WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling soil water

  1. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Doležel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines were closed it was necessary to separate existed extensive horizontal location of salt water below a clay layer in order not to deteriorate the upper fresh water. The salt water could not be allowed to pollute the upper layer with the fresh water, as many wells in villages in the neighborhood of the former mines would be contaminated. Two horizontal clay layers (an insulator and a semi-insulator separated the two horizons containing salt water and fresh water. Before starting deep mining, vertical shafts had to be constructed with concrete linings to enable the miners to access the depths. The salt water was draining away throughout the existence of the mine. The drainage was designed very carefully to avoid possible infiltration of salt water into the upper horizon. Before the mines were abandoned it was necessary to prevent contact between the two kinds of waters in the shafts. Several options were put forward, the most efficient of which appeared to be one that proposed filling the shafts with spoil soil and creating a joint seal made of disparate material at the interface between the salt water and fresh water to create a reliable stopper. The material for the spoil soil was delivered from deposits located not far from the shafts. This material consisted of a variety of grains of sand, big boulders of slate, slaty clay, sandstone, etc.. Chemical admixtures were considered to improve the flocculation of the filling material. The stopper was positioned at a

  2. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in Soil Water Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Y. A.; Guber, A.; Jacques, D.; Pan, F.; van Genuchten, M.; Cady, R. E.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Soil water flow modeling has multiple applications. This modeling is based on simplifications stemming from both conceptual uncertainty and lack of detailed knowledge about parameters. Modern soil moisture sensors can provide detailed information about changes in soil water content in time and with depth. This information can be used for data assimilation in soil water flow modeling. The ensemble Kalman filter appears to be an appropriate method for that. Earlier we demonstrated ensemble simulations of soil water flow by using sets of pedotransfer functions (empirical relationships between soil hydraulic properties and soil basic properties, such as particle size distribution, bulk density, organic carbon content, etc.). The objective of this work was to apply the data assimilation with the ensemble Kalman filter to soil water flow modeling, using soil water content monitoring with TDR probes and an ensemble of soil water flow models parameterized with different pedotransfer functions. Experiments were carried out at the Bekkevoort site, Belgium. Sixty time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes with two rods) were installed along the trench in loamy soil at 12 locations with 50-cm horizontal spacing at five depths (15, 35, 55, 75, and 95 cm). Water content and weather parameters were monitored for one year with 15 min frequency. Soil water flow was simulated using the HYDRUS6 software. Mean daily means of water contents at the observation depths were the measurements used in data assimilation. Eighteen pedotransfer functions for water retention and one for hydraulic conductivity were applied to generate ensembles to evaluate the uncertainty in simulation results, whereas the replicated measurements at each of measurement depths were used to characterize the uncertainty in data. Data assimilation appeared to be very efficient. Even assimilating measurements at a single depth provided substantial improvement in simulations at other observation depths. Results on

  3. Advances in the Coupled Soil Water and Groundwater Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉峥; 王志敏

    2014-01-01

    Models simulating the reciprocal transformation between the soil water and groundwater are of great practical importance to the development and utilization of water resources and prevention and remedy of water pollution. In this paper, popular coupled models of soil water and groundwater will be analyzed. Besides, advantages and disadvantages of different models will be summarized as a reference for the numerical model of soil water and groundwater.

  4. Semiempirical model of soil water hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to represent hysteretic soil water retention curves accurately using as few measurements as possible, a new semiempirical model has been developed. It has two postulates related to physical characteristics of the medium, and two parameters, each with a definite physical interpretation, whose values are determined empirically for a given porous medium. Tests of the model show that it provides high-quality optimized fits to measured water content vs. matric pressure wetting curves for a wide variety of media. A practical use of this model is to provide a complete simulated main wetting curve for a medium where only a main drying curve and two points on the wetting curve have been measured. -from Author

  5. Modeling of soil-water-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian

    to dynamic ocean waves. The goal of this research project is to develop numerical soil models for computing realistic seabed response in the interacting offshore environment, where ocean waves, seabed and offshore structure highly interact with each other. The seabed soil models developed are based...... as the developed nonlinear soil displacements and stresses under monotonic and cyclic loading. With the FVM nonlinear coupled soil models as a basis, multiphysics modeling of wave-seabed-structure interaction is carried out. The computations are done in an open source code environment, OpenFOAM, where FVM models...... of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and structural mechanics are available. The interaction in the system is modeled in a 1-way manner: First detailed free surface CFD calculations are executed to obtain a realistic wave field around a given structure. Then the dynamic structural response, due to the motions...

  6. Modeling of soil-water-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian

    The trend towards the installation of more offshore constructions for the production and transmission of marine oil, gas and wind power is expected to continue over the coming years. An important process in the offshore construction design is the assessment of seabed soil stability exposed...... to dynamic ocean waves. The goal of this research project is to develop numerical soil models for computing realistic seabed response in the interacting offshore environment, where ocean waves, seabed and offshore structure highly interact with each other. The seabed soil models developed are based...... on the ’modified’ Biot’s consolidation equations, in which the soil-pore fluid coupling is extended to account for the various nonlinear soil stress-strain relations included. The Finite volume method (FVM) together with a segregated solution strategy has been used to numerically solve the governing equations...

  7. Multifractal Model of Soil Water Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, Klaudia

    2017-04-01

    Breaking of solid surface symmetry during the interaction between the rainfall of high erosivity index and internally unstable volcanic soil/vegetation systems, results in roughness increasing as well as fertile horizon loosing. In these areas, the sustainability of management practices depends on the ability to select and implement the precise indicators of soil erodibility and vegetation capacity to protect the system against the extreme damaging precipitation events. Notwithstanding, the complex, non-linear and scaling nature of the phenomena involved in the interaction among the soil, vegetation and precipitation is still not taken into account by the numerous commonly used empirical, mathematical and computer simulation models: for instance, by the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The soil erodibility factor (K-factor) is still measuring by a set of empirical, dimensionless parameters and indexes, without taking into account the scaling (frequently multifractal) origin of a broad range of heterogeneous, anisotropic and dynamical phenomena involved in hydric erosion. Their mapping is not representative of this complex system spatial variability. In our research, we propose to use the toolbox of fractals and multifractals techniques in vista of its ability to measure the scale invariance and type/degree of soil, vegetation and precipitation symmetry breaking. The hydraulic units are chosen as the precise measure of soil/vegetation stability. These units are measured and modeled for soils with contrasting architecture, based on their porosity/permeability (Poroperm) as well as retention capacity relations. The simple Catalog of the most common Poroperm relations is proposed and the main power law relations among the elements of studied system are established and compared for some representative agricultural and natural Biogeosystems of Mexico. All resulted are related with the Mandelbrot' Baby Theorem in order to construct the universal Phase Diagram which

  8. Modeling root water uptake in soils: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaux, Mathieu; Couvreur, Valentin; Huber, Katrin; Meunier, Félicien; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Root water uptake modeling concepts have evolved over time. On one hand, mesoscopic models have been developed, which explicitly represent the fluxes at the soil root interfaces. On the other hand macroscopic approaches were proposed, which embedded root water uptake into a sink term in the macroscopic mass balance equation. Today, new techniques for imaging root architecture, water fluxes and soil properties open new possibilities to the understanding of water depletion in planted soils. Amongst others, architectural hydraulic root and soil models can be used to bridge the scale gap between single root and plant scales. In this talk, several new promising experimental approaches will be presented together with new models and upscaling procedures, possibly paving the way for the future models of root water uptake. Furthermore, open challenges will also be presented.

  9. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curve with a Fractal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many empirical models have been developed to describe the soil water retention curve (SWRC). In this study, a fractal model for SWRC was derived with a specially constructed Menger sponge to describe the fractal scaling behavior of soil; relationships were established among the fractal dimension of SWRC, the fractal dimension of soil mass, and soil texture; and the model was used to estimate SWRC with the estimated results being compared to experimental data for verification. The derived fractal model was in a power-law form, similar to the Brooks-Corey and Campbell empirical functions. Experimental data of particle size distribution (PSD), texture, and soil water retention for 10 soils collected at different places in China were used to estimate the fractal dimension of SWRC and the mass fractal dimension. The fractal dimension of SWRC and the mass fractal dimension were linearly related. Also, both of the fractal dimensions were dependent on soil texture, i.e., clay and sand contents. Expressions were proposed to quantify the relationships. Based on the relationships, four methods were used to determine the fractal dimension of SWRC and the model was applied to estimate soil water content at a wide range of tension values. The estimated results compared well with the measured data having relative errors less than 10% for over 60% of the measurements. Thus, this model, estimating the fractal dimension using soil textural data, offered an alternative for predicting SWRC.

  10. Modelling of the water retention characteristic of deformable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently proposed water retention model has been further developed for the application on unsaturated deformable soils. The physical mechanisms underpinning the water retention characteristic of soils was at first described in terms of traditional theories of capillarity and interfacial physical chemistry at pore level. Then upscaling to macroscopic level of material scale in terms of average volume theorem produces an analytical formula for the water retention characteristic. The methodology produces an explicit form of the water retention curve as a function of three state parameters: the suction, the degree-of-water-saturation and the void-ratio. At last, the model has been tested using experimental measurements.

  11. Performance of chromatographic systems to model soil-water sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2012-08-24

    A systematic approach for evaluating the goodness of chromatographic systems to model the sorption of neutral organic compounds by soil from water is presented in this work. It is based on the examination of the three sources of error that determine the overall variance obtained when soil-water partition coefficients are correlated against chromatographic retention factors: the variance of the soil-water sorption data, the variance of the chromatographic data, and the variance attributed to the dissimilarity between the two systems. These contributions of variance are easily predicted through the characterization of the systems by the solvation parameter model. According to this method, several chromatographic systems besides the reference octanol-water partition system have been selected to test their performance in the emulation of soil-water sorption. The results from the experimental correlations agree with the predicted variances. The high-performance liquid chromatography system based on an immobilized artificial membrane and the micellar electrokinetic chromatography systems of sodium dodecylsulfate and sodium taurocholate provide the most precise correlation models. They have shown to predict well soil-water sorption coefficients of several tested herbicides. Octanol-water partitions and high-performance liquid chromatography measurements using C18 columns are less suited for the estimation of soil-water partition coefficients.

  12. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.

    2014-06-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil parameters that are averaged over the soil profile. However, many applications require models to more accurately represent the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, in particular, water movement and saturation within specific parts of the soil profile. In this paper a mathematical model for water uptake by a plant root system from unsaturated soil is presented. The model provides an estimate of the water content level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. The model was validated using field data, which include hourly water content values at five different soil depths under a grass/herb cover over 1 year, to obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake with respect to climate conditions. When compared quantitatively to a simple water balance model, the proposed model achieves a better fit to the experimental data due to its ability to vary water content with depth. To accurately model the water content in the soil profile, the soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity needed to vary with depth.

  13. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content......, cation exchange capacity) and engineering properties (e.g., swelling potential). Our objectives for this work were to: (i) evaluate the potential of several theoretical and empirical isotherm models to accurately describe measured moisture adsorption/desorption isotherms (aw range of 0.03 to 0.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...

  14. Modeling soil water content for vegetation modeling improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfrani, Carmen; Buri, Aline; Zingg, Barbara; Vittoz, Pascal; Verrecchia, Eric; Guisan, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is known to be important for plants as it affects the physiological processes regulating plant growth. Therefore, SWC controls plant distribution over the Earth surface, ranging from deserts and grassland to rain forests. Unfortunately, only a few data on SWC are available as its measurement is very time consuming and costly and needs specific laboratory tools. The scarcity of SWC measurements in geographic space makes it difficult to model and spatially project SWC over larger areas. In particular, it prevents its inclusion in plant species distribution model (SDMs) as predictor. The aims of this study were, first, to test a new methodology allowing problems of the scarcity of SWC measurements to be overpassed and second, to model and spatially project SWC in order to improve plant SDMs with the inclusion of SWC parameter. The study was developed in four steps. First, SWC was modeled by measuring it at 10 different pressures (expressed in pF and ranging from pF=0 to pF=4.2). The different pF represent different degrees of soil water availability for plants. An ensemble of bivariate models was built to overpass the problem of having only a few SWC measurements (n = 24) but several predictors to include in the model. Soil texture (clay, silt, sand), organic matter (OM), topographic variables (elevation, aspect, convexity), climatic variables (precipitation) and hydrological variables (river distance, NDWI) were used as predictors. Weighted ensemble models were built using only bivariate models with adjusted-R2 > 0.5 for each SWC at different pF. The second step consisted in running plant SDMs including modeled SWC jointly with the conventional topo-climatic variable used for plant SDMs. Third, SDMs were only run using the conventional topo-climatic variables. Finally, comparing the models obtained in the second and third steps allowed assessing the additional predictive power of SWC in plant SDMs. SWC ensemble models remained very good, with

  15. Modeling cation exchange capacity and soil water holding capacity from basic soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Olorunfemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cation exchange capacity (CEC is a good indicator of soil productivity and is useful for making recommendations of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium for soils of different textures. Soil water holding capacity (SWHC defines the ability of a soil to hold water at a particular time of the season. This research predicted CEC and SWHC of soils using pedotransfer models developed (using Minitab 17 statistical software from basic soil properties (Sand(S, Clay(C, soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC and verify the model by comparing the relationship between measured and estimated (obtained by PTFs CEC and SWHC in the Forest Vegetative Zone of Nigeria. For this study, a total of 105 sampling points in 35 different locations were sampled in the study areas. Three sampling points were randomly selected per location and three undisturbed samples were collected at each sampling point. The results showed success in predicting CEC and SWHC from basic soil properties. In this study, five linear regression models for predicting soil CEC and seven linear regression models for predicting SWHC from some soil physical and chemical properties were suggested. Model 5 [CEC = -13.93+2.645 pH +0.0446 C (%+2.267 SOC (%] was best for predicting CEC while model 12 [SWHC (%=36.0- 0.215 S (%+0.113 C (%+10.36 SOC (%] is the most acceptable model for predicting SWHC.

  16. Modelling Soil Water Characteristic Curves for the Investigation of Hydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Ingrid; Matthews, Peter; Laudone, Maurizio; Van Keulen, Geertje; Doerr, Stefan; Francis, Lewis; Dudley, Ed; Gazze, Andrea; Quinn, Gerry; Whalley, Richard; Ashton, Rhys

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity presents a major challenge for the future, as it reduces both plant-available water and irrigation efficiency, and can increase flooding hazards and erosion. A collaborative research project has been set up in the UK to study hydrophobicity over a wide range of length scales. At core scale, we are investigating the wetting behaviour of water repellent soils in order to model percolation through hydrophobic pore spaces. To that end, water retention measurements were carried out on both wettable and forcibly-wetted water-repellent soils collected from three locations in England and Wales. The data were then fitted with both the commonly used Van Genuchten model and an alternative model from PoreXpert, a software program that analyses and models porous materials. The Van Genuchten model fits a curve to the data using parameters related to air entry suction, irreducible water content and pore size distribution. By contrast, PoreXpert uses a Boltzmann-annealed simplex to find a best-fit curve based on parameters directly related to the void structure of the soil: the size of the voids, the shape of the void size distribution, and how the voids are connected to each other. Both Van Genuchten and PoreXpert fit the experimental data well, but where Van Genuchten forces an S-shaped curve that can mask small variations, PoreXpert gives a closer fit of no pre-defined shape that captures subtle differences between data points. This allows us to calculate differences in the effective pore and throat size distributions, and provides a mechanistic framework from which to model additional hydrologic behaviour in water repellent soil. Simulations of capillary induced wetting based on these mechanistic postulates are then compared to wicking experiments at the core scale, which can then be upscaled and applied to other soils.

  17. Modeling the soil water retention properties of same-textured soils with different initial void ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Zhou, Wan-Huan; Yuen, Ka-Veng

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a method of predicting the soil water retention curve (SWRC) of a soil using a set of measured SWRC data from a soil with the same texture but different initial void ratio. The relationships of the volumetric water contents and the matric suctions between two samples with different initial void ratios are established. An adjustment parameter (β) is introduced to express the relationships between the matric suctions of two soil samples. The parameter β is a function of the initial void ratio, matric suction or volumetric water content. The function can take different forms, resulting in different predictive models. The optimal predictive models of β are determined for coarse-grained and fine-grained soils using the Bayesian method. The optimal models of β are validated by comparing the estimated matric suction and measured data. The comparisons show that the proposed method produces more accurate SWRCs than do other models for both coarse-grained and fine-grained soils. Furthermore, the influence of the model parameters of β on the predicted matric suction and SWRC is evaluated using Latin Hypercube sampling. An uncertainty analysis shows that the reliability of the predicted SWRC decreases with decreasing water content in fine-grained soils, and the initial void ratio has no apparent influence on the reliability of the predicted SWRCs in coarse-grained and fine-grained soils.

  18. Soil erosion by water - model concepts and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Juergen

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion is not a continuous process but the result of isolated surface runoff events, whose erosional effects are determined by numerous temporally and spatially varying variables. Thus the monitoring of soil loss by direct observation is extremely limited with respect to space and time. Usually observation plots cover an area of less than 100 m2 and the observation period is less than 10 years. In order to estimate soil losses by water erosion for others than empirically observable conditions, mathematical models are needed, which are able to describe the interaction of the different physical mechanisms involved either statistically or on the basis of physical algorithms. Such models are absolutely essential for risk prognoses on catchment and regional scale. Besides the aspect of soil conservation the delivery of sediments and sediment bound pollutants into surface water bodies are of increasing relevance in this context. Based on an exemplary selection of existing water erosion models this contribution aims to give an overview over different mathematical approaches used for the description of particle detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles. According to the chronology in the development of soil erosion models empirical algorithms will be presented first based on the USLE approach. However, since purely empirical models like USLE are limited to the estimation of annual soil loss further attempts in soil erosion modelling are focussed on event based estimations considering the fact that soil erosion is not a continuous process but the result of isolated runoff events. One of the first models of this type was CREAMS using physically based algorithms in combination with empirical ones in order to describe the basic erosion processes. Today there are diverse soil erosion models available following in principle the CREAMS concept but using different algorithms in detail. Concerning particle detachment, transport and deposition alternative

  19. Modelling Soil Water Retention for Weed Seed Germination Sensitivity to Water Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Bullied

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water retention is important for the study of water availability to germinating weed seeds. Six soil water retention models (Campbell, Brooks-Corey, four- and five-parameter van Genuchten, Tani, and Russo with residual soil water parameter derivations were evaluated to describe water retention for weed seed germination at minimum threshold soil water potential for three hillslope positions. The Campbell, Brooks-Corey, and four-parameter van Genuchten model with modified or estimated forms of the residual parameter had superior but similar data fit. The Campbell model underestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.5 MPa for the upper hillslope that could result in underestimating seed germination. The Tani and Russo models overestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.1 MPa for all hillslope positions. Model selection and residual parameter specification are important for weed seed germination by representing water retention at the level of minimum threshold water potential for germination. Weed seed germination models driven by the hydrothermal soil environment rely on the best-fitting soil water retention model to produce dynamic predictions of seed germination.

  20. Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorba Szilveszter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS, while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S. The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET, potential evaporation (PE and total amount of water (TSW in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

  1. A multi-scale "soil water structure" model based on the pedostructure concept

    OpenAIRE

    Braudeau, Erik; Mohtar, Rabi,; El Ghezal, Nadim; Salahat, Mohammed; Martin, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Current soil water models do not take into account the internal organization of the soil medium and, consequently, ignore the physical interaction between the water film at the surface of solids making the soil structure, and this structure. In that sense they empirically deal with the physical soil properties that are all generated from this soil water – structure interaction. As a result, the thermodynamic state of the soil water medium, which constitutes the local p...

  2. Soil-water fluxes modelling in a green roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    Green roofs differ from a natural environment as they are on top of a building and are not connected to the natural ground; therefore it is critical that soils can drain and retain water simultaneously and that they work even in very shallow systems. The soil or growing medium used for green roofs is specifically engineered to provide the vegetation with nutrients, discharging any excess water into the drainage layer, and releasing stored water back into the substrate. In this way, medium depth and porosity plays an important role in stormwater retention and plant growth in a green roof. Due to the lack of a good understanding about the hydraulic efficiency of each green roof's layer in rainwater management, a detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected with the green roof technical design is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this research is analyzing the soil-water dynamics through the different components of a green roof and modeling these processes though a detailed but clear subsurface hydrology module, based on green roof vertical soil water movement reproduction, in relation to climate forcing, basic technology components and geometric characteristics of green roof systems (thickness of the stratigraphy, soil layers and materials, vegetation typology and density). A multi-layer bucket model has been applied to examine the hydrological response of the green roof system under a temperate maritime climate, by varying the physical and geometric parameters that characterize the different components of the vegetated cover. Following a stage of validation and calibration, results confirm the suitability of the model to describe the hydrologic response of the green roof during the observed rainfall events: the discharge hydrograph profile, volume and timing, predicted by the model, matched experimental measurements

  3. Morphology of Rain Water Channeling in Systematically Varied Model Sandy Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuli; Cejas, Cesare M.; Barrois, Rémi; Dreyfus, Rémi; Durian, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different rain conditions using a quasi-2D experimental setup and systematically determine the impact of the soil grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the water channeling phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of the soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed rain condition, we combine the effects of the grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to the rain water channeling phenomenon, including prewetting sandy soils at different levels before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  4. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Y.; Cejas, C. M.; Barrois, R.; Dreyfus, R.; Durian, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and...

  5. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel;

    2014-01-01

    curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model......Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... combined with the Kelvin equation (CS-K) produced better fits to dry-end SWRCs of soils dominated by 2:1 clays but provided poor fits for soils dominated by 1:1 clays. The shape parameter α of the Oswin model was dependent on clay mineral type, and approximate values of 0.29 and 0.57 were obtained...

  6. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per

    2010-01-01

    Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, α(θ), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data...... for further three soils and performed accurately for all three. Consequently, we suggest that the α(θ) model represents a useful strategy to predict the entire soil-water repellency characteristic curve, and thus potential risks for enhanced runoff and preferential (fingered) soil-water flow at given initial...

  7. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-05-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China.

  8. Advances of modeling water flow in variably saturated soils with SWAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Groenendijk, P.; Hendriks, R.F.A.; Kroes, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP) model simulates transport of water, solutes, and heat in the vadose zone in interaction with vegetation development. Special features of the model are generic crop growth, versatile top boundary conditions, macroporous flow, and interaction of soil water with g

  9. Advances of modeling water flow in variably saturated soils with SWAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Groenendijk, P.; Hendriks, R.F.A.; Kroes, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP) model simulates transport of water, solutes, and heat in the vadose zone in interaction with vegetation development. Special features of the model are generic crop growth, versatile top boundary conditions, macroporous flow, and interaction of soil water with

  10. Water retention of rigid soils from a two-factor model for clay

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    Water retention is one of the key soil characteristics. Available models of soil water retention relate to the curve-fitting type. The objective of this work is to suggest a physical model of water retention (drying branch) for soils with a rigid matrix. "Physical" means the prediction based on the a priori measured or estimated soil parameters with a clear physical meaning. We rely on the two-factor model of clay that takes into account the factors of capillarity and shrinkage. The key points of the model to be proposed are some weak pseudo shrinkage that the rigid soils demonstrate according to their experimental water retention curves, and some specific properties of the rigid grain matrix. The three input parameters for prediction of soil water retention with the rigid grain matrix include inter-grain porosity, as well as maximum and minimum grain sizes. The comparison between measured and predicted sand water retention curves for four different sands is promising.

  11. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions...... for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC ≥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log...... by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model...

  12. Ensemble kalman filtering to perform data assimilation with soil water content probes and pedotransfer functions in modeling water flow in variably saturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from modern soil water contents probes can be used for data assimilation in soil water flow modeling, i.e. continual correction of the flow model performance based on observations. The ensemble Kalman filter appears to be an appropriate method for that. The method requires estimates of the unce...

  13. Water and heat transport in hilly red soil of southern China: Ⅱ. Modeling and simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jun; HUANG Zhi-zhen; HAN Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models of heat and water transport have not been rigorously tested for the red soils of southern China.Based on the theory of nonisothermal water-heat coupled transfer, a simulation model, programmed in Visual Basic 6.0, was developed to predict the coupled transfer of water and heat in hilly red soil. A series of soil column experiments for soil water and heat transfer, including soil columns with closed and evaporating top ends, were used to test the simulation model. Results showed that in the closed columns, the temporal and spatial distribution of moisture and heat could be very well predicted by the model,while in the evaporating columns, the simulated soil water contents were somewhat different from the observed ones. In the heat flow equation by Taylor and Lary (1964), the effect of soil water evaporation on the heat flow is not involved, which may be the main reason for the differences between simulated and observed results. The predicted temperatures were not in agreement with the observed one with thermal conductivities calculated by de Vries and Wierenga equations, so that it is suggested that Kh, soil heat conductivity, be multiplied by 8.0 for the first 6.5 h and by 1.2 later on. Sensitivity analysis of soil water and heat coefficients showed that the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, and the water diffusivity, D(θ), had great effects on soil water transport; the variation of soil porosity led to the difference of soil thermal properties, and accordingly changed temperature redistribution,which would affect water redistribution.

  14. Study of Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Using Microscopic Spherical Particle Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Song; LU Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    When variations occur in the water content or dry bulk density of soil,the contact angle hysteresis will affect the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC).The occurrence of the contact angle hysteresis can be divided into slipping and pinning.It is difficult to determine the effect of pinning existence on SWCC by tests.In this study,the effect of contact angle hysteresis on SWCC was analyzed either in the case of no variations in soil dry bulk density with changes in soil water content or no variations in soil water content with changes in soil dry bulk density.In both cases,soil particles were simplified to the spherical particle model.Based on the geometrically mechanic relationship between the particles and connecting liquid bridges,a physical model for predicting the SWCC was derived from the spherical particle model.Adjusting parameters made the model applicable to various soils,that is,the cohesive soil was considered as micron-sized spherical particles.Through the simulations on SWCC test data of sand,silt,clay,and swelling soil,it was confirmed that the physical model possessed good reliability and practicability.Finally,the analysis of rationality of contact angle was performed based on the basic assumptions of the model.

  15. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Models that Describe the Soil Water Retention Curve between Saturation and Oven Dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate eight closed-form unimodal analytical expressions that describe the soil-water retention curve over the complete range of soil water contents. To meet this objective, the eight models were compared in terms of their accuracy (root mean square error, RMSE), ...

  17. EVALUATION OF A SIMULATOR MODEL FOR PREDICTING SOIL-WATER CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED AGMCULTURAL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Igbadun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the Soil Water Characteribtics-Hydraulic Calculator (SWC-HPC model in predicting soi-water agricultural fields in Zaria, Nigeria, was tested and reprted in this study. The goal was to establish the predictability and reliability of the nodel, and hence, its use in determining water characteristics of soils in the stud/ area. Forty soil samples collected from four irrigation sites were used in the valuation. The soils particle size distribution (specifically, percent clay and sand and organic matter contents were inputted into the model to simulate soil moistur; status at saturation, field capacity and wilting point, soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The model outputs were statistically compared with observed parameters from laboratory tests using root mean square error (RMSE, c< ^efficient of variation (CV, modeling efficiency (EF and coefficient of residual mass (CRM. The model accurately simulated the observed bulk densities of the soil tested, satisfactorily simulated soil moisture content at field capacity, and mot lerately simulated moisture content at saturation and wilting point. The model lowever, poorly simulated saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils tested. The SWC-HPC may therefore be used only to simulate soil bulk densities and moistui e status at saturation, field capacity and wilting point in the study locations.

  18. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( http://www.safir4eu.org/ ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...... probes. The probes were installed parallel to the tillage direction at different positions in the potato ridge. The new Daisy 2D model showed to be able to simulate crop growth, water use and soil water distribution fairly well...

  19. Saline Water Irrigation Scheduling Through a Crop-Water-Salinity Production Function and a Soil-Water-Salinity Dynamic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang-Ren; KANG Shao-Zhong; LI Fu-heng; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Using a crop-water-salinity production function and a soil-water-salinity dynamic model, optimal irrigation scheduling was developed to maximize net return per irrigated area. Plot and field experiments were used to obtain the crop water sensitivity index, the salinity sensitivity index, and other parameters. Using data collected during 35 years to calculate the 10-day mean precipitation and evaporation, the variation in soil salinity concentrations and in the yields of winter wheat and cotton were simulated for 49 irrigation scheduling that were combined from 7 irrigation schemes over 3 irrigation dates and 7 salinity concentrations of saline irrigation water (fresh water and 6 levels of saline water). Comparison of predicted results with irrigation data obtained from a large area of the field showed that the model was valid and reliable. Based on the analysis of the investment cost of the irrigation that employed deep tube wells or shallow tube wells, a saline water irrigation schedule and a corresponding strategy for groundwater development and utilization were proposed. For wheat or cotton, if the salinity concentration was higher than 7.0 g L-1 in groundwater, irrigation was needed with only fresh water; if about 5.0 g L-1, irrigation was required twice with fresh water and once with saline water; and if not higher than 3.0 g L-1, irrigation could be solely with saline water.

  20. Revisiting classic water erosion models in drylands: The strong impact of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Bala, Chaudhary V.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Soil erosion and subsequent degradation has been a contributor to societal collapse in the past and is one of the major expressions of desertification in arid regions. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) models soil lost to water erosion as a function of climate erosivity (the degree to which rainfall can result in erosion), topography, soil erodibility, and land use/management. The soil erodibility factor (K) is primarily based upon inherent soil properties (those which change slowly or not at all) such as soil texture and organic matter content, while the cover/management factor (C) is based on several parameters including biological soil crust (BSC) cover. We examined the effect of two more precise indicators of BSC development, chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharides (EPS), upon soil stability, which is closely inversely related to soil loss in an erosion event. To examine the relative influence of these elements of the C factor to the K factor, we conducted our investigation across eight strongly differing soils in the 0.8 million ha Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. We found that within every soil group, chlorophyll a was a moderate to excellent predictor of soil stability (R2 = 0.21-0.75), and consistently better than EPS. Using a simple structural equation model, we explained over half of the variance in soil stability and determined that the direct effect of chlorophyll a was 3?? more important than soil group in determining soil stability. Our results suggest that, holding the intensity of erosive forces constant, the acceleration or reduction of soil erosion in arid landscapes will primarily be an outcome of management practices. This is because the factor which is most influential to soil erosion, BSC development, is also among the most manageable, implying that water erosion in drylands has a solution. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Measurements and modeling of soil water distribution around landmines in natural soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, H.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Marín, G.R.; Hendrickx, J.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Soil water content, dielectric constant, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity affect the performance of many sensors (e.g. GPR, TIR) and therefore the detection of landmines. The most important of these is water content since it directly influences the other properties. We

  2. Measurements and modeling of soil water distribution around landmines in natural soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, H.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Marín, G.R.; Hendrickx, J.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Soil water content, dielectric constant, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity affect the performance of many sensors (e.g. GPR, TIR) and therefore the detection of landmines. The most important of these is water content since it directly influences the other properties. We

  3. Heat and Water Transport in Soils and Across the Soil-Atmosphere Interface: Comparison of Model Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Smits, Kathleen; Mosthaf, Klaus

    Evaporation from the soil surface represents a water flow and transport process in a porous medium that is coupled with free air flow and with heat fluxes in the system. We give an overview of different model concepts that are used to describe this process. These range from non-isothermal two...... lateral and up and downward air flow in the porous medium and vapor diffusion in the pore space play an important role were identified using simulations for a set of scenarios. When comparing cumulative evaporation fluxes from initially wet soil profiles, only small differences between the different...... models were found. The effect of vapor flow in the porous medium on cumulative evaporation could be evaluated using the desorptivity, Sevap, which represents a weighted average of liquid and vapor diffusivity over the range of soil water contents between the soil surface water content and the initial...

  4. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  5. Modelling and technologies for restoration of oil polluted soils and water bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pankratova, N. D.; Khokhlova, L. I.

    2011-01-01

    Development and creation a tool set of modeling (forecast and foresight) and highly environmentally friendly technologies to prevent and eliminate pollution of soil and water areas by xenobiotics (oil, petroleum products, pesticides) are presented.

  6. Modelling soil water retention using support vector machines with genetic algorithm optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sławiński, Cezary; Moreno, Felix; Barna, Gyöngyi; Skierucha, Wojciech; Arrue, José L

    2014-01-01

    This work presents point pedotransfer function (PTF) models of the soil water retention curve. The developed models allowed for estimation of the soil water content for the specified soil water potentials: -0.98, -3.10, -9.81, -31.02, -491.66, and -1554.78 kPa, based on the following soil characteristics: soil granulometric composition, total porosity, and bulk density. Support Vector Machines (SVM) methodology was used for model development. A new methodology for elaboration of retention function models is proposed. Alternative to previous attempts known from literature, the ν-SVM method was used for model development and the results were compared with the formerly used the C-SVM method. For the purpose of models' parameters search, genetic algorithms were used as an optimisation framework. A new form of the aim function used for models parameters search is proposed which allowed for development of models with better prediction capabilities. This new aim function avoids overestimation of models which is typically encountered when root mean squared error is used as an aim function. Elaborated models showed good agreement with measured soil water retention data. Achieved coefficients of determination values were in the range 0.67-0.92. Studies demonstrated usability of ν-SVM methodology together with genetic algorithm optimisation for retention modelling which gave better performing models than other tested approaches.

  7. Modelling Soil Water Retention Using Support Vector Machines with Genetic Algorithm Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lamorski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents point pedotransfer function (PTF models of the soil water retention curve. The developed models allowed for estimation of the soil water content for the specified soil water potentials: –0.98, –3.10, –9.81, –31.02, –491.66, and –1554.78 kPa, based on the following soil characteristics: soil granulometric composition, total porosity, and bulk density. Support Vector Machines (SVM methodology was used for model development. A new methodology for elaboration of retention function models is proposed. Alternative to previous attempts known from literature, the ν-SVM method was used for model development and the results were compared with the formerly used the C-SVM method. For the purpose of models’ parameters search, genetic algorithms were used as an optimisation framework. A new form of the aim function used for models parameters search is proposed which allowed for development of models with better prediction capabilities. This new aim function avoids overestimation of models which is typically encountered when root mean squared error is used as an aim function. Elaborated models showed good agreement with measured soil water retention data. Achieved coefficients of determination values were in the range 0.67–0.92. Studies demonstrated usability of ν-SVM methodology together with genetic algorithm optimisation for retention modelling which gave better performing models than other tested approaches.

  8. Validation of water sorption-based clay prediction models for calcareous soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Soil particle size distribution (PSD), particularly the active clay fraction, mediates soil engineering, agronomic and environmental functions. The tedious and costly nature of traditional methods of determining PSD prompted the development of water sorption-based models for determining the clay...

  9. Estimation of water saturated permeability of soils, using 3D soil tomographic images and pore-level transport phenomena modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sławiński, Cezary; Barna, Gyöngyi

    2014-05-01

    There are some important macroscopic properties of the soil porous media such as: saturated permeability and water retention characteristics. These soil characteristics are very important as they determine soil transport processes and are commonly used as a parameters of general models of soil transport processes used extensively for scientific developments and engineering practise. These characteristics are usually measured or estimated using some statistical or phenomenological modelling, i.e. pedotransfer functions. On the physical basis, saturated soil permeability arises from physical transport processes occurring at the pore level. Current progress in modelling techniques, computational methods and X-ray micro-tomographic technology gives opportunity to use direct methods of physical modelling for pore level transport processes. Physically valid description of transport processes at micro-scale based on Navier-Stokes type modelling approach gives chance to recover macroscopic porous medium characteristics from micro-flow modelling. Water microflow transport processes occurring at the pore level are dependent on the microstructure of porous body and interactions between the fluid and the medium. In case of soils, i.e. the medium there exist relatively big pores in which water can move easily but also finer pores are present in which water transport processes are dominated by strong interactions between the medium and the fluid - full physical description of these phenomena is a challenge. Ten samples of different soils were scanned using X-ray computational microtomograph. The diameter of samples was 5 mm. The voxel resolution of CT scan was 2.5 µm. Resulting 3D soil samples images were used for reconstruction of the pore space for further modelling. 3D image threshholding was made to determine the soil grain surface. This surface was triangulated and used for computational mesh construction for the pore space. Numerical modelling of water flow through the

  10. Applicability of Fractal Models in Estimating Soil Water Retention Characteristics from Particle-Size Distribution Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Soil water retention characteristics are the key information required in hydrological modeling. Frac-tal models provide a practical alternative for indirectly estimating soil water retention characteristics fromparticle-size distribution data. Predictive capabilities of three fractal models, i.e, Tyler-Wheatcraft model,Rieu-Sposito model, and Brooks-Corey model, were fully evaluated in this work using experimental datafrom an international database and literature. Particle-size distribution data were firstly interpolated into20 classes using a van Genuchten-type equation. Fractal dimensions of the tortuous pore wall and the poresurface were then calculated from the detailed particle-size distribution and incorporated as a parameter infractal water retention models. Comparisons between measured and model-estimated water retention cha-racteristics indicated that these three models were applicable to relatively different soil textures and pressurehead ranges. Tyler-Wheatcraft and Brooks-Corey models led to reasonable agreements for both coarse- andmedium-textured soils, while the latter showed applicability to a broader texture range. In contrast, Rieu-Sposito model was more suitable for fine-textured soils. Fractal models produced a better estimation of watercontents at low pressure heads than at high pressure heads.

  11. Inverse modeling of soil water content to estimate the hydraulic properties of a shallow soil and the associated weathered bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourgeois, O.; Bouvier, C.; Brunet, P.; Ayral, P.-A.

    2016-10-01

    Modeling soil water flow requires the knowledge of numerous parameters associated to the water content and the soil hydraulic properties. Direct estimations of those parameters in laboratory require expensive equipment and the obtained parameters are generally not representative at the field scale because of the limitation of core sample size. Indirect methods such as inverse modeling are known to get efficient estimations and are easier to set up and process for large-scale studies. In this study, we investigated the capacity of an inverse modeling procedure to estimate the soil and the bedrock hydrodynamic properties only from in situ soil water content measurements at multiple depths under natural conditions. Multi-objective parameter optimization was performed using the HYDRUS-1D software and an external optimization procedure based on the NSGA-II algorithm. In a midslope shallow soil, water content was monitored at 3 depths, 20, 40, and 60 cm during 12 intense rainfall events, whose amounts ranged between 50 and 250 mm and duration between 1 and 5 days. The vertical profile was considered as 2 layers of soils above a third layer representing the weathered schist rock. This deep layer acted as a deep boundary condition, which features the bedrock permeability and water storage. Each layer was described trough the 6 parameters of the Mualem-van Genuchten formulation. The calibrated parameters appeared to have very low uncertainty while allowing a good modelisation of the observed water content variations. The calibrated saturated water content was close to the laboratory porosity measurements while the saturated hydraulic conductivity showed that the soil was highly permeable, as measured in the field. The inverse modeling approach allowed an estimation of the hydraulic properties of the bedrock layer where no measurement was available. The bedrock layer was found to have a low saturated hydraulic conductivity (model failed sometimes to reproduce the saturation

  12. A Computational Model of Water Migration Flux in Freezing Soil in a Closed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘春晗

    2005-01-01

    A computational model of water migration flux of fine porous soil in frost heave was investigated in a closed system. The model was established with the heat-mass conservation law and from some previous experimental results. Through defining an auxiliary function an empirical function in the water migration flux, which is difficult to get, was replaced. The data needed are about the water content along the soft colunm after test with enough long time. We adopt the test data of sample soil colunms in [1] to verify the model. The result shows it can reflect the real situation on the whole.

  13. A Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics during rainfall-driven conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad

    2016-09-01

    Within this study we propose a stochastic approach to simulate soil water dynamics in the unsaturated zone by using a non-linear, space domain random walk of water particles. Soil water is represented by particles of constant mass, which travel according to the Itô form of the Fokker-Planck equation. The model concept builds on established soil physics by estimating the drift velocity and the diffusion term based on the soil water characteristics. A naive random walk, which assumes all water particles to move at the same drift velocity and diffusivity, overestimated depletion of soil moisture gradients compared to a Richards solver. This is because soil water and hence the corresponding water particles in smaller pore size fractions are, due to the non-linear decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity with decreasing soil moisture, much less mobile. After accounting for this subscale variability in particle mobility, the particle model and a Richards solver performed highly similarly during simulated wetting and drying circles in three distinctly different soils. Both models were in very good accordance during rainfall-driven conditions, regardless of the intensity and type of the rainfall forcing and the shape of the initial state. Within subsequent drying cycles the particle model was typically slightly slower in depleting soil moisture gradients than the Richards model. Within a real-world benchmark, the particle model and the Richards solver showed the same deficiencies in matching observed reactions of topsoil moisture to a natural rainfall event. The particle model performance, however, clearly improved after a straightforward implementation of rapid non-equilibrium infiltration, which treats event water as different types of particles, which travel initially in the largest pore fraction at maximum velocity and experience a slow diffusive mixing with the pre-event water particles. The proposed Lagrangian approach is hence a promising, easy

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Seismic Soil Structure Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of interest. The specific nonlinear soil behavior included in the NLSSI calculation presented in this report is gapping and sliding. Other NLSSI effects are not included in the calculation. The results presented in this report document initial model runs in the linear and nonlinear analysis process. Final comparisons between traditional and advanced SPRA will be presented in the September 30th deliverable.

  15. Bayesian inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: using prior information about the soil hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scharnagl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In situ observations of soil water state variables under natural boundary conditions are often used to estimate field-scale soil hydraulic properties. However, many contributions to the soil hydrological literature have demonstrated that the information content of such data is insufficient to reliably estimate all the soil hydraulic parameters. In this case study, we tested whether prior information about the soil hydraulic properties could help improve the identifiability of the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM parameters. Three different prior distributions with increasing complexity were formulated using the ROSETTA pedotransfer function (PTF with input data that constitutes basic soil information and is readily available in most vadose zone studies. The inverse problem was posed in a formal Bayesian framework and solved using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM algorithm. Synthetic and real-world soil water content data were used to illustrate our approach. The results of this study corroborate and explicate findings previously reported in the literature. Indeed, soil water content data alone contained insufficient information to reasonably constrain all VGM parameters. The identifiability of these soil hydraulic parameters was substantially improved when an informative prior distribution was used with detailed knowledge of the correlation structure among the respective VGM parameters. A biased prior did not distort the results, which inspires confidence in the robustness and effectiveness of the presented method. The Bayesian framework presented in this study can be applied to a wide range of vadose zone studies and provides a blueprint for the use of prior information in inverse modelling of soil hydraulic properties at various spatial scales.

  16. Modeling water uptake by a root system growing in a fixed soil volume

    CERN Document Server

    Albrieu, J L Blengino; Tarzia, D A

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake by roots of plants is examined for an ideal situation, with an approximation that resembles plants growing in pots, meaning that the total soil volume is fixed. We propose a coupled water uptake-root growth model. A one-dimensional model for water flux and water uptake by a root system growing uniformly distributed in the soil is presented, and the Van Genuchten model for the transport of water in soil is used. The governing equations are represented by a moving boundary model for which the root length, as a function of time, is prescribed. The solution of the model is obtained by front-fixing and finite element methods. Model predictions for water uptake by a same plant growing in loam, silt and clay soils are obtained and compared. A sensitivity analysis to determine relative effects on water uptake when system parameters are changed is also presented and shows that the model and numerical method proposed are more sensitive to the root growth rate than to the rest of the parameters. This se...

  17. Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: investigating the effect of different prior distributions of the soil hydraulic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scharnagl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In situ observations of soil water state variables under natural boundary conditions are often used to estimate the soil hydraulic properties. However, many contributions to the soil hydrological literature have demonstrated that the information content of such data is insufficient to accurately and precisely estimate all the soil hydraulic parameters. In this case study, we explored to which degree prior information about the soil hydraulic parameters can help improve parameter identifiability in inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics under natural boundary conditions. We used percentages of sand, silt, and clay as input variables to the ROSETTA pedotransfer function that predicts the parameters in the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM model of the soil hydraulic functions. To derive additional information about the correlation structure of the predicted parameters, which is not readily provided by ROSETTA, we employed a Monte Carlo approach. We formulated three prior distributions that incorporate to different extents the prior information about the VGM parameters derived with ROSETTA. The inverse problem was posed in a formal Bayesian framework and solved using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM algorithm. Synthetic and real-world soil water content data were used to illustrate the approach. The results of this study demonstrated that prior information about the soil hydraulic parameters significantly improved parameter identifiability and that this approach was effective and robust, even in case of biased prior information. To be effective and robust, however, it was essential to use a prior distribution that incorporates information about parameter correlation.

