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Sample records for modeling student knowledge

  1. Modelling students' knowledge organisation: Genealogical conceptual networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Nousiainen, Maija

    2018-04-01

    Learning scientific knowledge is largely based on understanding what are its key concepts and how they are related. The relational structure of concepts also affects how concepts are introduced in teaching scientific knowledge. We model here how students organise their knowledge when they represent their understanding of how physics concepts are related. The model is based on assumptions that students use simple basic linking-motifs in introducing new concepts and mostly relate them to concepts that were introduced a few steps earlier, i.e. following a genealogical ordering. The resulting genealogical networks have relatively high local clustering coefficients of nodes but otherwise resemble networks obtained with an identical degree distribution of nodes but with random linking between them (i.e. the configuration-model). However, a few key nodes having a special structural role emerge and these nodes have a higher than average communicability betweenness centralities. These features agree with the empirically found properties of students' concept networks.

  2. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  3. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working with a sys......The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working...

  4. Sustainability knowledge using “AKASA” model among architecture students from Klang Valley private universities, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Sivaraman; Faris Khamidi, Mohd; Sheng, Lee Xia; Salvi Mari, Tamil

    2017-12-01

    The study intend to investigate sustainability knowledge using “AKASA” model. This model comprises all the literacy level which is the awareness, knowledge, attitude, skills and action. 234 students from 5 selected private universities were surveyed using questionnaires. Students were specifically selected from year 2 and year 3 from private universities in Klang valley, Malaysia. The study intends to investigate the environmental literacy level specifically the knowledge variable. The parametric study was conducted with descriptive analysis and the results shows that the environmental knowledge is at high level compared to other environmental literacy variables among year 2, year 3 and combine year 2 and year 3.

  5. How students learn to coordinate knowledge of physical and mathematical models in cellular physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew

    This dissertation explores the Knowledge in Pieces (KiP) theory to account for how students learn to coordinate knowledge of mathematical and physical models in biology education. The KiP approach characterizes student knowledge as a fragmented collection of knowledge elements as opposed to stable and theory-like knowledge. This dissertation sought to use this theoretical lens to account for how students understand and learn with mathematical models and representations, such as equations. Cellular physiology provides a quantified discipline that leverages concepts from mathematics, physics, and chemistry to understand cellular functioning. Therefore, this discipline provides an exemplary context for assessing how biology students think and learn with mathematical models. In particular, the resting membrane potential provides an exemplary concept well defined by models of dynamic equilibrium borrowed from physics and chemistry. In brief, membrane potentials, or voltages, "rest" when the electrical and chemical driving forces for permeable ionic species are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. To assess students' understandings of this concept, this dissertation employed three studies: the first study employed the cognitive clinical interview to assess student thinking in the absence and presence of equations. The second study employed an intervention to assess student learning and the affordances of an innovative assessment. The third student employed a human-computer-interaction paradigm to assess how students learn with a novel multi-representational technology. Study 1 revealed that students saw only one influence--the chemical gradient--and that students coordinated knowledge of only this gradient with the related equations. Study 2 revealed that students benefited from learning with the multi-representational technology and that the assessment detected performance gains across both calculation and explanation tasks. Last, Study 3 revealed how students

  6. The Knowledge Building Paradigm: A Model of Learning for Net Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald

    2005-01-01

    In this article Donald Philip describes Knowledge Building, a pedagogy based on the way research organizations function. The global economy, Philip argues, is driving a shift from older, industrial models to the model of the business as a learning organization. The cognitive patterns of today's Net Generation students, formed by lifetime exposure…

  7. Working with Students' Ideas in Physical Geography: A Model of Knowledge Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rod; Coutts, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in science education have for some time recognised the need for teachers to develop an awareness of students' common alternative conceptions--a key element of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)--and use this knowledge to develop student understanding (Morrison & Lederman, 2003). Less attention, however, has been devoted to the…

  8. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…

  9. Knowledge Transposition from Tropical Fish Serum Proteins to Fundamental Education Students Through Biochemical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.M. Maciel de Carvalho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject was represented and discussed at The National Week of Science and Technology, UFPE, an initiative from The Ministry of Science and Technology to encourage children and people in science and technology activities. The work aimed to renew the importance to transmit knowledge from simple, imaginative, biochemical models and interactive teaching. The stand tool contained an aquarium with fishes, five scale models showing peptide bond, carbohydrate inhibited lectin molecule, hemagglutination reaction, lectin-bacterium surface interaction and enzyme-substract-inhibitor. Posters described tropical fish importance and methods applied to obtain fish serum and organs to purify lectins and protein inhibitors as well as to extract tissue DNA; notions were transmitted on fish immunology and diseases. The students were attracted and impressed with the exotic fishes most cultivated in Brazil; they asked if it is necessary to kill the fish to extract lectin and about lectin importance. Students were also interested to know if all fish enzyme/inhibitors are favorable to the own fish organism. The work succeeded to inform and stimulate future scientists in the field and to awake their scientific curiosity.

  10. Effect of Modeling Instruction on Concept Knowledge Among Ninth Grade Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, Devin Alan

    A basic knowledge of physics concepts is the gateway to success through high-paying careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Many students show little understanding of concepts following traditional physics instruction. As an alternative to current lecture-based approaches for high school physics instruction, Piaget's theory of cognitive development supports using real scientific experiences to lead learners from concrete to formal understanding of complex concepts. Modeling instruction (MI) is a pedagogy that guides learners through genuine scientific experiences. This project study analyzed the effects of MI on 9th grade physics students' gains on the test measuring mastery of physics concepts, Force Concept Inventory (FCI). A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the FCI scores of a traditional lecture-taught control group to a treatment group taught using MI. A t test t(-.201) = 180.26, p = .841 comparing the groups and an analysis of variance F(2,181) = 5.20 comparing female to male students indicated MI had no significant positive effect on students. A partial eta squared of the effect size showed that 5.4% of the variance in FCI gains was accounted for by gender, favoring female participants for both groups. The significant relationship between content and gender bears further inquiry. A lesson plan guide was designed to help teachers use computer simulation technology within the MI curriculum. The project promotes positive social change by exploring further ways to help adolescents experience success in physics at the beginning of high school, leading to future success in all STEM areas.

  11. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accoun...

  12. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  13. Exploring students' epistemological knowledge of models and modelling in science: results from a teaching/learning experience on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasquier, Giulia; Levrini, Olivia; Dillon, Justin

    2016-03-01

    The scientific community has been debating climate change for over two decades. In the light of certain arguments put forward by the aforesaid community, the EU has recommended a set of innovative reforms to science teaching such as incorporating environmental issues into the scientific curriculum, thereby helping to make schools a place of civic education. However, despite these European recommendations, relatively little emphasis is still given to climate change within science curricula. Climate change, although potentially engaging for students, is a complex topic that poses conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers, as well as epistemological challenges. Whilst the conceptual and emotional barriers have already been the object of several studies, students' reactions to the epistemological issues raised by climate changes have so far been rarely explored in science education research and thus are the main focus of this paper. This paper describes a study concerning the implementation of teaching materials designed to focus on the epistemological role of 'models and the game of modelling' in science and particularly when dealing with climate change. The materials were implemented in a course of 15 hours (five 3-hour lessons) for a class of Italian secondary-school students (grade 11; 16-17 years old). The purpose of the study is to investigate students' reactions to the epistemological dimension of the materials, and to explore if and how the material enabled them to develop their epistemological knowledge on models.

  14. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  15. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population.

  16. Using the Deficit Model, Public Debate Model and Co-Production of Knowledge Models to Interpret Points of View of Students Concerning Citizens' Participation in Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this article I propose a conceptual framework--based on the deficit, public debate and co-production of knowledge models articulated by (Callon, 1999)--with which to examine students' appropriation of de socioscientific issues (SSI). The second part of this article presents the way a group of three…

  17. Dental undergraduate students' knowledge, attitudes and practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Dental students are seen as role-models for promoting good oral health behaviour, yet there is little published evidence in South Africa (SA) that describes student knowledge and attitudes towards their own oral healthcare. Objective. To investigate undergraduate dental therapy and oral hygiene students' ...

  18. Knowledge creation and transfer among postgraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreeson Naicker

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: This article reports on an exploratory study undertaken to ascertain how knowledge is created and transferred amongst post-graduate (PG students, using the knowledge (socialisation, externalisation, combination, internalisation [SECI] spiral model. Method: After reviewing relevant literature, a personally administered standardised questionnaire was used to collect data from a convenience sample of PG students in the School of Management, IT and Governance at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The data was analysed to determine if it fit the model based on the four modes of knowledge conversion. Results: Although the School of Management, IT and Governance has mechanisms in place to facilitate knowledge creation and transfer, it nevertheless tends to focus on the four modes of knowledge conversion to varying degrees. Conclusion: The study confirmed that PG students utilise the ‘socialisation’ and ‘externalisation’ modes of knowledge conversion comprehensively; ‘internalisation’ plays a significant role in their knowledge creation and transfer activities and whilst ‘combination’ is utilised to a lesser extent, it still plays a role in PG students’ knowledge creation and transfer activities. PG students also have ‘space’ that allows them to bring hunches, thoughts, notions, intuition or tacit knowledge into reality. Trust and dedication are common amongst PG students. With socialisation and externalisation so high, PG students are aware of each other’s capabilities and competencies, and trust each other enough to share knowledge.

  19. Knowledge creation and transfer among postgraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreeson Naicker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The skill shortages, hyper-competitive economic environments and untapped economies have created a great deal of focus on knowledge. Thus, continuously creating and transferring knowledge is critical for every organisation. Objectives: This article reports on an exploratory study undertaken to ascertain how knowledge is created and transferred amongst post-graduate (PG students, using the knowledge (socialisation, externalisation, combination, internalisation [SECI] spiral model. Method: After reviewing relevant literature, a personally administered standardised questionnaire was used to collect data from a convenience sample of PG students in the School of Management, IT and Governance at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The data was analysed to determine if it fit the model based on the four modes of knowledge conversion. Results: Although the School of Management, IT and Governance has mechanisms in place to facilitate knowledge creation and transfer, it nevertheless tends to focus on the four modes of knowledge conversion to varying degrees. Conclusion: The study confirmed that PG students utilise the ‘socialisation’ and ‘externalisation’ modes of knowledge conversion comprehensively; ‘internalisation’ plays a significant role in their knowledge creation and transfer activities and whilst ‘combination’ is utilised to a lesser extent, it still plays a role in PG students’ knowledge creation and transfer activities. PG students also have ‘space’ that allows them to bring hunches, thoughts, notions, intuition or tacit knowledge into reality. Trust and dedication are common amongst PG students. With socialisation and externalisation so high, PG students are aware of each other’s capabilities and competencies, and trust each other enough to share knowledge.

  20. Applying Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model to develop an online English writing course for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hung-Cheng; Pan, Mei-Yu; Lee, Bih-O

    2015-06-01

    Learning English as foreign language and computer technology are two crucial skills for nursing students not only for the use in the medical institutions but also for the communication needs following the trend of globalization. Among language skills, writing has long been ignored in the curriculums although it is a core element of language learning. To apply the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) model to design an online English writing course for nursing students, and to explore the effects of the course to the students' learning progress as well as their satisfactions and perceptions. A single-group experimental study, utilizing the CEEC (College Entrance Examination Center) writing grading criteria and a self-designed course satisfaction questionnaire, is used. Fifty one nursing students who were in their first/four semesters of the two year vocational pre-registration nursing course in a Taiwan university were selected using convenience sampling. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measure MANOVA. Qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. Students' writing competence had been improved significantly in every dimension after the instruction. Only half of the learners preferred online writing compared to the traditional way of writing by hand. Additionally, participants reported that they would prefer to receive feedback from the teacher than peers, yet they did not like the indirect feedback. The teacher perceived the course as meaningful but demanding for both learning and teaching sides. To implement the peer review activities and give feedback on time were two major challenges during the cycles. The TPACK model suggests a comprehensive and effective teaching approach that can help enhance nursing students' English writing performance. Teachers are advised to consider its implementation when designing their syllabus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does Self-Discipline Impact Students' Knowledge and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yue; Rai, Dovan; Beck, Joseph E.; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we are interested to see the impact of self-discipline on students' knowledge and learning. Self-discipline can influence both learning rate as well as knowledge accumulation over time. We used a Knowledge Tracing (KT) model to make inferences about students' knowledge and learning. Based on a widely used questionnaire, we measured…

  2. A Development of a Knowledge Management Model of Supervision of Practicum Students in Early Childhood Education, Faculty of Education, Mahasarakham University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikunyarphat Rangsriborwornkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a model of knowledge management of supervision of practicum students in early childhood education. The target groups were 1 four supervisors in Early Childhood Education program, faculty of Education, Mahasarakham University and 2 thirty-three fifth-year practicum students in early childhood education practicing in professional experience at schools which located in Mahasarakham, Khonkaen, and Roi-Et provinces. The research tool was a survey form of supervision of practicum students. Content analysis was used. The research findings showed that 1 a development of the knowledge management model of supervision of practicum students in early childhood education contained 3 phases: phase I – studying need assessment, phase II – developing a model and phase III – conclusion and 2 data from the survey form of knowledge management of supervision categorized into two aspects, namely, appropriate practices and inappropriate practices.

  3. THE INFLUENCE MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION ON KNOWLEDGE QUALITY

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    Shvets Valentyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence model of knowledge representation and training character testing in MOODLE on progress of students has been investigated in the article. The knowledge representation in the form of graphs and frames is able to raise the level of knowledge significantly. The using of the animation (in Flash and SketchUp leads to better memorization of information owing subconscious reaction of students. The testing of students in training conditions of e-learning platform MOODLE makes more active the programme of the intellectual curiosity that is the function of the brain.

  4. Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Hu, Kaiyan; Chen, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge and application of model play an important role in students' development of modeling ability and scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated Chinese chemistry teachers' knowledge and application of models. Data were collected through test questionnaire and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicated…

  5. Make a Drawing. Effects of Strategic Knowledge, Drawing Accuracy, and Type of Drawing on Students' Mathematical Modelling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellensmann, Johanna; Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leopold, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Drawing strategies are widely used as a powerful tool for promoting students' learning and problem solving. In this article, we report the results of an inferential mediation analysis that was applied to investigate the roles that strategic knowledge about drawing and the accuracy of different types of drawings play in mathematical modelling…

  6. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  7. Properties of the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Bayesian Knowledge Tracing is used very widely to model student learning. It comes in two different forms: The first form is the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing "hidden Markov model" which predicts the probability of correct application of a skill as a function of the number of previous opportunities to apply that skill and the model…

  8. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  9. Breastfeeding knowledge of university nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azza; Bantz, Diana; Richardson, Clara

    2011-01-01

    To assess breastfeeding knowledge among senior nursing students and identify the types of breastfeeding knowledge the students have. We also investigated the relationship between the different types of breastfeeding knowledge. An exploratory descriptive design used a convenience sample of 115 students from two schools of nursing in two Midwestern universities. Students who completed maternal/child nursing didactic and clinical courses were eligible to participate. A Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire adapted from Brodribb, Fallon, Jackson, and Hegney (2008) was used. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items covering knowledge about benefits of breastfeeding, physiology of lactation, and breastfeeding management. Content and face validity were considered, and Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.70. Eligible students completed the questionnaire in class. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe student knowledge and to test the differences in breastfeeding knowledge. Findings revealed a mean knowledge score of 17 ± 2.9 (total possible score 24). There was a significant difference in the students' knowledge regarding physiology of lactation and benefits of breastfeeding (t = -3.615, p = .000) and between benefits and breastfeeding management (t = 5.255, p = .000). There was a positive relationship between knowledge of physiology of lactation and breastfeeding management (r = 0.369, p = .000). Strategies are warranted to improve breastfeeding education in the nursing curriculum, focusing on breastfeeding management skills.

  10. Product Knowledge Modelling and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.; MacCallum, K. J.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    .A scheme is presented in this paper to model, i.e. classify, structure and formalise the product knowledge for the purpose of supporting function-oriented design. The product design specification and four types of required attributes of a specific product have been identified to form the Specific Product......The term, Product Knowledge is used to refer to two related but distinct concepts; the knowledge of a specific product (Specific Product Knowledge) and the knowledge of a product domain (Product Domain Knowledge). Modelling and managing Product Knowlege is an essential part of carrying out design...... Knowledge involved in the product generation process and therefore modelled in a PDS unit and four viewpoint models. Further, product domain knowledge model consists of four types of basic product domain knowledge and product family knowledge. They are considered as necessary and sufficient to support...

  11. Mass Media's Effect upon Student Political Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellers, Robert W.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a study which measured the effects of mass media-related instruction about political topics in elementary and secondary schools on students' political knowledge. Findings indicated that mass media, particularly television, does influence student political knowledge and that, consequently, educators should have an input into television…

  12. How does epistemological knowledge on modelling influence students' engagement in the issue of climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasquier, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students’ engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students’ epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.

  13. Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers’ Knowledge of Students

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    Hülya Kılıç

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the nature of preservice secondary mathematics teachers’ knowledge of students as emerged from a study investigating the development of their pedagogical content knowledge in a methods course and its associated field experience. Six preservice teachers participated in the study and the data were collected in the forms of observations, interviews and written documents. Knowledge of students is defined as teachers’ knowledge of what mathematical concepts are difficult for students to grasp, which concepts students typically have misconceptions about, possible sources of students’ errors, and how to eliminate those difficulties and misconceptions. The findings revealed that preservice teachers had difficulty in both identifying the source of students’ misconceptions, and errors and generating effective ways different than telling the rules or procedures to eliminate such misconceptions. Furthermore, preservice teachers’ knowledge of students was intertwined with their knowledge of subject matter and knowledge of pedagogy. They neither had strong conceptual knowledge of mathematics nor rich repertoire of teaching strategies. Therefore, they frequently failed to recognize what conceptual knowledge the students were lacking and inclined to address students’ errors by telling how to carry out the procedure or apply the rule to solve the given problem correctly.

  14. Development and Use of an Interactive Computerized Dog Model to Evaluate Cranial Nerve Knowledge in Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogert, K; Platt, Simon; Haley, Allison; Kent, Marc; Edwards, Gaylen; Dookwah, H; Johnsen, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, the cognitive skills necessary to interpret neurological disorders from text-based case descriptions may not translate into the diagnostic capabilities required for clinical neurological patients. As live animals exhibiting certain specific neurological disorders are infrequent during a student's exposure to clinics, students may graduate without the experience necessary to make an accurate diagnosis in the field. To address this, we have developed a computerized simulated dog head that can exhibit cranial nerve dysfunctions and respond to specific testing procedures in a clinically accurate manner. To evaluate whether this type of model could add value to traditional student assessments, we created a multiple-choice quiz system with three types of questions: standard text-based cases, videos of an expert performing an examination of the simulated dog, and an interactive version requiring the student to perform an appropriate examination of the simulated dog to uncover the lesion localization. In an experiment conducted with 97 freshman veterinary students who had recently been taught cranial nerve anatomy and function, we found that examination performance decreased with the need for interactivity compared to memorization of fact, while satisfaction increased. Students were less likely to identify the correct disorder when they had to conduct the examination of the virtual dog themselves, revealing an inadequacy in traditional neuroanatomical teaching. However, students overwhelmingly supported the use of interactive question for assessment. Interestingly, performance on text-based questions did not correlate significantly with interactive or video questions. The results have implications for veterinary teaching and assessment within the classroom and in clinical environments.

  15. Knowledge about local anesthetics in odontology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Alvarez, Rodrigo; Campos Sepúlveda, Alfonso Efraín; Martínez González, Adrian Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the level of knowledge of local anesthetics frequently used in the surgical clinic by third and fourth year dental students in daily practice. The importance of pharmacology in dental practice in underscored by potential drug toxicity. The study was performed with 244 third and fourth grade career dental students (CDS). Eleven items regarding the knowledge over local anesthetics at the clinic; i.e., the appropriate doses, possible toxic effects and side effects were examined. The reference questionnaire which is in a validation process, is a way to evaluate student knowledge about most drugs used in odontology practice such as: NSAIDs, antibiotics and local anesthetics. The results were found to be unsatisfactory with a high percentage of students failing (less than six of eleven items correct). We conclude that determination of practice knowledge is an essential step in informing the institution about cognitive deficiencies identified in order to plan learning solutions.

  16. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louay Labban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge can affect someone to follow dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of Syrian university students and to find out if there was any relationship between anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, type of university and nutrition knowledge of the students. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using valid nutrition knowledge questionnaire, which covered six main sections. The questionnaire was designed for this study and was adapted from Parameter and Wardle. The number of students participated in the study was 998 students and were selected from four universities in Syria. They were asked to complete the nutrition knowledge questionnaire under supervision of trained nutritionist. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants by trained professional. The results were statistically analyzed and P 30 had the highest points in TNK. Females had higher TNK score as compared with males. Furthermore, students enrolled in the private university and in health-related programs showed typically better TNK scores than those enrolled in public universities and in nonhealth-related programs. The highest TNK score based on BMI was found among students with BMI >30. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  17. Characteristics of Religious Knowledge among Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the Spirit of Generation Y project and extensions of that project undertaken in 25 Australian schools by the Christian Research Association, it is argued that the approach to religious knowledge by Australian students can be contrasted with their approach to other forms of knowledge by four features. These are diversity of opinion in…

  18. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  19. First-year University Students' Productive Knowledge of Collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examines productive knowledge of collocations of tertiary-level second language (L2) learners of English in an attempt to make estimates of the size of their knowledge. Participants involved first-year students at North-West University who sat a collocation test modelled on that developed by Laufer and ...

  20. Awareness and Knowledge of Undergraduate Dental Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigation indicated that awareness and knowledge of undergraduate dental students in relation to sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth were good. However, deficiencies were observed in relation to teaching the material and methods suitable for sterilization. Keywords: Awareness, Dental student, ...

  1. [Knowledge about sexuality in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P; Alvarado, R

    1989-01-01

    This study explores the level of sexual knowledge among chilean university students in 4 different professions, compares their responses and verifies them with selected socio-demographic variables. 813 university students were interviewed in 1st and 3rd year medical school, law and engineering from the University of Chile and in education, from the Superior Blas Canas Institute of Pedagogy. The group is equally divided between each of the 4 professions; 64.7% are men with 95.5% single and 84.7% are between 17.22; only 37.5% attended a mixed school; 73.1% are Catholic. The survey aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) but this article only analyzes the attitudes of students through 6 variables: anatomy and physiology, pregnancy and delivery, contraception, venereal diseases, sources claimed by the interviewee to receive information and self-evaluation of actual levels of knowledge. Results demonstrated knowledge about anatomy and physiology, pregnancy and delivery and venereal diseases, but great disparity with contraception. Students are not learning about methods of contraception in school, possibly due to fear on the part of the faculty or their own lack of information. 3 factors influenced levels of knowledge: 1) formal education; 2) experience; and 3) personal interest. The highest results were from students of medicine with the lowest being students in engineering and education. Those that were in their 3rd year of school or married appeared more knowledgeable possibly due to more sexual experience and the need to prevent pregnancies. The females in all variables scored higher due to their own interest in preventing pregnancies, and because women are socialized in interpersonal relations and maternity issues. More than 1/2 the students gave themselves bad evaluations concerning their levels of sexual knowledge.

  2. Possibilistic networks for uncertainty knowledge processing in student diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina COCU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a possibilistic network implementation for uncertain knowledge modeling of the diagnostic process is proposed as a means to achieve student diagnosis in intelligent tutoring system. This approach is proposed in the object oriented programming domain for diagnosis of students learning errors and misconception. In this expertise domain dependencies between data exist that are encoded in the structure of network. Also, it is available qualitative information about these data which are represented and interpreted with qualitative approach of possibility theory. The aim of student diagnosis system is to ensure an adapted support for the student and to sustain the student in personalized learning process and errors explanation.

  3. Knowledge models as agents of meaninful learning and knowledge creation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín María González García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 172 952 USAL 7 2 1122 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The educational change that pushes the current context requires a shift in the unfortunately predominant positivist-behaviourist model that favours mechanical      memoristic learning, ideal breeding ground for the existence and maintenance of conceptual errors, to another cognitive-constructivist that stimulates meaningful learning to allow students to build and master knowledge, therefore to be more creative and critical. We present here a model of knowledge where students construct new knowledge as a result of significant learning. Students play an active role, learning not only about the product, but also about the process itself (meta-cognition. We also show how to promote teacher activity primarily in order to create the conditions that facilitate the student to transform the information in useful, substantive knowledge, to be  incorporated in his knowledge structure and in his long-term memory. Finally, we provide elements to measure what the student knows and to assess how their cognitive structure has changed regarding their ancient knowledge; that is, to assess the necessary conceptual change.

  4. The Evolution of Student-Coach's Pedagogical Content Knowledge in a Combined Use of Sport Education and the Step-Game-Approach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui Manuel Flores; Hastie, Peter Andrew; de Assunção Bessa Pereira, Cristiana Helena; Mesquita, Isabel Maria Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the essential elements within Sport Education is the inclusion of student roles and responsibilities. While previous research has examined students' performance in officiating tasks, the examination of student-coaches' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) within peer-assisted tasks of Sport Education has been scarce. Indeed, the…

  5. Instructor and student knowledge of study strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Kayla; Rhodes, Matthew G; DeLozier, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Students' self-reported study skills and beliefs are often inconsistent with empirically supported (ES) study strategies. However, little is known regarding instructors' beliefs about study skills and if such beliefs differ from those of students. In the current study, we surveyed college students' and instructors' knowledge of study strategies and had both groups evaluate the efficacy of learning strategies described in six learning scenarios. Results from the survey indicated that students frequently reported engaging in methods of studying that were not optimal for learning. Instructors' responses to the survey indicated that they endorsed a number of effective study skills but also held several beliefs inconsistent with research in learning and memory (e.g., learning styles). Further, results from the learning scenarios measure indicated that instructors were moderately more likely than students to endorse ES learning strategies. Collectively, these data suggest that instructors exhibited better knowledge of effective study skills than students, although the difference was small. We discuss several notable findings and argue for the improvement of both students' and instructors' study skill knowledge.

  6. Knowledge of nursing students on vasculogenic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raísa Leocádio Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge of nursing students on vasculogenic lesions. Methods: cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted in four higher education institutions. Researchers applied a questionnaire to 106 nursing students, which was composed of variables, such as school situation, prior contact and knowledge of students on the subject. Results: the mean score on the characteristics of vasculogenic lesions was higher among public institutions academic (33.0%, among those who reported having provided nursing care for patients with these lesions (37.7% and among those who claimed to know the difference between venous lesions and arterial lesions (25.5%. The higher amount of correct answers on venous lesions was related to the coloration in perilesional area (74.5%; and on arterial lesions, regarding habits and underlying diseases (67.0%. Conclusion: academics who have practical experience in the care of patients with vasculogenic lesions during undergraduate course had higher theoretical knowledge on the subject.

  7. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Chemical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2017-01-01

    Chemical representations serve as a communication tool not only in exchanges between scientists but also in chemistry lessons. The goals of the present study were to measure the extent of student teachers' knowledge about chemical representations, focusing on chemical formulae and structures in particular, and to explore which factors related to…

  8. Awareness and Knowledge of Undergraduate Dental Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected by questionnaires and analyzed by Mann–Whitney U‑test and Kruskal–Wallis test using SPSS software version 16 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: In this study, 235 dental students participated in the study. The average awareness and knowledge score was 7.27 (1.92). Based on the ...

  9. Students' Chemical Knowledge in Photosynthesis and Respiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' Chemical Knowledge in Photosynthesis and Respiration in Port Harcourt Metropolis of Rivers State of Nigeria. ... African Journal of Chemical Education ... Photosynthesis-Respiration Chemical Reaction Test (P-RCRT) and PLDRT-essay test on light and dark reactions of photosynthesis and fate of glucose in ...

  10. Gaps in Alzheimer's Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of the disease, it appears that there may be a need for increased education for formal and family caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Today's college students will be asked to fill both of these roles in the future. This study examined the level of knowledge of Alzheimer's disease among…

  11. Knowledge of Palliative Care Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaile, Samantha; Alshehri, Hanan H; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing undergraduate students' knowledge with regard to palliative care in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative descriptive research study was conducted by the use of validated tool. A total of 204 students were included in the study. There is little evidence in Saudi Arabia to demonstrate if nursing undergraduates receives education on palliative care. The results indicate that 57.9% of the nursing undergraduates had received educational sessions and 42.1% of nursing undergraduates did not. In conclusion, palliative care nursing education is crucial to improve quality of patient care in nursing practices. It is recommended that a palliative care education should be integrated within the nursing programme courses. Hence, in order to improve students' knowledge of palliative care, course content should cover the principles of palliative care as a part of any nursing bachelor programme.

  12. Does knowledge of physical activity recommendations increase physical activity among Chinese college students? Empirical investigations based on the transtheoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahar Abula

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that awareness of the PA recommendations was associated with higher stages and levels of PA behavior, and a brief educational exposure to PA recommendations led to improved stages of PA behavior but no change in the levels of PA among Chinese college students. More effective public health campaign strategies are needed to promote the dissemination of the PA recommendations and to raise the awareness of the Chinese student population.

  13. Uncertainty management using bayesian networks in student knowledge diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina COCU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In intelligent tutoring systems, student or user modeling implies dealing with imperfect and uncertain knowledge. One of the artificial intelligence techniques used for uncertainty management is that of Bayesian networks. This paradigm is recommended in the situation when exist dependencies between data and qualitative information about these data. In this work we present a student knowledge diagnosis model based on representation with Bayesian networks. The educational system incorporate a multimedia interface for accomplishes the testing tools. The results of testing sessions are represented and interpreted with probability theory in order to ensure an adapted support for the student. The aims of the computer assisted application that contains this diagnose module are to support the student in personalized learning process and errors explanation.

  14. [Factors determining students' knowledge on wild mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted among students of university schools in Nowy Sacz, Biała Podlaska and Zamość to determine the guidelines of mushroom poisoning prevention. The study included 580 people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming, preferred sources of information about mushrooms, major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined. Mushrooms gathered nearly 80% of respondents. Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms. Nearly 20% of respondents, regardless of their own experience and self-assessment of their competence in discriminating mushrooms belive that after culinary preparation can by safely consume even deadly poisonous species. The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students (nursing, emergency medical service) is not greater than students other courses.

  15. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Álvarez, R; Medeiros, M; Lagunes, Li Reyes; Campos-Sepúlveda, Ae

    2012-01-01

    Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing. The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%), followed by pain (n = 24, 38%); the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%), followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%), naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%), diclofenac (n = 2, 3%), and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%); the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78.9%), ampicillin (n = 7, 10.6%), and penicillin V and clindamycin (n = 3, 4.5%). The most frequent errors reported by students were: lack of knowledge about drug posology (n = 49, 74.2%), improperly filled prescriptions (n = 7, 10.7%), not knowing the brand names and uncertainty about the correct drug indicated for each case (n = 3, 4.54%), not knowing the duration of treatment (n = 2, 3%), not asking the patient about possible allergies, and not

  16. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Álvarez R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry.Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Methods: In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing.Results: The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%, followed by pain (n = 24, 38%; the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%, followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%, naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%, diclofenac (n = 2, 3%, and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%; the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78

  17. HOLISTIC MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE WORKER AND MARKET KNOWLEDGE VENTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telemtaev Marat Makhmetovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the creation of model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise and the concept of the market of knowledge of the enterprise and the market of knowledge of a society of knowledge. To purpose achievement it is applied complete-approach of Telemtaev M.M. The contradiction between the market in environment of the enterprise and absence of the market in the internal environment of the enterprise is shown. The role of capitalization of knowledge is shown. A number of new results is received. The general model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise, and three private models of knowledge of the worker entering into it are developed. The Principle of complete-thinking and practice of the worker and the Principle of the organic replenishments of knowledge of the worker are formulated. It is established that a kernel of complete model of knowledge of the worker is set «ability and skill». The concept of technology of the market of knowledge of the enterprise is developed. As a methodological basis of technology of the market of knowledge the Law of industrialization of knowledge, the Law of mechanization of knowledge, the Law technologization knowledge, the Principle of enrichment of knowledge are formulated. Conditions of interaction of the worker and knowledge - PMK-literacy of the worker and FPI-availability of knowledge are established. The received results are sufficient for construction of base models of knowledge of workers and the concept of the market of knowledge of the concrete enterprise that allows the enterprise to create strategy of effective application of knowledge of workers and to develop advancing strategy of occurrence in the market of a society of knowledge.

  18. Guideline Knowledge Representation Model (GLIKREM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-23 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/34/1.html

  19. Validating the Learning Cycle Models of Business Simulation Games via Student Perceived Gains in Skills and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Yeh, C. Rosa; Hung, Kung Chin

    2015-01-01

    Several theoretical models have been constructed to determine the effects of buisness simulation games (BSGs) on learning performance. Although these models agree on the concept of learning-cycle effect, no empirical evidence supports the claim that the use of learning cycle activities with BSGs produces an effect on incremental gains in knowledge…

  20. Basic knowledge of epilepsy among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamkao, Siriporn; Tiamkao, Somsak; Auevitchayapat, Narong; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Chaiyakum, Aporanee; Jitpimolmard, Suthipun; Phuttharak, Warinthorn; Phunikhom, Kutcharin; Saengsuwan M, Jiamjit; Vannaprasaht, Suda

    2007-11-01

    The medical students' knowledge about basic medical neuroscience in the preclinical level may be fragmented and incomplete. Evaluate the knowledge of students prior to a lecture on epilepsy in clinical level. One hundred ten fourth-year medical students' knowledge was accessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The presented results revealed that 91.8% of respondents knew that epilepsy arose from a transient dysfunction in the brain. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCs) were the most common type (91.5%) they knew and absence seizures were the least common type (33.6%) they knew. All of them knew that eating pork and punishment of gods did not cause epilepsy. However 50% thought that genetics was a cause and 80.3% did not know that stroke and sleep deprivation (92.7%) cause epilepsy. About treatment and prognosis, only 28.2% of respondents thought epilepsy can be cured and patients should take antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for seizure free 2-5 years (48.2%), life long (33.6%). They knew that the patients should be prohibited from driving (80%), working on machinery (74.5%), and (27.3%) avoid drinking. However, they knew that the patients could marry (100%), get pregnant (98.2%), and lactate (91.9%). Regarding the first aid management, 50.9% of them recommended that placing a piece of wood between the teeth during a seizure and perform chest compressions (20.0%). Means knowledge scores is about 60%, the highest score is the definition of epilepsy (90.2%) and the lowest is type of seizure (43%). The findings indicated that lecturers should review aspects ofpathophysiology and emphasize on type of seizure, cause, consequences, and prognosis including first-aid management.

