomarkers in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Plasma SPC and GlcSph are stable and can be measured accurately, precisely and reproducibly. In a retrospective analysis of 57 NP-C patients and 70 control subjects, median plasma SPC and GlcSph were significantly elevated in NP-C by 2.8-fold and 1.4-fold respectively. For miglustat-naïve NP-C patients, aged 2-50 years, the area under the ROC curve was 0.999 for SPC and 0.776 for GlcSph. Plasma GlcSph did not correlate with SPC levels in NP-C patients. The data indicate excellent potential for the use of lysosphingomyelin in NP-C diagnosis, where it could be used to identify NP-C patients for confirmatory genetic testing.

  6. Case studies of computer model applications in consulting practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebein, Gary; Paek, Hyun; Lorang, Mark; McGuinnes, Courtney

    2002-05-01

    Six case studies of computer model applications in a consulting practice will be presented to present the range of issues that can be studied with computer models as well as to understand the limitations of the technique at the present time. Case studies of elliptical conference rooms demonstrate basic acoustic ray principles and suggest remediation strategies. Models of a large themed entertainment venue with multiple amplified sound sources show how visualization of the acoustic ray paths can assist a consultant and client in value engineering locations and amounts of acoustic materials. The acoustic problems with an angled ceiling and large rear wall were studied when an historic church was converted to a music performance hall. The computer model of an historic hall did not present enough detailed information and was supplemented with physical model studies and full size mock-up tests of the insertion of an elevator door that would open directly into the concert room. Studies to demonstrate the amount of room model detail to obtain realistic auralizations were also conducted. The integration of architectural acoustic design and audio system design were studied in computer models of a large church sanctuary.

  7. Evaluation of TVA`s model site and individual technology pollution prevention demonstration programs and their impact on the agrichemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-06-01

    The high volume of fertilizer and pesticides funneled through a relatively small number of distribution outlets has made these agribusiness sites potential sources of surface/groundwater contamination in watersheds surrounding the agrichemical facilities. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. Since inception, the pollution prevention program and the technologies advanced by it have made a very positive impact on the US agrichemical industry, as well as on other TVA programs. This paper is an attempt to document these impacts, with primary focus being placed on the program`s impact on the agribusiness dealer who implements the pollution prevention technologies/practices recommended by TVA.

  8. JAK/STAT signalling--an executable model assembled from molecule-centred modules demonstrating a module-oriented database concept for systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blätke, Mary Ann; Dittrich, Anna; Rohr, Christian; Heiner, Monika; Schaper, Fred; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical models of molecular networks regulating biological processes in cells or organisms are most frequently designed as sets of ordinary differential equations. Various modularisation methods have been applied to reduce the complexity of models, to analyse their structural properties, to separate biological processes, or to reuse model parts. Taking the JAK/STAT signalling pathway with the extensive combinatorial cross-talk of its components as a case study, we make a natural approach to modularisation by creating one module for each biomolecule. Each module consists of a Petri net and associated metadata and is organised in a database publically accessible through a web interface (). The Petri net describes the reaction mechanism of a given biomolecule and its functional interactions with other components including relevant conformational states. The database is designed to support the curation, documentation, version control, and update of individual modules, and to assist the user in automatically composing complex models from modules. Biomolecule centred modules, associated metadata, and database support together allow the automatic creation of models by considering differential gene expression in given cell types or under certain physiological conditions or states of disease. Modularity also facilitates exploring the consequences of alternative molecular mechanisms by comparative simulation of automatically created models even for users without mathematical skills. Models may be selectively executed as an ODE system, stochastic, or qualitative models or hybrid and exported in the SBML format. The fully automated generation of models of redesigned networks by metadata-guided modification of modules representing biomolecules with mutated function or specificity is proposed.

  9. Programme and activities on nuclear desalination in Morocco. Pre-project study on demonstration plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this paper gives the general information on the pre-project study of a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using a heating reactor being assessed jointly by Morocco and China. The progress of the pre-project study is elaborated in the second part. (author)

  10. Tumor penetration with intact MAb and fragments demonstrated in vitro on tumor spheroids and in vivo in the nude mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Halpern, S.E.; Sutherland, R.M.; Schreyer, M.; Mach, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Tumor spheroids grown in culture represent a good in vitro model for the study of tumor penetration phenomena of potential radiotherapeutics. Using this system, it was found that Fab-fragments penetrate tumors more quickly and deeply than complete antibodies. These results were confirmed in tumor bearing nephrectomized nude mice

  11. Variations in virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli demonstrated by the use of a new in vivo infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Salpingitis and peritonitis are common pathological manifestations observed in egg-laying hens. To improve methods to study these conditions, a surgical model was developed. Initially, eighteen white layers underwent laparotomy with subsequent inoculation of ink, bacteria or sterile broth directly...

  12. Deriving Physical Properties from Broadband Photometry with Prospector: Description of the Model and a Demonstration of its Accuracy Using 129 Galaxies in the Local Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leja, Joel; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dokkum, Pieter G. van [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Byler, Nell [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98185 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Broadband photometry of galaxies measures an unresolved mix of complex stellar populations, gas, and dust. Interpreting these data is a challenge for models: many studies have shown that properties derived from modeling galaxy photometry are uncertain by a factor of two or more, and yet answering key questions in the field now requires higher accuracy than this. Here, we present a new model framework specifically designed for these complexities. Our model, Prospector- α , includes dust attenuation and re-radiation, a flexible attenuation curve, nebular emission, stellar metallicity, and a six-component nonparametric star formation history. The flexibility and range of the parameter space, coupled with Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling within the Prospector inference framework, is designed to provide unbiased parameters and realistic error bars. We assess the accuracy of the model with aperture-matched optical spectroscopy, which was excluded from the fits. We compare spectral features predicted solely from fits to the broadband photometry to the observed spectral features. Our model predicts H α luminosities with a scatter of ∼0.18 dex and an offset of ∼0.1 dex across a wide range of morphological types and stellar masses. This agreement is remarkable, as the H α luminosity is dependent on accurate star formation rates, dust attenuation, and stellar metallicities. The model also accurately predicts dust-sensitive Balmer decrements, spectroscopic stellar metallicities, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mass fractions, and the age- and metallicity-sensitive features D{sub n}4000 and H δ . Although the model passes all these tests, we caution that we have not yet assessed its performance at higher redshift or the accuracy of recovered stellar masses.

  13. Modeling minor actinide multiple recycling in a lead-cooled fast reactor to demonstrate a fuel cycle without long-lived nuclear waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisz Przemysław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of closed nuclear fuel cycle seems to be the most promising options for the efficient usage of the nuclear energy resources. However, it can be implemented only in fast breeder reactors of the IVth generation, which are characterized by the fast neutron spectrum. The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR was defined and studied on the level of technical design in order to demonstrate its performance and reliability within the European collaboration on ELSY (European Lead-cooled System and LEADER (Lead-cooled European Advanced Demonstration Reactor projects. It has been demonstrated that LFR meets the requirements of the closed nuclear fuel cycle, where plutonium and minor actinides (MA are recycled for reuse, thereby producing no MA waste. In this study, the most promising option was realized when entire Pu + MA material is fully recycled to produce a new batch of fuel without partitioning. This is the concept of a fuel cycle which asymptotically tends to the adiabatic equilibrium, where the concentrations of plutonium and MA at the beginning of the cycle are restored in the subsequent cycle in the combined process of fuel transmutation and cooling, removal of fission products (FPs, and admixture of depleted uranium. In this way, generation of nuclear waste containing radioactive plutonium and MA can be eliminated. The paper shows methodology applied to the LFR equilibrium fuel cycle assessment, which was developed for the Monte Carlo continuous energy burnup (MCB code, equipped with enhanced modules for material processing and fuel handling. The numerical analysis of the reactor core concerns multiple recycling and recovery of long-lived nuclides and their influence on safety parameters. The paper also presents a general concept of the novel IVth generation breeder reactor with equilibrium fuel and its future role in the management of MA.

  14. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  15. Analysis of two heterologous flowering genes in ¤Brachypodium distachyon¤ demonstrates its potential as a grass model plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Lenk, I.; Jensen, Christian S.

    2006-01-01

    date up to 10 weeks in plants of the T, generation. Furthermore, a positive correlation between Terminal Flower 1 expression level and delay in heading date was apparent for most of the lines. The short life cycle and fast transformation system of B. distachyon allowed heading date analyses in the T-1......Despite the great contribution of model organisms, such as Arabidopsis and rice to understand biological processes in plants, these models are less valuable for functional studies of particular genes from temperate grass crop species. Therefore a new model plant is required, displaying features...... including close phylogenetic relationship to the temperate grasses, vernalisation requirement, high transformation efficiency, small genome size and a rapid life cycle. These requirements are all fulfilled by the small annual grass Brachypodium distachyon. As a first step towards implementing this plant...

  16. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  17. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.

  18. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    -1990s from anchovy to sardine dominance. Simulated averaged weights- and lengths-at-age did not vary much across decades, and movement patterns showed anchovy located close to the coast while sardine were more dispersed and farther offshore. Albacore predation on anchovy and sardine was concentrated near the coast in two pockets near the Monterey Bay area and equatorward of Cape Mendocino. Predation mortality from fishing boats was concentrated where sardine age-1 and older individuals were located close to one of the five ports. We demonstrated that it is feasible to perform multi-decadal simulations of a fully-coupled end-to-end model, and that this can be done for a model that follows individual fish and boats on the same 3-dimensional grid as the hydrodynamics. Our focus here was on proof of principle and our results showed that we solved the major technical, bookkeeping, and computational issues. We discuss the next steps to increase computational speed and to include important biological differences between anchovy and sardine. In a companion paper (Fiechter et al., 2015), we further analyze the historical simulation in the context of the various hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the sardine and anchovy cycles.

  19. Experimental demonstration of nonbilocal quantum correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Dylan J; Bennet, Adam J; Branciard, Cyril; Pryde, Geoff J

    2017-04-01

    Quantum mechanics admits correlations that cannot be explained by local realistic models. The most studied models are the standard local hidden variable models, which satisfy the well-known Bell inequalities. To date, most works have focused on bipartite entangled systems. We consider correlations between three parties connected via two independent entangled states. We investigate the new type of so-called "bilocal" models, which correspondingly involve two independent hidden variables. These models describe scenarios that naturally arise in quantum networks, where several independent entanglement sources are used. Using photonic qubits, we build such a linear three-node quantum network and demonstrate nonbilocal correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality tailored for bilocal models. Furthermore, we show that the demonstration of nonbilocality is more noise-tolerant than that of standard Bell nonlocality in our three-party quantum network.