  18. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm−3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m−1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation

  19. Quasi 3D modelling of water flow in the sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; De Pue, Jan; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. Spatial interpolation is required for analyzing the effects of soil hydraulic parameters, soil layer thickness and groundwater level on irrigation management using hydrological models at field scale. We used non-invasive soil sensor, a crop growth (LINGRA-N) and a soil hydrological model (Hydrus-1D) to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. In the first step, the sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models at one soil column. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. In the second step, to predict Ks over the whole field, the spatial distributions of Ks and its relationship between co-located soil ECa measured by a DUALEM-21S sensor were investigated. Measured groundwater levels and soil layer thickness were interpolated using ordinary point kriging (OK) to a 0.5 by 0.5 m in aim of digital elevation maps. In the third step, a quasi 3D modelling approach was conducted using interpolated data as input hydraulic parameter, geometric information and boundary conditions in the integrated model. In addition, three different irrigation scenarios namely current, no irrigation and optimized irrigations were carried out to find out the most efficient irrigation regime. In this approach, detailed field scale maps of soil water stress, water storage and crop yield were produced at each specific time interval to evaluate the best and most efficient distribution of water using standard gun sprinkler irrigation. The results show that the effect of the position of the groundwater level was dominant in soil-water content prediction and associated water stress. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic

  20. Estimating water and nitrate leaching in tree crops using inverse modelled plant and soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Valentin; Kandelous, Maziar; Mairesse, Harmony; Baram, Shahar; Moradi, Ahmad; Pope, Katrin; Hopmans, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is specifically vulnerable in irrigated agricultural lands in California and many other (semi-)arid regions of the world. The routine application of nitrogen fertilizers with irrigation water in California is likely responsible for the high nitrate concentrations in groundwater, underlying much of its main agricultural areas. To optimize irrigation/fertigation practices, it is essential that irrigation and fertilizers are applied at the optimal concentration, place, and time to ensure maximum root uptake and minimize leaching losses to the groundwater. The applied irrigation water and dissolved fertilizer, root nitrate and water uptake interact with soil and root properties in a complex manner that cannot easily be resolved. It is therefore that coupled experimental-modelling studies are required to allow for unravelling of the relevant complexities that result from typical variations of crop properties, soil texture and layering across farmer-managed fields. A combined field monitoring and modelling approach was developed to quantify from simple measurements the leaching of water and nitrate below the root zone. The monitored state variables are soil water content within the root zone, soil matric potential below the root zone, and nitrate concentration in the soil solution. Plant and soil properties of incremented complexity are optimized with the software HYDRUS in an inverse modelling scheme, which allows estimating leaching under constraint of hydraulic principles. Questions of optimal irrigation and fertilization timing can then be addressed using predictive results and global optimization algorithms.

  1. Process-based soil erodibility estimation for empirical water erosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of modeling technologies exist for water erosion prediction each with specific parameters. It is of interest to scrutinize parameters of a particular model from the point of their compatibility with dataset of other models. In this research, functional relationships between soil erodibilit...

  2. Soil moisture and root water uptake in climate models. Research Programme Climate Changes Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.; Wipfler, E.L.; Feddes, R.A.; Meijgaard, van E.; Hurk, van den B.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate simulation of the energy and water balance near the Earth surface is important to improve the performance of regional climate models. We used a detailed ecohydrological model to rank the importance of vegetation and soil factors with respect to evapotranspiration modeling. The results

  3. Soil moisture and root water uptake in climate models. Research Programme Climate Changes Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.; Wipfler, E.L.; Feddes, R.A.; Meijgaard, van E.; Hurk, van den B.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate simulation of the energy and water balance near the Earth surface is important to improve the performance of regional climate models. We used a detailed ecohydrological model to rank the importance of vegetation and soil factors with respect to evapotranspiration modeling. The results

  4. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe...... flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches...... evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation...

  5. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  6. Modelling water fluxes in a pine wood soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Comparison of a water budget and water flow model using different parameter data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2010-02-15

    For modelling complex hydrological problems, realistic models and accurate hydraulic properties are needed. A mechanistic model (HYDRUS-1D) and a compartment model are evaluated for simulating the water balance in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere system using time series of measured water content at several depths in two lysimeters in a podzol soil with Scots Pine vegetation. 10 calibration scenarios are used to investigate the impact of the model type and the number of horizons in the profile on the calibration accuracy. Main results are: (i) with a large number of soil layers, both models describe accurately the water contents at all depths, (II) the number of soil layers is the major factor that controls the quality of the calibration. The compartment model is as an abstracted model and the mechanistic model is our reference model. Drainage values are the considered output. Drainage values simulated by the abstracted model were close to those of the reference model when averaged over a sufficiently long period (about 9 months). This result suggests that drainage values obtained with an abstracted model are reliably when averaged over sufficiently long periods; the abstracted model needs less computational time without an important loss of accuracy.

  7. Sustainable soil and water resources: modelling soil erosion and its impact on the environment

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    With the projected increase in world population to 9 billion by 2050, along with per capita income growth, the demand for land and water resources is going to increase significantly. Conversion of land to intensive agriculture has led to dramatic decreases in plant, animal and insect biodiversity, with approximately 40% of the world’s land surface now covered by croplands and pastures. Intensive agricultural practices cause erosion and lead to transport of soil particles and associated sorbed...

  8. Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs) - Soil water movement and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramopoulos, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Choudhury, B.

    1988-01-01

    A physically based ground hydrology model is presented that includes the processes of transpiration, evaporation from intercepted precipitation and dew, evaporation from bare soil, infiltration, soil water flow, and runoff. Data from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM were used as inputs for off-line tests of the model in four 8 x 10 deg regions, including Brazil, Sahel, Sahara, and India. Soil and vegetation input parameters were caculated as area-weighted means over the 8 x 10 deg gridbox; the resulting hydrological quantities were compared to ground hydrology model calculations performed on the 1 x 1 deg cells which comprise the 8 x 10 deg gridbox. Results show that the compositing procedure worked well except in the Sahel, where low soil water levels and a heterogeneous land surface produce high variability in hydrological quantities; for that region, a resolution better than 8 x 10 deg is needed.

  9. Selection of a suitable model for the prediction of soil water content in north of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeelnejad, L.; Ramezanpour, H.; Seyedmohammadi, H.; Shabanpou, M.

    2015-07-01

    Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Rosetta model were employed to develop pedotransfers functions (PTFs) for soil moisture prediction using available soil properties for northern soils of Iran. The Rosetta model is based on ANN works in a hierarchical approach to predict water retention curves. For this purpose, 240 soil samples were selected from the south of Guilan province, Gilevan region, northern Iran. The data set was divided into two subsets for calibration and testing of the models. The general performance of PTFs was evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean biased error between the observed and predicted values. Results showed that ANN with two hidden layers, Tan-sigmoid and linear functions for hidden and output layers respectively, performed better than the others in predicting soil moisture. In the other hand, ANN can model non-linear functions and showed to perform better than MLR. After ANN, MLR had better accuracy than Rosetta. The developed PTFs resulted in more accurate estimation at matric potentials of 100, 300, 500, 1000, 1500 kPa. Whereas, Rosetta model resulted in slightly better estimation than derived PTFs at matric potentials of 33 kPa. This research can provide the scientific basis for the study of soil hydraulic properties and be helpful for the estimation of soil water retention in other places with similar conditions, too.. (Author)

  10. Selection of a suitable model for the prediction of soil water content in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeelnejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Rosetta model were employed to develop pedotransfers functions (PTFs for soil moisture prediction using available soil properties for northern soils of Iran. The Rosetta model is based on ANN works in a hierarchical approach to predict water retention curves. For this purpose, 240 soil samples were selected from the south of Guilan province, Gilevan region, northern Iran. The data set was divided into two subsets for calibration and testing of the models. The general performance of PTFs was evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and mean biased error between the observed and predicted values. Results showed that ANN with two hidden layers, Tan-sigmoid and linear functions for hidden and output layers respectively, performed better than the others in predicting soil moisture. In the other hand, ANN can model non-linear functions and showed to perform better than MLR. After ANN, MLR had better accuracy than Rosetta. The developed PTFs resulted in more accurate estimation at matric potentials of 100, 300, 500, 1000, 1500 kPa. Whereas, Rosetta model resulted in slightly better estimation than derived PTFs at matric potentials of 33 kPa. This research can provide the scientific basis for the study of soil hydraulic properties and be helpful for the estimation of soil water retention in other places with similar conditions, too.

  11. Evaluation of the Arya-Paris model for estimating water retention characteristics of lignitic mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczko, U.; Gerke, H.H. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Mine soil materials may be viewed as man-made systems that consist of spatially disordered soil and sediment components, which are in an initial stage of soil development. A question is whether methods and approaches developed for natural soils, may also be used for such artificially created soil materials. The applicability of the Arya and Paris pedotransfer function to obtain hydraulic properties from the particle size distribution and bulk density was tested for lignitic mine soil material of the Lusatian Lignite Mining District in eastern Germany. The scaling factor a in this model was evaluated by (I) fitting of the water retention curves estimated with the Arya-Paris model (APM) to measured water retention data and (ii) interpretation of a as a fractal dimension of the pore channels and derivation of this fractal dimension from the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution. The two tested fractal approaches resulted in relatively inaccurate predictions of the water content. The use of a single fitted a value for each depth yielded a values between 1.05 and 1.47. Because of the inability of the APM to account for residual water contents in this sandy soil material, a correction was applied. The cumulative mass fraction fractal method did not improve the estimation in comparison with the retention curves calculated with a constant a value of 1.38. The closest fits with the data were obtained by using a variable a value that depended on the particle size. The accuracy of the predictions of the APM in the higher suction range could be improved (lower mean deviations and root mean square deviations of water content) by using a linear water content-dependent correction factor. Better estimates of water retention in the relatively dry range may be significant for simulation of water budgets of mine spoil sites in the Lusatian Mining District.

  12. Modeling of the dielectric permittivity of porous soil media with water using statistical-physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy B.; Łukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy; Stankiewicz, Krystyna

    2013-04-01

    Radiometric observations with SMOS rely on the Radiation Transfer Equations (RTE) determining the Brightness Temperature (BT) in two linear polarization components (H, V) satisfying Fresnel principle of propagation in horizontally layered target media on the ground. RTE involve variables which bound the equations expressed in Electro-Magnetic (EM) terms of the intensity BT to the physical reality expressed by non-EM variables (Soil Moisture (SM), vegetation indexes, fractional coverage with many different properties, and the boundary conditions like optical thickness, layer definitions, roughness, etc.) bridging the EM domain to other physical aspects by means of the so called tau-omega methods. This method enables joining variety of different valuable models, including specific empirical estimation of physical properties in relation to the volumetric water content. The equations of RTE are in fact expressed by propagation, reflection and losses or attenuation existing on a considered propagation path. The electromagnetic propagation is expressed in the propagation constant. For target media on the ground the dielectric constant is a decisive part for effects of propagation. Therefore, despite of many various physical parameters involved, one must effectively and dominantly rely on the dielectric constant meant as a complex variable. The real part of the dielectric constant represents effect of apparent shortening the propagation path and the refraction, while the imaginary part is responsible for the attenuation or losses. This work engages statistical-physical modeling of soil properties considering the media as a mixture of solid grains, and gas or liquid filling of pores and contact bridges between compounds treated statistically. The method of this modeling provides an opportunity of characterizing the porosity by general statistical means, and is applicable to various physical properties (thermal, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties) which

  13. Modeling Soil Water in the Caatinga Tropical Dry Forest of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C.; Wilcox, B.; Souza, E.; Lima, J. R. D. S.; West, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Caatinga is a tropical dry forest unique to northeastern Brazil. It has a relatively high degree of endism and supports a population of about 20 million subsistence farmers. However, it is poorly understood, under-researched and often over-looked in regards to other Brazilian ecosystems. It is a highly perturbed system that suffers from deforestation, land use change, and may be threatened by climate change. How these perturbations affect hydrology is unknown, but may have implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services and resiliency. Therefore, understanding key hydrological processes is critical, particularly as related to deforestation. In this study, Hydrus 1D, which is based on van Genuchten parameters to describe the soil water curve and Richard's Equation to describe flow in the vadose zone, was used to model soil moisture in the Caatinga ecosystem. The aim was 1) to compare hydraulic characterization between a forested Caatinga site and a deforested pasture site, 2) to analyze inter-annual variability, and 3) to compare with observed soil moisture data. Hydraulic characterization included hydraulic conductivity, infiltration, water content and pressure head trends. Van Genuchten parameters were derived using the Beerkan method, which is based on soil texture, particle distribution, as well as in-situ small-scale infiltration experiments. Observational data included soil moisture and precipitation logged every half-hour from September 2013 to April 2014 to include the dry season and rainy season. It is expected that the forested Caatinga site will have a higher hydraulic conductivity as well as retain higher soil moisture values. These differences may be amplified during the dry season, as water resources become scarce. Deviations between modeled data and observed data will allow for further hypothesis to be proposed, especially those related to soil water repellency. Hence, these results may indicate difference in soil water dynamics between a

  14. Profiles of relative permittivity and electrical conductivity from unsaturated soil water content models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Porretta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of water diffusion in the vadose zone has been implemented for different types of soil textures in order to determine the soil water content (SWC profiles in dependence of depth and time. From these profiles, obtained for different soils, we derived the characteristic electrical parameters, such as relative permittivity (epsilonr and electrical conductivity (sigma, and their variation in time, employing empirical relations available in the scientific literature. The simulation through mathematical models has been performed taking into account different types of soils characterized by the percentage composition of sand, clay and silt in the textural triangle, which provides some physical and chemical properties that affect the water retention in the soil. The resulting simulated profiles of SWC and consequently permittivity and conductivity profiles, span over a certain range of values suggesting the best techniques and the limits in geophysical investigation. Moreover this a-prior knowledge helps in the elaboration and interpretation of permittivity and conductivity data obtained by the measurements. Permittivity and conductivity profiles are particularly useful in some environmental applications when the soil textures are (or supposed to be known as in the typical case of landfill leachate dispersion. Since the soil textures beneath or nearby a disposal waste are characterized by a SWC, the values of (epsilonr and (sigma at various depth can be directly inferred.

  15. A numerical model for water and heat transport in freezing soils with nonequilibrium ice-water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenyang; Tian, Fuqiang; Wu, Jingwei; Huang, Jiesheng; Hu, Hongchang; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2016-09-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model of heat and water transport in freezing soils is developed by assuming that ice-water interfaces are not necessarily in equilibrium. The Clapeyron equation, which is derived from a static ice-water interface using the thermal equilibrium theory, cannot be readily applied to a dynamic system, such as freezing soils. Therefore, we handled the redistribution of liquid water with the Richard's equation. In this application, the sink term is replaced by the freezing rate of pore water, which is proportional to the extent of supercooling and available water content for freezing by a coefficient, β. Three short-term laboratory column simulations show reasonable agreement with observations, with standard error of simulation on water content ranging between 0.007 and 0.011 cm3 cm-3, showing improved accuracy over other models that assume equilibrium ice-water interfaces. Simulation results suggest that when the freezing front is fixed at a specific depth, deviation of the ice-water interface from equilibrium, at this location, will increase with time. However, this deviation tends to weaken when the freezing front slowly penetrates to a greater depth, accompanied with thinner soils of significant deviation. The coefficient, β, plays an important role in the simulation of heat and water transport. A smaller β results in a larger deviation in the ice-water interface from equilibrium, and backward estimation of the freezing front. It also leads to an underestimation of water content in soils that were previously frozen by a rapid freezing rate, and an overestimation of water content in the rest of the soils.

  16. Development and evaluation of the Soil and Water Temperature Model (SWTM) for rural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yonghwan; Koo, Bhon K.

    2017-10-01

    A physically-based energy balance model, the Soil and Water Temperature Model (SWTM), is developed in an effort to improve the soil temperature estimation for Korean rural watersheds or catchments, which are characterized by heterogeneous land-cover types and rugged topography and have many paddy fields retaining surface water during the growing season. The developed model is applied to a small rural catchment in South Korea where soil temperature is measured for two months, July to August 2008, at eight monitoring sites including forest, paddy field, dry field, and natural vegetation area. The degree of agreement between the simulated and observed soil temperature is quite good for the soil surface (RMSE 1.11-3.16 °C, R2 0.80-0.88), except for forests. Although some estimation errors resulting from data deficiency and model structure are observed, SWTM reasonably well simulates the spatial and temporal distribution of soil temperature at the catchment scale by considering the effects of topography, vegetation cover, and hydrological characteristics, especially the existence of surface water. SWTM is well suited for rural watersheds or catchments and expected to contribute to enhancing our understanding of watershed biogeochemical processes and managing the watershed environment.

  17. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( http://www.safir4eu.org/ ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... and sandy loam. An automatic roof was used to exclude the lysimeters from natural precipitation. The potatoes were drip irrigated following different strategies: Fully irrigated (FI), deficit irrigation (65% FI), and partial root zone drying (PRD). Gas exchange measurements were carried as well as sampling...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...

  18. Mapping crop evapotranspiration by integrating vegetation indices into a soil water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Simona; Vanella, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The approach combines the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) derived from vegetation indices (VIs) with the daily soil water balance, as proposed in the FAO-56 paper, to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates of orange trees. The reliability of the approach to detect water stress was also assessed. VIs were simultaneously retrieved from WorldView-2 imagery and hyper-spectral data collected in the field for comparison. ETc estimated were analysed at the light of independent measurements of the same fluxes by an eddy covariance (EC) system located in the study area. The soil water depletion in the root zone of the crop simulated by the model was also validated by using an in situ soil water monitoring. Average overestimate of daily ETc of 6% was obtained from the proposed approach with respect to EC measurements, evidencing a quite satisfactory agreement between data. The model also detected several periods of light stress for the crop under study, corresponding to an increase of the root zone water deficit matching quite well the in situ soil water monitoring. The overall outcomes of this study showed that the FAO-56 approach with remote sensing-derived basal crop coefficient can have the potential to be applied for estimating crop water requirements and enhancing water management strategies in agricultural contexts.

  19. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  20. Quantifying Uncertainty of Pedotransfer Functions on Soil Water Retention and Hydrologic Model Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, Maren; Mai, Juliane; Zacharias, Steffen; Cuntz, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Pedotransfer Functions are often used to estimate soil water retention which is an important physical property of soils and hence quantifying their uncertainty is of high interest. Three independent uncertainties with regard to uncertainty in Pedotransfer Functions are analysed using a probabilistic approach: (1) uncertainty resulting through a limited data base for Pedotransfer Function calibration, (2) uncertainty arising through unknown errors in the measurements which are used for developing the Pedotransfer Functions, and (3) uncertainty arising through the application of the Pedotransfer Functions in a modeling procedure using soil maps with textural classifications. The third uncertainty, arising through the application of the functions to random textural compositions, appears to be the most influential uncertainty in water retention estimates especially for soil classes where sparse data was available for calibration. Furthermore, the bulk density is strongly influencing the variability in the saturated water content and spatial variations in soil moisture. Furthermore, the propagation of the uncertainty arising from random sampling of the calibration data set has a large effect on soil moisture computed with a mesoscale hydrologic model. The evapotranspiration is the most affected hydrologic model output, whereas the discharge shows only minor variation. The analysis of the measurement error remains difficult due to high correlation between the Pedotransfer function coefficients.

  1. A multi-scale ''soil water structure'' model based on the pedostructure concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Braudeau

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Current soil water models do not take into account the internal organization of the soil medium and, a fortiori, the physical interaction between the water film surrounding the solid particles of the soil structure, and the surface charges of this structure. In that sense they empirically deal with the physical soil properties that are all generated from this soil water-structure interaction. As a result, the thermodynamic state of the soil water medium, which constitutes the local physical conditions, namely the pedo-climate, for biological and geo-chemical processes in soil, is not defined in these models. The omission of soil structure from soil characterization and modeling does not allow for coupling disciplinary models for these processes with soil water models. This article presents a soil water structure model, Kamel®, which was developed based on a new paradigm in soil physics where the hierarchical soil structure is taken into account allowing for defining its thermodynamic properties. After a review of soil physics principles which forms the basis of the paradigm, we describe the basic relationships and functionality of the model. Kamel® runs with a set of 15 soil input parameters, the pedohydral parameters, which are parameters of the physically-based equations of four soil characteristic curves that can be measured in the laboratory. For cases where some of these parameters are not available, we show how to estimate these parameters from commonly available soil information using published pedotransfer functions. A published field experimental study on the dynamics of the soil moisture profile following a pounded infiltration rainfall event was used as an example to demonstrate soil characterization and Kamel® simulations. The simulated soil moisture profile for a period of 60 days showed very good agreement with experimental field data. Simulations using input data calculated from soil texture and

  2. ASSESSMENT OF EARLY SEASON AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT THROUGH LAND SURFACE WATER INDEX (LSWI AND SOIL WATER BALANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrasekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to address the early season agriculture drought, by monitoring the surface soil wetness during 2010 cropping seasons in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR based Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and Soil Water Balance (SWB model using inputs from remote sensing and ancillary data were used to monitor early season agriculture drought. During the crop season, investigation was made on LSWI characteristics and its response to the rainfall. It was observed that the Rate of Increase (RoI of LSWI was the highest during the fortnights when the onset of monsoon occurred. The study showed that LSWI is sensitive to the onset of monsoon and initiation of cropping season. The second part of this study attempted to develop a simple book keeping – bucket type – water tight soil water balance model to derive the top 30cm profile soil moisture using climatic, soil and crop parameters as the basic inputs. Soil moisture derived from the model was used to compute the Area Conducive for Sowing (ACS during the sowing window of the cropping season. The soil moisture was validated spatially and temporally with the ground observed soil moisture values. The ACS was compared with the RoI of LSWI. The results showed that the RoI was high during the sowing window whenever the ACS was greater than 50% of the district area. The observation was consistent in all the districts of the two states. Thus the analysis revealed the potential of LSWI for early season agricultural drought management.

  3. A Model of Debris Flow Forecast Based on the Water-Soil Coupling Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojie Zhang; Hongjuan Yang; Fangqiang Wei; Yuhong Jiang; Dunlong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Debris flow forecast is an important means of disaster mitigation. However, the accuracy of the statistics-based debris flow forecast is unsatisfied while the mechanism-based forecast is un-available at the watershed scale because most of existing researches on the initiation mechanism of de-bris flow took a single slope as the main object. In order to solve this problem, this paper developed a model of debris flow forecast based on the water-soil coupling mechanism at the watershed scale. In this model, the runoff and the instable soil caused by the rainfall in a watershed is estimated by the distrib-uted hydrological model (GBHM) and an instable identification model of the unsaturated soil. Because the debris flow is a special fluid composed of soil and water and has a bigger density, the density esti-mated by the runoff and instable soil mass in a watershed under the action of a rainfall is employed as a key factor to identify the formation probability of debris flow in the forecast model. The Jiangjia Gulley, a typical debris flow valley with a several debris flow events each year, is selected as a case study wa-tershed to test this forecast model of debris flow. According the observation data of Dongchuan Debris Flow Observation and Research Station, CAS located in Jiangjia Gulley, there were 4 debris flow events in 2006. The test results show that the accuracy of the model is satisfied.

  4. Modeling two-dimensional water flow and bromide transport in a heterogeneous lignitic mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczko, U.; Gerke, H.H. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Water and solute fluxes in lignitic mine soils and in many other soils are often highly heterogeneous. Here, heterogeneity reflects dumping-induced inclined structures and embedded heterogeneous distributions of sediment mixtures and of lignitic fragments. Such two-scale heterogeneity effects may be analyzed through the application of two-dimensional models for calculating water and solute fluxes. The objective of this study was to gain more insight to what extent spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters contributes to preferential flow at a lignitic mine soil. The simulations pertained to the 'Barenbrucker Hohe' site in Germany where previously water fluxes and applied tracers had been monitored with a cell lysimeter, and from where a soil block had been excavated for detailed two-dimensional characterization of the hydraulic parameters using pedotransfer functions. Based on those previous studies, scenarios with different distributions of hydraulic parameters were simulated. The results show that spatial variability of hydraulic parameters alone can hardly explain the observed flow patterns. The observed preferential flow at the site was probably caused by additional factors such as hydrophobicity, the presence of root channels, anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity, and heterogeneous root distributions. To study the relative importance of these other factors by applying two-dimensional flow models to such sites, the experimental database must be improved. Single-continuum model approaches may be insufficient for such sites.

  5. Structure-Dependent Water-Induced Linear Reduction Model for Predicting Gas Diffusivity and Tortuosity in Repacked and Intact Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Per; Chamindu, Deepagoda; Hamamoto, Shoichiro;

    2013-01-01

    but also on the local-scale variability of these. Different predictive models have been developed to estimate Dp in intact and repacked soil, but clear guidelines for model choice at a given soil state are lacking. In this study, the water-induced linear reduction (WLR) model for repacked soil is made...... adaptive for different soil structure conditions (repacked, intact) by introducing a media complexity factor (Cm) in the dry media term of the model. With Cm = 1, the new structure-dependent WLR (SWLR) model accurately predicted soil-gas diffusivity (Dp/Do, where Do is the gas diffusion coefficient in free...... air) in repacked soils containing between 0 and 54% clay. With Cm = 2.1, the SWLR model on average gave excellent predictions for 290 intact soils, performing well across soil depths, textures, and compactions (dry bulk densities). The SWLR model generally outperformed similar, simple Dp/Do models...

  6. Assessment of structural model and parameter uncertainty with a multi-model system for soil water balance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Thomas; Multsch, Sebastian; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Water for agriculture is strongly limited in arid and semi-arid regions and often of low quality in terms of salinity. The application of saline waters for irrigation increases the salt load in the rooting zone and has to be managed by leaching to maintain a healthy soil, i.e. to wash out salts by additional irrigation. Dynamic simulation models are helpful tools to calculate the root zone water fluxes and soil salinity content in order to investigate best management practices. However, there is little information on structural and parameter uncertainty for simulations regarding the water and salt balance of saline irrigation. Hence, we established a multi-model system with four different models (AquaCrop, RZWQM, SWAP, Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM) to analyze the structural and parameter uncertainty by using the Global Likelihood and Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method. Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM and SWAP were set up with multiple sets of different implemented functions (e.g. matric and osmotic stress for root water uptake) which results in a broad range of different model structures. The simulations were evaluated against soil water and salinity content observations. The posterior distribution of the GLUE analysis gives behavioral parameters sets and reveals uncertainty intervals for parameter uncertainty. Throughout all of the model sets, most parameters accounting for the soil water balance show a low uncertainty, only one or two out of five to six parameters in each model set displays a high uncertainty (e.g. pore-size distribution index in SWAP and Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM). The differences between the models and model setups reveal the structural uncertainty. The highest structural uncertainty is observed for deep percolation fluxes between the model sets of Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM (~200 mm) and RZWQM (~500 mm) that are more than twice as high for the latter. The model sets show a high variation in uncertainty intervals for deep percolation as well, with an interquartile range (IQR) of

  7. On the treatment of evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and aquifer recharge in monthly water balance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several two- to six-parameter regional water balance models are examined by using 50-year records of monthly streamflow at 10 sites in New Jersey. These models include variants of the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the Palmer model, and the more recent Thomas abcd model. Prediction errors are relatively similar among the models. However, simulated values of state variables such as soil moisture storage differ substantially among the models, and fitted parameter values for different models sometimes indicated an entirely different type of basin response to precipitation.-from Author

  8. A land surface soil moisture data assimilation framework in consideration of the model subgrid-scale heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is well known and widely used in land data assimilation for its high precision and simple operation. The land surface models used as the forecast operator in a land data assimilation system are usually designed to consider the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing. To neglect their effects could lead to some errors in soil moisture assimilation. The dual EnKF method is employed in soil moisture data assimilation to build a soil moisture data as- similation framework based on the NCAR Community Land Model version 2.0 (CLM 2.0) in considera- tion of the effects of the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing: Liquid volumetric soil moisture content in a given fraction is assimilated through the state filter process, while solid volumetric soil moisture content in the same fraction and solid/liquid volumetric soil moisture in the other fractions are optimized by the parameter filter. Preliminary experiments show that this dual EnKF-based assimilation framework can assimilate soil moisture more effectively and precisely than the usual EnKF-based assimilation framework without considering the model subgrid-scale heteroge- neity and soil water thawing and freezing. With the improvement of soil moisture simulation, the soil temperature-simulated precision can be also improved to some extent.

  9. A land surface soil moisture data assimilation framework in consideration of the model subgrid-scale heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN XiangJun; XIE ZhengHui

    2008-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is well known and widely used in land data assimilation for its high precision and simple operation. The land surface models used as the forecast operator in a land data assimilation system are usually designed to consider the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing. To neglect their effects could lead to some errors in soil moisture assimilation.The dual EnKF method is employed in soil moisture data assimilation to build a soil moisture data assimilation framework based on the NCAR Community Land Model version 2.0 (CLM 2.0) in consideration of the effects of the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing: Liquid volumetric soil moisture content in a given fraction is assimilated through the state filter process,while solid volumetric soil moisture content in the same fraction and solid/liquid volumetric soil moisture in the other fractions are optimized by the parameter filter. Preliminary experiments show that this dual EnKF-based assimilation framework can assimilate soil moisture more effectively and precisely than the usual EnKF-based assimilation framework without considering the model subgrid-scale heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing. With the improvement of soil moisture simulation,the soil temperature-simulated precision can be also improved to some extent.

  10. Modelling the water balance of irrigated fields in tropical floodplain soils using Hydrus-1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebech; Frankl, Amaury; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Tilahun, Seifu; Alamirew, Tena; Adgo, Enyew; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of evaporation, transpiration and deep percolation is crucial in irrigated agriculture and the sustainable management of water resources. Here, the Hydrus-1D process-based numerical model was used to estimate the actual transpiration, soil evaporation and deep percolation from irrigated fields of floodplain soils. Field experiments were conducted from Dec 2015 to May 2016 in a small irrigation scheme (50 ha) called 'Shina' located in the Lake Tana floodplains of Ethiopia. Six experimental plots (three for onion and three for maize) were selected along a topographic transect to account for soil and groundwater variability. Irrigation amount (400 to 550 mm during the growing period) was measured using V-notches installed at each plot boundary and daily groundwater levels were measured manually from piezometers. There was no surface runoff observed in the growing period and rainfall was measured using a manual rain gauge. All daily weather data required for the evapotranspiration calculation using Pen Man Monteith equation were collected from a nearby metrological station. The soil profiles were described for each field to include the vertical soil heterogeneity in the soil water balance simulations. The soil texture, organic matter, bulk density, field capacity, wilting point and saturated moisture content were measured for all the soil horizons. Soil moisture monitoring at 30 and 60 cm depths was performed. The soil hydraulic parameters for each horizon was estimated using KNN pedotransfer functions for tropical soils and were effectively fitted using the RETC program (R2= 0.98±0.011) for initial prediction. A local sensitivity analysis was performed to select and optimize the most important hydraulic parameters for soil water flow in the unsaturated zone. The most sensitive parameters were saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), saturated moisture content (θs) and pore size distribution (n). Inverse modelling using Hydrus-1D further optimized

  11. A coupled model of soil water-heat-solute movement under the mulched drip irrigation condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Gao, L.; Hu, H.

    2010-12-01

    : The mulched drip irrigation (MDI), first developed in northwestern part of China (Xinjiang Province) in the cotton field in 1996, can obtain higher yield while at the lower cost of water consumption and thus becomes popular rapidly. However, it has the potential risk of salinizing the arable soil. Also, plastic film can alter the energy balance at the ground surface and invoke the regime shifting of soil heat transfer. It is, therefore, necessary to simulate the inter-related movement of water, heat, and dissolvable solute in the soil under the MDI condition for the purpose of sustainable agricultural production as well as of climate change issue. With the different boundary condition and irrigation rate, the transportation and distribution features of water-heat-salt under the MDI condition are significantly different from those under the other irrigation methods. The existing tools such as HYDRUS and VS2DH(T) could not set up the special boundary condition relevant to MDI, e.g., the moving ponded area. A new two-dimensional numerical model of Richard’s equation and Convection-Dispersion equations was developed which coupled soil water, solute, and heat together. For the homogenous and isotropic porous media, the soil water-heat-solute movement under the MDI condition is considered as 2D problem. The Richards and solute convection-diffusive equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) through spatial semi-discretization, and so do the corresponding boundary conditions. The resultant ODEs are solved using a state-of-the-art solver, CVODE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The model is validated against the numerical examples as well as the field data. The results show the high numerical efficiency, the high simulation accuracy, and the flexibility of the model to mimic changing boundary conditions. Key words: numerical model, Richard’s equation, Convection-Diffusive equation, CVODE

  12. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per;

    2016-01-01

    sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the 24 applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present validation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.......93 for 207 soils, widely varying in texture and organic carbon content. In addition the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms...... reasonably well, distinct differences were observed between physical and empirical models and due to the different degrees of freedom of the model equations. There were also considerable differences in model performance for the adsorption and desorption data. Regression analysis relating model parameters...

  13. 21st century hydrological modeling for optimizing traditional soil and water conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien; Garba, Maman; Sabiou, Mahaman; Al-Barri, Bashar; Cornelis, Wim

    2017-04-01

    In order to increase dryland productivity, soil and water conservation practices have received renewed attention, leading to their massive implementation in marginal drylands. However, versatile tools to evaluate their efficiency under a wide range of conditions are often lacking. This study focuses on semi-arid Niger, where as a result of growing population pressure and severe soil erosion, farmers increasingly rely on degraded lands for millet production. The adverse rainfall distribution and imbalanced rainfall partitioning over the rootzone of these degraded lands calls for sustainable land management strategies that are water resource efficient. We therefore evaluated the soil-water balance of promising Nigerien Water and Soil Conservation (WSC) techniques (i.e., zaï pits, demi-lune microcatchments and scarification with standing crop residue) and their impact on millet yield by means of an in-situ field experiment on degraded laterite soil classified as Plinthosol with a 1% slope. We also applied a fully coupled 3D surface-subsurface hydrological model based on the Richards' and the Saint Venant equations to further improve promising WSC techniques. All WSC practices received the same amount of fertilizer and were compared to two control practices, one with and one without fertilizer. Soil-water content was recorded with a neutron probe till 105 cm depth and runoff by means of a cemented gutter directing runoff water with a multi-pipe divisor into a collector drum. WSC techniques proved to significantly reduce runoff with overall runoff coefficients being reduced from 25% (control practice) to 5-10%. Consequently, significantly more water was stored inside the catchments of the zaï pits and demi-lunes. With the scarification treatment, no considerable differences in soil-water storage were found with the control. On the other hand, WSC practices had little impact on soil evaporation, which was only 12% of rainfall by the self-mulching soil. Crop

  14. Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: investigating the effect of different prior distributions of the soil hydraulic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Scharnagl; J.A. Vrugt; H. Vereecken; M. Herbst

    2011-01-01

    In situ observations of soil water state variables under natural boundary conditions are often used to estimate the soil hydraulic properties. However, many contributions to the soil hydrological literature have demonstrated that the information content of such data is insufficient to accurately and

  15. Comparing the Goodness of Different Statistical Criteria for Evaluating the Soil Water Infiltration Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirzaee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The infiltration process is one of the most important components of the hydrologic cycle. Quantifying the infiltration water into soil is of great importance in watershed management. Prediction of flooding, erosion and pollutant transport all depends on the rate of runoff which is directly affected by the rate of infiltration. Quantification of infiltration water into soil is also necessary to determine the availability of water for crop growth and to estimate the amount of additional water needed for irrigation. Thus, an accurate model is required to estimate infiltration of water into soil. The ability of physical and empirical models in simulation of soil processes is commonly measured through comparisons of simulated and observed values. For these reasons, a large variety of indices have been proposed and used over the years in comparison of infiltration water into soil models. Among the proposed indices, some are absolute criteria such as the widely used root mean square error (RMSE, while others are relative criteria (i.e. normalized such as the Nash and Sutcliffe (1970 efficiency criterion (NSE. Selecting and using appropriate statistical criteria to evaluate and interpretation of the results for infiltration water into soil models is essential because each of the used criteria focus on specific types of errors. Also, descriptions of various goodness of fit indices or indicators including their advantages and shortcomings, and rigorous discussions on the suitability of each index are very important. The objective of this study is to compare the goodness of different statistical criteria to evaluate infiltration of water into soil models. Comparison techniques were considered to define the best models: coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error (RMSE, efficiency criteria (NSEI and modified forms (such as NSEjI, NSESQRTI, NSElnI and NSEiI. Comparatively little work has been carried out on the meaning and

  16. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  17. How do alternative root water uptake models affect the inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and the prediction of evapotranspiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Salima-Sultana, Daisy; Selle, Benny; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Soil water extraction by roots affects the dynamics and distribution of soil moisture and controls transpiration, which influences soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedback processes. Consequently, root water uptake requires close attention when predicting water fluxes across the land surface, e.g., in agricultural crop models or in land surface schemes of weather and climate models. The key parameters for a successful simultaneous simulation of soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration in Richards equation-based models are the soil hydraulic parameters, which describe the shapes of the soil water retention curve and the soil hydraulic conductivity curve. As measurements of these parameters are expensive and their estimation from basic soil data via pedotransfer functions is rather inaccurate, the values of the soil hydraulic parameters are frequently inversely estimated by fitting the model to measured time series of soil water content and evapotranspiration. It is common to simulate root water uptake and transpiration by simple stress functions, which describe from which soil layer water is absorbed by roots and predict when total crop transpiration is decreased in case of soil water limitations. As for most of the biogeophysical processes simulated in crop and land surface models, there exist several alternative functional relationships for simulating root water uptake and there is no clear reason for preferring one process representation over another. The error associated with alternative representations of root water uptake, however, contributes to structural model uncertainty and the choice of the root water uptake model may have a significant impact on the values of the soil hydraulic parameters estimated inversely. In this study, we use the agroecosystem model system Expert-N to simulate soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration at three agricultural field sites located in two contrasting regions in Southwest Germany (Kraichgau, Swabian Alb). The Richards

  18. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus; Smits, Kathleen M.; Helmig, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches on a theoretical level by identifying the underlying simplifications that are made for the different compartments of the system: porous medium, free flow and their interface, and by discussing how processes not explicitly considered are parameterized. Simplifications can be grouped into three sets depending on whether lateral variations in vertical fluxes are considered, whether flow and transport in the air phase in the porous medium are considered, and depending on how the interaction at the interface between the free flow and the porous medium is represented. The consequences of the simplifications are illustrated by numerical simulations in an accompanying paper.

  19. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-01-01

    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  20. A thermal inertia model for soil water content retrieval using thermal and multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, A.; Minacapilli, M.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; D'Asaro, F.

    2010-10-01

    Soil moisture is difficult to quantify because of its high spatial variability. Consequently, great efforts have been undertaken by the research community to develop practical remote sensing approaches to estimate the spatial distribution of surface soil moisture over large areas and with high spatial detail. Many methodologies have been developed using remote sensing data acquiring information in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Conventional field measurement techniques (including gravimetric and time-domain reflectometry) are point-based, involve on-site operators, are time expensive and, in any case, do not provide exhaustive information on the spatial distribution of soil moisture because it strongly depends on pedology, soil roughness and vegetation cover. The technological development of imaging sensors acquiring in the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR), renewed the research interest in setting up remote sensed based techniques aimed to retrieve soil water content variability in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SPA). In this context different approaches have been widely applied at regional scale throughout synthetic indexes based on VIS, NIR and TIR spectral bands. A laboratory experiment has been carried out to verify a physically based model based on the remote estimation of the soil thermal inertia, P, to indirectly retrieve the soil surface water content, θ. The paper shows laboratory retrievals using simultaneously a FLIR A320G thermal camera, a six bands customized TETRACAM MCA II (Multiple Camera Array) multispectral camera working in the VIS/NIR part of the spectrum. Using these two type of sensors a set of VIS/NIR and TIR images were acquired as the main input dataset to retrieve the spatial variability of the thermal inertia values. Moreover, given that the accuracy of the proposed approach strongly depends on the accurate estimation of the soil thermal conductivity, a Decagon Device KD2 PRO thermal

  1. UNSAT-H Version 2. 0: Unsaturated soil water and heat flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Jones, T.L.

    1990-04-01

    This report documents UNSAT-H Version 2.0, a model for calculating water and heat flow in unsaturated media. The documentation includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plant transpiration, and the code listing. Waste management practices at the Hanford Site have included disposal of low-level wastes by near-surface burial. Predicting the future long-term performance of any such burial site in terms of migration of contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently used to meet this need is UNSAT-H. This model was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess water dynamics of near-surface, waste-disposal sites at the Hanford Site. The code is primarily used to predict deep drainage as a function of such environmental conditions as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H is also used to simulate the effects of various practices to enhance isolation of wastes. 66 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. [Modeling research about bioremediation of organic pollutants in soil-water-microbes system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Cui, G; Xia, Z

    2001-03-01

    A new Theory, organic pollutant sequestration inside soil particles, was applied in the research in order to explain the persistence of residual chemicals in remediation sites. Based on this theory, a mathematical model which simulates organic pollutant bioremediation process in soil-water-microbes system was developed. In the model, diffusion is represented by Fick's second law, reversible sorption-desorption by a linear isotherm, irreversible sequestration by a pseudo-first order kinetics, and biodegradation by Monod kinetics. Model results match successfully with experimental data. Model simulations are performed in the study. It is noteworthy that the mathematical model will be useful in quantitatively predicting the time and degradation extend of organic pollutant in remediation sites.

  3. Modeling of soil water infiltration with rainfall simulator in different agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais E. M. dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare models for predicting soil water infiltration rate and erosive rates using a rainfall simulator in different systems of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivation. The evaluated mathematical models were: Kostiakov, Kostiakov-Lewis, Green-Ampt and Horton. Infiltration tests were carried out considering six treatments: bean cultivated on contour with rock barriers spaced at 0.5 m between crop rows (BC1; bean cultivated on contour with rock barriers spaced at 1.0 m between crop rows (BC2; bean cultivated downslope (BDS; bean cultivated on contour with mulch (BCM; bare soil (BS and soil under natural cover (NC. Four replicates were considered, totaling 24 field tests. Kostiakov-Lewis's equation showed the lowest values of standard error. Soil water infiltration rate was equal to 53.3 mm h-1 in the natural vegetation treatment and to 9.49 mm h-1 in the downslope treatment. Surface roughness and the time of beginning of surface runoff were significantly higher for the conditions with mulch cover.

  4. Simulation of water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a heavy clay soil using the MACRO model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Besien

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dual-porosity MACRO model has been used to investigate methods of reducing leaching of isoproturon from a structured heavy clay soil. The MACRO model was applied to a pesticide leaching data-set generated from a plot scale experiment on a heavy clay soil at the Oxford University Farm, Wytham, England. The field drain was found to be the most important outflow from the plot in terms of pesticide removal. Therefore, this modelling exercise concentrated on simulating field drain flow. With calibration of field-saturated and micropore saturated hydraulic conductivity, the drain flow hydrographs were simulated during extended periods of above average rainfall, with both the hydrograph shape and peak flows agreeing well. Over the whole field season, the observed drain flow water budget was well simulated. However, the first and second drain flow events after pesticide application were not simulated satisfactorily. This is believed to be due to a poor simulation of evapotranspiration during a period of low rainfall around the pesticide application day. Apart from an initial rapid drop in the observed isoproturon soil residue, the model simulated isoproturon residues during the 100 days after pesticide application reasonably well. Finally, the calibrated model was used to show that changes in agricultural practice (deep ploughing, creating fine consolidated seed beds and organic matter applications could potentially reduce pesticide leaching to surface waters by up to 60%.