  1. Developing Learning Analytics Design Knowledge in the "Middle Space": The Student Tuning Model and Align Design Framework for Learning Analytics Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alyssa Friend; Vytasek, Jovita Maria; Hausknecht, Simone; Zhao, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a relatively unexplored area in the field of learning analytics: how analytics are taken up and used as part of teaching and learning processes. Initial steps are taken towards developing design knowledge for this "middle space," with a focus on students as analytics users. First, a core set of challenges for…

  2. The Effects of Two Instructional Models--Tactical and Skill Teaching--On Skill Development and Game Play, Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Student Perceptions in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joyce M.; Blakemore, Connie L.; Richards, Robert P.; Oliver, Jon; Wilkinson, Carol; Fellingham, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Skill Teaching and Tactical approaches on skill development, game play, knowledge, and self-efficacy for 169 high- and low-skilled players of 182 beginning university Volleyball students. Three instructors each taught one Tactical and one Skill Teaching class two days a week for 16 weeks. A random coefficients…

  3. Hand hygiene knowledge of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001).

  4. Promoting cultural awareness and knowledge among faculty and doctoral students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiper, Jacoba; Van Horn, Elizabeth R; Hu, Jie; Upadhyaya, Ramesh C

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the activities conducted by the Race and Gender Committee of one school of nursing in North Carolina to promote cultural awareness and knowledge among faculty and doctoral students. Wells's Institutional Cultural Development Model provided a theoretical framework for a systematic approach to the development of activities designed to identify cultural issues as they relate to teaching and research. Strategies used included a variety of seminars and workshops and the participation of consultants and experts. The workshops and other programs led to improved interdepartmental dialogue among faculty and doctoral students, facilitated faculty and students' understanding of cultural diversity, provided the groundwork for promotion of attitudinal and behavioral changes, and increased cultural awareness and knowledge. Recommendations are included for developing similar programs.

  5. Barriers in Sustainable Knowledge Management Model in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present a comprehensive model in education using the data base collected from 101 students from Turkey. The target group was students involved in academic life system. Results are used to design a model where education transfer of knowledge it is investigated in function of possible barriers as internal, external and knowledge management factors of influence in education selection and students vision for education development. As a conclusion, the evaluation of the barriers in sustainable knowledge management in education present a cross-educational model which seems to indicate its highly effective resource for environmental education focused on sustainability, and favours the development of knowledge, attitudes and future intentions of inspiring educational environment. The model can be useful on passing of knowledge from one generation to the next generation, managing succession and distributing the competencies and responsibilities to a repetitive change.

  6. Robustness of a Distributed Knowledge Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kühn; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge management based on symmetric incentives is rarely found in literature. A knowledge exchange model relies upon a double loop knowledge conversion with symmetric incentives in a network. The model merges specific knowledge with knowledge from other actors into a decision support system...

  7. Knowledge Growth: Applied Models of General and Individual Knowledge Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkina, Galina Iu.; Bakanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the mathematical models of the growth and accumulation of scientific and applied knowledge since it is seen as the main potential and key competence of modern companies. The problem is examined on two levels--the growth and evolution of objective knowledge and knowledge evolution of a particular individual. Both processes are…

  8. Students' Mental Models of Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Mental modeling, which is a theory about knowledge organization, has been recently studied by science educators to examine students' understanding of scientific concepts. This qualitative study investigates undergraduate students' mental models of atomic spectra. Nine second-year physics students, who have already taken the basic chemistry and…

  9. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  10. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  11. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

  12. The Framing Discussion: Connecting Student Experience with Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, John E.; Balong, Megan

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the framing discussion, an informal discussion of a mathematical problem that takes place at the beginning of a lesson or unit. The purpose of the framing discussion is to assess student knowledge, motivate student interest, and to serve as a basis for guiding students to more formal mathematical knowledge. The article…

  13. Using Partial Credit and Response History to Model User Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Inwegen, Eric G.; Adjei, Seth A.; Wang, Yan; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2015-01-01

    User modelling algorithms such as Performance Factors Analysis and Knowledge Tracing seek to determine a student's knowledge state by analyzing (among other features) right and wrong answers. Anyone who has ever graded an assignment by hand knows that some answers are "more wrong" than others; i.e. they display less of an understanding…

  14. Do Knowledge-Component Models Need to Incorporate Representational Competencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina Angela

    2017-01-01

    Traditional knowledge-component models describe students' content knowledge (e.g., their ability to carry out problem-solving procedures or their ability to reason about a concept). In many STEM domains, instruction uses multiple visual representations such as graphs, figures, and diagrams. The use of visual representations implies a…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Their Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Lilia; Abdullah, Sharifah Intan Sharina Syed; Meerah, T. Subahan Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a type of teacher knowledge to be developed by a teacher. PCK is said to contribute to effective teaching. Most studies investigated the development of PCK and its influence on students' learning from the teachers' perspectives. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the components of science teachers' PCK that helped students' learning from the perspective of students. Thus, it is the aim of this study to investigate the level of science teachers' PCK from students' perspective, in particular whether or not students of different achieving ability had different views of teachers' PCK in assisting their learning and understanding. Based on the PCK research literature, six components of PCK have been identified, which were as follows: (1) subject matter knowledge, (2) knowledge of teaching strategies, (3) knowledge of concept representation, (4) knowledge of teaching context, (5) knowledge of students, and (6) knowledge of assessment in learning science. A questionnaire consisting of 56 items on a five-point Likert-type scale were used for data collection from 316 Form Four students (16 years old). One-way analysis of variance revealed that the differences in science teachers' PCK identified by students of different achieving abilities were statistically significant. Overall, students of various academic achieving abilities considered all the components of PCK as important. The low-achieving students viewed all the components of PCK as being less important compared to the high and moderate achievers. In particular, low-achieving students do not view `knowledge of concept representation' as important for effective teaching. They valued the fact that teachers should be alert to their needs, such as being sensitive to students' reactions and preparing additional learning materials. This study has revealed that PCK of science teachers should be different for high and low-achieving students and knowledge of students

  16. Students' Knowledge of "Things That Go Bump in the Night."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

    Questionnaires designed to tap misconceptions of the content of psychology courses can serve as pedagogical devices useful for introducing students to topics and for evaluating student learning. The topic of sleep and dreams is of particular interest to students. To develop a useful introductory tool and to evaluate students' knowledge of sleep,…

  17. Undergraduate Students' Preferences of Knowledge to Solve Particle Mechanics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneta, Kakoma; Makonye, Judah P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of undergraduate students' errors and misconceptions in particle mechanics. This paper provides in-depth descriptions of the errors presented by students and accounts for them in terms of students' procedural or conceptual knowledge. Specifically, this study analyses students' written responses to questions on…

  18. The Alchemy of Art: Transforming Student Art into Science Knowledge in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mickie

    2005-01-01

    Art provides students a way to visually represent their scientific knowledge and at the same time helps teachers assess student understanding. Examining a drawing allows teachers to scrutinize students' mental model of a science concept. Science can be described as a continuing process of discovering the order and recurring patterns in nature;…

  19. Assessing the knowledge and perceptions of medical students from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health science students are key players in implementing the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Knowledge and understanding at university level is essential to achieve the goals by 2015. The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of fifth-year medical students at ...

  20. ICT Knowledge and Skills Among Students of Library and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT Knowledge and Skills Among Students of Library and Information Science in Umaru Musa Yar'adu University, Nigeria. ... Information Manager (The) ... The aim of the study is to investigate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) knowledge and skills amongst the students of library and information science in ...

  1. Threat, Intimidation, and Student Financial Market Knowledge: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Matthew W.; Devoto, Steve; Kent, Daniel W.; Harrison, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Threat emanating from financial markets may intimidate college students to some degree. In this article, the authors considered the influence of such intimidation on student financial market knowledge. They hypothesized a negative relationship between intimidation and market knowledge. An empirical study of over 150 undergraduate business school…

  2. Combating Ageism: Change in Student Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…

  3. Drawing on Dynamic Local Knowledge through Student-Generated Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Monson, Bayley; Moses, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors explored how teachers using student-generated photography draw on local knowledge. The study draws on the framework of funds of knowledge to highlight the assets marginalized students bring to the classroom and the need for culturally relevant pedagogy to address the needs of a diverse public school population. The…

  4. Scaffolding Students' Knowledge Integration: Prompts for Reflection in KIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2000-01-01

    Encouraging students to be autonomous is an important goal of the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration (SKI) framework. Investigates learning and design questions. Indicates that prompting students to reflect significantly increases knowledge integration in science projects. Shows that self-monitoring prompts, which encourage planning for and…

  5. Diagnostic reasoning and underlying knowledge of students with preclinical patient contacts in PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemers, Agnes D; van de Wiel, Margje W J; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Baarveld, Frank; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2015-12-01

    Medical experts have access to elaborate and integrated knowledge networks consisting of biomedical and clinical knowledge. These coherent knowledge networks enable them to generate more accurate diagnoses in a shorter time. However, students' knowledge networks are less organised and students have difficulties linking theory and practice and transferring acquired knowledge. Therefore we wanted to explore the development and transfer of knowledge of third-year preclinical students on a problem-based learning (PBL) course with real patient contacts. Before and after a 10-week PBL course with real patients, third-year medical students were asked to think out loud while diagnosing four types of paper patient problems (two course cases and two transfer cases), and explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the patient features. Diagnostic accuracy and time needed to think through the cases were measured. The think-aloud protocols were transcribed verbatim and different types of knowledge were coded and quantitatively analysed. The written pathophysiological explanations were translated into networks of concepts. Both the concepts and the links between concepts in students' networks were compared to model networks. Over the course diagnostic accuracy increased, case-processing time decreased, and students used less biomedical and clinical knowledge during diagnostic reasoning. The quality of the pathophysiological explanations increased: the students used more concepts, especially more model concepts, and they used fewer wrong concepts and links. The findings differed across course and transfer cases. The effects were generally less strong for transfer cases. Students' improved diagnostic accuracy and the improved quality of their knowledge networks suggest that integration of biomedical and clinical knowledge took place during a 10-week course. The differences between course and transfer cases demonstrate that transfer is complex and time-consuming. We

  6. Impact of clinical teaching on students knowledge acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Shabih

    2003-08-01

    We are in the process of curriculum revision and for that we need to know the strengths and weaknesses of the current teaching program and the venue that may need more attention. To proceed with this aim, we conducted this study. The study was conducted on 2 groups of students rotating through nursery as a part of Pediatrics clerkship at King Faisal University, Dammam, KSA, during a 2 month study, April through to May 2001. A 15 item questionnaire was developed for testing. By using a pre-test post-test model, we looked at the scores achieved by the students on the questionnaire before and after 2 weeks of intensive clinical teaching. In the first group of students, the mean percentage of correctly answered questions were higher in the post-test (78%) as compared to pre-test (64%), which was statistically significant, p=0.02. A similar trend was noted in the second group, the mean percentage of correctly answered questions were higher in the post-test (64%) as compared to pre-test (78%), which was also statistically significant, p=0.004. We concluded that our method of clinical teaching followed during nursery rotation was effective in increasing students knowledge. However, attention is needed on some topics in which students are noted to be relatively weak.

  7. Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students toward Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitasha; Ghai, Sandhya; Grover, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the commonly used treatment modalities for patients with severe mental disorders. However, acceptance of ECT by the patient and relatives often depends on how the health-care professionals themselves present the treatment modality to the patients and their relatives. There is a lack of information about the knowledge and attitude toward ECT among health professionals. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge about and attitude toward ECT among nursing students. Methodology: Knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among nursing students were assessed using ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires. Results: The study included 183 nursing students. Majority (n = 62; 60.8%) of the participants obtained information about ECT from media (movies, television, print media, etc.). None of the students had full knowledge about ECT. Although a significant proportion of students had knowledge about the ECT procedure and consent procedure, majority of them had poor knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitudes were also highly prevalent, with more than two-thirds of the participants having negative attitudes toward ECT on more than half of the attitude items of the scale. Total knowledge score positively correlated with total attitude score, suggesting that higher knowledge was associated with more positive attitude. Conclusions: Although nursing students have knowledge about basic ECT procedure and consent, they lack knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitude toward ECT is also highly prevalent among nursing students. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the knowledge and address the negative attitude of nursing students, which may ultimately lead to better acceptance of the treatment. PMID:28936064

  8. An Expedient Study on Back-Propagation (BPN) Neural Networks for Modeling Automated Evaluation of the Answers and Progress of Deaf Students' That Possess Basic Knowledge of the English Language and Computer Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrettaros, John; Vouros, George; Drigas, Athanasios S.

    This article studies the expediency of using neural networks technology and the development of back-propagation networks (BPN) models for modeling automated evaluation of the answers and progress of deaf students' that possess basic knowledge of the English language and computer skills, within a virtual e-learning environment. The performance of the developed neural models is evaluated with the correlation factor between the neural networks' response values and the real value data as well as the percentage measurement of the error between the neural networks' estimate values and the real value data during its training process and afterwards with unknown data that weren't used in the training process.

  9. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and ...

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of clinical level dental students concerning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Although Nigerian dental students exhibited good knowledge and positive attitude concerning HIV/AIDS, this study showed that knowledge of laboratory investigations and infection control measures were poor. These areas need emphasis in the dental school curriculum. Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, dental ...

  11. College students' knowledge about fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Johnson, Mark E; Metzger, Jesse S; Dewane, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are the leading known preventable birth defects in North America. Knowledge surveys about FASD have been conducted with various health and allied healthcare providers and have proven useful in identifying gaps in knowledge and differences among provider groups to support prevention efforts. To date, no research has been conducted exploring FASD knowledge among college students. This study explored FASD knowledge in a sample of college students, a group at particularly high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Findings are compared to professionals in several healthcare and affiliated professional groups who were previously surveyed with the same FASD-related items. Surveys from 1,035 college students at a northwestern university were analyzed. Included with the ACHA-National College Health Assessment II were questions regarding FASD. College students' knowledge was compared with that of professionals in key healthcare and affiliated positions to define their relative awareness of FASD risk. Overall, findings revealed adequate FASD knowledge among college students. Although minor differences emerged when comparing students and professionals' responses, most respondent groups answered with an 85% accuracy rate or higher. College students demonstrated adequate knowledgeable about FASD. Future research must explore whether such knowledge translates into lower risk behavior and consequent reduction in alcohol-exposed pregnancies.

  12. Assessment of Metacognitive Knowledge in Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Marion; Lockl, Kathrin; Heydrich, Jana; Weinert, Sabine; Artelt, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether and, if so, how metacognitive knowledge can be assessed validly in students with special educational needs in a large-scale assessment like the German National Educational Panel Study. In total, 804 sixth-grade students including both regular school students attending the lowest track of secondary education…

  13. Student teachers’ ideas on (powerful) knowledge in geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beneker, T.; Palings, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the ideas of Dutch student teachers about what kind of geographical knowledge secondary students should learn. We take into account the backgrounds of student teachers by comparing three groups in different teacher-education programmes. Their ideas are analysed using Alaric

  14. Drawing on Student Knowledge of Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara N.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Drawings are an underutilized assessment format in Human Anatomy and Physiology (HA&P), despite their potential to reveal student content understanding and alternative conceptions. This study used student-generated drawings to explore student knowledge in a HA&P course. The drawing tasks in this study focused on chemical synapses between…

  15. Knowledge of Webloging among Library Science Students: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on investigating the knowledge of weblogging among library science students in Federal Polytechnic, Nekede. The study used descriptive survey research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 115 students among the final year students. A structured questionnaire was developed ...

  16. Drawing on student knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara N; Momsen, Jennifer L; Montplaisir, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Drawings are an underutilized assessment format in Human Anatomy and Physiology (HA&P), despite their potential to reveal student content understanding and alternative conceptions. This study used student-generated drawings to explore student knowledge in a HA&P course. The drawing tasks in this study focused on chemical synapses between neurons, an abstract concept in HA&P. Using two preinstruction drawing tasks, students were asked to depict synaptic transmission and summation. In response to the first drawing task, 20% of students ( n = 352) created accurate representations of neuron anatomy. The remaining students created drawings suggesting an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of synaptic transmission. Of the 208 inaccurate student-generated drawings, 21% depicted the neurons as touching. When asked to illustrate summation, only 10 students (roughly 4%) were able to produce an accurate drawing. Overall, students were more successful at drawing anatomy (synapse) than physiology (summation) before formal instruction. The common errors observed in student-generated drawings indicate students do not enter the classroom as blank slates. The error of "touching" neurons in a chemical synapse suggests that students may be using intuitive or experiential knowledge when reasoning about physiological concepts. These results 1 ) support the utility of drawing tasks as a tool to reveal student content knowledge about neuroanatomy and neurophysiology; and 2 ) suggest students enter the classroom with better knowledge of anatomy than physiology. Collectively, the findings from this study inform both practitioners and researchers about the prevalence and nature of student difficulties in HA&P, while also demonstrating the utility of drawing in revealing student knowledge. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Czech students and EU – knowledge and views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Jirků

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of a pilot study themed “Czech students and EU”, which adum­bra­ted a prepared extensive research in graduation years of secondary schools of the region Vysočina on the occasion of the Czech chairmanship in the European Union in the first half-year of 2009. The pilot study included 362 students of the Polytechnic College in Jihlava. Its objective consisted particularly in the rectification of a questionnaire and exploratory research into relationships between the know­led­ge and opinion parts of questionnaires even within the both mentioned parts by means of factor analysis and methods of structural modelling. With respect to the considerable number of respondents and standard conditions, which were ensured at completing the questionnaires it is not possible to ignore even results concerning the knowledge and views of the group of respondents as a whole as well as particular specific segments. Our research was inspired by a “Eurobarometer”, but with respect to a fact that (unlike the Standard Eurobarometer it refers to a specific target group, ie studying young people, it concerns only partly and only in some questions comparable examination. Therefore, the questionnaire (in contrast to Eurobarometer involves also the knowledge part. This part includes eight fields. With respect to the study orientation of the respondents surprisingly worse results occur particularly in fields Institution, politics and law of EU (30% successfulness and Economy and finance of EU (37% successfulness. On the contrary, the highest successfulness (of course, only relatively was noted in fields Culture, education and sport in EU (63%. Generally, knowledge of students can be unambiguously evaluated as poor. The opinion part includes in total 20 items, which are divided into five fields. In particular respondents, sex, the size of the place of residence, political profile, social group of a household, ideas of a future

  18. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease in Turkish undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badir, Aysel; Tekkas, Kader; Topcu, Serpil

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. However, there is not enough data exploring student nurses' understanding, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease. To investigate knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among undergraduate nursing students, with an emphasis on understanding of cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of mortality and morbidity, both in Turkey and worldwide. This cross-sectional survey assessed 1138 nursing students enrolled in nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Data were collected using the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Knowledge Level (CARRF-KL) scale and questions from the Individual Characteristics Form about students' gender, age, level of education, and family cardiovascular health history, as well as smoking and exercise habits. Respondents demonstrated a high level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease, with years of education (p students were not aware that cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Turkey and worldwide. The majority of the respondents' body mass index (87%) and waist circumference values (females: 90.3%, males: 94.7%) were in the normal range and most were non-smokers (83.7%). However, more than half of the students did not exercise regularly and had inadequate dietary habits. Although students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, there were significant gaps in their knowledge; these should be addressed through improved nursing curricula. While students were generally healthy, they could improve their practice of health-promoting behaviors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  19. Students' Conceptions of Knowledge, Information, and Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Loughlin, Sandra M.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, everyday conceptions of knowledge, information, and truth were investigated as 161 US undergraduates completed three online tasks that investigated understandings of these foundational constructs. For the first task, respondents graphically represented the interrelations of knowledge, information, and truth; the second task required…

  20. Knowledge-Based Environmental Context Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukite, P. R.; Challou, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    As we move from the oil-age to an energy infrastructure based on renewables, the need arises for new educational tools to support the analysis of geophysical phenomena and their behavior and properties. Our objective is to present models of these phenomena to make them amenable for incorporation into more comprehensive analysis contexts. Starting at the level of a college-level computer science course, the intent is to keep the models tractable and therefore practical for student use. Based on research performed via an open-source investigation managed by DARPA and funded by the Department of Interior [1], we have adapted a variety of physics-based environmental models for a computer-science curriculum. The original research described a semantic web architecture based on patterns and logical archetypal building-blocks (see figure) well suited for a comprehensive environmental modeling framework. The patterns span a range of features that cover specific land, atmospheric and aquatic domains intended for engineering modeling within a virtual environment. The modeling engine contained within the server relied on knowledge-based inferencing capable of supporting formal terminology (through NASA JPL's Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Technology (SWEET) ontology and a domain-specific language) and levels of abstraction via integrated reasoning modules. One of the key goals of the research was to simplify models that were ordinarily computationally intensive to keep them lightweight enough for interactive or virtual environment contexts. The breadth of the elements incorporated is well-suited for learning as the trend toward ontologies and applying semantic information is vital for advancing an open knowledge infrastructure. As examples of modeling, we have covered such geophysics topics as fossil-fuel depletion, wind statistics, tidal analysis, and terrain modeling, among others. Techniques from the world of computer science will be necessary to promote efficient

  1. COGMIR: A computer model for knowledge integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.X.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation explores some aspects of knowledge integration, namely, accumulation of scientific knowledge and performing analogical reasoning on the acquired knowledge. Knowledge to be integrated is conveyed by paragraph-like pieces referred to as documents. By incorporating some results from cognitive science, the Deutsch-Kraft model of information retrieval is extended to a model for knowledge engineering, which integrates acquired knowledge and performs intelligent retrieval. The resulting computer model is termed COGMIR, which stands for a COGnitive Model for Intelligent Retrieval. A scheme, named query invoked memory reorganization, is used in COGMIR for knowledge integration. Unlike some other schemes which realize knowledge integration through subjective understanding by representing new knowledge in terms of existing knowledge, the proposed scheme suggests at storage time only recording the possible connection of knowledge acquired from different documents. The actual binding of the knowledge acquired from different documents is deferred to query time. There is only one way to store knowledge and numerous ways to utilize the knowledge. Each document can be represented as a whole as well as its meaning. In addition, since facts are constructed from the documents, document retrieval and fact retrieval are treated in a unified way. When the requested knowledge is not available, query invoked memory reorganization can generate suggestion based on available knowledge through analogical reasoning. This is done by revising the algorithms developed for document retrieval and fact retrieval, and by incorporating Gentner's structure mapping theory. Analogical reasoning is treated as a natural extension of intelligent retrieval, so that two previously separate research areas are combined. A case study is provided. All the components are implemented as list structures similar to relational data-bases.

  2. Robustness of a Distributed Knowledge Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In globalizing competitive markets knowledge exchangebetween business organizations requires incentivemechanisms to ensure tactical purposes while strategicpurposes are subject to joint organization and otherforms of contractual obligations. Where property ofknowledge (e.g. patents and copyrights......) and contractbasedknowledge exchange do not obtain networkeffectiveness because of prohibitive transaction costs inreducing uncertainty, we suggest a robust model for peerproduced knowledge within a distributed setting. Thepeer produced knowledge exchange model relies upon adouble loop knowledge conversion...... with symmetricincentives in a network since the production of actorspecific knowledge makes any knowledge appropriationby use of property rights by the actors irrelevant. Withoutproperty rights in knowledge the actor network generatesopportunity for incentive symmetry over a period of time.The model merges specific...

  3. HPV knowledge in Mexican college students: implications for intervention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogtmann, Emily; Harlow, Siobán D; Valdez, Aurelio Cruz; Valdez, Juan Carlos Cruz; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano

    2011-03-01

    In order to promote new human papillomavirus (HPV) prevention and detection methods effectively in Mexico, it is important to understand how much the population knows about the virus. This study aimed to determine the demographic and behavioural factors associated with HPV awareness and knowledge in a population of Mexican college students. With a response rate of 77%, data were collected from 1109 college students aged 17-25 years old at the Autonomous University of the State of Morelos in 2006. Students completed a questionnaire that assessed demographic and behavioural characteristics along with questions about HPV. A small percentage (16.9%) of the college students had never heard about HPV. Characteristics associated with not having heard about HPV included being male, not having running water, not having health insurance and not having sexual experience. Students had a median score of 5 out of 10 on an HPV knowledge index based on 10 yes/no questions about HPV developed for this study. Students had higher HPV knowledge scores if they studied health science, or science and engineering, were a fourth year student, had running water at home, had health insurance, or were a female who had had a previous Pap smear. Although most of these Mexican college students had heard of HPV, they had limited knowledge about the virus and prevention strategies. Further research in Mexican college students is needed to explain the variations in HPV knowledge to create appropriate health education programmes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Knowledge Management through the Equilibrium Pattern Model for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarirete, Akila; Noble, Elizabeth; Chikh, Azeddine

    Contemporary students are characterized by having very applied learning styles and methods of acquiring knowledge. This behavior is consistent with the constructivist models where students are co-partners in the learning process. In the present work the authors developed a new model of learning based on the constructivist theory coupled with the cognitive development theory of Piaget. The model considers the level of learning based on several stages and the move from one stage to another requires learners' challenge. At each time a new concept is introduced creates a disequilibrium that needs to be worked out to return back to its equilibrium stage. This process of "disequilibrium/equilibrium" has been analyzed and validated using a course in computer networking as part of Cisco Networking Academy Program at Effat College, a women college in Saudi Arabia. The model provides a theoretical foundation for teaching especially in a complex knowledge domain such as engineering and can be used in a knowledge economy.

  5. A Knowledge Generation Model via the Hypernetwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Guang-Yong; Hu, Zhao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the statistical properties of the network on the knowledge diffusion has been extensively studied. However, the structure evolution and the knowledge generation processes are always integrated simultaneously. By introducing the Cobb-Douglas production function and treating the knowledge growth as a cooperative production of knowledge, in this paper, we present two knowledge-generation dynamic evolving models based on different evolving mechanisms. The first model, named “HDPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the hyperdegree preferential attachment mechanisms. The second model, named “KSPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the knowledge stock preferential attachment mechanisms. We investigate the effect of the parameters on the total knowledge stock of the two models. The hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model can be theoretically analyzed by the mean-field theory. The analytic result indicates that the hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model obeys the power-law distribution and the exponent is . Furthermore, we present the distributions of the knowledge stock for different parameters . The findings indicate that our proposed models could be helpful for deeply understanding the scientific research cooperation. PMID:24626143

  6. Knowing nursing through inquiry: engaging students in knowledge creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Fabiola; Lindsay, Gail

    2011-12-01

    Two nurse educators share a nursing knowledge course, which was created as a forum for questioning and discovery, thereby revealing a process of knowing nursing through inquiry. The process of inquiry in nursing praxis is emphasized, facilitating students' understanding that they are knowledge-users and creators. With students, we explore the construction of praxis, which includes being/becoming (ontology), knowing (epistemology), and doing (actions with consequences). Nursing knowledge is understood to arise from philosophy, world views, nursing theories, patterns of knowing, evidence-based research, and standards of practice. Students are encouraged to critically reflect on and use what is congruent with their praxis and to construct new knowledge. Exemplars from nurse educators and students are presented as evidence of our claim for furthering the science of nursing education.

  7. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    SUBJECT MATTER AND READING COMPREHENSION ... KEY WORDS: Students' Perception, Teachers' Knowledge of Subject Matter, Reading Comprehension .... development. 2. Educational administrators should make provision for teachers to participate in conferences, seminars, workshops, in- service trainings, etc.

  8. Visualization study of operators' plant knowledge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Tarou; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear plants are typically very complicated systems and are required extremely high level safety on the operations. Since it is never possible to include all the possible anomaly scenarios in education/training curriculum, plant knowledge formation is desired for operators to enable thein to act against unexpected anomalies based on knowledge base decision making. The authors have been conducted a study on operators' plant knowledge model for the purpose of supporting operators' effort in forming this kind of plant knowledge. In this report, an integrated plant knowledge model consisting of configuration space, causality space, goal space and status space is proposed. The authors examined appropriateness of this model and developed a prototype system to support knowledge formation by visualizing the operators' knowledge model and decision making process in knowledge-based actions with this model on a software system. Finally the feasibility of this prototype as a supportive method in operator education/training to enhance operators' ability in knowledge-based performance has been evaluated. (author)

  9. Knowledge level of contraception issues in high-school students

    OpenAIRE

    Drahošová, Miloslava

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze knowledge level of contraception issues in highschool students. Theoretical part of this study describes evolution of contraceptive methods and gives their description as well as describes sex education approaches and their actual application and stage in contemporary education system. Experimental (investigative) part of this work comprises comparison of knowledge levels in student of different type of schools and of different urbanic units. Compares diffe...

  10. Understanding the Codevelopment of Modeling Practice and Ecological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Eve

    2012-01-01

    Despite a recent focus on engaging students in epistemic practices, there is relatively little research on how learning environments can support the simultaneous, coordinated development of both practice and the knowledge that emerges from and supports scientific activity. This study reports on the co-construction of modeling practice and…

  11. Medical students and interns' knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Medical professionals' attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns' knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from 'true', 'false', or 'don't know'. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.

  12. Medical students and interns′ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Banwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Medical professionals′ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns′ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244 were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ. SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ′true′, ′false′, or ′don′t know′. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.

  13. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  14. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  15. Knowledge and use of emergency contraception among students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and use of emergency contraception among students of public secondary schools in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Knowledge about Emergency contraception and prevalence of use were low. Contraceptive education should be introduced early in the school curriculum for adolescents. Pan African Medical Journal 2016; 23 ...

  16. Developing Secondary Students' Epistemic Agency in a Knowledge-Building Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Campbell, Madeline

    2018-01-01

    A key educational objective for the twenty-first century is developing students' epistemic agency. Epistemic agency is the active process of choosing when, what, where one learns and how one knows, as well as the capacity to create knowledge in a community. The knowledge-building communities model developed by Scardamalia and Bereiter was used in…

  17. South African medical students' perceptions and knowledge about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Education of medical students has been identified by the World Health Organization as an important aspect of antibiotic resistance (ABR) containment. Surveys from high-income countries consistently reveal that medical students recognise the importance of antibiotic prescribing knowledge, but feel ...

  18. The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of healthcare students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dietetics, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech-language and hearing therapy. Outcome measures: Self-administered, face-validated questionnaire. Results: There was an increase in knowledge in the final-year students when compared to the first-year students of their understanding of each profession.

  19. Impact of Prior Knowledge of Behavioural Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated impact of prior knowledge of behavioural objectives on students' academic achievements in physics. The quasi-experimental research design was used for the study. The sample for the study consisted of a total of one hundred and eighty eight (188) students drawn from secondary schools in Yakurr ...

  20. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The study examined the effect of prior knowledge of instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected difficult concepts in senior secondary school physics. A total of. 100 senior secondary two (SS II) physics students were involved in the study. A non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of medical students regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high‑risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, ...

  2. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of prior knowledge of instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected difficult concepts in senior secondary school physics. A total of 100 senior secondary two (SS II) physics students were involved in the study. A non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used.

  3. Student Portfolios as Windows into Intercultural Knowledge and Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Esko; Hynynen, Nina

    2018-01-01

    This research paper deals with intercultural knowledge and knowing as displayed in higher education student portfolios. The portfolios were written by student pairs taking a global education course at Centria University of Applied Sciences, Finland, during seven academic years. Conceptual metaphor theory and metaphor analysis were utilised to…

  4. Factors inhibiting students' ICT knowledge acquisition and utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports part of a graduate thesis which investigated students' ICT knowledge, skills, and utilization at Oguaa School for the Deaf in the Central Region of Ghana. A randomly selected sample of 40 students completed researcher-developed questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to ...

  5. Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of University of Maine Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferk, Chelsea C.; Calder, Beth L.; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue. Young adults may work in foodservice while they are university students, and their habits may later shape the practices and well-being of their children. The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and assess the food safety knowledge of 18- to 26-year-old Univ. of Maine students.…

  6. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  7. on The Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students Towards ECT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited literature on attitude and knowledge of medical students towards ECT from Asian and African countries.[11-14] A prior study from India reported less favorable attitudes among medical students towards ECT. The undergraduate medical curriculum in India has been criticized for inadequately preparing ...

  8. Student Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior in the Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Jack V.

    1985-01-01

    Administered a questionnaire designed to measure consumer health knowledge and behavior to 200 randomly selected university students and 200 randomly selected high school students. Results demonstrated the consumer is hard pressed to stay informed and protected in the marketplace and needs guidance. (Author/BH)

  9. How Concept-Mapping Perception Navigates Student Knowledge Transfer Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tan, Yue; Chiu, Chien-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of concept maps as a learning tool where knowledge transfer is the goal. This article includes an evaluation of the learning performance of 42 undergraduate students enrolled in a nanotech course at a university in Taiwan. Canonical correlation and MANOVA analyses were employed to…

  10. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  11. Knowledge of English language as a predictor of students\\' cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the authors, using ex-post-facto procedure, attempted to show the effect of knowledge of English language on students\\' cognitive achievement in senior secondary school mathematics. In all 504 SS II students, comprising 252 males and 252 females were sampled, using cluster sampling technique.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice of Medical Students Regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high‑risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, ...

  13. Graduate Counseling Students' Learning, Development, and Retention of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Ieva, Kara P.; Mullen, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated 52 graduate counseling students' levels of ethical and legal knowledge (Lambie, Hagedorn, & Ieva, 2010) and social-cognitive development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996) at three points: (a) prior to a counseling ethics course, (b) at the completion of the course, and (c) four months later. Students' ethical and legal…

  14. Portuguese Students' Knowledge of Radiation Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Florbela; Peralta, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Radiation is an important aspect of daily life. We interact with radiation from several sources, both natural and manmade, and in fact life on Earth depends on it. Although the general population, and students in particular, can recognize its importance, it is not clear whether they understand its meaning. Bearing these considerations in mind, a…

  15. Enhancing Senior Secondary Students Knowledge of English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct explicit and indirect explicit grammar instructional strategies enhanced students' achievement in English grammar and composition in public senior secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis. Teachers should adopt both strategies in teaching English grammar and composition for improved performance. Keywords: ...

  16. The Effect of Coping Knowledge on Emergency Preparedness in Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and…

  17. College Students Constructing Collective Knowledge of Natural Science History in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…

  18. The Effect of Knowledge Linking Levels in Biology Lessons upon Students' Knowledge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadouh, Julia; Liu, Ning; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge structure is an important aspect for defining students' competency in biology learning, but how knowledge structure is influenced by the teaching process in naturalistic biology classroom settings has scarcely been empirically investigated. In this study, 49 biology lessons in the teaching unit "blood and circulatory system" in…

  19. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Knowledge of Fractions: A Mirror of Students' Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenbrugge, H.; Lesage, E.; Valcke, M.; Desoete, A.