  20. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  1. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2010-01-01

    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  2. Modelling of radionuclide transport in crystalline basement for demonstration of spent nuclear fuel disposal feasibility (case of South-eastern Lithuania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, V.; Mazeika, J.; Petrosius, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Strategy of Radioactive Waste Management of Lithuania provides for evaluating the possibilities of disposal in a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste originated from the Ignalina NPP. The initial feasibility studies performed in Lithuania during 2001-2004 focus on screening all potentially prospective rock types as a host medium for a repository. Since most information is available on crystalline basement and sedimentary cover of South-eastern Lithuania, this host medium was selected for model case studies. Taking into account the main assumptions (the canister defect scenario proposed by Swedish experts and evaluated by Lithuanian Energy Institute experts) groundwater flow and radionuclide (iodine-129 as a mobile and long-lived one) transport modeling using FEFLOW computer code was performed to model the domain (approximately a 0.8 km long, 0.6 km wide and 0.52 km thick far-field block) of South-eastern Lithuania. The model domain comprises a Proterozoic-Archaean aquifer with an overlaying aquifer system of sedimentary cover. The upward groundwater flow through a defected canister located in a tectonically damaged zone was conservatively generated. The main results of calculations are the following: in case of upward groundwater flow, the maximum activity concentration of I-129 in the single longitudinal tectonic fracture above the defected canister will not exceed 10 -4 Bq/l, and in the active water exchange zone it is close to 10 -7 Bq/l. These figures show that doses obtained by a human recipient via the aquatic pathway should be below the dose limit (1 mSv/y). Location of the model domain in Southeastern Lithuania does not mean any reference to the site for a deep geological repository. (author)

  3. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  4. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  5. QCD and Standard Model Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Carl A [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Our group has focused on using jets in STAR to investigate the longitudinal and transverse spin structure of the proton. We performed measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production that provide the strongest evidence to date that the gluons in the proton with x>0.05 are polarized. We also made the first observation of the Collins effect in pp collisions, thereby providing an important test of the universality of the Collins fragmentation function and opening a new tool to probe quark transversity in the proton. Our studies of forward rapidity electromagnetic jet-like events raise serious question whether the large transverse spin asymmetries that have been seen for forward inclusive hadron production arise from conventional 2 → 2 parton scattering. This is the final technical report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER40765. It covers activities during the period January 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.

  6. Demonstrating Patterns in the Views Of Stakeholders Regarding Ethically-Salient Issues in Clinical Research: A Novel Use of Graphical Models in Empirical Ethics Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane Paik; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    Empirical ethics inquiry works from the notion that stakeholder perspectives are necessary for gauging the ethical acceptability of human studies and assuring that research aligns with societal expectations. Although common, studies involving different populations often entail comparisons of trends that problematize the interpretation of results. Using graphical model selection - a technique aimed at transcending limitations of conventional methods - this report presents data on the ethics of clinical research with two objectives: (1) to display the patterns of views held by ill and healthy individuals in clinical research as a test of the study's original hypothesis and (2) to introduce graphical model selection as a key analytic tool for ethics research. In this IRB-approved, NIH-funded project, data were collected from 60 mentally ill and 43 physically ill clinical research protocol volunteers, 47 healthy protocol-consented participants, and 29 healthy individuals without research protocol experience. Respondents were queried on the ethical acceptability of research involving people with mental and physical illness (i.e., cancer, HIV, depression, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder) and non-illness related sources of vulnerability (e.g., age, class, gender, ethnicity). Using a statistical algorithm, we selected graphical models to display interrelationships among responses to questions. Both mentally and physically ill protocol volunteers revealed a high degree of connectivity among ethically-salient perspectives. Healthy participants, irrespective of research protocol experience, revealed patterns of views that were not highly connected. Between ill and healthy protocol participants, the pattern of views is vastly different. Experience with illness was tied to dense connectivity, whereas healthy individuals expressed views with sparse connections. In offering a nuanced perspective on the interrelation of ethically relevant responses, graphical

  7. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) Demonstration at Wilders Grove Solid Waste Service Center in Raleigh, NC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Malhotra, Mini [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xiong, Zeyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a distributed GSHP system for providing all the space conditioning, outdoor air ventilation, and 100% domestic hot water to the Wilders Grove Solid Waste Service Center of City of Raleigh, North Carolina. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning and outdoor air ventilation as the demonstrated GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GSHP system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation and improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  8. New models of hematogenous ovarian cancer metastasis demonstrate preferential spread to the ovary and a requirement for the ovary for abdominal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Lan G; Burgos-Ojeda, Daniela; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen; Bai, Shoumei; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggest that many high-grade serous "ovarian" cancers (HGSOC) start in the fallopian tube. Cancer cells are then recruited to the ovary and then spread diffusely through the abdomen. The mechanism of ovarian cancer spread was thought to be largely due to direct shedding of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity with vascular spread being of limited importance. Recent work challenges this dogma, suggesting hematogenous spread of ovarian cancer may play a larger role in ovarian cancer cell metastasis than previously thought. One reason the role of vascular spread of ovarian cancer has not been fully elucidated is the lack of easily accessible models of vascular ovarian cancer metastasis. Here, we present 3 metastatic models of ovarian cancer which confirm the ability of ovarian cancer to hematogenously spread. Strikingly, we observe a high rate of metastasis to the ovary with the development of ascites in these models. Interestingly, oophorectomy resulted in a complete loss of peritoneal metastases and ascites. Taken together, our data indicate that hematogenously disseminated HGSOC cells have a unique tropism for the ovary and that hematogenous spread in ovarian cancer may be more common than appreciated. Furthermore, our studies support a critical role for the ovary in promoting HGSOC cell metastasis to the abdomen. The models developed here represent important new tools to evaluate both the mechanism of cancer cell recruitment to the ovary and understand and target key steps in ovarian cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A zebrafish model of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy recapitulates key disease features and demonstrates a developmental requirement for abcd1 in oligodendrocyte patterning and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Lauren R; Stevenson, Tamara J; Freshner, Briana; Keefe, Matthew D; Miranda Bowles, D; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2017-09-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by defects in the ABCD1 gene and affecting peripheral and central nervous system myelin. ABCD1 encodes a peroxisomal transmembrane protein required for very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) Abcd1 is highly conserved at the amino acid level with human ABCD1, and during development is expressed in homologous regions including the central nervous system and adrenal glands. We used TALENs to generate five zebrafish abcd1 mutant allele lines introducing premature stop codons in exon 1, as well as obtained an abcd1 allele from the Zebrafish Mutation Project carrying a point mutation in a splice donor site. Similar to patients with ALD, zebrafish abcd1 mutants have elevated VLCFA levels. Interestingly, we found that CNS development of the abcd1 mutants is disrupted, with hypomyelination in the spinal cord, abnormal patterning and decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes, and increased cell death. By day of life five abcd1 mutants demonstrate impaired motor function, and overall survival to adulthood of heterozygous and homozygous mutants is decreased. Expression of human ABCD1 in oligodendrocytes rescued apoptosis in the abcd1 mutant. In summary, we have established a zebrafish model of ALD that recapitulates key features of human disease pathology and which reveals novel features of underlying disease pathogenesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Demonstrating enhanced throughput of RapidFire mass spectrometry through multiplexing using the JmjD2d demethylase as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveridge, Melanie; Buxton, Rachel; Argyrou, Argyrides; Francis, Peter; Leavens, Bill; West, Andy; Rees, Mike; Hardwicke, Philip; Bridges, Angela; Ratcliffe, Steven; Chung, Chun-wa

    2014-02-01

    Using mass spectrometry to detect enzymatic activity offers several advantages over fluorescence-based methods. Automation of sample handling and analysis using platforms such as the RapidFire (Agilent Technologies, Lexington, MA) has made these assays amenable to medium-throughput screening (of the order of 100,000 wells). However, true high-throughput screens (HTS) of large compound collections (>1 million) are still considered too time-consuming to be feasible. Here we propose a simple multiplexing strategy that can be used to increase the throughput of RapidFire, making it viable for HTS. The method relies on the ability to analyze pooled samples from several reactions simultaneously and to deconvolute their origin using "mass-tagged" substrates. Using the JmjD2d H3K9me3 demethylase as a model system, we demonstrate the practicality of this method to achieve a 4-fold increase in throughput. This was achieved without any loss of assay quality. This multiplex strategy could easily be scaled to give even greater reductions in analysis time.

  11. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    develop fulminant hepatitis, acute hepatitis, or chronic liver disease after adoptive transfer, and others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Among HCV transgenic mice, most develop no disease, but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model, and HCC in another. Although mice are not susceptible to HBV and HCV, their ability to replicate these viruses and to develop liver diseases characteristic of human infections provides opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics In the search for the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection, two viral proteins, the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV and the HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV, have been shown to possess oncogenic potential through transgenic mouse studies, indicating the direct involvement of the hepatitis viruses in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    This may explain the very high frequency of HCC in patients with HCV or HBV infection.

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees.

    Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate

  12. Ceftaroline plus Avibactam Demonstrates Bactericidal Activity against Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria in a One-Compartment In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic pathogens are often associated with polymicrobial infections, such as diabetic foot infections. Patients with these infections are often treated with broad-spectrum, multidrug therapies targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. The broad-spectrum, non-beta-lactam, beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam has been combined with ceftaroline and may provide a single-product alternative for complicated polymicrobial infections. We compared the activity of ceftaroline-avibactam (CPA) to that of ertapenem (ERT) against common anaerobic pathogens in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. Simulations of doses of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free drug concentration [fCmax], 17.04 mg/liter, and half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h) plus avibactam at 600 mg q8h (fCmax, 11.72 mg/liter, and t1/2, 1.8 h) and of ertapenem at 1 g q24h (fCmax, 13 mg/liter, and t1/2, 4 h) were evaluated against two strains of Bacteroides fragilis, one strain of Prevotella bivia, and one strain of Finegoldia magna in an anaerobic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model over 72 h with a starting inoculum of ∼8 log10 CFU/ml. Bactericidal activity was defined as a reduction of ≥3 log10 CFU/ml from the starting inoculum. Both CPA and ERT were bactericidal against all four strains. CPA demonstrated improved activity against Bacteroides strains compared to that of ERT but had similar activity against Finegoldia magna and P. bivia, although modest regrowth was observed with CPA against P. bivia. No resistance emerged from any of the models. The pharmacokinetics achieved were 92 to 105% of the targets. CPA has potent in vitro activity against common anaerobic pathogens at clinically relevant drug exposures and may be a suitable single product for the management of complicated polymicrobial infections. PMID:24217692

  13. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  14. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  15. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  16. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-05-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  19. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  20. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  1. Eicosanoid profiling in an orthotopic model of lung cancer progression by mass spectrometry demonstrates selective production of leukotrienes by inflammatory cells of the microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Poczobutt

    Full Text Available Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid(1 (AA, which is released by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2. AA is metabolized through three major pathways, cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LO and cytochrome P450, to produce a family of eicosanoids, which individually have been shown to have pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities in cancer. However, cancer progression likely depends on complex changes in multiple eicosanoids produced by cancer cells and by tumor microenvironment and a systematic examination of the spectrum of eicosanoids in cancer has not been performed. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS to quantitate eicosanoids produced during lung tumor progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model of lung cancer, in which Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cells are injected into lungs of syngeneic mice. The presence of tumor increased products of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways in a time-dependent fashion. Comparing tumors grown in cPLA2 knockout vs wild-type mice, we demonstrated that prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2a were produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME, but leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 production required cPLA2 expression in the TME. Using flow cytometry, we recovered tumor-associated neutrophils and 2 types of tumor-associated macrophages from tumor-bearing lungs and we defined their distinct eicosanoid profiles by LC/MS/MS. The combination of flow cytometry and LC/MS/MS unravels the complexity of eicosanoid production in lung cancer and provides a rationale to develop therapeutic strategies that target select cell populations to inhibit specific classes of eicosanoids.