  5. Numerical simulation of landslide-generated waves using a soil-water coupling smoothed particle hydrodynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuanqi; An, Yi; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Qingquan; Cao, Zhixian

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the generation of a landslide-induced impulse wave with a newly-developed soil-water coupling model in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework. The model includes an elasto-plastic constitutive model for soil, a Navier-Stokes equation based model for water, and a bilateral coupling model at the interface. The model is tested with simulated waves induced by a slow and a fast landslide. Good agreement is obtained between simulation results and experimental data. The generated wave and the deformation of the landslide body can both be resolved satisfactorily. All parameters in our model have their physical meaning in soil mechanics and can be obtained from conventional soil mechanics experiments directly. The influence of the dilatancy angle of soil shows that the non-associated flow rule must be selected, and the value of the dilatancy angle should not be chosen arbitrarily, if it is not determined with relative experiments.

  6. Catchment hydrological change from soil degradation: A model study for assessing urbanization on the terrestrial water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, L.; Duffy, C.

    2015-12-01

    It is commonly held that land cover and land use changes from agriculture and urbanization impact the terrestrial water cycle primarily through changes in the land surface and canopy energy balance. Another, and in some cases more important factor is the role that landuse changes have on soil structure, compaction, and loss of carbon on hydrologic performance. The consequential change on soil properties, such as aggregation of soil particles, reduction of voids, impacts on matrix conductivity and macropore fractions, alter the hydrological processes in a watershed. Macropores promote rapid water and gas movement under wet conditions while the soil matrix preserves the water-holding capacity necessary for plant growth. The physically-based Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) simulates water movement in soil with Richard's equation using an effective matrix-macropore conductivity. The model is able to capture the preferential flow and soil water storage in vertical and horizontal directions. Soil degradation leads to a reduction of the macropore fraction with dramatic changes in overall hydrologic performance under urban development and agricultural landuse practices. The effects on the terrestrial water cycle in the catchment reduce infiltration, soil water availability, recharge and subsurface baseflow to streams, while increasing heavy surface runoff and erosion. The Lancaster area and surrounding watershed in eastern Pennsylvania, USA is a benchmark watershed comprised of urban (24%), agricultural (58%) and forest lands (18%) respectively. After parameter estimation from national geospatial soils, landuse and historical climate reanalysis, three landuse scenarios were developed. 1) Pre-development forest landuse (urban landuse (1700-1900), (3) urban-suburban development (1900-pres.). The watershed model was used to evaluate hydrologic changes due to landuse change and soil degradation. The effects of macropore reduction and compaction on hydrologic

  7. Incorporation of water vapor transfer in the JULES land surface model: Implications for key soil variables and land surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Gonzalez, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Luigi Vidale, Pier; Braud, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    This study focuses on the mechanisms underlying water and heat transfer in upper soil layers, and their effects on soil physical prognostic variables and the individual components of the energy balance. The skill of the JULES (Joint UK Environment Simulator) land surface model (LSM) to simulate key soil variables, such as soil moisture content and surface temperature, and fluxes such as evaporation, is investigated. The Richards equation for soil water transfer, as used in most LSMs, was updated by incorporating isothermal and thermal water vapor transfer. The model was tested for three sites representative of semiarid and temperate arid climates: the Jornada site (New Mexico, USA), Griffith site (Australia), and Audubon site (Arizona, USA). Water vapor flux was found to contribute significantly to the water and heat transfer in the upper soil layers. This was mainly due to isothermal vapor diffusion; thermal vapor flux also played a role at the Jornada site just after rainfall events. Inclusion of water vapor flux had an effect on the diurnal evolution of evaporation, soil moisture content, and surface temperature. The incorporation of additional processes, such as water vapor flux among others, into LSMs may improve the coupling between the upper soil layers and the atmosphere, which in turn could increase the reliability of weather and climate predictions.

  8. Modeling relationships between water table depth and peat soil carbon loss in Southeast Asian plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Goodman, Lael K.; May-Tobin, Calen C.

    2015-07-01

    Plantation-associated drainage of Southeast Asian peatlands has accelerated in recent years. Draining exposes the upper peat layer to oxygen, leading to elevated decomposition rates and net soil carbon losses. Empirical studies indicate positive relationships between long-term water table (WT) depth and soil carbon loss rate in peatlands. These correlations potentially enable using WT depth as a proxy for soil carbon losses from peatland plantations. Here, we compile data from published research assessing WT depth and carbon balance in tropical plantations on peat. We model net carbon loss from subsidence studies, as well as soil respiration (heterotrophic and total) from closed chamber studies, as a function of WT depth. WT depth across all 12 studies and 59 sites is 67 ± 20 cm (mean ± standard deviation). Mean WT depth is positively related to net carbon loss, as well as soil respiration rate. Our models explain 45% of net carbon loss variation and 45-63% of soil respiration variation. At a 70 cm WT depth, the subsidence model suggests net carbon loss of 20 tC ha-1 yr-1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22 tC ha-1 yr-1) for plantations drained for >2 yr. Closed chamber-measured total soil respiration at this depth is 20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 17-24 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1) while heterotrophic respiration is 17 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 14-20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1), ˜82% of total respiration. While land use is not a significant predictor of soil respiration, WT depths are greater at acacia (75 ± 16 cm) than oil palm (59 ± 15 cm) sample sites. Improved spatio-temporal sampling of the full suite of peat soil carbon fluxes—including fluvial carbon export and organic fertilizer inputs—will clarify multiple mechanisms leading to carbon loss and gain, supporting refined assessments of the global warming potential of peatland drainage.

  9. Modelling water flow and seasonal soil moisture dynamics in analluvial groundwater-fed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Joris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions occur in riparian wetlands between groundwater, surface water and climatic conditions. Knowledge of the hydrology of these systems is necessary to understand their functioning and their value and models are a useful and probably essential tool to capture their hydrological complexity. In this study, a 2D-model describing saturated-unsaturated water flow is applied to a transect through a groundwater-fed riparian wetland located along the middle reach of the river Dijle. The transect has high levees close to the river and a depression further into the floodplain. Scaling factors are introduced to describe the variability of soil hydraulic properties along the transect. Preliminary model calculations for one year show a good agreement between model calculations and measurements and demonstrate the capability of the model to capture the internal groundwater dynamics. Seasonal variations in soil moisture are reproduced well by the model thus translating external hydrological boundary conditions to root zone conditions. The model proves to be a promising tool for assessing effects of changes in hydrological boundary conditions on vegetation type distribution and to gain more insight in the highly variable internal flow processes of riparian wetlands. Keywords: riparian wetland,eco-hydrology, upward seepage, floodplain hydrology

  10. Quantifying Responses of Winter Wheat Physiological Processes to Soil Water Stress for Use in Growth Simulation Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ji-Chao; CAO Wei-Xing; ZHANG Jia-Bao; JIANG Dong; FENG Jie

    2004-01-01

    A deep understanding of crop-water eco-physiological relations is the basis for quantifying plant physiological responses to soil water stress. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the winter wheat crop-water relations under both drought and waterlogging conditions in two sequential growing seasons from 2000 to 2002, and then the data were used to develop and validate models simulating the responses of winter wheat growth to drought and waterlogging stress. The experiment consisted of four treatments, waterlogging (keep 1 to 2 cm water layer depth above soil surface), control (70%-80% field capacity), light drought (40%-50% field capacity) and severe drought (30%-40% field capacity) with six replicates at five stages in the 2000-2001 growth season. Three soil water content treatments (waterlogging, control and drought) with two replicates were designed in the 2001-2002 growth season. Waterlogging and control treatments are the same as in the 2000-2001 growth season. For the drought treatment, no water was supplied and the soil moisture decreased from field capacity to wilting point. Leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, predawn leaf water potential, soil water potential, soil water content and dry matter weight of individual organs were measured. Based on crop-water eco-physiological relations, drought and waterlogging stress factors for winter wheat growth simulation model were put forward. Drought stress factors integrated soil water availability, the sensitivity of different development stages and the difference between physiological processes (such as photosynthesis, transpiration and partitioning). The quantification of waterlogging stress factor considered different crop species, soil water status, waterlogging days and sensitivity at different growth stages. Data sets from the pot experiments revealed favorable performance reliability for the simulation sub-models with the drought and waterlogging stress factors.

  11. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Zhang, Shao-long; Zhang, Meng-jie; Li, Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2) area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 0.12×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min), the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 4.91×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  12. Data assimilation in optimizing and integrating soil and water quality water model predictions at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relevant data about subsurface water flow and solute transport at relatively large scales that are of interest to the public are inherently laborious and in most cases simply impossible to obtain. Upscaling in which fine-scale models and data are used to predict changes at the coarser scales is the...

  13. Testing different decoupling coefficients with measurements and models of contrasting canopies and soil water conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Goldberg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different approaches for the calculation of the well established decoupling coefficient Ω are compared using measurements at three experimental sites (Tharandt – spruce forest, Grillenburg and Melpitz – grass and simulations from the soil-vegetation boundary layer model HIRVAC. These investigations aimed to quantify differences between the calculation routines regarding their ability to describe the vegetation-atmosphere coupling of grass and forest with and without water stress.

    The model HIRVAC used is a vertically highly resolved atmospheric boundary layer model, which includes vegetation. It is coupled with a single-leaf gas exchange model to simulate physiologically based reactions of different vegetation types to changing atmospheric conditions. A multilayer soil water module and a functional parameterisation are the base in order to link the stomata reaction of the gas exchange model to the change of soil water.

    The omega factor was calculated for the basic formulation according to McNaughton and Jarvis (1983 and three modifications. To compare measurements and simulations for the above mentioned spruce and grass sites, the summer period 2007 as well as a dry period in June 2000 were used. Additionally a developing water stress situation for three forest canopies (spruce, pine and beech and for a grass site was simulated. The results showed large differences between the different omega approaches which depend on the vegetation type and the soil moisture.

    Between the omega values, which were calculated by the used approach, the ranking was always the same not only for the measurements but also for the adapted simulations. The lowest values came from the first modification including doubling factors and summands in all parts of omega equation in relation to the original approach. And the highest values were calculated with the second modification missing one doubling factor in the denominator of the

  14. Evaluation of the Langmuir model in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool for high soil phosphorus condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus adsorption by a water treatment residual was tested through Langmuir and linear sorption isotherms and applied in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The objective of this study was to use laboratory and greenhouse experimental phosphorus data to evaluate the performance of a modi...

  15. Soil and water assessment tool model calibration results for different catchment sizes in poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojski, Mieczyslaw S; Niedbala, Jerzy; Orlinska-Wozniak, Paulina; Wilk, Pawel; Gębala, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The watershed model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) can be used to implement the requirements of international agreements that Poland has ratified. Among these requirements are the establishment of catchment-based, rather than administrative-based, management plans and spatial information systems. Furthermore, Polish law requires that management of water resources be based on catchment systems. This article explores the use of the SWAT model in the implementation of catchment-based water management in Poland. Specifically, the impacts of basin size on calibration and on the results of the simulation process were analyzed. SWAT was set up and calibrated for three Polish watersheds of varying sizes: (i) Gąsawka, a small basin (>593.7 km), (ii) Rega, a medium-sized basin (2766.8 km), and (iii) Warta, a large basin (54,500 km) representing about 17.4% of Polish territory. The results indicated that the size of the catchment has an impact on the calibration process and simulation outputs. Several factors influenced by the size of the catchment affected the modeling results. Among these factors are the number of measurement points within the basin and the length of the measuring period and data quality at checkpoints as determined by the position of the measuring station. It was concluded that the SWAT model is a suitable tool for the implementation of catchment-based water management in Poland regardless of watershed size. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Study on Soil and Water Conservation Benefit Models of Grassland Ecosystem-A Case Study on Jianou Mountain Grassland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lian-qi; WANG Yu-biao; ZHAO Qing-liang

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanism of grassland ecosystem's soil and water conservation function on the basis of two years experiment and inspection in Jianou mountain grassland ecosystem experiment station, Fujian province. After analysis on the data of soil erosion and runoff coefficient, relations between eroded soil. runoff and slope gradient, we establish soil and water conservation benefit models. According to the models, experiment and inspection results, some proposals have been made to decrease the area of soil erosion in Fujian mountainous areas, e. g. , optimizing land use structure in mountainous areas, taking suitable measures for local condition, closing hills for grassland development, accelerating restoration and raising quality of mountain grassland ecosystem, strengthening scientific and technological input, breeding the grass species that are suitable to local physical geographic condition.

  17. Evaluation of Two Soil Water Redistribution Models (Finite Difference and Hourly Cascade Approach) Through The Comparison of Continuous field Sensor-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, R.; Stockle, C. O.; Huggins, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water storage and dynamics are of critical importance for a variety of processes in terrestrial ecosystems, including agriculture. Many of those systems are under significant pressure in terms of water availability and use. Therefore, assessing alternative scenarios through hydrological models is an increasingly valuable exercise. Soil water holding capacity is defined by the concepts of soil field capacity and plant available water, which are directly related to soil physical properties. Both concepts define the energy status of water in the root system and closely interact with plant physiological processes. Furthermore, these concepts play a key role in the environmental transport of nutrients and pollutants. Soil physical parameters (e.g. saturated hydraulic conductivity, total porosity and water release curve) are required as input for field-scale soil water redistribution models. These parameters are normally not easy to measure or monitor, and estimation through pedotransfer functions is often inadequate. Our objectives are to improve field-scale hydrological modeling by: (1) assessing new undisturbed methodologies for determining important soil physical parameters necessary for model inputs; and (2) evaluating model outputs, making a detailed specification of soil parameters and the particular boundary condition that are driving water movement under two contrasting environments. Soil physical properties (saturated hydraulic conductivity and determination of water release curves) were quantified using undisturbed laboratory methodologies for two different soil textural classes (silt loam and sandy loam) and used to evaluate two soil water redistribution models (finite difference solution and hourly cascade approach). We will report on model corroboration results performed using in situ, continuous, field measurements with soil water content capacitance probes and digital tensiometers. Here, natural drainage and water redistribution were monitored

  18. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  19. Coupled Soil Water and Heat Transport Near the Land Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions - Multi-Domain Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak; Yang, Zhenlei

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and simulating coupled water and heat transfer appropriately in the shallow subsurface is of vital significance for accurate prediction of soil evaporation that would improve the coupling between land surface and atmosphere, which consequently could enhance the reliability of weather as well as climate forecast. The theory of Philip and de Vries (1957), accounting for water vapor diffusion only, was considered physically incomplete and consequently extended and improved by several researchers by explicitly taking water vapor convection, dispersion or air flow into account. It is generally believed that the soil moisture is usually low in the near surface layer under highly transient field conditions, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, and that accurate characterization of water vapor transport is critical when modeling simultaneous water and heat transport in the shallow field soils. The first objective of this study is thus mainly to test existing coupled water and heat transport theories and to develop reasonable and simplified numerical models using field experimental data collected under semi-arid and arid hydro-climatic conditions. In addition, more complex multi-domain models are developed for ubiquitous heterogeneous terrestrial surfaces such as horizontal textural contrasts or structured heterogeneity including macropores (fractures, cracks, root channels, etc.). This would make coupled water and heat transfer models applicable in such non-homogeneous soils more meaningful and enhance the skill of land-atmosphere interaction models at a larger context.

  20. A Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics: can we step beyond Richard's equation while preserving capillarity as first order control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Water storage in the unsaturated zone is controlled by capillary forces which increase nonlinearly with decreasing pore size, because water acts as a wetting fluid in soil. The standard approach to represent capillary and gravity controlled soil water dynamics is the Darcy-Richards equation in combination with suitable soil water characteristics. This continuum model essentially assumes capillarity controlled diffusive fluxes to dominate soil water dynamics under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Today we know that the assumptions of local equilibrium conditions e.g. and a mainly diffusive flow are often not appropriate, particularly during rainfall events in structured soils. Rapid or preferential flow imply a strong local disequilibrium and imperfect mixing between a fast fraction of soil water, traveling in interconnected coarse pores or non-capillary macropores, and the slower diffusive flow in finer fractions of the pore space. Although various concepts have been proposed to overcome the inability of the Darcy - Richards concept to cope with not-well mixed preferential flow, we still lack an approach that is commonly accepted. Notwithstanding the listed short comings, one should not mistake the limitations of the Richards equation with non-importance of capillary forces in soil. Without capillarity infiltrating rainfall would drain into groundwater bodies, leaving an empty soil as the local equilibrium state - there would be no soil water dynamics at all, probably even no terrestrial vegetation without capillary forces. Better alternatives for the Darcy-Richards approach are thus highly desirable, as long they preserve the grain of "truth" about capillarity as first order control. Here we propose such an alternative approach to simulate soil moisture dynamics in a stochastic and yet physical way. Soil water is represented by particles of constant mass, which travel according to the Itô form of the Fokker Planck equation. The model concept builds on

  1. [New paradigm for soil and water conservation: a method based on watershed process modeling and scenario analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, La-Jiao; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jun-Zhi; Li, Run-Kui; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2012-07-01

    With the increase of severe soil erosion problem, soil and water conservation has become an urgent concern for sustainable development. Small watershed experimental observation is the traditional paradigm for soil and water control. However, the establishment of experimental watershed usually takes long time, and has the limitations of poor repeatability and high cost. Moreover, the popularization of the results from the experimental watershed is limited for other areas due to the differences in watershed conditions. Therefore, it is not sufficient to completely rely on this old paradigm for soil and water loss control. Recently, scenario analysis based on watershed modeling has been introduced into watershed management, which can provide information about the effectiveness of different management practices based on the quantitative simulation of watershed processes. Because of its merits such as low cost, short period, and high repeatability, scenario analysis shows great potential in aiding the development of watershed management strategy. This paper elaborated a new paradigm using watershed modeling and scenario analysis for soil and water conservation, illustrated this new paradigm through two cases for practical watershed management, and explored the future development of this new soil and water conservation paradigm.

  2. Coupling System Dynamics and Physically-based Models for Participatory Water Management - A Methodological Framework, with Two Case Studies: Water Quality in Quebec, and Soil Salinity in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert-Chouinard, J.; Halbe, J.; Baig, A. I.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The principles of Integrated Water Resource Management outline the importance of stakeholder participation in water management processes, but in practice, there is a lack of meaningful engagement in water planning and implementation, and participation is often limited to public consultation and education. When models are used to support water planning, stakeholders are usually not involved in their development and use, and the models commonly fail to represent important feedbacks between socio-economic and physical processes. This paper presents the development of holistic models of the Du Chêne basin in Quebec, and the Rechna Doab basin in Pakistan, that simulate socio-economic and physical processes related to, respectively, water quality management, and soil salinity management. The models each consists of two sub-components: a System Dynamics (SD) model, and a physically based model. The SD component was developed in collaboration with key stakeholders in the basins. The Du Chêne SD model was coupled with a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, while the Rechna Doab SD model was coupled with SahysMod, a soil salinity model. The coupled models were used to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of different management scenarios proposed by stakeholders. Results indicate that coupled SD - physically-based models can be used as effective tools for participatory water planning and implementation. The participatory modeling process provides a structure for meaningful stakeholder engagement, and the models themselves can be used to transparently and coherently assess and compare different management options.

  3. Modeling the monthly mean soil-water balance with a statistical-dynamical ecohydrology model as coupled to a two-component canopy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kochendorfer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green leaf area index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends

  4. Modeling the monthly mean soil-water balance with a statistical-dynamical ecohydrology model as coupled to a two-component canopy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kochendorfer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green Leaf Area Index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends

  5. A conceptual water balance model to explore the impact of different soil management on water availability for vineyards under contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Guzman, Gema; Lorite, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Vines are one of the most extended tree crops in Europe covering a wide range of environmental and management conditions. Soil management is a key element in maintaining vines in adequate agronomic conditions, as well as in determining not only yield but also grape quality. The soil management practices adopted in vineyards could favor accelerated erosion. Particularly, cultivation with rows running up-and-down the slope on sloping vineyards, maintenance of bare soil, compaction due to high traffic of machinery are some of the vineyard's management practices that expose soil to degradation, favoring runoff and soil erosion processes. In fact high erosion rates in vines have been recently reported by Gomez et al., (2011). The adoption of grass cover in vineyards as a soil management technique has a fundamental role in soil protection against erosion, but it can have a major impact on water balance and then in grape yield and quality. This effect, the possibility of competition for soil water with the vine, is in fact mentioned by vine growers as a limiting factor for use of cover crops in vineyards under semiarid conditions or during dry periods even in sub-humid climates. To evaluate the interaction between the use of cover crops and soil management adjustments (eg. spatial extension in the vineyard and time for seeding and mowing) In order to achieve an optimum equilibrium between soil protection and grape production we developed a conceptual water balance model that reproduces the major processes in vineyards, WABYN. This model simulates the effect of different soil management alternatives, as for instance conventional tillage or cover crop, on soil water balance components. It has been implemented in a user friendly interface in order to allow its use by technicians and other stakeholders in the vine sector. It follows the methodology of a previous model specific for olive orchards (Abazi et al., 2012) using a model called WABOL. In spite of this simplified

  6. Estimation of effective soil hydraulic parameters for water management studies in semi-arid zones. Integral use of modelling, remote sensing and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: evapotranspiration, effective soil hydraulic parameters, remote sensing, regional water management, groundwater use, Bhakra Irrigation System, India.The meaningful application of water management simulation models at regional scale for the analysis of alternate water manage

  7. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  8. Modeling relative permeability of water in soil: Application of effective-medium approximation and percolation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Sahimi, Muhammad; Daigle, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    Accurate prediction of the relative permeability to water under partially saturated condition has broad applications and has been studied intensively since the 1940s by petroleum, chemical, and civil engineers, as well as hydrologists and soil scientists. Many models have been developed for this purpose, ranging from those that represent the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes, to those that utilize complex networks of interconnected pore bodies and pore throats with various cross-section shapes. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the effective-medium approximation (EMA) and percolation theory in order to predict the water relative permeability. The approach is general and applicable to any type of porous media. We use the method to compute the water relative permeability in porous media whose pore-size distribution follows a power law. The EMA is invoked to predict the relative permeability from the fully saturated pore space to some intermediate water saturation that represents a crossover from the EMA to what we refer to as the "critical region." In the critical region below the crossover water saturation Swx, but still above the critical water saturation Swc (the residual saturation or the percolation threshold of the water phase), the universal power law predicted by percolation theory is used to compute the relative permeability. To evaluate the accuracy of the approach, data for 21 sets of undisturbed laboratory samples were selected from the UNSODA database. For 14 cases, the predicted relative permeabilities are in good agreement with the data. For the remaining seven samples, however, the theory underestimates the relative permeabilities. Some plausible sources of the discrepancy are discussed.

  9. Assessing the performance of different model-based techniques to estimate water content in the upper soil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Amro; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Maltese, Antonino; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The knowledge of soil water content (SWC) of the upper soil layer is important for most hydrological processes occurring over vegetated areas and under dry climate. Because direct field measurements of SWC are difficult, the use of different type of sensors and model-based approaches have been proposed and extensively used during the last decade. The main objective of this work is to assess the performance of two models estimating SWC of the upper soil layer: the transient line heat source method and the physically based Hydrus-1D model. The models' performance is assessed using field measurements acquired through a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR). The experiment was carried out on an olive orchard located near the town of Castelvetrano (South-West of Sicily - latitude 37.6429°, longitude 12.8471°). The temporal dynamic of topsoil water content was investigated in two samplers, under wet and dry conditions. The samplers were opened at the upper boundary and inserted into the soil to ensure the continuity of the soil surface. A K2D Pro sensor allowed to measure the soil thermal properties allowing to estimate soil thermal inertia and then SWC. The physically based Hydrus-1D model was also used to estimate SWC of both samples. Hourly records of soil water contents, acquired by a TDR100 probe, were used to validate both the considered models. The comparison between SWCs simulated by Hydrus-1D and the corresponding values measured by the TDR method evidenced a good agreement. Similarly, even SWCs derived from the thermal diffusion model resulted fairly close to those measured with the TDR.

  10. Modeling water potentials and flows in the soil-plant system comparing hydraulic resistances and transpiration reduction fuctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Q.; Dam, van J.C.; Durigon, A.; Santos, dos M.A.; Metselaar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Crop transpiration depends on resistances in the soil–plant–atmosphere system. We present a new deterministic root water uptake model to estimate transpiration and compare it with two other models. We show the sensitivity of actual transpiration to parameters like soil and plant hydraulic properties

  11. Heterogeneous water flow and pesticide transport in cultivated sandy soils : description of model concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample experimental evidence that complications in water flow and pesticide transport can occur in cultivated humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soils. As a result, pesticide leaching to groundwater and water courses can be higher than expected. We made an inventory of mechanistic/deterministic mod

  12. Reactive transport modelling to infer changes in soil hydraulic properties induced by non-conventional water irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Abellan, Javier; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; Jacques, Diederik; Kohfahl, Claus; Tamoh, Karim

    2017-06-01

    The use of non-conventional water (e.g., treated wastewater, desalinated water) for different purposes is increasing in many water scarce regions of the world. Its use for irrigation may have potential drawbacks, because of mineral dissolution/precipitation processes, such as changes in soil physical and hydraulic properties (e.g., porosity, permeability), modifying infiltration and aquifer recharge processes or blocking root growth. Prediction of soil and groundwater impacts is essential for achieving sustainable agricultural practices. A numerical model to solve unsaturated water flow and non-isothermal multicomponent reactive transport has been modified implementing the spatio-temporal evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties. A long-term process simulation (30 years) of agricultural irrigation with desalinated water, based on a calibrated/validated 1D numerical model in a semi-arid region, is presented. Different scenarios conditioning reactive transport (i.e., rainwater irrigation, lack of gypsum in the soil profile, and lower partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)) have also been considered. Results show that although boundary conditions and mineral soil composition highly influence the reactive processes, dissolution/precipitation of carbonate species is triggered mainly by pCO2, closely related to plant roots. Calcite dissolution occurs in the root zone, precipitation takes place under it and at the soil surface, which will lead a root growth blockage and a direct soil evaporation decrease, respectively. For the studied soil, a gypsum dissolution up to 40 cm depth is expected at long-term, with a general increase of porosity and hydraulic conductivity.

  13. Development of the universal and simplified soil model coupling heat and water transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to develop a universal soil model with higher simplicity and more accuracy, which can be widely applied to very general cases such as wet or dry soil, frozen or unfrozen soil and homogeneous or heterogeneous soil. Firstly in this study, based on analysis of both magnitude order and the numerical simulation results, the universal and simplified soil model (USSM) coupling heat and mass transport processes is developed. Secondly, in order to avoid the greater uncertainty caused by the phase change term in numerical iteration process for the model solution obtaining, new version of the universal simplified soil model (NUSSM) is further derived through variables transformation, and accordingly a more efficient numerical scheme for the new version is designed well. The simulation results from the NUSSM agree with the results from more complicated and accurate soil model very well, also reasonably reproduce the observed data under widely real conditions. The new version model, because of its simplicity, will match for the development of land surface model.

  14. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-09-01

    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  15. Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, T.J.; Cook, J.D.; Coleman, Mark D.; Amatya, Devendra M.; Trettin, Carl C.

    2004-08-01

    The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square-km watershed draining to Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. We wish to experimentally determine the relative importance of interflow on water yield and water quality at this site. Interflow (shallow subsurface lateral flow) can short-circuit rainfall infiltration, preventing deep seepage and resulting in water and chemical residence times in the watershed much shorter than that if deep seepage were the sole component of infiltration. The soil series at the site (Wagram, Dothan, Fuquay, Ogeechee, and Vaucluse) each have a clay-rich B horizon of decimeter-scale thickness at depths of 1-2 m below surface. As interflow is affected by rainfall intensity and duration and soil properties such as porosity, permeability, and antecedent soil moisture, our calculations made using the Green and Ampt equation show that the intensity and duration of a storm event must be greater than about 3 cm per hour and 2 hours, respectively, in order to initiate interflow for the least permeable soils series (Vaucluse). Tabulated values of soil properties were used in these preliminary calculations. Simulations of the largest rainfall events from 1972-2002 data using the Green and Ampt equation provide an interflow: rainfall ratio of 0 for the permeable Wagram soil series (no interflow) compared to 0.46 for the less permeable Vaucluse soil series. These initial predictions will be compared to storm water hydrographs of interflow collected at the outflow point of each plot and refined using more detailed soil property measurements.

  16. Effect of Covers and Rainfall on Soil and Water Conservation Using a Tilting Flume Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compliew

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stone and vegetative covers was evaluated for soil and water conservation in a waterway on salty soils in the Northeast of Thailand. Experiments were conducted on a hydraulic tilting flume under simulated unit flow (120 and 45 cm2s-1, rainfall (120 mm/hr and slope (0, 1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8,2.0, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8 and 3.0% conditions. The depth of soil was maintained at 0.20 m. over a perforated bed to facilitate deep drainage. A comparative study of bare soil, stone cover (50% and vegetative cover (50% is made to evaluate soil loss, deep drainage, Manning’s roughness coefficient. The study has revealed that stone cover is more effective than vegetative cover at lower discharge in reducing the flow velocity and thereby soil erosion. Deep drainage has been reduced from lower discharge to higher discharge for all the slopes with cover measures, including bare soil. It is also found that cover measures are necessary beyond 2.6% bed slope in order to prevent rill erosion in salty soils.

  17. Soil-atmosphere and vadose zone water fluxes at the Wagna - lysimeter: Workflow, models, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, Johann

    2014-05-01

    A precise knowledge of the water fluxes between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere is of great importance for understanding and modeling water, solute and energy transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Weighing lysimeters are precise tools to allow the determination of the hydrological cycle components in very short time intervals. Lysimeters with controlled suction at the lower boundary allow estimation of capillary rise and deep water percolation on short time scales. Evapotranspiration, rainfall, and irrigation can be computed from weight changes. In the last decades resolution and precision of the weighing systems have been substantially improved, so that modern lysimeters, resting on weighing cells can reach resolutions of up to 0.01 mm. Nevertheless, a lot of external effects (e.g. from maintenance, surface treatment) and small mechanical disturbances (e.g. caused by wind) became visible in the data. Seepage mass data are affected by water sampling and the emptying process of the seepage water container. Increasing parts of corrected seepage mass data show deep water percolation, decreasing parts in dry weather periods can be interpreted as capillary rise. In the evaluation process of corrected lysimeter mass data every increase in system weight (lysimeter mass + cumulative seepage mass) might be interpreted as rainfall or irrigation, whereas every decrease in system weight is interpreted as evapotranspiration. To apply this concept correctly, the noise in both data sets has to be separated from signals using a filtering routine (e.g. Peters et al., 2013) which is appropriate for any event, including events with low disturbances as well as strong wind and heavy precipitation in small time intervals. Based on the data set from the "Wagna" lysimeter in Austria with a high resolution of the scale (~ 0,015 mm) and very low noise due to low wind velocities for the year 2010 a lysimeter data preparation workflow will be executed: (a) correction of the

  18. A modified soil water based Richards equation for layered soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, F.; Ahrens, B.

    2010-09-01

    Most Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models like TERRA-ML (implemented e.g. in the CCLM model (www.clm-community.eu)) use the soil moisture based Richards equation to simulate vertical water fluxes in soils, assuming a homogeneous soil type. Recently, high-resolution soil type datasets (e.g. BüK 1000, only for Germany (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR, www.bgr.bund.de) or Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD, version 1.1, FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, March 2009)) have been developed. Deficiencies in the numerical solution of the soil moisture based Richards equation may occur if inhomogeneous soil type data is implemented, because there are possibly discontinuities in soil moisture due to various soil type characteristics. One way to fix this problem is to use the potential based Richards equation, but this may lead to problems in conservation of mass. This presentation will suggest a possible numerical solution of the soil moisture based Richards equation for inhomogeneous soils. The basic idea is to subtract the equilibrium state of it from soil moisture fluxes. This should reduce discontinuities because each soil layer aspires the equilibrium state and therefore differences might be of the same order. First sensitivity studies have been done for the Main river basin, Germany.

  19. Physically based estimation of soil water retention from textural data: General framework, new models, and streamlined existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Laguna, Luna A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous models are in widespread use for the estimation of soil water retention from more easily measured textural data. Improved models are needed for better prediction and wider applicability. We developed a basic framework from which new and existing models can be derived to facilitate improvements. Starting from the assumption that every particle has a characteristic dimension R associated uniquely with a matric pressure ?? and that the form of the ??-R relation is the defining characteristic of each model, this framework leads to particular models by specification of geometric relationships between pores and particles. Typical assumptions are that particles are spheres, pores are cylinders with volume equal to the associated particle volume times the void ratio, and that the capillary inverse proportionality between radius and matric pressure is valid. Examples include fixed-pore-shape and fixed-pore-length models. We also developed alternative versions of the model of Arya and Paris that eliminate its interval-size dependence and other problems. The alternative models are calculable by direct application of algebraic formulas rather than manipulation of data tables and intermediate results, and they easily combine with other models (e.g., incorporating structural effects) that are formulated on a continuous basis. Additionally, we developed a family of models based on the same pore geometry as the widely used unsaturated hydraulic conductivity model of Mualem. Predictions of measurements for different suitable media show that some of the models provide consistently good results and can be chosen based on ease of calculations and other factors. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimality and soil water-vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important factor for nearly all hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Antecedent soil moisture impacts on infiltration and runoff generation, the soil moisture distribution within the soil together with other factors determines the soil carbon and nutrient cycling and the amount of soil moisture within the rooting zone often constitutes a major constraint for plant growth and evapo-transpiration. The main processes determining soil moisture dynamics are infiltration, percolation, evaporation and root water uptake. Therefore, modelling soil moisture dynamics requires an interdisciplinary approach that links hydrological and biological processes. Previous approaches treat either root water uptake rates or root distributions and transpiration rates as a given, and calculate the soil moisture dynamics based on the theory of flow in unsaturated media. The present study introduces a different approach to linking soil water and vegetation dynamics, based on optimality. Assuming that plants aim at minimising the costs related to the maintenance of the root system while meeting their demand for water, a model was formulated that dynamically adjusts the vertical root distribution in the soil profile to meet this objective. The model was used to compute the soil moisture dynamics in a tropical savanna over 12 months, which showed a better resemblance with the observed time series of surface soil moisture than models based on fixed root distributions. The optimality-based approach to modelling soil-vegetation interactions requires a new level of interdisciplinary synthesis, as biological and hydrological knowledge needs to be combined to derive the very basis of the model, namely the costs and benefits of different root properties. On the other hand, this approach has the potential to reduce the number of unknowns in a model (e.g. the vertical root distribution), which makes it a valuable alternative to more empirically-based approaches.

  1. Metal concentrations in soil and seepage water due to infiltration of roof runoff by long term numerical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, J; Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Klinger, C; Stubbe, H; Coldewey, W G

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative effects of stormwater infiltration on soil and seepage water are investigated with long term numerical modelling. The retention behaviour of different soils and materials used in infiltration devices is determined with batch and column tests. Results of the laboratory tests are adsorption isotherms which represent input data for numerical transport modelling. The long term simulations are performed with combinations of different solutions (types of roof runoff) and infiltration devices (swale and trench) under different hydrogeological conditions. The presented results contain the infiltration of low polluted roof runoff, runoff from a roof with zinc sheets and from a roof with copper sheets concerning the heavy metals zinc, copper and lead. The increase of concentrations in the infiltration body is high. For the infiltrated water, the results show a migration to groundwater only for the low adsorbing soil.

  2. Comparative analysis of the actual evapotranspiration of Flemish forest and cropland, using the soil water balance model WAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Verstraeten

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the quantification of the green – vegetation related – water flux of forest stands in the temperate lowland of Flanders. The underlying reason of the research was to develop a methodology for assessing the impact of forests on the hydrologic cycle in comparison to agriculture. The tested approach for calculating the water use by forests was based on the application of the soil water balance model WAVE. The study involved the collection of data from 14 forest stands, the calibration and validation of the WAVE model, and the comparison of the water use (WU components – transpiration, soil and interception evaporation – between forest and cropland. For model calibration purposes simulated and measured time series of soil water content at different soil depths, period March 2000–August 2001, were compared. A multiple-site validation was conducted as well. Actual tree transpiration calculated with sap flow measurements in three forest stands gave similar results for two of the three stands of pine (Pinus sylvestris L., but WAVE overestimated the actual measured transpiration for a stand of poplar (Populus sp.. A useful approach to compare the WU components of forest versus cropland is scenario analysis based on the validated WAVE model. The statistical Profile Analysis method was implemented to explore and analyse the simulated WU time series. With an average annual rainfall of 819 mm, the results reveal that forests in Flanders consume more water than agricultural crops. A 30 years average of 491 mm for 10 forests stands versus 398 mm for 10 cropped agricultural fields was derived. The WU components, on yearly basis, also differ between the two land use types (transpiration: 315 mm for forest and 261 mm for agricultural land use; soil evaporation: 47 mm and 131 mm, for forest and cropland, respectively. Forest canopy interception evaporation was estimated at 126 mm, while it was negligible for cropland.

  3. A Dynamic Model for Simulating Atmospheric, Surface and Soil Water Interactions in Hillslope of Loess Area Under Natural Conditions and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of atmospheric, surface and soil water interactions (water transformation) in hillslope under natural conditions was analyzed, and a dynamic model was developed to simulate infiltration, overland flow and soil water movement during natural rainfall in hillslope, by bringing forward concepts such as rainfall intensity on slope and a correction coefficient of saturated soil water content for soil surface seal. Some factors, including slope angle, slope orientation and raindrop inclination, which affect the rainfall amount on slope, were taken into account while developing the dynamic model. The effect of surface seal on infiltration and water balance under a boundary condition of the second kind was also considered. Application of the model in a field experiment showed that the model simulated precisely the infiltration, overland flow and soil water movement in hillslope under natural rainfall conditions.

  4. An analytical solution for the estimation of the critical available soil water fraction for a single layer water balance model under growing crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of simplified water balance models devoted to irrigation scheduling or crop modelling, the relative transpiration rate (the ratio of actual to maximal transpiration is assumed to decrease linearly when the soil dries out below a critical available water value. This value is usually expressed as a fraction, F, of the maximal available soil water content. The present work aims to use the basic laws governing water transfer through the plants at a daily time step to compute F dynamically as the crop grows. It can be regarded as an expansion of Slabbers' (1980 approach to crop growing conditions. Starting from the mathematical representation given by single-root models (Gardner, 1960, an analytical expression for F is derived, using simplified hypotheses. This expression accounts for plant attributes such as the mean root radius, the critical leaf water potential for stomatal closure and the root length density profile growing with the crop. Environmental factors such as soil type and atmospheric demand also influence F. The structural influence of soil comes from the required introduction of the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity in the single-root model. The shape of the root length density profile is assumed to be sigmoidal and a new profile is calculated at each value of the rooting depth. A sensitivity analysis of F to all those factors is presented. The first general result is that F decreases as the root system grows in depth. Differences in the shape of the root profile can be responsible for differential water stress sensitivity in the early stages of growth. Yet, low critical leaf water potential can compensate partially for a poor root profile. Conversely, F is relatively insensitive to the average root radius. F sensitivity to soil type seems somewhat artificial: given the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity formula, the soil sensitivity results from F being expressed as a fraction of the maximal available soil water content

  5. Modeling stomatal conductance in the Earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Bonan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The empirical Ball–Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in Earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs on vapor pressure deficit (Ds and soil moisture must both be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball–Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5 and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum (SPA to numerically optimize photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while preventing leaf water potential dropping below a critical minimum level. We evaluated two alternative optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ An/Δ gs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening and water-use efficiency (Δ An/Δ El, the marginal carbon gain of water loss. We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model, to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using: (1 leaf analyses; (2 canopy net radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and gross primary production at six AmeriFlux sites spanning 51 site–years; and (3 parameter sensitivity analyses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal conductance model was generally comparable to or somewhat better than the Ball–Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the Ball–Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from the physiological theory linking leaf water-use efficiency and water flow to and from the leaf along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the Ball–Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the water-use efficiency optimization. Sensitivity analyses showed that two

  6. Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulation of hydrological processes for the purposes of agricultural water management and protection in boreal environment requires description of winter time processes, including heat transport, soil freezing and thawing, and snow accumulation and melt. Finland is located north of the latitude of 60 degrees and has one third to one fourth of the total agricultural land area (2.3 milj. ha) on clay soils (> 30% of clay). Most of the clayey fields are subsurface drained to provide efficient drainage and to enable heavy machines to operate on the fields as soon as possible after the spring snowmelt. Generation of drainflow and surface runoff in cultivated fields leads to nutrient and sediment load, which forms the major share of the total load reaching surface waters at the national level. Water, suspended sediment, and soluble nutrients on clayey field surface are conveyed through the soil profile to the subsurface drains via macropore pathways as the clayey soil matrix is almost impermeable. The objective of the study was to develop the missing winter related processes into the FLUSH model, including soil heat transport, snow pack simulation and the effects of soil freezing and thawing on the soil hydraulic conductivity. FLUSH is an open source (MIT license), distributed, process-based model designed to simulate surface runoff and drainflow in clayey, subsurface drained agricultural fields. 2-D overland flow is described with the diffuse wave approximation of the Saint Venant equations and 3-D subsurface flow with a dual-permeability model. Both macropores and soil matrix are simulated with the Richards equation. Soil heat transport is described with a modified 3-D convection-diffusion equation. Runoff and groundwater data was available from different periods from January 1994 to April 1999 measured in a clayey, subsurface drained field section (3.6 ha) in southern Finland. Soil temperature data was collected in two locations (to a depth of 0.8 m) next to the

  7. Potential groundwater recharge for the State of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).

  8. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  9. A new, catchment-scale model for simulating methyl and total mercury in soils and surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futter, M. N.; Poste, A. E.; Whitehead, P. G.; Dillon, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potent and persistent neurotoxin. It is subject to long-range atmospheric transport, accumulates in catchment soils, and can pose health risks to humans and animals both at the point of use as well as in remote locations. Elevated concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) in fish are related to atmospheric Hg deposition and have resulted in fish consumption advisories in many parts of North America and Fennoscandia. After more than 150 years of elevated Hg deposition in Europe and North America, there remains a large inventory of Hg in the terrestrial catchments of lakes, which continues to be exported to receiving waters despite decreasing atmospheric inputs. While a substantial Hg pool exists in boreal catchment soils, fluxes of Hg from catchments via stream runoff tend to be much lower than atmospheric Hg inputs. Terrestrial catchments receiving similar atmospheric Hg inputs can have markedly different patterns of Hg output in stream water. Considering the importance of catchment processes in determining Hg flux to lakes and subsequent MeHg concentrations in fish, there is a need to characterize Hg cycling and transport in boreal and temperate forest-covered catchments. We present a new, catchment-scale, process-based dynamic model for simulating Hg in soils and surface waters. The Integrated Catchments Model for Mercury (INCA-Hg) simulates transport of gaseous, dissolved and solid Hg and transformations between elemental (Hg0), ionic (Hg(II)) and MeHg in natural and semi-natural landscapes. The mathematical description represents the model as a series of linked, first-order differential equations describing chemical and hydrological processes in catchment soils and waters which control surface water Hg dynamics and subsequent fluxes to lakes and other receiving waters. The model simulates daily time series between one and one hundred years long and can be applied to catchments ranging in size from Canada where we were able to reproduce observed

  10. Simulating the carbon, water, energy budgets and greenhouse gas emissions of arctic soils with the ISBA land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Xavier; Decharme, Bertrand; Delire, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost soils and boreal wetlands represent an important challenge for future climate simulations. Our aim is to be able to correctly represent the most important thermal, hydrologic and carbon cycle related processes in boreal areas with our land surface model ISBA (Masson et al, 2013). This is particularly important since ISBA is part of the CNRM-CM Climate Model (Voldoire et al, 2012), that is used for projections of future climate changes. To achieve this goal, we replaced the one layer original soil carbon module based on the CENTURY model (Parton et al, 1987) by a multi-layer soil carbon module that represents C pools and fluxes (CO2 and CH4), organic matter decomposition, gas diffusion (Khvorostyanov et al., 2008), CH4 ebullition and plant-mediated transport, and cryoturbation (Koven et al., 2009). The carbon budget of the new model is closed. The soil carbon module is tightly coupled to the ISBA energy and water budget module that solves the one-dimensional Fourier law and the mixed-form of the Richards equation explicitly to calculate the time evolution of the soil energy and water budgets (Boone et al., 2000; Decharme et al. 2011). The carbon, energy and water modules are solved using the same vertical discretization. Snowpack processes are represented by a multi-layer snow model (Decharme et al, 2016). We test this new model on a pair of monitoring sites in Greenland, one in a permafrost area (Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations, Jensen et al, 2014) and the other in a region without permafrost (Nuuk Ecological Research Operations, Jensen et al, 2013); both sites are established within the GeoBasis part of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program. The site of Chokurdakh, in a permafrost area of Siberia is is our third studied site. We test the model's ability to represent the physical variables (soil temperature and water profiles, snow height), the energy and water fluxes as well as the carbon dioxyde and methane fluxes. We also test the

  11. Stochastic Modeling Of Field-Scale Water And Solute Transport Through The Unsaturated Zone Of Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loll, Per

    were previously thought not to pose a leaching threat. Thus, a reevaluation of our understanding of the mechanisms governing chemical fate in the unsaturated zone of soils has been necessary, in order for us to make better decisions regarding widely different issues such as agricultural management...... of pesticides and nutrients, and risk identification and assessment at polluted (industrial) sites. One of the key factors requiring our attention when we are trying to predict field-scale chemical leaching is spatial variability of the soil and the influence it exerts on both water and chemical transport...