    2014-01-01

    This research analyses preservice teachers' knowledge of fractions. Fractions are notoriously difficult for students to learn and for teachers to teach. Previous studies suggest that student learning of fractions may be limited by teacher understanding of fractions. If so, teacher education has a key role in solving the problem. We first reviewed…

  20. Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

    2013-04-06

    Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

  1. Improving the quantum mechanics content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of physics graduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily Megan

    Many physics graduate students face the unique challenge of being both students and teachers concurrently. To succeed in these roles, they must develop both physics content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. My research focuses on improving both the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of first year graduate students. To improve their content knowledge, I have focused on improving graduate students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics covered in upper-level undergraduate courses since our earlier investigations suggest that many graduate students struggle in developing a conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. Learning tools, such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) that I have developed, have been successful in helping graduate students improve their understanding of Dirac notation and single photon behavior in the context of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. In addition, I have been involved in enhancing our semester long course professional development course for teaching assistants (TAs) by including research-based activities. In particular, I have been researching the implications of graduate TAs' reflections on the connections between their grading practices and student learning, i.e., the development of introductory physics students' content knowledge and problem-solving, reasoning, and metacognitive skills. This research involves having graduate students grade sample student solutions to introductory physics problems. Afterward, the graduate TAs discuss with each other the pros and cons of different grading rubrics on student learning and formulate a joint grading rubric to grade the problem. The graduate TAs are individually asked to reformulate a rubric and grade problems using the rubric several months after the group activity to assess the impact of the intervention on graduate TAs. In addition to the intervention focusing on grading sample student solutions, graduate TAs are also asked to answer

  2. [Knowledge about basic life support in European students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, József; Pandúr, Attila; Pék, Emese; Deutsch, Krisztina; Bánfai, Bálint; Radnai, Balázs; Betlehem, József

    2014-05-25

    Better knowledge and skills of basic life support can save millions of lives each year in Europe. The aim of this study was to measure the knowledge about basic life support in European students. From 13 European countries 1527 volunteer participated in the survey. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic questions and knowledge regarding basic life support. The maximum possible score was 18. Those participants who had basic life support training earned 11.91 points, while those who had not participated in lifesaving education had 9.6 points (pbasic life support between students from different European countries. Western European youth, and those who were trained had better performance.

  3. Tacit knowledge in academia: a proposed model and measurement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Nancy; Insch, Gary S

    2005-11-01

    The authors propose a multidimensional model of tacit knowledge and develop a measure of tacit knowledge in academia. They discuss the theory and extant literature on tacit knowledge and propose a 6-factor model. Experiment 1 is a replication of a recent study of academic tacit knowledge using the scale developed and administered at an Israeli university (A. Somech & R. Bogler, 1999). The results of the replication differed from those found in the original study. For Experiment 2, the authors developed a domain-specific measure of academic tacit knowledge, the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale (ATKS), and used this measure to explore the multidimensionality of tacit knowledge proposed in the model. The results of an exploratory factor analysis (n=142) followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (n=286) are reported. The sample for both experiments was 428 undergraduate students enrolled at a large public university in the eastern United States. Results indicated that a 5-factor model of academic tacit knowledge provided a strong fit for the data.

  4. Infection control: Knowledge and compliance among Saudi undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; AlMasri, Ousamah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control procedures among undergraduate dental students. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on students' vaccination status as well as knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control was sent to 600 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P<0.05. The response rate was 85% (512 out of 600). While the vast majority of students (90%) had been vaccinated against hepatitis, only 37.4% have been assessed for anti-HBs. A total of 98.8% and 90.8% reported always wearing gloves and masks, respectively, during dental procedures. The use of protective eyewear was reported by only 29.2%. A significantly higher proportion of sixth-year students showed a positive attitude toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases than other students of lower academic years. Approximately one-third of students reported having one or more occupational injuries while treating their patients. Although the students had good knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control, the compliance and practice levels regarding the same were low. Such findings highlight the necessity of continued infection-control education of Saudi dental students.

  5. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  6. AIDS knowledge and homophobia among French and American university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, G; Richman, C L; Wallace, S; Tilquin, C

    1990-12-01

    22 male American and 24 male French college students' knowledge of AIDS scores were equivalent on a currently constructed 18-item questionnaire. Both groups answered more than 75% of the questions correctly. The American students' homophobic bias and reaction scores were higher than those of the French students on a 43-item homophobic questionnaire. The latter findings were interpreted as consistent with reduced effects of conservative, orthodox religion in France and the stability of traditional religious influence in America over the past three decades. No relation was found between knowledge of AIDS and homophobia in these small conveniently available samples.

  7. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Álvarez, R; Medeiros, M; Lagunes, LI Reyes; Campos-Sepúlveda, AE

    2012-01-01

    R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to pati...

  8. Nursing students' knowledge of child abuse and neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Pashapu, Dharma Reddy; Kathyayani, B V; Gandhi, SaiLaxmi; El-Arousy, Wafaa; Math, Suresh Bada

    Child abuse and neglect are global phenomena. Research on knowledge of and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect among nursing students in India is limited. To investigate undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect. A descriptive design was adopted for the study, in which 158 nursing students participated by responding to a standardised questionnaire. The findings revealed that students' knowledge of child abuse and neglect is inadequate, as the total mean (M) score was 13.84±4.35 (M±standard deviation (SD)). The total attitude score of 50.37±6.196 (M±SD) indicated participants' positive attitudes towards prevention of child abuse and neglect. However, there was a negative relation between age and attitudes towards and knowledge of child abuse. Older students scored higher on the total attitude and knowledge scale compared with younger students. The study findings support the hypothesis that nursing education programmes need to improve the curricular content related to the assessment and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect, and prevention strategies to improve the wellbeing of children. Curricular changes have the potential to provide nurses with an opportunity to reduce the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in India.

  9. Knowledge Management System Model for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Yousif; Monamad, Roshayu

    2017-01-01

    Based on the literature of knowledge management (KM), this paper reports on the progress of developing a new knowledge management system (KMS) model with components architecture that are distributed over the widely-recognised socio-technical system (STS) aspects to guide developers for selecting the most applicable components to support their KM…

  10. Emergency contraception: knowledge and attitudes of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Lorrane Carneiro Veloso

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception among nursing students from a public university in Goiás - a state in Brazil. A descriptive and analytical research methodology with a quantitative approach was used, applying, from February to May 2011 a questionnaire on the sexual knowledge and attitude of students regarding emergency contraception. 178 students participated in the study. Knowledge was confirmed through the high frequency of correct answers to the questions, especially those concerning the correct time and the instructions for use (between 86% - 96%. Although many students use this method, there are still some doubts about the mechanism of action, side effects and access availability (frequency of correct answers lower than 50%. We noticed the need to develop educational policies that encourage the promotion of sex education in schools and universities.

  11. Nutrition Practice and Knowledge of First-Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Perlstein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the knowledge of Australian dietary recommendations to the dietary practices of first-year medical students. Design. Over a period of four years, anonymous online surveys were completed by medical students attending a first-year nutrition lecture. Background. There is little information on the nutritional knowledge and dietary practices of medical students. Setting. First-year postgraduate university medical students, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Participants. Between the years 2012 and 2016, 32%–61% of first-year students completed the survey. Phenomenon of Interest. Student’s knowledge of dietary guidelines and related practices. Analysis. The frequency of response was assessed across the different year cohorts using descriptive statistics. Results. Between 59% and 93% of first-year students correctly identified the recommended daily servings for fruit, and between 61% and 84% knew the vegetable recommendations. In contrast only 40%–46% met the guidelines for fruit and 12%–19% met the guidelines for vegetables. Conclusions and Implications. Discrepancies between students’ nutrition knowledge and behavior can provide learning opportunities. With low rates of fruit and vegetable consumption in medical students, increased awareness of links between nutrition and health, together with encouragement to make behavioral changes, may increase the skills of graduates to support patients in improving dietary intake.

  12. Knowledge of Indonesian University Students on the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bögeholz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Graduates of university programs addressing sustainable resource management are likely to shape strategies for natural resource use in the future. Their academic training needs to foster student knowledge of the multiple dimensions of natural resource management. This paper investigates university student understanding of such challenges. We differentiated situational, conceptual, and procedural types of knowledge, and three domains of knowledge (ecological, socio-economic and institutional knowledge, and sampled beginners (third semester and seniors (seventh semester of seven natural resource related programs at the leading Indonesian institution of higher education in the field of natural resource management (IPB Bogor; n = 882. The questionnaire consisted of multiple choice and rating scale items covering ‘locally’ relevant open-access resource use issues. With a confirmatory tau-equivalent LISREL model, construct validity was assessed. The ability to extract relevant information from problem descriptions provided (situational knowledge did not differ between third and seventh semester students. While it was high for ecological and socio-economic items, it was markedly lower for institutional knowledge. Knowledge of relevant scientific concepts (conceptual knowledge increased in the ecological and socio-economic domains but the effect was small. Conceptual knowledge in the socio-economical and institutional domains tended to be lower than ecological knowledge. Although there was certain improvement, student judgments on the efficacy of resource management options (procedural knowledge differed strongly from expert judgments for beginners as well as for senior students. We conclude that many of the university students in the sampled programs displayed substantial gaps in their capacity to solve complex, real-world natural resource management problems. Specifically, the socio-economic and institutional knowledge domains—and their

  13. Knowledge about idiopathic scoliosis among students of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciazynski, D; Czernicki, K; Durmala, J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of basic knowledge about idiopathic scoliosis (IS) among students of physiotherapy. The study included 37 students of Medical University of Silesia (17F and 20M aged 22-25, mean 22.6), attending the 3(rd) year of a 1(st) degree of physiotherapy. All students had credits in kinesiotherapy, including methods of conservative treatment of IS. Students were examined using a questionnaire, comprising general knowledge of IS, questions related to sagittal plane correction, influence of various physical activities on IS and known methods of conservative treatment. 81 students considered IS as 3-D deformity. 62.2% of those questioned would diagnose IS when the Cobb angle reaches 10 degrees . All students agreed that the aetiology of IS remains unknown. 54.1% considered forcible extensory exercises of back as favourable in IS. Questioned students mostly preferred swimming (94.6%), yoga (73.0%) and martial arts (32.4%) as beneficial to IS. The methods of conservative treatment which were known best were: Lehnert-Schroth-Weiss (94.6%), Klapp (91.9%), Majoch (89.2%) and Dobosiewicz (78.4%). The conclusions indicate that the average level of knowledge of idiopathic scoliosis among students of physiotherapy is unsatisfactory, despite the education programme including the SOSORT guidelines. Education in the field of scoliosis should be comprehensive and meet contemporary guidelines and standards.

  14. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.

  15. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  16. A knowledge management model for graduate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bustos Farías

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a model for administrative knowledge management for the Graduate Support Division of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN. This administrative unit is important because it is responsible for managing the institution’s academic services at graduate level. A qualitative methodology was used based on in-depth interviews with graduate-level directors, experts in knowledge management and members of the institution. The results obtained support the use of administrative management tools based on Information Technology (IT, such as the design of a comprehensive dashboard, and the proposal that knowledge management processes be automated with digital repositories. The model identifies factors such as the relationships between people, technology, administrative knowledge and knowledge management processes, and is formed with innovative administrative contributions.

  17. Hepatitis B Knowledge Levels of Turkish Nursing and Midwifery Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ozer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine knowledge levels of students in School of Health, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, and examine the influence of various factors on hepatitis B knowledge levels. Method: The study was conducted in the School of Health of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University between April and June 2009. All of the 296 students in the school were planned to be included in the study. Survey forms; prepared in the light of the data reported in the literature by investigators, and composed of 37 questions, were delivered to the students and they were asked to fill them out. 18.2% of the students couldn’t be reached. Thus, only 242 students (81.8% were included in the study. Results: While 87.2% of the students expressed sexual intercourse as a transmission route of HBV, 67.4% mentioned perinatal route, 96.7% expressed blood and blood products, 79.8% mentioned use of common goods such as towel and toothbrush. 78.1% of the students did not consider breast milk as a transmission route for HPV, whereas fecal-oral route, handshake-hugging, and kissing were not known to be a way of transmission for HPV in 65.7%, 86.8%, and 56.2% of the study population, respectively. Mean level of hepatitis B knowledge among students was 69.8±19.4. Knowledge score of nursing students was 1.1 points higher than that of midwifery students and the difference between them was not significant. As the college year elevated, hepatitis B knowledge scores increased as well. Conclusion: Hepatitis B knowledge score of undergraduate students in Nursing and Midwifery Departments of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, was 69.8±19.4. Since hepatitis B knowledge score raises parallel to the elevation of college year, hepatitis B education should be provided in the first year. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 139-144

  18. Attitude in students of Health Sciences toward scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merideidy Plazas Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding those who were transferred from other universities and repeated. The attitude toward science and the scientific method were valued using the scale validated and published by Hren, which contains three domains: value of scientific knowledge, value of scientific methodology, and value of science for health professions. Results: 362 students were included, 86,6% of them graded the attitude toward scientific knowledge above 135 points, neutral scale value. Similar scores were registered in the domains value of scientific knowlede for the human dimension of the students and value of science for health professions. 91,4% of the students graded the value of scientific methodology below 48 points. Conclusions: the favorable attitude of the students can be explained by the contact that they have with the scientific method since the beginning of their studies and its concordance with the evolution of science. The domain value of scientific methodology obtained the lowest grade on the part of the students, which could be related to the lack of knowledge about scientific methodology.

  19. College students' perceptions and knowledge of hookah use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, MeLisa R; Loukas, Alexandra; Li, Xiaoyin; Pasch, Keryn E; Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-11-01

    Hookah is an increasingly popular tobacco product among college students. The purpose of this study was to determine if college students are aware of tobacco and nicotine content in hookah, and examine associations between college students' knowledge and perceptions of hookah and their past 30-day hookah use. Participants were 5451 young adults attending one of 24 2- and 4-year colleges. Analyses examined if hookah knowledge was uniquely associated with current hookah use, over and above perceptions of harm and addictiveness, number of other tobacco products currently used, and socio-demographic factors. Analyses were first conducted for the entire sample and then only for current hookah users. 26.9% of all students believed hookah did not contain tobacco and 38% believed that hookah did not contain nicotine. Students who believed that hookah contained tobacco were at increased odds of hookah use, and those with increased perceptions of harm were at decreased odds of hookah use. However, hookah knowledge was not associated with hookah users' intensity of use. Moreover, although increased perceptions of harm were associated with lower intensity of use among current users, increased perceptions of addictiveness were associated with higher intensity of use. This study shows gaps in knowledge of hookah contents, and adds to the body of literature, which provides evidence for mandating warning labels as well as tobacco interventions for college students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  1. Science Literacy and Prior Knowledge of Astronomy MOOC Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David; Buxner, Sanlyn; Wenger, Matthew; Formanek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Many of science classes offered on Coursera fall into fall into the category of general education or general interest classes for lifelong learners, including our own, Astronomy: Exploring Time and Space. Very little is known about the backgrounds and prior knowledge of these students. In this talk we present the results of a survey of our Astronomy MOOC students. We also compare these results to our previous work on undergraduate students in introductory astronomy courses. Survey questions examined student demographics and motivations as well as their science and information literacy (including basic science knowledge, interest, attitudes and beliefs, and where they get their information about science). We found that our MOOC students are different than the undergraduate students in more ways than demographics. Many MOOC students demonstrated high levels of science and information literacy. With a more comprehensive understanding of our students’ motivations and prior knowledge about science and how they get their information about science, we will be able to develop more tailored learning experiences for these lifelong learners.

  2. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nabilou

    Full Text Available Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0, using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively. F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  3. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  4. Medication Administration and Knowledge Retention in Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Treister

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A quality improvement project was undertaken in order to assist the undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students in knowledge retention for medication administration during their senior semester in nursing school. Two specific changes in curriculum were implemented in order to assist these undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students at a suburban private university in New York. Simulation and the incorporation of competency by rubrics were implemented in the spring semester of junior year, which led to an increased knowledge retention during the fall semester of the senior year. This article discusses the advantages and challenges of using technology, how change occurred in the junior year semester and the effects it had on the senior nursing student's retention of medication administration knowledge.

  5. Pharmacy Students' Knowledge Assessment of Naegleria fowleri Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Sadia; Iffat, Wajiha; Khan, Madeeha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2015 to assess the knowledge of pharmacy students towards Naegleria fowleri infection. A questionnaire was distributed to senior pharmacy students in different private and public sector universities of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate students' demographic information and their responses to the questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test was adopted to assess the relationship between independent variables and responses of students. The study revealed that pharmacy students were having adequate awareness of Naegleria fowleri infection and considered it as a serious health issue that necessitates instantaneous steps by the government to prevent the general public from the fatal neurological infection. The students recommended that appropriate methods should be projected in the community from time to time that increases public awareness about the associated risk factors. PMID:26981318

  6. A study of students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michelle Andersen

    Using the vocabulary of a discipline is important for students, especially in the sciences (Gee, 2003). Therefore, the extant literature has emphasized the need for more research on vocabulary knowledge and acquisition (Simpson, et al., 2004). This study investigated whether or not community college students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition changed as a result of a one-semester enrollment in a vocabulary-rich biology course. The rationale for the study, a review of the existing research underlying the study, the methodology of the study, and the results and conclusions of the study will be discussed.

  7. Radiation protection knowledge in the undergraduate level for physics students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos-Baraja, J. M.; Sanchez-Carmona, G.; Hernando-Gonzalez, I.; Cid-Galache, A.; Castillo-Belmonte, A. del; Barrio-Lazo, F. J.; Pereda-Barroeta, N.; Iniguez de la Torre, M. P.; Barquero-Sanz, R.; Lopez-Lara-Martin, F.

    2004-01-01

    Medical physics knowledge and the ionising radiations use with medical purposes are a matter of growing interest among students will be titled in physics University degree. To familiarize to students of Physics University degree with this field is considered important so much so that they relate part of that learned in the curriculum ruled as to show them a possible unknown professional field for many. To detect necessities in this field it is carried out an evaluation of knowledge that it help to program activities with those that to satisfy formative necessities in this field. (Author) 17 refs

  8. Occurrence and knowledge about needle stick injury in nursing students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasuna, J.; Sharma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Needle stick injury (NSI) became a major issue and most of the research focuses on Nurses, Doctors and other health care workers, but at the same time nursing students in clinical duties are at high risk. Studies are available which examined NSI only in Medical students and health care workers. The present study is aimed to measure the occurrence of needle stick injury along with post exposure measures and evaluation of the knowledge regarding needle stick injury among nursing student. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in North-East India in 2013. The study participants comprised of 83 nursing students studying in 4th year B.Sc. (N) and 3rd year General Nursing and Midwifery (GNM). Students were questioned regarding their occurrence to Needle Stick Injury throughout their clinical training and measures taken following the exposure. They were also asked to complete the Knowledge questionnaire on NSI. Results: The study among 83 nursing students included 43 (51.81%) GNM 3rd year and 40 (48.19%) B.Sc. Nursing Students. Out of a total 83 students, 75 (90.36%) were females. The occurrence of NSI during their course was reported by 33 (39.76%) participants. The maximum NSI occurred during first year of course (57.57%). It was found that 18 (54.54%) of NSIs were not reported. Among those exposed, only 5 (15.15%) students had undergone blood investigation and very few students took post exposure measures. It was found that, only 23 (69.69%) students were immunized against Hepatitis B before NSI. Conclusion: The present study indicated a high incidence of needle stick injuries among nursing students with more under-reported cases and subjects were not aware of post exposure measures. It is essential to deal above problems by regular training on real-life procedure at the entry level and reporting system should be more user-friendly platform. (author)

  9. Information modelling and knowledge bases XXV

    CERN Document Server

    Tokuda, T; Jaakkola, H; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    Because of our ever increasing use of and reliance on technology and information systems, information modelling and knowledge bases continue to be important topics in those academic communities concerned with data handling and computer science. As the information itself becomes more complex, so do the levels of abstraction and the databases themselves. This book is part of the series Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases, which concentrates on a variety of themes in the important domains of conceptual modeling, design and specification of information systems, multimedia information modelin

  10. Chilean university students: knowledge and concern about HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Guzman, Edwin; Cabieses, Báltica; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Araya, Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    According to a 2004 report by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Chile has an incipient HIV/AIDS epidemic. Regardless of the classification, every year the cumulative incidence of HIV/AIDS increases. Young Chileans have been the most affected group; still, their knowledge, attitudes, and concerns about HIV/AIDS are not known. This study describes Chilean university students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, their worry about getting the virus, and the correlation between both variables. A convenience sample of 45 university students responded to an anonymous self-administered questionnaire after orally consenting to participate in this study. Overall, students had good levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, with 77% responding correctly to at least 85% of the questions. Despite this knowledge, almost 56% of students stated that they were not worried about getting HIV/AIDS. The situation was corroborated by a nonsignificant statistical correlation between both variables (p > .05). These results are congruent with literature from other countries and strengthen the need for further research to clarify why university students, the majority of whom are well-educated and engage in behaviors that place them at risk for contracting the virus, do not worry about HIV.

  11. [Knowledge and perception of medical students about infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Márta; Cserepes, Réka Eszter; Bugán, Antal

    2015-01-18

    The effectiveness of fertility treatments is influenced by the health care professionals' knowledge regarding infertility as well as their empathy. The aim of the study was to examine infertility-related knowledge and perceptions of emotional and mind/body consequences of infertility among medical students. A questionnaire design was used. Data were obtained from 112 medical university students (76 women, 36 men) who participated involuntary and compensation-free. Medical students' knowledge concerning infertility proved to be incomplete and ambiguous. Subjects underestimated the presence of mind/body and emotional symptoms caused by infertility in men particularly, and overestimated some emotional concerns in women, e.g. sadness. Medical students have gaps in their subject-specific knowledge, so that they need more (even practical) information regarding infertility during their studies. Students' conceptions about emotional and physical consequences of infertility are distorted by stereotypes. The risk of these biases is that it could make it difficult to perceive patients in a non-distorted way, especially infertile male patients.

  12. Medication Administration and Knowledge Retention in Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Treister; Donna Darcy

    2016-01-01

    A quality improvement project was undertaken in order to assist the undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students in knowledge retention for medication administration during their senior semester in nursing school. Two specific changes in curriculum were implemented in order to assist these undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students at a suburban private university in New York. Simulation and the incorporation of competency by rubrics were implemented in the spring semester of junior year, w...

  13. Graphic Organizers: Toward Organization and Complexity of Student Content Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Carol Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Within the current national atmosphere of accountability and high-stakes testing, many teachers are changing their instruction to return to more traditional strategies that emphasize rote memorization. As a result, classroom curriculum and student learning are narrowing. This study sought to explore the potential of graphic organizers as an instructional strategy to expand student content knowledge beyond rote memorization to include more organized, complex, meaningful learning. ...

  14. Knowledge Management Practices for Development - Slovak Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aferdita Dervishi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and its management, innovation and technology are key elements for economic growth and sustainable development in technology and globalization era. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of best practices of knowledge management in Slovakia, a$ empting to present a model that may serve to improve access to knowledge management and technology in Albania. This paper analyses practices of research & development, intellectual capital, the link between knowledge, innovation and technology transfer and trends of economic development in Slovakia. This study has used the qualitative method, supported on secondary source of data. From the assessment perspective, the findings are believable that investing on intellectual capital and managing knowledge properly, stable effects on the development of economy, industry and other fields is reached. Knowledge is managed by higher scientific institutions supported by the state. Today, in Slovakia are operating the most powerful companies. Albanians possess human capital that may face the difficult technological challenges and innovations. Both, Albania and Kosovo governments need to create a more coherent and national access to knowledge management and innovation through the establishment of National Council of Science, Knowledge and Technology Transfer.

  15. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  16. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  17. Student Team Achievement Divisions: Its Effect on Electrical Motor Installation Knowledge Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Basuki, Ismet

    2018-04-01

    Student team achievement division (STAD) was an active learning strategy with the small group inside of the classroom members. The students would work in small heterogeneous groups (of five to six members) and help one another to comprehend the material given. To achieve the objectives of the study, this research aims to know the effect of STAD on competence of electrical motor installation. The objective of the student competence was knowledge competence. The data was collected from 30 students. the participants were the students of second class at electrical installation techniques, SMKN 1 Pungging Indonesia. The design of empirical test in this research was one shot case study. The result of knowledge test would be compared by criteria for minimum competence, which was 75. Knowledge competence was analyzed with one sample t test technique. From the analysis got average 84.93, which meant average of student competence had reached criteria for minimum competence. From that analyze, It could be concluded that STAD was effective on electrical motor installation knowledge competence. STAD could grow student motivation to learn better than other models. But, in the application of cooperative learning teacher should prepare carefully before the learning process to avoid problems that could arise during group learning such as students who were less active in the groups. The problem could be resolved by away the teachers took around to check each group. It was felt could minimize the problems.

  18. Breast cancer knowledge and awareness among university students in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambanje, Martha Nyanungo; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2012-01-01

    The high breast cancer mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to a lack of public awareness of the disease which often leads to late diagnosis of the disease. Little is known about the level of knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in Angola. Previous studies have shown that breast cancer awareness is higher among well-educated people. The goal of this study was to assess breast cancer knowledge and awareness among university students in Angola. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of university students using a self-administered questionnaire to investigate participants' awareness and knowledge of breast cancer. A total of 595 university students in medical and non-medical programs successfully completed the survey. Our results showed insufficient knowledge of breast cancer among university students in Angola irrespective of whether they were in medical or non-medical programs. The majority of the participants were not aware of some of the early signs of breast cancer such as change in color or shape of the nipple, even though they appreciated the need for monthly breast self-examination. Overall most of the participants indicated the need for increased breast cancer awareness among university students. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of university students in Angola about breast cancer. We expect that our results may provide useful data that may be used by the department of health in Angola and other African countries to formulate health education programs aimed at increasing awareness and promote screening and early detection of breast cancer in the continent.

  19. Correlating student knowledge and confidence using a graded knowledge survey to assess student learning in a general microbiology classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazzo, Lacey; Willford, John D; Watson, Rachel M

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge surveys are a type of confidence survey in which students rate their confidence in their ability to answer questions rather than answering the questions. These surveys have been discussed as a tool to evaluate student in-class or curriculum-wide learning. However, disagreement exists as to whether confidence is actually an accurate measure of knowledge. With the concomitant goals of assessing content-based learning objectives and addressing this disagreement, we present herein a pretest/posttest knowledge survey study that demonstrates a significant difference correctness on graded test questions at different levels of reported confidence in a multi-semester timeframe. Questions were organized into Bloom's taxonomy, allowing for the data collected to further provide statistical analyses on strengths and deficits in various levels of Bloom's reasoning with regard to mean correctness. Collectively, students showed increasing confidence and correctness in all levels of thought but struggled with synthesis-level questions. However, when students were only asked to rate confidence and not answer the accompanying test questions, they reported significantly higher confidence than the control group which was asked to do both. This indicates that when students do not attempt to answer questions, they have significantly greater confidence in their ability to answer those questions. Additionally, when students rate only confidence without answering the question, resolution across Bloom's levels of reasoning is lost. Based upon our findings, knowledge surveys can be an effective tool for assessment of both breadth and depth of knowledge, but may require students to answer questions in addition to rating confidence to provide the most accurate data.

  20. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE LEVELS OF ABOUT HEPATITIS B INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2014-09-01

    Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study and was performed in January 2014. The study sample included eight out of 42 high schools in the city of Kahramanmaras, Turkey. The students were informed about the study and 473 who gave written informed consent were included in the study. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed by the researchers in the light of the literature about hepatitis B infection. The questionnaire was composed of 23 questions to test knowledge of hepatitis B infection. Each correct answer was assigned 1point. Obtained data were analysed with SPSS 20.0. Results: Of 473 students, 277 (58.6% were female and 196 (41.4% were male. The mean age of the students was 15.59+/-0.99 years (min=14, max=20. The mean score for knowledge of hepatitis B infection was 8.33+/-4.19 (min=0, max=21 without a significant difference between the males and the females (p=0.563. The twelfth year students got higher knowledge scores than the rest of the students (p<0.0001. The question which the highest rate of the students answered correctly (n=333; 70.4% was and ldquo;Is hepatitis B infection transmitted through blood? and rdquo;. Conclusion: The study revealed that the high school students got low scores for knowledge of hepatitis B infection. The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education should cooperate to create preventive health policies directed towards this infection. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(3.000: 138-142

  1. Influence of different modalities of cooperative work forms on adopting declarative and procedural knowledge in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miščević-Kadijević Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of papers on cooperative learning so far have discussed the variables of affective domain, and research within the cognitive domain, especially when it comes to different forms of knowledge, has not been conducted very much. Within the cognitive-developmental approach, Piaget's genetic-epistemological theory and Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory have the biggest importance for understanding cooperative learning and the topic we deal with. The influence of the three models of cooperative work in the instruction of Basic Science and Social Studies on the adoption of declarative and procedural knowledge of students is experimentally tested in the paper. The basis for formation of the applied models is grouping students within small homogenous, i.e. heterogeneous groups. The sample of respondents consisted of 259 students from 11 classes of the fourth grade of primary school. The experiment with parallel groups was applied. The results indicated that in students from experimental group the adoption of declarative and procedural knowledge in final measurement was better than in students from the control group, as well as that in final measurement there were no statistically significant differences with respect to adoption of the studied knowledge among the three subgroups in which different cooperative work models were applied. The obtained findings indicated that cooperative instruction yields good results when its theoretical assumptions are carefully operationalised, along with exhibiting patience and gradualism in working with students previously prepared for cooperation with peers.

  2. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  3. Supporting students' knowledge integration with technology-enhanced inquiry curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer Lopseen

    Dynamic visualizations of scientific phenomena have the potential to transform how students learn and understand science. Dynamic visualizations enable interaction and experimentation with unobservable atomic-level phenomena. A series of studies clarify the conditions under which embedding dynamic visualizations in technology-enhanced inquiry instruction can help students develop robust and durable chemistry knowledge. Using the knowledge integration perspective, I designed Chemical Reactions, a technology-enhanced curriculum unit, with a partnership of teachers, educational researchers, and chemists. This unit guides students in an exploration of how energy and chemical reactions relate to climate change. It uses powerful dynamic visualizations to connect atomic level interactions to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. The series of studies were conducted in typical classrooms in eleven high schools across the country. This dissertation describes four studies that contribute to understanding of how visualizations can be used to transform chemistry learning. The efficacy study investigated the impact of the Chemical Reactions unit compared to traditional instruction using pre-, post- and delayed posttest assessments. The self-monitoring study used self-ratings in combination with embedded assessments to explore how explanation prompts help students learn from dynamic visualizations. The self-regulation study used log files of students' interactions with the learning environment to investigate how external feedback and explanation prompts influence students' exploration of dynamic visualizations. The explanation study compared specific and general explanation prompts to explore the processes by which explanations benefit learning with dynamic visualizations. These studies delineate the conditions under which dynamic visualizations embedded in inquiry instruction can enhance student outcomes. The studies reveal that visualizations can be deceptively clear

  4. An Evaluation of a Model of Domain Learning: Some Preliminary Data on the Effect of Students' Knowledge, Interest and Strategies in the Acclimation Stage of Learning. Occasional Paper Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasou, James A.; Langan, Dianne

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the roles of interest, knowledge, and learning strategies on recall within a specific subject domain at an early stage of learning. Students (n=17) at two levels in a postgraduate music therapy course were assessed for their levels of prior knowledge, interest, and the number of strategies they used to…

  5. Knowledge and awareness of Tuberculosis among Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem worldwide, as one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis. It is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major public health concern in Sudan. Objectives: to determine the awareness and knowledge of tuberculosis among students.

  6. HIV/ADIS knowledge achievement among health education students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study meant to evaluate the success of the Health Education Program at University of producing graduates capable of being resource persons in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Method: A pre-post achievement score test was used to assess knowledge of graduating Health Education Students and a control group ...

  7. Nutritional status, knowledge and food habits of medical students: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: A cross sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 340 medical students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken; nutritional knowledge as well as the food habits were assessed using a well validated semistructured self-reported ...

  8. Drawing on indigenous knowledge: Students\\' learning in and from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on indigenous knowledge: Students\\' learning in and from a rural community. E Bitzer, H Menkveld. Abstract. No Abstract Available South African Journal of Higher Education Vol.18(3) 2004: 226-240. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Computer knowledge amongst clinical year medical students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the computer knowledge and desires of clinical year medical students at one of the oldest and largest medical schools in Nigeria. Design: A survey using validated structured questionnaires. Setting: Medical school of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Subjects: Two hundred and thirty seven clinical ...

  10. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  11. Medication Administration: Measuring Associate Degree Nursing Student Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The American Nurse Association's (ANA) provisions outline the commitment expected of nurses to protect the community from harm. Medication administration coincides with patient safety as a compelling obligation in nursing practice. The study's purpose was to examine retention of medication safety knowledge among first year nursing students, after…

  12. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected ... and the learners is not motivated and interested to learn but still shows consistent low achievement. Dropouts mean learners who have. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives … .... the force field (v), network (connections, arrangement and.

  13. Knowledge and practice of female secondary school students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of female secondary school students to sexually transmitted infections in Enugu, South East Nigeria.These could pose as barriers to effective sexual education and impair case management within the community. Methods: This study was ...

  14. Undergraduate Students' Knowledge and Practice of Gonorrhea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: It was a questionnaire-based, cross sectional descriptive study of the knowledge and practice of STIs among students in the seven public tertiary academic institutions in Lagos State using list obtained from ... Data was entered into Microsoft Excel and analysed using EPI Info, SPSS version 15 and Microsoft Excel.

  15. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

  16. Student teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of modern technologies may be problematic especially if they possess health risks to humans and/or when humans are not aware about these technologies. In this study we investigated non-major student teachers' attitudes to and knowledge of the chemical hormone usage, a controversial topic in the field of ...

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of students in a caribbean medical school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS) is seen as one of the most devastating infection/disease known to have attacked the human population. This study is aimed at assessing the level of knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of the medical students in a Caribbean Medical ...