  2. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF SOFTWARE QUALITY MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Vilas. M. Thakare; Ashwin B. Tomar

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a basis for software quality model research, through a systematic study ofpapers. It identifies nearly seventy software quality research papers from journals and classifies paper asper research topic, estimation approach, study context and data set. The paper results combined withother knowledge provides support for recommendations in future software quality model research, toincrease the area of search for relevant studies, carefully select the papers within a set ...

  3. Modeling Demonstrates That Folic Acid Fortification of Whole-Wheat Flour Could Reduce the Prevalence of Folate Inadequacy in Canadian Whole-Wheat Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yen-Ming; MacFarlane, Amanda J; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-11-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification of white-wheat flour and selected other grain products has reduced the prevalence of neural tube defects in Canada; however, the fortification of whole-wheat flour is not permitted. The objective of this study was to model the impact of adding folic acid to whole-wheat flour on the folate intake distribution of Canadians. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall and supplement intake data (n = 35,107) collected in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used to calculate the prevalence of folate inadequacy (POFI) and the proportion of folic acid intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). In model 1, folic acid was added to whole-wheat flour-containing foods in amounts comparable to those that are mandatory for white-wheat flour-containing foods. In model 2, a 50% overage of folic acid fortification was considered. Models 3 and 4 included assessment of folate intake distributions in adult whole-wheat consumers with or without a fortification overage. SIDE (Software for Intake Distribution Estimation; Department of Statistics and Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University) was used to estimate usual folate intakes. Mean folate intakes increased by ∼ 5% in all sex and age groups when whole-wheat foods were fortified (models 1 and 2; P flour-containing foods did not change the POFI or percentage of intakes above the UL in the general population, whether in supplement users or nonusers. Among whole-wheat consumers, the POFI was reduced by 10 percentage points after fortification of whole-wheat flour-containing foods (95% CIs did not overlap). The percentage of whole-wheat consumers with intakes above the UL did not change. Although folic acid fortification of whole-wheat flour-containing foods is unlikely to change the POFI or proportion of folic acid intakes above the UL in the general Canadian population, this fortification strategy may reduce the POFI in adult whole-wheat consumers. © 2015

  4. IMPROVING LEARNING PROCESS AND STUDENT RESULTS LEARNING TO TUNE-UPMOTORCYCLE USING DEMONSTRATION METHODOF CLASS XI SMA N 1 PLAYEN YEAR STUDY2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Haryono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is to improve the learning process and results in learning a tune-up motorcycle  using the demonstrationmethod of class XI SMA 1 Playen.              This research is a classroom action research (PTK, using the demonstration method.Subyek this study were students of class XI SMA Negeri 1 Playen.Theimplementationofthisstudyusing3cycles,there is a (planning, implementation (actuating, observation (observing, and reflection (reflecting. Collecting data in this study are observations of student learning process and student learning outcomes test data pre-test, postesI, II, III and documentation as a support to the two data. Further observation data based on the observation of student learning just learning the positive process of learning student and test data were analyzed for comparison. Indicators of success in this classroom action research that student learning increases towards positive along with the use of methods of demonstration, is to see an increase from the pre-cycle to end the first cycle, the first cycle to the second cycle and the secondcyclebycycle III.             From the results of this study concluded that the method could improve the demonstration of positive student learning, from the first cycle of 30%, 50% second cycle and third cycle of 80%. Learning is also more effective with students indicated more quickly adapt as a positive activity, especially in terms of increased student asked, noting the test and work on the problems. Demonstration method can improve the learning outcomes  students of class XI SMA 1 Playen as evidenced by an increase in the average yield final test first cycle of 64.09; second cycle of 77.82 and 78.86 for the third cycle. So it proved with the increasing positive student learning canalso improve student learning outcomes.

  5. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  6. Discussion of a Well-Designed Clinical Trial Which Did Not Demonstrate Effectiveness: UIC Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Study of Black Cohosh and Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Fong, Harry H. S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a clinical trial for pharmaceutical agents is usually undertaken only after there is likely benefit demonstrated from the use of the putative agent. The consideration of botanical products as pharmaceutical agents must similarly go through a rigorous evaluation process. The present work reviews the recently published Phase II study evaluating the effectiveness of black cohosh and red clover in a randomized trial with conjugated equine estradiol/medroxyprogesterone acetate and placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. We analyze the possible reasons why this study failed to show benefit for either botanical product in reducing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. PMID:21034798

  7. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  8. Understanding exercise uptake and adherence for people with chronic conditions: a new model demonstrating the importance of exercise identity, benefits of attending and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, C; Taket, A

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the factors influencing uptake and adherence to exercise for people with chronic conditions from different ages, genders and ethnicities is important for planning exercise services. This paper presents evidence supporting a new model of exercise uptake and adherence applicable to people with chronic conditions from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds. The study is based on 130 semi-structured interviews with people with chronic conditions, including both those who did and those who did not attend exercise services, and supporters of those who attended. Analysis followed the guidelines of 'framework analysis'. Results show that three factors were particularly important in influencing adherence behavior: (i) exercise identity, (ii) support and (iii) perceived benefits of attending. Social and cultural identities impacted on willingness to exercise, importance of exercise and perceived appropriateness of exercising. Having at least one supporter providing different types of support was associated with high levels of attendance. Those people who valued the social and psychological benefits of attending were more likely to be high attenders. The new model illustrates interaction between these three factors and discusses how these can be taken into account when planning exercise services for people with chronic conditions drawn from diverse socio-demographic groups.

  9. An Ionospheric Metric Study Using Operational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.; Scherliess, L.; Harris, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    One of the outstanding challenges in upgrading ionospheric operational models is quantifying their improvement. This challenge is not necessarily an absolute accuracy one, but rather answering the question, "Is the newest operational model an improvement over its predecessor under operational scenarios?" There are few documented cases where ionospheric models are compared either with each other or against "ground truth". For example a CEDAR workshop team, PRIMO, spent almost a decade carrying out a models comparison with ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar measurements from the Millstone Hill, Massachusetts location [Anderson et al.,1998]. The result of this study was that all models were different and specific conditions could be found when each was the "best" model. Similarly, a National Space Weather Metrics ionospheric challenge was held and results were presented at a National Space Weather meeting. The results were again found to be open to interpretation, and issues with the value of the specific metrics were raised (Fuller-Rowell, private communication, 2003). Hence, unlike the tropospheric weather community, who have established metrics and exercised them on new models over many decades to quantify improvement, the ionospheric community has not yet settled on a metric of both scientific and operational value. We report on a study in which metrics were used to compare various forms of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Ionospheric Forecast Model (IFM), and the Utah State University Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Model (USU-GAIM) models. The ground truth for this study was a group of 11 ionosonde data sets taken between 20 March and 19 April 2004. The metric parameter was the ionosphere's critical frequency. The metric was referenced to the IRI. Hence, the study addressed the specific question what improvement does IFM and USU-GAIM have over IRI. Both strengths (improvements) and weaknesses of these models are discussed

  10. My Most Annoying Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Joseph M.

    2006-12-01

    After demonstrating various wave phenemona of pulses and continuous wavetrains in elastic media (slinky, springs, tuning forks etc.) students are still struggling with the concepts of standing waves, reflection and transmission at free and fixed boundaries, interference at nodes and antinodes, and the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves. In this simple demonstration we will overcome any misconceptions concerning these topics.

  11. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  12. T2 relaxometry mapping in demonstrating layered uterine architecture: parameter optimization and utility in endometrial carcinoma and adenomyosis: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Adarsh; Singh, Tulika; Bagga, Rashmi; Srinivasan, Radhika; Singla, Veenu; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2018-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of T 2 relaxometry mapping of the uterus and demonstrate its diagnostic utility in endometrial carcinoma and adenomyosis and discuss the optimum imaging parameters as used in our institute. Institute review board approval was obtained and multispin echo (MSE) imaging of the pelvis was done with variable time to echo in three patients, two with endometrial carcinoma and one with adenomyosis. T 2 parametric maps and curves were plotted and the T 2 times of the diseased endometrium, superficial and deep myometrium were established. T2 mapping of the uterus is feasible and demonstrated the four-layered uterine architecture with T 2 times of the diseased endometrium, inner myometrium and the outer myometrium being determined. The fourth myometrial layer was demonstrated in all the three cases on the parametric maps. The two cases with endometrial carcinoma had thinning and irregularity of the myometrial fourth layer which helped in predicting superficial myometrium invasion. Thickening of the fourth myometrial layer was demonstrated in the case with adenomyosis, which we believe might be a new imaging finding of adenomyosis. Thinning and irregularity of the myometrial fourth layer in cases of endometrial malignancy might help in identification of superficial myoinvasion-this might be a new imaging armamentarium in nulliparous females where uterine preservation might be a consideration. The T 2 relaxation times of the myometrium and endometrium described here will help optimize the time to echo for the acquisition of MSE for relaxometry of the female pelvis. Advances in knowledge: Thinning and irregularity of the fourth myometrial layer helps in the identification of superficial myometrial invasion with a greater confidence and helps triage patients for uterine preservation when necessary. T 2 relaxometry might be undertaken in those nulliparous women with endometrial carcinoma in whom demonstration of no myometrial invasion will make them