  12. Soil water dynamics at a midlatitude test site: Field measurements and box modeling approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudena, M.; Bevilacqua, I.; Canone, D.; Ferraris, S.; Previati, M.; Provenzale, A.

    2012-01-01

    We test the ability of three box models (Milly, 1993; Kim et al., 1996; Laio et al., 2001b) to describe soil moisture dynamics in a regularly monitored experimental site in northwestern Italy. The models include increasingly complex representations of leakage and evapotranspiration processes. We for

  13. Using FAO-56 model to estimate soil and crop water status: Application to a citrus orchard under regulated deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Giuseppe; Gonzàles-Altozano, Pablo; Manzano-Juàrez, Juan; Rallo, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Agro-hydrological models allow schematizing exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Each section of the SPAC system is characterized by complex behaviours arising, for instance, the adaptive plant strategies in response to soil water deficit conditions. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) has been considered as one of the potential strategies for sustainable crop production in regions characterized by water scarcity. Moreover, reducing water supply at certain growth stages can improve water use efficiency (WUE) and quality of productions, without affecting significantly crop yield. Environmental policy requires to improve WUE in crops with high water requirements, so that it is necessary to identify easy-to-use tools aimed at irrigation water saving strategies, without the need of tedious and time consuming experiments. Accurate evaluation of crop water status and actual transpiration plays a key role in irrigation scheduling under RDI, in order to avoid that water stress becomes too severe and detrimental to yield and fruit quality. Objective of the research was to assess the suitability of FAO56 agro-hydrological model (Allen et al., 1998) on citrus orchards under different water deficit conditions, to estimate soil and crop water status. The ability of the model to predict actual crop water stress was evaluated based on the temporal dynamic of simulated relative transpirations and on the similarities with the corresponding dynamic of measured midday stem water potentials, MSWP. During dry periods, simulated relative crop transpiration was correlated to MSWP with the aim to assess the model ability to predict crop water stress and to identify "plant-based" irrigation scheduling parameters. Experiments were carried out during three years from 2009 and 2011 in Senyera (39° 3' 35.4" N, 0° 30' 28.2" W), Spain, in a commercial orchard planted with Navelina/Cleopatra citrus trees. Three RDI

  14. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Pollacco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h, and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013 developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h. This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen–Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1 the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map and (2 further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal

  15. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollacco, Joseph Alexander Paul; Webb, Trevor; McNeill, Stephen; Hu, Wei; Carrick, Sam; Hewitt, Allan; Lilburne, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013) developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1) the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map) and (2) further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h) for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal model provides an

  16. A hydraulic model is compatible with rapid changes in leaf elongation under fluctuating evaporative demand and soil water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Cecilio F; Bosio, Mickael; Parent, Boris; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-04-01

    Plants are constantly facing rapid changes in evaporative demand and soil water content, which affect their water status and growth. In apparent contradiction to a hydraulic hypothesis, leaf elongation rate (LER) declined in the morning and recovered upon soil rehydration considerably quicker than transpiration rate and leaf water potential (typical half-times of 30 min versus 1-2 h). The morning decline of LER began at very low light and transpiration and closely followed the stomatal opening of leaves receiving direct light, which represent a small fraction of leaf area. A simulation model in maize (Zea mays) suggests that these findings are still compatible with a hydraulic hypothesis. The small water flux linked to stomatal aperture would be sufficient to decrease water potentials of the xylem and growing tissues, thereby causing a rapid decline of simulated LER, while the simulated water potential of mature tissues declines more slowly due to a high hydraulic capacitance. The model also captured growth patterns in the evening or upon soil rehydration. Changes in plant hydraulic conductance partly counteracted those of transpiration. Root hydraulic conductivity increased continuously in the morning, consistent with the transcript abundance of Zea maize Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein aquaporins. Transgenic lines underproducing abscisic acid, with lower hydraulic conductivity and higher stomatal conductance, had a LER declining more rapidly than wild-type plants. Whole-genome transcriptome and phosphoproteome analyses suggested that the hydraulic processes proposed here might be associated with other rapidly occurring mechanisms. Overall, the mechanisms and model presented here may be an essential component of drought tolerance in naturally fluctuating evaporative demand and soil moisture.

  17. A Dynamic Model for Simulating Atmospheric,Surface and Soil Water Interactions in Hillslope of Loess Area Under Natural Conditions and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSHUHAN; NIEGUANGYONG; 等

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of atmospheric,surface and soil water interactions( water transformation) in hillslope under natural conditions was analyzed,and a dynamic model was developed to simulate infiltration,overland flow and soil water movement during natural rainfall in hillslope,by bringing froward concepts such as rainfall intensity on slope and a correction coefficient of saturated soil water content for soil surface seal.Some factors,including slope angle,slope orientation and raindrop inclination,which affect the rainfall amount on slope, were taken into account while developing the dynamic model.The effect of surface seal on infiltration and water balance under a boundary condition of the second kind was aslo considered. Application of the model in a field experiment showed that the model simulated precisely the infiltration,overland flow and sol water monvement in hillsope under natural rainfall conditions.

  18. Soil water repellency affects production and transport of CO2 and CH4 in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and transport of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the transport of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 transport within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which affects the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  19. Water Resources in Mid 21. Century in Slovenia - What can we expect according to regional climate predictions integrated into catchment hydrological modeling and modeling of soil water balance - an integration of top-down and bottom-up modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globevnik, Lidija; Vidmar, Andrej

    2015-04-01

    For the purpose of calculating the water balance in the soil, the European Environment Agency (EEA) produced a computational physical model "swbEWA" (Kurnik et al, 2013). It is designed to calculate the spatial distribution of water volume in the soil during the selected time period. Model accounts soil moisture by the addition and subtraction of the input parameters of water resources in the ground, which are expressed by the water column [mm]. Kurnik and Kajfež - Bogataj (2013) then used the model swbEWA to study the soil water balance parameters in Europe for the future. They used an ensemble of eight climate scenarios and analyzed the duration and size of agricultural drought across Europe. Surface runoff and deep percolation are two parameters of the water balance in the soil calculated by swbEWA model. They are expressed as mm of water column to the selected unit of modeled surface. The average values of monthly balance of the sum of the two quantities in the coming period 2021-2050 for selected river basins in Slovenia were compared with measured river flows in the reference periods 1961 - 1990 and 1981 - 2010. For comparison of results we have also calibrated semi-distributed HBV Light conceptual model for selected river basins and modeled catchment water-balance parameters for the period 2021-2050. As input we used the same rainfall and temperatures parameters as predicted by climatic scenarios used in the model swaEWA. Results Kurnik and Kajfež-Bogataj (2013) show that the largest increase by a lack of moisture in the soil occurred in the southwestern and southeastern Europe, where Slovenia does not fall. Changes will be in Slovenia still important. Employing the climatic scenario A1, the increase in soil moisture deficit relative to the reference period would be at least 0.45 during the period 2021-2050 (Kurnik and Kajfež -Bogataj, 2013), but the average annual run-off water in terms of average flow rates in 1961-1990 in Slovenia would decrease by 0

  20. Integration of soil microbial processes in a reactive transport model for simulating effects of root-controlled water flow on carbon and nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeleta, J. F.; Cardon, Z. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Rastetter, E. B.; Neumann, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a hotbed of microbial activity in terrestrial ecosystems, and numerous models of rhizosphere dynamics have been focused in two main arenas: (1) water flow and nutrient transport around roots, and (2) carbon and nutrient exchanges between roots and microbes. However, coupling of microbial processes with physical flow (water and nutrients) in soils around plant roots is key to understanding how water, carbon and nutrient cycles interact at different scales. In order to explore how spatial distribution and timing of water flow directed by plant roots shapes rhizosphere biogeochemical function, we have developed a mechanistic model that combines a microbial food web with dynamic water flow and associated solute transport (advection, diffusion and cation exchange). We used the flexibility of a previously developed code, MIN3P (a multicomponent reactive transport model developed for variably saturated porous media) and incorporated microbial processes of carbon and nitrogen uptake, assimilation and secretion; microbial growth and death; exo-enzyme production; protozoal grazing, and soil organic matter decomposition within a soil matrix. We focused our attention at the mm-spatial scale, exploring the interaction of temporal oscillations in the magnitude and direction of water flow with soil C and N gradients. In this first modeling step, we prescribed dynamic soil water content representative of the transpiration stream (soil water loss) and hydraulic redistribution (soil water gain), as well as the flux of carbon into the soil. Although we are still in the process of building explicit root and plant behavior into the model, our preliminary results suggest that the diel pulsing of water out/into the soil can potentially change patterns of microbial C/N limitation and soil N availability. We are currently expanding our model to include the effect of plant root processes (uptake and exudation) and investigating the mechanisms explaining the interplay

  1. Immobilized Native Bacteria as a Tool for Bioremediation of Soils and Waters: Implementation and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lobo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (3,4-DHPA dioxygenase amino acid sequence and DNA sequence data for homologous genes, two different oligonucleotides were designed. These were assayed to detect 3,4-DHPA related aromatic compound—degrading bacteria in soil samples by using the FISH method. Also, amplification by PCR using a set of ERIC primers was assayed for the detection of Pseudomonas GCH1 strain, which used in the soil bioremediation process. A model was developed to understand and predict the behavior of bacteria and pollutants in a bioremediation system, taking into account fluid dynamics, molecular/cellular scale processes, and biofilm formation.

  2. UNSAT-H Version 3.0: Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model Theory, User Manual, and Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Fayer

    2000-06-12

    The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. During the last 4 years, the UNSAT-H model received support from the Immobilized Waste Program (IWP) of the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This program is designing and assessing the performance of on-site disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (LMHC 1999). The IWP is interested in estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the vadose zone disposal of tank wastes. Simulation modeling with UNSAT-H is one of the methods being used to provide those estimates (e.g., Rockhold et al. 1995; Fayer et al. 1999). To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H model addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow as one-dimensional processes. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using Richards' equation (Richards 1931), water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H .Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an, enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer and Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple-year simulation capability, and general enhancements.

  3. Application of a coupled microwave, energy and water transfer model to relate passive microwave emission from bare soils to near-surface water content and evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Simmonds

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the stability of the relation between microwave emission from the soil and the average near-surface water content in the case of relatively smooth, bare soils, and then considers the extent to which microwave radiometry can be used to estimate the effective surface resistance to vapour transfer, which is also related to the near-surface water status. The analysis is based on the use of a model (MICRO-SWEAT which couples a microwave radiative transfer model with a SVAT scheme that describes the exchanges of water vapour, energy and sensible heat at the land surface. Verification of MICRO-SWEAT showed good agreement (about 3K RMSE between predicted L band (1.4 GHz brightness temperature over soils with contrasting texture during a multi-day drydown, and those measured using a truck-mounted radiometer. There was good agreement between the measured and predicted relations between the average water content of the upper 2 cm of the soil profile and the brightness temperature normalised with respect to the radiometric surface temperature. Some of the scatter in this relationship was attributable to diurnal variation in the magnitude of near-surface gradients in temperature and water content, and could be accounted for by using the physically-based simulation model. The influence of soil texture on this relationship was well-simulated using MICRO-SWEAT. The paper concludes by demonstrating how MICRO-SWEAT can be used to establish a relationship between the normalised brightness temperature and the surface resistance for use in the prediction of evaporation using the Penman-Montheith equation.

  4. Three Principles of Water Flow in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Lin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of water flow in soils is crucial to understanding terrestrial hydrological cycle, surface energy balance, biogeochemical dynamics, ecosystem services, contaminant transport, and many other Critical Zone processes. However, due to the complex and dynamic nature of non-uniform flow, reconstruction and prediction of water flow in natural soils remain challenging. This study synthesizes three principles of water flow in soils that can improve modeling water flow in soils of various complexity. The first principle, known as the Darcy's law, came to light in the 19th century and suggested a linear relationship between water flux density and hydraulic gradient, which was modified by Buckingham for unsaturated soils. Combining mass balance and the Buckingham-Darcy's law, L.A. Richards quantitatively described soil water change with space and time, i.e., Richards equation. The second principle was proposed by L.A. Richards in the 20th century, which described the minimum pressure potential needed to overcome surface tension of fluid and initiate water flow through soil-air interface. This study extends this principle to encompass soil hydrologic phenomena related to varied interfaces and microscopic features and provides a more cohesive explanation of hysteresis, hydrophobicity, and threshold behavior when water moves through layered soils. The third principle is emerging in the 21st century, which highlights the complex and evolving flow networks embedded in heterogeneous soils. This principle is summarized as: Water moves non-uniformly in natural soils with a dual-flow regime, i.e., it follows the least-resistant or preferred paths when "pushed" (e.g., by storms) or "attracted" (e.g., by plants) or "restricted" (e.g., by bedrock), but moves diffusively into the matrix when "relaxed" (e.g., at rest) or "touched" (e.g., adsorption). The first principle is a macroscopic view of steady-state water flow, the second principle is a microscopic view of interface

  5. Modeling soil conservation, water conservation and their tradeoffs: A case study in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bai; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hua Zheng; Xiaoma Li; Changwei Zhuang; Bo Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services.With the rapid increase in human populations and excessive utilization of natural resources,humans frequently enhance the production of some services at the expense of the others.Although the need for tradeoffs between conservation and development is urgent,the lack of efficient methods to assess such tradeoffs has impeded progress.Three land use strategy scenarios(development scenario,plan trend scenario and conservation scenario)were created to forecast potential changes in ecosystem services from 2007 to 2050 in Beijing,China.GIS-based techniques were used to map spatial and temporal distribution and changes in ecosystem services for each scenario.The provision of ecosystem services differed spatially,with significant changes being associated with different scenarios.Scenario analysis of water yield(as average annual yield)and soil retention(as retention rate per unit area)for the period 2007 to 2050 indicated that the highest values for these parameters were predicted for the forest habitat under all three scenarios.Annual yield/retention of forest,shrub,and grassland ranked the highest in the conservation scenario.Total water yield and soil retention increased in the conservation scenario and declined dramatically in the other two scenarios,especially the development scenario.The conservation scenario was the optimal land use strategy,resulting in the highest soil retention and water yield.Our study suggests that the evaluation and visualization of ecosystem services can effectively assist in understanding the tradeoffs between conservation and development.Results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring future management of natural capital and ecosystem services,which can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  6. Modeling soil conservation, water conservation and their tradeoffs: a case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Li, Xiaoma; Zhuang, Changwei; Jiang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With the rapid increase in human populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans frequently enhance the production of some services at the expense of the others. Although the need for tradeoffs between conservation and development is urgent, the lack of efficient methods to assess such tradeoffs has impeded progress. Three land use strategy scenarios (development scenario, plan trend scenario and conservation scenario) were created to forecast potential changes in ecosystem services from 2007 to 2050 in Beijing, China. GIS-based techniques were used to map spatial and temporal distribution and changes in ecosystem services for each scenario. The provision of ecosystem services differed spatially, with significant changes being associated with different scenarios. Scenario analysis of water yield (as average annual yield) and soil retention (as retention rate per unit area) for the period 2007 to 2050 indicated that the highest values for these parameters were predicted for the forest habitat under all three scenarios. Annual yield/retention of forest, shrub, and grassland ranked the highest in the conservation scenario. Total water yield and soil retention increased in the conservation scenario and declined dramatically in the other two scenarios, especially the development scenario. The conservation scenario was the optimal land use strategy, resulting in the highest soil retention and water yield. Our study suggests that the evaluation and visualization of ecosystem services can effectively assist in understanding the tradeoffs between conservation and development. Results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, which can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  7. Parameterizing the soil - water - plant root system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, R.A.; Raats, P.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Root water uptake is described from the local scale, to the field scale and to the regional and global scales. The local macroscopic model can be incorporated in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) numerical models, like the SWAP, HYSWASOR, HYDRUS, ENVIRO-GRO and FUSSIM models. These SPAC models

  8. The hydrology of water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, R.; Berli, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Moore, H. K.

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of wildfire throughout the western U.S. is expected to increase. So, too, will flooding and erosion associated with the aftereffects of the fires. Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) has frequently been observed after fires and is believed to increase the post-fire runoff potential, although current runoff models cannot directly account for this effect. Many physically-based runoff models incorporate an infiltration reduction factor or manipulate the soil hydraulic conductivity parameter to account for water-repellent soils in runoff generation. Beginning with fundamental principles, we developed a methodology to physically account for soil water repellency and directly account for it in the Kineros2 runoff and erosion model.

  9. Soil Water Hysteresis at Low Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. PRUNTY; J. BELL

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the soil water characteristic curve is fundamental for understanding unsaturated soils. The objective of this work was to find scanning hysteresis loops of two fine textured soils at water potentials below wilting point. This was done by equilibration over NaCl solutions with water potentials of -6.6 to -18.8 MPa at 25 °C. When cycled repeatedly through a series of potentials in the range noted previously both soils exhibited a hysteresis effect. The experimental differences in water content between the drying and wetting soils at the same water potential were much too large to be accounted for by failure to allow sufficient time to attain equilibrium as predicted by the exponential decay model. The wetting versus drying differences were relatively small, however, at only 4 mg g-1 or less in absolute terms and about 3% of the mean of wetting and drying, in relative terms. Hysteresis should be a consideration when modeling biological and physical soil processes at water contents below the wilting point, where small differences in water content result in large potential energy changes.

  10. An alternative approach for the use of water solubility of nonionic pesticides in the modeling of the soil sorption coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Ralpho Rinaldo; Sampaio, Silvio César; de Melo, Eduardo Borges

    2014-04-15

    The collection of data to study the damage caused by pesticides to the environment and its ecosystems is slowly acquired and costly. Large incentives have been established to encourage research projects aimed at building mathematical models for predicting physical, chemical or biological properties of environmental interest. The organic carbon normalized soil sorption coefficient (K(oc)) is an important physicochemical property used in environmental risk assessments for compounds released into the environment. Many models for predicting logK(oc) that have used the parameters logP or logS as descriptors have been published in recent decades. The strong correlation between these properties (logP and logS) prevents them from being used together in multiple linear regressions. Because the sorption of a chemical compound in soil depends on both its water solubility and its water/organic matter partitioning, we assume that models capable of combining these two properties can generate more realistic results. Therefore, the objective of this study was to propose an alternative approach for modeling logK(oc), using a simple descriptor of solubility, here designated as the logarithm of solubility corrected by octanol/water partitioning (logS(P)). Thus, different models were built with this descriptor and with the conventional descriptors logP and logS, alone or associated with other explanatory variables representing easy-to-interpret physicochemical properties. The obtained models were validated according to current recommendations in the literature, and they were compared with other previously published models. The results showed that the use of logS(p) instead of conventional descriptors led to simple models with greater statistical quality and predictive power than other more complex models found in the literature. Therefore, logS(P) can be a good alternative to consider for the modeling of logK(oc) and other properties that relate to both solubility and water

  11. A GIS model-based assessment of the environmental distribution of {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane in European soils and waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcaino, P., E-mail: pvizcaino@ecohidraulica.co [EC, DG JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Pistocchi, A. [EC, DG JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    The MAPPE GIS based multimedia model is used to produce a quantitative description of the behaviour of {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH) in Europe, with emphasis on continental surface waters. The model is found to reasonably reproduce {gamma}-HCH distributions and variations along the years in atmosphere and soil; for continental surface waters, concentrations were reasonably well predicted for year 1995, when lindane was still used in agriculture, while for 2005, assuming severe restrictions in use, yields to substantial underestimation. Much better results were yielded when same mode of release as in 1995 was considered, supporting the conjecture that for {gamma}-HCH, emission data rather that model structure and parameterization can be responsible for wrong estimation of concentrations. Future research should be directed to improve the quality of emission data. Joint interpretation of monitoring and modelling results, highlights that lindane emissions in Europe, despite the marked decreasing trend, persist beyond the provisions of existing legislation. - An spatially-explicit multimedia modelling strategy was applied to describe the historical distribution of {gamma}-HCH in European soils and surface waters.

  12. Water-balance subregions (WBSs), soil types, and virtual crops for the five land-use time-frames used in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the model grid, water-balance subregions (WBSs), soil types, and virtual crops for the five land-use time-frames in the transient...

  13. Humble View on Soil Water Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZHI-XIONG; ZHOULIU-ZONG

    1993-01-01

    Soil water is one of renewable water resources.Some properties of soil water concerning with its availability to plant are briefly described.An equation for estimating the amount of soil water resource is presented.Based on the evaporation demand of atmosphere,the evaluation coefficient for soil water resource is suggested.

  14. Liquid Water and Vapor Flow in Arid Soil: Comparison of Weighing Lysimeter Data with Simulations from a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, M.; Dijkema, J.; Koonce, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Desert soils account for about a third of the Earth's land surface and are believed to be important players in terrestrial energy balance. However, the mechanisms that govern energy and mass fluxes across the land-atmosphere interface of hot deserts remain poorly understood. This knowledge gap also spills over to our insufficient understanding of the ecology and hydrology of deserts. A recently constructed weighing lysimeter (3 m deep and 2.26 m in diameter) located in Boulder City, NV, provides data of water and energy fluxes across the soil-atmosphere boundary of the Mojave Desert. The lysimeter has been filled with homogenized desert soil from nearby Eldorado Valley, instrumented with a suite of more than 150 sensors at multiple depth between 2.5 and 250 cm and under continuous operation since July 2008. In this study, we report on water content, water potential, and temperature data from one hydrologic year at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data was used to develop, calibrate and validate a coupled, process-based water flow and storage model using Hydrus-1D. The model simulates liquid water flow, heat flow, and non-isothermal vapor flow along the soil profile. Detailed soil bulk density and porosity profiles are known based on soil mass and volume determined during lysimeter soil installation. Water retention property was determined from concurrent volumetric water content and matric potential measurements. A density-dependent scaling relation was developed to adjust water retention properties to the different soil bulk densities in the profile. The water flux across the soil-atmosphere boundary was determined from high-resolution lysimeter scale data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated via inverse modeling, using a subset of the soil moisture data. The calibrated model was validated using the remainder of the data set. The model accurately captures the soil temperature dynamics through the year and across the profile. The water

  15. Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Rob F. A.; van den Akker, Jan J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands In the Netherlands, about 8% of the area is covered by peat soils. Most of these soils are in use for dairy farming and, consequently, are drained. Drainage causes decomposition of peat by oxidation and accordingly leads to surface subsidence and greenhouse gas emission. Submerged drains that enhance submerged infiltration of water from ditches during the dry and warm summer half year were, and are still, studied in The Netherlands as a promising tool for reducing peat decomposition by raising groundwater levels. For this purpose, several pilot field studies in the Western part of the Dutch peat area were conducted. Besides the effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing peat decomposition and subsidence by raising groundwater tables, some other relevant or expected effects of these drains were studied. Most important of these are water management and loading of surface water with nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphate. Because most of these parameters are not easy to assess and all of them are strongly depending on the meteorological conditions during the field studies some of these studies were modelled. The SWAP model was used for evaluating the hydrological results on groundwater table and water discharge and recharge. Effects of submerged drains were assessed by comparing the results of fields with and without drains. An empirical relation between deepest groundwater table and subsidence was used to convert effects on groundwater table to effects on subsidence. With the SWAP-ANIMO model nutrient loading of surface water was modelled on the basis of field results on nutrient concentrations . Calibrated models were used to assess effects in the present situation, as thirty-year averages, under extreme weather

  16. Generic reactive transport codes as flexible tools to integrate soil organic matter degradation models with water, transport and geochemistry in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Diederik; Gérard, Fréderic; Mayer, Uli; Simunek, Jirka; Leterme, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    A large number of organic matter degradation, CO2 transport and dissolved organic matter models have been developed during the last decades. However, organic matter degradation models are in many cases strictly hard-coded in terms of organic pools, degradation kinetics and dependency on environmental variables. The scientific input of the model user is typically limited to the adjustment of input parameters. In addition, the coupling with geochemical soil processes including aqueous speciation, pH-dependent sorption and colloid-facilitated transport are not incorporated in many of these models, strongly limiting the scope of their application. Furthermore, the most comprehensive organic matter degradation models are combined with simplified representations of flow and transport processes in the soil system. We illustrate the capability of generic reactive transport codes to overcome these shortcomings. The formulations of reactive transport codes include a physics-based continuum representation of flow and transport processes, while biogeochemical reactions can be described as equilibrium processes constrained by thermodynamic principles and/or kinetic reaction networks. The flexibility of these type of codes allows for straight-forward extension of reaction networks, permits the inclusion of new model components (e.g.: organic matter pools, rate equations, parameter dependency on environmental conditions) and in such a way facilitates an application-tailored implementation of organic matter degradation models and related processes. A numerical benchmark involving two reactive transport codes (HPx and MIN3P) demonstrates how the process-based simulation of transient variably saturated water flow (Richards equation), solute transport (advection-dispersion equation), heat transfer and diffusion in the gas phase can be combined with a flexible implementation of a soil organic matter degradation model. The benchmark includes the production of leachable organic matter

  17. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68

  18. Water Repellent Soils: The use of electrical resistivity tomography in a small scale catchment model to evaluate the effectiveness of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary-Anne; Mathes, Falko; McGrath, Gavan; Leopold, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellence effects large areas of land in Western Australia causing large forfeits in agricultural profit. Surfactants are a potential management tool, however, in field trials they have had varied success and their impact on water movement is poorly understood. This study employs a novel approach to determine the effectiveness of surfactants at modifying infiltration into water repellent soils. Using a physical catchment model (0.6 m × 0.6 m) with soils arranged in a ridge and furrow topography, irrigation and runoff were quantified. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to measure changes in soil moisture patterns in two dimensions. Two sandy soils with contrasting severity of water repellence, as measured by the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet (MED) test, were assessed. The impact of two surfactants, at an equivalent rate of 1 L ha-1, and an untreated control were monitored over 5 wetting events. With surfactant application the very severely water repellent soil (MED 4.2 M) showed an increase in infiltration of up to 31%, which was concentrated under the area of surfactant application in the furrow. Volumetric water contents beneath the furrow increased up to 40% below 20 mm depth. Water infiltration into the untreated soil with low water repellence (MED 1.0 M) was 98%, and this did not significantly change with surfactant application. This physical catchment model, combined with hydrological and geophysical monitoring provides a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of surfactants in increasing water infiltration and subsurface soil moisture in water repellent soils. The work is part of the Australian CRC for Polymer project.

  19. Comparison of rainfall based SPI drought indices with SMDI and ETDI indices derived from a soil water budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcine, A.; Bargaoui, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling soil water budget is a key issue for assessing drought awareness indices based on soil moisture estimation. The aim of the study is to compare drought indices based on rainfall time series to those based on soil water content time series and evapotranspiration time series. To this end, a vertically averaged water budget over the root zone is implemented to assist the estimation of evapotranspiration flux. A daily time step is adopted to run the water budget model for a lumped watershed of 250 km2 under arid climate where recorded meteorological and hydrological data are available for a ten year period. The water balance including 7 parameters is computed including evapotranspiration, runoff and leakage. Soil properties related parameters are derived according to pedo transfer functions while two remaining parameters are considered as data driven and are subject to calibration. The model is calibrated using daily hydro meteorological data (solar radiation, air temperature, air humidity, mean areal rainfall) as well as daily runoff records and also average annual (or regional) evapotranspiration. The latter is estimated using an empirical sub-model. A set of acceptable solutions is identified according to the values of the Nash coefficients for annual and decadal runoffs as well as the relative bias for average annual evapotranspiration. Using these acceptable solutions several drought indices are computed: SPI (standard precipitation index), SMDI (soil moisture deficit index) and ETDI (evapotranspiration deficit index). While SPI indicators are based only on monthly precipitation time series, SMDI are based on weekly mean soil water content as computed by the hydrological model. On the other hand ETDI indices are based on weekly mean potential and actual evapotranspirations as estimated by the meteorological and hydrological models. For SPI evaluation various time scales are considered from one to twelve months (SPI1, SPI3, SPI6, SPI9 and SPI12). For all

  20. Measurement and modeling of energetic-material mass transfer to soil-pore water - Project CP-1227 final technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Phelan, James M.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2006-05-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live-fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low-order detonations also disperse solid-phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution. This final report documents the results of experimental and simulation model development for evaluating mass transfer processes from solid-phase energetics to soil-pore water.

  1. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  2. Wildfires effects on soils: water repellency, NIR models and post-fire treatments. My personal view (SSS Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcenegui, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    I first was intrigued by fire, because all summers we had some of them in our location, and then I was involve in fire effects on soils. We had, and also have, a lot of question to answer. I am absolutely sure that soil science was my best choice. Soils are amazing, a lot of things are happening in soils. Soils and fire, are my main research topics. I studied the immediately effect of fire on soils, focus on the effect of fire in soil water repellency and aggregate stability. Two physical properties that are crucial to post-fire soil response. I also construct NIR models to know the maximum temperature reached in soils. It is well known that temperature is a key factor affecting soils properties. Then, it is a really important tool to predict the temperature reached in a soil after a wildfire. Currently, I am involve in a project to investigate what are the best post-fire treatments in our soils and how this treatments affects soil properties.

  3. Sensitivity of a data-driven soil water balance model to estimate summer evapotranspiration along a forest chronosequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Breña Naranjo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The hydrology of ecosystem succession gives rise to new challenges for the analysis and modelling of water balance components. Recent large-scale alterations of forest cover across the globe suggest that a significant portion of new biophysical environments will influence the long-term dynamics and limits of water fluxes compared to pre-succession conditions. This study assesses the estimation of summer evapotranspiration along three FLUXNET sites at Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada using a data-driven soil water balance model validated by Eddy Covariance measurements. It explores the sensitivity of the model to different forest succession states, a wide range of computational time steps, rooting depths, and canopy interception capacity values. Uncertainty in the measured EC fluxes resulting in an energy imbalance was consistent with previous studies and does not affect the validation of the model. The agreement between observations and model estimates proves that the usefulness of the method to predict summer AET over mid- and long-term periods is independent of stand age. However, an optimal combination of the parameters rooting depth, time step and interception capacity threshold is needed to avoid an underestimation of AET as seen in past studies. The study suggests that summer AET could be estimated and monitored in many more places than those equipped with Eddy Covariance or sap-flow measurements to advance the understanding of water balance changes in different successional ecosystems.

  4. Modeling Agricultural Watersheds with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Calibration and Validation with a Novel Procedure for Spatially Explicit HRUs

    OpenAIRE

    Teshager, Awoke Dagnew; Gassman, Philip W; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin T.; Misgna, Girmaye

    2015-01-01

    Applications of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model typically involve delineation of a watershed into subwatersheds/subbasins that are then further subdivided into hydrologic response units (HRUs) which are homogeneous areas of aggregated soil, landuse, and slope and are the smallest modeling units used within the model. In a given standard SWAT application, multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) in a subbasin are usually aggregated into a single HRU feature. In other words, the st...

  5. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: model development and initial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Williams, Jimmy R; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land-atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes.

  6. Extracting Soil Water Holding Capacity Parameters of a Distributed Agro-Hydrological Model from High Resolution Optical Satellite Observations Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Ferrant

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-2 (S2 earth observation satellite mission, launched in 2015, is foreseen to promote within-field decisions in Precision Agriculture (PA for both: (1 optimizing crop production; and (2 regulating environmental impacts. In this second scope, a set of Leaf Area Index (LAI derived from S2 type time-series (2006–2010, using Formosat-2 satellite is used to spatially constrain the within-field crop growth and the related nitrogen contamination of surface water simulated at a small experimental catchment scale with the distributed agro-hydrological model Topography Nitrogen Transfer and Transformation (TNT2. The Soil Water Holding Capacity (SWHC, represented by two parameters, soil depth and retention porosity, is used to fit the yearly maximum of LAI (LAX at each pixel of the satellite image. Possible combinations of soil parameters, defining 154 realistic SWHC found on the study site are used to force spatially homogeneous SWHC. LAX simulated at the pixel level for the 154 SWHC, for each of the five years of the study period, are recorded and hereafter referred to as synthetic LAX. Optimal SWHCyear_I,pixel_j, corresponding to minimal difference between observed and synthetic LAXyear_I,pixel_j, is selected for each pixel, independent of the value at neighboring pixels. Each re-estimated soil maps are used to re-simulate LAXyear_I. Results show that simulated and synthetic LAXyear_I,allpixels obtained from SWHCyear_I,allpixels are close and accurately fit the observed LAXyear_I,allpixels (RMSE = 0.05 m2/m2 to 0.2 and R2 = 0.99 to 0.94, except for the year 2008 (RMSE = 0.8 m2/m2 and R2 = 0.8. These results show that optimal SWHC can be derived from remote sensing series for one year. Unique SWHC solutions for each pixel that limit the LAX error for the five years to less than 0.2 m2/m2 are found for only 10% of the pixels. Selection of unique soil parameters using multi-year LAX and neighborhood solution is expected to deliver more robust soil

  7. Water erosion as a cause for agricultural soil loss: modeling of dynamic processes using high-resolution ground based LiDAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Imri; Filin, Sagi; Assouline, Shmuel; Shtain, Zachi; Furman, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by rainfall and water flow is a frequent natural geomorphic process shaping the earth's surface at various scales. Conventional agrotechnical methods enhance soil erosion at the field scale and are at the origin of the reduction of the upper soil layer depth. This reduction is expressed in two aspects: decrease of soil depth, mainly due to erosion, and the diminution of soil quality, mainly due to the loss of fine material, nutrients and organic matter. Rain events, not even the most extremes, cause detachment and transport of fertile soil rich in organic matter and nutrients away from the fields, filling and plugging drainage channels, blocking infrastructure and contaminating water sources. Empirical, semi-empirical and mechanistic models are available to estimate soil erosion by water flow and sediment transport (e.g. WEPP, KINEROSS, EUROSEM). Calibration of these models requires data measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Development of high-resolution measurement tools (for both spatial and temporal aspects) should improve the calibration of functions related to particles detachment and transport from the soil surface. In addition, despite the great impact of different tillage systems on the soil erosion process, the vast majority of the models ignore this fundamental factor. The objective of this study is to apply high-resolution ground-based LiDAR measurements to different tillage schemes and scales to improve the ability of models to accurately describe the process of soil erosion induced by rainfall and overland flow. Ground-based laser scans provide high resolution accurate and subtle geomorphic changes, as well as larger-scale deformations. As such, it allows frequent monitoring, so that even the effect of a single storm can be measured, thus improving the calibration of the erosion models. Preliminary results for scans made in the field show the potential and limitations of ground-based LiDAR, and at this point qualitatively can

  8. A comparison of numerical and machine-learning modeling of soil water content with limited input data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandish, Fatemeh; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2016-12-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is a key factor in optimizing the usage of water resources in agriculture since it provides information to make an accurate estimation of crop water demand. Methods for predicting SWC that have simple data requirements are needed to achieve an optimal irrigation schedule, especially for various water-saving irrigation strategies that are required to resolve both food and water security issues under conditions of water shortages. Thus, a two-year field investigation was carried out to provide a dataset to compare the effectiveness of HYDRUS-2D, a physically-based numerical model, with various machine-learning models, including Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), and Support Vector Machines (SVM), for simulating time series of SWC data under water stress conditions. SWC was monitored using TDRs during the maize growing seasons of 2010 and 2011. Eight combinations of six, simple, independent parameters, including pan evaporation and average air temperature as atmospheric parameters, cumulative growth degree days (cGDD) and crop coefficient (Kc) as crop factors, and water deficit (WD) and irrigation depth (In) as crop stress factors, were adopted for the estimation of SWCs in the machine-learning models. Having Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the range of 0.54-2.07 mm, HYDRUS-2D ranked first for the SWC estimation, while the ANFIS and SVM models with input datasets of cGDD, Kc, WD and In ranked next with RMSEs ranging from 1.27 to 1.9 mm and mean bias errors of -0.07 to 0.27 mm, respectively. However, the MLR models did not perform well for SWC forecasting, mainly due to non-linear changes of SWCs under the irrigation process. The results demonstrated that despite requiring only simple input data, the ANFIS and SVM models could be favorably used for SWC predictions under water stress conditions, especially when there is a lack of data. However, process-based numerical models are undoubtedly a

  9. Forest floor methane flux modelled by soil water content and ground vegetation - comparison to above canopy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Haikarainen, Iikka; Ryhti, Kira; Rannik, Üllar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important and strong greenhouse gas of which atmospheric concentration is rising. While boreal forests are considered as an important sink of CH4 due to soil CH4 oxidation, the soils have also a capacity to emit CH4. Moreover, vegetation is shown to contribute to the ecosystem-atmosphere CH4 flux, and it has been estimated to be the least well known natural sources of CH4. In addition to well-known CH4 emissions from wetland plants, even boreal trees have been discovered to emit CH4. At the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland (61° 51' N, 24°17' E; 181 m asl), we have detected small CH4 emissions from above the canopy of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated forest. To assess the origin of the observed emissions, we conducted forest floor CH4 flux measurements with 54 soil chambers at the footprint area of the above canopy flux measurements during two growing seasons. In addition, we measured the soil volumetric water content (VWC) every time next to the forest floor chamber measurements, and estimated vegetation coverages inside the chambers. In order to model the forest floor CH4 flux at the whole footprint area, we combined lidar (light detection and ranging) data with the field measurements. To predict the soil water content and thus the potential CH4 flux, we used local elevation, slope, and ground return intensity (GRI), calculated from the lidar data (National Land Survey of Finland). We categorized the soil chambers into four classes based on the VWC so that the class with the highest VWC values includes all the soil chambers with a potential to emit CH4. Based on a statistically significant correlation between the VWC and the forest floor CH4 flux (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), we modelled the potential forest floor CH4 flux of the whole area. The results of the soil chamber measurements show a few areas of the forest floor with significant CH4 emissions. The modelled map

  10. Evaluating the eco-hydrologic impacts of soil and water conservation in the Jinghe River Basin of Loess Plateau, China, using an eco-hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Jia, Yangwen; Tague, Christina; Slaughter, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1950s, soil and water conservation has been widely applied in the Loess Plateau in China. We examine the eco-hydrologic responses to soil and water conservation in the Jinghe River Basin of Loess Plateau in two scales - catchment scale and basin scale, using Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). In the catchment scale, we apply the model to disentangle the relative roles played by inter-annual variation and longer-term trends in climate drivers and re-growth following reforestation. Our model-based analysis of trends in forest water use highlights the differences in the response of control and reforested catchments to similar declines in annual precipitation in this region over the past decades. Model estimates show that while reforestation does increase vegetation water use, the impacts on streamflow are small relative to the impact of precipitation trends on streamflow, and forest water use. Results also show that the greatest impact of reforestation is likely to be on groundwater recharge but also suggest that evaporation rather than transpiration is a significant contributor to hydrologic change. In the basin scales, we applied the modified model to evaluate the impacts of soil and water conservation measures on streamflow. Results demonstrate that the soil and water conservation decreased annual streamflow by 8% (0.1 billion m3), with the largest decrease occurring in the 2000s. Model estimates also suggest that soil and water conservation engineering has greater impacts than vegetation recovery. This study offers scientific support for soil and water conservation planning and management in this region.

  11. Development of a predictive model for lead, cadmium and fluorine soil-water partition coefficients using sparse multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kengo; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Komai, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we applied sparse multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis to clarify the relationships between soil properties and adsorption characteristics for a range of soils across Japan and identify easily-obtained physical and chemical soil properties that could be used to predict K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine. A model was first constructed that can easily predict the K and n values from nine soil parameters (pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, total carbon, soil organic matter from loss on ignition and water holding capacity, the ratio of sand, silt and clay). The K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine of 17 soil samples were used to verify the SMLR models by the root mean square error values obtained from 512 combinations of soil parameters. The SMLR analysis indicated that fluorine adsorption to soil may be associated with organic matter, whereas cadmium or lead adsorption to soil is more likely to be influenced by soil pH, IL. We found that an accurate K value can be predicted from more than three soil parameters for most soils. Approximately 65% of the predicted values were between 33 and 300% of their measured values for the K value; 76% of the predicted values were within ±30% of their measured values for the n value. Our findings suggest that adsorption properties of lead, cadmium and fluorine to soil can be predicted from the soil physical and chemical properties using the presented models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G

    2015-12-01

    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  13. Assimilation of SMOS soil moisture into a distributed hydrological model and impacts on the water cycle variables over the Ouémé catchment in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Delphine J.; Pellarin, Thierry; Vischel, Théo; Cohard, Jean-Martial; Gascon, Tania; Gibon, François; Mialon, Arnaud; Galle, Sylvie; Peugeot, Christophe; Seguis, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation forcing is usually the main source of uncertainty in hydrology. It is of crucial importance to use accurate forcing in order to obtain a good distribution of the water throughout the basin. For real-time applications, satellite observations allow quasi-real-time precipitation monitoring like the products PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) or CMORPH (CPC (Climate Prediction Center) MORPHing). However, especially in West Africa, these precipitation satellite products are highly inaccurate and the water amount can vary by a factor of 2. A post-adjusted version of these products exists but is available with a 2 to 3 month delay, which is not suitable for real-time hydrologic applications. The purpose of this work is to show the possible synergy between quasi-real-time satellite precipitation and soil moisture by assimilating the latter into a hydrological model. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture is assimilated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) model. By adjusting the soil water content, water table depth and streamflow simulations are much improved compared to real-time precipitation without assimilation: soil moisture bias is decreased even at deeper soil layers, correlation of the water table depth is improved from 0.09-0.70 to 0.82-0.87, and the Nash coefficients of the streamflow go from negative to positive. Overall, the statistics tend to get closer to those from the reanalyzed precipitation. Soil moisture assimilation represents a fair alternative to reanalyzed rainfall products, which can take several months before being available, which could lead to a better management of available water resources and extreme events.

  14. Water repellent soils: the case for unsaturated soil mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckett Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.

  15. Thermal remote sensing of surface soil water content with partial vegetation cover for incorporation into climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.

    1995-01-01

    This study outlines a method for the estimation of regional patterns of surface moisture availability (M(sub 0)) and fractional vegetation (Fr) in the presence of spatially variable vegetation cover. The method requires relating variations in satellite-derived (NOAA, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) surface radiant temperature to a vegetation index (computed from satellite visible and near-infrared data) while coupling this association to an inverse modeling scheme. More than merely furnishing surface soil moisture values, the method constitues a new conceptual and practical approach for combining thermal infrared and vegetation index measurements for incorporating the derived values of M(sub 0) into hydrologic and atmospheric prediction models. Application of the technique is demonstrated for a region in and around the city of Newcastle upon Tyne situated in the northeast of England. A regional estimate of M(sub 0) is derived and is probabbly good for fractional vegetation cover up to 80% before errors in the estimated soil water content become unacceptably large. Moreover, a normalization scheme is suggested from which a nomogram, `universal triangle,' is constructed and is seen to fit the observed data well. The universal triangle also simplifies the inclusion of remotely derived M(sub 0) in hydrology and meteorological models and is perhaps a practicable step toward integrating derived data from satellite measurements in weather forecasting.