  18. First Aid Knowledge of University Students in Poisoning Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Sonay; Yildirim, Gulay; Kose, Selmin; Yildirim, Senay; Ozhan, Fatma; Senturan, Leman

    2014-12-01

    Poisoning is a crucial public health problem which needs serious approach and response to treatment. In case of poisoning, proper first aid is lifesaving and application should be applied in every condition. This research was conducted in order to evaluate first aid knowledge of university students for poisoning. The research was conducted between the dates of May 2013-June 2013 with the permission gained from the University Rectorship. The cohort of the research contained 4,560 students who received education in Istanbul. The sample of the study included 936 students who accepted to participate in the research and attended the school during the research. The data were collected by using a questionnaire form, which had 21 questions prepared by researchers. Analysis of the data was carried out with a percentage evaluation method and chi square tests in a computer environment. In our study, 92.6% of students (n=867) knew the phone number of the ambulance in case of emergency. In addition, 57.3% of students (n=536) knew the phone number of the poison hotline, and it was seen that they answered correctly the questions regarding the relation between body system and indications of poisoning. It was determined that the students who received education in medical departments answered the questions correctly more than the students who had education in other departments. (p≤0.001, p≤0.01). It was observed that the university students in medical departments had more first aid knowledge on poisoning cases compared to the students in other departments who did not have sufficient information regarding these issues. It is thought that first aid education in all departments of universities, both poisoning and other first aid issues, should be conveyed to all students.

  19. Healthcare students' knowledge and opinions about the Argentinean abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano-Castro, Belén; Oizerovich, Silvia; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-03-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in Argentina. Although this law is almost 100 years old, most women who meet the criteria for legal abortion are not informed of or offered this possibility within the healthcare system. Healthcare students' knowledge and opinions on abortion may influence their future practice. They may deny a woman with an unwanted pregnancy a practice to which she is legally entitled, resulting in an unsafe abortion. This study assessed knowledge and personal opinions on the abortion law among first year healthcare students in order to design adequate educational strategies. In this descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study, structured self-administered questionnaires were administered to 781 first year medical, nursing, midwifery, and other healthcare students from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires from 2011 to 2013. Data were recorded anonymously in SPSS 20. Student samples were adjusted for gender and fields of study using the University statistics. Of the students, 48.8% did not know the current regulations. Most of the students thought abortion was legally restricted and failed to recognize the circumstances in which it is allowed. Over 75% of the students were pro-abortion, especially those with sexual experience. Students lack sound knowledge on the abortion law that may affect their personal lives and influence their future professional practice. It is crucial that medical schools include sexual and reproductive health issues in their curricula in order to ensure better quality healthcare services in the future. In Argentina, approximately 400,000 abortions are performed every year, many under unsafe conditions, resulting in one third of the maternal deaths for the past decade. High quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services are a key strategy to improve adolescents' and women's health, thereby lowering maternal mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students’ knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed “if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter” and “incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming”. 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought “the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide” and “presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect”. 68.4% believed “not using cars so much is a cure for global warming”. While a student’s ‘cognitive score’ could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05. In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students’ mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

  1. A Model of Student Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Student workload is a contributing factor to students deciding to withdraw from their study before completion of the course, at significant cost to students, institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to create a basic workload model for a group of undergraduate students studying business law units at Curtin University in Western…

  2. Portuguese Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lucas; Gato, Jorge; Esteves, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people still face discrimination in healthcare environments and physicians often report lack of knowledge on this population's specific healthcare needs. In fact, recommendations have been put forward to include lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in medical curricula. This study aimed to explore factors associated with medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality in different years of the medical course. An anonymous online-based questionnaire was sent to all medical students enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine - University of Porto, Portugal, in December 2015. The questionnaire included socio-demographic questions, the Multidimensional Scale of Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (27 items) and a Homosexuality Knowledge Questionnaire (17 items). Descriptive statistics, ANOVAs, Chi-square tests and Pearson's correlations were used in the analysis. A total of 489 completed responses was analyzed. Male gender, religiosity and absence of lesbian, gay or bisexual friends were associated with more negative attitudes towards homosexuality. Attitudinal scores did not correlate with advanced years in medical course or contact with lesbian, gay or bisexual patients. Students aiming to pursue technique-oriented specialties presented higher scores in the 'Modern Heterosexism' subscale than students seeking patient-oriented specialties. Although advanced years in medical course correlated significantly with higher knowledge scores, items related with lesbian, gay or bisexual health showed the lowest percentage of correct answers. There seems to be a lack of exploration of medical students' personal attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and also a lack of knowledge on lesbian, gay or bisexual specific healthcare needs. This study highlights the importance of inclusive undergraduate curriculum development in order to foster quality healthcare.

  3. Tensions between Knowledge Transmission and Student-Focused Teaching Approaches to Assessment Purposes: Helping Students Improve through Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study surveyed 1064 Chinese school teachers' approaches to teaching and conceptions of assessment, and examined their inter-relationship using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Three approaches to teaching (i.e. Knowledge Transmission, Student-Focused, and Examination Preparation) and six conceptions of assessment…

  4. Evaluation of students' knowledge about paediatric dosage calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyazıcıoğlu, Nurcan; Aydın, Ayla İrem; Sürenler, Semra; Çinar, Hava Gökdere; Yılmaz, Dilek; Arkan, Burcu; Tunç, Gülseren Çıtak

    2018-01-01

    Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students). Drug dose calculation questions in exam papers including 3 open ended questions on dosage calculation problems, addressing 5 variables were distributed to the students and their responses were evaluated by the researchers. In the evaluation of the data, figures and percentage distribution were calculated and Spearman correlation analysis was applied. Exam question on the dosage calculation based on child's age, which is the most common method in paediatrics, and which ensures right dosages and drug dilution was answered correctly by 87.1% of the students while 9.5% answered it wrong and 3.4% left it blank. 69.6% of the students was successful in finding the safe dose range, and 79.1% in finding the right ratio/proportion. 65.5% of the answers with regard to Ml/dzy calculation were correct. Moreover, student's four operation skills were assessed and 68.2% of the students were determined to have found the correct answer. When the relation among the questions on medication was examined, a significant relation (correlation) was determined between them. It is seen that in dosage calculations, the students failed mostly in calculating ml/dzy (decimal). This result means that as dosage calculations are based on decimal values, calculations may be ten times erroneous when the decimal point is placed wrongly. Moreover, it

  5. Understanding How Students Perceive the Role of Ideas for Their Knowledge Work in a Knowledge-Building Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chiu, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how students viewed the role of ideas for knowledge work and how such a view was related to their inquiry activities. Data mainly came from students' online interaction logs, group discussion and inquiry, and a survey concerning the role of ideas for knowledge work. The findings suggest that knowledge building was conducive to…

  6. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…

  7. Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

  8. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of students' knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students' gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task.

  9. Food safety knowledge of undergraduate students at a Canadian university: results of an online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Courtney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foodborne diseases are an important public health issue, and young adults are an important demographic to target with food safety education. Our objective was to assess the food safety knowledge of undergraduate students at a Canadian university, to identify potential areas for such education. Methods In February 2015, we conducted an online survey of 485 undergraduate students at a university in Ontario, Canada. We assessed various food-related factors, including cooking frequency and prior food handling or preparation education. We then modeled the relationship between ‘overall knowledge score’ and the demographic and food skills/cooking experience predictors using multivariable log-binomial regression, to determine factors associated with relatively higher proportions of correct responses. Results Respondents were, on average, 20.5 years old, and the majority (64.8 % lived off campus. Students cooked from basic ingredients infrequently, with 3 in 4 doing so a few times a year to never. Students averaged 6.2 correct answers to the 11 knowledge questions. Adjusting for other important covariates, older age and being a current food handler were associated with relatively higher knowledge, whereas working/volunteering in a hospital and infrequent cooking were associated with relatively lower knowledge. Males in the Faculty of Science had relatively higher knowledge than females in the Faculty of Science, both of whom had relatively higher knowledge than all students in other Faculties. Among students who had never taken a food preparation course, knowledge increased with self-reported cooking ability; however, among students who had taken such a course, knowledge was highest among those with low self-reported cooking ability. Conclusions Consistent with other similar studies, students in Faculties outside of the Faculty of Science, younger students, and those who cook infrequently could benefit from food safety education

  10. An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Gail S.

    Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

  11. College students' personal listening device usage and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson Marron, Kathleen; Marchiondo, Kendrah; Stephenson, Sarah; Wagner, Sarah; Cramer, Ian; Wharton, Theresa; Hughes, Michael; Sproat, Brittany; Alessio, Helaine

    2015-06-01

    To determine the usage and knowledge of safe limits on personal listening devices (PLD) among college students. First, information on health history was collected. Second, microphone in real ear techniques determined eardrum to free-field correction factors. Third, hearing levels were evaluated and information gathered about knowledge of safe listening behaviors. 180 college students participated in a one-hour session using their PLDs and earphones set to their personal preference. Virtually all participants reported knowledge of hearing loss risk due to PLD use and accurately recognized their own PLD listening levels (p = .01) as either within or exceeding safe sound limits. Forty-four subjects listened at greater than 80-dBA free-field equivalent levels. Only 7% of these participants were aware of these hazardous levels and 15% of participants' exposure surpassed free-field equivalent levels normalized to eight hours. Despite reported knowledge of hearing loss risk due to PLD use in virtually all college students, 1 in 4 were found to listen to their PLDs at free-field equivalent levels greater than 80-dBA, with 94% unaware of their potential risk. Further research is needed to provide accurate PLD listening information and evaluate the possibility of long term PLD intensities that surpass recommended safety levels on hearing loss in adults over time.

  12. Associations between dental knowledge, source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior in Japanese university students: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Taniguchi-Tabata

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior in a group of students at a university in Japan. A total of 2,220 university students (1,276 males, 944 females volunteered to undergo an oral examination and answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior (e.g., daily frequency of tooth brushing, use of dental floss and regular dental checkups. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for oral health behavior based on dental knowledge and source of dental knowledge were calculated using logistic regression models. Of the participants, 1,266 (57.0% students obtained dental knowledge from dental clinics, followed by school (39.2% and television (29.1%. Logistic regression analyses indicated that use of dental floss was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge from dental clinics (P = 0.006. Receiving regular dental checkups was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge; the positive source was dental clinic (P < 0.001 and the negative sources were school (P = 0.004 and television (P = 0.018. Dental clinic was the most common source of dental knowledge and associated with better oral health behavior among the Japanese university students in this study.

  13. Towards an Integrative Model of Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Heslop, Ben

    This paper aims to contribute towards the advancement of an efficient architecture of a single market for knowledge through the development of an integrative model of knowledge transfer. Within this aim, several points of departure can be singled out. One, the article builds on the call...... of the European Commission to improve the European market for KT between research institutions and industry. Two, various barriers exist that hinder efficient KT in Europe, especially in transition economies that recently joined the EU where the issues of restructuring higher education, building trust between...... business and academia, and implementing the respective legislature are enduring. The research objectives were to explore (i) the process of knowledge transfer in universities, including the nature of tensions, obstacles and incentives, (ii) the relationships between key stakeholders in the KT market...

  14. Greek students' knowledge and sources of information regarding sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziou, V; Perdikaris, P; Petsios, K; Gymnopoulou, E; Galanis, P; Brokalaki, H

    2009-09-01

    Human sexuality is a complex part of life and is considered a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore there is an increased need for adequate and comprehensive sex education, especially for teenagers and young adults. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the level of students' sexual knowledge, as well as to identify their sources of information regarding sexual life and reproduction. A cross-sectional study using a designed self-report questionnaire was performed. The study population consisted of 936 students who were attending 10 high schools and four medical schools in Attica. Data were collected after obtaining permission from the Pedagogic Institute of the Greek Ministry of Education. The main sources of students' sexual information about reproduction were friends (29.1%) and parents (24.0%), whereas school was reported by 14.3% of them. The preferred sources of information, according to students' perceptions, were sex education specialists (65.6%), followed by school (39.1%), parents (32.2%) and friends (27.7%). The importance of school, peer and parent support upon adolescents' sexual life was revealed by the results of the study. Students' knowledge level on sex topics is not satisfactory and therefore there is a need for sex education specialists and special courses regarding sex education in Greek schools.

  15. [Knowledge and attitudes of medical students on decriminalized induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Roa, Eliana M; Ochoa-Vera, Miguel E

    2015-12-01

    Objective To explore if the academic exposure to legal abortion affects the knowledge and attitudes of medical students. Method To asses this relationship, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were performed. We analyzed a medical student cohort enrolled in gynecology and obstetrics at two accredited universities in Bucaramanga, Colombia during the second half of 2011. Students were invited to participate in two anonymous surveys. One survey was conducted in the first three weeks of the semester, and the second was done in the last three weeks. A quantitative approach was taken by a group interview of two random groups of participants. One group was composed of medical students of gynecology and obstetrics (fourth year of medicine), and the other group was composed of medical students in their last year (internal medical students). Results The items pregnancy with risk to the mother´s life, or affected by a non-viable fetal malformation, or result of rape were recognized and accepted. 46% of the participants changed their attitude about legal abortion at the end of the semester. Three out of every four participants changed their attitude to accept the decriminalized conditions, while one out of every four people had the opposite change of opinion. Medical student´s don´t believe that general practitioners are trained to advice patients in these cases. Conclusions Educating and training general practitioners in issues related to legal abortion may decrease the risk of inadequate medical assessment in cases of legal abortion.

  16. Students' Production of Curricular Knowledge: Perspectives on Empowerment in Financial Capability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Valerie; Davis, Pauline; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Ralph, Susan; Shi, Xin; Farrell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to extend our understanding of the relationship between knowledge of personal finance and empowerment. The analysis is based on interview data obtained as part of a longitudinal study of students, aged 16-19, who completed a financial capability course in the UK. The analysis presents a set of cultural models or…

  17. Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction: An Investigation of Agriscience Students' Content Knowledge Based on Student Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous researchers in science education have reported student improvement in areas of scientific literacy resulting from socioscientific issues (SSI)-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to describe student agriscience content knowledge following a six-week SSI-based instructional unit focusing on the introduction of cultured meat…

  18. The effect of coping knowledge on emergency preparedness in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and Self-Care Deficit Theory were the theoretical frameworks used to guide this research. The Coping Knowledge for Emergency Situations Questionnaire, developed by the authors, was used to gather data. In the coping education group, there was statistically significant improvement in the coping knowledge (t = 4.589, p < .001) from that of the control group (n = 270). The results highlight the importance of emergency preparedness for elementary school students and the need to develop educational programs for various emergency situations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Medical students' learning from patient-led teaching: experiential versus biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group interviews. Analysis was based on a prior developed model of the characteristics of learning from patient instructors. The authors used this model as sensitizing concepts for the analysis of data while at the same time being open to new insights by constant comparison of old and new findings. Results showed a negotiation both between and within the students of the importance of patients' experiential knowledge versus scientific biomedical knowledge. On one hand students appreciated the experiential learning environment offered in the PI-led sessions representing a patient-centred approach, and acknowledged the importance of the PIs' individual perspectives and experiential knowledge. On the other hand, representing the scientific biomedical perspective and traditional step-by step teaching, students expressed unfamiliarity with the unstructured experiential learning and scepticism regarding the credibility of the patients' knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of the complexity of involving patients as teachers in healthcare education and initiates a discussion on how to complement faculty-led teaching with patient-led teaching involving varying degrees of patient autonomy in the planning and delivering of the teaching.

  20. Playful strategies that increase the knowledge of students on gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Katherine Sánchez-Peña; Kelly Johana Sánchez-Delgado; Alexandra Agudelo-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to formulate and implement playful strategies to increase the level of knowledge in a group of students about gingivitis associated with bacterial plaque and its prevention, this project was developed in Pereira city at Alfonso Jaramillo Gutiérrez high school. The studio started from assuming that traditional teaching methodologies have proved to be highly ineffective and considering that playful strategies strengthen the active participation of the subject co...

  1. Familiarity knowledge in student nurses' clinical studies: exemplified by student nurses in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Grethe; Hanssen, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    In this article based on a literary study, the form of knowledge named familiarity knowledge is examined. Although rooted in the philosophical tradition of Wittgenstein and Polanyi, the development of familiarity knowledge is tied in with clinical practice and particular patients and contexts while paying attention to the framework factors influencing the setting as a whole as well as with theoretical knowledge relevant to the situation at hand. Palliative care makes a backdrop for some of the discussion. Familiarity knowledge can never be context free and attends to that which is unique in every nurse-patient relationship. Both assertive and familiarity knowledge are needed to care for dying patients in a competent, sensitive, and truly caring manner. Mentors need to help students synthesize assertive knowledge and familiarity knowledge during their clinical studies to enrich both kinds of knowledge and deepen their understanding. Student nurses expertly mentored and tutored while caring for dying patients living at home become, for instance, less apprehensive about facing dying patients than students not so mentored. Nurses need to understand the complexity of nursing care to be able to see the uniqueness of the situation and approach the individual patient on the bases of experience and insight.

  2. An exploration of knowledge and practice of patient handling among undergraduate occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Grath, Margaret; Taaffe, Ciara; Gallagher, Aideen

    2015-01-01

    To explore knowledge and practice relating to patient handling among final year occupational therapy students in the Republic of Ireland. We conducted a survey of final year students in three out of four occupational therapy programs in the Republic of Ireland (n = 81). The survey measured students' knowledge of manual handling principles and techniques and explored their experiences and ability to apply this knowledge to clinical situations. All students (n = 81) had undertaken training in patient handling. Just under half of students (n = 35, 43.2%) had received additional training outside of the university setting. Overall knowledge of safe patient handling principles techniques and risk assessment was low (Mean Score = 15.71/28; SD = 3.81). Participants who received additional training achieved a lower mean total score (M = 13.89, SD = 3.54) than those who only undertook university-based training (M = 18.11; SD = 2.66; t(79) = -5.87; p occupational therapy students in Ireland receive training in safe patient handling they appear to have limited knowledge of best practice and experience difficulties in applying their learning to clinical situations. There is an urgent need to consider the effectiveness of current educational strategies in this area. Implications for Rehabilitation Safe patient handling is a key component in preventing musculoskeletal injury among rehabilitation professionals The extent to which pre-professional training prepares rehabilitation professionals to practice safe patient handling is unclear Occupational therapy students in this study had limited knowledge of safe patient handling and had difficulty applying their learning to clinical practice Alternative education models are required to support development of safe patient handling skills. Educators may wish to consider how safe patient handling can be embedded across curricula to avoid the challenges of once off instruction and massed practice.

  3. Parents knowledge and oral hygiene level of kindergarten students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Arista Muljadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents knowledge related to oral health affects toothbrushing behavior in children. The habit of toothbrushing introduced to the children by their parents, and usually becomes child's habit that affects the application of toothbrushing and how to maintain good oral hygiene in the future. The purpose of this study was to know the description of parents knowledge about toothbrushing and the kindergarten students oral hygiene level. Methods: This study was conducted towards 25 students of Gymboree and Kidsville which consisted of 14 boys (56% and 11 girls (44%. The study design was cross sectional research. The data collection was done by giving questionnaires to parents and examination of student’s oral hygiene level by using PHP index. Results: Generally parents already have the good knowledge that supports the children oral hygiene level of children, but there were still 52% of parents who does not use the techniques recommended to brush the outer surface of the teeth and 64% of parents who does not use the techniques recommended to brush the tooth surface that close to the cheek. The oral hygiene level of Gymboree and Kidsville students were very good 0% (0, 32% good (0.1 -1.7, 60% medium (1.8 -3.4, and 8% bad (3.5-5.0. Conclusion: Awareness of parents about toothbrushing and oral hygiene level of children were generally adequate, but were not fulfilling the standards of oral health recommended by dentist.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours: Eating habits among students of nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To value in which proportion the nutrition knowledge guarantees in keeping with a healthy diet pattern behaviours. Method: Descriptive, transversal study, carried out with 50 second-year students belonging to the career in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Seville (Spain, all of them females, with mean age of 21.16 years old. The collection of data related to the daily food ingestion was made following the 24-hours-recount technique and using two tables of food composition for the calculation of the contribution. Students have followed matters such as basic nutrition and life cycle, bromatology, nutrition education and dietetics. Results: There is an absolute fast from breakfast till lunch in more than half of the cases, 16% of the students do not eat anything during the evening, either; and in 20% of the cases the daily food consists in breakfast, lunch and dinner. From an energetic point of view, there is an hypocaloric pattern and, concerning macronutrients, an ingestion excess of fats and proteins. Fibre ingestion remains under current recommendations and iron -in an almost 60%-, calcium and folic acid ingestion are also deficient. Conclusions: It seems as if social pressure and feeding fashions had more weight at the time of determining the attitudes and behaviours in front of food than the fact of owning suitable knowledge on the matter. It is not likely that having that knowledge, even as in our sample, at a technical level, can guarantee proper behaviours and therefore a healthful feeding behaviour.

  5. Knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapy students towards obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Awotidebe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been recognised as a risk factor for non-communicable diseases, with more than one billion adults worldwide who are overweight, of which approximately 300 million are obese. Obesity puts an individual in danger of a shorter life expectancy and at risk for developing chronic diseases of life style, which includediabetes, cardio vascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis and back pain. Wide spread negative attitudes towards obese people have been observed which are equally prevalent among health care professionals.  This study was based on the need to determine the knowledge and attitudes towards obese people among physiotherapy students, as they are well suited to address theintricacies of obesity and its related conditions. One hundred and seventy five students from a university in the Western Cape, South Africa, completed a structured, self-administered questionnaire that was adopted from the Obesity Risk Knowledge and Fat Phobia Scale. The study sample demonstrated average levels of knowledge regarding obesity with scores ranging from 3 to 9 on a scale of 10 with a mean score of 6.05. A n overwhelming majority of the participants(> 80% viewed obesity as largely a behavioural problem while nearly all the participants (97.6% characterised obese people as lazy, unattractive, insecure and with lower self-esteem. This study has reinforced the need for a morefocussed approach to the education of physiotherapy students around obesity and obesity-related conditions, as well asthe management thereof.

  6. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  7. Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Francis

    Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

  8. Associations between dental knowledge, source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior in Japanese university students: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Yamane-Takeuchi, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior in a group of students at a university in Japan. A total of 2,220 university students (1,276 males, 944 females) volunteered to undergo an oral examination and answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior (e.g., daily frequency of tooth brushing, use of dental floss and regular dental checkups). The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for oral health behavior based on dental knowledge and source of dental knowledge were calculated using logistic regression models. Of the participants, 1,266 (57.0%) students obtained dental knowledge from dental clinics, followed by school (39.2%) and television (29.1%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that use of dental floss was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge from dental clinics (P = 0.006). Receiving regular dental checkups was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge; the positive source was dental clinic (P behavior among the Japanese university students in this study. PMID:28594914

  9. Biological evolution and Brazilian students: knowledge and acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela da Silva Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify topics of the biological evolution theory Brazilian students affirm to know and their relation with variables such as sex, age, geographical localization, socioeconomical aspects, religion and science. 2.404 high school students (55.1% girls enrolled in 78 Brazilian schools took part of the research. The data was generated through a questionnaire and analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18.0. The results point out that the knowledge of topics about evolution is low among students and influenced by the variables tested, the associations identified happened in a diversified way, and in lower or higher intensity according to the context studied.

  10. The autogestion the knowledge of the universitary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayelín Heredia-Vega

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban university has as main objective the professional formation of future professional in its most vast definition. This process could be achieved through a set of coherent and systematic activities that let the students to act in consciously way and with a high level of creativity. In Universities the professional formative process established the importance of consolidate students’ cognitive independence as part of their professional formation. That is why, it is imperative to enhance information research in different spaces. This aspect has been reflected in every career range of courses. This work has as intention to reflect about students of pedagogical career formation process in order to discover and to solve the problems that arise during students training period through the uses of concepts, principles, methods and techniques that enriches their scientific knowledge and research formation.

  11. Determinants of undergraduate nursing students' care willingness towards the elderly in China: Attitudes, gratitude and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Meng, Li-Na; Liu, Peng-Xi

    2016-08-01

    An aging population has become a serious problem in China. Improving the nursing students' care willingness is a critical way to solve this dilemma. Few studies reveal the relationship between the knowledge, care willingness, attitude towards the elderly and gratitude. This research has found that the attitude towards the elderly, the knowledge about aging, and gratitude showed correlation with care willingness. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among knowledge about aging, care willingness, attitude towards the elderly and gratitude. A cross-sectional descriptive design has been used. From November to December 2015, a total of 382 undergraduate nursing students in China completed the questionnaires. The response rate was 95.5%. Four questionnaires including Care Willingness to the Elderly Scale (CW), Kogan's Attitudes towards Old People scale (KAOP), the Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ), and the Gratitude Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the relationship among those variables in this study. For Chinese nursing students, the care willingness of elderly was in medium-high level. Their attitude towards the elderly and gratitude were at the medium degree, while the knowledge about aging was at a lower level. The attitude towards older people, knowledge about aging, and gratitude were significantly correlated with care willingness. The knowledge about aging has no relationship with the attitude. Gratitude plays a mediation role between the knowledge about aging and care willingness. The experience of caring the elderly could lead to a positive impact in care willingness. The nursing students' knowledge about aging had a direct influence on their care willingness. Gratitude plays a mediating role between the knowledge about aging and care willingness to the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hookah Smoking: Assessing College Students' Behaviors, Attitudes, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenik-Matejcek, Trisha M; Monson, Angela L; Cooper, Brigette R

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess college students' behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge regarding hookah smoking. Methods: A convenience sample of 200 students from various majors, including allied health and nursing students, was used to conduct this study at a university located in the Midwestern United States. Respondents were asked about any past, current, and future hookah smoking behaviors. Likert-scale questions were used to assess attitudes regarding hookah smoking. Respondents were also asked ten questions regarding the history of and health effects of hookah smoking. A knowledge score was calculated based on the number of questions answered correctly. Survey data were analyzed using independent sample t-tests and a one-way ANOVA test at a significance level of phookah smoking, with time of first-time use ranging from 14 to 21 years of age. About one third of the respondents (32%) reported participating in hookah smoking in the previous 30 days. The majority (68%)of respondents estimated that they would not participate in hookah smoking in five years time. Over half of the respondents reported that it is socially acceptable to participate in hookah smoking and 43% reported that hookah smoking has relaxation benefits. The overall mean knowledge score regarding the health effects of hookah usage was 4.4 questions correct out of 10. There was a significant difference (p=.038) in the mean knowledge scores between hookah users (4.70) and non-users (3.81). When comparing the knowledge of allied health and nursing majors to all other majors, the allied health and nursing group scored significantly higher (p=.017) than the non-allied health and nursing majors, with mean scores of 4.80 and 3.81, respectively. Thirty-nine percent of the respondents were unaware that hookah tobacco and related smoke can cause oral cancer. Conclusion: Based on the high rates of college student use and the low knowledge scores, this study supports need for more

  13. Medical students and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and implications for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, D R; Grossman, L S; Klamen, D L

    1999-02-01

    Second year medical students at a large midwestern university were surveyed about their attitudes regarding AIDS. Results indicated: (1) students with homosexual and/or HIV-positive friends were significantly more tolerant toward AIDS patients, (2) over half the students believed that treating AIDS patients may be hazardous and that their education had not prepared them to treat these patients safely, (3) one-third believed they had the right to refuse to treat AIDS patients, and (4) AIDS-phobia was significantly associated with homophobia. These data suggest that medical educators may need to help students overcome AIDS-phobia before some students will be able to incorporate instruction about AIDS since AIDS-phobia may inhibit this learning. Didactic instruction must be coupled with modeling by educators of non-prejudicial attitudes and strict adherence to medical professionalism.

  14. Wrong capital? Problems with recognition of knowledge presented by non-native students in international education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    This paper presents research on problems of knowledge recognition among students of various nationalities at an international organisation......This paper presents research on problems of knowledge recognition among students of various nationalities at an international organisation...

  15. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira, Rui Araújo, Cláudio Farias, Cristiana Bessa, Isabel Mesquita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls. Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task.

  16. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  17. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharambe Vaishaly K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world people on organ transplant waiting lists die due to shortage of donor organs. The success of organ donation program needs education of the population regarding organ donation for which healthcare professionals are most suitable. The present study was taken up to assess the knowledge and attitude of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students about organ donation. Methods. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst all willing 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students at our Medical College and later analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 157, 145 and 92 students from each year of medical education respectively gave their consent for participation in the study. Awareness regarding organ donation was found to be 98.7-100%, 69.4% claimed television as their source of information regarding organ donation and 46.7% stated that it is possible for patient to recover from brain death. The awareness regarding eye, liver, heart and kidney donations was found to be 92.4%, 87%, 87% and 97.8%, respectively. 87% of medical students were aware of need for legal supervision, and awareness regarding the existing laws was found to be 57.6%. Conclusion. Medical students had a high level of awareness and a positive attitude towards organ donation. However, knowledge regarding “brain-death”, organs and tissues donated, legislation and ethical issues was poor. A teaching intervention designed to specifically address these issues could help increase the confidence of the health-care professionals and may result finally in increased organ procurement rates.

  18. Comparison of Linguistic Knowledge between Students and Their Healthy Peers

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    Hiva Mohammadi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are many reports about relations between stuttering and language development. Some studies reveal that bilingualism is a contributing factor to the development of stuttering. Main objective of this study was comparison of linguistic knowledge in Kurdish (L1 and Farsi (L2 between bilingual stutterers and their normal peers. Materials & Methods: In this case-control and comparative study all of 31 Kurdish-Farsi bilingual stutterers from 4 and 5 grades in primary schools of Javanrood were selected as case group and 31 normal peers were selected as control group by Pairs Matching Method. The linguistic knowledge of two groups in L1 and L2 were evaluated and compared by analyzing the speech quality indices (speech fluency index, speech complexity index, type-token ratio in a sample of their spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Data were analyzed by Independent -T-test and Mann-Whitney U. Results: In both Kordish and Farsi Language, Speech unfluency was more in stutterd students than normal group. Also, speech complexity, speech fluency and lexical diversity of stuttered students were less than normal group and there were significant differences between two groups in all speech indices (P<0.05. Conclusion: The linguistic knowledge of stuttered group was less than normal group in both Kordish and Farsi language. This finding confirms that level of language proficiency may be considered as a contributing factor to stuttering.

  19. INTELLECTUAL INDEPENDENCE OF STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF GAINING KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdan Arsić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main task of teaching at the present stage of social development that is characterized by the rapid development of science and technology should be directed towards ensuring that students are in the process of gaining knowledge as more independent. Learning in the modern conditions of life and work more focused on finding new information and acquiring skills that they interpret, judge, critically analyze and find their practical application. Individual learning is a process in which students do their own activities, and the school should primarily be to develop pupils' skills and habits for independent work, or to enable them to actively come to know and own efforts. With a program of independent activities of children in the process of acquiring knowledge in teaching should begin already at a younger age in order to further their education existed during the constant rise of autonomy and independence. Individual learning in the classroom requires thought flexibility, critical thinking, individual work and intellectual independence, creativity and productivity, motivation and interest, as well as a partnership of teachers and students in the realization of educational tasks.

  20. Fostering Students' Conceptual Knowledge in Biology in the Context of German National Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förtsch, Christian; Dorfner, Tobias; Baumgartner, Julia; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2018-04-01

    The German National Education Standards (NES) for biology were introduced in 2005. The content part of the NES emphasizes fostering conceptual knowledge. However, there are hardly any indications of what such an instructional implementation could look like. We introduce a theoretical framework of an instructional approach to foster students' conceptual knowledge as demanded in the NES (Fostering Conceptual Knowledge) including instructional practices derived from research on single core ideas, general psychological theories, and biology-specific features of instructional quality. First, we aimed to develop a rating manual, which is based on this theoretical framework. Second, we wanted to describe current German biology instruction according to this approach and to quantitatively analyze its effectiveness. And third, we aimed to provide qualitative examples of this approach to triangulate our findings. In a first step, we developed a theoretically devised rating manual to measure Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in videotaped lessons. Data for quantitative analysis included 81 videotaped biology lessons of 28 biology teachers from different German secondary schools. Six hundred forty students completed a questionnaire on their situational interest after each lesson and an achievement test. Results from multilevel modeling showed significant positive effects of Fostering Conceptual Knowledge on students' achievement and situational interest. For qualitative analysis, we contrasted instruction of four teachers, two with high and two with low student achievement and situational interest using the qualitative method of thematic analysis. Qualitative analysis revealed five main characteristics describing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge. Therefore, implementing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in biology instruction seems promising. Examples of how to implement Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in instruction are shown and discussed.

  1. The nature of middle school students' knowledge construction and scientific reasoning during inquiry in genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Marissa

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of middle school students' scientific reasoning and knowledge construction during a three-week inquiry unit in genetics. During the unit, students used genetics simulation software to investigate how traits were transmitted in fruit flies and plants in order to develop mental models of trait transmission for simple dominance single trait inheritance patterns. Using a participant/observer design, data were collected consisting of a pretest/posttest assessment, audiotaped/videotaped discourse, computer logs, student recorded logs, homework, final reports, and researcher field notes. Qualitative analyses were used to determine categories of student content knowledge and scientific reasoning. For content knowledge, categories of student explanations were formed for both standard and anomalous inheritance patterns. Standard inheritance patterns were those that could be predicted based on the appearance of the parents. Anomalous inheritance patterns were those that could not. For scientific reasoning, categories of student hypotheses, tests, and conclusions were formed. Quantitative analyses were used to determine patterns of significance in the qualitative data. Based on pre-post analyses, students made a significant shift from less sophisticated to more sophisticated explanations of anomalous inheritance patterns. Changes in scientific reasoning were more subtle. Some students shifted from less complex to more complex hypotheses, and from descriptive to evaluative conclusions. Some students also shifted from less comprehensive to more comprehensive testing. Student ability to explain two different anomalous patterns seemed to be linked to the extent to which they encountered each anomalous outcome during their investigations; greater exposure was associated with an increased number of students being able to explain that pattern. Novice tendencies found in the extant literature on students' lack of systematicity during

  2. Investigating Years 7 to 12 students' knowledge of linear relationships through different contexts and representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.; Ayalon, Michal

    2018-02-01

    A foundational component of developing algebraic thinking for meaningful calculus learning is the idea of "function" that focuses on the relationship between varying quantities. Students have demonstrated widespread difficulties in learning calculus, particularly interpreting and modeling dynamic events, when they have a poor understanding of relationships between variables. Yet, there are differing views on how to develop students' functional thinking over time. In the Australian curriculum context, linear relationships are introduced to lower secondary students with content that reflects a hybrid of traditional and reform algebra pedagogy. This article discusses an investigation into Australian secondary students' understanding of linear functional relationships from Years 7 to 12 (approximately 12 to 18 years old; n = 215) in their approaches to three tasks (finding rate of change, pattern generalisation and interpretation of gradient) involving four different representations (table, geometric growing pattern, equation and graph). From the findings, it appears that these students' knowledge of linear functions remains context-specific rather than becoming connected over time.