  13. Comprehensive assessment of health education and health promotion in five non-communicable disease demonstration districts in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiaohua; Huang, Yuelong; Chen, Biyun

    2017-12-26

    This study aims to develop assessment indicators of health education and promotion for non-communicable disease (NCD) demonstration districts in China and to identify significant factors associated with NCD health education and promotion work. Three complementary techniques were used to conduct this study in Hunan Province, China, between late 2013 and 2015. The Delphi technique was used to develop weighted assessment indicators, followed by the rank sum ratio (RSR) to normalise the weights through rank conversion. Lastly, the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution was conducted to assess five randomly selected NCD demonstration districts representing five different orientations in the province. A total of 24 assessment indicators were constructed covering the following sections: organisational management, fund support, personnel supplies, health education and promotion, people's awareness of NCDs, management and control of patients with NCD, satisfaction with health education and promotion and health literacy of residents. Five districts were selected as samples for evaluation (Furong District, Ziyang District, Shaodong County, Shuangfeng County and Luxi County). Performance varied among the sites, with Furong District greatly surpassing the other sites, especially in fund support, media promotion, technical support for publicity materials, community promotion and supportive environment supplies. The latter four factors were also much greater in the second-ranked Luxi County site than those in the other sites (except Furong District). There were gaps in health education and promotion work in NCD demonstration districts in Hunan Province. The districts that performed better had obvious advantages in fund support, media promotion, technical support, community promotion and supportive environment supplies. Our study provided both a methodological reference and an assessment indicator framework for similar future studies. © Article author

  14. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS µNMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eWong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30–50 µl for HR-MAS for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS. As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  15. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS) - NMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan; Boutin, Celine; Aguiar, Pedro

    2014-06-01

    The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30-50 µl for HR-MAS) for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl) whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS). As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  16. Hydrogen for small-scale energy consumers and CO2-storage. Feasibility study of a demonstration project in the Rijnmond, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, G.C.; Van der Werff, T.T.; Rooijers, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the future natural gas can be substituted by hydrogen. In the short term hydrogen can be produced from fossil fuels. Released CO 2 can be stored. In the long run it will be possible to produce hydrogen from renewable energy sources (solar cells and wind turbines), which can be transported to the consumer. In the study on the title subject attention is paid to different methods of hydrogen production from natural gas and from residual oils, costs and problems of hydrogen distribution, hydrogen appliances, and CO 2 storage. From the results it appears that a demonstration project to use hydrogen on a small-scale is feasible, although expensive. The costs of the reconstruction of the present natural gas distribution system to a hydrogen distribution system is higher than expected. The price of hydrogen per GJ is higher than the equal energy content of natural gas, in spite of a reduction of the energy levy. The demonstration project will be 25% cheaper per GJ hydrogen when carried out in a newly built area. A demonstration project in which hydrogen is mixed with natural gas is even a factor 2 cheaper. 17 refs., 7 appendices

  17. Effects of a skill demonstration video delivered by smartphone on facilitating nursing students' skill competencies and self-confidence: A randomized controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Lai, Fu-Chih; Chang, Chia-Chi; Wan, Hsu-Tien

    2018-04-07

    The correct and appropriate performance of nursing skills by students can ensure patient safety and care quality. However, developing appropriate teaching and learning strategies to enhance nursing students' nursing skills and knowledge are challenging tasks for nursing faculty members. Nowadays, smartphones are popular mobile devices that are used on campuses by students and could be considered a potential tool to deliver learning materials to nursing students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a skill demonstration video delivered by smartphone on facilitating nursing students' nursing skill competency and confidence. A randomized controlled trial study design was used. A convenience sample of nursing students at a university was recruited. After receiving a regular nursing skills lab demonstration, pre-test data were collected from nursing students in an intervention group (n = 44) and a comparison group (n = 43). Then, students in the intervention group downloaded the skill demonstration video onto their smartphones, while the comparison group did not. Post-test data were collected at 2 weeks after the intervention. There were significant differences in students' urinary catheterization knowledge (F = 4.219, p = 0.04) and skills (F = 6.739, p = 0.013), but there was no difference in students' confidence level (F = 2.201, p = 0.142) between the two groups after the intervention. Furthermore, the average score of the satisfaction level regarding the intervention was 4.46 (SD = 0.43) on a scale of 1-5. This study found that delivering learning materials through smartphones to nursing students is suitable. Although there was no significant difference in students' self-confidence level, students' knowledge and skills were improved by the intervention. Smartphones can serve as a supplemental tool for learning nursing skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nt'. The following sub-sections discuss the categories of demonstratives in the various languages in more detail. 3.1. Akan ...... languages: a classification and description of Africa s largest family,. 216-245. Lanham: University Press of America.

  19. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  20. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  1. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  2. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  3. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  5. Color-coded intravital imaging demonstrates a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) antagonist selectively targets stromal cells in a human pancreatic-cancer orthotopic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Miyake, Kentaro; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kiyuna, Tasuku; DeLong, Jonathan C; Lwin, Thinzar M; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Mori, Ryutaro; Kumamoto, Takafumi; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-05-19

    Pancreatic cancer is a recalcitrant malignancy, partly due to desmoplastic stroma which stimulates tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis, and inhibits chemotherapeutic drug delivery. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has an important role in the formation of stromal desmoplasia. The present study describes the ability of color-coded intravital imaging to demonstrate the efficacy of a TGF-β inhibitor to target stroma in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. The BxPC-3 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), which also has a high TGF-β expression level, was used in an orthotopic model in transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP). Fourteen mice were randomized into a control group (n = 7, vehicle, i.p., weekly, for 3 weeks) and a treated group (n = 7, SB431542 [TGF-β receptor type I inhibitor] 0.3 mg, i.p., weekly, for 3 weeks). Stromal cells expressing RFP and cancer cells expressing GFP were observed weekly for 3 weeks by real-time color-coded intravital imaging. The RFP fluorescence area from the stromal cells, relative to the GFP fluorescence area of the cancer cells, was significantly decreased in the TGF-β-inhibitor-treatment group compared to the control group. The present study demonstrated color-coded imaging in an orthotopic pancreatic-cancer cell-line mouse model can readily detect the selective anti-stromal-cell targeting of a TGF-β inhibitor.

  6. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  7. Data Modeling, Feature Extraction, and Classification of Magnetic and EMI Data, ESTCP Discrimination Study, Camp Sibert, AL. Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    within the confines of Site #18, Japanese Pillbox Area No. 2, of the former Camp Sibert FUDS. Simulated pillbox fortifications were attacked first...inch mortars. Assault troops would then attack the pillboxes using machine guns, flamethrowers, and grenades. The locations of nine possible...matrix. • Region definition: For each picked anomaly, a region of data for submission to the inversion algorithm was automatically selected. Where

  8. Demonstration of the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of a novel hemostatic agent, ankaferd blood stopper, on vascular tissue in a rat aortic bleeding model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Aylin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS is a folkloric medicinal plant extract used as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. This experimental study investigated the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of ABS on vascular tissue in a rat model of aortic bleeding. Methods Four groups of 11 Wistar albino rats were used. The abdominal aortas of the rats were wounded; an ABS-soaked tampon was applied to rats in Groups 1 and 3, and a plain gauze tampon was applied to rats in Groups 2 and 4 until the bleeding stopped. The bleeding time was recorded. Immediately following sacrificing, the arteriotomy sites from Groups 1 and 2 were removed. The abdominal incisions in Groups 3 and 4 were closed following hemostasis. On Day 7 of the study, Group 3 and 4 rats were sacrificed and the abdominal aorta arteriotomy sites were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Results The mean bleeding time in 15 animals in Groups 2 and 4 was 4.9 ± 0.6 s, and in 22 animals in Groups 1 and 3 was 3.1 ± 0.6 s. Distal aortic occlusion was not observed on either Day 1 or 7 in any group. Significantly more widespread and dense endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS staining was observed in Group 1 animals than Group 2. On Days 1 and 7 after application of ABS, histopathological changes, consisting of necrosis, inflammation, and endothelial cell loss, in the rat abdominal aortas did not differ between Groups 1 and 2. The basophilic discoloration in the ABS group on the operation day was a result of a foreign body reaction and hemosiderin-loaded histiocyte accumulation, which occurred on Day 7. Conclusions In this study, hemostasis was successfully achieved with ABS in rat abdominal aortas. No histopathological change was found in the rat abdominal aortas between the ABS and control groups on Days 1 and 7. Further studies on the long-term effects of foreign body reactions and hemosiderin-loaded histiocyte

  9. Study on modeling technology in digital reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Luo Yuetong; Tong Lili

    2004-01-01

    Modeling is the kernel part of a digital reactor system. As an extensible platform for reactor conceptual design, it is very important to study modeling technology and develop some kind of tools to speed up preparation of all classical computing models. This paper introduces the background of the project and basic conception of digital reactor. MCAM is taken as an example for modeling and its related technologies used are given. It is an interface program for MCNP geometry model developed by FDS team (ASIPP and HUT), and designed to run on windows system. MCAM aims at utilizing CAD technology to facilitate creation of MCNP geometry model. There have been two ways for MCAM to utilize CAD technology: (1) Making use of user interface technology in aid of generation of MCNP geometry model; (2) Making use of existing 3D CAD model to accelerate creation of MCNP geometry model. This paper gives an overview of MCAM's major function. At last, several examples are given to demonstrate MCAM's various capabilities. (authors)

  10. Atopic Dermatitis Studies through In Vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne De Vuyst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex inflammatory skin condition that is not fully understood. Epidermal barrier defects and Th2 immune response dysregulations are thought to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A vicious circle takes place between these alterations, and it can further be complicated by additional genetic and environmental factors. Studies investigating in more depth the etiology of the disease are thus needed in order to develop functional treatments. In recent years, there have been significant advances regarding in vitro models reproducing important features of AD. However, since a lot of models have been developed, finding the appropriate experimental setting can be difficult. Therefore, herein, we review the different types of in vitro models mimicking features of AD. The simplest models are two-dimensional culture systems composed of immune cells or keratinocytes, whereas three-dimensional skin or epidermal equivalents reconstitute more complex stratified tissues exhibiting barrier properties. In those models, hallmarks of AD are obtained, either by challenging tissues with interleukin cocktails overexpressed in AD epidermis or by silencing expression of pivotal genes encoding epidermal barrier proteins. Tissue equivalents cocultured with lymphocytes or containing AD patient cells are also described. Furthermore, each model is placed in its study context with a brief summary of the main results obtained. In conclusion, the described in vitro models are useful tools to better understand AD pathogenesis, but also to screen new compounds in the field of AD, which probably will open the way to new preventive or therapeutic strategies.