  16. Thermal remote sensing of surface soil water content with partial vegetation cover for incorporation into climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.

    1995-01-01

    This study outlines a method for the estimation of regional patterns of surface moisture availability (M(sub 0)) and fractional vegetation (Fr) in the presence of spatially variable vegetation cover. The method requires relating variations in satellite-derived (NOAA, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) surface radiant temperature to a vegetation index (computed from satellite visible and near-infrared data) while coupling this association to an inverse modeling scheme. More than merely furnishing surface soil moisture values, the method constitues a new conceptual and practical approach for combining thermal infrared and vegetation index measurements for incorporating the derived values of M(sub 0) into hydrologic and atmospheric prediction models. Application of the technique is demonstrated for a region in and around the city of Newcastle upon Tyne situated in the northeast of England. A regional estimate of M(sub 0) is derived and is probabbly good for fractional vegetation cover up to 80% before errors in the estimated soil water content become unacceptably large. Moreover, a normalization scheme is suggested from which a nomogram, `universal triangle,' is constructed and is seen to fit the observed data well. The universal triangle also simplifies the inclusion of remotely derived M(sub 0) in hydrology and meteorological models and is perhaps a practicable step toward integrating derived data from satellite measurements in weather forecasting.

  17. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  18. Simulation of Soil Water Content Variability in a Heavy Clay Soil under Contrasting Soil Managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, A.; Vanderlinden, K.; Martínez, G.; Espejo, A. J.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is a key variable for numerous physical, chemical and biological processes that take place at or near the soil surface. Understanding the spatial and temporal variability of SWC at the field scale is of prime importance for implementing efficient measurement strategies in applications. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal variation of gravimetric SWC in a heavy clay soil, in a wheat-sunflower-legume rotation under conventional (CT) and no-till (NT) using a simple water balance model. An experimental field in SW Spain, where conventional (CT) and no-till (NT) management of a heavy clay soil are being compared since 1983, was sampled for gravimetric SWC on 38 occasions during 2008 and 2009. Topsoil clay content across the six plots was on average 55%, with a standard deviation of 2.7%. The soil profile was sampled at 54 locations, evenly distributed over the three CT and NT plots, at depths of 0-10, 25-35, and 55-65 cm. Topsoil water retention curves (SWRC) were determined in the laboratory on undisturbed soil samples from each of the 54 locations. A weather station recorded daily precipitation and evapotranspiration, as calculated by the Penman-Monteith FAO equation. The water balance was calculated using the Thornthwaite-Mather model with a daily time step. Three parameters, water holding capacity, and water evaporation corrector coefficients for each of the two years, were inversely estimated at the 54 SWC observation points and probability density functions were identified. Spatial variability of SWC was estimated using a Monte Carlo approach, and simulated and observed variability were compared. This Monte Carlo scheme, using a simple water balance model with only three parameters, was found to be useful for evaluating the influence of soil management on the variability of SWC in heavy clay soils.

  19. Groundwater-soil moisture-climate interactions: lessons from idealized model experiments with forced water table depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharne, Agnès; Lo, Min-Hui; Decharme, Bertrand; Wang, Fuxing; Cheruy, Frédérique; Ghattas, Josefine; Chien, Rong-You; lan, Chia-Wei; Colin, Jeanne; Tyteca, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater (GW) constitutes by far the largest volume of liquid freshwater on Earth. The most active part is soil moisture (SM), recognized as a key variable of land/atmosphere interactions, especially in so-called transition zones, where/when SM varies between wet and dry values. But GW can also be stored in deeper reservoirs than soils, in particular unconfined aquifer systems, in which the saturated part is called the water table (WT). The latter is characterized by slow and mostly horizontal water flows towards the river network, with well-known buffering effects on streamflow variability. Where/when the WT is shallow enough, it can also sustain SM by means of capillary rise, thus increase evapotranspiration (ET), with potential impact on the climate system (including temperatures and precipitation). The large residence time of GW may also increase the Earth system's memory, with consequences on the persistence of extreme events, hydro-climatic predictability, and anthropogenic climate change, particularly the magnitude of regional warming. Here, our main goal is to explore the potential impacts of the water table depth (WTD) on historical climate through idealized model analyses. To this end, we force three state-of-the art land surface models (LSMs), namely CLM, ORCHIDEE, and SURFEX, with prescribed WTDs ranging from 0.5 to 10 m. The LSMs are run either off-line or coupled to their parent climate model, following LMIP/AMIP-like protocols for intercomparability. Within this framework, we want to assess the sensitivity of ET and the simulated climate to the WTD in a systematic way. In particular, we will identify and compare the patterns of the critical WTD, defined as the deepest one to achieve a significant change in ET. To this end, we estimate derivatives of ET with respect to WTD, which tell how the sensitivity of ET to a unit change in WTD evolves with WTD. In each grid-point, these derivatives can be used to define the critical WTD, given a threshold ET

  20. How to put plant root uptake into a soil water flow model [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved crop water use efficiency calls for flexible modeling platforms to implement new ideas in plant root uptake and its regulation mechanisms. This paper documents the details of modifying a soil infiltration and redistribution model to include (a dynamic root growth, (b non-uniform root distribution and water uptake, (c the effect of water stress on plant water uptake, and (d soil evaporation. The paper also demonstrates strategies of using the modified model to simulate soil water dynamics and plant transpiration considering different sensitivity of plants to soil dryness and different mechanisms of root water uptake. In particular, the flexibility of simulating various degrees of compensated uptake (whereby plants tend to maintain potential transpiration under mild water stress is emphasized. The paper also describes how to estimate unknown root distribution and rooting depth parameters by the use of a simulation-based searching method. The full documentation of the computer code will allow further applications and new development.

  1. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  2. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  3. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from

  4. Prediction of the Soil Water Characteristic from Soil Particle Volume Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw......*-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  5. Modeling soil moisture memory in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, S.; Miller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Antecedent soil conditions create an ecosystem's "memory" of past rainfall events. Such soil moisture memory effects may be observed over a range of timescales, from daily to yearly, and lead to feedbacks between hydrological and ecosystem processes. In this study, we modeled the soil moisture memory effect on savanna ecosystems in California, Arizona, and Africa, using a system dynamics model created to simulate the ecohydrological processes at the plot-scale. The model was carefully calibrated using soil moisture and evapotranspiration data collected at three study sites. The model was then used to simulate scenarios with various initial soil moisture conditions and antecedent precipitation regimes, in order to study the soil moisture memory effects on the evapotranspiration of understory and overstory species. Based on the model results, soil texture and antecedent precipitation regime impact the redistribution of water within soil layers, potentially causing deeper soil layers to influence the ecosystem for a longer time. Of all the study areas modeled, soil moisture memory of California savanna ecosystem site is replenished and dries out most rapidly. Thus soil moisture memory could not maintain the high rate evapotranspiration for more than a few days without incoming rainfall event. On the contrary, soil moisture memory of Arizona savanna ecosystem site lasts the longest time. The plants with different root depths respond to different memory effects; shallow-rooted species mainly respond to the soil moisture memory in the shallow soil. The growing season of grass is largely depended on the soil moisture memory of the top 25cm soil layer. Grass transpiration is sensitive to the antecedent precipitation events within daily to weekly timescale. Deep-rooted plants have different responses since these species can access to the deeper soil moisture memory with longer time duration Soil moisture memory does not have obvious impacts on the phenology of woody plants

  6. Investigation of the relationship between landform classes and electrical conductivity (EC) of water and soil using a fuzzy model in a GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Soil genesis is highly dependent on landforms as they control the erosional processes and the soil physical and chemical properties. The relationship between landform classification and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil and water in the northern part of Meharloo watershed, Fars province, Iran, was investigated using a combination of a geographical information system (GIS) and a fuzzy model. The results of the fuzzy method for water EC showed 36.6 % of the land to be moderately land suitable for agriculture; high, 31.69 %; and very high, 31.65 %. In comparison, the results of the fuzzy method for soil EC showed 24.31 % of the land to be as not suitable for agriculture (low class); moderate, 11.78 %; high, 25.74 %; and very high, 38.16 %. In total, the land suitable for agriculture with low EC is located in the north and northeast of the study area. The relationship between landform and EC shows that EC of water is high for the valley classes, while the EC of soil is high in the upland drainage class. In addition, the lowest EC levels for soil and water are in the plains class.

  7. Assessment and utilization of soil water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analyses of water interactions and water balance, this paper discusses the issues on the assessment and regulation of soil water resources, which lays the scientific basis for limited irrigation and water-saving agriculture.

  8. Modeling sediment and nitrogen export from a rural watershed in eastern Canada using the soil and water assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees Ahmad, Hafiz M; Sinclair, Andrew; Jamieson, Rob; Madani, Ali; Hebb, Dale; Havard, Peter; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K

    2011-01-01

    Watershed simulation models can be used to assess agricultural nonpoint-source pollution and for environmental planning and improvement projects. However, before application of any process-based watershed model, the model performance and reliability must be tested with measured data. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool version 2005 (SWAT2005) was used to model sediment and nitrogen loads from the Thomas Brook Watershed, which drains a 7.84 km rural landscape in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Canada. The Thomas Brook SWAT model was comprised of 28 subbasins and 265 hydrologic response units, most of them containing agricultural land use, which is the main nonpoint nitrogen source in the watershed. Crop rotation schedules were incorporated into the model using field data collected within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices program. Model calibration (2004-2006) and validation (2007-2008) were performed on a monthly basis using continuous stream flow, sediment, and nitrogen export measurements. Model performance was evaluated using the coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) statistics. Study results show that the model performance was satisfactory (NSE > 0.4; > 0.5) for stream flow, sediment, nitrate-nitrogen, and total nitrogen simulations. Annual corn, barley, and wheat yields were also simulated well, with PBIAS values ranging from 0.3 to 7.2%. This evaluation of SWAT demonstrated that the model has the potential to be used as a decision support tool for agricultural watershed management in Nova Scotia.

  9. Soil phosphorus landscape models for precision soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinseok; Grunwald, Sabine; Vasques, Gustavo M

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment in soils has been documented in the Santa Fe River watershed (SFRW, 3585 km) in north-central Florida. Yet the environmental factors that control P distribution in soils across the landscape, with potential contribution to water quality impairment, are not well understood. The main goal of this study was to develop soil-landscape P models to support a "precision soil conservation" approach combining fine-scale (i.e., site-specific) and coarse-scale (i.e., watershed-extent) assessment of soil P. The specific objectives were to: (i) identify those environmental properties that impart the most control on the spatial distribution of soil Mehlich-1 extracted P (MP) in the SFRW; (ii) model the spatial patterns of soil MP using geostatistical methods; and (iii) assess model quality using independent validation samples. Soil MP data at 137 sites were fused with spatially explicit environmental covariates to develop soil MP prediction models using univariate (lognormal kriging, LNK) and multivariate methods (regression kriging, RK, and cokriging, CK). Incorporation of exhaustive environmental data into multivariate models (RK and CK) improved the prediction of soil MP in the SFRW compared with the univariate model (LNK), which relies solely on soil measurements. Among all tested environmental covariates, land use and vegetation related properties (topsoil) and geologic data (subsoil) showed the largest predictive power to build inferential models for soil MP. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of spatially explicit interactions between soil P and other environmental variables, facilitating improved land resource management while minimizing adverse risks to the environment.

  10. A New European Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS-Factor for Modeling Soil Erosion by Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model is the most frequently used model for soil erosion risk estimation. Among the six input layers, the combined slope length and slope angle (LS-factor has the greatest influence on soil loss at the European scale. The S-factor measures the effect of slope steepness, and the L-factor defines the impact of slope length. The combined LS-factor describes the effect of topography on soil erosion. The European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC developed a new pan-European high-resolution soil erosion assessment to achieve a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in Europe. The LS-calculation was performed using the original equation proposed by Desmet and Govers (1996 and implemented using the System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA, which incorporates a multiple flow algorithm and contributes to a precise estimation of flow accumulation. The LS-factor dataset was calculated using a high-resolution (25 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM for the whole European Union, resulting in an improved delineation of areas at risk of soil erosion as compared to lower-resolution datasets. This combined approach of using GIS software tools with high-resolution DEMs has been successfully applied in regional assessments in the past, and is now being applied for first time at the European scale.

  11. Hydraulic properties comparison in the calibration of CropSyst, SWAP and MACRO models in simulating soil water content for 3 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A.; Fragnito, F.; Manna, P.; Orefice, N.; Pastori, M.; Perego, A.

    2009-04-01

    The quantification of the water balance components within soil-crop-climate system is strictly required to derive proper management conditions for plant growth and environmental protection. Numerical models are currently accepted as helpful tools to gain into the processes occurring in the soil-crop-climate system and to extrapolate data. A large number of available models solves, at field scale, the water balance components by the well known Richard's equation. Despite their common basis of the representation of water flow in the unsaturated zone, it is possible that with the same pedological, climatic and agronomic management conditions, apparently similar hydrological models give different answers. Therefore, to test the capability of a model to represent reality, model simulation must be compared with experimental data and with simulations by other models. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the performances of three well known models (SWAP, MACRO and CropSyst based on the solution of the Richard's equation). Main attention was focussed on the effects of the calibration of the three models on the soil hydraulic properties parameterization. The performance of SWAP, MACRO and CropSyst is compared using field data collected from a structured fine soil (Vertic Calciustepts located in Cerese, Mantova, Italy) cropped to maize. The models are tested and compared on the basis of their ability to predict in situ the measured soil water content at different depths during the years 2002-2004. Water contents was measured with a TDR equipment at 5 depth, where possible with daily frequency. All three models produce acceptable predictions, as evidence by an average root mean square error (RMSE) within ± 0.031 and an average coefficient of residual mass (CRM) within ± 0.66. The SWAP and CropSyst models produces the better performance, but in absolute none of the models is consistently more accurate than the others. In any case the different

  12. Performance Evaluation of FAO Model for Prediction of Yield Production, Soil Water and Solute Balance under Environmental Stresses (Case Study Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rezaverdinejad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the FAO agro-hydrological model was investigated and evaluated to predict of yield production, soil water and solute balance by winter wheat field data under water and salt stresses. For this purpose, a field experimental was conducted with three salinity levels of irrigation water include: S1, S2 and S3 corresponding to 1.4, 4.5 and 9.6 dS/m, respectively, and four irrigation depth levels include: I1, I2, I3 and I4 corresponding to 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop water requirement, respectively, for two varieties of winter wheat: Roshan and Ghods, with three replications in an experimental farm of Birjand University for 1384-85 period. Based on results, the mean relative error of the model in yield prediction for Roshan and Ghods were obtained 9.2 and 26.1%, respectively. The maximum error of yield prediction in both of the Roshan and Ghods varieties, were obtained for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 treatments. The relative error of Roshan yield prediction for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 were calculated 20.0, 28.1 and 26.6%, respectively and for Ghods variety were calculated 61, 94.5 and 99.9%, respectively, that indicated a significant over estimate error under higher water stress. The mean relative error of model for all treatments, in prediction of soil water depletion and electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract, were calculated 7.1 and 5.8%, respectively, that indicated proper accuracy of model in prediction of soil water content and soil salinity.

  13. Predicting sub-grid variability of soil water content from basic soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Bogena, Heye; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Vanderborght, Jan; Schuh, Max; Priesack, Eckart; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of unresolved soil water content variability within model grid cells (i.e. sub-grid variability) is important for accurate predictions of land-surface energy and hydrologic fluxes. Here, we derived a closed-form expression to describe how soil water content variability depends on mean soil water content using stochastic analysis of 1D unsaturated gravitational flow based on the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model. A sensitivity analysis of this closed-form expression showed that the n parameter strongly influenced both the shape and magnitude of the maximum of this relationship. In a next step, the closed-form expression was used to predict soil water content variability for eight datasets with varying soil texture using VGM parameters obtained from pedotransfer functions that rely on readily available soil information. Generally, there was good agreement between observed and predicted soil water content variability despite the obvious simplifications that were used to derive the closed-form expression (e.g. gravity flow in dry soils). A simplified closed-form expression that neglected the effect of pressure head fluctuations showed that the good performance in the dry soil range is related to the dominant role of the variability in MVG parameters determining water retention as compared to the effect of water flow. Furthermore, the novel closed-form expression was successfully used to inversely estimate the variability of hydraulic properties from observed data on soil water content variability from several test sites in Germany, China and Australia.

  14. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  15. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available sites in the Mpu- malanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hy- pothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple model- ing of the soil water balance could be used...

  16. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  17. Joint modeling of canopy interception and soil water flow to compare infiltration rates below two land covers (Galápagos Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, C.; Pryet, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Tournebize, J.; Chaumont, C.; Villacis, M.; D'ozouville, N. I.; Violette, S.

    2014-12-01

    Most volcanic islands face issues due to an imbalance between constantly increasing population and limited freshwater resources. In this context, groundwater exploitation is a valuable strategy and the estimation of recharge rates is crucial for water management planning, specially considering the changes in land use. In the present study we aim to assess the impact of land cover change on the groundwater recharge at the Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos), where a marked vegetation zonation is observed on the windward side. We studied during one year two adjacent land covers that extend on the majority of the island: a secondary forest and a pasture land. We monitored the climatic variables and throughfall over the pasture and under the forest, respectively. At both plots, the soil water suction was measured with automatic tensiometers in a vertical profile at different soil depth. We associate (i) a Rutter-type canopy interception model, with (ii) a 1-D physically-based variably saturated flow model. This allows the estimation of interception losses, cloud water interception, plant transpiration, runoff and deep percolation. The model was calibrated with the throughfall and soil water suction measurements. The model reveals contrasting behaviors in the soil water transfers between the two plots. The difference could be attributed to the reduction of the net precipitation input at the forest, which is caused by higher evaporation losses at the canopy. The approach provides insights about the soil water dynamics under different land covers, and may help to assess the effect of land use change in the groundwater recharge of a vast region of the island.

  18. Modeling Responses of Dryland Spring Triticale, Proso Millet and Foxtail Millet to Initial Soil Water in the High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryland farming strategies in the High Plains must make efficient use of limited and variable precipitation and stored water in the soil profile for stable and sustainable farm productivity. Current research efforts focus on replacing summer fallow in the region with more profitable and environmenta...

  19. Evaluation of water management strategies for acid sulphate soils using a simulation model: a case study in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Wijk, van A.L.M.; Nugroho, K.

    1995-01-01

    Reclamation and drainage of potential acid sulphate soils results in acidification and release of toxic elements, hampering their use for agriculture. Ecologically valuable habitats located downstream of reclamation areas may be disrupted. Proper water management is essential to a sustainable reclam

  20. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Ecohydrological Model Circa 2015: Global Application Trends, Insights and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, P. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one of the most widely used watershed-scale water quality models in the world. Over 2,000 peer-reviewed SWAT-related journal articles have been published and hundreds of other studies have been published in conference proceedings and other formats. The use of SWAT was initially concentrated in North America and Europe but has also expanded dramatically in other countries and regions during the past decade including Brazil, China, India, Iran, South Korea, Southeast Asia and eastern Africa. The SWAT model has proven to be a very flexible tool for investigating a broad range of hydrologic and water quality problems at different watershed scales and environmental conditions, and has proven very adaptable for applications requiring improved hydrologic and other enhanced simulation needs. We investigate here the various technological, networking, and other factors that have supported the expanded use of SWAT, and also highlight current worldwide simulation trends and possible impediments to future increased usage of the model. Examples of technological advances include easy access to web-based documentation, user-support groups, and SWAT literature, a variety of Geographic Information System (GIS) interface tools, pre- and post-processing calibration software and other software, and an open source code which has served as a model development catalyst for multiple user groups. Extensive networking regarding the use of SWAT has further occurred via internet-based user support groups, model training workshops, regional working groups, regional and international conferences, and targeted development workshops. We further highlight several important model development trends that have emerged during the past decade including improved hydrologic, cropping system, best management practice (BMP) and pollutant transport simulation methods. In addition, several current SWAT weaknesses will be addressed and key development needs will be

  1. Impact of water content and decomposition stage on the soil water repellency of peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Ullrich; Sokolowsky, Liv; Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bachmann, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency is widely reported for all kinds of soils and mainly caused by hydrophobic organic compounds. It has a substantial influence on soil hydraulic processes such as water infiltration, preferential flow paths and evaporation and therefore on hydrological processes in general. The severity of soil water repellency strongly depends on the soil water content and the amount of soil organic carbon. Although peat soils are characterized by high soil organic carbon contents, studies about peat soils are rare and mostly available for horticultural substrates. Here, we present soil water repellency measurements for peat soils with varying porosities, bulk densities and stages of decomposition. The peat soils were sampled at two different sites in a bog complex. The sites have been drained for 1 and 100 years. Samples were taken from each soil layer and, additionally, in a vertical resolution of 0.03 m. To determine the soil water contents at which the peat becomes water repellent, we applied the commonly used water drop penetration time test on progressively dewatered samples. In order to identify the influence of the decomposition stage as determined by the depth within the soil profile and duration of drainage, the potential soil water repellency was measured at air-dried sieved samples by the sessile drop method. First results show that the soil water repellency of peat soils is strongly dependent on the soil water content. For air-dried peat samples, the influence of different decomposition stages of the bog peat is negligible. All air-dried samples are extremely water repellent with contact angles > 130°. However, comparing the results with the soil organic matter content shows a slightly tendency of increasing soil water repellency with increasing soil organic matter contents.

  2. The use of soil electrical resistivity to monitor plant and soil water relationships in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, L.; Mathieu, O.; Bois, B.; van Leeuwen, C.; Lévêque, J.

    2015-03-01

    Soil water availability deeply affects plant physiology. In viticulture it is considered a major contributor to the "terroir" effect. The assessment of soil water in field conditions is a difficult task, especially over large surfaces. New techniques are therefore required in order to better explore variations of soil water content in space and time with low disturbance and with great precision. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) meets these requirements for applications in plant sciences, agriculture and ecology. In this paper, possible techniques to develop models that allow the use of ERT to spatialise soil water available to plants are reviewed. An application of soil water monitoring using ERT in a grapevine plot in Burgundy (north-east France) during the vintage 2013 is presented. We observed the lateral heterogeneity of ERT-derived fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) variations, and differences in water uptake depend on grapevine water status (leaf water potentials measured both at predawn and at solar noon and contemporary to ERT monitoring). Active zones in soils for water movements were identified. The use of ERT in ecophysiological studies, with parallel monitoring of plant water status, is still rare. These methods are promising because they have the potential to reveal a hidden part of a major function of plant development: the capacity to extract water from the soil.

  3. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  4. Characteristics of soil water retention curve at macro-scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Scale adaptable hydrological models have attracted more and more attentions in the hydrological modeling research community, and the constitutive relationship at the macro-scale is one of the most important issues, upon which there are not enough research activities yet. Taking the constitutive relationships of soil water movement--soil water retention curve (SWRC) as an example, this study extends the definition of SWRC at the micro-scale to that at the macro-scale, and aided by Monte Carlo method we demonstrate that soil property and the spatial distribution of soil moisture will affect the features of SWRC greatly. Furthermore, we assume that the spatial distribution of soil moisture is the result of self-organization of climate, soil, ground water and soil water movement under the specific boundary conditions, and we also carry out numerical experiments of soil water movement at the vertical direction in order to explore the relationship between SWRC at the macro-scale and the combinations of climate, soil, and groundwater. The results show that SWRCs at the macro-scale and micro-scale presents totally different features, e.g., the essential hysteresis phenomenon which is exaggerated with increasing aridity index and rising groundwater table. Soil property plays an important role in the shape of SWRC which will even lead to a rectangular shape under drier conditions, and power function form of SWRC widely adopted in hydrological model might be revised for most situations at the macro-scale.

  5. Linkage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and the Texas Water Availability Model to simulate the effects of brush management on monthly storage of Canyon Lake, south-central Texas, 1995-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, developed and applied an approach to create a linkage between the published upper Guadalupe River Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) brush-management (ashe juniper [Juniperus ashei]) model and the full authorization version Guadalupe River Water Availability Model (WAM). The SWAT model was published by the USGS, and the Guadalupe River WAM is available from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The upper Guadalupe River watershed is a substantial component of the Guadalupe River WAM. This report serves in part as documentation of a proof of concept on the feasibility of linking these two water-resources planning models for the purpose of simulating possible increases in water storage in Canyon Lake as a result of different brush-management scenarios.

  6. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  7. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate

  8. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, P. J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Forest Science and Technology, Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1996-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa were studied to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. It was expected that by defining this relationship, modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict the fraction of transpiration taking place at any given time. As part of the experimental procedure soil water recharge was prevented by plastic sheeting, thus allowing the roots in the soil to induce continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed only moderate drought stress; trees at both sites extracted water down to eight meters and more, below the surface. These results suggest that because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanisms and other related factors, soil water balance studies are not useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits at these sites. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. The Changing Model of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  10. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of estimated soil hydraulic parameters for simulating soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Garg, Naveen Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis has been carried out for the scalar parameters (soil hydraulic parameters (SHPs)), which govern the simulation of soil water content in the unsaturated soil zone. The study involves field experiments, which were conducted in real field conditions for wheat crop in Roorkee, India under irrigated conditions. Soil samples were taken for the soil profile of 60 cm depth at an interval of 15 cm in the experimental field to determine soil water retention curves (SWRCs). These experimentally determined SWRCs were used to estimate the SHPs by least square optimization under constrained conditions. Sensitivity of the SHPs estimated by various pedotransfer functions (PTFs), that relate various easily measurable soil properties like soil texture, bulk density and organic carbon content, is compared with lab derived parameters to simulate respective soil water retention curves. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the monte carlo simulations and the one factor at a time approach. The different sets of SHPs, along with experimentally determined saturated permeability, are then used as input parameters in physically based, root water uptake model to ascertain the uncertainties in simulating soil water content. The generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure (GLUE) was subsequently used to estimate the uncertainty bounds (UB) on the model predictions. It was found that the experimentally obtained SHPs were able to simulate the soil water contents with efficiencies of 70-80% at all the depths for the three irrigation treatments. The SHPs obtained from the PTFs, performed with varying uncertainties in simulating the soil water contents. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Uncertainty estimation, Pedotransfer functions, Soil hydraulic parameters, Hydrological modelling

  11. Modelling runoff and soil water content with the DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model at catchment scale under Mediterranean conditions (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel, , Dr.; Palazón, M. Sc. Leticia; Quijano, M. Sc. Laura; Gaspar, Leticia, , Dr.; Navas, Ana, , Dr.

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological and soil erosion models allow mapping and quantifying spatially distributed rates of runoff depth and soil redistribution for different land uses, management and tillage practices and climatic scenarios. The different temporal and spatial [very small (1000 km2)] scales of numerical simulations make model selection specific to each range of scales. Additionally, the spatial resolution of the inputs is in agreement with the size of the study area. In this study, we run the GIS-based water balance DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model (freely downloaded as executable file at http://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/93543), in the Vandunchil stream catchment (23 km2; Ebro river basin, NE Spain). All input maps are generated at 5 x 5 m of cell size (924,573 pixels per map) allowing sound parameterization. Simulation is run at monthly scale with average climatic values. This catchment is an open hydrological system and it has a long history of human occupation, agricultural practices and water management. Numerous manmade infrastructures or landscape linear elements (LLEs: paved and unpaved trails, rock mounds in non-cultivated areas, disperse and small settlements, shallow and long drainage ditches, stone walls, small rock dams, fences and vegetation strips) appear throughout the hillslopes and streams and modify the natural runoff pathways and thus the hydrological and sediment connectivity. Rain-fed cereal fields occupy one third of the catchment area, 1% corresponds to sealed soils, and the remaining area is covered with Mediterranean forest, scrubland, pine afforestation and meadow. The parent material corresponds to Miocene sandstones and lutites and Holocene colluvial and alluvial deposits. The climate is continental Mediterranean with two humid periods, one in spring and a second in autumn that summarizes 63% of the total annual precipitation. We created a synthetic weather station (WS) from the Caseda and Uncastillo WS. The effective rainfall that reaches the soils

  12. Monitoring and modeling of water flow and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system of poplar trees to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Speranza, Giuseppe; Sica, Benedetto; Romano, Nunzio

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a series of studies being carried out within the EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS). The project refers to Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano that has been identified as National Interest Priority Site (NIPS) and includes some polluted agricultural land belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces of the Campania Region. The major aim of the project is to define an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of plant extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. This contribution specifically address the question of evaluating the effectiveness of phytoremediation actions selected by the project in the pilot area of Trentola-Ducenta and will provide some preliminary results of monitoring and modeling activities. A physical and hydraulic characterization has been carried out in this area where poplar trees were planted. Monitoring of water flow, root water uptake and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere is under way with reference to two trees using capacitance soil moisture and matric potential sensors located at three different soil depths, whereas plant water status and evapotranspiration fluxes are indirectly estimated using fast-responding stem dendrometers.

  13. Uneven moisture patterns in water repellent soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, water-repellent soils are widespread and they often show irregular moisture patterns, which cause accelerated transport of water and solutes to the groundwater and surface water. Under grass cover, spatial variability in soil moisture content is high owing to fingered flow; in ar

  14. Soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Liangtong

    2007-01-01

    The intensive soil-water interaction in unsatura- ted expansive soil is one of the major reasons for slope fail- ures. In this paper, the soil-water interaction is investigated with the full-scale field inspection of rainwater infiltration and comprehensive experiments, including wetting-induced softening tests, swelling, and shrinkage tests. It is demonstrat- ed that the soil-water interaction induced by seasonal wetting- drying cycles is very complex, and it involves coupled effects among the changes in water content, suction, stress, deforma- tion and shear strength. In addition, the abundant cracks in the expansive soil play an important role in the soil-water interaction. The cracks disintegrate the soil mass, and more importantly, provide easy pathways for rainfall infiltration. Infiltration of rainwater not only results in wetting-induced softening of the shallow unsaturated soil layers, but also leads to the increase of horizontal stress. The increase of horizontal stress may lead to a local passive failure. The seasonal wetting-drying cycles tend to result in a down-slope creeping of the shallow soil layer, which leads to progressive slope failure.

  15. Critical Zone Soil Properties effects on Soil Water Storage and Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, P. R.; McNamara, J. P.; Seyfried, M. S.; Marks, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H.; Williams, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Soil properties control a wide range of hydrologic processes including recharge to regional aquifers. Soil water must pass through the critical zone to contribute to ground water recharge. Deep percolation (DP) from catchments is considered to be an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. DP is also an important term in water mass balance studies, which attempt to estimate hydrologic states and fluxes in watersheds with fractured or transmissive bedrock. Few studies estimate the magnitude of this water balance term and it is often considered negligible. The objective of this study is to estimate the timing and magnitude of DP in the 0.015 km2 Tree Line experimental catchment (TL) from the 2011 water year. The catchment, which is located within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, Boise, ID, contains thin sandy soil over fractured granitic bedrock. We introduce modeling methods that focus on achieving a high degree of agreement between measured and modeled catchment storage. A distributed physically-based snow energy balance model is loosely coupled to a capacitance-based soil moisture model to estimate soil storage. Measured and calculated soil model parameters, including field capacity, saturated soil moisture content, and plant extraction limits, control the flux of water through the critical zone. Variability in soil storage and soil water fluxes through the critical zone is driven by soil properties. Parameters describing a leaf area index time series are calibrated to minimize the difference between measured and modeled soil dry down in the spring. DP is estimated to be 126 mm from Dec. 13, 2010 to June 30, 2011, which is 18% of the precipitation measured during that time. Rain-on-snow events are estimated to contribute 79 mm, which is 11% of precipitation or 63% of the calculated DP.

  16. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  17. Experimental study on pore water pressure dissipation of mucky soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianwei ZHANG; Changming WANG; Junxia LI; Bin WANG

    2008-01-01

    Pore water pressure has an important influence on mechanical properties of soil. The authors studied the characteristics of pore water pressure dissipating of mucky soil under consolidated-drained condition by using refitted triaxial instrument and analyzed the variation of pore pressure coefficient with consolidation pressure. The results show that the dissipating of pore water pressure behaves in different ways depends on different styles of loading. What is more, the pore water pressure coefficient of mucky soil is less than 1. As the compactness of soil increases and moisture content reduces, the value of B reduces. There is a staggered dissipating in the process of consolidation, in which it is a mutate point when U/P is 80%. It is helpful to establish the pore water pressure model and study the strength-deformation of soil in process of consolidation.

  18. Iron speciation in soft-water lakes and soils as determined by EXAFS spectroscopy and geochemical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Carin; Persson, Ingmar; Hesterberg, Dean; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Borg, Hans; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2013-03-01

    Complexation of iron by organic matter can potentially compete with toxic metals for binding sites. Iron(III) forms both monomeric and di/trimeric complexes with fulvic and humic acids, but the nature and extent of complexation with natural organic matter samples from soft-water lakes has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to determine the coordination of iron in complexes with organic matter in two soft-water lakes and in the surrounding Oe soil horizons. Iron K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was performed on particles and large colloids (>0.45 μm) collected by in-line pre-filtration, and on smaller colloids isolated both on an AGMP-1 anion-exchange column and by concentration using 1000 Da ultrafiltration. The results showed that iron(III) was mainly present in monomeric complexes with organic matter, both in the lake water smaller colloids and in the soil samples. Evidence for iron(III) (hydr)oxides was found for the lake particles, in the ultrafiltration retentates, and in some of the soils. Overall, the results suggest that complexation of iron(III) to organic matter prevents hydrolysis into polymeric forms. Strong complexation of iron(III) would lead to competition with other metals for organic-matter binding sites.

  19. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model ecosystem services: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Wendy; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Pérez-Miñana, Elena; Willcock, Simon P.; Quintero, Marcela

    2016-04-01

    SWAT, a watershed modeling tool has been proposed to help quantify ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services incorporates the collective benefits natural systems provide primarily to human beings. It is becoming increasingly important to track the impact that human activities have on the environment in order to determine its resilience and sustainability. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of efforts using SWAT to quantify ecosystem services, to determine the model's capability examining various types of services, and to describe the approach used by various researchers. A literature review was conducted to identify studies in which SWAT was explicitly used for quantifying ecosystem services in terms of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural aspects. A total of 44 peer reviewed publications were identified. Most of these used SWAT to quantify provisioning services (34%), regulating services (27%), or a combination of both (25%). While studies using SWAT for evaluating ecosystem services are limited (approximately 1% of SWAT's peered review publications), and usage (vs. potential) of services by beneficiaries is a current model limitation, the available literature sets the stage for the continuous development and potential of SWAT as a methodological framework for quantifying ecosystem services to assist in decision-making.

  20. Influence of forest roads standards and networks on water yield as predicted by the distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salli F. Dymond; W. Michael Aust; Steven P. Prisley; Mark H. Eisenbies; James M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the country, foresters are continually looking at the effects of logging and forest roads on stream discharge and overall stream health. In the Pacific Northwest, a distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) has been used to predict the effects of logging on peak discharge in mountainous regions. DHSVM uses elevation, meteorological, vegetation, and...

  1. The Initial Water Content Dependent Swelling Behavior of Clayey Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet Öngen, Ali; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    composition of samples were also determined. The swelling pressure of selected samples reached up to 250 kPa at zero water content. In addition, swelling parameters of collected clayey soils considerably decrease with increasing initial water content to somewhere between 30% and 37%. For finding the most important physical, index and mineralogical properties to constitute predictive models for swelling parameters of soils and understand the effect of initial water content, simple and multiple regression analyses were performed among appropriate variables. As a result of all analyses, statistically significant linear relationships were obtained between swelling parameters and initial water content values. Furthermore, it can be concluded that initial water content is a crucial controlling parameter for understanding swelling behavior of soils.

  2. Toward a general evaluation model for soil respiration (GEMSR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important component of terrestrial carbon budget. Its accurate evaluation is es- sential to the study of terrestrial carbon source/sink. Studies on soil respiration at present mostly focus on the temporal variations and the controlling factors of soil respiration, but its spatial variations and controlling factors draw less attention. Moreover, the evaluation models for soil respiration at present include only the effects of water and heat factors, while the biological and soil factors controlling soil respiration and their interactions with water and heat factors have not been considered yet. These models are not able to accurately evaluate soil respiration in different vegetation/terrestrial ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales. Thus, a general evaluation model for soil respiration (GEMSR) including the interacting meteorological (water and heat factors), soil nutrient and biological factors is suggested in this paper, and the basic procedure developing GEMSR and the research tasks of soil respiration in the future are also discussed.

  3. Toward a general evaluation model for soil respiration (GEMSR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangSheng; JIA BingRui; HAN GuangXuan; ZHOU Li

    2008-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important component of terrestrial carbon budget. Its accurate evaluation is essential to the study of terrestrial carbon source/sink. Studies on soil respiration at present mostly focus on the temporal variations and the controlling factors of soil respiration, but its spatial variations and controlling factors draw less attention. Moreover, the evaluation models for soil respiration at present include only the effects of water and heat factors, while the biological and soil factors controlling soil respiration and their interactions with water and heat factors have not been considered yet. These models are not able to accurately evaluate soil respiration in different vegetation/terrestrial ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales. Thus, a general evaluation model for soil respiration (GEMSR)including the interacting meteorological (water and heat factors), soil nutrient and biological factors is suggested in this paper, and the basic procedure developing GEMSR and the research tasks of soil respiration in the future are also discussed.

  4. Use of distributed water level and soil moisture data in the evaluation of the PUMMA periurban distributed hydrological model: application to the Mercier catchment, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Fuamba, Musandji; Branger, Flora; Batchabani, Essoyéké; Sanzana, Pedro; Sarrazin, Benoit; Jankowfsky, Sonja

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrological models are used at best when their outputs are compared not only to the outlet discharge, but also to internal observed variables, so that they can be used as powerful hypothesis-testing tools. In this paper, the interest of distributed networks of sensors for evaluating a distributed model and the underlying functioning hypotheses is explored. Two types of data are used: surface soil moisture and water level in streams. The model used in the study is the periurban PUMMA (Peri-Urban Model for landscape Management, Jankowfsky et al., 2014), that is applied to the Mercier catchment (6.7 km2) a semi-rural catchment with 14% imperviousness, located close to Lyon, France where distributed water level (13 locations) and surface soil moisture data (9 locations) are available. Model parameters are specified using in situ information or the results of previous studies, without any calibration and the model is run for four years from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2010 with a variable time step for rainfall and an hourly time step for reference evapotranspiration. The model evaluation protocol was guided by the available data and how they can be interpreted in terms of hydrological processes and constraints for the model components and parameters. We followed a stepwise approach. The first step was a simple model water balance assessment, without comparison to observed data. It can be interpreted as a basic quality check for the model, ensuring that it conserves mass, makes the difference between dry and wet years, and reacts to rainfall events. The second step was an evaluation against observed discharge data at the outlet, using classical performance criteria. It gives a general picture of the model performance and allows to comparing it to other studies found in the literature. In the next steps (steps 3 to 6), focus was made on more specific hydrological processes. In step 3, distributed surface soil moisture data was used to assess the

  5. Iodine and selenium in natural water, their fixation on geochemical barriers in soils and rocks and explanation of I and Se behavior in water-solid phase system using thermodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris; Cherkasova, Elena; Sedykh, Ivelina; Korsakova, Nadezhda; Berezkin, Victor; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Danilova, Valentina; Khushvakhtova, Sabzbakhor

    2014-05-01

    Iodine and selenium are essential for normal functioning of thyroid gland. Their natural deficiency in areas subjected to radioiodine contamination during nuclear tests and accidents may increase the risk of thyroid cancer among the most sensitive groups of population. Deficiency is caused by both the low abundance of microelements in the environmental components of the local food chain and their fixation on geochemical barriers due to such processes as chemical transformation, sorption, chemisorption, complexing. The studies of iodine and selenium distribution in soils, herbs and drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' confirmed low level of iodine and selenium content in local soils, plants and water and revealed different character of their distribution in soils and waters formed in geochemically different conditions of water migration in areas of fluvioglacial, moraine and loess-like soil forming rocks (the polesje, moraine and opolje landscapes correspondingly). Iodine content in top horizons of the soils developed on loess-like sediments and rich in organic matter was considerably higher as compared to those formed on sandy moraine or fluvioglacial sediments. For selenium the difference was not pronounced. Iodine was noted for positive correlation with Corg and fixation in the soil profile on carbonate barrier. A negative correlation was found between selenium content in grasses and in topsoil of subordinated elementary landscapes characterized by waterlogged and reduction conditions in soils. Thermodynamic modeling performed for 47 water samples on the basis of their chemical composition helped to explain the established patterns of iodine and selenium behavior in soil-water system. It demonstrated the possibility of existence of CaI+ and MgI+ complexes in water and sedimentation of FeSe(cr) in presence of a considerable amount of Fe2+. Iodine complexation with Ca and Mg ions may explain its further fixation on carbonate barrier in soils

  6. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  7. Methods for determining actual soil water repellence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Oostindie, K.; Moore, D.; Wesseling, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a simple and quick method for determining the presence of water repellency in a soil by using a small core sampler (1.5 cm in diameter, 25 cm long) and applying the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test at different depths on the sandy soil cores. Obtained results provide

  8. A Computational Model of Water Migration Flux in Freezing Soil in a Closed System%封闭系统正冻土水流的一个计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘春晗

    2005-01-01

    A computational model of water migration flux of fine porous soil in frost heave was investigated in a closed system. The model was established with the heat-mass conservation law and from some previous experimental results. Through defining an auxiliary function an empirical function in the water migration flux, which is difficult to get, was replaced. The data needed are about the water content along the soil column after test with enough long time. We adopt the test data of sample soil columns in [1] to verify the model. The result shows it can reflect the real situation on the whole.

  9. CO2 response to rewetting of hydrophobic soils - Can soil water repellency inhibit the 'Birch effect'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Carmen; Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Rewetting of dry soils is known to cause a short-term CO2 pulse commonly known as the 'Birch effect'. The displacement of CO2 with water during the process of wetting has been recognised as one of the sources of this pulse. The 'Birch effect' has been extensively observed in many soils, but some studies report a lack of such phenomenon, suggesting soil water repellency (SWR) as a potential cause. Water infiltration in water repellent soils can be severely restricted, causing overland flow or increased preferential flow, resulting in only a small proportion of soil pores being filled with water and therefore small gas-water replacement during wetting. Despite the suggestions of a different response of CO2 fluxes to wetting under hydrophobic conditions, this theory has never been tested. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that CO2 pulse does not occur during rewetting of water repellent soils. Dry homogeneous soils at water-repellent and wettable status have been rewetted with different amounts of water. CO2 flux as a response to wetting has been continuously measured with the CO2 flux analyser. Delays in infiltration and non-uniform heterogeneous water flow were observed in water repellent soils, causing an altered response in the CO2 pulse in comparison to typically observed 'Birch effect' in wettable systems. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects water relations in soil, but has also an impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  10. MECHANISM OF WATER-SOIL COUPLED ACTION DURING MINING SUBSIDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄乾生; 黄山民

    1991-01-01

    This paper,on the basis ot the scientific research of engineering geological exploration in a mining area ,systematically studies the reasons and influence factors of consolidation and deformation of the saturated soil included in the thick loose water-bearing overburden due to mining subsidence ,and analyses the dissipation of hyperstatic pore water pressure during the change of original stress and strain state of, the soil. Again,by means of the coupled model based on Cambridge model and Biot's three-dimensional consolidation theory,adopting a great many physico-mechanical parameters measured in various soil layers,the paper analyses the consolidation and deformation of saturated soil affected by mining subsidence with elasto-plastic finite element method. Thus ,the research not only reveals the regulation of stress ,straln,displacement and hyperstatic pore water pressure dissipation in overlying soil mass,but also opens up a new direction and way for the research of mining subsidence.

  11. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  12. Monitoring and modeling the soil hydraulic behavior in stony soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Comegna, Alessandro; Coppola, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Describing the soil hydrological behavior at applicative scales remains a complex task, mainly because of the spatial heterogeneity of the vadose zone. Addressing the impact of the unsaturated zone heterogeneity involves measuring and/or modeling water content evolution with fine spatial and temporal resolution. The presence of stones introduces difficulties for both the measurement of the water content and the soil hydraulic properties. In this context, the main objective of this study was to assess the role of stones on TDR-based water content measurements, as well as on the pattern of variability of simulated water contents at field-scale during water infiltration, drainage and evaporation processes. Also, the role of stones was evaluated as one possible explanation of the differences frequently observed between the measured hydraulic behavior and that estimated by using pedotransfer functions.