  3. Neither Basic Life Support knowledge nor self-efficacy are predictive of skills among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, C; Ho, J D; Guerin, S; Yeoh, Y L; Mohamed Medhat, M; Doody, K; Hwang, S; Hania, M; Boggs, S; Nolan, A; Nunn, J

    2017-08-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is considered a core competence for the graduating dentist. This study aimed to measure BLS knowledge, self-efficacy and skills of undergraduate dental students in Dublin. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey measuring BLS knowledge and self-efficacy, accompanied by a directly observed BLS skills assessment in a subsample of respondents. Data were collected in January 2014. Bivariate correlations between descriptive and outcome variables (knowledge, self-efficacy and skills) were tested using Pearson's chi-square. We included knowledge and self-efficacy as predictor variables, along with other variables showing association, into a binary logistic regression model with BLS skills as the outcome measure. One hundred and thirty-five students participated. Almost all (n = 133, 98.5%) participants had BLS training within the last 2 years. One hundred and four (77%) felt that they were capable of providing effective BLS (self-efficacy), whilst only 46 (34.1%) scored >80% of knowledge items correct. Amongst the skills (n = 85) subsample, 38.8% (n = 33) were found to pass the BLS skills assessment. Controlling for gender, age and skills assessor, the regression model did not identify a predictive relationship between knowledge or self-efficacy and BLS skills. Neither knowledge nor self-efficacy was predictive of BLS skills. Dental students had low levels of knowledge and skills in BLS. Despite this, their confidence in their ability to perform BLS was high and did not predict actual competence. There is a need for additional hands-on training, focusing on self-efficacy and BLS skills, particularly the use of AED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterizing Middle Grade Students' Integrated Alternative Science Knowledge about the Effects of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Sarah J.; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2017-01-01

    Recent reforms emphasize a shift in how students should learn and demonstrate knowledge of science. These reforms call for students to learn content knowledge using science and engineering practices, creating integrated science knowledge. While there is existing literature about the development of integrated science knowledge assessments, few…

  5. Playful strategies that increase the knowledge of students on gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Katherine Sánchez-Peña

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to formulate and implement playful strategies to increase the level of knowledge in a group of students about gingivitis associated with bacterial plaque and its prevention, this project was developed in Pereira city at Alfonso Jaramillo Gutiérrez high school. The studio started from assuming that traditional teaching methodologies have proved to be highly ineffective and considering that playful strategies strengthen the active participation of the subject community of intervention. A qualitative approach was adopted, this methodology is characterized by its dialogic nature where beliefs, myths, prejudices and feelings are accepted as elements of analysis to produce knowledge. The research method chosen was the Action Research and teaching workshops and focus groups were used as investigation techniques. It was proved that the initial level of knowledge of these teenagers was low. Most of them were totally unfamiliar with the gingivitis associated with dental plaque and through the playful strategies they increased their knowledge, obtained meaningful learning and achieved an active participation.

  6. An instructional design process based on expert knowledge for teaching students how mechanisms are explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy J

    2016-06-01

    In biology and physiology courses, students face many difficulties when learning to explain mechanisms, a topic that is demanding due to the immense complexity and abstract nature of molecular and cellular mechanisms. To overcome these difficulties, we asked the following question: how does an instructor transform their understanding of biological mechanisms and other difficult-to-learn topics so that students can comprehend them? To address this question, we first reviewed a model of the components used by biologists to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms: the MACH model, with the components of methods (M), analogies (A), context (C), and how (H). Next, instructional materials were developed and the teaching activities were piloted with a physical MACH model. Students who used the MACH model to guide their explanations of mechanisms exhibited both improvements and some new difficulties. Third, a series of design-based research cycles was applied to bring the activities with an improved physical MACH model into biology and biochemistry courses. Finally, a useful rubric was developed to address prevalent student difficulties. Here, we present, for physiology and biology instructors, the knowledge and resources for explaining molecular and cellular mechanisms in undergraduate courses with an instructional design process aimed at realizing pedagogical content knowledge for teaching. Our four-stage process could be adapted to advance instruction with a range of models in the life sciences. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  7. College students' memory for vocabulary in their majors: evidence for a nonlinear relation between knowledge and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarie, Darlene; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Prideaux, Cheri L; Muransky-Doran, Jean; Gerda, Julie Hart

    2004-09-01

    The effect of domain knowledge on students' memory for vocabulary terms was investigated. Participants were 142 college students (94 education majors and 48 business majors). The measure of domain knowledge was the number of courses completed in the major. Students recalled three different lists (control, education, and business) of 20 words. Knowledge effects were estimated controlling for academic aptitude, academic achievement, and general memory ability. Domain-specific knowledge consistently predicted recall, above and beyond the effect of these control variables. Moreover, nonlinear models better represented the relation between knowledge and memory, with very similar functions predicting recall in both knowledge domains. Specifically, early in the majors more classes corresponded with increased memory performance, but a plateau period, when more classes did not result in higher recall, was evident for both majors. Longitudinal research is needed to explore at what point in learning novices' performance begins to resemble experts' performance.

  8. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  9. The knowledge of pedagogic students on suicidal behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacharewicz, A; Maciorkowska, E

    2005-01-01

    Suicide, taking one's own life, seems to be in contradiction with the will to live. However, it is not so obvious, as there is not the same patterns of behavior for all people. People differ from one another as far as reactions, behavior, and actions are concerned. Some are mobilized, others are discouraged by failures. It is often thought that suicidal behavior occurs due to a mental disorder. The purpose of the study was to check the knowledge of IV-year-students of Pedagogy and Psychology of The University in Bialystok concerning suicidal behavior. Danger of suicidal phenomenon among young people was also to be noticed and discussed. The examination was conducted in the group of 50 students of the IV year of Pedagogy and Psychology of The University in Bialystok in 2002. Students, 21-25 years of age, comprised the most numerous group. Women were the majority (84%) while men were 16%. The examination tool was the questionnaire of 29 open and closed questions. The analysis of the results points to the fact that making a decision of suicide is a result of long reflections expanded in time. Personal and family problems are most common causes of suicidal behavior given by the responders. Social isolation and bad mental condition were behaviors indicating the will to commit suicide. Lonely people, chronically ill, emotionally immature and the young people were those of the high risk groups. According to the examined students, pain connected with physical suffering may influence suicidal behavior.

  10. Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.

  11. Knowledge-based geometric modeling in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A wider application of IT-based solutions, such as configuration systems and the implementation of modeling standards, has facilitated the trend to produce mass customized products to support inter alia the specification process of the increasing product variety. However, not all industries have...... realized the full potential of using product and process modelling tools as well as the implementation of configuration systems to support their business processes. Especially in the building industry, where Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturers provide complex custom tailored products, up to now, often...... a considerably high amount of their recourses is required for designing and specifying the majority of their product assortment. As design decisions are hereby based on knowledge and experience about behaviour and applicability of construction techniques and materials for a predefined design situation, smart...

  12. Financial knowledge and subjective financial risk tolerance among students at a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfano Michael Ramudzuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used a self-administered questionnaire to determine the effect of financial knowledge and other demographic variables on Financial Risk Tolerance (FRT among South African University students. Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression model were used to analyse information from 330 participants selected from a South African University in the Gauteng province. The results indicated that the probability of being risk tolerant was high among students with financial knowledge compared to those without financial knowledge. Among demographic variables, monthly expenditure and religion were found to have a significant effect on Financial Risk Tolerance. The results of the study thus draw attention to a number of factors that can help investment managers in finding suitable financial products for their clientele.

  13. Students' pre-knowledge as a guideline in the teaching of introductory thermal physics at university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi; Hirvonen, Pekka E; Raesaenen, Esa

    2009-01-01

    This study concentrates on analysing university students' pre-knowledge of thermal physics. The students' understanding of the basic concepts and of the adiabatic compression of an ideal gas was studied at the start of an introductory level course. A total of 48 students participated in a paper-and-pencil test, and analysis of the responses revealed that they had several kinds of problems. They did not differentiate between concepts, confusing in particular the concepts of temperature, internal energy and heat. The students also seemed to have serious problems in applying the first law of thermodynamics: they were frequently more likely to use the ideal gas law rather than the first law, e.g., in the case of adiabatic compression, even though it cannot provide a proper explanation of the phenomenon. More detailed analysis revealed that the underlying reasons for many of the problems detected were based on an inadequate understanding of micro-level models of substance. At the upper secondary level, students have acquired an impression of how particles move, vibrate and interact, but they have not learnt how to apply the ideas and concepts of the micro-models in a scientific manner. All of this means that university teachers need to exercise great care in designing their teaching. Explicit recommendations for teachers to take into account both the findings of this research project and also students' pre-knowledge are presented in the discussion section at the end of this paper

  14. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  15. A Comparison of Student Knowledge between Traditional and Blended Instruction in a Physical Education in Early Childhood Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannousi, Maria; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning model combines different advantages of face to face education and e-learning to ensure an effective learning environment for students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of traditional and blended instruction, in students' knowledge in a Physical Education in Early Childhood course. For the purpose of this…

  16. Meeting students halfway: Increasing self-efficacy and promoting knowledge change in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Lombardi, Doug; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2017-12-01

    Two motivational factors—self-efficacy and interest—may be especially relevant to deepening students' understanding of astronomy. We examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy for, interest in learning about, and changes in their knowledge of stars, as measured by the Star Properties Concept Inventory (SPCI). Approximately 700 undergraduate students taking introductory astronomy responded to surveys at the start and end of their semester-long course. A sequential multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy post explains an appreciable percentage of variance in SPCI posttest scores, more than twice the percentage explained by all the pretest variables (SPCI, self-efficacy, and interest) combined. Knowledge and self-efficacy improved significantly over instruction; interest did not. Follow-up analyses revealed that instructors whose classes increased in self-efficacy also had the greatest increases in knowledge scores. Interviews with these instructors suggest they provide their students with more opportunities for mastery experiences with elaborated, performance-related feedback, as well as strong positive verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences through peer instruction. Through increased understanding of the relationship between motivational constructs (e.g., self-efficacy, interest) and knowledge, we can both improve our models and better inform instruction.

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al Kindi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.Results: Most of the participants (n=469; 79% were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%, media (n=209; 35%, family and friends (n=197; 33%, and/or health services (n=181, 31%. The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92% thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53% favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36% favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results.Conclusion: Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

  18. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kindi, Rahma; Al Rujaibi, Salha; Al Kendi, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program. Results Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results. Conclusion Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program. PMID:23071880

  19. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model developm......We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  20. Female college students' knowledge, perceptions, and use of emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Mary T

    2009-01-01

    To examine female college students' knowledge, perceptions, and use of emergency contraception since its availability over-the-counter. Exploratory, descriptive survey design. A convenience sample of female college students between the ages of 18 and 24 in a private suburban university in the Mid-Atlantic region. Six hundred and nine students responded to the survey (22% response rate). Findings revealed that 15% of respondents indicated having been pregnant previously; 87% of those pregnancies were unplanned. Ninety-eight percent had heard of emergency contraception; however, nearly 40% were unsure if emergency contraception was the same as RU-486 (the abortion pill). Ninety-five percent of respondents knew that emergency contraception is available in the United States; 33% believed that a prescription was required. Perceived side effects were reported by 71%; 60% did not believe they could obtain emergency contraception. Twenty-eight percent reported previously using emergency contraception; 27% of these purchased it over-the-counter. Findings from this study indicated that women who are considered at risk for unintended pregnancies are not aware of the use, availability, and accessibility of an effective means of prevention. In addition, misconceptions regarding emergency contraception, such as its side effects, were also a significant finding. Based on these findings, education about emergency contraception is warranted, particularly in this at-risk population.

  1. The childhood obesity pandemic: Promoting knowledge for undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sefer, Ellen

    2009-05-01

    The rise in childhood obesity is acknowledged as a major health problem in many countries. Health issues directly related to the childhood obesity pandemic are numerous as are the risk factors in its development. No single strategy is likely to be effective in reversing this alarming trend, rather, nurses need to work with children and families by providing education, guidance, and support to promote a change in the many lifestyle factors that have helped to create this health problem. Curriculum, teaching practices and assignment topics based on contemporary health issues of relevance to nursing practice support the importance of educating nursing students on this worrying health issue. The use of a creative strategy to help students learn about the childhood obesity problem can also be utilised to encourage lateral thinking in students. Thus, an assignment can have two significant goals in the development of knowledge and understanding of childhood obesity but also personal discovery of creative ability to design a method that engages children in learning about this health problem and what they can do to avoid its development.

  2. Comparing the knowledge of contraceptives among 1st and 6th year students

    OpenAIRE

    Miran, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Author: Mona Miran Thesis: Comparing the knowledge of contraceptives among 1st and 6th year students. Aim: To explore the knowledge about contraceptives when students are in first year of their medical studies and when the students are in their last year of medical studies. Objectives: 1. To asses the knowledge about contraceptives among medical international and Lithuanian students of LUHS. 2. To measure the usage and experience of contraceptives among 1st and 6th year medic...

  3. Using Doubly Latent Multilevel Analysis to Elucidate Relationships between Science Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Daniela; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Teachers make a difference for the outcome of their students in science classrooms. One focus in this context lies on teachers' professional knowledge. We describe this knowledge according to three domains, namely (1) content knowledge (CK), (2) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and (3) curricular knowledge (CuK). We hypothesise a positive…

  4. Generalisation of language and knowledge models for corpus analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Anton

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes new look on language and knowledge modelling for corpus linguistics. Using ideas of Chaitin, a line of argument is made against language/knowledge separation in Natural Language Processing. A simplistic model, that generalises approaches to language and knowledge, is proposed. One of hypothetical consequences of this model is Strong AI.

  5. A Model for Teaching Electronic Commerce Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C. Woodard

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of information technology in an ever-changing world at universities presents a challenge. Are courses taught as concepts, while ignoring hands-on courses, leaving the hands-on classes to the technical colleges or trade schools? Does this produce the best employees for industry or give students the knowledge and skills necessary to function in a high-tech world? At GeorgiaCollege & StateUniversity (GC&SU a model was developed that combines both concepts and practical hands-on skill to meet this challenge. Using this model, a program was developed that consists of classroom lecture of concepts as well as practical hands-on exercises for mastering the knowledge and developing the skills necessary to succeed in the high-tech world of electronic commerce. The students become productive day one of a new job assignment. This solves the problem of students having the "book knowledge" but not knowing how to apply what has been learned.

  6. Relational Model Conflicts in Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Baalen (Peter); J. van Dalen (Jan); J. van Malsen (Jorina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe distributed nature of organizational knowledge makes that knowledge sharing an important factor for unlocking its potential value. In practice, however, people may have different motivations for not sharing knowledge with colleagues, which in part may be due to the relational

  7. Students' Models of Curve Fitting: A Models and Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta

    2010-01-01

    The Models and Modeling Perspectives (MMP) has evolved out of research that began 26 years ago. MMP researchers use Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) to elicit students' mental models. In this study MMP was used as the conceptual framework to investigate the nature of students' models of curve fitting in a problem-solving environment consisting of…

  8. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  9. A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon Robert

    With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by

  10. Applying the knowledge creation model to the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present-day society, the need to manage indigenous knowledge is widely recognised. However, there is a debate in progress on whether or not indigenous knowledge can be easily managed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of using knowledge management models like knowledge creation theory ...

  11. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  12. Exploring Students' Knowledge Construction Strategies in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Discussions Using Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Nurbiha A.; Tasir, Zaidatun; Van der Meijden, Henny; Harun, Jamalludin

    2014-01-01

    Online collaborative learning allows discussion to occur at greater depth where knowledge can be constructed remotely. However students were found to construct knowledge at low-level where they discussed by sharing and comparing opinions; those are inadequate for new knowledge creation. As such, this research attempted to investigate the students'…

  13. Teacher-Education Students' Views about Knowledge Building Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chen, Fei-Ching; Chai, Ching Sing; Chan, Wen-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of engaging students to collectively learn and work with knowledge in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment called Knowledge Forum on their views about knowledge building theory and practice. Participants were 24 teacher-education students who took a required course titled "Integrating Theory…

  14. The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  15. The Impact of Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Motivation on Students' Achievement and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Melanie M.; Neumann, Knut; Fischer, Hans E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines students' achievement and interest and the extent to which they are predicted by teacher knowledge and motivation. Student achievement and interest are both considered desirable outcomes of school instruction. Teacher pedagogical content knowledge has been identified a major predictor of student achievement in previous…

  16. Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Understanding of Core Algebraic Concepts: Equal Sign and Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Pamela; Stephens, Ana C.; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports results from a study focused on teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of core algebraic concepts. In particular, the study examined middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of the equal sign and variable, and students' success applying their understanding of these concepts. Interview…

  17. Students' Perceptions of Vocabulary Knowledge and Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…

  18. Effect of Personal Financial Knowledge on College Students' Credit Card Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Cliff A.; Sharpe, Deanna L.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of survey data collected from 6,520 students at a large Midwestern University affirmed that financial knowledge is a significant factor in the credit card decisions of college students but not entirely in expected ways. Results of a double hurdle analysis indicated that students with relatively higher levels of financial knowledge were…

  19. A Spanish-language patient safety questionnaire to measure medical and nursing students' attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José J; Navarro, Isabel M; Guilabert, Mercedes; Poblete, Rodrigo; Franco, Astolfo L; Jiménez, Pilar; Aquino, Margarita; Fernández-Trujillo, Francisco J; Lorenzo, Susana; Vitaller, Julián; de Valle, Yohana Díaz; Aibar, Carlos; Aranaz, Jesús M; De Pedro, José A

    2015-08-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain) to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors) presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimated for each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input). Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire") consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic) calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9). Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This instrument could be used to indirectly evaluate whether or

  20. Knowledge of the Guarani language in medical students at a university hospital in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Hassel Jimmy; Delgadillo, Lorena; Campuzano de Rolon, Ana; Jiménez, Diana; de Samudio, Angélica; Agüero, Adriana; Radice, César; Jiménez-Britez, Gustavo

    2018-04-10

    Paraguay is a bilingual country and knowledge of the guarani language is an important communication tool for the doctor- patient relationship. To determine the degree of and the factors that influence the knowledge of the Guaraní language in medical students at a University Hospital in Paraguay. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study in which an anonymous questionnaire was applied to the final year medical students of a University Hospital of Paraguay. The baseline characteristics of the medical students and their degree of knowledge of the Guarani language were described. The association between the characteristics of the students and the degree of knowledge of the Guarani language was evaluated with the Chi square association test and the logistic regression model. We included 264 students in the survey. Eighty two percent come from the capital, 72% made their pre-university studies in the capital; 92% studied Guaraní in primary and secondary education; 67.9% do not interpret Guarani correctly; 8.5% understand and express themselves totally in Guaraní. Of these, 86% refer to have the greater learning of the language in their home; 75.2% of respondents believe that primary and secondary education did not help in learning the language. The degree of knowledge of the language (speaks and understands the Guarani language correctly) varies according to: the origin of the student, the inland regions or the capital (31.25% vs. 2.5%, adjusted OR = 0.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.92, p = 0.003); the location of primary and secondary school: inland versus capital (25.6% vs. 1%, adjusted OR: 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.53, p = 0.009). The degree of knowledge of the Guaraní language of the students is lower compared to the general population; those who best understand and express themselves were born or studied in the interior of the country. The majority considers that primary and secondary education contribute little in the learning of

  1. Effect of simulation on knowledge of advanced cardiac life support, knowledge retention, and confidence of nursing students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of simulation on nursing students' knowledge of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), knowledge retention, and confidence in applying ACLS skills. An experimental, randomized controlled (pretest-posttest) design was used. The experimental group (n = 40) attended an ACLS simulation scenario, a 4-hour PowerPoint presentation, and demonstration on a static manikin, whereas the control group (n = 42) attended the PowerPoint presentation and a demonstration only. A paired t test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of ACLS and confidence was higher in both groups. The experimental group showed higher knowledge of ACLS and higher confidence in applying ACLS, compared with the control group. Traditional training involving PowerPoint presentation and demonstration on a static manikin is an effective teaching strategy; however, simulation is significantly more effective than traditional training in helping to improve nursing students' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and confidence about ACLS. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Teacher’s Knowledge of Students in Learning Mathematics on Limit of Function Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'rufi; Ketut Budayasa, I.; Juniati, Dwi

    2018-01-01

    This research aims at describing the profile of high school teacher’s Pedagogical Content Knowledge in learning mathematics from the perspective of teaching experience. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) covers teacher’s knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students. The subject of this research was two high school mathematics teachers who have different teaching experience. The data were obtained through interview and observation then analyzed qualitatively. The focus of this research is the novice teacher’s PCK deals with knowledge of students. Knowledge of Student is defined as teacher’s knowledge about the students’ conception and misconception on limit of function material and teacher’s ability to cope with students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception. The result of this research shows that novice teacher’s ability in analyzing the cause of students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception was limited. Novice teacher tended to overcome the students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception by re-explaining the procedure of question completion which is not understood by the students.

  3. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  4. Features of Knowledge Building in Biology: Understanding Undergraduate Students' Ideas about Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn; Wince, Tyler; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students. Interviews included a written conceptual assessment, a concept-mapping activity, and an opportunity to explain the biomechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Student reasoning patterns were explored through mixed-method analyses. Results suggested that students must sort mechanistic entities into appropriate mental categories that reflect the nature of MCB mechanisms and that conflation between these categories is common. We also showed how connections between molecular mechanisms and their biological roles are part of building an integrated knowledge network as students develop expertise. We observed differences in the nature of connections between ideas related to different forms of reasoning. Finally, we provide a tentative model for MCB knowledge integration and suggest its implications for undergraduate learning. © 2016 K. Southard et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst, Nora M; Klug, Julia; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL) via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK) was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a) lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b) would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c) would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d) found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and well-being.

  6. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Foerst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and

  7. Why Knowledge Modeling is Important for Business and for a Danish Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2011-01-01

    , and possibly other languages, so information must be freely retrievable and communicable in several languages. In this paper I will give examples of why knowledge modeling is important for businesses, and why knowledge modeling is a central part of the DanTermBank project, the aim of which is to lay......Businesses and organizations, including public authorities, have a growing need for organizing and handling large amounts of data. In order to manage complex knowledge, knowledge must be modeled and structured. One very powerful method used for structuring knowledge is the use of ontologies....... Businesses and organizations need efficient tools for building domain-specific ontologies and systems for managing knowledge. Most medium-sized and large Danish businesses and organizations operate in a bilingual or multilingual environment, where knowledge is transferred and stored in Danish and/or English...

  8. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections: knowledge among dental students in seven Italian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Castiglia, Paolo; D'Alessandro, Daniela; Legnani, Pierpaolo; Minelli, Liliana; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; Righi, Elena; Strohmenger, Laura; Tesauro, Marina; Torre, Ida; Tanzi, Maria Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Lack of knowledge is the major reason for non-compliance with correct healthcare-associated infections (HAI) prevention procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of the Dental School (DSS) and Dental Hygiene (DHS) students with regard to the prevention of HAI, as basic knowledge for improving and harmonizing the educational content in the different Italian Universities. A cross-sectional study was carried out using an anonymous questionnaire that was completed by DSS (I, II, III, IV, and V year) in seven Universities and DHS (I, II, and III year) in three Universities. The questions dealt with three specific areas: healthcare-associated infections, standard precautions and hand hygiene. Factors associated with an unacceptable level of knowledge (score <17.5) were analyzed using a logistic regression model. A p value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Five hundred and four questionnaires were collected: 81.5% for DSS and 18.5% for DHS. Mean overall score (±DS) achieved by the total number of students was 18.2±2.93 on an overall perfect score of 25; 18.2±3.04 for DSS and 17.8±2.31 for DHS. Stratifying by area, the average score 2.7±1.07 (53%) for HAI, 10.3±1.61 (85.9%) for standard precautions, and 5.2±1.44 (64.8%) for hand hygiene was observed. A significantly different level of knowledge (p<0.001) between DSS and DHS was observed only for HAI (2.8±1.07 for DSS vs 2.1±0.96 for DHS). Significant differences among the academic years were found only for DSS concerning HAI and standard precautions. The logistic regression model showed that an age <23 years was a risk factor for lack of knowledge on HAI, but a protective factor for lack of knowledge about standard precautions and hand hygiene; attending DH degree course was associated with lack of knowledge on HAI. Although the overall score obtained both by DSS and DHS indicated an acceptable level of knowledge, lack of knowledge was highlighted, in particular, for hand hygiene. Therefore

  9. Knowledge Loss: A Defensive Model In Nuclear Research Organization Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Bin Sulaiman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of research based organization. It should be properly managed to ensure that any pitfalls of knowledge retention due to knowledge loss of both tacit and explicit is mitigated. Audit of the knowledge entities exist in the organization is important to identify the size of critical knowledge. It is very much related to how much know-what, know-how and know-why experts exist in the organization. This study conceptually proposed a defensive model for Nuclear Malaysia's organization memory and application of Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment (KLRA) as an important tool for critical knowledge identification. (author)

  10. Making a case for abortion curriculum reform: a knowledge-assessment survey of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessford, Tara A; Norman, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that medical schools offer insufficient training to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to counsel patients about abortion and to become abortion providers. We conducted a knowledge-assessment survey of medical students before (second-year students) and after (fourth-year students) teaching related to abortion to evaluate the effectiveness of the undergraduate abortion curriculum. Undergraduate medical students answered a knowledge-assessment survey about abortion epidemiology, practice guidelines, abortion methods and procedures, and student readiness to provide abortions. One hundred and twenty six of 266 second-year students (47%) and 67 of 170 fourth-year students (39%) completed the survey. Fourth-year medical students scored higher on average than second-year students (P Abortion epidemiology was the weakest area of performance for all students. Most medical students would either provide an abortion (37% of fourth-year students, 38% of second-year students) or refer to a provider (36% of fourth-year students and 34% of second-year students). There was no significant relationship between overall scores and student readiness to provide abortions. Medical students in both second and fourth year demonstrated a limited understanding of abortion. Most future physicians participating in this study indicated they would be willing to provide abortions. Curriculum reform to improve abortion training in undergraduate medical programs is essential to provide students with necessary learning opportunities and to ensure safe and effective reproductive health care for women.

  11. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda T. Lwoga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000 in the context of the local communities. Data from focus groups were used to triangulate with data from interviews in order to validate, confirm and corroborate quantitative results with qualitative findings. The study findings showed that knowledge creation theory can be used to manage IK in the local communities, however, adequate and appropriate resources need to be allocated for capturing and preserving IK before it disappears altogether. For sustainable agricultural development, the communities have to be placed within a knowledge-creating setting that continuously creates, distributes and shares knowledge within and beyond the communities’ boundaries and integrates it with new agricultural technologies, innovations and knowledge.

  12. Children's understanding of the Earth in a multicultural community: Mental models or fragments of knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, G.; Moore, D. G.; Martin, A. E.; Clifford, B. R.; Butterworth, G.; Panagiotaki, G.; Siegal, M.

    Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.

  13. Influence of using challenging tasks in biology classrooms on students' cognitive knowledge structure: an empirical video study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawani, Jigna; Rixius, Julia; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2016-08-01

    Empirical analysis of secondary biology classrooms revealed that, on average, 68% of teaching time in Germany revolved around processing tasks. Quality of instruction can thus be assessed by analyzing the quality of tasks used in classroom discourse. This quasi-experimental study analyzed how teachers used tasks in 38 videotaped biology lessons pertaining to the topic 'blood and circulatory system'. Two fundamental characteristics used to analyze tasks include: (1) required cognitive level of processing (e.g. low level information processing: repetiition, summary, define, classify and high level information processing: interpret-analyze data, formulate hypothesis, etc.) and (2) complexity of task content (e.g. if tasks require use of factual, linking or concept level content). Additionally, students' cognitive knowledge structure about the topic 'blood and circulatory system' was measured using student-drawn concept maps (N = 970 students). Finally, linear multilevel models were created with high-level cognitive processing tasks and higher content complexity tasks as class-level predictors and students' prior knowledge, students' interest in biology, and students' interest in biology activities as control covariates. Results showed a positive influence of high-level cognitive processing tasks (β = 0.07; p < .01) on students' cognitive knowledge structure. However, there was no observed effect of higher content complexity tasks on students' cognitive knowledge structure. Presented findings encourage the use of high-level cognitive processing tasks in biology instruction.

  14. Why Knowledge Modeling is Important for Business and for a Danish Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2011-01-01

    , and possibly other languages, so information must be freely retrievable and communicable in several languages. In this paper I will give examples of why knowledge modeling is important for businesses, and why knowledge modeling is a central part of the DanTermBank project, the aim of which is to lay...

  15. [Knowledge about viral hepatitis in a sample of Brazilian students from Vale do Araguaia, Legal Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos K B; Savazzi, Kamirri; Honorio-França, Adenilda C; Ferrari, Graziele S L; França, Eduardo L

    2012-06-01

    Viral and non-viral hepatitis are of great concern among developing nations because of their pathogenicity and virulence, and also their wide spreading by contaminated blood, food or water. The objective of this work was to evaluate the knowledge about hepatitis of academic students from three life/health sciences courses and also students from the last year of high school To measure the students' knowledge on hepatitis an instrument containing 22 questions was applied. Surprinsingly, it was verified that 41.9% of students had poor knowledge of viral hepatitis. Among the high school students, 31.8% ignored that viral hepatitis are infectious and transmissible diseases. Considering hepatitis symptomatology, just 18% of high school students declared knowledge of the symptons, but none of those cited the ictericia. Among the academic students, 75.9% of nursing students had adequate knowledge of hepatitis, followed by pharmacy (51.3%), and biology students (18.2%). Nursing students had also higher scores of right answers regarding viral hepatitis and chronic disease. On contrary, biology and high school students had poor knowledge of that matter (37% and 44.5%, respectively). Less than 15% of nursing and pharmacy students did not know that viral hepatitis are sexually transmissible, whereas 78.6% of the 3rd year and 52.4% of the 4th year biology course ignored the sexual transmission of viral hepatitis. Still considering the same question, 54.5% of the high school students also ignored that viral hepatitis are sexually transmitted diseases. Important conclusions can be drawn from this study, since the higher hepatitis knowledge scores were found among nursing students, followed by pharmacy academics. However, biology students, which will serve as high school teachers, had poor and insufficient knowledge on hepatitis. This finding could explain the same poor disease knowledge among high school pupils.

  16. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING: A FOUNDATION FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bosilj-Vukšić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM is increasingly recognised as a strategic practice of knowledge-intensive companies, becoming an integral part of an organisation's strategy to improve business performance. This paper provides an overview of business process modelling applications and analyses the relationship between business process modelling and knowledge management projects. It presents the case study of Croatian leading banks and the insurance company, discussing its practical experience in conducting business process modelling projects and investigating the opportunity for integrating business process repository and organisational knowledge as the foundation for knowledge management system development.

  18. Assessment of nutrition knowledge and related aspects among first-year Kuwait University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabban, Farouk; Badr, Hanan E

    2011-01-01

    Assessing nutrition knowledge of populations assists in drawing strategies for education programs. Nutrition-related problems are common in Kuwait, thus data on nutrition knowledge are needed. This study involved administration of a questionnaire to 1,037 first-year Kuwait University students. The overall nutrition knowledge score was rated as fair, with deficiency in specific areas of knowledge. Students' dietary habits, attitudes, and interest in nutrition information were assessed as fair. Our findings will aid in building a nutrition knowledge database in Kuwait. A simplified course on aspects of healthy nutrition and lifestyle to all Kuwait University students is highly recommended.

  19. Robustness of a Distributed Knowledge Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In globalizing competitive markets knowledge exchangebetween business organizations requires incentivemechanisms to ensure tactical purposes while strategicpurposes are subject to joint organization and otherforms of contractual obligations. Where property ofknowledge (e.g. patents and copyrights...

  20. Suicide Prevention Exposure, Awareness, and Knowledge Survey (SPEAKS) - Student

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SPEAKS- student dataset contains individual level information from a sample of college students on GLS funded campuses. These data include student demographics,...

  1. EFFECT OF INQUIRY LEARNING MODEL TRAINING AND CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS ON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CLASS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Envilwan Harefa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of research were to analize: (1 Student’s skill proccess science by using inquiry training learning model better than direct intruction learning model; (2 Student’s skill process science who had under average better than above average category in scientific knowledge; and (3 the interaction between learning model and the level of scientific knowledge in fluencing student’s skill process science. The research was quasi-experimental research. The population of this research is all of thenth grade students of SMAN 3 Gunungsitoli. The sample of this researchconsist of grade with was taken by cluster random sampling were X2 and X3 class.The research instrument consisted of skill process science essay test and criticalthinking skills test data be analysed by using Two–way ANAVA. Result of theresearch showed that kill of the student science process (1 between inquiry training and direct intruction, where inquiry training better than direct intruction, (2 between group of student in the group of the students scientific knowledgeupon and under of mean, where scientific knowledge upon of mean better then scientific knowledge under of mean, (3 no interaction between inquiry training and scientific knowledge increased skill of student science process.

  2. KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ABOUT EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Camargo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergency contraception is a hormonal measure adopted to prevent undesired pregnancy after unprotected sexual relation or when it occurs a flaw in the conventional method. The method is inserted in the policy of Sexual and Reproductive Rightsof Brazilian Health Ministry since 1996 with the purpose of preventing undesired pregnancy and consequently reducing the illegal abortion rate and maternal mortality. This study has as objective to seek the degree of knowledge of women, female health care college students of Centro Universitário Padre Anchieta, Jundiaí-SP, who make use of this contraceptive method. To perform the survey a questionnaire was elaborated and approved by the Human Ethics Committee, number 30407014.9.0000.5386. A survey of 11 closed questions and 3 open questions were applied to the volunteers after they had signed the TCLE. Sixty- five (65 women ranging from 18 to 35 years old were interviewed, of those 76,92% have active sexual life and 33,85% are married. The most cited contraceptive method was the hormonal contraceptive (46.15% and 43.08% have used emergency contraceptive. Among the respondents 49.23 % said they did not know the side effects of the EC. The results allowed us to evaluate that this method of contraception is not used by fully satisfactory way with these students that will be future health professionals, this is a worrying fact because many do not know how to use in yourself, which may reflect in the information provided to their future patients.