  11. Modeling and Study of the Cerenkov Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, I; Makovicka, L; Mishev, A; Stamenov, J N

    2003-01-01

    The studies realized in INRNE (Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy) particulary in cosmic rays detection and construction of Muonic Cerenkov Telescope in University of Blagoevgrad [1] shows the need to develop a theoretical model based on observed phenomenon and to refine it for the detection system optimisation. The effect was introduced in EGS4 code system. The first simulations were consecrated to different geometry of water tank in total reflection. The model was compared with experimental data realised with gamma source using the telescope. A simple atmospheric model is introduced in EGS4. The comparison between CORSIKA and EGS4 codes was realised.

  12. Differential Equations Models to Study Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Velázquez, Judith; Hense, Burkhard A

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical models to study quorum sensing (QS) have become an important tool to explore all aspects of this type of bacterial communication. A wide spectrum of mathematical tools and methods such as dynamical systems, stochastics, and spatial models can be employed. In this chapter, we focus on giving an overview of models consisting of differential equations (DE), which can be used to describe changing quantities, for example, the dynamics of one or more signaling molecule in time and space, often in conjunction with bacterial growth dynamics. The chapter is divided into two sections: ordinary differential equations (ODE) and partial differential equations (PDE) models of QS. Rates of change are represented mathematically by derivatives, i.e., in terms of DE. ODE models allow describing changes in one independent variable, for example, time. PDE models can be used to follow changes in more than one independent variable, for example, time and space. Both types of models often consist of systems (i.e., more than one equation) of equations, such as equations for bacterial growth and autoinducer concentration dynamics. Almost from the onset, mathematical modeling of QS using differential equations has been an interdisciplinary endeavor and many of the works we revised here will be placed into their biological context.

  13. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  14. The benzodiazepine diazepam demonstrates the usefulness of Syrian hamsters as a model for anxiety testing: evaluation of other classes of anxiolytics in comparison to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Robert L; Lungwitz, Elizabeth; Batista, Natalia; Hester, Ian; Huntley, Christina; Peacock, Alyssa; Delagrange, Philippe; Millan, Mark J

    2011-03-17

    Clinical evidence in humans suggests that there is some linkage between dysfunction in the timing of circadian rhythms and certain types of depression. In animal models, Syrian hamsters have been used extensively to study the pharmacology of circadian rhythms, while rats and mice are used to screen putative anxiolytics/antidepressant compounds. It would be beneficial to be able to test anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds in hamsters in conjunction with circadian rhythm studies. Therefore, in this study, Syrian hamsters were used in three experimental paradigms to evaluate anxiety: the elevated plus maze, the t-tube, and the open field Thatcher-Britton conflict test. Diazepam, tested with 2mg/kg and 5mg/kg intraperitoneal injections, was found to induce anxiolytic activity in each of the three tests. Hamsters were more likely to spend time in the open arms in the plus maze, displayed more exploratory behavior in the t-tube, and were quicker to enter a brightly lit exposed field in the Thatcher-Britton conflict test following injections of diazepam. Diazepam (2mg/kg) was also tested at three times during the 24-h day in the elevated plus maze: at the beginning and end of the lights-on period (Zeitgeber times 23 and 11, respectively) and once in the dark just before the room lights came on (Zeitgeber time 20). Diazepam induced anxiolytic activity only at Zeitgeber 23. Therefore, the following known and putative anxiolytic compounds were also evaluated in each of the three tests at Zeitgeber 23: citalopram, the neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists GR205171 and vestipitant, the corticotropin releasing factor(1) receptor antagonist CP154526, the cannabinoid receptor(1) agonist CP55940, the serotonin(6) receptor antagonist SB399885, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor(5) antagonists fenobam and MTEP. Vestipitant displayed some anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze, but this effect was not confirmed with GR205171. None of the other compounds displayed any

  15. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  16. TRUEX hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility

  17. Inspection quality demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses an inspection demonstration process that was initiated in late 1982 and is still functioning. In 1982, the Nine Mile Point-1 boiling water reactor completed the required inspection governed by rules established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The inspection results indicated there were no cracks when the results were evaluated against the established criteria. Later, while performing the system hydro-test prior to returning to power, one of the joints leaked, indicating a through-wall crack. The demonstration process, including a training program recognized by the NRC, are described in the paper. The final answer on how good the demonstration and field inspection are can only be determined by comparison of the inspection results with direct observation of the flaws. This is currently in progress

  18. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  19. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  20. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  1. Studi Model Penerimaan Tehnologi (Technology Acceptance Model) Novice Accountant

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiana, Rustiana

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates adoption or application of behavior information technologyacceptance. Davis' Technology Acceptance Model is employed to explain perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and intention to use in information systems. The respondents were 228 accounting students in management information system. Data was collected by questionnaire and then analyzed by using linear regression analysis and independent t-test. The results are in line with most of the hypotheses, only hypo...

  2. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  3. Novel fusion proteins for the antigen-specific staining and elimination of B cell receptor-positive cell populations demonstrated by a tetanus toxoid fragment C (TTC) model antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Diana; Saunders, Ute; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Jacobi, Annett Marita; Nachreiner, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    In an earlier study we developed a unique strategy allowing us to specifically eliminate antigen-specific murine B cells via their distinct B cell receptors using a new class of fusion proteins. In the present work we elaborated our idea to demonstrate the feasibility of specifically addressing and eliminating human memory B cells. The present study reveals efficient adaptation of the general approach to selectively target and eradicate human memory B cells. In order to demonstrate the feasibility we engineered a fusion protein following the principle of recombinant immunotoxins by combining a model antigen (tetanus toxoid fragment C, TTC) for B cell receptor targeting and a truncated version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA') to induce apoptosis after cellular uptake. The TTC-ETA' fusion protein not only selectively bound to a TTC-reactive murine B cell hybridoma cell line in vitro but also to freshly isolated human memory B cells from immunized donors ex vivo. Specific toxicity was confirmed on an antigen-specific population of human CD27(+) memory B cells. This protein engineering strategy can be used as a generalized platform approach for the construction of therapeutic fusion proteins with disease-relevant antigens as B cell receptor-binding domains, offering a promising approach for the specific depletion of autoreactive B-lymphocytes in B cell-driven autoimmune diseases.

  4. How valuable are model organisms for transposable element studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, M G; Evgen'ev, M B

    1999-01-01

    Model organisms have proved to be highly informative for many types of genetic studies involving 'conventional' genes. The results have often been successfully generalized to other closely related organisms and also, perhaps surprisingly frequently, to more distantly related organisms. Because of the wealth of previous knowledge and their availability and convenience, model organisms were often the species of choice for many of the earlier studies of transposable elements. The question arises whether the results of genetic studies of transposable elements in model organisms can be extrapolated in the same ways as those of conventional genes? A number of observations suggest that special care needs to be taken in generalizing the results from model organisms to other species. A hallmark of many transposable elements is their ability to amplify rapidly in species genomes. Rapid spread of a newly invaded element throughout a species range has also been demonstrated. The types and genomic copy numbers of transposable elements have been shown to differ greatly between some closely related species. Horizontal transfer of transposable elements appears to be more frequent than for nonmobile genes. Furthermore, the population structure of some model organisms has been subject to drastic recent changes that may have some bearing on their transposable element genomic complements. In order to initiate discussion of this question, several case studies of transposable elements in well-studied Drosophila species are presented.

  5. Parametric study of a thorium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Szwarcwald, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Models for radionuclides distribution in the human body and dosimetry involve assumptions on the biokinetic behavior of the material among compartments representing organs and tissues in the body. One of the most important problem in biokinetic modeling is the assignment of transfer coefficients and biological half-lives to body compartments. In Brazil there are many areas of high natural radioactivity, where the population is chronically exposed to radionuclides of the thorium series. The uncertainties of the thorium biokinetic model are a major cause of uncertainty in the estimates of the committed dose equivalent of the population living in high background areas. The purpose of this study is to discuss the variability in the thorium activities accumulated in the body compartments in relation to the variations in the transfer coefficients and compartments biological half-lives of a thorium-recycling model for continuous exposure. Multiple regression analysis methods were applied to analyze the results. (author)

  6. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  7. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  8. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  9. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  10. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic

  11. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  12. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  13. A preclinical orthotopic model for glioblastoma recapitulates key features of human tumors and demonstrates sensitivity to a combination of MEK and PI3K pathway inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa El Meskini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the highest grade malignant brain tumor, are mostly ineffective, and better preclinical model systems are needed to increase the successful translation of drug discovery efforts into the clinic. Previous work describes a genetically engineered mouse (GEM model that contains perturbations in the most frequently dysregulated networks in GBM (driven by RB, KRAS and/or PI3K signaling and PTEN that induce development of Grade IV astrocytoma with properties of the human disease. Here, we developed and characterized an orthotopic mouse model derived from the GEM that retains the features of the GEM model in an immunocompetent background; however, this model is also tractable and efficient for preclinical evaluation of candidate therapeutic regimens. Orthotopic brain tumors are highly proliferative, invasive and vascular, and express histology markers characteristic of human GBM. Primary tumor cells were examined for sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs. PI3K and MAPK pathway inhibitors, when used as single agents, inhibited cell proliferation but did not result in significant apoptosis. However, in combination, these inhibitors resulted in a substantial increase in cell death. Moreover, these findings translated into the in vivo orthotopic model: PI3K or MAPK inhibitor treatment regimens resulted in incomplete pathway suppression and feedback loops, whereas dual treatment delayed tumor growth through increased apoptosis and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Analysis of downstream pathway components revealed a cooperative effect on target downregulation. These concordant results, together with the morphologic similarities to the human GBM disease characteristics of the model, validate it as a new platform for the evaluation of GBM treatment.

  14. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushena Reza-Paul

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka.From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data.Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95% expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%, those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%, who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%, who drink alcohol regularly (49%, and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%.This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means

  15. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    PRELIMINARY MULTIDOMAIN MODELLING AND SIMULATION STUDY OF A. HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT) TOWER VIBRATION. I. lliyasu1, I. Iliyasu2, I. K. Tanimu3 and D. O Obada4. 1,4 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE. NIGERIA.