  13. Statistical Modelling of the Soil Dielectric Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Bogdan Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2010-05-01

    The dielectric constant of soil is the physical property being very sensitive on water content. It funds several electrical measurement techniques for determining the water content by means of direct (TDR, FDR, and others related to effects of electrical conductance and/or capacitance) and indirect RS (Remote Sensing) methods. The work is devoted to a particular statistical manner of modelling the dielectric constant as the property accounting a wide range of specific soil composition, porosity, and mass density, within the unsaturated water content. Usually, similar models are determined for few particular soil types, and changing the soil type one needs switching the model on another type or to adjust it by parametrization of soil compounds. Therefore, it is difficult comparing and referring results between models. The presented model was developed for a generic representation of soil being a hypothetical mixture of spheres, each representing a soil fraction, in its proper phase state. The model generates a serial-parallel mesh of conductive and capacitive paths, which is analysed for a total conductive or capacitive property. The model was firstly developed to determine the thermal conductivity property, and now it is extended on the dielectric constant by analysing the capacitive mesh. The analysis is provided by statistical means obeying physical laws related to the serial-parallel branching of the representative electrical mesh. Physical relevance of the analysis is established electrically, but the definition of the electrical mesh is controlled statistically by parametrization of compound fractions, by determining the number of representative spheres per unitary volume per fraction, and by determining the number of fractions. That way the model is capable covering properties of nearly all possible soil types, all phase states within recognition of the Lorenz and Knudsen conditions. In effect the model allows on generating a hypothetical representative of

  14. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific....... In this research we evaluated a new two-stage approach developed recently to predict the SWRC based onmeasurements for disturbed repacked soil samples. Our study involved undisturbed structured soil and took into account the effects of bulk density, organic matter content and particle-size distribution....... Independently measured SWRCs for 171 undisturbed soil samples with organic matter contents that ranged from 3 to 14% were used for model validation. The results indicate that consideration of the silt and organic matter fractions, in addition to the clay fraction, improved predictions for the dry-end SWRC...

  15. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic

  16. ANALYSIS AND MODEL FITTING FOR PURPLE SOIL WATER RETENTION CURVE UNDER DIFFERENT MEASURES OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION IN THE THREE GORGES RESERVOIR AREA%三峡库区不同水保措施下紫色土水分特征曲线特征及模型拟合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程冬兵; 张平仓; 赵健; 蔡崇法

    2009-01-01

    Soil water retention curve is one of the important soil hydrodynamics parameters in quantitative study of soil water retention and movement,which can reflect the basic properties of soil,such as water retention,water supply,and water availability,et al. In this thesis,characters of purple soil water retention curves under different measures of soil and water conservation were discussed,through analyzing soil water retention curves under contour hedgerow-intercroping system and rock ridge terrace-intercroping system. Then the measured datas were taken to fit four common soil water retention curve models respectively,in order to select the best model for the purple soil in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the difference of purple soil water retention among different treatments could be observed easily. Based on the same soil water suction,soil water content was the highest for contour hedgerow treatment,secondly for rock ridge terrace treatment,and the lowest for the control. With the increase of soil water suction,the difference among treatments was more obvious. Both Gardner model and van Genuchten model were suitable for expressing purple soil water retention curve. According to practical needs,one of them could be selected. Generally, Gardner model was suitable for simple and quick field soil water management, and van Genuchten model was suitable for soil hydraulic properties estimation and application.%土壤水分特征曲线是反映土壤持水性、供水性及水分有效性等基本特性的重要曲线,是定量研究土壤水滞留与运移十分重要的土壤水动力学参数之一.通过分析比较等高绿篱农业系统和石坎梯田农业系统的紫色土水分特征曲线,探讨不同水保措施下紫色土水分特征曲线特征,将实测数据对国内外常见的几种土壤水分特征曲线模型分别进行拟合,并优选一种适合三峡库区紫色土的水分特征曲线模型.结果表明:不同处理紫

  17. Fractal behavior of soil water storage at multiple depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenjun; Lin, Mi; Biswas, Asim; Si, Bing C.; Chau, Henry W.; Cresswell, Hamish P.

    2016-08-01

    Spatiotemporal behavior of soil water is essential to understand the science of hydrodynamics. Data intensive measurement of surface soil water using remote sensing has established that the spatial variability of soil water can be described using the principle of self-similarity (scaling properties) or fractal theory. This information can be used in determining land management practices provided the surface scaling properties are kept at deep layers. The current study examined the scaling properties of sub-surface soil water and their relationship to surface soil water, thereby serving as supporting information for plant root and vadose zone models. Soil water storage (SWS) down to 1.4 m depth at seven equal intervals was measured along a transect of 576 m for 5 years in Saskatchewan. The surface SWS showed multifractal nature only during the wet period (from snowmelt until mid- to late June) indicating the need for multiple scaling indices in transferring soil water variability information over multiple scales. However, with increasing depth, the SWS became monofractal in nature indicating the need for a single scaling index to upscale/downscale soil water variability information. In contrast, all soil layers during the dry period (from late June to the end of the growing season in early November) were monofractal in nature, probably resulting from the high evapotranspirative demand of the growing vegetation that surpassed other effects. This strong similarity between the scaling properties at the surface layer and deep layers provides the possibility of inferring about the whole profile soil water dynamics using the scaling properties of the easy-to-measure surface SWS data.

  18. Deep Soil: Quantifying and Modeling Subsurface Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. N.; Devine, W.; Harrison, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Some soil carbon datasets that are spatially rich, such as the USDA Forest Service Inventory and Analysis National Program dataset, sample soil to only 20 cm (8 inches), despite evidence that substantial stores of soil C can be found deeper in the soil profile. The maximum extent of tree rooting is typically many meters deep and provides: direct exchange with the soil solution; redistribution of water from deep horizons toward the surface during times of drought; resources for active microbial communities in deep soil around root channels; and direct carbon inputs through exudates and root turnover. This study examined soil carbon to a depth of 2.5 meters across 22 soils in Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests. Excavations at 20 additional sites took place in summer 2014, greatly expanding the spatial coverage and extent of the data set. Forest floor and mineral soil bulk density samples were collected at depths of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 meters. Pool estimates from systematic sampling depths shallower than 1.5 m yielded significantly smaller estimates than the total soil stock to 2.5 meters (P<0.01). On average, only 5% of soil C was found in the litter layer, 35% was found below 0.5 meter, and 21% was found below 1.0 meter. Due to the difficulty of excavating and measuring deep soil carbon, a series of nonlinear mixed effect models were fit to the data to predict deep soil carbon stocks given sampling to 1.0 meter. A model using an inverse polynomial function predicted soil carbon to 2.5 meters with -5.6% mean error. The largest errors occurred in Andisols with non-crystalline minerals, which can adsorb large quantities of carbon on mineral surfaces and preserve it from decomposition. An accurate spatial dataset of soil depth to bedrock would be extremely useful to constrain models of the vertical distribution of soil carbon. Efforts to represent carbon in spatial models would benefit from considering the vertical distribution of carbon in soil. Sampling

  19. Measuring and understanding soil water repellency through novel interdisciplinary approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Helen; Douglas, Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Davies, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become evermore essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency - can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Our research to date involves two new approaches for studying soil wetting. 1) We challenge the theoretical basis of current ideas on the measured water/soil contact angle measurements. Much past and current discussion involves Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models to explain anomalously high contact angles for organics on soils, however here we propose that these anomalously high measured contact angles are a consequence of the measurement of a water drop on an irregular non-planar surface rather than the thermodynamic factors of the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel models. In our analysis we have successfully used a much simpler geometric approach for non-flat surfaces such as soil. 2) Fluorescent and phosphorescent

  20. Underestimation of boreal soil carbon stocks by mathematical soil carbon models linked to soil nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina A.; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate estimate of the largest terrestrial carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock, is the major source of uncertainty in simulating feedback of climate warming on ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange by process-based ecosystem and soil carbon models. Although the models need to simplify complex environmental processes of soil carbon sequestration, in a large mosaic of environments a missing key driver could lead to a modeling bias in predictions of SOC stock change.We aimed to evaluate SOC stock estimates of process-based models (Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY soil sub-model v4) against a massive Swedish forest soil inventory data set (3230 samples) organized by a recursive partitioning method into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions.For two-thirds of measurements all models predicted accurate SOC stock levels regardless of the detail of input data, e.g., whether they ignored or included soil properties. However, in fertile sites with high N deposition, high cation exchange capacity, or moderately increased soil water content, Yasso07 and Q models underestimated SOC stocks. In comparison to Yasso07 and Q, accounting for the site-specific soil characteristics (e. g. clay content and topsoil mineral N) by CENTURY improved SOC stock estimates for sites with high clay content, but not for sites with high N deposition.Our analysis suggested that the soils with poorly predicted SOC stocks, as characterized by the high nutrient status and well-sorted parent material, indeed have had other predominant drivers of SOC stabilization lacking in the models, presumably the mycorrhizal organic uptake and organo-mineral stabilization processes. Our results imply that the role of soil nutrient status as regulator of organic matter mineralization has to be re-evaluated, since correct SOC stocks are decisive for predicting future SOC change and soil CO2 efflux.

  1. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential (low organic soils with n > 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  2. Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Callahan; J.D. Cook; Mark D. Coleman; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square...

  3. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  4. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  5. A simple daily soil-water balance model for estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in temperate humid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dripps, W.R.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of natural groundwater recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective groundwater modeling and management. As flow models become increasingly utilized for management decisions, there is an increased need for simple, practical methods to delineate recharge zones and quantify recharge rates. Existing models for estimating recharge distributions are data intensive, require extensive parameterization, and take a significant investment of time in order to establish. The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) has developed a simple daily soil-water balance (SWB) model that uses readily available soil, land cover, topographic, and climatic data in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater recharge at the watershed scale for temperate humid areas. To demonstrate the methodology and the applicability and performance of the model, two case studies are presented: one for the forested Trout Lake watershed of north central Wisconsin, USA and the other for the urban-agricultural Pheasant Branch Creek watershed of south central Wisconsin, USA. Overall, the SWB model performs well and presents modelers and planners with a practical tool for providing recharge estimates for modeling and water resource planning purposes in humid areas. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  6. Soil hydrologic characterization for modeling large scale soil remediation protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Sica, Benedetto; Speranza, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    In Campania Region (Italy), the Ministry of Environment identified a National Interest Priority Sites (NIPS) with a surface of about 200,000 ha, characterized by different levels and sources of pollution. This area, called Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano includes some polluted agricultural land, belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces. In this area, a high level spotted soil contamination is moreover due to the legal and outlaw industrial and municipal wastes dumping, with hazardous consequences also on the quality of the water table. The EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS) has the major aim of defining an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of crops extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. In the framework of this project, soil hydrologic characterization plays a key role and modeling water flow and solute transport has two main challenging points on which we focus on. A first question is related to the fate of contaminants infiltrated from stormwater runoff and the potential for groundwater contamination. Another question is the quantification of fluxes and spatial extent of root water uptake by the plant species employed to extract pollutants in the uppermost soil horizons. Given the high variability of spatial distribution of pollutants, we use soil characterization at different scales, from field scale when facing root water uptake process, to regional scale when simulating interaction between soil hydrology and groundwater fluxes.

  7. Soil water content and water balance simulation of Caragana korshinskii Kom. in the semiarid Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shengqi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to evaluate the hydrological effects of Caragana korshinskii Kom., measured data were combined with model-simulated data to assess the C. korshinskii soil water content based on water balance equation. With measured and simulated canopy interception, plant transpiration and soil evaporation, soil water content was modeled with the water balance equation. The monthly variations in the modeled soil water content by measured and simulated components (canopy interception, plant transpiration, soil evaporation were then compared with in situ measured soil water content. Our results shows that the modeled monthly water loss (canopy interception + soil evaporation + plant transpiration by measured and simulated components ranges from 43.78 mm to 113.95 mm and from 47.76 mm to 125.63 mm, respectively, while the monthly input of water (precipitation ranges from 27.30 mm to 108.30 mm. The relative error between soil water content modeled by measured and simulated components was 6.41%. To sum up, the net change in soil water (ΔSW is negative in every month of the growing season. The soil moisture is approaching to wilting coefficient at the end of the growth season, and the soil moisture recovered during the following season.

  8. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2010-05-01

    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  9. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, P. [PJS Barry (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m{sup 3} of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of

  10. Modelling Soil Profiles in their Landscape Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Through models, explores the relationships between the interacting drivers of soil profile evolution. Soil hydrology drives the partition of precipitation between overland flow, shallow subsurface flow and deeper percolation/ lateral flow. Critical parts of this interchange occurs close to the surface, within the zone of strong bioturbation, where inorganic composition is determined by the balance between erosion and weathering rates expressed in the chemical depletion ratio. The intensity of organic matter cycling may also limit the final composition of weathering products. Erosion rates are partly driven by the geomorphic environment, through gradient and hydrology, but also constrained by the degree of soil weathering, through particle size and mineralogy. Weathering rates are determined by water movement below the bioturbation zone and ionic diffusion from parent material, which control the rate of decline with soil depth. These interactions are explored through simple equilibrium and evolutionary models for the soil profile that are applicable across a wide range of geological and climatic environments.

  11. Feasibility analysis of using inverse modeling for estimating field-scale evapotranspiration in maize and soybean fields from soil water content monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Foad; Franz, Trenton E.; Wang, Tiejun; Gibson, Justin; Kilic, Ayse; Allen, Richard G.; Suyker, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using inverse vadose zone modeling for estimating field-scale actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was explored at a long-term agricultural monitoring site in eastern Nebraska. Data from both point-scale soil water content (SWC) sensors and the area-average technique of cosmic-ray neutron probes were evaluated against independent ETa estimates from a co-located eddy covariance tower. While this methodology has been successfully used for estimates of groundwater recharge, it was essential to assess the performance of other components of the water balance such as ETa. In light of recent evaluations of land surface models (LSMs), independent estimates of hydrologic state variables and fluxes are critically needed benchmarks. The results here indicate reasonable estimates of daily and annual ETa from the point sensors, but with highly varied soil hydraulic function parameterizations due to local soil texture variability. The results of multiple soil hydraulic parameterizations leading to equally good ETa estimates is consistent with the hydrological principle of equifinality. While this study focused on one particular site, the framework can be easily applied to other SWC monitoring networks across the globe. The value-added products of groundwater recharge and ETa flux from the SWC monitoring networks will provide additional and more robust benchmarks for the validation of LSM that continues to improve their forecast skill. In addition, the value-added products of groundwater recharge and ETa often have more direct impacts on societal decision-making than SWC alone. Water flux impacts human decision-making from policies on the long-term management of groundwater resources (recharge), to yield forecasts (ETa), and to optimal irrigation scheduling (ETa). Illustrating the societal benefits of SWC monitoring is critical to insure the continued operation and expansion of these public datasets.

  12. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  13. A new model for humic materials and their interactions with hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A generalized model of humic materials in soils and sediments, which is consistent with their observed properties, is presented. This model provides a means of understanding the interaction of hydrophobic pollutants with humic materials. In this model, it is proposed that the humic materials in soils and sediments consist of a number of different oligomers and simple compounds which result from the partial degradation of plant remains. These degradation products are stabilized by incorporation into humic aggregates bound together by weak bonding mechanisms, such as hydrogen bonding, pi bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The resulting structures are similar to micelles or membranes, in which the interiors of the structures are hydrophobic and the exteriors are hydrophilic. Hydrophobic compounds will partition into the hydrophobic interiors of the humic micelles or "membrane-like" structures. ?? 1986.

  14. Water and heat transport in boreal soils: Implications for soil response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.; Zhang, T.; Veldhuis, H.; Czimczik, C.I.; Winston, G.C.; O'Donnell, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil water content strongly affects permafrost dynamics by changing the soil thermal properties. However, the movement of liquid water, which plays an important role in the heat transport of temperate soils, has been under-represented in boreal studies. Two different heat transport models with and without convective heat transport were compared to measurements of soil temperatures in four boreal sites with different stand ages and drainage classes. Overall, soil temperatures during the growing season tended to be over-estimated by 2-4??C when movement of liquid water and water vapor was not represented in the model. The role of heat transport in water has broad implications for site responses to warming and suggests reduced vulnerability of permafrost to thaw at drier sites. This result is consistent with field observations of faster thaw in response to warming in wet sites compared to drier sites over the past 30. years in Canadian boreal forests. These results highlight that representation of water flow in heat transport models is important to simulate future soil thermal or permafrost dynamics under a changing climate. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. An Improved Frequency Domain Technique for Determining Soil Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-Rui; MA Dao-Kun; LIN Jian-Hui; P. SCHULZE LAMMERS; L. DAMEROW

    2005-01-01

    For many years a soil water content sensor with low cost, reliability and sufficient accuracy has been desirable. Thus,an improved measurement method based on the frequency domain (FD) principle for determining soil water content was considered. Unlike other measurement principles, a new measurable index, η, which was independent of the output impedance and the amplitude of the oscillator while relying on the electrical impedance of a multi-pin probe, was proposed. Moreover, a model for processing the impedance of the multi-pin soil probe was developed, and several important electrical parameters for establishing their operating ranges applicable to this probe were evaluated. In order to confirm the theoretical analysis, an experiment was conducted with a 4-pin probe. Using the developed model, the relationship between the proposed indexηand soil volumetric water content was shown to be linear (R2 = 0.9921). Thus, as the measurable index, ηseemed satisfactory.

  16. Assimilation of remote sensing data into a process-based ecosystem model for monitoring changes of soil water content in croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Weimin; Gao, Ping; Wang, Jun; Li, Xianfeng; Chen, Shu

    2008-10-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is an important factor affecting photosynthesis, growth, and final yields of crops. The information on SWC is of importance for mitigating the reduction of crop yields caused by drought through proper agricultural water management. A variety of methodologies have been developed to estimate SWC at local and regional scales, including field sampling, remote sensing monitoring and model simulations. The reliability of regional SWC simulation depends largely on the accuracy of spatial input datasets, including vegetation parameters, soil and meteorological data. Remote sensing has been proved to be an effective technique for controlling uncertainties in vegetation parameters. In this study, the vegetation parameters (leaf area index and land cover type) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) were assimilated into a process-based ecosystem model BEPS for simulating the variations of SWC in croplands of Jiangsu province, China. Validation shows that the BEPS model is able to capture 81% and 83% of across-site variations of SWC at 10 and 20 cm depths during the period from September to December, 2006 when a serous autumn drought occurred. The simulated SWC responded the events of rainfall well at regional scale, demonstrating the usefulness of our methodology for SWC and practical agricultural water management at large scales.

  17. Indian Lakes soil and water investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this investigation is to determine whether the soil and/or water in the Indian Lakes area exceeds the EPA's hazardous waste level criterion for...

  18. Analytical reliability analysis of soil-water characteristic curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC, also known as the soil water-retention curve, is an important part of any constitutive relationship for unsaturated soils. Deterministic assessment of SWCC has received considerable attention in the past few years. However the uncertainties of the parameters which affect SWCC dictate that the problem is of a probabilistic nature rather than being deterministic. In this research, a Gene Expression Programming (GEP-based SWCC model is employed to assess the reliability of SWCC. For this purpose, the Jointly Distributed Random Variables (JDRV method is used as an analytical method for reliability analysis. All input parameters of the model which are initial void ratio, initial water content, silt and clay contents are set to be stochastic and modelled using truncated normal probability density functions. The results are compared with those of the Monte Carlo (MC simulation. It is shown that the initial water content is the most effective parameter in SWCC.

  19. Modeling Agricultural Watersheds with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Calibration and Validation with a Novel Procedure for Spatially Explicit HRUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, Awoke Dagnew; Gassman, Philip W.; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin T.; Misgna, Girmaye

    2016-04-01

    Applications of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model typically involve delineation of a watershed into subwatersheds/subbasins that are then further subdivided into hydrologic response units (HRUs) which are homogeneous areas of aggregated soil, landuse, and slope and are the smallest modeling units used within the model. In a given standard SWAT application, multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) in a subbasin are usually aggregated into a single HRU feature. In other words, the standard version of the model combines multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) with the same landuse/landcover, soil, and slope, but located at different places of a subbasin (spatially non-unique), and considers them as one HRU. In this study, ArcGIS pre-processing procedures were developed to spatially define a one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs (spatially unique HRUs) within a subbasin prior to SWAT simulations to facilitate input processing, input/output mapping, and further analysis at the individual farm field level. Model input data such as landuse/landcover (LULC), soil, crop rotation, and other management data were processed through these HRUs. The SWAT model was then calibrated/validated for Raccoon River watershed in Iowa for 2002-2010 and Big Creek River watershed in Illinois for 2000-2003. SWAT was able to replicate annual, monthly, and daily streamflow, as well as sediment, nitrate and mineral phosphorous within recommended accuracy in most cases. The one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs created and used in this study is a first step in performing LULC change, climate change impact, and other analyses in a more spatially explicit manner.

  20. Modeling Agricultural Watersheds with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Calibration and Validation with a Novel Procedure for Spatially Explicit HRUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, Awoke Dagnew; Gassman, Philip W; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin T; Misgna, Girmaye

    2016-04-01

    Applications of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model typically involve delineation of a watershed into subwatersheds/subbasins that are then further subdivided into hydrologic response units (HRUs) which are homogeneous areas of aggregated soil, landuse, and slope and are the smallest modeling units used within the model. In a given standard SWAT application, multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) in a subbasin are usually aggregated into a single HRU feature. In other words, the standard version of the model combines multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) with the same landuse/landcover, soil, and slope, but located at different places of a subbasin (spatially non-unique), and considers them as one HRU. In this study, ArcGIS pre-processing procedures were developed to spatially define a one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs (spatially unique HRUs) within a subbasin prior to SWAT simulations to facilitate input processing, input/output mapping, and further analysis at the individual farm field level. Model input data such as landuse/landcover (LULC), soil, crop rotation, and other management data were processed through these HRUs. The SWAT model was then calibrated/validated for Raccoon River watershed in Iowa for 2002-2010 and Big Creek River watershed in Illinois for 2000-2003. SWAT was able to replicate annual, monthly, and daily streamflow, as well as sediment, nitrate and mineral phosphorous within recommended accuracy in most cases. The one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs created and used in this study is a first step in performing LULC change, climate change impact, and other analyses in a more spatially explicit manner.

  1. Evaluation of Modeling Schemes to Estimate Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Water Content over Vineyard using a Scintillometer and Remotely Sensed Surface Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Gonzalez-Piqueras, J.; Isidro, C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) and root zone soil water content (SMC) are key operational variable to monitor water consumption and water stress condition for improve vineyard grapes productivity and quality. This analysis, evaluates the estimation of ETa and SMC based on two modeling approaches. The first approach is a hybrid model that couples a thermal-based two source energy balance (TSEB) model (Norman et al. 1995) and water balance model to estimate the two variable (Geli 2012). The second approach is based on Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS)-based estimates of sensible heat flux. The LAS-based estimates of sensible heat fluxes were used to calculate latent heat flux as the residual of surface energy balance equation on hourly basis which was converted to daily ETa. The calculated ETa from the scintillometer was then couple with the water balance approach to provide updated ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS. Both estimates of ETa and SMC based on LAS (i.e. ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS) and TSEB (ETa_TSEB and SMC_TSEB) were compared with ground-based observation from eddy covariance and soil water content measurements at multiple depths. The study site is an irrigated vineyard located in Central Spain Primary with heterogeneous surface conditions in term of irrigation practices and the ground based observation over the vineyard were collected during the summer of 2007. Preliminary results of the inter-comparison of the two approaches suggests relatively good between both modeling approaches and ground-based observations with RMSE lower than 1.2 mm/day for ETa and lower than 20% for SMC. References Norman, J. M., Kustas, W. P., & Humes, K. S. (1995). A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in observations of directional radiometric surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 263293. Geli, Hatim M. E. (2012). Modeling spatial surface energy fluxes of agricultural and riparian vegetation using remote sensing, Ph. D. dissertation

  2. [Review of monitoring soil water content using hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dai-hui; Fan, Wen-jie; Cui, Yao-kui; Yan, Bin-yan; Xu, Xi-ru

    2010-11-01

    Soil water content is a key parameter in monitoring drought. In recent years, a lot of work has been done on monitoring soil water content based on hyperspectral remotely sensed data both at home and abroad. In the present review, theories, advantages and disadvantages of the monitoring methods using different bands are introduced first. Then the unique advantages, as well as the problems, of the monitoring method with the aid of hyperspectral remote sensing are analyzed. In addition, the impact of soil water content on soil reflectance spectrum and the difference between values at different wavelengths are summarized. This review lists and summarizes the quantitative relationships between soil water content and soil reflectance obtained through analyzing the physical mechanism as well as through statistical way. The key points, advantages and disadvantages of each model are also analyzed and evaluated. Then, the problems in experimental study are pointed out, and the corresponding solutions are proposed. At the same time, the feasibility of removing vegetation effect is discussed, when monitoring soil water content using hyperspectral remote sensing. Finally, the future research trend is prospected.

  3. Soil water repellency characteristic curves for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ken; Müller, Karin; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis; Clothier, Brent; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2014-05-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a phenomenon that influences many soil hydrologic processes such as reduction of infiltration, increase in overland flow, and enhanced preferential flow. SWR has been observed in various soil types and textures, and the degree of SWR is greatly controlled by soil moisture content and levels of organic matter and clay. One of the key topics in SWR research is how to describe accurately the seasonal and temporal variation of SWR with the controlling factors such as soil moisture, organic matter, and clay contents for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients. In the present study, we summarize measured SWR data for soil profiles under different land uses and vegetation in Japan and New Zealand, and compared these with literature data. We introduce the contact angle-based evaluation of SWR and predictive models for soil water repellency characteristic curves, in which the contact angle is a function of the moisture content. We also discuss a number of novel concepts, including i) the reduction in the contact angle with soil-water contact time to describe the time dependence of SWR, ii) the relationship between the contact angles from the measured scanning curves under controlled wetting and drying cycles, and iii) the initial contact angles measured by the sessile drop method.

  4. An Analytical Solution for One-Dimensional Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Unsaturated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Quan-Jiu; R. HORTON; FAN Jun

    2009-01-01

    Soil infiltration and redistribution are important processes in field water cycle, and it is necessary to develop a simple model to describe the processes. In this study, an algebraic solution for one-dimensional water infiltration and redistribution without evaporation in unsaturated soil was developed based on Richards equation. The algebraic solution had three parameters, namely, the saturated water conductivity, the comprehensive shape coefficient of the soil water content distribution, and the soil suction allocation coefficient. To analyze the physical features of these parameters, a relationship between the Green-Ampt model and the algebraic solution was established. The three parameters were estimated based on experimental observations, whereas the soil water content and the water infiltration duration were calculated using the algebraic solution. The calculated soil water content and infiltration duration were compared with the experimental observations, and the results indicated that the algebraic solution accurately described the unsaturated soil water flow processes.

  5. WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

    2001-11-12

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  6. Water dynamics in hyperarid soils of Antarctica including water adsorption and salt hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    Soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica contain ice and considerable amounts of salt. Ice often occurs at shallow depth throughout the dry valleys and other areas of hyperarid permafrost, notably on Mars. This common occurrence of shallow ice is enigmatic; however, since according to published sublimation models it should disappear relatively quickly (at rates of order 0.1 mm a-1) due to vapor loss to the atmosphere. The disagreement between the occurrence of ice on one hand and process-based vapor transport models on other hand suggests that processes in addition to vapor transport have influence on ice stability. From a number of possible processes, infiltration of snowmelt during summer month and vapor trapping due to overlaying snow cover in winter have been discussed in more detail and both processes are likely to slow down ice sublimation. At this point, however, there are only limited field-observations to confirm the presence of such processes. The present study aims to investigate the effect of water adsorption, salt hydration, and freezing point depression on water transport and ice stability. We hypothesize that hydration of salts and water adsorption on grain surfaces play an important role in the survival of ground ice and as water reservoir in these areas and should be taken into account when modeling vapor transport. Furthermore, there is evidence that salt content in ground ice is high enough to cause formation of brines at subfreezing temperatures that can lead to a growth of ground ice. To support our hypothesis we set up a field experiment by monitoring soil temperature, soil humidity, and soil moisture along with climate data and snow cover. In addition we collected soil samples to measure water potential, salt composition, ice content, and soil texture. Soil samples were extracted with water to measure soluble salt content along dry and ice rich soil profiles. In addition we measured soil moisture retention curves at different vapor

  7. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... of the regression model showed that the maximum yield, 1166 g per plant, was obtained by the combination of θ1 (c. 28% ASW), θ2 (c. 82% ASW), θ3 (c. 92% ASW), θ4 (c. 92% ASW), and θ5 (c. 92% ASW). This result may guide irrigation scheduling to achieve higher tomato yield and WUE based on specific soil water...

  8. Water Repellency, Infiltration and Water Retention Properties of Forest Soils Under Different Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, N. A.; Bens, O.; Schäfer, B.; Hüttl, R. F.

    significant proportion of severely and extremely hydrophobic samples in the upper 10 cm of the soil profile was revealed, whereas the persistence of repellency decreases with increasing soil depth. The EP exhibit for all plots a shallower depth distribution than the WDPT. During forest transformation, both humus type as well as humus distribution in the soil and the litter layers are altered. These changes influence above 1 all the water storage capacity of the soil which declines considerably during the first stage of forest transformation. The obtained results will be incorporated in a hydrologic catchment model in order to evaluate the possible impact on the runoff characteristics. Simulated runoff data for selected mesoscale catchments (e.g. of the Rhine area) will serve to evaluate different soil management practices in terms of minimizing surface runoff and preventing flood events. 2

  9. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...... directly in the other region. This means that models of the water balance need to be tested again and the coefficients at least must be adapted to the new environmental conditions. Two methods for the calculation of water movement in the unsaturated soil zone are described. Simulation programs based...... on both approaches are applied to an actual case with the conditions in Germany. This case is also analyzed under the conditions of Rio de Janeiro. The effects of tropical environmental conditions on water transport in unsaturated soils are also discussed....

  10. Vertical variations of soil hydraulic properties within two soil profiles and its relevance for soil water simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Andreas; Zimmermann, Michael; Bodner, Gernot

    2014-08-01

    Numerical simulations of soil water dynamics can be valuable tools for the assessment of different soil and land management practices. For accurate simulations, the soil hydraulic properties (SHP), i.e. the hydraulic conductivity and water retention function have to be properly known. They can be either estimated from physical soil properties by pedotransfer functions (PTF) or measured. In most studies, soil profiles are analyzed and sampled with respect to their pedogenic horizons. While considerable effort has been put on horizontal spatial SHP variations, vertical changes within soil profiles have not been analyzed in detail. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (i) the SHP measurement along vertical transects within two soil profiles, (ii) to evaluate their spatial variation and correlation with physical soil properties, and (iii) to assess the impact of the SHP determination method and its spatial discretization on simulated soil water balance components. Two soils, an agriculturally used silty-loam Chernozem and a forested sandy Cambisol were sampled in 0.05 m increments along vertical transects. The parameters of a dual porosity model were derived using the evaporation method and scaling was applied to derive representative mean SHP parameters and scaling factors as a measure of spatial variability. State-space models described spatial variations of the scaling factors by physical soil properties. Simulations with HYDRUS 1D delivered the soil water balance for different climatic conditions with the SHP being estimated from horizon-wise PTFs, or discretized either sample-wise, according to the pedogenic horizons, or as hydrologically relevant units (hydropedological approach). Considerable SHP variations were found for both soil profiles. In the Chernozem, variations of the hydraulic conductivity were largest within the ploughed Ap-horizon and could be attributed to variations in soil structure (macropores). In the subsoil, soil water retention showed

  11. Augmentations to the Noah model physics for application to the Yellow River source area. Part I: Soil water flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Donghai; van der Velde, R.; Su, Zhongbo; Wang, X.; Wen, J.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first part of a study focusing on evaluating the performance of the Noah land surface model (LSM) in simulating surface water and energy budgets for the high-elevation source region of the Yellow River (SRYR). A comprehensive dataset is utilized that includes in situ micrometeorological

  12. Soil water repellency in long term drought and warming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Emmett, Bridget; Tietema, Albert; Robinson, David

    2017-04-01

    Increased global temperatures, altered rainfall patterns and frequently occurring extreme climatic events are already observed globally as a result of the climatic changes and further increases are predicted by the climatic models. Extreme weather events such as prolonged dry spells and heat waves can significantly affect soil ecosystem functions mainly due to decrease in soil moisture. Several studies suggested an increase in soil water repellency severity and spread as a consequence of the warming and drought, however, such understanding is based on the laboratory experimentations with soil treated as a 'black box'. In this study we tested the hypothesis of increased severity of soil water repellency subjected to drought and warming under field conditions. Occurrence and severity of soil water repellency was tested in soils subjected to a long-term (10 years) climatic simulation at two upland heathland sites in Oldebroek (Netherlands) and in Clocaenog (UK)[1]. Soil plots with similar vegetation were subjected to repeated drought and warming, compared with the control plots. Drought effect was created by a rainfall exclusion using an automatic self-retracting waterproof curtains while the warming effect was made by using a self-retracting curtains reflecting infrared radiation overnight. The results available to date provide a strong indication that climatic conditions do affect the development of SWR.

  13. Linking carbon-water- and nitrogen fluxes at forest ecosystems throughout Europe with a coupled soil-vegetation process model "LandscapeDNDC"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Grote, Rüdiger; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in Europe play a key role in the emission reduction commitment agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for mitigating climatic change. Forest ecological functioning and potential services (such as carbon sequestration) are a matter of debate for policy decision makers resulting from the need of identifying affordable strategies for forest management and exploitation against climate change. Forest ecosystem functioning and the linkages governing carbon-, water- and nitrogen fluxes at site scale was evaluated for three dominant tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) grown on 10 different sites across Europe. We did answer in particular the following questions: a) is LandscapeDNDC able to represent NEE, GPP, TER and ET fluxes for dominant forest types in Europe at different sites with only a species specific parameterization? b) What is the relation between carbon input into the ecosystem and on the emission of carbon and nitrogen from the forest soil? Furthermore we analyzed the interaction between carbon-, nitrogen-, and water cycle, in particular the dependence of gaseous fluxes on water and litter availability. LandscapeDNDC is a process based model that integrates modules for carbon, nitrogen and water cycling within terrestrial ecosystems (i.e. forest) on the site and regional scale. Biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere processes in forest ecosystems are linked by daily time step integration of the microclimate, water cycle, soil biogeochemistry and tree physiology and dimensional growth modules which balances all three aforementioned cycles. All processes and state variables are considered in a vertically structured one dimensional vertical column that reaches from rooting depth (more than 1 m depth) to the uppermost canopy layer. LandscapeDNDC was tested against long term (about 10 years) field data. The capability of the applied model for reproducing daily derived GPP and TER was accompanied by a high statistical precision (r

  14. Improving Estimates of Root-zone Soil Water Content Using Soil Hydrologic Properties and Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D. C.; Miller, D. A.; Singha, K.; Davis, K. J.; Smithwick, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Newly defined relationships between remotely sensed soil moisture and soil hydraulic parameters were used to develop fine-scale (100 m) maps of root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) content at the regional scale on a daily time-step. There are several key outcomes from our research: (1) the first multi-layer regional dataset of soil hydraulic parameters developed from gSSURGO data for hydrologic modeling efforts in the Chequemegon Ecosystem Atmospheric Study (ChEAS) region, (2) the operation and calibration of a new model for estimating soil moisture flow through the root-zone at eddy covariance towers across the U.S. using remotely sensed active and passive soil moisture products, and (3) region-wide maps of estimated root-zone soil moisture content. The project links soil geophysical analytical approaches (pedotransfer functions) to new applications in remote sensing of soil moisture that detect surface moisture (~5 cm depth). We answer two key questions in soil moisture observation and prediction: (1) How do soil hydrologic properties of U.S. soil types quantitatively relate to surface-to-subsurface water loss? And (2) Does incorporation of fine-scale soil hydrologic parameters with remotely sensed soil moisture data provide improved hindcasts of in situ RZSM content? The project meets several critical research needs in estimation of soil moisture from remote sensing. First, soil moisture is known to vary spatially with soil texture and soil hydraulic properties that do not align well with the spatial resolution of current remote sensing products of soil moisture (~ 50 km2). To address this, we leveraged new advances in gridded soil parameter information (gSSURGO) together with existing remotely sensed estimates of surface soil moisture into a newly emerging semi-empirical modeling approach called SMAR (Soil Moisture Analytical Relationship). The SMAR model was calibrated and cross-validated using existing soil moisture data from a portion of AMERIFLUX tower sites and

  15. Inverse modeling of soil characteristics from surface soil moisture observations: potential and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models (LSM are widely used as scientific and operational tools to simulate mass and energy fluxes within the soil vegetation atmosphere continuum for numerous applications in meteorology, hydrology or for geobiochemistry studies. A reliable parameterization of these models is important to improve the simulation skills. Soil moisture is a key variable, linking the water and energy fluxes at the land surface. An appropriate parameterisation of soil hydraulic properties is crucial to obtain reliable simulation of soil water content from a LSM scheme. Parameter inversion techniques have been developed for that purpose to infer model parameters from soil moisture measurements at the local scale. On the other hand, remote sensing methods provide a unique opportunity to estimate surface soil moisture content at different spatial scales and with different temporal frequencies and accuracies. The present paper investigates the potential to use surface soil moisture information to infer soil hydraulic characteristics using uncertain observations. Different approaches to retrieve soil characteristics from surface soil moisture observations is evaluated and the impact on the accuracy of the model predictions is quantified. The results indicate that there is in general potential to improve land surface model parameterisations by assimilating surface soil moisture observations. However, a high accuracy in surface soil moisture estimates is required to obtain reliable estimates of soil characteristics.

  16. Simulation of Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Soil Water-Salt Movement by ENVIRO-GRO Model%模型模拟再生水灌溉对土壤水盐运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斯丹; 陈卫平; 王美娥

    2012-01-01

    As the conflict between water supply and demand,wastewater reuse has become an important measure,which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing.In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation,the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing,a city of water shortage,under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research.The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted.Simultaneously,it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation.Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity(ECe) increased 29.5%,97.2%,197.8% respectively,with the higher irrigation,normal irrigation,and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions.Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement,and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation.Under equilibrium conditions,annual averages of ECe increased 23.7%,97.2%,208.5% respectively,with irrigation water salinity(ECw) 0.6,1.2,2.4 dS·m-1.Soil salinity increased slightly with ECw=0.6 dS·m-1,while soil salinization did not appear.Totally,the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing,but mild soil salinization appeared.%随着水资源供需矛盾日益尖锐,污水再生利用成为了缓解北京水资源紧缺的重要举措.为推动北京再生水安全灌溉,本研究运用ENVIRO-GRO模型模拟缺水城市北京再生水灌溉土壤水盐运动规律,并对土壤盐分累积进行预测,探讨了不同灌溉措施对土壤水盐运动规律和盐分累积的影响.结果表明,高水量、常规、低水量灌溉,平衡时土壤含盐量(ECe)年均值分别增加了29.5%、97.2%、197.8%;灌溉频率对土壤水盐运动规律影响不大,但低频灌溉下土壤中盐分的累积有减少的趋势;灌溉水含盐量(ECw)为0.6、1.2、2.4 d

  17. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  18. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water infiltration into the soil matrix. Soil water repellency can lead to the development of unstable wetting and preferential flow paths. Preferential flow has wide-ranging significance for rapi...

  19. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  20. Water Drainage from Unsaturated Soils in a Centrifuge Permeameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, G.; McCartney, J.; Zhang, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study involves an analysis of water drainage from an initially saturated silt layer in a centrifuge permeameter to evaluate the hydraulic properties of the soil layer in unsaturated conditions up to the point where the water phase becomes discontinuous. These properties include the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). The hydraulic properties of unsaturated silt are used in soil-atmosphere interaction models that take into account the role of infiltration and evaporation of water from soils due to atmospheric interaction. These models are often applied in slope stability analyses, landfill cover design, aquifer recharge analyses, and agricultural engineering. The hydraulic properties are also relevant to recent research concerning geothermal heating and cooling, as they can be used to assess the insulating effects of soil around underground heat exchangers. This study employs a high-speed geotechnical centrifuge to increase the self-weight of a compacted silt specimen atop a filter plate. Under a centrifuge acceleration of N times earth's gravity, the concept of geometric similitude indicates that the water flow process in a small-scale soil layer will be similar to those in a soil layer in the field that is N times thicker. The centrifuge acceleration also results in an increase in the hydraulic gradient across the silt specimen, which causes water to flow out of the pores following Darcy's law. The drainage test was performed until the rate of liquid water flow out of the soil layer slowed to a negligible level, which corresponds to the transition point at which further water flow can only occur due to water vapor diffusion following Fick's law. The data from the drainage test in the centrifuge were used to determine the SWRC and HCF at different depths in the silt specimen, which compared well with similar properties defined using other laboratory tests. The transition point at which liquid water flow stopped (and

  1. On the Links Between Photosynthesis and Soil Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Porporato, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2002-12-01

    The equations of soil moisture dynamics and a model of leaf gas exchange and water transport through the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) are coupled to explore the dependence of plant CO2 assimilation on soil moisture. The model is also coupled with a daily growing boundary layer model, that gives the values of air specific humidity and potential temperature during the day. Two different approaches for modeling stomatal conductance gs are implemented and compared. One is the mixed-empirical formulation of stomatal conductance used by Jarvis (1976), who assumed a multiplicative relationship among the main environmental factors affecting stomatal movement; the other one is the empirical relationship between stomatal conductance and assimilation introduced by Ball et al. (1987) and modified by Leuning (1990, 1995), that assume a direct dependence of stomatal movement on the assimilation rate. This second approach is extended to include drought conditions and the common bases underlying the two approaches are elucidated. The model also gives the soil moisture value below which plants are under stress and the moisture content at the wilting point. These are used to evaluate the probability distribution of soil moisture, carbon assimilation by photosynthesis and plant water stress, thus providing a more physical basis to a previous stochastic model of soil moisture by the authors.

  2. Interactions among Climate Forcing, Soil Water, and Groundwater for Enhanced Water Management Practices in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J.; Hubbard, K. G.; Chen, X.

    2009-12-01

    Water is one of the most valuable and vulnerable resources. The varying precipitation regimes together with the varying land use and land cover types over the state of Nebraska necessitate continuous monitoring and modeling of soil water, particularly in the root zone. Underlying the irrigated lands is the High Plains Aquifer, one of the largest in the world. The Ogallala Aquifer is hydrologically connected with streams in numerous river valleys and with rainfall/soil water at the surface. To sustain water reserves the net effect of groundwater pumping for irrigation and recharging the ground water system by precipitation/irrigation. If the net effect is zero or positive the reserves will not shrink. The Automated Weather Data Network (AWDN) of Nebraska has intensive soil water observation and critical weather measurements. Nebraska also has ground water wells, co-located with or near some of the AWDN stations. This work was conducted to continuously monitor the soil water and groundwater table and to model the surface and subsurface hydrologic processes as an integrated/linked system. The further task is to quantify the recharge under different initial conditions, land use practices, and to combine the new information with a surface hydrology model over various sites in Nebraska. To accomplish these objectives two weather stations were installed and enhanced at Shelton and Kearney and soil probes were buried directly under the crop lands. The newly installed soil water probes are co-located with the nearby weather stations and ground water wells. All the data recorded from the atmosphere, soil and aquifer will be incorporated into AWDN data archives and will be analyzed to examine the interactions between precipitation, soil moisture and groundwater.

  3. A Spreadsheet for Estimating Soil Water Characteristic Curves (SWCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    predict the water retention curve from basic geotechnical properties. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 40: 1104–1122. Benson, C., I. Chiang, T... Canadian Geotechnical Journal , 47, 1382-1400. Farrel, D. A., and W. E. Larson. 1972. Modelling the pore structure of porous media. Water Resour. Res., 3...699-706. Fredlund, D. G., and A. Xing. 1994. Equations for the soil-water characteristic curve. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 31:521-532

  4. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water

  5. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4) from managed arable soils with a fully coupled hydrology-biogeochemical modeling system simulating water and nutrient transport and associated carbon and nitrogen cycling at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Steffen; Haas, Edwin; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kraft, Philipp; Plesca, Ina; Breuer, Lutz; Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Minghua; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Xunhua; Wlotzka, Martin; Heuveline, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen fertilizer sustains the global food production and therefore the livelihood of human kind. The rise in world population will put pressure on the global agricultural system to increase its productivity leading most likely to an intensification of mineral nitrogen fertilizer use. The fate of excess nitrogen and its distribution within landscapes is manifold. Process knowledge on the site scale has rapidly grown in recent years and models have been developed to simulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in managed ecosystems on the site scale. Despite first regional studies, the carbon and nitrogen cycling on the landscape or catchment scale is not fully understood. In this study we present a newly developed modelling approach by coupling the fully distributed hydrology model CMF (catchment modelling framework) to the process based regional ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC for the investigation of hydrological processes and carbon and nitrogen transport and cycling, with a focus on nutrient displacement and resulting greenhouse gas emissions in a small catchment at the Yanting Agro-ecological Experimental Station of Purple Soil, Sichuan province, China. The catchment hosts cypress forests on the outer regions, arable fields on the sloping croplands cultivated with wheat-maize rotations and paddy rice fields in the lowland. The catchment consists of 300 polygons vertically stratified into 10 soil layers. Ecosystem states (soil water content and nutrients) and fluxes (evapotranspiration) are exchanged between the models at high temporal scales (hourly to daily) forming a 3-dimensional model application. The water flux and nutrients transport in the soil is modelled using a 3D Richards/Darcy approach for subsurface fluxes with a kinematic wave approach for surface water runoff and the evapotranspiration is based on Penman-Monteith. Biogeochemical processes are modelled by LandscapeDNDC, including soil microclimate, plant growth and biomass allocation

  6. Scaling Soil Microbe-Water Interactions from Pores to Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial scales relevant to soil microbial activity are much finer than scales relevant to whole-ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling. On the one hand, how to link such different scales and develop scale-aware biogeochemical and ecohydrological models remains a major challenge. On the other hand, resolving these linkages is becoming necessary for testing ecological hypotheses and resolving data-theory inconsistencies. Here, the relation between microbial respiration and soil moisture expressed in water potential is explored. Such relation mediates the water availability effects on ecosystem-level heterotrophic respiration and is of paramount importance for understanding CO2 emissions under increasingly variable rainfall regimes. Respiration has been shown to decline as the soil dries in a remarkably consistent way across climates and soil types (open triangles in Figure). Empirical models based on these respiration-moisture relations are routinely used in Earth System Models to predict moisture effects on ecosystem respiration. It has been hypothesized that this consistency in microbial respiration decline is due to breakage of water film continuity causing in turn solute diffusion limitations in dry conditions. However, this hypothesis appears to be at odds with what is known about soil hydraulic properties. Water film continuity estimated from soil water retention (SWR) measurements at the 'Darcy' scale breaks at far less negative water potential (tools from percolation theory, it is demonstrated that hydrological measurements can be spatially downscaled at a micro-level relevant to microbial activity. Such downscaling resolves the inconsistency between respiration thresholds and hydrological thresholds. This result, together with observations of residual microbial activity well below -15 MPa (dashed back curve in Figure), lends support to the hypothesis that soil microbes are substrate-limited in dry conditions.

  7. How important is a detailed hydrological representation when modelling soil carbon dynamics in Chinese red soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Zhang, Ganlin; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Soil carbon and nitrogen processing are strongly influenced by the hydrology of soils. When simulating these processes models represent soil hydrology in some way. The hydrological components of soil carbon and nitrogen models vary greatly in their complexity, as does the burden of simulation time and data requirements. Hydrology specific models, such as Hydrus, have more detailed representations of soil hydrology than those used in some soil carbon and nitrogen models, such as ECOSSE, and can provide a more accurate and precise description of the movement and content of water in soil. Moisture content is one of the key variables controlling the processing of carbon and nitrogen in soil models. A higher soil moisture content results in increased methane production through the anaerobic decomposition of soil carbon pools. It also alters the rate at which aerobic decomposition occurs, with low and high soil moisture contents limiting the decomposition of SOC. An inaccurate estimate of soil moisture will introduce errors in the estimated rates of model SOC transformations, which would result in errors in the simulated SOC. In order to shed light on this uncertainty we use the same input data to simulate soil moisture contents in a Red Soil region of China, using both the ECOSSE model and Hydrus 2D. We compare the simulations of both models with measurements of soil moisture at the site and each other. We highlight where the models differ and identify the conditions under which errors are likely to occur. We then simulate SOC dynamics using the ECOSSE model and its original hydrology with the ECOSSE model simulations using the Hydrus 2D simulations. This shows the importance of including a detailed representation of soil moisture when simulating soil organic matter dynamics.

  8. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  9. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdes-Abellan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic. Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm. Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher.

  10. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes-Abellan, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Candela, L.; Tamoh, K.

    2015-07-01

    Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i) non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii) automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic). Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm). Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher. (Author)

  11. The effect of plant water storage on water fluxes within the coupled soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ward, Eric J; Duman, Tomer; Manoli, Gabriele; Parolari, Anthony J; Katul, Gabriel G

    2017-02-01

    In addition to buffering plants from water stress during severe droughts, plant water storage (PWS) alters many features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of water movement in the soil-plant system. How PWS impacts water dynamics and drought resilience is explored using a multi-layer porous media model. The model numerically resolves soil-plant hydrodynamics by coupling them to leaf-level gas exchange and soil-root interfacial layers. Novel features of the model are the considerations of a coordinated relationship between stomatal aperture variation and whole-system hydraulics and of the effects of PWS and nocturnal transpiration (Fe,night) on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in the soil. The model results suggest that daytime PWS usage and Fe,night generate a residual water potential gradient (Δψp,night) along the plant vascular system overnight. This Δψp,night represents a non-negligible competing sink strength that diminishes the significance of HR. Considering the co-occurrence of PWS usage and HR during a single extended dry-down, a wide range of plant attributes and environmental/soil conditions selected to enhance or suppress plant drought resilience is discussed. When compared with HR, model calculations suggest that increased root water influx into plant conducting-tissues overnight maintains a more favorable water status at the leaf, thereby delaying the onset of drought stress.

  12. Towards an improved modeling of chemical weathering in the SoilGen soil evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolot, Emmanuel; Finke, Peter

    2014-05-01

    As the need for soil information particularly in the fields of agriculture, land evaluation, hydrology, biogeochemistry and climate change keeps increasing, models for soil evolution are increasingly becoming valuable tools to provide such soil information. Although still limited, such models are progressively being developed. The SoilGen model is one of such models with capabilities to provide soil information such as soil texture, pH, base saturation, organic carbon, CEC, etc over multi-millennia time scale. SoilGen is a mechanistic water flow driven pedogenetic model describing soil forming processes such as carbon cycling, clay migration, decalcification, bioturbation, physical weathering and chemical weathering. The model has been calibrated and confronted with field measurements in a number of case studies, giving plausible results. Discrepancies between measured and simulated soil properties as concluded from case studies have been mainly attributed to (i) the simple chemical weathering system (ii) poor estimates of initial data inputs such as bulk density and element fluxes, and (iii) incorrect values of variables that describe boundary conditions such as precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. This study focuses on extending the chemical weathering system, such that it can deal with a more heterogeneous composition of primary minerals and includes more elements such as Fe and Si. We propose and discuss here an extended description of chemical weathering in the model that is based on more primary minerals, taking into account the role of the specific area of these minerals, and the effect of physical weathering on these specific areas over time. In the initial stage, the proposed chemical weathering mechanism is also implemented in PHREEQC (a widely applied geochemical code with capabilities to simulate equilibrium reactions involving water and minerals, surface complexes and ion exchangers, etc.) to facilitate comparison with the model results

  13. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang

    2017-08-01

    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  14. Water and heat fluxes in desert soils: 2. Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Milly, P. C. D.

    1994-03-01

    Transient one-dimensional fluxes of soil water (liquid and vapor) and heat in response to 1 year of atmospheric forcing were simulated numerically for a site in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas. The model was initialized and evaluated using the monitoring data presented in a companion paper (Scanlon, this issue). Soil hydraulic and thermal properties were estimated a priori from a combination of laboratory measurements, models, and other published information. In the first simulation, the main drying curves were used to describe soil water retention, and hysteresis was ignored. Remarkable consistency was found between computed and measured water potentials and temperatures. Attenuation and phase shift of the seasonal cycle of water potentials below the shallow subsurface active zone (0.0- to 0.3-m depth) were similar to those of temperatures, suggesting that water potential fluctuations were driven primarily by temperature changes. Water fluxes in the upper 0.3 m of soil were dominated by downward and upward liquid fluxes that resulted from infiltration of rain and subsequent evaporation from the surface. Upward flux was vapor dominated only in the top several millimeters of the soil during periods of evaporation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, water fluxes varied slowly and were dominated by downward thermal vapor flux that decreased with depth, causing a net accumulation of water. In a second simulation, nonhysteretic water retention was instead described by the estimated main wetting curves; the resulting differences in fluxes were attributed to lower initial water contents (given fixed initial water potential) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities that were lower than they were in the first simulation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, the thermal vapor fluxes dominated and were similar to those in the first simulation. Two other simulations were performed, differing from the first only in the prescription of different (wetter) initial water potentials. These three simulations

  15. Selected soil thermal conductivity models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerak Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents collected from the literature models of soil thermal conductivity. This is a very important parameter, which allows one to assess how much heat can be transferred from the underground power cables through the soil. The models are presented in table form, thus when the properties of the soil are given, it is possible to select the most accurate method of calculating its thermal conductivity. Precise determination of this parameter results in designing the cable line in such a way that it does not occur the process of cable overheating.

  16. Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Breda, N.

    2007-01-01

    stand to estimate the water balance terms: trees and understorey transpiration, rainfall interception, throughfall, drainage in the different soil layers and soil water content. This model calculated the onset date, duration and intensity of the soil water shortage (called water stress) using measured...... European monitoring sites covering various forest ecosystem types and a large climatic range in order to characterise the consequences of this drought on ecosystems functioning. As soil water content in the root zone was only monitored in a few sites, a daily water balance model was implemented at each...... measured and modelled soil water content. Our analysis showed a wide spatial distribution of drought stress over Europe, with a maximum intensity within a large band extending from Portugal to NE Germany. Vapour fluxes in all the investigated sites were reduced by drought, due to stomatal closure, when...

  17. Influence of Soil Water Retention Properties on Hydrological Cycle and Water Budgeting Module Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Čustović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of water budgeting module as shown in this paper is represented in phases. By experimental measurement of precipitation and lysimetric measurement of percolation runoff the fi rst phase establishes monthly and annual soil-water budgets of skeletal and clayey soils, and hence the influence of soil water-retention potential on hydrologic cycle and water budget over a four year period in the area of Mostar. Then, a soil-water budget model is simulated in a simplified procedure in order to determine the corresponding soil productive water reserve (R for given soils.In this way, depending on R values, the output parameters of the simulated model may produce different results in: calculated surplus or percolation runoff, real evapotranspiration (RET and water deficit.The lysimetric measuring of the water input and output in skeletal and clayey soils determined significant differences in the water budgets of these, by physical properties, divergent soils. Such correlations indicate that there is a realistic possibility of computing new, relatively reliable and pragmatically significant agro-hydrological parameters using measured precipitation and calculated PET.Also, this paper addresses a correlative analysis between the apple and maize ET on one side, and evaporation measured by Piche and by Class A, as well as PET calculated by Thornthwaite, Turc and Penman, on the other side. The results show a reliable reaction between ET of apple and maize with E by Piche, while the same relation is even more reliable with Class A. Other methods in this correlative analysis are less reliable.

  18. Application of the Modified Compaction Material Model to the Analysis of Landmine Detonation in Soil with Various Degrees of Water Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grujicic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of transient non-linear dynamics computational analyses of the explosion phenomena accompanying the detonation of a 100g C4 mine buried in sand to different depths is carried out using the software package AUTODYN. The mechanical response of sand under high deformation-rate conditions has been represented using the modified compaction material model developed in our recent work [1]. While the mechanical response of the other attendant materials (air, gaseous-detonation products and AISI 1006 mild steel is accounted for using the material models available in literature. The results obtained (specifically, the temporal evolution of the sand overburden shape and pressure at various locations in air above the detonation site were compared with their experimental counterparts for a (50wt%-sand/50wt.%-clay soil obtained recently by Foedinger [2]. The comparison revealed that the modified compaction material model for sand can account reasonably well for the magnitude, spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of the dynamic loads accompanying detonation of shallow-buried mines in soils with various clay and water contents.

  19. Degradation process modelization in of metallic drink containers, in soil, in water and in water-soil interaction; Modelizacion del proceso de degradacion de envases metalicos para bebida, en el suelo, en el agua y en la interaccion agua-suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieiro, I.; Trivino, V.; Gutierrez, T.; Munoz, J.; Larrea, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    This study asses the environmental pollution by metal release that takes place during prolonged exposures when metallic drink containers are accidentally settle in the soil in a uncontrolled way, For comparative purposes, the F111 steel and the aluminium alloy 3003, widely used for the fabrication of these containers, are also considered. A experimental design is proposed to simulate the environmental pollution during prolonged exposures. Analytical indicators have been obtained determining the metallic concentration from three types of mediums; water, water in presence of soil, and absorption-adsorption in soil. An analytical methodology has been developed by Atomic Emission Spectrometry with ICP as exciting source (ICP-OES) for metallic quantification. The method was validated using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) of soil and water and the precision obtained varies from 5.39 to 5.86% and from 5.75 to 6.27%, respectively according to of the element studied. A statistical descriptive study followed by a factorial analysis (linear general model) has been carried out for the treatment of the experimental data packages. The metallic quantification for the three mediums shows that the soil inhibits metallic solubility in water. The process to make packages reduces in both cases their metallic cession. (Author)

  20. Field scale spatio-temporal soil moisture variability for trafficability and crop water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture have been studied mostly for inputs in land surface models for weather and climate predictions. Remote sensing techniques for estimation of soil moisture have been explored because of the good spatial coverage at different scales. Current available satellite data provide surface soil moisture as microwave systems only measure soil moisture content up to 5cm soil depth. The OWAS1S project will focus on estimation of soil moisture from freely available Sentinel-1 datasets for operational water management in agricultural areas. As part of the project, it is essential to develop spatio-temporal methods to estimate root zone soil moisture from surface soil moisture. This will be used for crop water availability and trafficability in selected agricultural fields in the Netherlands. A network of single capacitance sensors installed per field will provide continuous measurements of soil moisture in the study area. Ground penetrating radar will be used to measure soil moisture variability within a single field for different time periods. During wetter months, optimal conditions for traffic will be assessed using simultaneous soil strength and soil moisture measurements. Towards water deficit periods, focus is on the relation (or the lack thereof) between surface soil moisture and root zone soil moisture to determine the amount of water for crops. Spatio-temporal distribution will determine important physical controls for surface and root zone soil moisture and provide insights for root-zone soil moisture. Existing models for field scale soil-water balance and data assimilation methods (e.g. Kalman filter) will be combined to estimate root zone soil moisture. Furthermore, effects of root development on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties and subsequent effects on trafficability and crop water availability will be investigated. This research project has recently started, therefore we want to present methods and framework of

  1. Assessing exposure to transformation products of soil-applied organic contaminants in surface water: comparison of model predictions and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Susanne; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Schwarzenbach, René P; Fenner, Kathrin

    2011-04-01

    Transformation products (TPs) of chemicals released to soil, for example, pesticides, are regularly detected in surface and groundwater with some TPs even dominating observed pesticide levels. Given the large number of TPs potentially formed in the environment, straightforward prioritization methods based on available data and simple, evaluative models are required to identify TPs with a high aquatic exposure potential. While different such methods exist, none of them has so far been systematically evaluated against field data. Using a dynamic multimedia, multispecies model for TP prioritization, we compared the predicted relative surface water exposure potential of pesticides and their TPs with experimental data for 16 pesticides and 46 TPs measured in a small river draining a Swiss agricultural catchment. Twenty TPs were determined quantitatively using solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS), whereas the remaining 26 TPs could only be detected qualitatively because of the lack of analytical reference standards. Accordingly, the two sets of TPs were used for quantitative and qualitative model evaluation, respectively. Quantitative comparison of predicted with measured surface water exposure ratios for 20 pairs of TPs and parent pesticides indicated agreement within a factor of 10, except for chloridazon-desphenyl and chloridazon-methyl-desphenyl. The latter two TPs were found to be present in elevated concentrations during baseflow conditions and in groundwater samples across Switzerland, pointing toward high concentrations in exfiltrating groundwater. A simple leaching relationship was shown to qualitatively agree with the observed baseflow concentrations and to thus be useful in identifying TPs for which the simple prioritization model might underestimate actual surface water concentrations. Application of the model to the 26 qualitatively analyzed TPs showed that most of those TPs categorized as exhibiting a high aquatic

  2. Grey water impact on soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Murcia-Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for food produced by the increase in population, water as an indispensable element in the growth cycle of plants every day becomes a fundamental aspect of production. The demand for the use of this resource is necessary to search for alternatives that should be evaluated to avoid potential negative impacts. In this paper, the changes in some physical properties of soil irrigated with synthetic gray water were evaluated. The experimental design involved: one factor: home water and two treatments; without treated water (T1 and treated water (T2. The variables to consider in the soil were: electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, average weighted diameter (MWD and soil moisture retention (RHS. The water used in drip irrigation high frequency was monitored by tensiometer for producing a bean crop (Phaseolous vulgaris L. As filtration system used was employed a unit composed of a sand filter (FLA and a subsurface flow wetland artificial (HFSS. The treatments showed significant differences in the PSI and the RHS. The FLA+HFSS system is an alternative to the gray water treatment due to increased sodium retention.

  3. Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Periods of soil water deficit often occur within a plant's life cycle, even in temperate deciduous and rain forests (Wilson et al. 2001, Grace 1999). Various experiments have shown that roots are able to sense the distribution of water in the soil, and produce signals that trigger changes in leaf expansion rate and stomatal conductance (Blackman and Davies 1985, Gollan et al. 1986, Gowing et al. 1990 Davies and Zhang 1991, Mansfield and De Silva 1994, Sadras and Milroy 1996). Partitioning of water and air in the soil, solute distribution in soil water, water flow through the soil, and water availability for plants can be determined according to the distribution of the soil water potential (e.g. Schröder et al. 2013, Kool et al. 2014). Understanding plant water uptake under dry conditions has been compromised by hydrological instrumentation with low accuracy in dry soils due to signal attenuation, or a compromised measurement range (Whalley et al. 2013). Development of polymer tensiometers makes it possible to study the soil water potential over a range meaningful for studying plant responses to water stress (Bakker et al. 2007, Van der Ploeg et al. 2008, 2010). Polymer tensiometer data obtained from a lysimeter experiment (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008) were used to analyse day-night fluctuations of soil moisture in the vicinity of maize roots. To do so, three polymer tensiometers placed in the middle of the lysimeter from a control, dry and very dry treatment (one lysimeter per treatment) were used to calculate water content changes over 12 hours. These 12 hours corresponded with the operation of the growing light. Soil water potential measurements in the hour before the growing light was turned on or off were averaged. The averaged value was used as input for the van Genuchten (1980) model. Parameters for the model were obtained from laboratory determination of water retention, with a separate model parameterization for each lysimeter setup. Results show daily

  4. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water in

  5. Soil Specific Surface Area and Non-Singularity of Soil-Water Retention at Low Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per

    2013-01-01

    and Or (TO) and new single-parameter non-singularity (SPN) models; and evaluate estimates of SSA from water sorption, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and N2–BET methods. The AquaSorp successfully measured water sorption isotherms (∼140 data points) within a reasonably short time (1–3 d). The SPN......The dry end of the soil water characteristic (SWC) is important for modeling vapor flow dynamics and predicting soil properties such as specific surface area (SSA) and clay content (CL). Verification of new instrumentation for rapid measurement of the dry end of the SWC is relevant to avoid long...... model well described the distinct non-singularity between the adsorption and desorption branches, while the TO model captured the adsorption data reasonably well (model were...

  6. Soil Water Balance Measurement in Field Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZHI-XIONG

    1992-01-01

    A 5-year experiment on water balance has been conducted in a flat rainfed wheat field with an area of 66×100m2 in Fengqiu,Henan Province in China.Based on the analysis of semi-variance functions conducted with soil moisture samples taken from 77 nodes of a 10×10m2 grid,the soil moisture distribution in the field was structural with a temporal stability.According to the autocorrelation range of the semi-variance function,6 sites were selected for the determination of soil water conditions.The characteristic of probability density function of the differences of water storage in two sets of measurements showed that the distribution of these variables in the field was a normal one.The error in the estimation of the average of 5 random samples was 14% (α=0.10),and the errors of water consumption by wheat during the experiments were estimated to be 6-13%.Sime the experimental field was large enough to avoid any edge effect,the results obtained should tally with the actual situation.Yet the soil system was heterogeneous,so we must follow the principles of statistics and geostatistics when describing the system's status with the average of the samples.

  7. Vegetation/Soil Synthesis Water Index Using MODIS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In consideration of the spectral character of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and the reflective spectrum of vegetation and soil, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) are deduced using one visible band (0.66μm) and two near-infrared bands (0.86μm, 1.24 μm). Vegetation canopy temperature is derived using two thermal infrared bands (8.6 μm and 11μm). Then the vegetation/soil synthesis water index (VSWI) is acquired through analyzing the coupling character of three indexes which can reflect the water condition of vegetation. Finally, the synthesis index is verified by equivalent water content of a single leaf. The matching results show that the synthesis index is directly proportional to the modeled data, which means that the vegetation water content can be reflected using the synthesis index effectively.

  8. Water percolation through the root-soil interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pascal; Kroener, Eva; Vontobel, Peter; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Plant roots exude a significant fraction of the carbon assimilated via photosynthesis into the soil. The mucilaginous fraction of root exudates affects the hydraulic properties of the soil near the roots, the so called rhizosphere, in a remarkable and dynamic way. After drying, mucilage becomes hydrophobic and limits the rewetting of the rhizosphere. Here, we aim to find a quantitative relation between rhizosphere rewetting, particle size, soil matric potential and mucilage concentration. We used a pore-network model in which mucilage was randomly distributed in a cubic lattice. The general idea was that the mucilage concentration per solid soil surface increases the contact angle between the liquid and solid phases consequently limiting the rewetting of pores covered with dry mucilage. We used the Young-Laplace equation to calculate the mucilage concentration at which pores are not wettable for varying particle sizes and matric potentials. Then, we simulated the percolation of water across a cubic lattice. Our simulations predicted that above a critical mucilage concentration water could not flow through the porous medium. The critical mucilage concentration decreased with increasing particle size and decreasing matric potential. The model was compared with experiments of capillary rise in soils of different particle size and mucilage concentration. The experiments confirmed the percolation behaviour of the rhizosphere rewetting. Mucilage turned hydrophobic at concentrations above 0.1 mg/cm2. The critical mucilage concentration at matric potential of -2.5 hPa was ca. 1% [g/g] for fine sand and 0.1 % [g/g] for coarse sand. Our conceptual model is a first step towards a better understanding of the water dynamics in the rhizosphere during rewetting and it can be used to predict in what soil textures rhizosphere water repellency becomes a critical issue for root water uptake.

  9. Vapor Flow Resistance of Dry Soil Layer to Soil Water Evaporation in Arid Environment: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation from bare sandy soils is the core component of the hydrologic cycle in arid environments, where vertical water movement dominates. Although extensive measurement and modeling studies have been conducted and reported in existing literature, the physics of dry soil and its function in evaporation is still a challenging topic with significant remaining issues. Thus, an overview of the previous findings will be very beneficial for identifying further research needs that aim to advance our understanding of the vapor flow resistance (VFR effect on soil water evaporation as influenced by characteristics of the dry soil layer (DSL and evaporation zone (EZ. In this regard, six measurement and four modeling studies were overviewed. The results of these overviewed studies, along with the others, affirm the conceptual dynamics of DSL and EZ during drying or wetting processes (but not both within dry sandy soils. The VFR effect tends to linearly increase with DSL thickness (δ when δ < 5 cm and is likely to increase as a logarithmic function of δ when δ ≥ 5 cm. The vaporization-condensation-movement (VCM dynamics in a DSL depend on soil textures: sandy soils can form a thick (10 to 20 cm DSL while sandy clay soils may or may not have a clear DSL; regardless, a DSL can function as a transient EZ, a vapor condensation zone, and/or a vapor transport medium. Based on the overview, further studies will need to generate long-term continuous field data, develop hydraulic functions for very dry soils, and establish an approach to quantify the dynamics and VFR effects of DSLs during wetting-drying cycles as well as take into account such effects  when using conventional (e.g., Penman-Monteith evaporation models.

  10. Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Aiken, G.R.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter are very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone.

  11. A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    2016-11-03

    Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e

  12. Modeling Soil Erosion with the Aid of GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ping-li

    2005-01-01

    Soil erosion caused by water is an increasing global problem. In order to relieve this problem, several erosion models have been developed to measure the rate of erosion for soil conservation planning. This study takes Lee County, South Carolina, USA as an example to map soil erosion within ArcGIS environment by using the RUSLE with erosion indexes retrieved from DEM. This study proves that the integration of soil erosion models with GIS is a very simple but efficient tool for soil conservation.

  13. Capacitive Soil Moisture Sensor for Plant Watering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Thomas; Kamm, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    How can you realize a water saving and demand-driven plant watering device? To achieve this you need a sensor, which precisely detects the soil moisture. Designing such a sensor is the topic of this poster. We approached this subject with comparing several physical properties of water, e.g. the conductivity, permittivity, heat capacity and the soil water potential, which are suitable to detect the soil moisture via an electronic device. For our project we have developed a sensor device, which measures the soil moisture and provides the measured values for a plant watering system via a wireless bluetooth 4.0 network. Different sensor setups have been analyzed and the final sensor is the result of many iterative steps of improvement. In the end we tested the precision of our sensor and compared the results with theoretical values. The sensor is currently being used in the Botanical Garden of the Friedrich-Alexander-University in a long-term test. This will show how good the usability in the real field is. On the basis of these findings a marketable sensor will soon be available. Furthermore a more specific type of this sensor has been designed for the EU:CROPIS Space Project, where tomato plants will grow at different gravitational forces. Due to a very small (15mm x 85mm x 1.5mm) and light (5 gramm) realisation, our sensor has been selected for the space program. Now the scientists can monitor the water content of the substrate of the tomato plants in outer space and water the plants on demand.

  14. Critical state soil constitutive model for methane hydrate soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Uchida; K. Soga; K. Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

      This paper presents a new constitutive model that simulates the mechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing soil based on the concept of critical state soil mechanics, referred to as the Methane...

  15. A review of soil erodibility in water and wind erosion research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGYang; LIULianyou; YANPing; CAOTong

    2005-01-01

    Soil erodibility is an important index to evaluate the soil sensitivity to erosion. The research on soil erodibility is a crucial tache in understanding the mechanism of soil erosion. Soil erodibility can be evaluated by measuring soil physiochemical properties, scouring experiment, simulated rainfall experiment, plot experiment and wind tunnel experiment. We can use soil erosion model and nomogram to calculate soil erodibility. Many soil erodibility indices and formulae have been put forward. Soil erodibility is a complex concept, it is influenced by many factors, such as soil properties and human activities. Several obstacles restrict the research of soil erodibility. Firstly, the research on soil erodibility is mainly focused on farmland; Secondly, soil erodibility in different areas cannot be compared sufficiently; and thirdly, the research on soil erodibility in water-wind erosion is very scarce.In the prospective research, we should improve method to measure and calculate soil erodibility.strengthen the research on the mechanism of soil erodibility, and conduct research on soil erodibility by both water and wind agents.

  16. Impact of regression methods on improved effects of soil structure on soil water retention estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Minh; De Pue, Jan; Le, Khoa Van; Cornelis, Wim

    2015-06-01

    Increasing the accuracy of pedotransfer functions (PTFs), an indirect method for predicting non-readily available soil features such as soil water retention characteristics (SWRC), is of crucial importance for large scale agro-hydrological modeling. Adding significant predictors (i.e., soil structure), and implementing more flexible regression algorithms are among the main strategies of PTFs improvement. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the improved effect of categorical soil structure information on estimating soil-water content at various matric potentials, which has been reported in literature, could be enduringly captured by regression techniques other than the usually applied linear regression. Two data mining techniques, i.e., Support Vector Machines (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), which have been recently introduced as promising tools for PTF development, were utilized to test if the incorporation of soil structure will improve PTF's accuracy under a context of rather limited training data. The results show that incorporating descriptive soil structure information, i.e., massive, structured and structureless, as grouping criterion can improve the accuracy of PTFs derived by SVM approach in the range of matric potential of -6 to -33 kPa (average RMSE decreased up to 0.005 m3 m-3 after grouping, depending on matric potentials). The improvement was primarily attributed to the outperformance of SVM-PTFs calibrated on structureless soils. No improvement was obtained with kNN technique, at least not in our study in which the data set became limited in size after grouping. Since there is an impact of regression techniques on the improved effect of incorporating qualitative soil structure information, selecting a proper technique will help to maximize the combined influence of flexible regression algorithms and soil structure information on PTF accuracy.

  17. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [crop identification, water resources, urban land use, soil mapping, and atmospheric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant results were obtained in the water resources research, urban land use mapping, and soil association mapping projects. ERTS-1 data was used to classify water bodies to determine acreages and high agreement was obtained with USGS figures. Quantitative evaluation was achieved of urban land use classifications from ERTS-1 data and an overall test accuracy of 90.3% was observed. ERTS-1 data classifications of soil test sites were compared with soil association maps scaled to match the computer produced map and good agreement was observed. In some cases the ERTS-1 results proved to be more accurate than the soil association map.

  18. Modeling multidomain hydraulic properties of shrink-swell soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ryan D.; Abou Najm, Majdi R.; Rupp, David E.; Selker, John S.

    2016-10-01

    Shrink-swell soils crack and become compacted as they dry, changing properties such as bulk density and hydraulic conductivity. Multidomain models divide soil into independent realms that allow soil cracks to be incorporated into classical flow and transport models. Incongruously, most applications of multidomain models assume that the porosity distributions, bulk density, and effective saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil are constant. This study builds on a recently derived soil shrinkage model to develop a new multidomain, dual-permeability model that can accurately predict variations in soil hydraulic properties due to dynamic changes in crack size and connectivity. The model only requires estimates of soil gravimetric water content and a minimal set of parameters, all of which can be determined using laboratory and/or field measurements. We apply the model to eight clayey soils, and demonstrate its ability to quantify variations in volumetric water content (as can be determined during measurement of a soil water characteristic curve) and transient saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks (as can be measured using infiltration tests). The proposed model is able to capture observed variations in Ks of one to more than two orders of magnitude. In contrast, other dual-permeability models assume that Ks is constant, resulting in the potential for large error when predicting water movement through shrink-swell soils. Overall, the multidomain model presented here successfully quantifies fluctuations in the hydraulic properties of shrink-swell soil matrices, and are suitable for use in physical flow and transport models based on Darcy's Law, the Richards Equation, and the advection-dispersion equation.

  19. Effect of Initial Unit Weight and Type of Soil on Water and Nitrate Movement through Saturated- Unsaturated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhael Khatab

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of initial dry unit weight and type of soil on water and nitrate migration through saturated-unsaturated soil is experimentally investigated using laboratory one-dimensional model (40 mm diameter, 100 mm height under various head boundary. The results were compared with the numerical results by using packages of finite element name SEEPW and CTRAN of GEOSLOPE software.          The results show that the initial dry unit weight has a significant effect on the transport process of water and contaminant through saturated-unsaturated soils, Nitrate concentration more sensitive than water flow to change in initial dry unit weight due to variation in  mechanical dispersion that affected by porosity and void ratio which depended on dry unit weight of soil. Water content and nitrate concentration was highly affected by soil type and water application boundary conditions. 

  20. A fully coupled thermo-mechanical model for unsaturated soil

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses a new, unified thermomechanical constitutive model for unsaturated soils through a coupled study. In the context of elastoplasticity and the critical state theory, the model uses the concepts of multi-mechanism and bounding surface theory. This advanced constitutive approach involves thermo-plasticity of saturated and unsaturated soils. Bishop’s effective stress framework is adopted to represent the stress state in the soil. This stress is linked to the water retention...

  1. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    designing and operating remediation systems. Simple and accurate models for estimating soil properties from soil parameters that are easy to measure are useful in connection with preliminary remedial investigations and evaluation of remedial technologies. In this work simple models for predicting transport...

  2. Influences affecting the soil-water characteristic curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian; YU Jian-lin

    2005-01-01

    The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is the primary partially saturated soil information as its behavior and properties can be derived from it. Although there have been many studies of unsaturated soils and the SWCC, there is still no combined constitutive model that can simulate soil characteristics accurately. In cases when hydraulic hysteresis is dominant (e.g.under cyclic loading) it is particularly important to use the SWCC. In the past decades, several mathematical expressions have been proposed to model the curve. There are various influences on the SWCC as a source of information, so the curves obtained from conventional tests often cannot be directly applied;and the mathematical expressions from one scenario cannot be used to simulate another situation. The effects of void ratio, initial water content, stress state and high suction were studied in this work revealing that water content and stress state are more important than the other effects;but that the influences tend to decrease when suction increases. The van Genuchten model was modified to simulate better the changes in the degree of saturation at low values of suction. Predictions were compared with experimental results to determine the simulation capability of the model.

  3. Soil-Water Repellency Characteristic Curves for Soil Profiles with Organic Carbon Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijewardana, Nadeeka Senani; Muller, Karin; Moldrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) of soils is a property with significant consequences for agricultural water management, water infiltration, contaminant transport, and for soil erosion. It is caused by the presence of hydrophobic agents on mineral grain surfaces. Soils were samples in different depths......, and the sessile drop method (SDM). The aim to (i) compare the methods, (ii) characterize the soil-water repellency characteristic curves (SWRCC) being SWR as a function of the volumetric soil-water content (θ) or matric potential (ψ), and (iii) find relationships between SWRCC parameters and SOC content. The WDPT...

  4. Estimation of Areal Soil Water Content through Microwave Remote Sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content are disc

  5. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard

  6. Effect of restoring soil hydrological poperties on water conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.; Kostka, S.J.; Boerth, T.J.; Franklin, M.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Stoof, C.R.; Park, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water repellency in soil is more wide spread than previously thought ¿ and has a significant impact on irrigation efficiency and water conservation. Soil water repellency has been identified in many soil types under a wide array of climatic conditions world wide. Consequences include increased

  7. Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Titus S. Seilheimer; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Peter V. Caldwell; Ge. Sun

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystem productivity and functioning depend on soil and water resources. But the reverse is also true—forest and land-use management activities can significantly alter forest soils, water quality, and associated aquatic habitats (Ice and Stednick 2004, Reid 1993, Wigmosta and Burges 2001). Soil and water resources are protected through the allocation of land...

  8. Effect of restoring soil hydrological poperties on water conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.; Kostka, S.J.; Boerth, T.J.; Franklin, M.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Stoof, C.R.; Park, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water repellency in soil is more wide spread than previously thought ¿ and has a significant impact on irrigation efficiency and water conservation. Soil water repellency has been identified in many soil types under a wide array of climatic conditions world wide. Consequences include increased runof

  9. [Soil water and its karst effect in epikarst dynamic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Qin, Xing-Ming; Jiang, Zhong-Cheng; Luo, Wei-Qun; Qi, Xiao-Fan

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the soil physical properties, soil CO2, soil water and spring water chemistry in a mature forest and a shrub in Nongla of Guangxi, China, as well as the relationships between the chemistry of soil water and spring water, aimed to understand the karst effect of the soil water in Nongla epikarst dynamic system. Significant differences were observed in the soil bulk density and non-capillary porosity under forest and shrub, which affected soil water content. The fixed CO2 in soil water had a significant negative correlation with soil CO2, and the free CO2 in soil water was 0 mg x m(-3) in the forest and 5.33 x 10(3) mg x m(-3) in the shrub. In soil water and spring water, there was a negative correlation between pH and Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- concentrations, and a positive correlation between K+, Na+, and HCO3- concentrations and organic C content. After the eluviation of rain water, the ion concentrations in leached soil water increased greatly, and accordingly, its corrosion ability enhanced greatly. The karst process in forest environment was stable and intensive, while that in shrub environment was active but weak.

  10. On the Need to Establish an International Soil Modeling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.; Schnepf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate-change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society. To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key

  11. Mechanisms of Soil Aggregation: a biophysical modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Or, D.

    2016-12-01

    Soil aggregation is one of the main crosscutting concepts in all sub-disciplines and applications of soil science from agriculture to climate regulation. The concept generally refers to adhesion of primary soil particles into distinct units that remain stable when subjected to disruptive forces. It is one of the most sensitive soil qualities that readily respond to disturbances such as cultivation, fire, drought, flooding, and changes in vegetation. These changes are commonly quantified and incorporated in soil models indirectly as alterations in carbon content and type, bulk density, aeration, permeability, as well as water retention characteristics. Soil aggregation that is primarily controlled by organic matter generally exhibits hierarchical organization of soil constituents into stable units that range in size from a few microns to centimeters. However, this conceptual model of soil aggregation as the key unifying mechanism remains poorly quantified and is rarely included in predictive soil models. Here we provide a biophysical framework for quantitative and predictive modeling of soil aggregation and its attendant soil characteristics. The framework treats aggregates as hotspots of biological, chemical and physical processes centered around roots and root residue. We keep track of the life cycle of an individual aggregate from it genesis in the rhizosphere, fueled by rhizodeposition and mediated by vigorous microbial activity, until its disappearance when the root-derived resources are depleted. The framework synthesizes current understanding of microbial life in porous media; water holding and soil binding capacity of biopolymers; and environmental controls on soil organic matter dynamics. The framework paves a way for integration of processes that are presently modeled as disparate or poorly coupled processes, including storage and protection of carbon, microbial activity, greenhouse gas fluxes, movement and storage of water, resistance of soils against

  12. Predicting subgrid variability of soil water content from basic soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W.; Bogena, H. R.; Huisman, J. A.; Vanderborght, J.; Schuh, M.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of unresolved soil water content variability within model grid cells (i.e., subgrid variability) is important for accurate predictions of land-surface energy and hydrologic fluxes. Here we derived a closed-form expression to describe how soil water content variability depends on mean soil water content (σθ()) using stochastic analysis of 1-D unsaturated gravitational flow based on the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model. A sensitivity analysis showed that the n parameter strongly influenced both the shape and magnitude of the maximum of σθ(). The closed-form expression was used to predict σθ() for eight data sets with varying soil texture using VGM parameters obtained from pedotransfer functions that rely on available soil information. Generally, there was good agreement between observed and predicted σθ() despite the obvious simplifications that were used to derive the closed-form expression. Furthermore, the novel closed-form expression was successfully used to inversely estimate the variability of hydraulic properties from observed σθ() data.

  13. Effects of soil heterogeneity on steady state soil water pressure head under a surface line source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. Fred; Parkin, Gary W.; Kachanoski, R. Gary; Smith, James E.

    2002-07-01

    There are numerous analytical solutions available for flow in unsaturated homogeneous porous media. In this paper, the stream tube model for one-dimensional water movement is extended to two-dimensional (2-D) water movement from a line source as the stream plane model. As well, new solutions are derived to predict the mean and variance of pressure head of water movement under a surface line source in heterogeneous soil using the perturbation method with first-order approximation (PM1) and with second-order approximation (PM2). A variance expression was also developed based on the spectral relationship presented by Yeh et al. [1985a]. The new solutions were tested using the 2-D stream plane model with parameters A = ln(α) and Y = ln(KS) and measurements from field experiments. Results show that the mean of steady state pressure head below the line source is not only a function of the mean parameter values but also a function of the variances of A and Y and the linear cross-correlation coefficient (ρ) between A and Y. The PM2 model can predict the mean pressure head accurately in heterogeneous soils at any level of correlation between A and Y, except when both the soil variability and ρ are high. The pressure head variance estimation based on the PM1 model predicts the measured variance well only when both the soil variability and ρ are low. The field experimental results show that both the PM1 and the spectral models give reasonable predictions of the pressure head variance. Both the measured and predicted values of the variance of pressure head using the two models increase with the depth of soil. Both models show that the variance of pressure head decreases as the source strength increases, but on average, the pressure head variance was underestimated by both models.

  14. Irrigation Optimization by Modeling of Plant-Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling is an important issue for crop management, in a general context of limited water resources and increasing concern about agricultural productivity. Methods to optimize crop irrigation should take into account the impact of water stress on plant growth and the water balance in the plant-soil-atmosphere system. In this article, we propose a methodology to solve the irrigation scheduling problem. For this purpose, a plant-soil interaction model is used to simulate the struct...

  15. Fluorescent probes for understanding soil water repellency: the novel application of a chemist's tool to soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Helen M.; Davies, Matthew L.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Douglas, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals, and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount, and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Fluorescent and phosphorescent probes are widely used in chemistry and biochemistry due to their sensitive response to their physical and chemical environment, such as polarity, and viscosity. However, they have to-date not been used to study soil water repellency. Here we present preliminary work on the evaluation of fluorescent probes as tools to study two poorly understood features that determine the degree of wettability for water repellent soils: (i) the distribution of organics on soils; (ii) the changes in polarity at soil surfaces required for water drops to infiltrate. In our initial work we have examined probes adsorbed onto model soils, prepared by adsorption of specific organics onto acid washed sand

  16. Study on Characteristics of Soil Water in Different Vegetation Restoration Models in Hilly Area%低山丘陵区不同植被恢复模式下土壤水分特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健胜; 刘沛松; 文祯中

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the soil water content in the different forest-grass composite veg-etation ,the soil water characteristics in six models of vegetation restoration including alfalfa ,pop-lar+alfalfa ,arborvitae+alfalfa ,cork oak+alfalfa ,locust+alfalfa and wild grass were studied .The results showed that the soil water distribution was better in the model of cork oak +alfalfa .Soil water contents in six vegetation restoration models were increased with the soil depth increasing , wild grass model and locust + alfalfa model showing better effects on improving the soil water content in different soil depth .In general ,the soil water content in vegetation restoration models decreased with the slope surface of soil declining ,and the different vegetation restoration models had their advantages on improving the soil water content in the different soil slopes ,of which wild grass model and locust+alfalfa model were better for the top and the middle of soil slope ,and al-falfa model was better for the base of soil slope .On the whole ,locust+alfalfa model was suitable for vegetation restoration in hilly area .%为了探讨林草复合模式下土壤水分状况及不同植被修复模式间土壤水分的差异,对6种植被恢复模式(紫花苜蓿、杨树+紫花苜蓿、侧柏+紫花苜蓿、栓皮栎+紫花苜蓿、刺槐+紫花苜蓿、荒草)下土壤水分特征进行了分析。结果表明,栓皮栎+紫花苜蓿模式下土壤水分分布均匀性最好;6种植被恢复模式下土壤含水率均随土层深度的增加逐渐升高,其中荒草模式和刺槐+紫花苜蓿模式在改善不同深度土壤水分方面效果较好;6种植被恢复模式下土壤含水率随着土壤坡面的降低总体上呈逐步减小趋势,不同植被模式在改善不同坡面土壤含水率方面各具优势,其中荒草模式和刺槐+紫花苜蓿模式在改善坡顶和坡中土壤水分方面效果较好,而紫花苜蓿模式在

  17. Principles of water capture, evaporation, and soil water retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful dryland crop production in semiarid environments is dependent upon efficient storage of precipitation and use of stored soil water supplies. The objectives of this presentation are to: 1. Summarize information regarding the effects of time of year; environmental parameters; residue orient...

  18. Mapping soil resistance under different soil water content conditions using indicator kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Avalos, J. M.; Bonnin-Acosta, J.; Sande-Fouz, P.; Pereira-Lanças, K.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.

    2009-04-01

    In many agricultural problems, it is of interest to map the zones where the variable under study shows the probability of being greater than a threshold value. Soil resistances higher than 2 MPa might difficult the establishment of cultures; therefore, further management or tillage techniques should be undertaken. The aim of this work was to map soil resistance using geostatistical techniques, therefore, an analysis of the spatial distribution of soil compaction and the influence of soil water content on the resistance to penetration was carried out. The studied clay-textured soil was managed under no-tillage practices. Soil resistance was described by the cone index which was obtained using a penetrometer. This attribute was assessed at 5 different depths, i.e. 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and deeper than 40 cm, whereas soil water content was described at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. In the end, 73 data points were surveyed. Soil water conditions varied during the five different samplings. Statistical analysis showed that datasets followed a normal distribution, therefore, no transformation was required. Studied attributes showed low and non-significant correlation coefficients which impeded the application of cross-variogram and cokriging techniques. Because of the limited number of measured data, only the omnidirectional semivariogram was computed, and hence the spatial variability is assumed to be identical in all directions. Spatial dependence was observed in 33 out of 35 data series, both for cone index and soil water content. Fitted theoretical structures corresponded to exponential models in 20 cases, 10 Gaussian models and 3 spherical models. Nugget effect varied from 0 to 44.4 depending on the dataset and spatial dependence maximum range was 90 m. A strong spatial dependence was observed in 18 of the data sets whereas only 2 showed a weak autocorrelation. Taking into account the 2 MPa threshold, indicator kriging was used to map the soil resistance

  19. Misrepresentation and amendment of soil moisture in conceptual hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Although many conceptual models are very effective in simulating river runoff, their soil moisture schemes are generally not realistic in comparison with the reality (i.e., getting the right answers for the wrong reasons). This study reveals two significant misrepresentations in those models through a case study using the Xinanjiang model which is representative of many well-known conceptual hydrological models. The first is the setting of the upper limit of its soil moisture at the field capacity, due to the 'holding excess runoff' concept (i.e., runoff begins on repletion of its storage to the field capacity). The second is neglect of capillary rise of water movement. A new scheme is therefore proposed to overcome those two issues. The amended model is as effective as its original form in flow modelling, but represents more logically realistic soil water processes. The purpose of the study is to enable the hydrological model to get the right answers for the right reasons. Therefore, the new model structure has a better capability in potentially assimilating soil moisture observations to enhance its real-time flood forecasting accuracy. The new scheme is evaluated in the Pontiac catchment of the USA through a comparison with satellite observed soil moisture. The correlation between the XAJ and the observed soil moisture is enhanced significantly from 0.64 to 0.70. In addition, a new soil moisture term called SMDS (Soil Moisture Deficit to Saturation) is proposed to complement the conventional SMD (Soil Moisture Deficit).

  20. Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazemi Lyly

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p

  1. Assessment of capacity sensors for monitoring soil water content in ecological orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Karina; Horcajo, Daniel; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Water is an important element for soil tillage and crop development. Its proper management is essential for the development of plants, by preventing excess or shortage in water application. Soil water content is affected by the soil-water-plant system and its monitoring is a required within a sustainable agriculture framework respectful with the natural environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of capacitive sensors in monitoring soil moisture from organic orchards. An experimental text was carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Agricultural Engineering School in the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). Soil samples were collected within the 0-20 cm depth layers from the university organic orchard. The samples were air dried and subsequently sieved in a 2 mm mesh sieve, removing roots and coarse fractions and keeping the fine soil. The amount of fine soil was calculated from the soil density and the soil samples were compacted to obtain the relative volume that corresponded to their density. The measurements were carried out in dry and in saturated soil and, also in samples where soil was stirring with: 150 cm³, 300 cm³ and 450 cm³ of water. A 1890 ml container was used to hold the fine soil and the soil moisture sensor ECH2O, type 10 HS (Decagon Devices, Inc.) was placed horizontally at 5 cm depth. Soil water readings were recorded on a datalogger Em5b from the same manufacturer. The results showed that the capacitive sensor has a linear response to soil moisture content. Its value was overestimated in comparison to the volumetric values and the largest errors (about 8%) were observed in the soils with high moisture contents. Overall, these results point out that the ECH2O sensor, model 10 HS, could determine with sufficient accuracy the volumetric soil water content from organic orchards although it could be further improved by "in situ" calibration.

  2. Linear modeling of the soil-water partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon content by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrić, Filip; Šegan, Sandra; Dramićanin, Aleksandra; Majstorović, Helena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2016-08-05

    Soil-water partition coefficient normalized to the organic carbon content (KOC) is one of the crucial properties influencing the fate of organic compounds in the environment. Chromatographic methods are well established alternative for direct sorption techniques used for KOC determination. The present work proposes reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) as a simpler, yet equally accurate method as officially recommended HPLC technique. Several TLC systems were studied including octadecyl-(RP18) and cyano-(CN) modified silica layers in combination with methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phases. In total 50 compounds of different molecular shape, size, and various ability to establish specific interactions were selected (phenols, beznodiazepines, triazine herbicides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Calibration set of 29 compounds with known logKOC values determined by sorption experiments was used to build simple univariate calibrations, Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) models between logKOC and TLC retention parameters. Models exhibit good statistical performance, indicating that CN-layers contribute better to logKOC modeling than RP18-silica. The most promising TLC methods, officially recommended HPLC method, and four in silico estimation approaches have been compared by non-parametric Sum of Ranking Differences approach (SRD). The best estimations of logKOC values were achieved by simple univariate calibration of TLC retention data involving CN-silica layers and moderate content of methanol (40-50%v/v). They were ranked far well compared to the officially recommended HPLC method which was ranked in the middle. The worst estimates have been obtained from in silico computations based on octanol-water partition coefficient. Linear Solvation Energy Relationship study revealed that increased polarity of CN-layers over RP18 in combination with methanol-water mixtures is the key to better modeling of

  3. Water movement through an experimental soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Rehfeldt, K.R.; Herzog, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A field-scale soil liner was constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the U.S. EPA saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement (???1 x 10-7 cm s-1). The 8 x 15 x 0.9m liner was constructed in 15 cm compacted lifts using a 20,037 kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Water infiltration into the liner has been monitored for one year. Monitoring will continue until water break through at the base of the liner occurs. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivities were 2.5 x 10-9, 4.0 x 10-8, and 5.0 x 10-8 cm s-1 based on measurements of water infiltration into the liner by large- and small-ring infiltrometers and a water balance analysis, respectively. Also investigated in this research was the variability of the liner's hydraulic properties and estimates of the transit times for water and tracers. Small variances exhibited by small-ring flux data suggested that the liner was homogeneous with respect to infiltration fluxes. The predictions of water and tracer breakthrough at the base of the liner ranged from 2.4-12.6 y, depending on the method of calculation and assumptions made. The liner appeared to be saturated to a depth between 18 and 33 cm at the end of the first year of monitoring. Transit time calculations cannot be verified yet, since breakthrough has not occurred. The work conducted so far indicates that compacted soil barriers can be constructed to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement established by the U.S. EPA.A field-scale soil liner was constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the U.S. EPA saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement (??? 1 ?? 10-7 cm s-1). The 8 ?? 15 ?? 0.9 m liner was constructed in 15 cm compacted lifts using a 20.037 kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Water infiltration into the liner has been monitored for one year. Monitoring will continue until water

  4. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    is very dynamic (Cerdà 1998b). Acknowledgements The research projects 07 M/0077/1998, 07 M/0023/2000 and RTA01-078-C2- 2, GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Belmonte Serrato, F., Romero Díaz, A., López Bermúdez, F., Hernández Laguna, E. 1999. Óptimo de cobertura vegetal en relación a las pérdidas de suelo por erosión hídrica y las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación. Papeles de Geografía 30, 5-15. Cammeraat, E., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C. 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semiarid environment. Ecohydrology, 3: 421-430. 10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A. 1997a. The effect of patchy distribution of Stipa tenacissima L. on runoff and erosion. Journal of Arid Environments, 36, 37-51. Cerdà, A. 1998. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A.1997b. Soil erosion after land abandonment in a semiarid environment of Southeastern Spain. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 11, 163-176. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Alegre, J. 2010b. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs. Journal of Hydrology 389, 363-372. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Marques, M.J., Bienes, R., Alegre, J. 2010a. Direct and indirect effects of Mediterranean vegetation on runoff and soil loss. European Journal of Soil Science 61, 174-185. García-Ruiz, J.M. 2010. The effects of land uses on soil erosion in Spain: a review. Catena 81, 1-11. Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., and Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model

  5. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  6. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  7. Influence of the initial soil water content on Beerkan water infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, L.; Loizeau, S.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Winiarski, T.; Rossier, Y.; Delolme, C.; Gaudet, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding and modeling of water flow in the vadose zone are important with regards water management and infiltration devices design. Water infiltration process clearly depends on initial soil water content, in particular for sandy soils with high organic matter content. This study investigates the influence of initial water content on water infiltration in a hydrophobic sandy soil and on the related derivation of hydraulic parameters using the BEST algorithm (Lassabatere et al., 2006). The studied sandy soil has a high total organic content decreasing from 3.5% (w/w) at the surface to 0.5% (w/w) below 1cm depth. The highest TOC at surface was due to the presence of a dense biofilm and resulted in a high surface hydrophobicity under dry conditions (low initial water contents). The water infiltration experiments consisted in infiltrating known volumes of water through a simple ring at null pressure head (Beerkan method). The infiltrations were performed during three successive days after a dry period with a storm event between the first and the second day (5 mm) and another between the second and the third day (35 mm). These events resulted in an increase in initial water contents, from less than 5% for the first day to around 10% for the last day. Experiments were performed for appropriate conditions for Beerkan experiments: initial water contents below 1/4 of the saturated water content and uniform water profile resulting from water redistribution after each rainfall event. The analysis of the infiltration data clearly highlights the strong effect of hydrophobicity. For the driest initial conditions (first day), infiltration rates increased with time, whereas they decreased with time for wetter conditions. Such a decrease agreed with the principles of water infiltration without hydrophobicity. In addition, total cumulative infiltrations were far higher for the wettest conditions. Regarding hydraulic characterization, only the data obtained during the last

  8. Impacts of soil-aquifer heat and water fluxes on simulated global climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Krakauer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50 m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer-soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer-soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil-aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of >1 K in the Arctic. The soil-aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and land-surface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  9. Impacts of water and soil erosion in upstream watershed of Nenjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Making a brief analysis of the water and soil loss present situation in Daxing'anling area which locates to the upstream region of Nenjiang River, and giving the water and soil loss of this area that have been made near 20 years, as well as the factors of the water and soil loss. According to the factors corresponding prevention measure and forecast model have been put forward, make a brief introduction to this model in this article. It is helpful to improve the local soil conservation and sustainable development.

  10. Estimating respiration of roots in soil: interactions with soil CO2, soil temperature and soil water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the variability of the dynamics of the actual and observed root respiration rate in relation to abiotic factors. In this study, we describe I) interactions between soil CO2 concentration, temperature, soil water content and root respiration, and II) the effect of

  11. Environmental Interactions of Hydrazine Fuels in Soil/Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    while the product was subsequently degraded microbiologically to CO2 in nonsterile soil. The product in sterile soil was not degraded further. The...standard soil microbiological techniques. The effects of Hz and MH on soil microbiological properties were also examined . 4. Soil Physics and Model...sterile soil. Alterna- tively, it is possible that MMH in both nonsterile and sterile soils was initially oxidized chemically to an oxidation product

  12. Hysteresis and uncertainty in soil water-retention curve parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likos, William J.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of soil hydraulic parameters representing wetting and drying paths are required for predicting hydraulic and mechanical responses in a large number of applications. A comprehensive suite of laboratory experiments was conducted to measure hysteretic soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) representing a wide range of soil types. Results were used to quantitatively assess differences and uncertainty in three simplifications frequently adopted to estimate wetting-path SWCC parameters from more easily measured drying curves. They are the following: (1) αw=2αd, (2) nw=nd, and (3) θws=θds, where α, n, and θs are fitting parameters entering van Genuchten’s commonly adopted SWCC model, and the superscripts w and d indicate wetting and drying paths, respectively. The average ratio αw/αd for the data set was 2.24±1.25. Nominally cohesive soils had a lower αw/αd ratio (1.73±0.94) than nominally cohesionless soils (3.14±1.27). The average nw/nd ratio was 1.01±0.11 with no significant dependency on soil type, thus confirming the nw=nd simplification for a wider range of soil types than previously available. Water content at zero suction during wetting (θws) was consistently less than during drying (θds) owing to air entrapment. The θws/θds ratio averaged 0.85±0.10 and was comparable for nominally cohesive (0.87±0.11) and cohesionless (0.81±0.08) soils. Regression statistics are provided to quantitatively account for uncertainty in estimating hysteretic retention curves. Practical consequences are demonstrated for two case studies.

  13. Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heye Reemt Bogena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8. Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process.

  14. Holistic irrigation water management approach based on stochastic soil water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Appreciating the essential gap between fundamental unsaturated zone transport processes and soil and water management due to low effectiveness of some of monitoring and modeling approaches, this study presents a mathematical programming model for irrigation management optimization based on stochastic soil water dynamics. The model is a nonlinear non-convex program with an economic objective function to address water productivity and profitability aspects in irrigation management through optimizing irrigation policy. Utilizing an optimization-simulation method, the model includes an eco-hydrological integrated simulation model consisting of an explicit stochastic module of soil moisture dynamics in the crop-root zone with shallow water table effects, a conceptual root-zone salt balance module, and the FAO crop yield module. Interdependent hydrology of soil unsaturated and saturated zones is treated in a semi-analytical approach in two steps. At first step analytical expressions are derived for the expected values of crop yield, total water requirement and soil water balance components assuming fixed level for shallow water table, while numerical Newton-Raphson procedure is employed at the second step to modify value of shallow water table level. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, combined with the eco-hydrological simulation model, has been used to solve the non-convex program. Benefiting from semi-analytical framework of the simulation model, the optimization-simulation method with significantly better computational performance compared to a numerical Mote-Carlo simulation-based technique has led to an effective irrigation management tool that can contribute to bridging the gap between vadose zone theory and water management practice. In addition to precisely assessing the most influential processes at a growing season time scale, one can use the developed model in large scale systems such as irrigation districts and agricultural catchments. Accordingly

  15. Current advancements and challenges in soil-root interactions modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Huber, Katrin; Abesha, Betiglu; Meunier, Felicien; Leitner, Daniel; Roose, Tiina; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Roots change their surrounding soil chemically, physically and biologically. This includes changes in soil moisture and solute concentration, the exudation of organic substances into the rhizosphere, increased growth of soil microorganisms, or changes in soil structure. The fate of water and solutes in the root zone is highly determined by these root-soil interactions. Mathematical models of soil-root systems in combination with non-invasive techniques able to characterize root systems are a promising tool to understand and predict the behaviour of water and solutes in the root zone. With respect to different fields of applications, predictive mathematical models can contribute to the solution of optimal control problems in plant recourse efficiency. This may result in significant gains in productivity, efficiency and environmental sustainability in various land use activities. Major challenges include the coupling of model parameters of the relevant processes with the surrounding environment such as temperature, nutrient concentration or soil water content. A further challenge is the mathematical description of the different spatial and temporal scales involved. This includes in particular the branched structures formed by root systems or the external mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi. Here, reducing complexity as well as bridging between spatial scales is required. Furthermore, the combination of experimental and mathematical techniques may advance the field enormously. Here, the use of root system, soil and rhizosphere models is presented through a number of modelling case studies, including image based modelling of phosphate uptake by a root with hairs, model-based optimization of root architecture for phosphate uptake from soil, upscaling of rhizosphere models, modelling root growth in structured soil, and the effect of root hydraulic architecture on plant water uptake efficiency and drought resistance.

  16. Modeling soil erosion and transport on forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G McNulty

    1998-01-01

    Century-long studies on the impacts of forest management in North America suggest sediment can cause major reduction on stream water quality. Soil erosion patterns in forest watersheds are patchy and heterogeneous. Therefore, patterns of soil erosion are difficult to model and predict. The objective of this study is to develop a user friendly management tool for land...

  17. Seasonal changes in soil water repellency and their effect on soil CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a seasonally variable phenomenon controlled by moisture content and at the same time a regulator of the distribution and conductivity of water in the soil. The distribution and availability of water in soil is also an important factor for microbial activity, decomposition of soil organic matter and exchange of gases like CO2 and CH4 between the soil and the atmosphere. It has been therefore hypothesised that SWR by restricting water availability in soil can affect the production and the transport of CO2 in the soil and between the soil and the atmosphere. This study investigates the effect of seasonal changes in soil moisture and water repellency on CO2 fluxes from soil. The study was conducted for 3 year at four grassland and pine forest sites in the UK with contrasting precipitation. The results show the temporal changes in soil moisture content and SWR are affected by rainfall intensity and the length of dry periods between the storms. Soils exposed to very high annual rainfall (>1200mm) can still exhibit high levels of SWR for relatively long periods of time. The spatial variation in soil moisture resulting from SWR affects soil CO2 fluxes, but the most profound effect is visible during and immediately after the rainfall events. Keywords: soil water repellency, CO2 flux, hydrophobicity, preferential flow, gas exchange, rainfall

  18. Effect of Irrigation Water Quality on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOZHEN-HUA; B.PRENDERGAST; 等

    1992-01-01

    The effect of irrigation water quality on unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (HC) of undisturbed soil in field was studied.Results show that within the operating soil suction range (0-1.6 KPa) of disc permeameters,the higher the electric conductivity (EC) of irrigation water,the higher the soil HC became.The soil HC doubled when EC increased from 0.1 to 6.0ds m-1.High sodium-adsorption ratio(SAR) of irrigation water would have an unfavorable effect on soil HC.Soil HC decreased with the increasing of SAR,especially in the case of higher soil suction.An interaction existed between the effects of EC and SAR of irrigation water on soil HC.The HC of unsaturated soil dependent upon the macropores in surface soil decreased by one order of magnitude with 1 KPa increase of soil suction.In the study on the effect of very low soluble salt concentration (EC=0.1 ds m-1 of irrigation water on soil HC,soil HC was found to be lowered by 30% as a consequence of blocking up of some continuous pores by the dispersed and migrated clay particles.Nonlinear successive regression analysis and significance test show that the effects of EC and SAR of irrigation water on soil HC reached the extremely significant level.

  19. Input Digital Datasets for the Soil-Water Balance Groundwater Recharge Model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5...

  20. Regional vegetation water effects on satellite soil moisture estimations for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Soil moisture information is a vital parameter for water resources planning and food production. In particular for West Africa, where income largely depends on rainfed agriculture, reliable information on available soil water is required for modeling and prediction. Over large areas and, specificall

  1. Correlation Between Soil Water Retention Capability and Soil Salt Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The soil moisture retention capability of Chao soil and coastal saline Chao soil in Shandong and Zhejiang provinces were measured by pressure membrane method. The main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability were studied by the methods of correlation and path analyses. The results indicated that < 0.02mm physical clay and soil salt content were the main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability. At soil suction of 30~50 kPa, the soil salt content would be the dominant factor.

  2. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bittelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for a variety of applications both in agricultural and horticultural systems such as optimization of irrigation volumes and fertilization. In recent decades, a large number of experimental methods have been developed to measure the soil water potential, and a large body of knowledge is now available on theory and applications. In this review, the main techniques used to measure the soil water potential are discussed. Subsequently, some examples are provided where the measurement of soil water potential is utilized for a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture.

  3. Transport Characteristics of Soil Salinity in Saline-alkali Land under Water Storage and Drainage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; LI; Jichang; HAN

    2015-01-01

    To test the variation and transport of soil salinity in saline- alkali land under water storage and drainage treatments,an experimental model was established in Fuping,Shaanxi Province,2009. The variation of soil salinity during 0- 160 cm soil depth under the two treatments was determined and analyzed. Results showed that the average soil water content under water storage treatment was 4. 47% higher than that under drainage treatment,which means that the water storage treatment could help to improve soil moisture to satisfy the crop’s growth needs. The profile distribution of soil soluble solids( TDS),anion( Cl-,HCO3-,SO2-4) and cation( Ca2 +,Na+,K+) content and the variation of soil p H were also measured and analyzed. PCA( Principal Component Analysis) was used to explore the relationship between the soil salinity and its ions,which showed that the water storage treatment could significantly decrease the surface salinity of soil and accelerate the desalination of topsoils,and finally,the soil quality was improved significantly,demonstrating that the water storage treatment has a remarkable effect on soil salinity management.

  4. Integrating soil water and tracer balances, numerical modelling and GIS tools to estimate regional groundwater recharge: Application to the Alcadozo Aquifer System (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornero, Jorge; Manzano, Marisol; Ortega, Lucía; Custodio, Emilio

    2016-10-15

    Groundwater recharge is one of the key variables for aquifer management and also one of the most difficult to be evaluated with acceptable accuracy. This is especially relevant in semiarid areas, where the processes involved in recharge are widely variable. Uncertainty should be estimated to know how reliable recharge estimations are. Groundwater recharge has been calculated in the Alcadozo Aquifer System, under steady state conditions, at regional (aquifer) and sub-regional (spring catchment) scales applying different methods. The regional distribution of long-term average recharge values has been estimated with the chloride mass balance method using data from four rain stations and 40 groundwater samples covering almost the whole aquifer surface. A remarkable spatial variability has been found. Average annual recharge rates ranges from 20 to 243mmyear(-1) across the aquifer, with an estimated coefficient of variation between 0.16 and 0.38. The average recharge/precipitation ratio decreases from 34% in the NW to 6% in the SE, following the topographic slope. At spring-catchment scale, recharge has been estimated by modelling the soil water balance with the code Visual Balan 2.0. The results, calibrated with discharge data of the two main springs Liétor and Ayna, are 35.5 and 50mmyear(-1) respectively, with estimated coefficients of variation of 0.49 and 0.36. A sensitivity analysis showed that soil parameters influence the most the uncertainty of recharge estimations. Recharge values estimated with both methods and at two temporal and spatial scales are consistent, considering the regional variability obtained with the chloride method and the respective confidence intervals. Evaluating the uncertainties of each method eased to compare their relative results and to check their agreement, which provided confidence to the values obtained. Thus, the use of independent methods together with their uncertainties is strongly recommended to constrain the magnitude and to

  5. Biodegradability of soil water soluble organic carbon extracted from seven different soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCAGLIA Barbara; ADANI Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is considered the most mobile and reactive soil carbon source and its characterization is an important issue for soil ecology study. A biodegradability test was set up to study WSOC extracted from 7 soils differently managed. WSOC was extracted from soil with water (soil/water ratio of 1:2, W/V) for 30 min, and then tested for biodegradability by a liquid state respirometric test. Result obtained confirmed the finding that WSOC biodegradability depended on both land use and management practice. These results suggested the biodegradability test as suitable method to characterize WSOC, adding useful information to soil fertility.

  6. Measurements of water repellency and infiltration of the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Žnidaršič, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency is a reduction in the rate of wetting caused by the presence of hydrophobic coatings on soil particles. The occurrence of the absorption of water from the surface of the ground in its interior is called infiltration. Water resistance and infiltration are dependent on a number of influences. All measurements were done on three different soil types at each at the ground level and in the trench. Water repellency measurements were performed by two methods, namely with wat...

  7. Measurements of infiltration and water repellency on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrač, Rožle

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration is a process of water entering soil from its surface. Field measurements of infiltration are performed with infiltrometers. Calculation of hydraulic conductivity can be done by different equations. Infiltration exhibits large spatial and temporal variability due to many affecting factors. One of those effects is soil water repellency (hydrophobicity). Water-repellent soils do not wet up spontaneously. The intensity and persistence of water repellency vary widely due to variabilit...

  8. Effect of Plant-derived Hydrophobic Compounds on Soil Water. Repellency in Dutch Sandy Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363508287; Dekker, S.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203449827; Nierop, K.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182329895

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency or hydrophobicity is a common and important soil property, which may diminish plant growth and promotes soil erosion leading to environmentally undesired situations. Hydrophobic organic compounds in the soil are derived from vegetation (leaves, roots, mosses) or microorganisms

  9. Effect of Plant-derived Hydrophobic Compounds on Soil Water. Repellency in Dutch Sandy Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.; Dekker, S.C.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency or hydrophobicity is a common and important soil property, which may diminish plant growth and promotes soil erosion leading to environmentally undesired situations. Hydrophobic organic compounds in the soil are derived from vegetation (leaves, roots, mosses) or microorganisms

  10. Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Doerr, S.H.; Oostindie, K.; Ziogas, A.K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the

  11. Modelling multicomponent solute transport in structured soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beinum, van G.W.

    2007-01-01

    The mobility of contaminants in soil is an important factor in determining their ability to spread into the wider environment. For non-volatile substances, transport within the soil is generally dominated by transport of dissolved fractions in the soil water phase, via either diffusion or convection

  12. Simulating soil-water movement through loess-veneered landscapes using nonconsilient saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lee, Brad D.; Schoeneberger, Philip J.; McCauley, W. M.; Indorante, Samuel J.; Owens, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) data are available for the entire United States, so are incorporated in many regional and national models of hydrology and environmental management. However, SSURGO does not provide an understanding of spatial variability and only includes saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) values estimated from particle size analysis (PSA). This study showed model sensitivity to the substitution of SSURGO data with locally described soil properties or alternate methods of measuring Ksat. Incorporation of these different soil data sets significantly changed the results of hydrologic modeling as a consequence of the amount of space available to store soil water and how this soil water is moved downslope. Locally described soil profiles indicated a difference in Ksat when measured in the field vs. being estimated from PSA. This, in turn, caused a difference in which soil layers were incorporated in the hydrologic simulations using TOPMODEL, ultimately affecting how soil water storage was simulated. Simulations of free-flowing soil water, the amount of water traveling through pores too large to retain water against gravity, were compared with field observations of water in wells at five slope positions along a catena. Comparison of the simulated data with the observed data showed that the ability to model the range of conditions observed in the field varied as a function of three soil data sets (SSURGO and local field descriptions using PSA-derived Ksat or field-measured Ksat) and that comparison of absolute values of soil water storage are not valid if different characterizations of soil properties are used.

  13. Mitigation of water repellency in burned soils applying hydrophillic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neris, Jonay; de la Torre, Sara; Vidal-Vazquez, Eva; Lado, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effect of fire on water repellency was analyzed in soils from different parent materials, as well as the suitability of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to reduce water repellency in these soils. Samples were collected in four different sites where wildfires took place: two in the Canary Islands, with soils developed on volcanic materials, and two in Galicia (NW Spain), with soils developed on plutonic rocks. In Galicia, two soil samples were collected in each site, one in the burnt area and one in an adjacent unburnt area. In the Canary Islands, four samples were collected from each site, three inside the burnt area where the soils were affected by different fire intensities, and one in an unburnt adjacent area. Samples were air-dried and sieved by a 2-mm mesh sieve. Water repellency was measured using the Water Drop Penetration Time test. An amount of 10 g of soil was placed in a tray. Five drops of deionized water were place on the soil surface with a pipette, and the time for each drop to fully penetrate into the soil was recorded. PAM solution was applied to the burnt soils simulating a field application rate of 1gm-2. The polymer used was Superfloc A-110 (Kemira Water Solutions BV, Holland) with 1x107 Da molecular weigth and 15% hydrolysis. PAM was sprayed on the soil surface as solution with a concentration 0.2 g/L. After the application, the samples were dried and the WDPT test was performed. Three replicates for each treatment and soil were used, and the treatments included: dry soil, dry soil after a wetting treatment, dry PAM-treated soil. The results showed that water repellency was modified by fire differently in the various soils. In hydrophilic soils and soils with low water repellency, water repellency was increased after the action of fire. In soils with noticeable initial water repellency, this was reduced or eliminated after the fire. Wetting repellent soils caused a decrease in water repellency most probably because of the spatial

  14. Prediction of water content at different potentials from soil property data in Jazan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturki, Ali; Ibrahim, Hesham

    2016-04-01

    In dry regions effective irrigation management is crucial to maintain crop production and sustain limited water resources. Effective irrigation requires good knowledge of soil water content in the root zone. However, measurement of soil water in the root zone over time is extremely expensive and time consuming. On the other hand, weather and basic soil property data are more available, either from existing databases or by direct measurement in the field. Simulation models can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate soil water content and subsequent irrigation requirements based on the available weather and soil data. In this study we investigated three hierarchical approaches to predict water content at variable potentials (0, 10, 33, 60, 100, 300, 500, 800, 1000, and 1500 kPa) using the Rosetta model: soil texture class (STC); percent of sand, silt, and clay (SSC); bulk density, percent of sand, silt, and clay, and water content measurements at 33 and 1500 kPa (SSC+WC). Estimation of soil water content at 43 locations in Jazan region using the three hierarchical approaches was compared with gravimetric water content. Results showed that the three approaches failed to describe water content accurately at saturation conditions (achieve effective irrigation scheduling especially in locations where only limited weather and soil date are available.

  15. How can climate, soil, and monitoring schedule affect temporal stability of soil water contents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Temporal stability (TS) of soil water content (SWC) reflects the spatio-temporal organization of soil water. The TS SWC was originally recognized as a phenomenon that can be used to provide temporal average SWC of an area of interest from observations at a representative location(s). Currently application fields of TS SWC are numerous, e.g. up- and downscaling SWC, SWC monitoring and data assimilation, precision farming, and sensor network design and optimization. However, the factors that control the SWC organization and TS SWC are not completely understood. Among these factors are soil hydraulic properties that are considered as local controls, weather patterns, and the monitoring schedule. The objective of this work was to use modeling to assess the effect of these factors on the spatio-temporal patterns of SWC. We ran the HYDRUS6 code to simulate four years of SWC in 4-m long soil columns. The columns were assumed homogeneous, soil hydraulic conductivity was drawn from lognormal distributions. Sets of columns were generated separately for sandy loam and loamy soils, soil water retention was set to typical values for those soil textures. Simulations were carried out for four climates present at the continental US. The climate-specific weather patterns were obtained with the CLIGEN code using climate-specific weather observation locations that were humid subtropical from College Station (TX), humid continental from Indianapolis (IN), cold semiarid from Moscow (ID) and hot semiarid from Tucson (AZ). We evaluated the TS and representative location (RL) selections by comparing i) different climates; ii) for the same climates different years; iii) different time intervals between samplings; iv) one year duration surveys vs. one month summer campaigns; and v) different seasons of the same year. Spatial variability of the mean relative differences (MRD) differed among climates for both soils, as the probability of observing the same variance in the MRD was lower than

  16. REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  17. REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  18. Fully undrained cyclic loading simulation on unsaturated soils using an elastoplastic model for unsaturated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komolvilas Veerayut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have reported that Bishop’s mean effective stress decreases in unsaturated soils under fully undrained cyclic loading conditions, and unsaturated soils are finally liquefied in a similar manner as saturated soils. This paper presents a series of simulations of such fully undrained cyclic loading on unsaturated soils using an elastoplastic model of the unsaturated soil. This model is formulated using the Bishop’s effective stress tensor incorporating the following concepts: the volumetric movement of the state boundary surface containing the normal consolidation line and the critical state line due to the variation in the degree of saturation, a soil water characteristic curve model considering the effect of specific volume and hysteresis, the subloading surface model, and Boyle’s law. Comparisons between the simulation results and the experimental ones show that the model agreed well with the unsaturated soil behavior under cyclic loading. Finally, the typical cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils under fully undrained conditions, such as the mechanism of liquefaction of unsaturated soils, the compression behavior, and an increase in the degree of saturation, are described through the proposed simulation results.

  19. Uranium in soils and water; Uran in Boden und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienemann, Claudia; Utermann, Jens

    2012-07-15

    The report of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) on uranium in soils and water covers the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Deposits and properties: Use of uranium; toxic effects on human beings, uranium in ground water and drinking water, uranium in surface waters, uranium in soils, uranium in the air. (3) Legal regulations. (4) Uranium deposits, uranium mining, polluted area recultivation. (5) Diffuse uranium entry in soils and water: uranium insertion due to fertilizers, uranium insertion due to atmospheric precipitation, uranium insertion from the air. (6) Diffuse uranium release from soils and transfer in to the food chain. (7) Conclusions and recommendations.

  20. Composition and structure of agents responsible for development of water repellency in soils following oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvina, Marina; Todoruk, Tiona R; Langford, Cooper H

    2003-07-01

    Soil from the Ellerslie site of experimental oil contamination in Alberta developed water repellency some years after initial remediation. The water-repellent soils were compared to clean soils and contaminated but wettable soils by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of extraction with CH2Cl2 (for petroleum hydrocarbons), NaOH (for natural organic matter), and 2-propanol/ammonia (IPA/NH3) on wettability were evaluated by the molarity of the ethanol droplet (MED) test. Soil extracts and whole soils, after extraction, were examined using NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). On the basis of the structure--MED correlations, a model of a thin-layer natural organic matter--petroleum products complex formed under strong drying conditions is proposed to account for the development of water repellency. Studies of two similar soils from accidental oil spills are supportive.

  1. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  2. Hydrocarbon contamination increases the liquid water content of frozen Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Steven D; Schafer, Alexis N; Forgeron, Michelle A M; Snape, Ian

    2008-11-15

    We do not yet understand why fuel spills can cause greater damage in polar soils than in temperate soils. The role of water in the freezing environment may partly be responsible for why polar soils are more sensitive to pollution. We hypothesized that hydrocarbons alter the liquid water in frozen soil, and we evaluated this hypothesis by conducting laboratory and field experiments at Casey Station, Antarctica. Liquid water content in frozen soils (theta(liquid)) was estimated by time domain reflectometry in laboratory, field collected soils, and in situ field measurements. Our results demonstrate an increase in liquid water associated with hydrocarbon contamination in frozen soils. The dependence of theta(liquid) on aged fuel and spiked fuel were almost identical,with a slope of 2.6 x 10(-6) mg TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) kg(-1) for aged fuel and 3.1 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1) for spiked fuel. In situ measurements found theta(liquid) depends, r2 = 0.75, on fuel for silt loam soils (theta(liquid) = 0.094 + 7.8 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1)) but not on fuel for silt clay loam soils. In our study, theta(liquid) doubled in field soils and quadrupled in laboratory soils contaminated with diesel which may have profound implications on frost heave models in contaminated soils.

  3. 模型模拟土壤性质和植被种类对再生水灌溉水盐运移的影响%Simulation of Effects of Soil Properties and Plants on Soil Water-salt Movement with Reclaimed Water Irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斯丹; 陈卫平; 王美娥

    2012-01-01

    为推动再生水安全灌溉,本研究运用ENVIRO-GRO模型模拟了不同土壤性质、植被条件下土壤盐分的分布规律及累积趋势,探讨了土壤性质和植被种类对再生水灌溉水盐运移的影响.研究发现,不同土壤初始含盐量下,经多年重复模拟后最终达到统一的平衡状态;而不同土壤质地下,随着灌溉年份的增加,壤土、黏壤土中的土壤ECe年均值逐渐增加直到平衡,砂壤土中的土壤ECe年均值逐渐减少直到平衡,平衡时土层中的ECe值砂壤土〈壤土〈黏壤土.3种植被下,大叶黄杨、油松的土壤ECe值增加量小于早熟禾;土壤盐分在土层中的空间、时间分布也均有所不同.此外,不同模拟情景下,土壤盐分累积都不会影响植被的生长(黏壤土除外),但均出现轻度盐渍化(砂壤土除外).%In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation,the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study.The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted.Simultaneously,the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated.Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation,with different initial soil salinity.Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil,salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions,while under the condition of sandy loam soil,salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions.The saturated soil salinity(ECe) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loamloamclay loam.Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass.The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three

  4. Soil water stable isotopes reveal evaporation dynamics at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface of the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the influence of vegetation on water storage and flux in the upper soil is crucial in assessing the consequences of climate and land use change. We sampled the upper 20 cm of podzolic soils at 5 cm intervals in four sites differing in their vegetation (Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and heather (Calluna sp. and Erica Sp)) and aspect. The sites were located within the Bruntland Burn long-term experimental catchment in the Scottish Highlands, a low energy, wet environment. Sampling took place on 11 occasions between September 2015 and September 2016 to capture seasonal variability in isotope dynamics. The pore waters of soil samples were analyzed for their isotopic composition (δ2H and δ18O) with the direct-equilibration method. Our results show that the soil waters in the top soil are, despite the low potential evaporation rates in such northern latitudes, kinetically fractionated compared to the precipitation input throughout the year. This fractionation signal decreases within the upper 15 cm resulting in the top 5 cm being isotopically differentiated to the soil at 15-20 cm soil depth. There are significant differences in the fractionation signal between soils beneath heather and soils beneath Scots pine, with the latter being more pronounced. But again, this difference diminishes within the upper 15 cm of soil. The enrichment in heavy isotopes in the topsoil follows a seasonal hysteresis pattern, indicating a lag time between the fractionation signal in the soil and the increase/decrease of soil evaporation in spring/autumn. Based on the kinetic enrichment of the soil water isotopes, we estimated the soil evaporation losses to be about 5 and 10 % of the infiltrating water for soils beneath heather and Scots pine, respectively. The high sampling frequency in time (monthly) and depth (5 cm intervals) revealed high temporal and spatial variability of the isotopic composition of soil waters, which can be critical, when using stable isotopes as tracers

  5. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    The hydraulic properties near saturation can change dramatically due to the presence of macropores that are usually difficult to handle in traditional pore size models. The purpose of this study is to establish a data set on hydraulic conductivity near saturation, test the predictive capability...... of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences...

  6. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen

    2013-05-08

    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D{sub 2}O within the soil compartments. D{sub 2}O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D{sub 2}O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D{sub 2}O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D{sub 2}O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D{sub 2}O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the

  7. Modelling erosion and its interaction with soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Zhang, Ganlin; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Water driven soil erosion removes and relocates a significant quantity of soil organic carbon. In China the quantity of carbon removed from the soil through water erosion has been reported to be 180+/-80 Mt y-1 (Yue et al., 2011). Being able to effectively model the movement of such a large quantity of carbon is important for the assessment of soil quality and carbon storage in the region and further afield. A large selection of erosion models are available and much work has been done on evaluating the performance of these in developed countries (Merritt et al., 2006). Fewer studies have evaluated the application of these models on soils in developing countries. Here we evaluate and compare the performance of two of these models, WEPP (Laflen et al., 1997) and RUSLE (Renard et al., 1991), for simulations of soil erosion and deposition at the slope scale on a Chinese Red Soil under cultivation using measurements taken at the site. We also describe work to dynamically couple the movement of carbon presented in WEPP to a model of soil organic matter and nutrient turnover, ECOSSE (Smith et al., 2010). This aims to improve simulations of both erosion and carbon cycling by using the simulated rates of erosion to alter the distribution of soil carbon, the depth of soil and the clay content across the slopes, changing the simulated rate of carbon turnover. This, in turn, affects the soil carbon available to be eroded in the next timestep, so improving estimates of carbon erosion. We compare the simulations of this coupled modelling approach with those of the unaltered ECOSSE and WEPP models to determine the importance of coupling erosion and turnover models on the simulation of carbon losses at catchment scale.

  8. Salt-Water Transport in Unsaturated Soils Under Crop Planting: Dynamics and Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-Gang; YANG Jing-Song; ZHANG Qi; LIU Guang-Ming

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory salt-water dynamics experiment using unsaturated soils in packed silt loam and clay soil columns with different soil texture profiles and groundwater levels under crops were conducted to study the changes of salt-water dynamics induced by water uptake of crops and to propose the theoretical basis for the regulation and control of saltwater dynamics as well as to predict salinity levels. The HYDRUS 1D model was applied to simulate the one-dimensional movement of water and salt transport in the soil columns. The results showed that the salts mainly accumulated in the plow layer in the soil columns under crops. Soil water and salt both moved towards the plow layer due to soil water absorption by the crop root system. The salt contents in the column with lower groundwater were mostly greater than those with high groundwater. The water contents in the soil columns increased from top to the bottom due to plant root water uptake. The changes in groundwater level had little influence on water content of the root zone in the soil columns with crop planting. Comparison between the simulated and the determined values showed that model simulation results were ideal, so it is practicable to do numerical simulation of soil salt and water transport by the HYDRUS 1D model.Furthermore, if the actual movement of salt and water in fields is to be described in detail, much work needs to be done.The most important thing is to refine the parameters and select precise boundary conditions.

  9. Non-destructive measurement of carbonic anhydrase activity and the oxygen isotope composition of soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Sauze, Joana; Ogée, Jérôme; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are a group of metalloenzymes that catalyse the hydration of aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2). The expression of carbonic anhydrase by bacteria, archaea and eukarya has been linked to a variety of important biological processes including pH regulation, substrate supply and biomineralisation. As oxygen isotopes are exchanged between CO2 and water during hydration, the presence of carbonic anhydrase in plants and soil organisms also influences the oxygen isotope budget of atmospheric CO2. Leaf and soil water pools have distinct oxygen isotope compositions, owing to differences in pool sizes and evaporation rates, which are imparted on CO2during hydration. These differences in the isotopic signature of CO2 interacting with leaves and soil can be used to partition the contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net terrestrial CO2 exchange. However, this relies on our knowledge of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and currently, the prevalence and function of these enzymes in soils is poorly understood. Isotopic approaches used to estimate soil carbonic anhydrase activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of oxygen exchange during hydration. This requires information about the composition of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water obtained from destructive, depth-resolved soil water sampling. This can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the considerable potential for spatial and temporal variability in the isotopic composition of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by constraining carbonic anhydrase activity and the composition of soil water in isotopic equilibrium with CO2 by solving simultaneously the mass balance for two soil CO2 steady states differing only in the

  10. Structure stability and water retention near saturation characteristics as affected by soil texture, and polyacrylamide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Amrakh I.; Ekberli, Imanverdi A.; Ozturk, Hasan S.; Wagner, Larry E.; Norton, Darrell L.; Levy, Guy J.

    2017-04-01

    Studying the effects of soil properties and amendment application on soil structure stability is important for the development of effective soil management and conservation practices for sustaining semi-arid soil and water quality under climate change scenarios. Two sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil texture and soil amendment polyacrylamide (PAM) rate on soil structural stability expressed in terms of near saturation soil water retention and aggregate stability using the high energy (0-5 J kg-1) moisture characteristic (HEMC) method. Contribution of (i) soil type were assessed using 30 soil samples varying in texture from sandy to clay taken from long term cultivated lands, covering a range of crop and land management practices, and (ii) anionic PAM concentration (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 & 200 mg l-1) were tested on selected loam and clay soils. The water retention curves of slow and fast wetted soil samples were characterized by a modified van Genuchten (1980) model that provides (i) model parameters α and n, which represent the location of the inflection point and the steepness of the S-shaped water retention curves, and (ii) a composite soil structure index (SI =VDP/MS; VDP-volume of drainable pores, MS-modal suction). The studied treatments had, generally, considerable effects on the shape of the water retention curves (α and n). Soil type, PAM concentration and their interaction had significantly effects on the stability indices (SI, VDP and MS) and the model parameters (α and n). The SI and α increased, and ndecreased exponentially with the increase in soil clay content and PAM concentration, but the shape of curves were soil texture and management dependent, since predominant changes were observed in the various range of studied macropores (pore size > 60 μm). An exponential type of relationship existed between SI and α and n. Effect of PAM contribution and wetting condition was more pronounced in the loam soil at low PAM

  11. STABLE ISOTOPES AS INDICATORS OF SOIL WATER DYNAMICS IN WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream water quality and quantity depend on discharge rates of water and nutrients from soils. However, soil-water storage is very dynamic and strongly influenced by plants. We analyzed stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to quantify spatial and temporal changes in evaporati...

  12. Water repellent soils: a state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano

    1981-01-01

    Water repellency in soils was first described by Schreiner and Shorey (1910), who found that some soils in California could not be wetted and thereby were not suitable for agriculture. Waxy organic substances were responsible for the water repellency. Other studies in the early 1900's on the fairy ring phenomenon suggested that water repellency could be caused by...

  13. Assessment of TRMM Products and Their Influence on Hydrologic Models within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.; Durham, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remo