  3. A knowledge-Induced Operator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Choudhury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning systems are in the forefront of analytical investigation in the sciences. In the social sciences they occupy the study of complexity and strongly interactive world-systems. Sometimes they are diversely referred to as symbiotics and semiotics when studied in conjunction with logical expressions. In the mathematical sciences the methodology underlying learning systems with complex behavior is based on formal logic or systems analysis. In this paper relationally learning systems are shown to transcend the space-time domain of scientific investigation into the knowledge dimension. Such a knowledge domain is explained by pervasive interaction leading to integration and followed by continuous evolution as complementary processes existing between entities and systemic domains in world-systems, thus the abbreviation IIE-processes. This paper establishes a mathematical characterization of the properties of knowledge-induced process-based world-systems in the light of the epistemology of unity of knowledge signified in this paper by extensive complementarities caused by the epistemic and ontological foundation of the text of unity of knowledge, the prime example of which is the realm of the divine laws. The result is formalism in mathematical generalization of the learning phenomenon by means of an operator. This operator summarizes the properties of interaction, integration and evolution (IIE in the continuum domain of knowledge formation signified by universal complementarities across entities, systems and sub-systems in unifying world-systems. The opposite case of ‘de-knowledge’ and its operator is also briefly formalized.

  4. Exploring Conceptual Frameworks of Models of Atomic Structures and Periodic Variations, Chemical Bonding, and Molecular Shape and Polarity: A Comparison of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students with High and Low Levels of Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' conceptual frameworks of models of atomic structure and periodic variations, chemical bonding, and molecular shape and polarity, and how these conceptual frameworks influence their quality of explanations and ability to shift among chemical representations. This study employed a purposeful sampling…

  5. MAS architecture and knowledge model for vehicles data communication

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel ADAM; Emmanuelle GRISLIN-LE STRUGEON; René MANDIAU

    2012-01-01

    Completely autonomous vehicles in traffic should allow to decrease the number of road accident victims greatly, and should allow gains in terms of performance and economy. Modelling the vehicles interaction, and especially knowledge sharing, is one of the main challenges to optimize traffic flow with autonomous vehicles. We propose in this paper a model of knowledge communication between mobile agents on a traffic network. The model of knowledge and of interaction enables to propagate new ...

  6. Meeting students halfway: Increasing self-efficacy and promoting knowledge change in astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Bailey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational factors—self-efficacy and interest—may be especially relevant to deepening students’ understanding of astronomy. We examined the relationship between students’ self-efficacy for, interest in learning about, and changes in their knowledge of stars, as measured by the Star Properties Concept Inventory (SPCI. Approximately 700 undergraduate students taking introductory astronomy responded to surveys at the start and end of their semester-long course. A sequential multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy post explains an appreciable percentage of variance in SPCI posttest scores, more than twice the percentage explained by all the pretest variables (SPCI, self-efficacy, and interest combined. Knowledge and self-efficacy improved significantly over instruction; interest did not. Follow-up analyses revealed that instructors whose classes increased in self-efficacy also had the greatest increases in knowledge scores. Interviews with these instructors suggest they provide their students with more opportunities for mastery experiences with elaborated, performance-related feedback, as well as strong positive verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences through peer instruction. Through increased understanding of the relationship between motivational constructs (e.g., self-efficacy, interest and knowledge, we can both improve our models and better inform instruction.

  7. Learning Gene Expression Through Modelling and Argumentation. A Case Study Exploring the Connections Between the Worlds of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Blanca; Ageitos, Noa; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    There is emerging interest on the interactions between modelling and argumentation in specific contexts, such as genetics learning. It has been suggested that modelling might help students understand and argue on genetics. We propose modelling gene expression as a way to learn molecular genetics and diseases with a genetic component. The study is framed in Tiberghien's (2000) two worlds of knowledge, the world of "theories & models" and the world of "objects & events", adding a third component, the world of representations. We seek to examine how modelling and argumentation interact and connect the three worlds of knowledge while modelling gene expression. It is a case study of 10th graders learning about diseases with a genetic component. The research questions are as follows: (1) What argumentative and modelling operations do students enact in the process of modelling gene expression? Specifically, which operations allow connecting the three worlds of knowledge? (2) What are the interactions between modelling and argumentation in modelling gene expression? To what extent do these interactions help students connect the three worlds of knowledge and modelling gene expression? The argumentative operation of using evidence helps students to relate the three worlds of knowledge, enacted in all the connections. It seems to be a relationship among the number of interactions between modelling and argumentation, the connections between world of knowledge and students' capacity to develop a more sophisticated representation. Despite this is a case study, this approach of analysis reveals potentialities for a deeper understanding of learning genetics though scientific practices.

  8. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.

  9. Assessment of weight status, dietary habits and beliefs, physical activity, and nutritional knowledge among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  10. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built...... and product related knowledge which should be or should not be included in the model. This demarcation will have a large influence on the structure of the IT systems (for example the configurator system, the CAD system or the PDM system). • The use of the framework can help achieve more structured models......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...

  11. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpció Rigol-Cuadra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships.METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities.RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances.CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum.

  12. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol-Cuadra, Assumpció; Galbany-Estragué, Paola; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció; Burjales-Martí, Maria Dolors; Rodríguez-Martín, Dolors; Ballester-Ferrando, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships. METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities. RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances. CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum. PMID:26312637

  13. Role Modeling for FNP Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jane Ehlinger

    1980-01-01

    A model is described in which student nurses' preceptors are the joint-appointee nurse practitioners, with physicians providing consultation and serving as team participants. Key points that are examined are program development at the University of Illinois, how the program actually operated, and some of the problems encountered. (CT)

  14. The multidimensional model of knowledge management in the competitive enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays a successful flexible enterprise has an organization knowledge-based. In an era characterized by changes, globalization and competition, knowledge is without doubt the most important asset for a company to gain a competitive advantage. In the enterprise, there is an huge amount of information especially in textual documents. For obtaining specific goals it is necessary an intelligent and efficient management of enterprise knowledge. In this paper a multidimensional model of Knowledge Management, in the competitive enterprise, is analysed. Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge classification, unstructured information, information system, performance indicators

  15. Do the dental students have enough nutritional knowledge? A survey among students of a dental college in Telangana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajesh Chalmuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional knowledge affects nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and society. It is important to know the current level of nutritional knowledge among health-care professionals for successful health promotion. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional knowledge among students of a dental college in Telangana state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among dental students. A standard questionnaire which consisted of questions on awareness of current dietary recommendations, knowledge of food sources and nutrients, and on diet-disease relationships was administered to the students during college hours. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Among 400 dental students, majority of them were female (59.75%. The mean age of the participants was 22.29 ± 2.64 years. The nutritional knowledge on dietary recommendations was similar in both females (88.58%, and males (87.63% which was not statistically significant (P = 0.5660 Postgraduates had more nutritional knowledge than undergraduates. Conclusion: It is learnt that males and females had similar nutritional knowledge; however, postgraduate students had more nutritional knowledge compared to undergraduates irrespective of the gender, and there is a need to improve the nutritional knowledge of undergraduate students.

  16. Student Modelling in Adaptive E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Bechter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most e-Learning systems provide web-based learning so that students can access the same online courses via the Internet without adaptation, based on each student's profile and behavior. In an e-Learning system, one size does not fit all. Therefore, it is a challenge to make e-Learning systems that are suitably “adaptive”. The aim of adaptive e-Learning is to provide the students the appropriate content at the right time, means that the system is able to determine the knowledge level, keep track of usage, and arrange content automatically for each student for the best learning result. This study presents a proposed system which includes major adaptive features based on a student model. The proposed system is able to initialize the student model for determining the knowledge level of a student when the student registers for the course. After a student starts learning the lessons and doing many activities, the system can track information of the student until he/she takes a test. The student’s knowledge level, based on the test scores, is updated into the system for use in the adaptation process, which combines the student model with the domain model in order to deliver suitable course contents to the students. In this study, the proposed adaptive e-Learning system is implemented on an “Introduction to Java Programming Language” course, using LearnSquare software. After the system was tested, the results showed positive feedback towards the proposed system, especially in its adaptive capability.

  17. Mental Models about Seismic Effects: Students' Profile Based Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Sara; Moura, Rui; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, meaningful learning takes a central role in science education and is based in mental models that allow the representation of the real world by individuals. Thus, it is essential to analyse the student's mental models by promoting an easier reconstruction of scientific knowledge, by allowing them to become consistent with the curricular…

  18. Effect of Constructivist - Based Instructional Model on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group control design involving two intact classes were used to determine the effect of constructivist-based instructional model-Generative Learning Model (GLM) on students' conceptual change and knowledge retention in chemistry. Effect of GLM on gender is also monitored.

  19. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  20. Cardiac health knowledge and misconceptions among nursing students: implications for nursing curriculum design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Susan Ka Yee; Chan, Yuen Yee; Ho, Sin Kuen; Ng, Ka Chun

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac misconceptions are common among healthcare professionals. The development of professional knowledge is considered an essential component of nursing education. Nurses, regardless of their grade, skills, and experience, should be updated with information so as to be able to rectify their misconceptions, as these could affect patient health outcomes. As the literature evaluating the cardiac knowledge and misconceptions of nursing students is sparse, a study of the subject seems warranted. A cross-sectional sample survey was used to study the cardiac knowledge and cardiac misconceptions of nursing students in Hong Kong. The study sample included 385 senior nursing students from three universities. Their level of knowledge of cardiac disease was assessed using the modified Coronary Heart Disease Knowledge Test. The York Cardiac Beliefs Questionnaire (YCBQv1) was used to examine cardiac misconceptions. The scores for the nursing students' level of knowledge were diverse. Their mean score in the Cardiac Knowledge Test was 12.27 out of 18 (SD 2.38), with a range of 2-17. For cardiac misconceptions, their mean score in the YCBQv1 was 6.98 out of 20 (SD 2.84), with a range of 0-14. A negative correlation, r  = -0.33 was found among students with more knowledge and fewer misconceptions. ( p  misconceptions about stress and physiology. The results of our analyses indicate a diversity in levels of knowledge among the nursing students. Students with higher scores in cardiac knowledge did not necessarily have fewer misconceptions. There were associations between the students' misbeliefs and their caregiving experiences with cardiac patients. This study presents a framework for designing the contents of cardiac nursing programmes and is a starting point for promoting research on misconceptions held by undergraduate nursing students. A new paradigm of teaching should include inputs from both perspectives to help students to make critical use of theoretical knowledge to

  1. [Work experience and seniority in health care vs. medical students' knowledge of selected hand hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important element of infection prevention. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of HH knowledge among medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College in correlation with their clinical experience and the presence and extent of trainings in hospital hygiene prior to internships, as well as with HH practice among medical staff perceived by students. The study was carried out in a group of 414 students from October to December, 2014. The questionnaire built of 14 questions was used as a study tool. Absolutely correct answers to questions about HH were given by 52.9%, and about HH technique by 6.5% of respondents. The degree of accuracy of answers to questions concerning HH did not correlate with the gender of the respondents or with the fact that work placement had been preceded by training in the field of HH or with its scope. A statistically significant correlation was found between the year, the field, and the type of the study. Students with greater professional practice, significantly less often claimed that medical workers comply with HH. Professional practice of 22.9% of students was not preceded by any training in the field of hospital hygiene and in 28% of cases training did not cover HH. Nearly half of the respondents declared that pre-internship training had not addressed the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents. The results of the study shows that knowledge gained by students participating in the study was not satisfactory. Moreover, there is a need for improving the educational scheme in the discussed subject at all levels of basic and clinical subjects as well as during internships. Med Pr 2016;67(5):623-633. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Capturing Knowledge In Order To Optimize The Cutting Process For Polyethylene Pipes Using Knowledge Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Ionela Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge management is a powerful instrument. Areas where knowledge - based modelling can be applied are different from business, industry, government to education area. Companies engage in efforts to restructure the database held based on knowledge management principles as they recognize in it a guarantee of models characterized by the fact that they consist only from relevant and sustainable knowledge that can bring value to the companies. The proposed paper presents a theoretical model of what it means optimizing polyethylene pipes, thus bringing to attention two important engineering fields, the one of the metal cutting process and gas industry, who meet in order to optimize the butt fusion welding process - the polyethylene cutting part - of the polyethylene pipes. All approach is shaped on the principles of knowledge management. The study was made in collaboration with companies operating in the field.

  3. Participation and Common Knowledge in a Case Study of Student Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Richard; Larusson, Johann Ari

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between participation and the emergence of common knowledge is the subject matter of this paper. A case study of a single class provides the focal point of analysis. During the semester the students participated in a blogging activity. As a result of their participation, the students create and distribute knowledge. The online…

  4. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  5. High School and University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…

  6. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  8. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ashley; Boyd, Joni M.; Bowers, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes' sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males) from baseball, softball, men's soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%). The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes' inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors. PMID:27872757

  9. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  10. Funds of High School to College Knowledge: Exploring Low-Income Student Perceptions of College Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relles, Stefani R.

    2017-01-01

    This narrative study tracks low-income student perceptions of college writing. The study uses the Funds of Knowledge theoretical framework to suggest that underperforming high schools--like diverse households and families--socialize students into bodies of knowledge that are academically relevant regardless of whether or not they resemble…

  11. Inquiry, Critique, and Dissemination of Knowledge: Graduate Students Contributing to Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Graduate students use existing knowledge and are ultimately expected to add to that knowledge. Students in a Masters of Education entry course were asked to find a Wikipedia page related to the course topics, critique it, and make improvements to it to begin to develop these skills. In this paper, I examine ways in which their perspectives were…

  12. Breast Cancer Knowledge among College Students: Influencing Factors and Resultant Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Mary F.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many misconceptions about breast cancer exist. College students have the opportunity to perform breast cancer risk-reducing behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess breast cancer knowledge among university students and examine the influence of breast cancer knowledge on health behaviors for breast cancer prevention.…

  13. Effects of Improving Teachers' Content Knowledge on Teaching and Student Learning in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Kim, Insook; Ko, Bomna; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a content knowledge (CK) workshop on the enacted pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of teachers and in turn the effects on student learning. Method: A quasiexperimental design was used to examine 4 questions: (a) How does student learning differ as a function of PCK? (b) How does…

  14. Geographic Affiliation and Sense of Place: Influences on Incoming Online Students' Geological and Meteorological Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Jeanne Lambert; Clary, Renee; Watson, Joshua C.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing an individual's geographic affiliation may be useful in evaluating a student's previous knowledge. To test this hypothesis, students in an online master's program were given presurveys to evaluate their previous knowledge in meteorology and geology, as well as geological and meteorological sense-of-place surveys.

  15. Model analysis: Representing and assessing the dynamics of student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Bao

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Decades of education research have shown that students can simultaneously possess alternate knowledge frameworks and that the development and use of such knowledge are context dependent. As a result of extensive qualitative research, standardized multiple-choice tests such as Force Concept Inventory and Force-Motion Concept Evaluation tests provide instructors tools to probe their students’ conceptual knowledge of physics. However, many existing quantitative analysis methods often focus on a binary question of whether a student answers a question correctly or not. This greatly limits the capacity of using the standardized multiple-choice tests in assessing students’ alternative knowledge. In addition, the context dependence issue, which suggests that a student may apply the correct knowledge in some situations and revert to use alternative types of knowledge in others, is often treated as random noise in current analyses. In this paper, we present a model analysis, which applies qualitative research to establish a quantitative representation framework. With this method, students’ alternative knowledge and the probabilities for students to use such knowledge in a range of equivalent contexts can be quantitatively assessed. This provides a way to analyze research-based multiple choice questions, which can generate much richer information than what is available from score-based analysis.

  16. Do medical students have the knowledge needed to maximize organ donation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Trevor; Hunter, Duncan J W; Kent, William D T; Jain, Minto K

    2003-12-01

    The chronic shortage of organs for donation could be improved by increasing the numbers of potential and actual donors. Physicians can play a key role in solving this problem but may miss opportunities because they lack knowledge about organ donation to answer questions or concerns. Education of physicians early in their careers may lead to better procurement rates for donor organs. We carried out a study at Queen's University in Kingston, Ont., to determine whether medical students have sufficient knowledge of topics shown to affect organ donation rates. Medical students from years 1-4 completed a self-administered questionnaire. Section 1 tested general knowledge about organ donation; section 2 tested the students' ability to identify potential donors; and section 3 dealt with the approach to the potential donor's family. Univariate predictors of mean test scores were assessed using the t-test. Of 322 medical students who received the questionnaire, 260 (81%) responded. The mean age of the students was 25 years and 54% were men. The mean knowledge score was 6.7 out of a possible score of 14. Third-year students had the best knowledge scores (7.6), followed by fourth- (7.4), second- (6.6) and first-year students (5.7). Teaching about organ donation and a student's comfort with approaching a family for organ donation were also predictive of higher knowledge scores. There was no correlation between knowledge score and age, gender or whether the student was carrying a signed donor card. Knowledge scores were low in all 3 sections. Thirty-six percent of students did not know that brain death means that the patient is dead rather than in a coma. Half the medical students believed that people of certain religious groups should not be approached about organ donation. Medical students possess limited knowledge about organ donation topics important for maximizing procurement rates. A teaching intervention designed to target these shortcomings may be beneficial.

  17. Modeling and knowledge acquisition processes using case-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of acquisition and presentation of the organizational Process Knowledge has considered by many KM researches. In this research a model for process knowledge acquisition and presentation has been presented by using the approach of Case Base Reasoning. The validation of the presented model was evaluated by conducting an expert panel. Then a software has been developed based on the presented model and implemented in Eghtesad Novin Bank of Iran. In this company, based on the stages of the presented model, first the knowledge intensive processes has been identified, then the Process Knowledge was stored in a knowledge base in the format of problem/solution/consequent .The retrieval of the knowledge was done based on the similarity of the nearest neighbor algorithm. For validating of the implemented system, results of the system has compared by the results of the decision making of the expert of the process.

  18. From biology to mathematical models and back: teaching modeling to biology students, and biology to math and engineering students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiel, Hillel J; McManus, Jeffrey M; Shaw, Kendrick M

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a course to teach modeling and mathematical analysis skills to students of biology and to teach biology to students with strong backgrounds in mathematics, physics, or engineering. The two groups of students have different ways of learning material and often have strong negative feelings toward the area of knowledge that they find difficult. To give students a sense of mastery in each area, several complementary approaches are used in the course: 1) a "live" textbook that allows students to explore models and mathematical processes interactively; 2) benchmark problems providing key skills on which students make continuous progress; 3) assignment of students to teams of two throughout the semester; 4) regular one-on-one interactions with instructors throughout the semester; and 5) a term project in which students reconstruct, analyze, extend, and then write in detail about a recently published biological model. Based on student evaluations and comments, an attitude survey, and the quality of the students' term papers, the course has significantly increased the ability and willingness of biology students to use mathematical concepts and modeling tools to understand biological systems, and it has significantly enhanced engineering students' appreciation of biology.

  19. Online Knowledge-Based Model for Big Data Topic Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Taimoor; Durrani, Mehr; Khalid, Shehzad; Aziz, Furqan

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong machine learning (LML) models learn with experience maintaining a knowledge-base, without user intervention. Unlike traditional single-domain models they can easily scale up to explore big data. The existing LML models have high data dependency, consume more resources, and do not support streaming data. This paper proposes online LML model (OAMC) to support streaming data with reduced data dependency. With engineering the knowledge-base and introducing new knowledge features the learning pattern of the model is improved for data arriving in pieces. OAMC improves accuracy as topic coherence by 7% for streaming data while reducing the processing cost to half. PMID:27195004

  20. A Model for Resource Allocation Using Operational Knowledge Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Andreas N.; Bontis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to develop a business model that shows the impact of operational knowledge assets on intellectual capital (IC) components and business performance and use the model to show how knowledge assets can be prioritized in driving resource allocation decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected from 84…

  1. Didactic strategy for university students to develop competence in searching mathematic knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes de Oca, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to describe a didactic strategy to favor the development of the competence for searching mathematics’ knowledge in university students. The strategy is based on a theoretical model explaining the relationships between the operating subsystems of the educative process, as well as the development of the referred competence in the learning process of math. Examples are included. The evaluation of the results was conducted by means of peer evaluation and a pedagogical experiment in the teaching of Probabilities and Statistics for engineers.

  2. Deepening Understanding of Prior Knowledge: What Diverse First-Generation College Students in the U.S. Can Teach Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    Educational research indicates that teachers revealing and utilizing students' prior knowledge supports students' academic learning. Yet, the variation in students' prior knowledge is not fully known. To better understand students' prior knowledge, I drew on sociocultural learning theories to examine racially and ethnically diverse college…

  3. Student Developed Knowledge Portfolios from a Soil Fertility Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Meghan; Mamo, Martha; Wingeyer, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Students who have completed the Soil Nutrient Relationships course at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln often contact instructors once they have begun full-time work, seeking reminders of specific concepts. These students either did not take or keep detailed notes during the course. To assist students, instructors have developed a portfolio…

  4. Students´ Knowledge about Nanotechnology and the Importance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary objective of this study was to find out what students already know about nanotechnology in order to design a context based module with a nanotechnology background. Therefore a questionnaire was distributed to 116 German students in grade 11. Questions referred to the first thought of the students´ mind ...

  5. Social Capital, Financial Knowledge, and Hispanic Student College Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Noga; Hammack, Floyd M.; Scott, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Hispanic students are significantly over-represented in community colleges compared to White and Black students. This paper uses a powerful but underutilized statistical technique, the Oaxaca decomposition, to explore the impact of social capital, as manifested through college financial information, on Hispanic student enrollment in 4-year and…

  6. The knowledge and confidence of cooking procedures for students in college and vocational school

    OpenAIRE

    平島, 円; 堀, 光代; 磯部, 由香; Hirashima, Madoka; HORI, Mitsuyo; ISOBE, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    Surveys were conducted every April to investigate the knowledge and confidence of cooking procedures of 1, 149 freshmen(age 18-20)in college and vocational school from 2010 to 2013. The knowledge and confidence of cooking procedures were differed by gender, major in high school, frequency of cooking, cooking attitude and having specialty dishes. Students graduated from specialized education in high school had higher knowledge and confidence than students graduated from general education did....

  7. A Sport Education Fitness Season's Impact on Students' Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and In-Class Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeffery Kurt; Hastie, Peter A; Wadsworth, Danielle D; Foote, Shelby; Brock, Sheri J; Hollett, Nikki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a sport education season of fitness could provide students with recommended levels of in-class moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while also increasing students' fitness knowledge and fitness achievement. One hundred and sixty-six 5th-grade students (76 boys, 90 girls) participated in a 20-lesson season called "CrossFit Challenge" during a 4-week period. The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, push-ups, and curl-ups tests of the FITNESSGRAM® were used to assess fitness at pretest and posttest, while fitness knowledge was assessed through a validated, grade-appropriate test of health-related fitness knowledge (HRF). Physical activity was measured with Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometers. Results indicated a significant time effect for all fitness tests and the knowledge test. Across the entire season, the students spent an average of 54.5% of lesson time engaged in MVPA, irrespective of the type of lesson (instruction, free practice, or competition). The results suggest that configuring the key principles of sport education within a unit of fitness is an efficient model for providing students with the opportunity to improve fitness skill and HRF knowledge while attaining recommended levels of MVPA.

  8. University Institutional Research and Student Recruitment Performance: Utilizing Marketing Communication for Knowledge Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    GONG, Reuy-Wei; TSAI, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Institutional research constantly generate useful but heterogeneous knowledge for university administrations. Thus the effectiveness of institutional research dependes on the communication of those heterogeneous knowledge to major stakeholders (e.g., parents, students, teachers, etc.). A conceptual paper is developed in regards to the influences of institutional research, word-of-mouth (via internal students and faculties), quality signaling (to external prospect students and stakeh...

  9. Knowledge of girl students about oxyuriasis in middle schools of Kashan, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to the high prevalence and worldwide distribution of Enterobius vermicularis and its readily transmission among children, parents' knowledge and health education have an important role in restriction and infection control. This study was performed to evaluate the girl students' knowledge about transmission, symptoms, and prevention of oxyuriasis in 2012–2013 in Kashan, Central Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 students in three levels of middle schools were studied. To evaluate the students' knowledge level of oxyuriasis, the standardized questionnaire was distributed and completed. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS. Results: Among three levels of students of middle schools, 67.6% of students had average awareness (information, 17.4% had weak information, and 15% had high information. In the assessment of the level of awareness in the first-level students, 23.41% of the students had weak information, 66.4% had average information, and 10.12% had high information. In the second-level students, 12.57% had weak information, 73.14% had average information, and 14.28% had high information. In the third-level middle-school students, 16.76% of students had weak knowledge, 62.87% had average knowledge, and 20.35% had high knowledge. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that knowledge of middle-school students about this infection is good but not sufficient, and it is necessary for teachers and health officers in schools to increase hygienic knowledge of the students and to train about this infection to decrease the damage of personal and social problems.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt intake among medical students in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Magalh?es, Pedro; Sanhangala, Edgar JR; Dombele, Isildro M; Ulundo, Henrique SN; Capingana, Daniel P; Silva, Am?lcar BT

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Levels of salt consumption and its awareness among medical students in Angola remain insufficiently studied. This study determined salt intake and assessed medical students? knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding salt consumption. Methods Were collected 24-hour urine samples from a random sample of 123 undergraduate medical students aged 17?43 years who were studying at the University of Agostinho Neto in Luanda. Their knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietar...

  11. Improving Knowledge and Attitudes towards Depression: a controlled trial among Chinese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Ye; Glozier, Nick; Luscombe, Georgina M; Davenport, Tracey A; Huang, Yueqin; Hickie, Ian B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic te...

  12. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  13. Exploring the Malaysian Rural School Teachers' Professional Local Knowledge in Enhancing Students' Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hazri; Arbaa, Rohani; Ahmad, Mohamad Zohir

    2017-01-01

    This paper discussed a qualitative research findings on the case of Malaysian teachers employed their professional local knowledge for enhancing students' thinking skills in classroom practices. In this paper, a teacher's professional local knowledge is viewed as a teacher's professional knowledge and skills developed through the combination of…

  14. Knowledge Creation and Innovation in a Civil Engineering Course for the First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmisto, Alpo; Nokelainen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the application of knowledge creation learning and innovation to higher education in construction. The objectives are to demonstrate the application of the course based on knowledge creation learning to mass teaching and to analyse whether knowledge creation learning improves student motivation and learning. The empirical…

  15. Exploring Students' Knowledge Construction Strategies in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Discussions Using Sequential Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukor, N.B.A.; Tasir, Z.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Harun, J.

    2014-01-01

    Online collaborative learning allows discussion to occur at greater depth where knowledge can be constructed remotely. However students were found to construct knowledge at low-level where they discussed by sharing and comparing opinions; those are inadequate for new knowledge creation. As such,

  16. Knowledge and Power in the Technology Classroom: A Framework for Studying Teachers and Students in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Berge, Maria; Lidar, Malena

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytical framework for exploring how relations between knowledge and power are constituted in science and technology classrooms. In addition, the empirical purpose of this paper is to explore how disciplinary knowledge and knowledge-making are constituted in teacher-student interactions.…

  17. Knowledge of Memory Aging in Students, Caregivers, and Senior Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Robichaux, Mary L.; Hawley, Karri S.

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) (Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes in late life and pathological deficits due to nonnormative factors such as adult dementia. In this study, we examined memory knowledge in community college and university students, caregivers, and…

  18. Mixed Method Study Examines Undergraduate Student Researchers’ Knowledge and Perceptions About Scholarly Communication Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Riehle, C. F., & Hensley, M. K. (2017. What do undergraduate students know about scholarly communication?: A mixed methods study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 17(1, 145–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pla.2017.0009 Abstract Objective – To examine undergraduate student researchers’ perception and understanding of scholarly communication practices and issues. Design – Mixed method study involving a survey and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Two major undergraduate universities in the Midwest region of the United States. Subjects – Undergraduate students who participated in or had completed undergraduate research experiences with faculty mentors. Method – The method was first approved by Institutional Review Board offices at both campuses involved in the study. Then, students received invitations to participate in a survey via email (Campus 1 = 221 students; Campus 2 = 345 students. Identical online surveys ran separately on each campus; both remained open for a period of three weeks. All respondents received a reminder email one week before the survey closed. Participants answered twelve questions related to demographics and scholarly communication practices. The survey examined knowledge and experience across five areas: the peer review process, author and publisher rights, publication and access models, impact of research, and data management. All students who completed the survey were entered in a drawing for a $50 Amazon card. The response rates were 34.8% (Campus 1 and 18.6% (Campus 2. Surveys on both campuses were administered using different software: campus 1 utilized Qualtrics survey software while campus 2 used an institution-specific survey software. Data sets were normed and merged later in the study to enable comparison and identify broad themes. Survey respondents were also invited to participate in a 15 to 20 minute follow-up interview and were compensated with a $20 Amazon gift card. The

  19. University Students' Knowledge Structures and Informal Reasoning on the Use of Genetically Modified Foods: Multidimensional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and quantitative analyses, this study revealed that those students with more extended and better-organized knowledge structures, as well as those who more frequently used higher-order information processing modes, were more oriented towards achieving a higher-level informal reasoning quality. The regression analyses further showed that the "richness" of the students' knowledge structures explained 25 % of the variation in their rebuttal construction, an important indicator of reasoning quality, indicating the significance of the role of students' sophisticated knowledge structure in SSI reasoning. Besides, this study also provides some initial evidence for the significant role of the "core" concept within one's knowledge structure in one's SSI reasoning. The findings in this study suggest that, in SSI-based instruction, science instructors should try to identify students' core concepts within their prior knowledge regarding the SSI, and then they should try to guide students to construct and structure relevant concepts or ideas regarding the SSI based on their core concepts. Thus, students could obtain extended and well-organized knowledge structures, which would then help them achieve better learning transfer in dealing with SSIs.

  20. Food and Culinary Knowledge and Skills: Perceptions of Undergraduate Dietetic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia J; Mezzabotta, Leanne; Murphy, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine food and culinary skills and knowledge of dietetic students. An online bilingual survey was created using Survey Monkey TM to explore the skills, knowledge, and perceptions of undergraduate dietetic students regarding food and cooking. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to compare skills and knowledge of food and culinary concepts. The final sample included second- (n = 22) and third-year (n = 22) students within the Baccalauréat specialisé en sciences de la nutrition program at the University of Ottawa. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) on 3 of 4 skills (preparing a cake, whipping egg whites, or baking a yeast bread) or knowledge concepts (fold, baste, braise, grill, and poach) amongst second- and third-year students. Third-year students perceived more skill in preparing a béchamel sauce. There was a trend for third-year students (59%) to have higher food and cooking skills and knowledge compared with second-year students (32%). Perceived knowledge and confidence was proportional with the academic year, whereas overall knowledge and skills of food and culinary concepts were moderate among both groups of students. This research suggests that more dedicated time may need to be spent on food and cooking competencies in undergraduate dietetic education.

  1. Students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years in six countries knowledge of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the knowledge students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years have of animals from a cross-cultural perspective. Students from six countries (Brazil, England, Finland, Iceland, Portugal, and the United States of America were asked to free-list as many animals as possible and state where they had seen or learned about the animals. The results were analyzed and they indicate that 1 Students are aware of animals. 2 Students are more aware of mammals as examples of animals. 3 There is a globally shared folk biological knowledge of animals. 4 Students learn about animals during sociocultural interactions. The educational implications are discussed.

  2. Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge among Middle School Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Fall, Ana-Mari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content knowledge and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade general education social studies teachers among students with disabilities included in the classes. Data on students with disabilities across 2 years of study were combined for the analysis presented here. Students in…

  3. Factors Determining Student Retention of Economic Knowledge after Completing the Principles-of-Microeconomics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Andrew I.; Kipps, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Reports results of a study of economics students to test the effect of time and other factors affecting retention, to develop an instrument to measure the rate of depreciation of the student's stock of economic knowledge, and to explore the implications of findings for the student's academic planning. (Author/KC)

  4. Service-Learning Enriches Advertising Knowledge, Builds Students' Portfolios, and Promotes Community Engagement after Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Krista

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a service-learning component in an advertising course, specifically examining its ability to enrich advertising knowledge, build students' portfolios, and influence students' community engagement after graduation. The research revealed that service-learning positively affects students' understanding of…

  5. Doctoral Student Learning Patterns: Learning about Active Knowledge Creation or Passive Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Doctoral studies are about learning to create new knowledge and to become a researcher. Yet surprisingly little is known about the individual learning patterns of doctoral students. The study aims to explore learning patterns among natural science doctoral students. The participants included 19 doctoral students from a top-level natural science…

  6. Reasoning up and down a Food Chain: Using an Assessment Framework to Investigate Students' Middle Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2010-01-01

    Being able to make claims about what students know and can do in science involves gathering systematic evidence of students' knowledge and abilities. This paper describes an assessment system designed to elicit information from students at many placements along developmental trajectories and demonstrates how this system was used to gather…

  7. Were Knowledge Management Abilities of University Students Enhanced after Creating Personal Blog-Based Portfolios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Chen, To-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The effect of creating blog-based portfolios on knowledge management (KM) abilities among university students was examined in the present study. Participants included 43 students majoring in Multimedia and Game Science at a University in Taiwan. Students spent nine weeks creating their personal portfolios by using a blog. The "t"-test…

  8. Guided work-based learning: sharing practical teaching knowledge with student teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, C.; Volman, M.; Brekelmans, M.; White, S.

    2012-01-01

    Building quality work-based learning opportunities for student teachers is a challenge for schools in school-university partnerships. This study focused on the guidance of student teachers by means of a mentoring approach aimed at sharing practical knowledge, with student teachers’ learning needs as

  9. Guided work-based learning: Sharing practical teaching knowledge with student teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, C.P.; Volman, M.L.L.; Brekelmans, M.; White, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Building quality work-based learning opportunities for student teachers is a challenge for schools in school-university partnerships. This study focused on the guidance of student teachers by means of a mentoring approach aimed at sharing practical knowledge, with student teachers' learning needs as

  10. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  12. Relationship between the knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy on sexual health care for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Su-Ching; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Promoting patients' sexual health for better quality of life is an important task for nurses. Little is known about the factors impacting nursing students to better prepare for the future nursing practice on sexual health care. The purpose of the study is to address the need for nursing education on sexuality by exploring the relationship between nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy for patients' sexual health care. A total of 190 senior nursing students were purposely enrolled to the study by answering a self-report questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results demonstrated positive correlation of the relationship between knowledge of sexual health care (KSH) and attitude to sexual health care (ASH; γ = .35, t = 3.31, P self-efficacy for sexual health care (SESH; γ = .29, t = 2.98, P health care but also educate them about positive attitudes on sexuality to enhance their efficacy to deal with the patients' sexuality matters in the future nursing practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge, perception and attitude towards human papillomavirus among pre-university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Beng; Yee, Choy Mun; Shan, Lim Pei; Teik, Chew Kah; Chandralega, Kampan Nirmala; Abdul Kadir, Abdul Karim

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge. Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000). The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.

  14. [The discussion of the infiltrative model of mathematical knowledge to genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Pei-Gao

    2011-11-01

    Genetics, the core course of biological field, is an importance major-basic course in curriculum of many majors related with biology. Due to strong theoretical and practical as well as abstract of genetics, it is too difficult to study on genetics for many students. At the same time, mathematics is one of the basic courses in curriculum of the major related natural science, which has close relationship with the establishment, development and modification of genetics. In this paper, to establish the intrinsic logistic relationship and construct the integral knowledge network and to help students improving the analytic, comprehensive and logistic abilities, we applied some mathematical infiltrative model genetic knowledge in genetics teaching, which could help students more deeply learn and understand genetic knowledge.

  15. Self-reports on students' learning processes are academic metacognitive knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study postulates that students' self-reported perceptions on their academic processes are a type of metacognition: academic metacognitive knowledge (AMcK. We investigated, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, three hypotheses: (a AMcK explains the variance of factor scores of students' learning approaches (SLA and academic motivation (AM; (b AMcK is distinct from working metacognition (WMC; and (c AMcK has incremental validity, beyond WMC, on the explanation of general academic achievement (GAA variance. Two tests (indicators of WMC and two scales (indicators of AMcK were administered to 684 ten-to-eighteen-year-old Brazilian children and adolescents. Annual grades in Math, Portuguese, Geography and History were used as indicators of GAA. The results show that none of the three hypotheses can be refuted.

  16. Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

  17. OBSERVED DEFICIENCIES IN MEDICAL STUDENT KNOWLEDGE OF TRANSGENDER AND INTERSEX HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer J; Gardner, Ivy H; Walker, Jacob A; Safer, Joshua D

    2017-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) patients face many well-documented disparities in care which among transgender and intersex people can often be traced to providers' lack of knowledge. We administered surveys to examine the self-assessed knowledge and attitudes of all medical students at Boston University regarding different LGBTI subpopulations. Survey questions were based on a Likert scale from 1 to 5; analysis was conducted with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Overall there was a response rate of 24%, with the number of responses varying by class. Three of the 4 surveyed classes reported lower knowledge about transgender health than LGB health. Every class reported significantly lower knowledge of intersex health in comparison to LGB. Comfort with transgender or with intersex patients was lower than with LGB patients for all surveyed classes. Students across all self-identified groups (LGBTI, ally, not an ally) reported significantly lower average responses for knowledge and comfort regarding transgender or intersex health in comparison to that of LGB. Students in their preclinical years reported lower levels of knowledge in comparison with students in their clinical years. Students who identified as LGBTI reported significantly higher knowledge and comfort with only LGB and transgender health when compared with students who didn't identify as LGBTI. Respondents more frequently requested additional learning opportunities in transgender and intersex health than in LGB health. Self-reported knowledge of transgender and intersex health lags behind knowledge of LGB health, though these deficits appear partially responsive to targeted educational intervention. BUSM = Boston University School of Medicine LGB = lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGBT = lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBTI = lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex M1 = first-year medical student class M2 = second-year medical student class M3 = third-year medical student

  18. A Spanish-language patient safety questionnaire to measure medical and nursing students' attitudes and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Mira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimatedfor each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input. Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. RESULTS: The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire" consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9. Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This

  19. Towards Modeling False Memory With Computational Knowledge Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin; Kohanyi, Emma

    2017-01-01

    One challenge to creating realistic cognitive models of memory is the inability to account for the vast common-sense knowledge of human participants. Large computational knowledge bases such as WordNet and DBpedia may offer a solution to this problem but may pose other challenges. This paper explores some of these difficulties through a semantic network spreading activation model of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task. In three experiments, we show that these knowledge bases only capture a subset of human associations, while irrelevant information introduces noise and makes efficient modeling difficult. We conclude that the contents of these knowledge bases must be augmented and, more important, that the algorithms must be refined and optimized, before large knowledge bases can be widely used for cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Prevalence, knowledge, and practices of hookah smoking among university students, Florida, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Chang, Lissette; Hadgu, Selamawit; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Corvin, Jaime

    2014-12-04

    Although hookah smoking is becoming a source of tobacco use among college students in the United States, little is known of the students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding hookah use. This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the prevalence of hookah use and describing social and behavioral factors associated with hookah smoking among university students in a large urban university in Florida. A convenience sample of 478 undergraduate and graduate students was recruited. Lifetime use and current use was evaluated. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the independent association between study covariates and hookah use. Prevalence among students of having ever used hookah during their lifetime was 54.4%. Hookah use within the past 30 days was 16.3%. Hookah use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13-9.60) and hookah ownership (OR, 10.67; 95% CI, 4.83-23.66) but not with alcohol use (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.74-4.04). Findings also suggest hookah is perceived as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. Almost 30% of those who never smoked hookah reported they would consider smoking hookah in the future. Hookah smoking is popular among college students. Misperceptions associated with hookah use indicate a starting point for developing health behavior change interventions. Future studies should investigate social and behavioral determinants of hookah use and determine the incidence of hookah use among college and high school students. Tobacco control activities should include prevention of hookah tobacco use in university settings.

  1. Exploring hurdles to transfer : student experiences of applying knowledge across disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations - often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the transfer target using a short primer immediately prior to the situation where the knowledge was to be applied. Eight volunteer students from either mathematics or computer science curricula were given a task of designing an adder circuit using logic gates: a new context in which to apply knowledge of binary arithmetic and Boolean algebra. The results of a phenomenographic classification of the views presented by the students in their post-experiment interviews are reported. The degree to which the students were conscious of the acquired knowledge they employed and how they applied it in a new context emerged as the differentiating factors.

  2. Models, Metaphors and Symbols for Information and Knowledge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search indicates that Data, Information and Knowledge continue to be placed into a hierarchical construct where it is considered that information is more valuable than data and that information can be processed into becoming precious knowledge. Wisdom continues to be added to the model to further confuse the issue. This model constrains our ability to think more logically about how and why we develop knowledge management systems to support and enhance knowledge- intensive processes, tasks or projects. This paper seeks to summarise development of the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy, explore the extensive criticism of it and present a more logical (and accurate construct for the elements of intellectual capital when developing and managing Knowledge Management Systems.

  3. Knowledge modeling of coal mining equipments based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolong; Wang, Xiangqian; Li, Huizong; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2017-06-01

    The problems of information redundancy and sharing are universe in coal mining equipment management. In order to improve the using efficiency of knowledge of coal mining equipments, this paper proposed a new method of knowledge modeling based on ontology. On the basis of analyzing the structures and internal relations of coal mining equipment knowledge, taking OWL as ontology construct language, the ontology model of coal mining equipment knowledge is built with the help of Protégé 4.3 software tools. The knowledge description method will lay the foundation for the high effective knowledge management and sharing, which is very significant for improving the production management level of coal mining enterprises.

  4. Dengue hemorrhagic fever knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior among secondary school students in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Han, Mie Mie; Teetipsatit, Somchai

    2013-12-01

    To explore dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior among secondary school students in Nong-Kheam, Bangkok, Thailand. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 300 students between 12 and 16 years old currently attending secondary schools in the Bangkok metropolitan areas using self-administered questionnaires. Data were subsequently summarized using descriptive statistics. Only 18.0% of students had a good level of overall knowledge of DHF but more than half had a good level of perception of DHF The results also revealed that only 4.7% of students had a good level of preventive behavior and 75.6% required improvement. The levels of knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior were low. Health education programs should be continued and intensified with emphasis on improving the knowledge of students on prevention and control practices.

  5. Effect of Simulation on Undergraduate Nursing Students' Knowledge of Nursing Ethics Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mary Broderick; Horsley, Trisha Leann; Adams, William H; Gallagher, Peggy; Zibricky, C Dawn

    2017-12-01

    Background Undergraduate nursing education standards include acquisition of knowledge of ethics principles and the prevalence of health-care ethical dilemmas mandates that nursing students study ethics. However, little research has been published to support best practices for teaching/learning ethics principles. Purpose This study sought to determine if participation in an ethics consultation simulation increased nursing students' knowledge of nursing ethics principles compared to students who were taught ethics principles in the traditional didactic format. Methods This quasi-experimental study utilized a pre-test/post-test design with randomized assignment of students at three universities into both control and experimental groups. Results Nursing students' knowledge of nursing ethics principles significantly improved from pre-test to post-test ( p = .002); however, there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups knowledge scores ( p = .13). Conclusion Further research into use of simulation to teach ethics principles is indicated.

  6. The Application of School Watching Method to Increase the Earthquake Disaster Knowledge of Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Adelila Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study entitled "The Application of School Watching to Increase the Earthquake Disaster Knowledge of Primary School Students, MIN Blang Mancung, Aceh" was aimed to describe the students' knowledge of the different dangerous objects in the face of an earthquake. The approach used in this study was qualitative and quantitative. The type of study was descriptive. Subjects used were as many as 30 students MIN Blang Mancung, Aceh. The method used was an experimental, which was divided into two classes, namely the experimental and control classes. Data collection technique was using questionnaires, which included the questions about common dangerous objects, dangerous objects in the class and also in the school yard. The results showed that there was a significant effect on students' knowledge before and after the implementation of the method School Watching. In addition, the knowledge of students toward the dangerous objects was found to be significant different between control and experimental class.

  7. Determining Knowledge of Students in Tehran University and Tehran University of Medical Sciences About ECSTASY Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Khoshe Mehri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nowadays, addiction is considered one of the greatest social and economical and health problems. Undoubtedly, The Ecstasy have between some juveniles and youths. This study was performed to understand the knowledge about the Ecstasy tablets. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 200 students from Tehran universities and universities of medical sciences. Data collecting tool was a structured questionnaire containing 14 questions. Data was analyzed using chi square. Results: It was revealed that only 44 students had high, 55 student had moderate and 101 students had weak knowledge about Ecstasy. There was no significant relationship between knowledge score and variable such as gender, place of residence. Also, there was a significant correlations between age, marriage position , occupation and college about the Ecstasy . Conclusion: That in order to increase the knowledge leveling the students about Ecstasy, mass medias like television, newspapers, radio and university sittings.

  8. Using knowledge management to improve learning experience of first-trimester students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson K. Y. Leung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the lack of insights into the engagement of tertiary students to manage knowledge at a course level, a knowledge management approach is proposed to allow students to interact with lecturers inside and outside a large lecture hall to create, disseminate, use and evaluate knowledge. The proposed approach was applied to an undergraduate business computing related course conducted at the offshore campus of an Australian university in the third trimester of 2012. The proposed KM approach was evaluated using quantitative analysis. The findings show that the majority of the students agreed that the computerized tool (Facebook could enhance their learning experience by allowing students to ask for, share, discuss, and extend knowledge. In particular, the KM approach provided additional channels and platforms for the first-trimester students who were passive and preferred not to seek help from lecturers directly for cultural reasons.

  9. Capturing and portraying science student teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through CoRe construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnoppakun, Warangkana; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is an essential kind of knowledge that teacher have for teaching particular content to particular students for enhance students' understanding, therefore, teachers with adequate PCK can give content to their students in an understandable way rather than transfer subject matter knowledge to learner. This study explored science student teachers' PCK for teaching science using Content representation base methodology. Research participants were 68 4th year science student teachers from department of General Science, faculty of Education, Phuket Rajabhat University. PCK conceptualization for teaching science by Magnusson et al. (1999) was applied as a theoretical framework in this study. In this study, Content representation (CoRe) by Loughran et al. (2004) was employed as research methodology in the lesson preparation process. In addition, CoRe consisted of eight questions (CoRe prompts) that designed to elicit and portray teacher's PCK for teaching science. Data were collected from science student teachers' CoRes design for teaching a given topic and student grade. Science student teachers asked to create CoRes design for teaching in topic `Motion in one direction' for 7th grade student and further class discussion. Science student teachers mostly created a same group of science concepts according to subunits of school science textbook rather than planned and arranged content to support students' understanding. Furthermore, they described about the effect of student's prior knowledge and learning difficulties such as students' knowledge of Scalar and Vector quantity; and calculating skill. These responses portrayed science student teacher's knowledge of students' understanding of science and their content knowledge. However, they still have inadequate knowledge of instructional strategies and activities for enhance student learning. In summary, CoRes design can represented holistic overviews of science student teachers' PCK related

  10. Female international students and sexual health - a qualitative study into knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.

  11. Medical Students' Knowledge of Fertility Awareness-Based Methods of Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Peter G; Kurz, Sally A; Covert, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation. Two lectures about FABMs and their clinical applications were given during the rotation. Students were given the same questions at the end of the rotation. Each questionnaire consisted of eight questions to assess a student's knowledge of FABMs and two questions to assess the student's confidence in sharing and utilizing that information in a clinical setting. McNemar's test was used to analyze the data. Two hundred seventy-seven students completed a pretest questionnaire and 196 students completed the posttest questionnaire. Medical knowledge improved from an initial test score of 38.99% to final test score of 53.57% ( p  family planning. This study shows that brief, focused education can increase medical students' knowledge of and confidence with FABMs of family planning.

  12. Knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS

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    Jafari A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education. Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83% including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85% including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3 and 50% (at range 1-5, respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05. Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.

  13. Knowledge of medical students on National Health Care System: A French multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral-Pierssens, A-L; Jannot, A-S

    2017-09-01

    Education on national health care policy and costs is part of our medical curriculum explaining how our health care system works. Our aim was to measure French medical students' knowledge about national health care funding, costs and access and explore association with their educational and personal background. We developed a web-based survey exploring knowledge on national health care funding, access and costs through 19 items and measured success score as the number of correct answers. We also collected students' characteristics and public health training. The survey was sent to undergraduate medical students and residents from five medical universities between July and November 2015. A total of 1195 students from 5 medical universities responded to the survey. Most students underestimated the total amount of annual medical expenses, hospitalization costs and the proportion of the general population not benefiting from a complementary insurance. The knowledge score was not associated with medical education level. Three students' characteristics were significantly associated with a better knowledge score: male gender, older age, and underprivileged status. Medical students have important gaps in knowledge regarding national health care funding, coverage and costs. This knowledge was not associated with medical education level but with some of the students' personal characteristics. All these results are of great concern and should lead us to discussion and reflection about medical and public health training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge and perceptions of pharmacy students at University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acceptance and recognition of African traditional medicine (ATM) by the government compels health care professionals to be aware and knowledgeable about ATM. The aim was of the study to determine the perceptions and knowledge of University of Limpopo (UL), Medunsa Campus, undergraduate Pharmacy ...

  15. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    recreational reading (West African Examination. Council, 2003, Omojuwa and Timothy, 2006), poor vocabulary (Taiwo, 2001). To some extent, the teacher factor too cannot be ruled out. The possession of knowledge of subject matter by teachers is crucial in a teaching and learning situation. Knowledge of the subject.

  16. Assessment of Nutritional Status and Knowledge of Students from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of improving nutrition knowledge in order to have a positive influence on food choices and health should not be underestimated. This study assessed the nutritional status and knowledge of school children attending selected secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis. The study population was purposively ...

  17. Impact of student pharmacist-delivered asthma education on child and caregiver knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer Padden; Marcotullio, Nicole; Skoner, David P; Lunney, Phil; Gentile, Deborah A

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of asthma education delivered by student pharmacists and to assess the impact of child and caregiver baseline asthma knowledge on asthma control in children. Student pharmacists developed and implemented asthma self-management education interventions for children and their caregivers and performed asthma screenings for children at a series of asthma camps. Eighty-seven children, ages 5-17 years, and their caregivers were enrolled in this study. A previously validated asthma questionnaire was modified to assess asthma knowledge among children and adults. Asthma knowledge increased significantly in children following participation in the education intervention (pasthma. A significant association was observed between caregiver baseline asthma knowledge and better asthma control in their children (p=0.019). The results of this study demonstrate that student pharmacist-delivered asthma education can positively impact asthma knowledge in children, and that caregivers' knowledge of asthma is strongly correlated with better asthma control in their children.

  18. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Xie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Medical Students Regarding Community-oriented Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anindo Majumdar, Ganesh Kumar S, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    "Objective: Objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of medical students regarding community-oriented research. Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among all 5th semester MBBS students of a teaching hospital in Puducherry. A field-based community-oriented research project was carried out by the students as a part of their routine block posting. At the end of the posting, a self-administered questionnaire was administered to the student...

  20. Fabricating Expert Knowledge of the Behaviour of Problematic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Anne; Lanas, Maija

    2016-01-01

    This article examines what constitutes students' disruptive and good behaviour, as described and defined by teachers. Teachers are viewed as professional experts who produce official information regarding their students. The present study analysed the overarching features of behaviour descriptions provided by teachers in official statements…

  1. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Contraception among Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of contraception among undergraduate students in Anambra State Southeast Nigeria. Method: It is a multicenter cross sectional study involving a total of 600 students in 4 tertiary institutions. Results: The awareness of contraception was 92.5% while ...

  2. Knowledge about the 'Greenhouse Effect': Have College Students Improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Helen; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The ideas of Year I undergraduate biology students about the consequences, causes, and cures of the 'greenhouse effect' was determined using a closed-form questionnaire, and results were compared with a parallel study undertaken nearly 10 years ago. Many of the students in the present survey were unaware of the potential effect of global warming…

  3. Learning Styles: Impact on Knowledge and Confidence in Nursing Students in Simulation and Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Jane D; White, Anne; Long, Janice

    2016-08-24

    Nurse Educators must develop nursing curriculum with engaging learning strategies that promote the knowledge and confidence needed for safe, effective nursing practice. Faculty should explore new methods of teaching that consider how students learn. Studies have shown mixed results regarding student learning styles, academic achievement, and development of confidence in nursing practice. An experimental study using Felder and Soloman's (2004). Index of learning styles instrument was conducted to examine nursing student learning styles and their impact on confidence and knowledge in traditional and high fidelity simulation settings. Findings revealed students were more likely to have active, visual, sensing, and sequential learning styles. Student confidence or knowledge did not significantly differ among the learning styles in either simulation or traditional classroom methods. Awareness of learning styles may aid faculty in adapting engaging teaching strategies. Further research is needed with larger samples to identify best approaches to enhance student learning within the context of learning styles.

  4. Frame model of knowledge in quality control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macherauskas, V.Yu.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a semiotic model for representation of data and knowledge in a system for supplying operational information to management personnel on the progress of a technological process, with the aim of enabling an analysis of deviations of product quality and formulation of recommendations to the technologists as to how to eliminate them. Since any knowledge of people that can be realistically utilized in machine systems is represented in natural language form, special languages for representation of knowledge, based on the concept of frames, are being developed for formation of semiotic models in computers. This article defines the frames, followed by a description of a mechanism of knowledge manipulation and of some aspects of realization of a frame model of knowledge. 9 references.

  5. [Knowledge, trust, and the decision to donate organs : A comparison of medical students and students of other disciplines in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbonssen, T; Settmacher, U; Dirsch, O; Dahmen, U

    2018-02-01

    Following the organ transplant scandal in Germany in 2011, the willingness to donate organs postmortem decreased dramatically. This was explained by a loss of confidence in the German organ donation system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between knowledge, trust, and fear in respect to organ donation and the explicit willingness to potentially act as an organ donor by comparing medical students to students of other disciplines. We conducted a Facebook-based online survey (June-July 2013). The participating students were divided into two groups according to their discipline: medical students and other students. Based on questions covering different aspects of organ donation, a knowledge, trust, and fear score was established and calculated. The answers were related to an explicitly expressed decision to donate organs as expressed in a signed organ donor card. In total, 2484 participants took part in our survey. Of these, 1637 were students, 83.7% (N = 1370) of which were medical students and 16.3% (N = 267) other students. As expected, medical students reached a higher knowledge score regarding organ donation compared with other students (knowledge score 4.13 vs. 3.38; p organ donation, resulting in a higher confidence score (3.94 vs. 3.33; p organ donation as indicated by the lower fear score (1.76 vs. 2.04; p donate organs more often than did other students (78.2% vs. 55.2%; p organ donation cards did not differ significantly between medical students and other students. Medical students possessing an organ donor card showed a higher knowledge and a higher trust score than did medical students without an organ donor card. In contrast, other students possessing an organ donor card showed a higher trust score but did not show a higher knowledge score. The higher level of knowledge and trust demonstrated by the medical students was associated with a higher rate of written decisions to donate organs. In contrast, the lower level

  6. Modelling Configuration Knowledge in Heterogeneous Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Männistö, Tomi; Ricci, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    the variability in such heterogeneous product families. Our approach is based on a framework that aims to cater for the different stakeholders involved in the modelling and management of the product family. The modelling approach is centred around the concepts of views, types and constraints and is illustrated...... by a motivation example. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, a prototype has been implemented for configuring a non-trivial heterogeneous product family.......Product configuration systems play an important role in the development of Mass Customisation. The configuration of complex product families may nowadays involve multiple design disciplines, e.g. hardware, software and services. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach for modelling...

  7. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  8. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with fat consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Rapley, Melyssa; Chung, Mei

    2016-10-04

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students' demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student's t-test. Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01)). Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively). Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting), nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.

  9. Assessing secondary science students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium through multiple contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Background: Studies have shown that students' knowledge of osmosis and diffusion and the concepts associated with these processes is often inaccurate. This is important to address, as these concepts not only provide the foundation for more advanced topics in biology and chemistry, but are also threaded throughout both state and national science standards. Purpose: In this study, designed to determine the completeness and accuracy of three specific students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium, I sought to address the following question: Using multiple evaluative methods, how can students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium be characterized? Sample: This study focuses on data gathered from three students - Emma, Henry, and Riley - all of whom were gifted/honors ninth-grade biology students at a suburban high school in the southeast United States. Design and Methods: Using various qualitative data analysis techniques, I analyzed multiple sources of data from the three students, including multiple-choice test results, written free-response answers, think-aloud interview responses, and student drawings. Results: Results of the analysis showed that students maintained misconceptions about molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium. The conceptual knowledge students demonstrated differed depending on the assessment method, with the most distinct differences appearing on the multiple-choice versus the free-response questions, and in verbal versus written formats. Conclusions: Multiple levels of assessment may be required to obtain an accurate picture of content knowledge, as free-response and illustrative tasks made it difficult for students to conceal any misconceptions. Using a variety of assessment methods within a section of the curriculum can arguably help to provide a deeper understanding of student knowledge and learning, as well as illuminate misconceptions that may have

  10. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Subak Cultural Landscape as Environmental Education: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences of Balinese Teachers, Student Teachers, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surata, Sang Putu Kaler; Vipriyanti, Nyoman Utari

    2018-01-01

    Bali's subak cultural landscape, with its ancient and extensive paddy-fields and irrigation system, is a valuable resource for place-based education. However, this landscape is threatened by various problems. Here we analyze the relationships among Balinese teachers, student teachers, and students, and review their knowledge, attitudes, and…

  12. Attitudes to Organ Donation and Knowledge of Donation and Transplantation among University of Auckland Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Harbour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims • To explore organ donation and transplantation knowledge and attitudes among medical students at the University of Auckland. • To understand students' perception of the extent of training received prior to and during the medical program. Method A validated web-based questionnaire consisting of 42 questions in five categories was anonymously administered to all enrolled medical students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, in September 2012. Results In all, 419 out of 989 (42% Year 2–6 students responded. A total of 99.3% of medical students supported organ donation, but knowledge was limited (mean score 7.54/15±2.26. A total of 38% of students reported having participated in organ donation learning. A total of 96% of students believed that organ donation information should be available in primary care settings. A total of 69% of students reported that if a patient asked a question about organ donation that they did not know the answer to, they also would not know where to source the correct information from. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although medical students support organ donation, they lack the knowledge required to facilitate informative discussions with patients. Enhanced organ donation education in medical programs may enable students to develop skills and knowledge allowing them to better discuss donation with patients.

  13. Awareness of knowledge and practice regarding physical activity: A population-based prospective, observational study among students in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA promotion has proven effectiveness in preventing childhood obesity. Increasing children's health knowledge is the most frequently used approach in PA intervention programs targeting childhood obesity prevention. However, little is known about the specific association between the change in a child's knowledge awareness and their PA practice.A one-year follow-up study was conducted among primary and junior high school students in Nanjing, China. At baseline students' knowledge of healthy behavior, and their PA levels, were assessed. Students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity were followed for one academic year. After nine-months their knowledge and PA levels were re-measured using the same validated questionnaire. Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between awareness of knowledge about the link between PA and obesity and PA changes.Of the 1899 students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity at baseline, 1859 (follow-up rate = 97.9% were successfully followed-up. After nine months 1318 (70.9% participants had become aware of PA-obesity association. Compared to their counterparts who remained unaware, students who became aware of the PA-obesity association were more likely to increase both the frequency (odds ratio (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.64 and duration (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.65 of PA, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables.Becoming aware of the known link between PA and obesity led to positive behavior modification regarding PA in this cohort of Chinese students. This is of particular importance that knowledge disimination and health education may be a useful approach for population-based physical activity promotion aiming at childhood obesity prevention in China.

  14. A New Model for the Organizational Knowledge Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lella, Luigi; Licata, Ignazio

    Actual organizations, in particular the ones which operate in evolving and distributed environments, need advanced frameworks for the management of the knowledge life cycle. These systems have to be based on the social relations which constitute the pattern of collaboration ties of the organization. We demonstrate here, with the aid of a model taken from the theory of graphs, that it is possible to provide the conditions for an effective knowledge management. A right way could be to involve the actors with the highest betweeness centrality in the generation of discussion groups. This solution allows the externalization of tacit knowledge, the preservation of knowledge and the raise of innovation processes.

  15. Breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of health professional students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Fei; Salamonson, Yenna; Burns, Elaine; Schmied, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding support from health professionals can be effective in influencing a mother's decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding. However, health professionals, including nursing students, do not always receive adequate breastfeeding education during their foundational education programme to effectively help mothers. In this paper, we report on a systematic review of the literature that aimed to describe nursing and other health professional students' knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding, and examine educational interventions designed to increase breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes amongst health professional students. A systematic review of peer reviewed literature was performed. The search for literature was conducted utilising six electronic databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane, for studies published in English from January 2000 to March 2017. Studies focused on nursing students' or other health professional students' knowledge, attitudes or experiences related to breastfeeding. Intervention studies to improve knowledge and attitudes, were also included. All papers were reviewed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Fourteen studies were included in the review. This review indicates that in some settings, health professional students demonstrated mid-range scores on breastfeeding attitudes, and their knowledge of breastfeeding was limited, particularly in relation to breastfeeding assessment and management. All of the studies that tested a specialised breastfeeding education programme, appeared to increase nursing students' knowledge overall or aspects of their knowledge related to breastfeeding. Several factors were found to influence breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes, including timing of maternal and child health curriculum component, previous personal breastfeeding experience, gender, cultural practices and government legislation. Based on this review, it appears that

  16. Knowledge of Genetics and Attitudes toward Genetic Testing among College Students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwi, Duaa; Merdad, Leena; Ramadan, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing has been gradually permeating the practice of medicine. Health-care providers may be confronted with new genetic approaches that require genetically informed decisions which will be influenced by patients' knowledge of genetics and their attitudes toward genetic testing. This study assesses the knowledge of genetics and attitudes toward genetic testing among college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage stratified sample of 920 senior college students enrolled at King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Information regarding knowledge of genetics, attitudes toward genetic testing, and sociodemographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. In general, students had a good knowledge of genetics but lacked some fundamentals of genetics. The majority of students showed positive attitudes toward genetic testing, but some students showed negative attitudes toward certain aspects of genetic testing such as resorting to abortion in the case of an untreatable major genetic defect in an unborn fetus. The main significant predictors of knowledge were faculty, gender, academic year, and some prior awareness of 'genetic testing'. The main significant predictors of attitudes were gender, academic year, grade point average, and some prior awareness of 'genetic testing'. The knowledge of genetics among college students was higher than has been reported in other studies, and the attitudes toward genetic testing were fairly positive. Genetics educational programs that target youths may improve knowledge of genetics and create a public perception that further supports genetic testing. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Why biosecurity matters: students' knowledge of biosecurity and implications for future engagement with biosecurity initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Rajesh; France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on biosecurity is important as New Zealand's agricultural export-driven economy is susceptible to biosecurity threats. Because New Zealand is reliant on the primary industries to drive its economy, bovine diseases such as foot and mouth could have a devastating effect on the economy. Purpose: Making sure that the general public are aware of the importance of maintaining biosecurity is crucial in order to protect New Zealand's economy, human health, the environment, and social and cultural values. New Zealand Year 9 students' knowledge of biosecurity was gauged as these students represented the next generation of individuals tasked to maintain biosecurity in New Zealand. Design: A qualitative approach using the interpretive mode of inquiry was used to investigate the knowledge about biosecurity with New Zealand Year 9 students. Questionnaires and interviews were the data collection tools. Sample: One hundred and seventy-one students completed a questionnaire that consisted of Likert-type questions and open-ended questions. Nine students were interviewed about their knowledge. Results: The findings showed that New Zealand Year 9 students lacked specific knowledge about unwanted plants, animals and microorganisms. These students saw illicit drug plants as unwanted plants and mainly saw possums as unwanted animals in New Zealand. Their knowledge about unwanted microorganisms in New Zealand was dominated by human-disease-causing microbes. A lack of knowledge of biosecurity issues in New Zealand was seen as the major factor in these students limited understanding of biosecurity. Conclusions: Based on these findings, it can be said that knowledge of an issue is critical in enabling individuals to develop an understanding about biosecurity. Explicit teaching of biosecurity-related curriculum topics could provide New Zealand Year 9 students with an opportunity to develop knowledge about biosecurity in New Zealand.

  18. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills through Treffinger Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaddad, Idrus; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi A.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate, compare, and describe the achievement and enhancement of students' mathematical communication skills (MCS). It based on the prior mathematical knowledge (PMK) category (high, medium and low) by using Treffinger models (TM) and conventional learning (CL). This research is an experimental study with the population…

  19. International Students Take Up the Model Solar Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an event in which two school teams from Argentina and Vietnam joined those from each Australian state in a race of model cars powered by the sun that provides a challenging and exciting approach for students to apply their scientific and technological knowledge to design and build the most efficient vehicles possible to gain hands-on…

  20. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS of dental students from Kuwait and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Sundaram, Devipriya B; Jayathilake, Sumedha; Joseph, Bobby K; Sharma, Prem N

    2011-04-01

    Several studies regarding knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS have been reported from various countries. However, to the best of our knowledge, an international comparison between countries with diverse cultural and educational backgrounds has not been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of dental students of Kuwait University (KU), Kuwait and the University of Peradeniya (UP), Sri Lanka, the only dental schools in the respective countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a total of 258 dental students, representing the clinical years of both universities, using a similar structured questionnaire with sixty questions to examine their knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS and thirteen questions to examine their attitudes towards the disease. The mean knowledge and attitude scores were calculated and compared between students from the two universities using t-test with SPSS 17.0. A total of 215 questionnaires were completed and returned, giving a total response rate of 83.3 percent. The KU students were significantly more knowledgeable (p=0.018) regarding HIV/AIDS than the UP students. However, the UP students demonstrated a more highly significant positive attitude (peducation in these countries.

  1. A systematic review on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, L J; McEnroe-Petitte, D M; van de Mortel, T; Nasirudeen, A M A

    2017-10-27

    Hand hygiene competence is one of the critical outcomes in nursing education. Ensuring nursing students recognize the what, when and how of hand hygiene is critical in the light of the increasing rates of healthcare-associated infections. To systematically appraise and synthesize articles on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among nursing students. This is a systematic review of scientific articles published from 2006 to 2016. The primary databases used were as follows: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, Proquest and PsychINFO. Key search terms utilized were as follows: 'handwashing', 'hand hygiene', 'compliance', 'knowledge', 'practice' and 'nursing students'. Nineteen studies met the review criteria. The findings revealed a low-to-moderate knowledge of and compliance with hand hygiene among nursing students. In addition, there were significantly higher rates of hand hygiene compliance in nursing students when compared to medical students. Relatively few studies attempted to identify predictors of hand hygiene knowledge and compliance. This review demonstrated suboptimal knowledge and compliance to hand hygiene among student nurses. In addition, this review also highlighted the paucity of studies that examined individual and organizational factors, which influence nursing students hand hygiene knowledge and compliance. The findings of this review emphasized the role of nurse educators in enhancing hand hygiene competence in nursing students. Implementation of empirically tested strategies such as utilizing multidimensional interventions, scenario-based hand hygiene simulation activities and hand hygiene education programmes that would enhance nursing students' hand hygiene knowledge and compliance is an asset. Hospital and nursing administrators should ensure continuous support and monitoring to guarantee that hand hygiene programmes are institutionalized in every healthcare setting by every healthcare worker. © 2017

  2. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Awan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health.

  3. Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Harvey-Berino, Jean Ruth; Berlin, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Reynolds, Travis William

    2007-08-01

    College students enrolled in university dining plans are exposed daily to a food environment characterized by foods high in energy, fats, and added sugars, and low in nutrient density. Their decisions about what to eat are currently made in an environment where no nutrition labeling is required. To fill the gap in current literature regarding whether or not increased nutrition knowledge of dietary guidance actually translates into positive behavior, this cross-sectional study investigated self-reported eating patterns of 200 college students. An Internet-based survey was used to identify how closely respondents followed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, and whether their eating patterns were related to their knowledge of dietary guidance. It was observed that, for fruit, dairy, protein, and whole grains, increased knowledge is related to increased likelihood of meeting dietary guidelines. Moreover, when asked about individual food choices, nutrition knowledge was related to making more healthful choices in every case. Ultimately, increased knowledge of dietary guidance appears to be positively related to more healthful eating patterns. This suggests that guidelines such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, in conjunction with effective public-awareness campaigns, may be a useful mechanism for promoting change in what foods consumers choose to eat.

  4. Knowledge and awareness of ocular allergy among undergraduate students of public universities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Tettey, Bernard; Asiedu, Kofi; Awuah, Agnes

    2016-10-28

    Ocular allergy is a growing public health problem that greatly impacts the day-to-day life of sufferers and their families. Other aspects of their activities of daily living such as schooling, professional, and social life are affected hence an increased awareness and knowledge of ocular allergies, their detection and treatment is paramount. This study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of ocular allergy among undergraduate students of public universities in Ghana. A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 1000 students from three selected public universities in Ghana. Each respondent completed a questionnaire that had questions concerning awareness and knowledge of ocular allergy. Out of the 1000 students, 347 (34.7 %) were aware of ocular allergy. Of these 347 students, the level of knowledge of ocular allergy was generally low. Majority of the students had their source of information about ocular allergy from the media and the internet. There was statistical significant association among awareness of ocular allergy, sources of information and programme of study (p university students is generally low. Students' programmes of study influenced their knowledge of ocular allergy. Public health measures are recommended to help educate students on the prevention and control of ocular allergy as well as the complications associated with this condition.

  5. The Use of Clinical Interviews to Develop Inservice Secondary Science Teachers' Nature of Science Knowledge and Assessment of Student Nature of Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Burton, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    To fully incorporate nature of science knowledge into classrooms, teachers must be both proficient in their own nature of science knowledge, but also skillful in translating their knowledge into a learning environment which assesses student knowledge. Twenty-eight inservice teachers enrolled in a graduate course which in part required a clinical…

  6. Paradigms of knowledge management with systems modelling case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Krishna Nath

    2016-01-01

    This book has been written by studying the knowledge management implementation at POWERGRID India, one of the largest power distribution companies in the world. The patterns which have led to models, both hypothesized and data-enabled, have been provided. The book suggests ways and means to follow for knowledge management implementation, especially for organizations with multiple business verticals to follow. The book underlines that knowledge is both an entity and organizational asset which can be managed. A holistic view of knowledge management implementation has been provided. It also emphasizes the phenomenological importance of human resource parameters as compared to that of technological parameters. Various hypotheses have been tested to validate the significant models hypothesized. This work will prove useful to corporations, researchers, and independent professionals working to study or implement knowledge management paradigms.

  7. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambete, Kennedy D; Mtaturu, Zephania

    2006-09-01

    In Tanzania, it is considered a taboo for teachers and parents to talk with children about sexual matters including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in schools and at home because of cultural and religious barriers. Political pressure also keeps sexual education and thus education on STDs out of classrooms. Generally, there is disagreement over STDs education on what to teach, by whom, and to what extent. To assess the knowledge of STDs, and attitude towards sexual behavior and STDs among secondary school students. This was a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. A sample size of 635 students was determined by simple random sampling. Majority of the students (98%) said have heard about STDs; however their knowledge of the symptoms associated with STDs was poor. Similarly 147 (23%) students did not know other means of STDs transmission rather than sexual intercourse. A number of students who were capable of identifying all tracer STDs was comparable between the ordinary (10.5%) and advanced (10.6%) level students (p parents as source of information (p < 0.001). Regarding vulnerability to STDs, 503 (79%) students said female students were more vulnerable to STDs compared to males. The level of knowledge about STDs (ability to identify tracer STDs, to describe symptoms associated with STDs and their mode of transmission) is poor with regard to the students' levels of education. Female students are more vulnerable to STDs compared to male counterparts. Mass media is still the more effective means of educating the students on STDs.

  8. Dynamics of knowledge, skills and abilities in the process of personal physical education based university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The directions of development of physical culture of the students were considered. The presence of the knowledge and skills of the students in the field of physical culture is shown. The conditions for self-regulation of mental and physical condition of the person. In the experiment involved 640 students (boys, n = 320 and girls, n = 320. Applied research profile degree of development of athletic activities. Show the direction of the implementation of individually oriented physical education. Found that students' knowledge correspond to the first level (deep and full of knowledge and skills needed to use them and the second (the presence of diverse, but not full knowledge. Formed skills that relate to perform common exercise. Recommended directions for the formation of skills that are needed for fitness activities.

  9. A Multicultural Study of University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; D'Andrea, Michael J.; Gaughen, Kiaka J. S.; Sahu, Poonam K.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports significant results and discusses the implications of findings for educational and counseling practice. (Author/MKA)

  10. Medical student knowledge of global health problems: obstetric fistulas in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust-Wright, Caroline E; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Curry, Christine L; Quiroz, Lieschen H; Nihira, Mikio A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate medical students in the United States at several medical schools regarding their knowledge of the global health burden of obstetric fistulas. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 schools across the United States over a period of 6 months. The survey was composed of 18 questions on epidemiology, pathology, and treatment of fistulas. It was a web-based module accessed through an emailed link. It was sent to 5,103 medical students' email addresses at the 8 institutions once a week for 4 weeks. SPSS paired student t tests was used for statistical analysis. Of the 1,089 students from 8 medical schools that initially began the survey, 965 completed this voluntary and anonymous survey, with a 21% response rate and 19% completion rate. Overall the students averaged 11/18 (60.7%) correct on this survey. The knowledge of obstetric fistula improved, but not significantly, with increasing level of medical school education, with first-year medical students achieving 10/18 (55%) correct and senior medical students achieving 12/18 (67%) correct (p = 0.1). U.S. medical students' knowledge of obstetric fistulas in developing countries does not increase significantly over 4 years of medical school education. While this condition presents largely in the developing world, given rapid globalization as well as increased international health experiences for U.S.-trained health professionals,further effort should be placed in improving medical student knowledge of this devastating condition.

  11. German medical students' interest in and knowledge about human sexuality in 1972 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Jopt, Konstantin; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer

    2014-08-01

    During the 1970s, a growing number of medical schools began to recognize the importance of medical education concerning human sexuality. Currently, most medical schools provide at least some instruction in human sexuality. In light of this development, the present study aimed to compare the interest in and knowledge about human sexuality of medical students from two different time periods. The answers to a self-constructed questionnaire of 236 students in 1972 were compared with those of 259 students in 2012. Students were asked whether they were interested in education regarding human sexuality and which specific topics they felt should be included in the medical curriculum. The students' knowledge in the following domains was assessed: sexual development, sexual behavior, sexual physiology and psychology, and sexual medicine. The two cohorts were compared with regard to those specific sexuality-related topics in which the students were most and least interested in. Furthermore, the number of correct responses to the knowledge questions was compared. While in 1972, 99.2% of the students were interested in medical education about human sexuality, in 2012, 80.3% showed an interest. The connection of disorders from different medical disciplines with sexuality was rated as most interesting by both the students from 1972 and 2012. Medical students from 2012 gave 50.3% correct answers to the knowledge questions, whereas students from 1972 correctly answered 46.3% of the questions. Although interest in education concerning human sexuality has decreased, the majority of students view it as an important topic. Nevertheless, medical students still lack knowledge about important aspects of human sexuality (e.g., psychosexual development and relative safety of different contraceptives). Therefore, more time should be dedicated to education concerning human sexuality and its cultural, societal, and health aspects in particular. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of nurses and nursing students towards HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Irma Conejeros; Sánchez, Helga Emig; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Valdés, Báltica Cabieses; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli

    To describe attitudes, knowledge and perceptions of nurses and nursing students towards the people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Bibliographic study in which six electronic databases were searched using the key words: "attitude", "knowledge", "nursing", perceptions", "HIV/AIDS". Publications between 1998 and 2007 were considered. 560 articles limited by scientific researches or ministerial reports membership were retrieved. Finally a total of 38 publications were selected, the analysis showed that the level of knowledge of nurses and nursing students about PLWHA is good and the attitudes towards HIV/AIDS have improved over time. Nurses and nursing students have been able to identify both positive and negative aspects in the PLWHA care personally and professionally because there is a more favourable perception. There are few studies in Latin America and Chile that study the attitudes and knowledge of the studied population towards PLWHA. According to publications found the knowledge and attitudes have improved because the perception is more favourable.

  13. Relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour among adolescents: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting sexual health among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour were explored. The study collected data from 823 adolescent students at a junior college in Central Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Knowledge Scale, Sexual Attitudes Scale, and Safe Sex Behaviour Questionnaire and the demographic data were collected. The preliminary model fit criteria, overall model fit, and fit of internal structure of model was used to assess the sexual health model fit. Results revealed that sexual knowledge had a negative effect on sex attitudes and had no significant effect on safe sex behaviour. Adolescents with more sexual knowledge had less positive sexual attitudes and did not show increased practices of safe sex behaviour. No significant correlation was found between sexual knowledge and safe sex behaviour of adolescents. Improvements in sexual attitudes were found to be irrelevant to the promotion of safe sex behaviour of adolescents. In order to ensure safe sexual health, it is strongly suggested that adolescents learn to be responsible for their own behaviours and attitudes and obtain correct knowledge about their understandings and evaluations of sexuality.

  14. Systems modelling and the development of coherent cell biological knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, R.; Waarlo, A.J.; Boersma, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on educational design research concerning a learning and teaching strategy for cell biology in upper-secondary education introducing systems modelling as a key competence. The strategy consists of four modelling phases in which students subsequently develop models of freeliving

  15. HIV/AIDS knowledge, behaviour and beliefs among South African university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Preshani; Frantz, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Globally, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In the absence of cure, prevention is the only available method to reduce HIV prevalence rates. This can only be obtained through behavioural change, which is associated with a good knowledge about HIV. The study aims to determine the knowledge, beliefs, behaviours and sources of HIV and AIDS information among university students at two tertiary institutions in South Africa. The study was a quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative survey. Students from the Western Cape Province and the KwaZulu-Natal Province participated in the study. The main findings of the study were that although students had an adequate general knowledge on HIV/AIDS, both groups scored the lowest in the transmission modes of HIV. The media was the main source of HIV/AIDS information for students and university health care facilities need to be more proactive in informing students about the transmission of HIV/AIDS.

  16. Retention of Knowledge following training of students in Basic Trauma Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K G; Lum, S K; Burud, I A S

    2016-12-01

    In the course of their undergraduate training at the International Medical University, students receive a Basic Trauma Life Support course. We wanted to test the long-term retention of knowledge (after 16 months) of third year medical students who had received training in Basic Trauma Life Support Method: To assess the retention of knowledge one cohort of students who received the training course were tested again 16 months later using the same 30 question One Best Answer quiz. Seventy-three students who underwent the course sat for the Retention test. The number of students who passed the Retention test was not significantly different from the test taken immediately after the course. The mean scores, 62.5% and 59.5% respectively, were however significantly different. Our study involves a relatively long interval between the course and retention of knowledge test shows encouraging results.

  17. Oral health related knowledge, attitude and practice among nursing students of Kathmandu – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosina Bhattarai; Sunita Khanal; G Nagaraja Rao; Sujita Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices of bachelors level nursing college students in Kathmandu district.Materials & Methods: Data was collected using pre-designed questionnaire among 251 nursing students of three colleges comprising of 43 closed ended questions adopted from various studies. Twenty five questions related to knowledge, 8 questions of attitude and 10 of practice were asked. Prior to con...

  18. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes and its Quality in Student Canteens at Duhok University, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Haval Y. Yacoob Aldosky; Bawar Shamsedin Tahir; Saad Abdulmjeed Yousif

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining and improving the health level of college students are important aspects for higher education, where the food security becomes the foundation of the health. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes about food safety and to evaluate the quality of food (Physical & Operational Standards) in the student canteen at Duhok University. To achieve this goal, three questionnaires were developed. Concerning food safety knowledge and attitude for food hand...

  19. Basic mathematical knowledge of students enrolling for Primary Education University degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Our main object of research is the mathematical knowledge of students who enrol at University to begin their degree in Primary School Teaching. By Basic Mathematical Knowledge (BMK) we understand the initial mathematical background we desire students to have at the start of their education to become Primary School teachers. In this paper we present a first approach to the notion of BMK and provide empirical data that justify the relevance of this concept as an element to evaluate and reflect ...

  20. Longitudinal retention of anatomical knowledge in second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, Denise E; van Goor, Harry; Kooloos, Jan G M; Ten Broek, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving. In a longitudinal cohort, the retention of anatomical knowledge gained during the first year of medical school among second-year medical students was assessed. In May 2011, 346 medical students applied for the second-year gastro-intestinal (GI) tract course. The students were asked to participate in a reexamination of a selection of anatomical questions of an examination from October 2009. The examination consisted of a clinical anatomy case scenario and two computed tomography (CT) images of thorax and abdomen in an extended matching format. A total of 165 students were included for analysis. In 2011, students scored significantly lower for the anatomy examination compared to 2009 with a decline in overall examination score of 14.7% (±11.7%). Decrease in knowledge was higher in the radiological questions, compared to the clinical anatomy cases 17.5% (±13.6%) vs. 7.9% (±10.0%), respectively, d = 5.17. In both years, male students scored slightly better compared to female students, and decline of knowledge seems somewhat lower in male students (13.1% (±11.1%) vs. 15.5% (±12.0%), respectively), d = -0.21. Anatomical knowledge in the problem-oriented horizontal and vertical integrated medical curriculum, declined by approximately 15% 1.5 year after the initial anatomy course. The loss of knowledge in the present study is relative small compared to previous studies. Anat Sci Educ 10: 242-248. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Assessing students' conceptual knowledge of electricity and magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Michele W.; Finn, Rose A.; Broder, Darren L.; Hassel, George E.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Electricity and Magnetism Conceptual Assessment (EMCA), a new assessment aligned with second-semester introductory physics courses. Topics covered include electrostatics, electric fields, circuits, magnetism, and induction. We have two motives for writing a new assessment. First, we find other assessments such as the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and the Conceptual Survey on Electricity and Magnetism not well aligned with the topics and content depth of our courses. We want to test introductory physics content at a level appropriate for our students. Second, we want the assessment to yield scores and gains comparable to the widely used Force Concept Inventory (FCI). After five testing and revision cycles, the assessment was finalized in early 2015 and is available online. We present performance results for a cohort of 225 students at Siena College who were enrolled in our algebra- and calculus-based physics courses during the spring 2015 and 2016 semesters. We provide pretest, post-test, and gain analyses, as well as individual question and whole test statistics to quantify difficulty and reliability. In addition, we compare EMCA and FCI scores and gains, and we find that students' FCI scores are strongly correlated with their performance on the EMCA. Finally, the assessment was piloted in an algebra-based physics course at George Washington University (GWU). We present performance results for a cohort of 130 GWU students and we find that their EMCA scores are comparable to the scores of students in our calculus-based physics course.

  2. Exploring Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Interpretation of Student Thinking through Analysing Students' Work in Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Makbule Gozde; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    Researchers point out the importance of teachers' knowledge of student thinking and the role of examining student work in various contexts to develop a knowledge base regarding students' ways of thinking. This study investigated prospective secondary mathematics teachers' interpretations of students' thinking as manifested in students' work that…

  3. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with fat consumption among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Yahia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. Methods A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students’ demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student’s t-test. Results Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01. Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively. Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting, nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P <0.0001 and cholesterol intake (-1.38, P <0.0001. Conclusion Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.

  4. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus among high school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang-yang; Liu, Zhi-hua; Li, Le; Cai, Heng-ling; Wan, Yan-ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among high school students and to provide a basis for health education on HPV infection for high school students in China. A questionnaire on HPV awareness and knowledge was administered to 900 high school students in Xiangtan City of Hunan Province in China by layer cluster sampling. A total of 848 anonymous valid questionnaires were received from volunteers who completed the questionnaire correctly. Only 10.1% had heard of HPV, and of those only 18.6% knew that HPV could lead to cervical cancer. Single factor analysis indicated that home address, age, grade, academic achievement, sex history, gender, father's education level and mother's education level were impact factors for HPV knowledge of high school students. Multiple regression analysis showed 4 independent risk factors associated with HPV knowledge: academic achievement, sex history, gender, and mother's education level. The limited knowledge came primarily from television and radio broadcasts (59.3%), the Internet (57.0%), parents (25.6%), medical workers (20.9%), and teachers (18.6%). High school students lack HPV knowledge, which is affected by multiple factors. Targeted health education of all sorts must be provided. Both schools and families are responsible for reinforcing HPV education provided to high school students.

  5. The knowledge of Bengkulu University’s forestry students of tree diversity in their campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFFANIE NURLIANA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Wiryono, Nurliana S. 2011. The knowledge of Bengkulu University’s forestry students of tree diversity in their campus. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 98-103. Indonesia is rich in plant diversity which has provided daily human needs for millennia. Knowledge of diverse plants and their uses is part of ecological knowledge essential for the survival of human. However, rapid deforestation has reduced plant diversity and caused the loss of traditional ecological knowledge. Furthermore, the increased availability of electronic entertainment has alienated young people from nature, causing further loss of ecological knowledge. The objective of this study was to know the ability of Bengkulu University’s forestry students to identify trees growing in the campus by local names and their genera. Knowing the name of trees growing in our environment is an indicator of concern for biodiversity. Results showed that forestry students had low ability to identify trees by local names and even lower by genera. Second-semester students could identify fewer trees than the higher-semester students, and the knowledge was not affected by student’s gender or profession of students’ parents. This low appreciation of plant diversity among young generation will have negative implication for biodiversity conservation efforts. Students should be brought closer to nature by increasing outdoor education.

  6. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Basic Life Support Among Health Students at a Saudi Women's University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A

    2017-02-01

    Awareness of basic life support (BLS) is paramount to ensure the provision of essential life-saving medical care in emergency situations. This study aimed to measure knowledge of BLS and attitudes towards BLS training among female health students at a women's university in Saudi Arabia. This prospective cross-sectional study took place between January and April 2016 at five health colleges of the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All 2,955 students attending the health colleges were invited to participate in the study. Participants were subsequently asked to complete a validated English-language questionnaire which included 21 items assessing knowledge of BLS and six items gauging attitudes to BLS. A total of 1,349 students completed the questionnaire (response rate: 45.7%). The mean overall knowledge score was very low (32.7 ± 13.9) and 87.9% of the participants had very poor knowledge scores. A total of 32.5% of the participants had never received any BLS training. Students who had previously received BLS training had significantly higher knowledge scores ( P supported mandatory BLS training. Overall knowledge about BLS among the students was very poor; however, attitudes towards BLS training were positive. These findings call for an improvement in BLS education among Saudi female health students so as to ensure appropriate responses in cardiac arrest or other emergency situations.

  7. Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention on Medical Students' Knowledge About and Attitude Towards Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Simiyon, Manjula; Vedachalam, Ahalya

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to determine the effectiveness of a lecture and exposure to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) followed by interaction with patient, on medical students' knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. A questionnaire was administered to second year medical students to determine their baseline knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. Following this, they underwent two educational interventions, a lecture on ECT and exposure to the procedure and interaction with the patient and relative, and their knowledge and attitude were reassessed after each intervention using the same questionnaire. Eighty-one students completed all the three assessments. Students' knowledge about ECT at baseline was minimal (mean 3.58 out of 12). Their knowledge increased significantly after the lecture (mean 10.3), and there was further increase following exposure to the procedure and subsequent interaction with the patient and relative (mean 11.1). At baseline, students had an overall negative attitude towards ECT. There was significant improvement on all attitude items following the lecture. Exposure to the procedure resulted in further improvement in attitude regarding whether ECT is a cruel treatment and has to be used as a last resort. Exposure to ECT in lecture and clinical scenarios followed by interaction with the patient should be included in the undergraduate medical curriculum to improve students' knowledge and attitude about this safe, effective, and potentially lifesaving treatment modality.

  8. Regional knowledge economy development indicative planning system conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Davidovna Vaisman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the processes of Russian knowledge economy development, its progress on the regional level is taken as a theme, which determined the purpose of research: development of the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model. The methodological base of the research is the knowledge economy concept and supply and demand theory, the methods of comparative and system analysis and theoretical modeling; common generalization and classification methods and regression models are used in the work. As a result, we managed to create the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model, which includes the choice of the types of indicative plans and the justification for the complex of indicators according to the stated requirements to this complex. The model of supply and demand for knowledge dependency from the knowledge cost, allowing to determine the acceptable range for the indicators proceeding from the demand and supply levels and their interrelation, is developed. The obtained results may be used by the regional government authorities while planning the regional innovative development and consulting companies while making the proposals for this development

  9. Problem solving based learning model with multiple representations to improve student's mental modelling ability on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran

    2017-08-01

    Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7MMA) for 3MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.

  10. Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Walker, Mary P; Kisling, Rebecca E; Liu, Ying; Williams, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ≥6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient.

  11. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Abbiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods: Students applying for medical school (N=311 completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results: Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01. Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion: Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile.

  12. [Vaccine Preventable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Medical Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S; Roggendorf, H; Wicker, S

    2017-05-01

    Study Objective: Health-care workers (HCW) have an increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases and constitute a risk of transmission to their patients. Medical students working as HCW should therefore have the same immunity against vaccine preventable diseases as HCW. The aim of the study was to assess medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards occupationally indicated vaccinations as well as their vaccination status. Methods: Questionnaires were anonymously answered by medical students of the fourth preclinical semester at the Goethe-University Frankfurt. Results and Conclusion: Despite a high acceptance among medical students concerning vaccinations in general, the knowledge and vaccination status of the students should be improved. For instance, only 46.4% of the medical students knew that there is a general recommendation for HCW to receive the influenza vaccination and only 76.8% of the students stated to have received 2 measles vaccinations. Overall, 2/3 of the students were "very much in favour of vaccinations" or "completely in favour of vaccinations" and estimated the probability for unvaccinated HCW to acquire an occupationally associated infectious disease to be "quite high" or "very high". Having observed a positive attitude among medical students towards vaccinations, it should be possible to reach high vaccination coverage amongst students by offering them occupationally indicated vaccinations. Further knowledge concerning vaccine preventable diseases and the occupation-related increased risk for infectious diseases should be offered, as well. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  14. Analysing Models as a Knowledge Technology in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    critical analytic literature on knowledge utilization and policy influence. A simple scheme based in this literature is drawn up to provide a framework for discussing the interface between urban transport planning and model use. A successful example of model use in Stockholm, Sweden is used as a heuristic......Models belong to a wider family of knowledge technologies, applied in the transport area. Models sometimes share with other such technologies the fate of not being used as intended, or not at all. The result may be ill-conceived plans as well as wasted resources. Frequently, the blame...... device to illuminate how such an analytic scheme may allow patterns of insight about the use, influence and role of models in planning to emerge. The main contribution of the paper is to demonstrate that concepts and terminologies from knowledge use literature can provide interpretations of significance...

  15. Generating pedagogical content knowledge in teacher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Some pre-service teaching activities can contribute much to the learning of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and subsequent teaching as these activities are generating PCK within the pre-service teacher's own classroom. Three examples are described: preparing exhibitions of science experiments,

  16. The networked student: contextualizing scientific knowledge for educational practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Femke; Firssova, Olga; Robbers, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: To study how stimulating networked learning in a formal education program contributes to teachers’ meaning making and their contextualizing of scientific knowledge for their educational practice, a pilot was conducted. In an online distance learning course for teachers aspiring an academic

  17. Junior medical students' knowledge about and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment modality with a long history of use in psychiatry, it remains controversial owing to misconceptions and negative attitudes among the public and medical profession. The aim of this study was to explore the state of knowledge and attitudes ...

  18. High school students\\' attitudes, practices and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of contraception and sexual awareness amongst high school pupils in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Two hundred males and 200 females from five high schools in the Jozini district completed confidential, self-administered questionnaires in isiZulu. South African Family ...

  19. School students' knowledge and understanding of the Global Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) is a health communication tool used to inform the public about the health risks of excess solar UV radiation and encourage appropriate sun-protection behaviour. Knowledge and understanding of the UVI has been evaluated among adult populations but not among ...

  20. Breast cancer knowledge and awareness among university students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The high breast cancer mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to a lack of public awareness of the disease which often leads to late diagnosis of the disease. Little is known about the level of knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in Angola. Previous studies have shown that breast cancer ...

  1. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  2. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  3. The Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Knowledge and Behavior to Provide Culturally Competent Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynas, Suzette Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…

  4. Aggregating Concept Map Data to Investigate the Knowledge of Beginning CS Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps have a long history in educational settings as a tool for teaching, learning, and assessing. As an assessment tool, they are predominantly used to extract the structural configuration of learners' knowledge. This article presents an investigation of the knowledge structures of a large group of beginning CS students. The investigation…

  5. Knowledge and Information Flows in a Hybrid Learning Space: The Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    When proposing group activities to students with a view to fostering collaborative learning in a hybrid learning space, we often ourselves about the relative amounts of information and knowledge which flow in the interaction, both among the group members and from the external information and knowledge sources. Also about which stages of the…

  6. Exploring Changes to a Teacher's Teaching Practices and Student Learning through a Volleyball Content Knowledge Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Insook

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how improving a teacher's content knowledge changes his teaching practices and its subsequent effects on student learning during a middle school volleyball instructional unit. The study was designed to challenge teacher educators' thinking about the importance of in-depth content knowledge for effective teaching by…

  7. Effect of an Undergraduate Special Problems Elective upon Student Knowledge of Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCosbe, Paul E.; Segelman, Alvin B.

    1984-01-01

    The knowledge of antibiotic therapy among students taking an elective course in antibiotic prescription following a course in antibiotics and infectious diseases was compared with those not taking the follow-up elective course, and it was determined that the elective course reinforced existing knowledge. (MSE)

  8. The Effects of a STEM Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…

  9. College Students' Ageist Behavior: The Role of Aging Knowledge and Perceived Vulnerability to Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the associations among perceived vulnerability to disease, aging knowledge, and ageism (positive and negative) in a sample of undergraduate students enrolled in a human development course (N = 649; M age = 19.94 years, SD = 2.84 years). Perceived vulnerability to disease and aging knowledge were associated with…

  10. Child maltreatment between knowledge, attitude and beliefs among Saudi pediatricians, pediatric residency trainees and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossef Alnasser, MBBS

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Saudi medical students, pediatrics trainees and pediatricians have good basic knowledge, positive attitude and willingness to learn more to provide a safe environment for children in Saudi Arabia. However, knowledge in regards to reporting child maltreatment is a major observed defect. Still, further education and training are needed to combat CAN in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Knowledge and attitudes of final year medical students to first aid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the knowledge of final year medical students at the University of Benin regarding emergency management of traumatic tooth avulsion. Data collected were information on demographics, knowledge and practice regarding emergency management of traumatic ...

  12. Song of the Open Road: Business Students Blog about Tacit Knowledge in Their Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Arlene O.

    2010-01-01

    Student interns produce professional blogs, using Web 2.0, to capture tacit knowledge concepts which are the experiential learning goals of internships in business education. This article discusses the pedagogical goals, methods and outcomes of this initiative. It also provides the theoretical underpinnings of the concept of tacit knowledge in…

  13. Environmental education and its effect on the knowledge and attitudes of preparatory school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M; El-Naggar, Hesham M; Hussein, Rim A

    2009-01-01

    Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum.

  14. Assessing College Student Subjective and Objective Knowledge in an Online Financial Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Charity

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this correlational study using Joo's (2008) financial wellness framework was to determine the impact of an online financial literacy workshop on student subjective knowledge, dependent on indicators of stress, behavior, and objective knowledge, when controlling for demographic differences at a large public university.…

  15. An AHP-Based Weighted Analysis of Network Knowledge Management Platforms for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Ping; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to quantify important knowledge management behaviors and to analyze the weight scores of elementary school students' behaviors in knowledge transfer, sharing, and creation. Based on the analysis of Expert Choice and tests for validity and reliability, this study identified the weight scores of…

  16. International Study in the Global South: Linking Institutional, Staff, Student and Knowledge Mobilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Ashley; Raghuram, Parvati

    2018-01-01

    The international mobility of institutions, staff, students and knowledge resources such as books and study materials has usually been studied separately. This paper, for the first time, brings these different forms of knowledge mobilities together. Through a historical analysis of South African higher education alongside results from a…

  17. Developing Teachers' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge through a Community of Practice: Impact on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunuk, Deniz; Ince, Mustafa Levent; Tannehill, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were twofold: to examine the effects of a community of practice (CoP) on (1) physical educators' and their students' health-related fitness content knowledge and (2) the physical educators' health-related fitness pedagogical content knowledge construction process. Twelve experienced physical education teachers (six in…

  18. A Fuzzy-Based Prior Knowledge Diagnostic Model with Multiple Attribute Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2013-01-01

    Prior knowledge is a very important part of teaching and learning, as it affects how instructors and students interact with the learning materials. In general, tests are used to assess students' prior knowledge. Nevertheless, conventional testing approaches usually assign only an overall score to each student, and this may mean that students are…

  19. Publishing Not Perishing: How Research Students Transition from Novice to Knowledgeable Using Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine; Grignon, Julien; Steven, Rochelle; Guitart, Daniela; Byrne, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Current understandings suggest that three aspects of writing practice underpin the research student publication process: knowledge creation, text production and identity formation. Publishing a literature review is the first opportunity most students have to publish. This article compares the pedagogical benefits of different literature review…

  20. Students' knowledge and attitudes towards ill-effects of tobacco use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half of the students use tobacco for social influence and cigarette was the major form of tobacco use. Majority (92.9%) of the students were generally aware of the fact that tobacco use has adverse effects on health but, the knowledge of the specific side effects was relatively low especially among current users.

  1. The Effects of Prior-Knowledge and Online Learning Approaches on Students' Inquiry and Argumentation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tsung; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Kai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of students' prior science knowledge and online learning approaches (social and individual) on their learning with regard to three topics: science concepts, inquiry, and argumentation. Two science teachers and 118 students from 4 eighth-grade science classes were invited to participate in this research. Students…

  2. Effects of Conceptual, Procedural, and Declarative Reflection on Students' Structural Knowledge in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Gul Shahzad; Trumpower, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Reflection has recently been emphasized as a constructive pedagogical activity. However, little attention has been given to the quality of reflections that students write. In this study, we explored the reflections that students make about their knowledge organization as part of a formative learning activity. More specifically, we assessed the…

  3. Growth in Career Academy Students' Experience, Knowledge, and Self- Confidence Related to Health Care Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera, Gustavo,; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Boal, Ashley L.; Wendt, Staci J.; Beck, Cindy; Cherry, Carla

    2016-01-01

    A survey measure was developed to assess high school students' experience, knowledge, and self-confidence related to health care careers. In the fall and spring of one school year, the measure was administered to a diverse sample of 2,309 students participating in career academies focused on the health care industry. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  4. An Examination of College Students' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Organic Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Katie; Gillan, Wynn; Naquin, Millie

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although organic foods have been available for decades, they are an emerging trend with increasing prevalence of organic food choices in mainstream markets. College-aged students' consumer behaviors are understudied in this industry. Purpose: This study examined college students' knowledge, perceptions, and current behaviors regarding…

  5. Knowledge, Education, and Attitudes of International Students to IELTS: A Case of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Abe W.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, education and attitudes of Chinese, Indian and Arab speaking students in Australia towards the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test. A questionnaire was administered to 200 students at six university language centers to investigate their overall response towards…

  6. Gross anatomy examination performances in relation to medical students' knowledge of classical latin and greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shiby; Moxham, Bernard John

    2018-02-03

    The ability of medical students to acquire anatomical and medical terminologies could be influenced by their knowledge of classical Greek and Latin. In a previous study (Stephens and Moxham , Clin. Anat. 29:696at. ), it was reported that, while newly recruited medical students have a very favorable attitude toward the need to understand these classical languages, final year students see no benefit. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, regardless of attitude, students in the initial stages of their medical education perform better at both summative and formative anatomy examinations if they have prior knowledge of Greek and Latin. First year medical students at Cardiff University who had been involved in the previous study concerning attitudes toward the relevance of the classical languages to medical education were evaluated in terms of their examination results in anatomy. Two hundred and twenty-seven students responded to a questionnaire (83% of the class) that categorized students into their linguistic knowledge and skills and their performances in formative and summative examinations were analyzed. For medical students with prior knowledge of classical Greek and Latin performed better in both summative and formative anatomy examinations. The results are therefore consistent with our hypothesis. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of Education on Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitudes among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Cynthia Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a school health module on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of middle school students. Method: A convenience sample of 39 middle school students received education related to breastfeeding and completed a pre-test and a post-test. The School Survey on Breastfeeding…

  8. Changing College Students' Conceptions of Autism: An Online Training to Increase Knowledge and Decrease Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane

    2015-01-01

    College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…

  9. Increasing Student Ability To Transfer Knowledge through the Use of Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Erin L.; Price, Kathleen L.; Wilken, Diane M.

    This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for improving student transfer of knowledge to real life experiences. The targeted population consisted of second, sixth, and tenth grade students in a Midwestern community located outside of a major city. Evidence suggested a need for this program as documented by teacher generated…

  10. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological…

  11. Students' Conceptual Knowledge and Process Skills in Civic Education: Identifying Cognitive Profiles and Classroom Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Torney-Purta, Judith; Barber, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    In 2 related studies framed by social constructivism theory, the authors explored a fine-grained analysis of adolescents' civic conceptual knowledge and skills and investigated them in relation to factors such as teachers' qualifications and students' classroom experiences. In Study 1 (with about 2,800 U.S. students), the authors identified 4…

  12. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  14. A View from within: How Doctoral Students in Educational Administration Develop Research Knowledge and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Militello, Matthew; Piert, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on experiences of doctoral students in educational administration at a time when the effectiveness of programs preparing practitioners and academics in this field are being questioned. Concerns related to how students in educational administration developed knowledge about research and identity as researchers were closely…

  15. Who Writes the Past? Student Perceptions of Wikipedia Knowledge and Credibility in a World History Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Susanna; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an inquiry-based learning project that required students in a first-year world history course to reflect on and analyze critically the nature of the knowledge found in Wikipedia--the free, open-content, rapidly evolving, internet encyclopedia. Using a rubric, the authors explored students' perceptions of the collaborative and…

  16. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  17. The Contribution of Morphological Knowledge to 7th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Neel, Joanna; Matatall, Abbey; Richards, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of morphology, an important yet largely understudied source of difficulty, in reading ability among 7th grade students in one junior high school in the southwestern United States. We sought to find out how much variance in reading ability is accounted for by these students' morphological knowledge, and whether…

  18. Information about Human Sexuality: Sources, Satisfaction, and Perceived Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…

  19. Expansive Learning and Chicana/o and Latina/o Students' Political-Historical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how Chicana/o and Latina/o youth employed their political-historical knowledge to "talk back" to the xenophobia and political contradictions that underlie the (im)migration "debate." A literacy unit that honed bilingual students' everyday translating created opportunities for students to utilize this political-historical…

  20. An Investigation of Graduate Student Knowledge and Usage of Open-Access Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students lament the need to achieve the proficiency necessary to competently search multiple databases for their research assignments, regularly eschewing these sources in favor of Google Scholar or some other search engine. The author conducted an anonymous survey investigating graduate student knowledge or awareness of the open-access…