  16. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  17. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  18. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  19. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  20. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  2. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  3. SAMSON Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    escrow service in the operational environment. For the SAMSON TD, two key escrow systems were demonstrated: StrongAuth SKLES; a 3rd party key... escrow appliance; and A custom database-based key escrow system created for the SAMSON TD. The external label that is placed on file objects that...the key that was used to protect the file. When a SAMSON component presents a token to the KMS, the associated key is retrieved from the escrow and

  4. Zebrafish: an in vivo model for nano EHS studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Nel, André E.; Lin, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    To assure a responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnology, the environmental health and safety (EHS) aspect of engineered nanomaterials and nano-related products needs to be addressed at a rate commensurate with the expansion of nanotechnology. Zebrafish has been demonstrated as a correlative in vivo vertebrate model for such task, and the current advances of using zebrafish for nano EHS studies are summarized here. In addition to morphological and histopathological observations, the accessibility of gene manipulation would greatly empower such a model for detailed mechanistic studies of any nanoparticles of interest. The potential for establishing high-throughput screening platforms to facilitate the nano EHS studies is highlighted, and a discussion is presented on how toxicogenomics approaches represent a future direction to guide the identification of toxicity pathways. PMID:23208995

  5. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings. This ...... prevailed over realizing a good indoor climate, which included sufficient heating. Project management must be able to handle quantitative complexity where simple issues add up to major challenges.......Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...

  6. Freehand diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging for intraoperative identification of major venous and arterial vessels underlying peritoneal fat: an in vivo demonstration in a pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Ramadan, Mohammad; Park, Aaron; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Patel, Sanjay G.

    2017-10-01

    Inadvertent injury to important anatomic structures is a significant risk in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) that potentially requires conversion to an open procedure, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Surgeons operating minimal-invasively currently do not have an easy-to-use, real-time device to aid in intraoperative identification of important anatomic structures that underlie tissue planes. We demonstrate freehand diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) imaging for intraoperatively identifying major underlying veins and arteries. An applicator probe that can be affixed to and detached from an 8-mm laparoscopic instrument has been developed. The 10-mm DOS source-detector separation renders sampling of tissue heterogeneities a few millimeters deep. DOS spectra acquired consecutively during freehand movement of the applicator probe on the tissue surface are displayed as a temporal and spectral image to assist in spatially resolved identification of the underlying structures. Open surgery identifications of the vena cava and aorta underlying peritoneal fat of ˜4 mm in thickness using the applicator probe under room light were demonstrated repeatedly in multiple pigs in vivo.

  7. Tsunami propagation modelling – a sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tkalich

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian Ocean (2004 Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE. These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importance of nonlinear, dispersion and spatial gradient variation phenomena and terms. The paper describes further development of original TUNAMI-N2 model to take into account additional phenomena: astronomic tide, sea bottom friction, dispersion, Coriolis force, and spherical curvature. The code is modified to be suitable for operational forecasting, and the resulting version (TUNAMI-N2-NUS is verified using test cases, results of other models, and real case scenarios. Using the 2004 Tsunami event as one of the scenarios, the paper examines sensitivity of numerical solutions to variation of different phenomena and parameters, and the results are analyzed and ranked accordingly.

  8. Studying and Modeling Vibration Transducers and Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Ágoston

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents types and operating mode of vibration sensors. Piezoelectric sensing elements are often used in accelerometers. It will be investigate the structure and transfer function of the seismic mass type sensing element. The article presents how the piezoelectric sensing element works and how can be modeled with an electronic circuit. The transfer functions of the electronic circuit models are studied in Matlab and the results are presented. It will be presented the influence of the seismic mass on the accelerometer’s working frequency domain.

  9. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  10. Fewer study participants needed to demonstrate superior antidepressant efficacy when using the Hamilton melancholia subscale (HAM-D₆) as outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bech, Per; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica

    2016-01-15

    In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) may be more informative than other scales, due to its superior psychometric properties. In the present study we investigated whether the HAM-D6 had higher informativeness than the HAM-D17 based on data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) testing the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) as augmentation therapy in patients with treatment-resistant depression. We assessed the scalability (Mokken analysis of unidimensionality), responsiveness (item responsiveness analysis) and ability to show drug-placebo separation (estimation of sample size needed to detect statistically significant difference between EPO and placebo) of the HAM-D6 and the HAM-D17. The HAM-D6 demonstrated higher scalability, higher responsiveness, and better drug-placebo separation compared to the HAM-D17. As a consequence, only 39 participants per group would be required to detect a statistically significant difference between EPO and placebo when using the HAM-D6 as outcome measure, whereas the required group size for HAM-D17 would be 146 participants. The EPO RCT was not originally designed to investigate the research questions addressed in this study. Both for ethical and financial reasons it is of interest to minimize the number of participants in clinical trials. Therefore, we suggest employing the HAM-D6 as outcome measure in clinical trials of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Sensitivity Study of the Navier-Stokes- α Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckling, Sean; Neda, Monika

    2017-11-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the of the Navier Stokes- α model (NS α) with respect to perturbations of the differential filter length α. Parameter-sensitivity is evaluated using the sensitivity equations method. Once formulated, the sensitivity equations are discretized and computed alongside the NS α model using the same finite elements in space, and Crank-Nicolson in time. We provide a complete stability analysis of the scheme, along with the sensitivity results of several benchmark problems in both 2D and 3D. We further demonstrate a practical technique to determine the reliability of the NS α model in problem-specific settings. Lastly, we investigate the sensitivity and reliability of important functionals of the velocity and pressure solutions.

  12. Performance Implications of Business Model Change: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Poláková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in performance level introduced by the change of business model. The selected case is a small family business undergoing through substantial changes in reflection of structural changes of its markets. The authors used the concept of business model to describe value creation processes within the selected family business and by contrasting the differences between value creation processes before and after the change introduced they prove the role of business model as the performance differentiator. This is illustrated with the use of business model canvas constructed on the basis interviews, observations and document analysis. The two business model canvases allow for explanation of cause-and-effect relationships within the business leading to change in performance. The change in the performance is assessed by financial analysis of the business conducted over the period of 2006–2012 demonstrates changes in performance (comparing development of ROA, ROE and ROS having their lowest levels before the change of business model was introduced, growing after the introduction of the change, as well as the activity indicators with similar developments of the family business. The described case study contributes to the concept of business modeling with the arguments supporting its value as strategic tool facilitating decisions related to value creation within the business.

  13. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B. V.

    2017-11-01

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method.

  14. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-11-15

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method. (orig.)

  15. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  16. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  17. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  18. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  19. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  20. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  1. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    In ubiquitous computing, as more and more devices are embedded into the environment, there is a risk that the user loses the understanding of the system. In normal use this is not always a problem, but when breakdowns occur it is crucial that the user understands the system to be able to handle...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  2. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  3. Final Demonstrator Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    understanding the spatial relations that obtain between the landscape architects and their materials, their work settings and their work sites.  This report should be read as an introduction and orientation to the various project  prototypes and demonstrators – it will make only limited sense taken in isolation.  ......The WorkSPACE project aims to create an integrated environment for collaborative  work activities that can be distributed over a variety of spaces and that mixes digital  and physical materials. We have termed this ‘spatial computing’ because much of the  functionality is provided through...

  4. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    the situation. The concept of palpable computing, introduced by the PalCom project, denotes systems which support such understandability. In PalCom, a set of prototype scenarios provide input for an open software architecture and a conceptual framework for palpable computing. One of these prototype scenarios...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  5. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future

  6. Visualization study of operators' plant knowledge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Tarou; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear plants are typically very complicated systems and are required extremely high level safety on the operations. Since it is never possible to include all the possible anomaly scenarios in education/training curriculum, plant knowledge formation is desired for operators to enable thein to act against unexpected anomalies based on knowledge base decision making. The authors have been conducted a study on operators' plant knowledge model for the purpose of supporting operators' effort in forming this kind of plant knowledge. In this report, an integrated plant knowledge model consisting of configuration space, causality space, goal space and status space is proposed. The authors examined appropriateness of this model and developed a prototype system to support knowledge formation by visualizing the operators' knowledge model and decision making process in knowledge-based actions with this model on a software system. Finally the feasibility of this prototype as a supportive method in operator education/training to enhance operators' ability in knowledge-based performance has been evaluated. (author)

  7. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y. [and others

    2000-01-19

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future.

  8. Analogue model studies of induction effects at auroral latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viljanen

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to field observations and numerical models, geomagnetic induction effects can be studied by scaled analogue model experiments. We present here results of analogue model studies of the auroral electrojet with an Earth model simulating the Arctic Ocean and inland conductivity structures in northern Fennoscandia. The main elements of the analogue model used were salt water simulating the host rock, an aluminium plate corresponding to the ocean and graphite pieces producing the inland highly conducting anomalies. The electrojet was a time-harmonic line current flowing at a (simulated height of 100 km above northern Fennoscandia. The period simulated was 9 min. The analogue model results confirmed the well-known rapid increase of the vertical field when the coast is approached from the continent. The increase of the horizontal field due to induced ocean currents was demonstrated above the ocean, as well as the essentially negligible effect of these currents on the horizontal field on the continent. The behaviour of the magnetic field is explained with a simple two-dimensional thin-sheet model. The range, or the adjustment distance, of the ocean effect inland was found to be some hundreds of kilometers, which also agrees with earlier results of the Siebert-Kertz separation of IMAGE magnetometer data. The modelled inland anomalies evidently had too large conductivities, but on the other hand, their influence decayed on scales of only some tens of kilometers. Analogue model results, thin-sheet calculations, and field observations show that the induction effect on the horizontal magnetic field Bx near the electrojet is negligible. On the other hand, the vertical component Bz is clearly affected by induced currents in the ocean. Evidence of this is the shift of the zero point of Bz 0-1° southwards from the maximum of Bx. The importance of these results are discussed, emphasizing the determination of ionospheric currents.

  9. The IBL BOC Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Ancu, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Falchieri, D; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Heim, T; Joseph, J; Krieger, N; Kugel, A; Morettini, P; Neumann, M; Polini, A; Schneider, B; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The IBL is a new pixel detector layer to be installed at the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN in 2013. It will be integrated into the general pixel readout and software framework, hence the off-detector readout electronics has to support the new front-end electronics whilst maintaining a high degree of interoperability to the components of the existing system. The off-detector readout is realised using a number of VME card pairs – ROD and BOC – plus a VME crate controller and a custom timing distribution system. The main elements of the new BOC design comprise optical interfaces towards the detector, signal conditioning and data recovery logic. We present the demonstrator used to verify the design approach. The demonstrator is based on a XILINX SP605 FPGA evaluation board and uses a Microblaze processor inside the FPGA to provide easy and flexible access to all essential BOC functions and the corresponding emulator modules, which enable full test of the entire BOC functionality even without any external ...

  10. Model study radioecology Biblis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The second part of the study deals with questions concerning the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the air pathway and their diffusion. On the basis of an introductory lecture on basic principles the interrelations within the whole complex to be considered are discussed. For the release itself, the fundamental issues concerning type and quantity of radioactive substances and their time behaviour are established. With regard to diffusion, calculation models and their parameters are reviewed. Much the same as the first colloquium, this one too aims at compiling existing models and data, determining the known facts and the questions still open and formulating tasks for the further activities. Thirteen questions emerged. They are concerned, above all, with the existing conditions for release and diffusion at the site. These questions will be dealt with in the forms of partial studies by individual participants or by task groups. Results will be reported on at further colloquia. (orig.) [de

  11. Autonomous, In-Flight Crew Health Risk Management for Exploration-Class Missions: Leveraging the Integrated Medical Model for the Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D. J.; Kerstman, E.; Saile, L.; Myers, J.; Walton, M.; Lopez, V.; McGrath, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) captures organizational knowledge across the space medicine, training, operations, engineering, and research domains. IMM uses this knowledge in the context of a mission and crew profile to forecast risks to crew health and mission success. The IMM establishes a quantified, statistical relationship among medical conditions, risk factors, available medical resources, and crew health and mission outcomes. These relationships may provide an appropriate foundation for developing an in-flight medical decision support tool that helps optimize the use of medical resources and assists in overall crew health management by an autonomous crew with extremely limited interactions with ground support personnel and no chance of resupply.

  12. Modeling measurement error in tumor characterization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoram Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etiologic studies of cancer increasingly use molecular features such as gene expression, DNA methylation and sequence mutation to subclassify the cancer type. In large population-based studies, the tumor tissues available for study are archival specimens that provide variable amounts of amplifiable DNA for molecular analysis. As molecular features measured from small amounts of tumor DNA are inherently noisy, we propose a novel approach to improve statistical efficiency when comparing groups of samples. We illustrate the phenomenon using the MethyLight technology, applying our proposed analysis to compare MLH1 DNA methylation levels in males and females studied in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Results We introduce two methods for computing empirical weights to model heteroscedasticity that is caused by sampling variable quantities of DNA for molecular analysis. In a simulation study, we show that using these weights in a linear regression model is more powerful for identifying differentially methylated loci than standard regression analysis. The increase in power depends on the underlying relationship between variation in outcome measure and input DNA quantity in the study samples. Conclusions Tumor characteristics measured from small amounts of tumor DNA are inherently noisy. We propose a statistical analysis that accounts for the measurement error due to sampling variation of the molecular feature and show how it can improve the power to detect differential characteristics between patient groups.

  13. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  14. Highly Ordered Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Promise and Limits for Dynamic Impacts Demonstrated in Model Organic Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelter, Dirk; Hintze-Bruening, Horst

    2016-06-29

    Graphene oxide (GO) dispersed in water has been combined with a mixture of aqueous polymer dispersions and melamine formaldehyde resin (MF). Stable low viscous fluids with no obvious signs of mesoscale ordering at 0.3 wt % yield transparent films with GO loadings up to one weight percent in the form of homogeneously aligned double strands, each comprising few individual layers of the carbon allotrope. While baking of the films at 160 °C results in minor thermal reduction of GO, in situ reduction with excess hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of the polymer colloids yields stable dispersions in which amphiphilic graphene like flakes temporarily encapsulate gaseous reaction products. Depending on the parameters in the time-temperature domain, the hollow spheres may be transferred into solid material or disassemble during film formation, the latter case providing black, smooth, and transparent films with up to eight magnitudes increased electrical conductivity and an oxygen permeability 30-fold higher compared to the neat polymer matrix. In contrast, GO reduces oxygen permeability by that factor, while water permeability stays unchanged. Thermo-mechanical measurements reveal matrix stiffening by the platelets as well as by HA, the latter via modifying the MF reactivity. Excellent stone chip resistance and ballistic impact tests demonstrate efficient energy dissipation and crack deflection provided by the laminate like morphology of GO based composite. On the contrary, the same material only provides moderate substrate protection in rain erosion tests.

  15. Selection of the situations taken into account for the safety demonstration of a repository in deep geological formations - French regulatory guidance and IPSN modelling experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Greneche, D.

    1993-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep geological disposal: the present paper deals with the methodology related to the safety demonstration of such a disposal, particularly the situations to be taken into account to address the potential evolution of the repository under natural or human induced events. This approach, based on a selection of events considered as reasonably envisageable, relies on a reference scenario characterized by a great stability of the geological formation and on hypothetical situations corresponding to the occurrence of random events of natural origin or of conventional nature. The implementation of this methodology within the framework of the IPSN (Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute, CEA) participation in the CEC EVEREST project is addressed. This programme consists in the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated to deep radwaste disposal systems to the different elements of the performance assessment (scenario characteristics, phenomena, physico-chemical parameters) in three types of geological formations (granite, salt and clay).(author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Screening design for model sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James P.; Koenig, George G.; Bruce, Dorothy

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes a different approach to sensitivity studies for environmental, including atmospheric, physics models. The sensitivity studies were performed on a multispectral environmental data and scene generation capability. The capability includes environmental physics models that are used to generate data and scenes for simulation of environmental materials, features, and conditions, such as trees, clouds, soils, and snow. These studies were performed because it is difficult to obtain input data for many of the environmental variables. The problem to solve is to determine which of the 100 or so input variables, used by the generation capability, are the most important. These sensitivity studies focused on the generation capabilities needed to predict and evaluate the performance of sensor systems operating in the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity study approach described uses a screening design. Screening designs are analytical techniques that use a fraction of all of the combinations of the potential input variables and conditions to determine which are the most important. Specifically a 20-run Plackett-Burman screening design was used to study the sensitivity of eight data and scene generation capability computed response variables to 11 selected input variables. This is a two-level design, meaning that the range of conditions is represented by two different values for each of the 11 selected variables. The eight response variables used were maximum, minimum, range, and mode of the model-generated temperature and radiance values. The result is that six of the 11 input variables (soil moisture, solar loading, roughness length, relative humidity, surface albedo, and surface emissivity) had a statistically significant effect on the response variables.

  17. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  18. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  19. Murine xenograft model demonstrates significant radio-sensitising effect of liposomal doxorubicin in a combination therapy for Feline Injection Site Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznek, H; Kleiter, M; Tichy, A; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Hohenadl, C

    2014-10-01

    Therapy of cats suffering from feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) is still a challenging problem, as the recurrence rate after surgery is up to 70%. Four FISS-derived primary tumour cell lines and corresponding xenograft tumour mouse models were established to evaluate the efficacy of a concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy with doxorubicin. In vitro, strongly depending upon the timing of administration, pre-treatment with 0.25 µmol doxorubicin resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation-induced (3.5 Gy) tumour cell death. This result was confirmed in vivo, where only the combined chemo-/radiation therapy resulted in a significant reduction in tumour growth compared to the respective mono-therapies with either doxorubicin or radiation. These results support the use of the concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy for adjuvant treatment of FISS, particularly in advanced or recurrent disease where surgery alone is no longer feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  1. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Kyaw Phyu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia, acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland, lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen, and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles, liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  2. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  3. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  4. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  5. Analytical sedimentation of the IIAChb and IIBChb proteins of the Escherichia coli N,N'-diacetylchitobiose phosphotransferase system. Demonstration of a model phosphotransfer transition state complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, N; Rodgers, M E; Demeler, B; Hansen, J C; Roseman, S

    2000-10-20

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose transferase system (PTS) is a prototypic signaling system responsible for the vectorial uptake and phosphorylation of carbohydrate substrates. The accompanying papers describe the proteins and product of the Escherichia coli N, N-diacetylchitobiose ((GlcNAc)(2)) PTS-mediated permease. Unlike most PTS transporters, the Chb system is composed of two soluble proteins, IIA(Chb) and IIB(Chb), and one transmembrane receptor (IIC(Chb)). The oligomeric states of PTS permease proteins and phosphoproteins have been difficult to determine. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, both dephospho and phosphorylated IIA(Chb) are shown to exist as stable dimers, whereas IIB(Chb), phospho-IIB(Chb) and the mutant Cys10SerIIB(Chb) are monomers. The mutant protein Cys10SerIIB(Chb) is unable to accept phosphate from phospho-IIA(Chb) but forms a stable higher order complex with phospho-IIA(Chb) (but not with dephospho-IIA(Chb)). The stoichiometry of proteins in the purified complex was determined to be 1:1, indicating that two molecules of Cys10SerIIB(Chb) are associated with one phospho-IIA(Chb) dimer in the complex. The complex appears to be a transition state analogue in the phosphotransfer reaction between the proteins. A model is presented that describes the concerted assembly and disassembly of IIA(Chb)-IIB(Chb) complexes contingent on phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes, especially of IIA(Chb).

  6. Demonstrating Test-Retest Reliability of Electrophysiological Measures for Healthy Adults in a Multisite Study of Biomarkers of Antidepressant Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen; Pechtel, Pia; Webb, Christian A.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Goer, Franziska; Murray, Laura; Deldin, Patricia; Kurian, Benji T.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Parsey, Ramin; Trivedi, Madhukar; Fava, Maurizio; Weissman, Myrna M.; McInnis, Melvin; Abraham, Karen; Alvarenga, Jorge; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Cooper, Crystal; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Bruder, Gerard E.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that loudness dependency of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) and resting EEG alpha and theta may be biological markers for predicting response to antidepressants. In spite of this promise, little is known about the joint reliability of these markers, and thus their clinical applicability. New, standardized procedures were developed to improve the compatibility of data acquired with different EEG platforms, and used to examine test-retest reliability for the three electrophysiological measures selected for a multisite project—Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response for Clinical Care (EMBARC). Thirty nine healthy controls across four clinical research sites were tested in two sessions separated by about one week. Resting EEG (eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions) was recorded and LDAEP measured using binaural tones (1000 Hz, 40 ms) at five intensities (60–100 dB SPL). Principal components analysis (PCA) of current source density (CSD) waveforms reduced volume conduction and provided reference-free measures of resting EEG alpha and N1 dipole activity to tones from auditory cortex. Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) extracted resting theta current density measures corresponding to rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), which has been implicated in treatment response. There were no significant differences in posterior alpha, N1 dipole or rACC theta across sessions. Test-retest reliability was .84 for alpha, .87 for N1 dipole, and .70 for theta rACC current density. The demonstration of good-to-excellent reliability for these measures provides a template for future EEG/ERP studies from multiple testing sites, and an important step for evaluating them as biomarkers for predicting treatment response. PMID:28000259

  7. Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.

  8. Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rayborn, Grayson H

    2006-01-01

    .... The funding that permitted the formation of the consortium was provided by the Office of Naval Research with the aim of studying ambient noise and marine mammals, particularly as each occurs in the Gulf of Mexico...

  9. Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Chen, Xun; Tan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The conventional reliability demonstration tests are difficult to apply to products with competing failure modes due to the complexity of the lifetime models. This paper develops a testing methodology based on the reliability target allocation for reliability demonstration under competing failure modes at accelerated conditions. The specified reliability at mission time and the risk caused by sampling of the reliability target for products are allocated for each failure mode. The risk caused by degradation measurement fitting of the target for a product involving performance degradation is equally allocated to each degradation failure mode. According to the allocated targets, the accelerated life reliability demonstration test (ALRDT) plans for the failure modes are designed. The accelerated degradation reliability demonstration test plans and the associated ALRDT plans for the degradation failure modes are also designed. Next, the test plan and the decision rules for the products are designed. Additionally, the effects of the discreteness of sample size and accepted number of failures for failure modes on the actual risks caused by sampling for the products are investigated. - Highlights: • Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes is studied. • The method is based on the reliability target allocation involving the risks. • The test plan for the products is based on the plans for all the failure modes. • Both failure mode and degradation failure modes are considered. • The error of actual risks caused by sampling for the products is small enough

  10. A Simple Model to Study Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Houck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tau proteins play a role in the stabilization of microtubules, but in pathological conditions, tauopathies, tau is modified by phosphorylation and can aggregate into aberrant aggregates. These aggregates could be toxic to cells, and different cell models have been used to test for compounds that might prevent these tau modifications. Here, we have used a cell model involving the overexpression of human tau in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing tau in a stable manner, we have been able to replicate the phosphorylation of intracellular tau. This intracellular tau increases its own level of phosphorylation and aggregates, likely due to the regulatory effect of some growth factors on specific tau kinases such as GSK3. In these conditions, a change in secreted tau was observed. Reversal of phosphorylation and aggregation of tau was found by the use of lithium, a GSK3 inhibitor. Thus, we propose this as a simple cell model to study tau pathology in nonneuronal cells due to their viability and ease to work with.

  11. Mouse models for the study of postnatal cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Del Olmo-Turrubiarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to create a postnatal model for cardiac hypertrophy (CH, in order to explain the mechanisms that are present in childhood cardiac hypertrophy. Five days after implantation, intraperitoneal (IP isoproterenol (ISO was injected for 7 days to pregnant female mice. The fetuses were obtained at 15, 17 and 19 dpc from both groups, also newborns (NB, neonates (7–15 days and young adults (6 weeks of age. Histopathological exams were done on the hearts. Immunohistochemistry and western blot demonstrated GATA4 and PCNA protein expression, qPCR real time the mRNA of adrenergic receptors (α-AR and β-AR, alpha and beta myosins (α-MHC, β-MHC and GATA4. After the administration of ISO, there was no change in the number of offsprings. We observed significant structural changes in the size of the offspring hearts. Morphometric analysis revealed an increase in the size of the left ventricular wall and interventricular septum (IVS. Histopathological analysis demonstrated loss of cellular compaction and presence of left ventricular small fibrous foci after birth. Adrenergic receptors might be responsible for changing a physiological into a pathological hypertrophy. However GATA4 seemed to be the determining factor in the pathology. A new animal model was established for the study of pathologic CH in early postnatal stages.

  12. Single Doses up to 800 mg of E-52862 Do Not Prolong the QTc Interval--A Retrospective Validation by Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Electrocardiography Data Utilising the Effects of a Meal on QTc to Demonstrate ECG Assay Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Wang, Duolao; Sust, Mariano; Camm, A John

    2015-01-01

    E-52862 is a Sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA) currently under investigation as a potential analgesic medicine. We successfully applied a concentration-effect model retrospectively to a four-way crossover Phase I single ascending dose study and utilized the QTc shortening effects of a meal to demonstrate assay sensitivity by establishing the time course effects from baseline in all four periods, independently from any potential drug effects. Thirty two healthy male and female subjects were included in four treatment periods to receive single ascending doses of 500 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg of E-52862 or placebo. PK was linear over the dose range investigated and doses up to 600 mg were well tolerated. The baseline electrocardiography (ECG) measurements on Day-1 were time-matched with ECG and pharmacokinetic (PK) samples on Day 1 (dosing day). In this conventional mean change to time-matched placebo analysis, the largest time-matched difference to placebo QTcI was 1.44 ms (90% CI: -4.04, 6.93 ms) for 500 mg; -0.39 ms (90% CI: -3.91, 3.13 ms) for 600 mg and 1.32 ms (90% CI: -1.89, 4.53 ms) for 800 mg of E-52862, thereby showing the absence of any QTc prolonging effect at the doses tested. In addition concentration-effect models, one based on the placebo corrected change from baseline and one for the change of QTcI from average baseline with time as fixed effect were fitted to the data confirming the results of the time course analysis. The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a shortening of QTcF of -8.1 (90% CI: -10.4, -5.9) one hour and -7.2 (90% CI: -9.4, -5.0) three hours after a standardised meal. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2010 020343 13.

  13. Study on kinetic model of microwave thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic model parameters for toluene conversion under microwave thermocatalytic treatment were evaluated. The kinetic rate constants were determined using integral method based on experimental data and coupled with Arrhenius equation for obtaining the activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The model provides a good agreement with the experimental data. The kinetic model was also validated with standard error of 3% on average. The extrapolation of the model showed a reasonable trend to predict toluene conversion and product yield both in thermal and catalytic treatments. Under microwave irradiation, activation energy of toluene conversion was lower in the range of 3-27 kJ mol(-1) compared to those of conventional heating reported in the literatures. The overall reaction rate was six times higher compared to conventional heating. As a whole, the kinetic model works better for tar model removal in the absence of gas reforming within a level of reliability demonstrated in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Delayed onset of hyperglycaemia in a mouse model with impaired glucagon secretion demonstrates that dysregulated glucagon secretion promotes hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, N; Seah, T; Lao, Y

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is caused by relative deficiency of insulin secretion and is associated with dysregulation of glucagon secretion during the late stage of diabetes development. Like insulin secretion from beta cells, glucagon secretion is dependent on calcium signals and a calcium...... sensing protein, synaptotagmin-7. In this study, we tested the relative contribution of dysregulated glucagon secretion and reduced insulin release in the development of hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes by using synaptotagmin-7 knockout (KO) mice, which exhibit glucose intolerance, reduced insulin...... secretion and nearly abolished Ca(2+)-stimulated glucagon secretion. METHODS: We fed the synaptotagmin-7 KO and control mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, and compared their body weight, glucose levels, glucose and insulin tolerance, and insulin and glucagon secretion. RESULTS: On the HFD...

  15. Pomegranate extract demonstrate a selective estrogen receptor modulator profile in human tumor cell lines and in vivo models of estrogen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, Sreekumar; Santhosh Kumar, Thankayyan R; Lakshmi, Baddireddi S; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2012-07-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are estrogen receptor (ER) ligands exhibiting tissue-specific agonistic or antagonistic biocharacter and are used in the hormonal therapy for estrogen-dependent breast cancers. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to exert antiproliferative effects on human breast cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME). PME was evaluated for antiproliferative activity at 20-320 μg/ml on human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231) endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), ovarian (SKOV3) carcinoma and normal breast fibroblast (MCF-10A) cells. Competitive radioactive binding studies were carried out to ascertain whether PME interacts with ER. The reporter gene assay measured the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity of PME in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells transiently transfected with plasmids coding estrogen response elements with a reporter gene (pG5-ERE-luc) and wild-type ERα (hEG0-ER). PME inhibited the binding of [³H] estradiol to ER and suppressed the growth and proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells. PME binds ER and down-regulated the transcription of estrogen-responsive reporter gene transfected into breast cancer cells. The expressions of selected estrogen-responsive genes were down-regulated by PME. Unlike 17β-estradiol [1 mg/kg body weight (BW)] and tamoxifen (10 mg/kg BW), PME (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in ovariectomized mice and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PME displays a SERM profile and may have the potential for prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancers with beneficial effects in other hormone-dependent tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. AVN-322 is a Safe Orally Bio-Available Potent and Highly Selective Antagonist of 5-HT6R with Demonstrated Ability to Improve Impaired Memory in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Ivanenkov, Yan A; Veselov, Mark S; Okun, I M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6 receptor, 5- HT6R) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. 5-HT6 receptors were hypothesized to be implicated in the processes of learning, memory, and cognition with 5-HT6R antagonists being effective in animal models of cognition and memory impairment. Several selective 5-HT6R ligands are currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of AD. We describe results of preclinical development of a novel and highly selective and potent 5- HT6R antagonist, AVN-322, as a clinical candidate for the treatment of AD to improve concurrent debilitation of memory and cognition in the AD patients, and schizophrenia as a substance with antipsychotic effect. In the manuscript, we present its in vitro and vivo efficacy, ADME, pharmacokinetics in animals and in humans, and toxicity. While having high binding affinity in medium picomolar range, the lead compound demonstrates substantially better selectivity index then the reference drug candidates currently being tested in clinical studies. AVN-322 showed high oral bioavailability and favorable blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. In vivo testing revealed its clear cognition enhancing effect. AVN-322 significantly restored both scopolamine- and MK-801-induced cognitive dysfunction and demonstrated antipsychotic potential. Taking into account its good safety profile and favorable pharmacokinetics, AVN-322 can be reasonably considered as a novel drug candidate for the treatment of neurological disorders such as AD and/or schizophrenia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Solar and Lunar Demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    By means of a simple device, made by students themselves, the movements of the Sun and the Moon can be studied at different latitudes. Using this device, it is easy to explain phenomena such as the midnight Sun, zenith pass and why the Moon "smiles". In this article, we show various photos of the Sun's movements, alongside their simulations on the…

  18. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-01-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

  19. Model study radioecology Biblis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the study deals with questions concerning radiation on account of the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the aquatic pathway. The discussion is preceded by a lecture on the basis for the calculations, and on a lecture on the results of primary radiological model calculations. The colloquium aims at establishing existing knowledge, at coordinating deviating opinions, and at elaborating questions still open and the possibility to deal with these. On the whole, ten questions have emerged. They are mainly concerned with site conditions. These questions will be dealt with in the form of partial studies by individual participants or by task groups. The results will be discussed at further colloquia. (orig.) [de

  20. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety