WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling soil erosion

  1. Multifractal Model of Soil Water Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, Klaudia

    2017-04-01

    Breaking of solid surface symmetry during the interaction between the rainfall of high erosivity index and internally unstable volcanic soil/vegetation systems, results in roughness increasing as well as fertile horizon loosing. In these areas, the sustainability of management practices depends on the ability to select and implement the precise indicators of soil erodibility and vegetation capacity to protect the system against the extreme damaging precipitation events. Notwithstanding, the complex, non-linear and scaling nature of the phenomena involved in the interaction among the soil, vegetation and precipitation is still not taken into account by the numerous commonly used empirical, mathematical and computer simulation models: for instance, by the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The soil erodibility factor (K-factor) is still measuring by a set of empirical, dimensionless parameters and indexes, without taking into account the scaling (frequently multifractal) origin of a broad range of heterogeneous, anisotropic and dynamical phenomena involved in hydric erosion. Their mapping is not representative of this complex system spatial variability. In our research, we propose to use the toolbox of fractals and multifractals techniques in vista of its ability to measure the scale invariance and type/degree of soil, vegetation and precipitation symmetry breaking. The hydraulic units are chosen as the precise measure of soil/vegetation stability. These units are measured and modeled for soils with contrasting architecture, based on their porosity/permeability (Poroperm) as well as retention capacity relations. The simple Catalog of the most common Poroperm relations is proposed and the main power law relations among the elements of studied system are established and compared for some representative agricultural and natural Biogeosystems of Mexico. All resulted are related with the Mandelbrot' Baby Theorem in order to construct the universal Phase Diagram which

  2. Potential for monitoring soil erosion features and soil erosion modeling components from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langran, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Accurate estimates of soil erosion and its effects on soil productivity are essential in agricultural decision making and planning from the field scale to the national level. Erosion models have been primarily developed for designing erosion control systems, predicting sediment yield for reservoir design, predicting sediment transport, and simulating water quality. New models proposed are more comprehensive in that the necessary components (hydrology, erosion-sedimentation, nutrient cycling, tillage, etc.) are linked in a model appropriate for studying the erosion-productivity problem. Recent developments in remote sensing systems, such as Landsat Thematic Mapper, Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), etc., can contribute significantly to the future development and operational use of these models.

  3. Challenges in soil erosion research and prediction model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification of soil erosion has been traditionally considered as a surface hydrologic process with equations for soil detachment and sediment transport derived from the mechanics and hydraulics of the rainfall and surface flow. Under the current erosion modeling framework, the soil has a constant...

  4. Advances in modeling soil erosion after disturbance on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has been undertaken to develop process based models that predict soil erosion rate after disturbance on rangelands. In these models soil detachment is predicted as a combination of multiple erosion processes, rain splash and thin sheet flow (splash and sheet) detachment and concentrated flo...

  5. Modeling soil erosion and transport on forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G McNulty

    1998-01-01

    Century-long studies on the impacts of forest management in North America suggest sediment can cause major reduction on stream water quality. Soil erosion patterns in forest watersheds are patchy and heterogeneous. Therefore, patterns of soil erosion are difficult to model and predict. The objective of this study is to develop a user friendly management tool for land...

  6. Modelling erosion and its interaction with soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Zhang, Ganlin; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Water driven soil erosion removes and relocates a significant quantity of soil organic carbon. In China the quantity of carbon removed from the soil through water erosion has been reported to be 180+/-80 Mt y-1 (Yue et al., 2011). Being able to effectively model the movement of such a large quantity of carbon is important for the assessment of soil quality and carbon storage in the region and further afield. A large selection of erosion models are available and much work has been done on evaluating the performance of these in developed countries (Merritt et al., 2006). Fewer studies have evaluated the application of these models on soils in developing countries. Here we evaluate and compare the performance of two of these models, WEPP (Laflen et al., 1997) and RUSLE (Renard et al., 1991), for simulations of soil erosion and deposition at the slope scale on a Chinese Red Soil under cultivation using measurements taken at the site. We also describe work to dynamically couple the movement of carbon presented in WEPP to a model of soil organic matter and nutrient turnover, ECOSSE (Smith et al., 2010). This aims to improve simulations of both erosion and carbon cycling by using the simulated rates of erosion to alter the distribution of soil carbon, the depth of soil and the clay content across the slopes, changing the simulated rate of carbon turnover. This, in turn, affects the soil carbon available to be eroded in the next timestep, so improving estimates of carbon erosion. We compare the simulations of this coupled modelling approach with those of the unaltered ECOSSE and WEPP models to determine the importance of coupling erosion and turnover models on the simulation of carbon losses at catchment scale.

  7. The development of U. S. soil erosion prediction and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Laflen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion prediction technology began over 70 years ago when Austin Zingg published a relationship between soil erosion (by water and land slope and length, followed shortly by a relationship by Dwight Smith that expanded this equation to include conservation practices. But, it was nearly 20 years before this work's expansion resulted in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, perhaps the foremost achievement in soil erosion prediction in the last century. The USLE has increased in application and complexity, and its usefulness and limitations have led to the development of additional technologies and new science in soil erosion research and prediction. Main among these new technologies is the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP model, which has helped to overcome many of the shortcomings of the USLE, and increased the scale over which erosion by water can be predicted. Areas of application of erosion prediction include almost all land types: urban, rural, cropland, forests, rangeland, and construction sites. Specialty applications of WEPP include prediction of radioactive material movement with soils at a superfund cleanup site, and near real-time daily estimation of soil erosion for the entire state of Iowa.

  8. Understanding the Mechanism of Soil Erosion from Outdoor Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for obtaining important data on eroded soils, using a one eight experimental slope model is presented. The scope of the investigation herein described encompassed three locations in the south- eastern parts of Nigeria, which are belts of severe erosion, namely Opi-Nsukka, Agulu and Udi, [Fig. 1.] Soil samples ...

  9. Soil erosion assessment on hillslope of GCE using RUSLE model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61

    A new method for obtaining the C factor (i.e. vegetation cover and management factor) of the. RUSLE model .... yearly soil loss in large scale as well as to view the management practices applied to control soil erosion. ...... Folly A, Bronsveld M and Clavaux M 1996 A knowledge-based approach for C-factor mapping in Spain ...

  10. Erosivity, surface runoff, and soil erosion estimation using GIS-coupled runoff-erosion model in the Mamuaba catchment, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Richarde; Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto; Carneiro de Lima Silva, Valeriano; Pereira e Silva, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates erosivity, surface runoff generation, and soil erosion rates for Mamuaba catchment, sub-catchment of Gramame River basin (Brazil) by using the ArcView Soil and Water Assessment Tool (AvSWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. Daily rainfall data between 1969 and 1989 from six rain gauges were used, and the monthly rainfall erosivity of each station was computed for all the studied years. In order to evaluate the calibration and validation of the model, monthly runoff data between January 1978 and April 1982 from one runoff gauge were used as well. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic when compared to what can be observed in the field and to results from previous studies around of catchment. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 9.4 t ha(-1) year(-1); most of the area of the catchment (60%) was predicted to suffer from a low- to moderate-erosion risk (soil erosion was estimated to exceed > 12 t ha(-1) year(-1). Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the catchment was divided into four priority categories (low, moderate, high and very high) for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the AvSWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from catchments and facilitates the planning for a sustainable land management in northeastern Brazil.

  11. Advances in Predicting Soil Erosion After Fire Using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Nearing, Mark A.; Williams, C. Jason; Hernandez, Mariano; Boll, Jan; Nouwakpo, Sayjro; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of erosion from a hillslope is governed by the availability of sediment and connectivity of overland flow and erosion processes. For undisturbed conditions, sediment is mainly detached and transported by rainsplash and sheetflow (splash-sheet) processes in bare batches, but sediment generally only travels a short distance before deposition. On recently disturbed sites (e.g., after fire), bare ground is more extensive and runoff and erosion rates are higher relative to undisturbed conditions. Increased erosion following disturbance occurs largely due to a shift from splash-sheet to concentrated-flow-dominated processes. On long-disturbed sites (e.g., after woody plant encroachment), years of soil loss can limit sediment availability and soil erosion. In contrast, recently burned landscapes typically have ample sediment available and generate high erosion rates. This presentation highlights recent advancements in hillslope erosion prediction by the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) that accommodate recently burned conditions. The RHEM tool is a process-based model that was developed specifically for predicting hillslope runoff and erosion on rangeland ecosystems. The advancements presented here include development of empirical equations to predict erodibility parameters for conditions in which erosion by concentrated flow processes is limited (by runoff or sediment availability) and an erodibility parameter for conditions in which erosion by concentrated flow processes is the dominant erosion mechanism and sediment is amply available (burned conditions). The data used for developing and evaluating the erodibility parameter equations were obtained from rainfall simulation databases maintained by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service. The data span undisturbed, long-disturbed, and recently burned conditions. For undisturbed and long-disturbed conditions, a regression analysis was applied to derive the relationship between splash

  12. Soil erosion assessment on hillslope of GCE using RUSLE model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61

    ;. Environ. Earth Sci. 63 533-541. De Asis A M and Omasa K 2007 Estimation of vegetation parameter for modeling soil erosion using linear Spectral Mixture Analysis of Landsat ETM data; ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 62 309-324.

  13. A pragmatic approach to modelling soil and water conservation measures with a cathment scale erosion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce soil erosion, soil and water conservation (SWC) methods are often used. However, no method exists to model beforehand how implementing such measures will affect erosion at catchment scale. A method was developed to simulate the effects of SWC measures with catchment scale erosion models.

  14. Modelling of Soil Erosion by Non Conventional Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh D. Kale; Sheela N. Vadsola

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is the most serious problem faced at global and local level. So planning of soil conservation measures has become prominent agenda in the view of water basin managers. To plan for the soil conservation measures, the information on soil erosion is essential. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 1 (RUSLE1or RUSLE) and Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE), RUSLE 1.06, RUSLE1.06c, RUSLE2 are most widely used conventio...

  15. Soil erosion risk assessment using interviews, empirical soil erosion modeling (RUSLE) and fallout radionuclides in a volcanic crater lake watershed subjected to land use change, western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crop, Wannes; Ryken, Nick; Tomma Okuonzia, Judith; Van Ranst, Eric; Baert, Geert; Boeckx, Pascal; Verschuren, Dirk; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Population pressure results in conversion of natural vegetation to cropland within the western Ugandan crater lake watersheds. These watersheds however are particularly prone to soil degradation and erosion because of the high rainfall intensity and steep topography. Increased soil erosion losses expose the aquatic ecosystems to excessive nutrient loading. In this study, the Katinda crater lake watershed, which is already heavily impacted by agricultural land use, was selected for an explorative study on its (top)soil characteristics - given the general lack of data on soils within these watersheds - as well as an assessment of soil erosion risks. Using group discussions and structured interviews, the local land users' perceptions on land use, soil quality, soil erosion and lake ecology were compiled. Datasets on rainfall, topsoil characteristics, slope gradient and length, and land use were collected. Subsequently a RUSLE erosion model was run. Results from this empirical erosion modeling approach were validated against soil erosion estimates based on 137Cs measurements.

  16. Simulating climate change impact on soil erosion using RUSLE model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate change, particularly due to the changed precipitation trend, can have a severe impact on soil erosion. The effect is more pronounced on the higher slopes of the Himalayan region. The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of climate change on soil erosion in a watershed of the Himalayan region using ...

  17. Evaluating water erosion prediction project model using Cesium-137-derived spatial soil redistribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of spatial soil erosion data has been a major constraint on the refinement and application of physically based erosion models. Spatially distributed models can only be thoroughly validated with distributed erosion data. The fallout cesium-137 has been widely used to generate spatial soil re...

  18. Evaluation of the LISEM soil erosion model in two catchments in the East African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Bosch, van den R.; Vigiak, O.

    2006-01-01

    Under increasing population pressure, soil erosion has become a threat in the East African Highlands, and erosion modelling can be useful to quantify this threat. To test its applicability for this region, the LISEM soil erosion model was applied to two small catchments, one in the Usumbara

  19. Modelling Soil Erosion in the Densu River Basin Using RUSLE and GIS Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiagbori, G; Forkuo, E K; Laari, P; Aabeyir, R

    2014-07-01

    Soil erosion involves detachment and transport of soil particles from top soil layers, degrading soil quality and reducing the productivity of affected lands. Soil eroded from the upland catchment causes depletion of fertile agricultural land and the resulting sediment deposited at the river networks creates river morphological change and reservoir sedimentation problems. However, land managers and policy makers are more interested in the spatial distribution of soil erosion risk than in absolute values of soil erosion loss. The aim of this paper is to model the spatial distribution of soil erosion in Densu River Basin of Ghana using RUSLE and GIS tools and to use the model to explore the relationship between erosion susceptibility, slope and land use/land cover (LULC) in the Basin. The rainfall map, digital elevation model, soil type map, and land cover map, were input data in the soil erosion model developed. This model was then categorized into four different erosion risk classes. The developed soil erosion map was then overlaid with the slope and LULC maps of the study area to explore their effects on erosion susceptibility of the soil in the Densu River Basin. The Model, predicted 88% of the basin as low erosion risk and 6% as moderate erosion risk, 3% as high erosion risk and 3% as severe risk. The high and severe erosion areas were distributed mainly within the areas of high slope gradient and also sections of the moderate forest LULC class. Also, the areas within the moderate forest LULC class found to have high erosion risk, had an intersecting high erodibility soil group.

  20. Erosion over time on severely disturbed granitic soils: a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. F. Megahan

    1974-01-01

    A negative exponential equation containing three parameters was derived to describe time trends in surface erosion on severely disturbed soils. Data from four different studies of surface erosion on roads constructed from the granitic materials found in the Idaho Batholith were used to develop equation parameters. The evidence suggests that surface "armoring...

  1. understanding the mechanism of soil erosion from outdoor model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Finally by distorted scale laws, data for the natural slopes were synthesised to produce the hydrologic quantities; slope erosion and average infiltration rates for the soils. INTRODUCTION. In most parts of the world subject to heavy rain, erosion by overland flow is of common occurrence. This is particularly true of three belts ...

  2. Assessing soil erosion using USLE model and MODIS data in the Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yunpeng; Yang, Jingxue

    2017-07-01

    In this study, soil erosion in the Guangdong, China during 2012 was quantitatively assessed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The parameters of the model were calculated using GIS and MODIS data. The spatial distribution of the average annual soil loss on grid basis was mapped. The estimated average annual soil erosion in Guangdong in 2012 is about 2294.47t/ (km2.a). Four high sensitive area of soil erosion in Guangdong in 2012 was found. The key factors of these four high sensitive areas of soil erosion were significantly contributed to the land cover types, rainfall and Economic development and human activities.

  3. Soil erosion modelling: from European to Global scale

    OpenAIRE

    PANAGOS PANAGIOTIS; ROBINSON DAVID; LUGATO EMANUELE; BALLABIO CRISTIANO; BORRELLI PASQUALE; MONTANARELLA LUCA

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, soil erosion is known as one of the most critical forms of soil degradation and a major threat to agricultural soil productivity and this may create societal problems in many regions of the world. More than 99% of the world's food supply comes ultimately from land-based production depending on soils and this should be considered carefully taking into account the population increase to 9 billion by 2050. Given the expected increase of extreme storm events and the agriculture intensi...

  4. Modelling soil carbon fate under erosion process in vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Minacapilli, Mario; Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico; Gristina, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion processes in vineyards beyond water runoff and sediment transport have a strong effect on soil organic carbon loss (SOC) and redistribution along the slope. The variation of SOC across the landscape determines a difference in soil fertility and vine productivity. The aim of this research was to study erosion of a Mediterranean vineyard, develop an approach to estimate the SOC loss, correlate the vines vigor with sediment and carbon erosion. The study was carried out in a Sicilian (Italy) vineyard, planted in 2011. Along the slope, six pedons were studied by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled in each pedon every 10cm and SOC was analyzed. Soil erosion, detachment and deposition areas were measured by pole height method. The vigor of vegetation was expressed in term of NDVI (Normalized difference Vegetation Index) derived from a satellite image (RapidEye) acquired at berry pre-veraison stage (July) and characterized by 5 spectral bands in the shortwave region, including a band in the red wavelength (R, 630-685 nm) and in the near infrared (NIR, 760-850 nm) . Results showed that soil erosion, sediments redistribution and SOC across the hill was strongly affected by topographic features, slope and curvature. The erosion rate was 46Mg ha-1 y-1 during the first 6 years since planting. The SOC redistribution was strongly correlated with the detachment or deposition area as highlighted by pole height measurements. The approach developed to estimate the SOC loss showed that during the whole study period the off-farm SOC amounts to 1.6Mg C ha-1. As highlighted by NDVI results, the plant vigor is strong correlated with SOC content and therefore, developing an accurate NDVI approach could be useful to detect the vineyard areas characterized by low fertility due to erosion process.

  5. Developing a parameterization approach of soil erodibility for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  6. Developing soil erodibility prediction equations for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  7. Estimation model of soil freeze-thaw erosion in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Yu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) erosion is a type of soil erosion like water erosion and wind erosion. Limited by many factors, the grading evaluation of soil FT erosion quantities is not well studied. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the evaluation indices of soil FT erosion, we for the first time utilized the sensitivity of microwave remote sensing technology to soil moisture for identification of FT state. We established an estimation model suitable to evaluate the soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet using weighted summation method of six impact factors including the annual FT cycle days, average diurnal FT phase-changed water content, average annual precipitation, slope, aspect, and vegetation coverage. Finally, with the support of GIS, we classified soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland. The results showed that soil FT erosion are distributed in broad areas of Silingco watershed wetland. Different soil FT erosions with different intensities have evidently different spatial and geographical distributions.

  8. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters of the model were formatted as raster layers and multiplied using the raster calculator module in ArcGIS to produce a soil erosion map. The concept of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) was used to determine the annual sediment yield of the catchment by integrating a raster SDR layer with that of the soil erosion ...

  9. Modeling the reduction in soil loss due to soil armouring caused by rainfall erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface soil properties can change as a result of soil disturbances, erosion, or deposition. One process that can significantly change surface soil properties is soil armouring, which is the selective removal of finer particles by rill or interrill erosion, leaving an armoured layer of coarser parti...

  10. Soil erosion model predictions using parent material/soil texture-based parameters compared to using site-specific parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Foltz; W. J. Elliot; N. S. Wagenbrenner

    2011-01-01

    Forested areas disturbed by access roads produce large amounts of sediment. One method to predict erosion and, hence, manage forest roads is the use of physically based soil erosion models. A perceived advantage of a physically based model is that it can be parameterized at one location and applied at another location with similar soil texture or geological parent...

  11. Evaluation of Karst Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss Based on RUSLE Model in Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cheng; Li, Yangbing; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Guangjie

    2018-01-01

    Based on GIS technology and RUSLE model, the spatial variation characteristics of soil erosion were analyzed in karst areas, and the relationship between soil erosion and soil nutrient loss was discussed. The results showed that the soil differences in spatial variation between nutrient losses. The results illustrate the total soil erosion in is 10316.31 × 104t • a-1, accounting for 84.95% of the total land area in Guizhou Province. The spatial distribution of soil erosion showing the characteristics of the southeast to the northwest strip. The annual average soil erosion modulu is 691.94 t • km-2 • a-1, of which karst is 720.28t • km-2 • a-1 and non-karst is 689.53 t • km-2 • a-1. The total nutrient losses such as soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total potassium (TK) were 596.72 × 104t • a-1 due to soil erosion, and SOC, TN and TP and TK were 38.13, 1.61, 0.41 and 14.70t • km-2 • a-1, respectively. The average amount of loss and total loss are the largest in non-karst, and four kinds of nutrient is the smallest in karst gorge. The spatial variation of soil erosion in the study area is the process of increasing the erosion area with the increase of the erosion rate, and the difference of the spatial distribution of soil erosion determines the spatial distribution of soil nutrient loss.

  12. Soil mapping and modelling for evaluation of the effects of historical and present-day soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Szwarczewski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The loess hilly lands in Danube Lowland are characterized by patchy soil-scape. The soil erosion processes uncover the subsurface, bright loess horizon, while non-eroded and colluvial soils are of the dark colour, in the chernozem area. With the modernisation of agriculture since the 1950's and in the process of collectivization, when small fields were merged into bigger, the soil degradation progressed. However, the analysis of historical sources and sediment archives showed the proofs of historical soil erosion. The objective of this study is to map the soil erosion patterns in connection of both pre- and post-collectivization landscape and to understand the accordingly developed soil erosion patterns. The combined methods of soil mapping and soil erosion modelling were applied in the part of the Trnavska pahorkatina Hilly Land in Danube Lowland. The detailed soil mapping in a zero-order catchment (0.28 km²) uncovered the removal of surface soil horizon of 0.6m or more, while the colluvial soils were about 1.1m deep. The soil properties and dating helped to describe the original soil profile in the valley bottom, and reconstruct the history of soil erosion in the catchment. The soil erosion model was applied using the reconstructed land use patterns in order to understand the effect of recent and historical soil erosion in the lowland landscape. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract ESF-EC-0006-07 and APVV-0625-11; Anna Smetanová has received the support of the AgreenSkills fellowship (under grant agreement n°267196).

  13. Assessing Vulnerability of Lake Erie Landscapes to Soil Erosion: Modelled and Measured Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, P.; Laamrani, A.; Feisthauer, N.; Li, S.

    2017-12-01

    Loss of soil from agricultural landscapes to Lake Erie via water erosion is a key transport mechanism for phosphorus bound to soil particles. Agriculture is the dominant land use in the Canadian side of the Lake Erie basin with approximately 75% of the 2.3 million hectares under crop or livestock production. The variable geography and diversity of agricultural production systems and management practices makes estimating risk of soil erosion from agricultural landscapes in the Canadian Lake Erie basin challenging. Risk of soil erosion depends on a combination of factors including the extent to which soil remains bare, which differs with crop type and management. Two different approaches of estimating the vulnerability of landscapes to soil erosion will be compared among Soil Landscapes of Canada in the Lake Erie basin: a modelling approach incorporating farm census and soil survey data, represented by the 2011 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agri-Environmental Indicator for Soil Erosion Risk; and, a measured approach using remotely sensed data that quantifies the magnitude of bare and covered soil across the basin. Results from both approaches will be compared by scaling the national level (1:1 million) Soil Erosion Risk Indicator and the remotely sensed data (30x30 m resolution) to the quaternary watershed level.

  14. Adapting the RUSLE and GIS to model soil erosion risk in a mountains karst watershed, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue-Qing, Xu; Xiao-Mei, Shao; Xiang-Bin, Kong; Jian, Peng; Yun-Long, Cai

    2008-06-01

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem in Guizhou Province, which is located in the centre of the karst areas of southwestern China. Unfortunately, Guizhou Province suffers from a lack of financial resources to research, monitor and model soil erosion at large watershed. In order to assess the soil erosion risk, soil erosion modeling at the watershed scale are urgently needed to be undertaken. This study integrated the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate soil loss and identify the risk erosion areas in the Maotiao River watershed, which is a typical rural watershed in Guizhou Province. All factors used in the RUSLE were calculated for the watershed using local data. It was classified into five categories ranging from minimal risk to extreme erosion risk depending on the calculated soil erosion amount. The soil erosion map was linked to land use, elevation and slope maps to explore the relationship between soil erosion and environmental factors and identify the areas of soil erosion risk. The results can be used to advice the local government in prioritizing the areas of immediate erosion mitigation. The integrated approach allows for relatively easy, fast, and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion. It thus indicates that RUSLE-GIS model is a useful and efficient tool for evaluating and mapping soil erosion risk at a large watershed scale in Guizhou Province.

  15. Modelling soil erosion risk based on RUSLE-3D using GIS in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil Survey Division Staff 2003 Soil Survey Manual;. Handbook 18, USDA, Washington DC. Terranova O, Antronico L, Coscarelli R and Iaquinta P. 2009 Soil erosion risk scenarios in the Mediterranean envi- ronment using RUSLE and GIS: An application model for Calabria (southern Italy); Geomorphology 11(3–4).

  16. The use of spatial empirical models to estimate soil erosion in arid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Meshal; Feagin, Rusty; Musawi, Layla

    2017-02-01

    The central objective of this project was to utilize geographical information systems and remote sensing to compare soil erosion models, including Modified Pacific South-west Inter Agency Committee (MPSIAC), Erosion Potential Method (EPM), and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and to determine their applicability for arid regions such as Kuwait. The northern portion of Umm Nigga, containing both coastal and desert ecosystems, falls within the boundaries of the de-militarized zone (DMZ) adjacent to Iraq and has been fenced off to restrict public access since 1994. Results showed that the MPSIAC and EPM models were similar in spatial distribution of erosion, though the MPSIAC had a more realistic spatial distribution of erosion and presented finer level details. The RUSLE presented unrealistic results. We then predicted the amount of soil loss between coastal and desert areas and fenced and unfenced sites for each model. In the MPSIAC and EPM models, soil loss was different between fenced and unfenced sites at the desert areas, which was higher at the unfenced due to the low vegetation cover. The overall results implied that vegetation cover played an important role in reducing soil erosion and that fencing is much more important in the desert ecosystems to protect against human activities such as overgrazing. We conclude that the MPSIAC model is best for predicting soil erosion for arid regions such as Kuwait. We also recommend the integration of field-based experiments with lab-based spatial analysis and modeling in future research.

  17. Regional soil erosion assessment in Slovakia using modelling and farmer's participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenderessy, Pavol; Veihe, Anita

    There has been an increasing interest by decision makers to obtain regional assessments of soil erosion risk, whereas many existing models require substantial amounts of high quality input data with high spatial resolution and they are often only validated at the plot level. Operational models...... for regional assessments should be based on simple data requirements, must consider spatial and temporal variability in hydrological and soil erosion processes, and must be applicable to a variety of regions with a minimum of calibration. This study aims to assess the applicability of the Erosion3D model...... with cereals, sunflowers and corn and is characterised by poor cultivation practices and use of fertilizers leading to land degradation. As a first step, the initial raster-based modelling of soil loss and deposition has provided acceptable and realistic values. The predicted spatial patterns of erosion...

  18. Modelling catchment soil erosion: a critique of Morgan-Morgan-Finney model and a revised approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuela, Andres; Sellami, Haykel; Smith, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agricultural practices have critically contributed to the global increase in soil erosion rates and sediment fluxes. In order to reduce the impact of these practices, models able to represent the effect of land use changes are needed. Conceptual erosion models allow simulation of soil erosion rates and catchment-scale sediment fluxes over multi-decadal periods or longer, while still retaining a general description of runoff and sediment generation processes. The Morgan-Morgan-Finney model (MMF) is a conceptual annual erosion model that retains the simplicity of RUSLE yet has a stronger physical base. MMF also enables representation of the effects of changes in land cover on soil erosion. However, the most recent versions of the model, namely the Revised MMF and the Modified MMF, contain several errors and limitations that have a large effect on model outputs. First, both model versions incorrectly apply the equation to calculate the kinetic energy of the leaf drainage. Second, ground cover is assumed to have a protective effect against runoff erosion only and not against rainfall erosion. Third, when the simulated annual runoff is very low or negligible, the equations to predict soil loss become independent of the runoff. Fourth, neither version of MMF takes into account seasonal variations in vegetation cover and climate. We propose a revised approach to correct these limitations. This includes the following modifications: a) monthly computation to capture seasonal variability in climate and land cover, b) a new approach to simulate the ground cover protective effect, and c) a new representation of the catchment hydrology based on a soil moisture model and the delineation of contributing areas according to the topographic wetness index (TWI). The proposed model, called MMF-TWI, was applied in an agricultural catchment in the UK and performance compared to the previous version of the model. The Modified MMF simulated considerable sediment yields, despite

  19. Developing relations between soil erodibilty factors in two different soil erosion prediction models (USLE/RUSLE and wWEPP) and fludization bed technique for mechanical soil cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erosion models are valuable analysis tools that scientists and engineers use to examine observed data sets and predict the effects of possible future soil loss. In the area of water erosion, a variety of modeling technologies are available, ranging from solely qualitative models, to merely quan...

  20. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  1. Selecting and applying cesium-137 conversion models to estimate soil erosion rates in cultivated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lobb, David A; Tiessen, Kevin H D; McConkey, Brian G

    2010-01-01

    The fallout radionuclide cesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been successfully used in soil erosion studies worldwide. However, discrepancies often exist between the erosion rates estimated using various conversion models. As a result, there is often confusion in the use of the various models and in the interpretation of the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the structural and parametrical uncertainties associated with four conversion models typically used in cultivated agricultural landscapes. For the structural uncertainties, the Soil Constituent Redistribution by Erosion Model (SCREM) was developed and used to simulate the redistribution of fallout (137)Cs due to tillage and water erosion along a simple two-dimensional (horizontal and vertical) transect. The SCREM-predicted (137)Cs inventories were then imported into the conversion models to estimate the erosion rates. The structural uncertainties of the conversion models were assessed based on the comparisons between the conversion-model-estimated erosion rates and the erosion rates determined or used in the SCREM. For the parametrical uncertainties, test runs were conducted by varying the values of the parameters used in the model, and the parametrical uncertainties were assessed based on the responsive changes of the estimated erosion rates. Our results suggest that: (i) the performance/accuracy of the conversion models was largely dependent on the relative contributions of water vs. tillage erosion; and (ii) the estimated erosion rates were highly sensitive to the input values of the reference (137)Cs level, particle size correction factors and tillage depth. Guidelines were proposed to aid researchers in selecting and applying the conversion models under various situations common to agricultural landscapes.

  2. Soil erosion and sediment connectivity modelling in Burgundy vineyards: case study of Mercurey, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fressard, Mathieu; Cossart, Étienne; Lejot, Jêrome; Michel, Kristell; Perret, Franck; Christol, Aurélien; Mathian, Hélène; Navratil, Oldrich

    2017-04-01

    This research aims at assessing the impact of agricultural landscape structure on soil erosion and sediment connectivity at the catchment scale. The investigations were conducted the vineyards of Mercurey (Burgundy, France), characterized by important issues related to soil loss, flash floods and associated management infrastructures maintenance. The methodology is based on two main steps that include (1) field investigations and (2) modelling. The field investigations consists in DEM acquisition by LiDAR imaging from a drone, soil mapping and human infrastructures impacting runoff classification and mapping (such as crop rows, storm water-basins, drainage network, roads, etc.). These data aims at supplying the models with field observations. The modelling strategy is based on two main steps: First, the modelling of soil sensitivity to erosion, using the spatial application of the RUSLE equation. Secondly, to assess the sediment connectivity in this area, a model based on graph theory developed by Cossart and Fressard (2017) is tested. The results allow defining the influence of different anthropogenic structures on the sediment connectivity and soil erosion at the basin scale. A set of sub-basins influenced by various anthropogenic infrastructures have been identified and show contrasted sensitivities to erosion. The modelling of sediment connectivity show that the runoff pattern is strongly influenced by the vine rows orientation and the drainage network. I has also permitted to identify non collected (by storm water-basins) areas that strongly contribute to the turbid floods sediment supply and to soil loss during high intensity precipitations events.

  3. Modelling soil carbon movement by erosion over large scales and long time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Tipping, Ed

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural intensification accelerates physical erosion rates and the transport of carbon within the landscape. In order to improve understanding of how past, present and future anthropogenic land-use change has and will influence carbon and nutrient cycling, it is necessary to develop quantitative tools that can predict soil erosion and carbon movement at large temporal and spatial scales, that are consistent with the time constants of biogeochemical processes and the spatial scales of land-use change and natural resources. However, representing erosion and its impact on the carbon cycle over large spatial scales and long time periods is challenging. Erosion and sediment transport processes operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales with splash erosion dominating at the sub-plot scale and occurring within seconds, up to gully formation operating at field-catchment scales over days to months. In addition, most erosion production observations are made at the experimental plot scale, where fine time scales and detailed processes dominate. This is coupled with complexities associated with carbon detachment, decomposition and uncertainties surrounding carbon burial rates and stability - all of which occur over widely different temporal and spatial scales. As such, these data cannot be simply scaled to inform erosion and carbon representation at the regional scale, where topography, vegetation cover and landscape organisation become more important controls on sediment fluxes. We have developed a simple energy-based regional scale method of soil erosion modelling, which is integration into a hydro-biogeochemical model that will simulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus pools and fluxes across the UK from the industrial revolution to the present day. The model is driven by overland flow, dynamic vegetation cover, soil properties, and topographic distributions and produces sediment production and yield at the 5km grid scale. In this paper we will introduce the

  4. 137Cs applicability to soil erosion assessment: theoretical and empirical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    2004-02-01

    The soil erosion processes acceleration and the increase of soil erosion rates due to anthropogenic perturbation in soil-weather-vegetation equilibrium has influenced in the soil quality and environment. So, the possibility to assess the amplitude and severity of soil erosion impact on the productivity and quality of soil is important so local scale as regional and global scale. Several models have been developed to assess the soil erosion so qualitative as quantitatively. 137 Cs, an anthropogenic radionuclide, have been very used to assess the superficial soil erosion process Empirical and theoretical models were developed on the basis of 137 Cs redistribution as indicative of soil movement by erosive process These models incorporate many parameters that can influence in the soil erosion rates quantification by 137 Cs redistribution. Statistical analysis was realized on the models recommended by IAEA to determinate the influence that each parameter generates in results of the soil redistribution. It was verified that the most important parameter is the 137 Cs redistribution, indicating the necessity of a good determination in the 137 Cs inventory values with a minimum deviation associated with these values. After this, it was associated a 10% deviation in the reference value of 137 Cs inventory and the 5% in the 137 Cs inventory of the sample and was determinate the deviation in results of the soil redistribution calculated by models. The results of soil redistribution was compared to verify if there was difference between the models, but there was not difference in the results determinate by models, unless above 70% of 137 Cs loss. Analyzing three native forests and an area of the undisturbed pasture in the Londrina region, can be verified that the 137 Cs spatial variability in local scale was 15%. Comparing the 137 Cs inventory values determinate in the three native forest with the 137 Cs inventory value determinate in the area of undisturbed pasture in the

  5. Assessment of soil erosion risk in Komering watershed, South Sumatera, using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsabilla, A.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in land use watershed led to environmental degradation. Estimated loss of soil erosion is often difficult due to some factors such as topography, land use, climate and human activities. This study aims to predict soil erosion hazard and sediment yield using the Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) hydrological model. The SWAT was chosen because it can simulate the model with limited data. The study area is Komering watershed (806,001 Ha) in South Sumatera Province. There are two factors land management intervention: 1) land with agriculture, and 2) land with cultivation. These factors selected in accordance with the regulations of spatial plan area. Application of the SWAT demonstrated that the model can predict surface runoff, soil erosion loss and sediment yield. The erosion risk for each watershed can be classified and predicted its changes based on the scenarios which arranged. In this paper, we also discussed the relationship between the distribution of erosion risk and watershed's characteristics in a spatial perspective.

  6. Modelling soil erosion in a head catchment of Jemma Basin on the Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama, Mariaelena; Schillaci, Calogero; Kropáček, Jan; Hochschild, Volker; Maerker, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion represents one of the most important global issues with serious effects on agriculture and water quality especially in developing countries such as Ethiopia where rapid population growth and climatic changes affect wide mountainous areas. The catchment of Andit-Tid is a head catchment of Jemma Basin draining to the Blue Nile (Central Ethiopia). It is located in an extremely variable topographical environment and it is exposed to high degradation dynamics especially in the lower part of the catchment. The increasing agricultural activity and grazing, lead to an intense use of the steep slopes which altered the soil structure. As a consequence, water erosion processes accelerated leading to the evolution of sheet erosion, gullies and badlands. This study is aimed at a geomorphological assessment of soil erosion susceptibility. First, a geomorphological map is generated using high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) derived from high resolution stereoscopic satellite data, multispectral imagery from Rapid Eye satellite system . The map was then validated by a detailed field survey. The final maps contains three inventories of landforms: i) sheet, ii) gully erosion and iii) badlands. The water erosion susceptibility is calculated with a Maximum Entropy approach. In particular, three different models are built using the three inventories as dependent variables and a set of spatial attributes describing the lithology, terrain, vegetation and land cover from remote sensing data and DEMs as independent variables. The single susceptibility maps for sheet, gully erosion as well as badlands showed good to excellent predictive performances. Moreover, we reveal and discuss the importance of different sets of variables among the three models. In order to explore the mutual overlap of the three susceptibility maps we generated a combined map as color composite whereas each color represents one component of water erosion. The latter map yield a useful information

  7. Soil erosion fragility assessment using an impact model and geographic information system

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge,Luiz Alberto Blanco

    2009-01-01

    A study was taken in a 1566 ha watershed situated in the Capivara River basin, municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. This environment is fragile and can be subjected to different forms of negative impacts, among them soil erosion by water. The main objective of the research was to develop a methodology for the assessment of soil erosion fragility at the various different watershed positions, using the geographic information system ILWIS version 3.3 for Windows. An impact model wa...

  8. Application of experimental soil erosion models (USLE, RUSLE) in Jordan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, A. A.; Ayu, A. W.; Mohm, A. A.; Fahmi, R. M.; Ibrahim, O. M.

    2017-09-01

    In most of the existing models designed for the soil erosion experiment are moderately simplistic, which consistently, have been extensively practiced in many parts of the world. In reality, within the content of this study, the practical occurrences of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and that of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in Jordan were explored. This is obvious as RUSLE portrayed a product adaptation of a significantly enhanced USLE. In Jordan, various research accomplishments were made to decide the nearby values of the USLE components, demonstrating its, potential for use outside its birthplace nation. Entirely, this study found the soil experimental models stand to be mere demonstrating procedures or structures, instead of being the punctual robotic portrayals of the framework, and that perhaps; make no claim of universal comprehensiveness. In any case, with these identified weaknesses, sub-models were found to be utilized in order to give the best practical gauges of the disintegration of the sheet erosion within the Jordanian context. Most often, the spatial index circulation of the soil misfortune of the USLE is viewed as a valuable model that separate regions of high and low disintegration of the erosion potential. In this case, USLE is more generally known and utilized soil erosion condition on the planet. However, no specific model is ever, generally actualized. Although, the USLE model ended to be a promising instrument, as it gives a dynamic way to deal with foreseeing the misfortune of the soil erosion. This study, notwithstanding, perceives there is still a need to further enhanced a check of the RUSLE and USLE outcomes in Jordan. This study sees, by the virtues of hypothetical assessment and affectability in terms of the investigation performed have obviously demonstrated the benefit of the most adaptable and element structure of RUSLE against the strict exact structures of the USLE. Albeit, an exact model could be

  9. Uncertainty of soil erosion modelling using open source high resolution and aggregated DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Mondal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model (DEM is one of the important parameters for soil erosion assessment. Notable uncertainties are observed in this study while using three high resolution open source DEMs. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model has been applied to analysis the assessment of soil erosion uncertainty using open source DEMs (SRTM, ASTER and CARTOSAT and their increasing grid space (pixel size from the actual. The study area is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state, which is located in the central part of India and the area covered 20,558 km2. The actual resolution of DEMs is 30 m and their increasing grid spaces are taken as 90, 150, 210, 270 and 330 m for this study. Vertical accuracy of DEMs has been assessed using actual heights of the sample points that have been taken considering planimetric survey based map (toposheet. Elevations of DEMs are converted to the same vertical datum from WGS 84 to MSL (Mean Sea Level, before the accuracy assessment and modelling. Results indicate that the accuracy of the SRTM DEM with the RMSE of 13.31, 14.51, and 18.19 m in 30, 150 and 330 m resolution respectively, is better than the ASTER and the CARTOSAT DEMs. When the grid space of the DEMs increases, the accuracy of the elevation and calculated soil erosion decreases. This study presents a potential uncertainty introduced by open source high resolution DEMs in the accuracy of the soil erosion assessment models. The research provides an analysis of errors in selecting DEMs using the original and increased grid space for soil erosion modelling.

  10. Distributed Modeling of soil erosion and deposition affected by buffer strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    bodies. Buffer zones can be efficient in terms of retaining sediment and phosphorus transported by water erosion. This study aimed at parameterizing a spatial distributed erosion model to evaluate the effect of different buffer zone properties and dimension. It was our hypothesis that the placement...... and dimension of buffer zones in the landscape can be optimized by means of spatially distributed erosion and deposition modeling. During the period from 1998 to 2000 field campaigns were done on a range of agricultural land in Denmark. On 21 slope units and adjacent buffer zones, rill erosion and deposition...... was surveyed during the runoff season. In addition, organic carbon and phosphorous contents as well as bulk density were determined in soils of eroding and depositional sites. General buffer zone properties were recorded. Here we present results from scenario analyses comparing measured sediment deposition...

  11. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kusimi

    are applicable at catchment scale; event based; and continuous models of spatially and temporally distribution (i.e., 2D) (e.g., Amore et al., 2004; Fistikoglu ..... the integration of RUSLE into GIS give a vivid spatial dimension in soil erosion and sediment yield in the Pra Basin. Given the elements and processes prevailing in ...

  12. Probabilistic soil erosion modeling using the Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMIT) after wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Robichaud; W. J. Elliot; J. W. Wagenbrenner

    2011-01-01

    The decision of whether or not to apply post-fire hillslope erosion mitigation treatments, and if so, where these treatments are most needed, is a multi-step process. Land managers must assess the risk of damaging runoff and sediment delivery events occurring on the unrecovered burned hillslope. We developed the Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) to address this need...

  13. Understanding soil erosion impacts in temperate agroecosystems: bridging the gap between geomorphology and soil ecology using nematodes as a model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C.; Rowan, J. S.; McKenzie, B. M.; Neilson, R.

    2013-11-01

    Soil is a key asset of natural capital, providing a myriad of goods and ecosystem services that sustain life through regulating, supporting and provisioning roles, delivered by chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is accelerated erosion, which raises a natural process to unsustainable levels, and has downstream consequences (e.g.~economic, environmental and social). Global intensification of agroecosystems is a recognised major cause of soil erosion which, in light of predicted population growth and increased demand for food security, will continue or increase. Transport and redistribution of biota by soil erosion has hitherto been ignored and thus is poorly understood. With the move to sustainable intensification this is a key knowledge gap that needs to be addressed. Here we highlight the erosion-energy and effective-erosion-depth continuum in soils, differentiating between different forms of soil erosion, and argue that nematodes are an appropriate model taxa to investigate impacts of erosion on soil biota across scales. We review the different known mechanisms of soil erosion that impact on soil biota in general, and nematodes in particular, and highlight the few detailed studies, primarily from tropical regions, that have considered soil biota. Based on the limited literature and using nematodes as a model organism we outline future research priorities to initially address the important interrelationships between soil erosion processes and soil biota.

  14. Regional soil erosion assessment in Slovakia using modelling and farmer's participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenderessy, Pavol; Veihe, Anita

    There has been an increasing interest by decision makers to obtain regional assessments of soil erosion risk, whereas many existing models require substantial amounts of high quality input data with high spatial resolution and they are often only validated at the plot level. Operational models fo...... are now being identified using farmer participation to ensure that the ‘correct’ hot spot areas are being identified. In the end, scenarios will be set up to assess the effect of farming practices and/or conservation measures on soil erosion rates in the area.......There has been an increasing interest by decision makers to obtain regional assessments of soil erosion risk, whereas many existing models require substantial amounts of high quality input data with high spatial resolution and they are often only validated at the plot level. Operational models...... for erosion risk assessments at the landscape scale in Slovakia using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods for assessing spatial prediction patterns. The model was set up for the Paríž catchment (239.93 km2) in south-western Slovakia. The area has been intensively cultivated primarily...

  15. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

  16. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited

  17. A hierachical method for soil erosion assessment and spatial risk modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoth, P.F.

    2003-01-01

      Though a lot has been done and achieved in erosion research and control in Kenya, most of the erosion research methods have in the past put emphasis more on quantifying soil loss or measuring soil erosion, rather than pinpointing to

  18. understanding the mechanism of soil erosion from outdoor model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    control designs to secure accurate hydrological and soil data for the affected regions. The extent of the degradation of soil structure is such that in places roads have been cut across by gullies as deep as. 0.8m and 0.5m wide. Besides the total destruction of agricultural resources, traffic between important towns has been.

  19. Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: A case study in South-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario del Pino, Jesús S.; Ruiz-Gallardo, José-Reyes

    2015-03-01

    Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to emergency criteria. Therefore, simple tools to predict soil erosion risk help to decide where the available resources should be used first. In this study, a predictive model for soil erosion degree, based on ordinal logistic regression, has been developed and evaluated using data from three large forest fires in South-eastern Spain. The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs (i.e., agreement between observed and predicted soil erosion degrees), using slope steepness, slope aspect, and fire severity as predictors. North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest.

  20. Modelling soil erosion reduction by mahonia aquifolium on hillslopes in hungary: The impact of soil stabilization by roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudek, C.; Sterk, Geert; van Beek, Rens L P H; de Jong, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural activities on hillslopes often cause soil erosion and degradation. Permanent vegetation strips on cultivated slopes could be an effective soil conservation technique to reduce erosion. Previous studies showed that cultivated Mahonia aquifolium can be an effective plant for water erosion

  1. Capability of Spaceborne Hyperspectral EnMAP Mission for Mapping Fractional Cover for Soil Erosion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion can be linked to relative fractional cover of photosynthetic-active vegetation (PV, non-photosynthetic-active vegetation (NPV and bare soil (BS, which can be integrated into erosion models as the cover-management C-factor. This study investigates the capability of EnMAP imagery to map fractional cover in a region near San Jose, Costa Rica, characterized by spatially extensive coffee plantations and grazing in a mountainous terrain. Simulated EnMAP imagery is based on airborne hyperspectral HyMap data. Fractional cover estimates are derived in an automated fashion by extracting image endmembers to be used with a Multiple End-member Spectral Mixture Analysis approach. The C-factor is calculated based on the fractional cover estimates determined independently for EnMAP and HyMap. Results demonstrate that with EnMAP imagery it is possible to extract quality endmember classes with important spectral features related to PV, NPV and soil, and be able to estimate relative cover fractions. This spectral information is critical to separate BS and NPV which greatly can impact the C-factor derivation. From a regional perspective, we can use EnMAP to provide good fractional cover estimates that can be integrated into soil erosion modeling.

  2. Soil erosion modeled with USLE, GIS, and remote sensing: a case study of Ikkour watershed in Middle Atlas (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Aafaf El Jazouli; Ahmed Barakat; Abdessamad Ghafiri; Saida El Moutaki; Abderrahim Ettaqy; Rida Khellouk

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Ikkour watershed located in the Middle Atlas Mountain (Morocco) has been a subject of serious soil erosion problems. This study aimed to assess the soil erosion susceptibility in this mountainous watershed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and spectral indices integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The USLE model required the integration of thematic factors’ maps which are rainfall aggressiveness, length and steepness of the slope, vegetation cov...

  3. Does introduced fauna influence soil erosion? A field and modelling assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G R; Lowry, J B C; Dever, C; Braggins, M

    2015-06-15

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) are recognised as having significant ecological impacts in many areas of the world including northern Australia. The full consequences of the introduction of pigs are difficult to quantify as the impacts may only be detected over the long-term and there is a lack of quantitative information on the impacts of feral pigs globally. In this study the effect of feral pigs is quantified in an undisturbed catchment in the monsoonal tropics of northern Australia. Over a three-year period, field data showed that the areal extent of pig disturbance ranged from 0.3-3.3% of the survey area. The mass of material exhumed through these activities ranged from 4.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to 36.0 t ha(-1) yr(-1). The findings demonstrate that large introduced species such as feral pigs are disturbing large areas as well as exhuming considerable volumes of soil. A numerical landscape evolution and soil erosion model was used to assess the effect of this disturbance on catchment scale erosion rates. The modelling demonstrated that simulated pig disturbance in previously undisturbed areas produced lower erosion rates compared to those areas which had not been impacted by pigs. This is attributed to the pig disturbance increasing surface roughness and trapping sediment. This suggests that in this specific environment, disturbance by pigs does not enhance erosion. However, this conclusion is prefaced by two important caveats. First, the long term impact of soil disturbance is still very uncertain. Secondly, modelling results show a clear differentiation between those from an undisturbed environment and those from a post-mining landscape, in which pig disturbance may enhance erosion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Multi-temporal Soil Erosion Modelling over the Mt Kenya Region with Multi-Sensor Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Higginbottom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is the principal cause of soil degradation across the world. In Africa, it is seen as a serious problem creating negative impacts on agricultural production, infrastructure and water quality. Regarding the Mt Kenya region, specifically, soil erosion is a serious threat mainly due to unplanned and unsustainable practices linked to tourism, agriculture and rapid population growth. The soil types roughly correspond with different altitudinal zones and are generally very fertile due to their volcanic origin. Some of them have been created by eroding glaciers while others are due to millions of years of fluvial erosion. The soils on the mountain are easily eroded once exposed: when vegetation is removed, the soil quickly erodes down to bedrock by either animals or humans, as tourists erode paths and local people clear large swaths of forested land for agriculture, mostly illegally. It is imperative, therefore, that a soil erosion monitoring system for the Mt Kenya region is in place in order to understand the magnitude of, and be able to respond to, the increasing number of demands on this renewable resource. In this paper, we employ a simple regional-scale soil erosion modelling framework based on the Thornes model and suggest an operational methodology for quantifying and monitoring water runoff and soil erosion using multi-sensor and multi-temporal remote sensing data in a GIS framework. We compare the estimates of this study with general data on the severity of soil erosion over Kenya and with measured rates of soil loss at different locations over the area of study. The results show that the measured and estimated rates of erosion are generally similar and within the same order of magnitude. They also show that, over the last years, erosion rates are increasing in large parts of the region at an alarming rate, and that mitigation measures are needed to reverse the negative effects of uncontrolled socio-economic practices.

  5. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-bas...

  6. Validation of Erosion 3D in Lower Saxony - Comparison between modelled soil erosion events and results of a long term monitoring project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bug, Jan; Mosimann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Since 2000 water erosion has been surveyed on 400 ha arable land in three different regions of Lower Saxony (Mosimann et al. 2009). The results of this long-term survey are used for the validation of the soil erosion models such as USLE and Erosion 3D. The validation of the physically-based model Erosion 3D (Schmidt & Werner 2000) is possible because the survey analyses the effects (soil loss, sediment yield, deposition on site) of single thunder storm events and also maps major factors of soil erosion (soil, crop, tillage). A 12.5 m Raster DEM was used to model the soil erosion events.Rainfalldata was acquired from climate stations. Soil and landuse parameters were derived from the "Parameterkatalog Sachsen"(Michael et al. 1996). During thirteen years of monitoring, high intensity storms fell less frequently than expected. High intensity rainfalls with a return period of five or ten years usually occurred during periods of maximum plant cover.Winter events were ruled out because dataon snow melt and rainfallwere not measured. The validation is therefore restricted to 80 events. The validation consists of three parts. The first part compares the spatial distribution of the mapped soil erosion with the model results. The second part calculates the difference in the amount of redistributed soil. The third part analyses off-site effects such as sediment yield and pollution of water bodies. The validation shows that the overall result of erosion 3D is quite good. Spatial hotspots of soil erosion and of off-site effects are predicted correctly in most cases. However, quantitative comparison is more problematic, because the mapping allows only the quantification of rillerosion and not of sheet erosion. So as a rule,the predicted soil loss is higher than the mapped. The prediction of rill development is also problematic. While the model is capable of predicting rills in thalwegs, the modelling of erosion in tractor tracks and headlands is more complicated. In order to

  7. Soil erosion modeled with USLE, GIS, and remote sensing: a case study of Ikkour watershed in Middle Atlas (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aafaf El Jazouli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Ikkour watershed located in the Middle Atlas Mountain (Morocco has been a subject of serious soil erosion problems. This study aimed to assess the soil erosion susceptibility in this mountainous watershed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and spectral indices integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS environment. The USLE model required the integration of thematic factors’ maps which are rainfall aggressiveness, length and steepness of the slope, vegetation cover, soil erodibility, and erosion control practices. These factors were calculated using remote sensing data and GIS. The USLE-based assessment showed that the estimated total annual potential soil loss was about 70.66 ton ha−1 year−1. This soil loss is favored by the steep slopes and degraded vegetation cover. The spectral index method, offering a qualitative evaluation of water erosion, showed different degrees of soil degradation in the study watershed according to FI, BI, CI, and NDVI. The results of this study displayed an agreement between the USLE model and spectral index approach, and indicated that the predicted soil erosion rate can be due to the most rugged land topography and an increase in agricultural areas. Indeed, these results can further assist the decision makers in implementation of suitable conservation program to reduce soil erosion.

  8. Soil erosion modeled with USLE, GIS, and remote sensing: a case study of Ikkour watershed in Middle Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jazouli, Aafaf; Barakat, Ahmed; Ghafiri, Abdessamad; El Moutaki, Saida; Ettaqy, Abderrahim; Khellouk, Rida

    2017-12-01

    The Ikkour watershed located in the Middle Atlas Mountain (Morocco) has been a subject of serious soil erosion problems. This study aimed to assess the soil erosion susceptibility in this mountainous watershed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and spectral indices integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The USLE model required the integration of thematic factors' maps which are rainfall aggressiveness, length and steepness of the slope, vegetation cover, soil erodibility, and erosion control practices. These factors were calculated using remote sensing data and GIS. The USLE-based assessment showed that the estimated total annual potential soil loss was about 70.66 ton ha-1 year-1. This soil loss is favored by the steep slopes and degraded vegetation cover. The spectral index method, offering a qualitative evaluation of water erosion, showed different degrees of soil degradation in the study watershed according to FI, BI, CI, and NDVI. The results of this study displayed an agreement between the USLE model and spectral index approach, and indicated that the predicted soil erosion rate can be due to the most rugged land topography and an increase in agricultural areas. Indeed, these results can further assist the decision makers in implementation of suitable conservation program to reduce soil erosion.

  9. A New European Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS-Factor for Modeling Soil Erosion by Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model is the most frequently used model for soil erosion risk estimation. Among the six input layers, the combined slope length and slope angle (LS-factor has the greatest influence on soil loss at the European scale. The S-factor measures the effect of slope steepness, and the L-factor defines the impact of slope length. The combined LS-factor describes the effect of topography on soil erosion. The European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC developed a new pan-European high-resolution soil erosion assessment to achieve a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in Europe. The LS-calculation was performed using the original equation proposed by Desmet and Govers (1996 and implemented using the System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA, which incorporates a multiple flow algorithm and contributes to a precise estimation of flow accumulation. The LS-factor dataset was calculated using a high-resolution (25 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM for the whole European Union, resulting in an improved delineation of areas at risk of soil erosion as compared to lower-resolution datasets. This combined approach of using GIS software tools with high-resolution DEMs has been successfully applied in regional assessments in the past, and is now being applied for first time at the European scale.

  10. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  11. Modelling soil erosion potential in the transboundary (Kenya & Tanzania) catchment of river Umba using remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedam, N.; Mutisya, B.; Kairo, J.; Resink-Ndungu, Jane Njeri; Kervyn, M.

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the leading forms of soil degradation. Estimating soil erosion from field measurements is expensive hence the extent of soil erosion in many tropical watersheds is unknown. Erosion is a complex process; some of the eroded materials are deposited within the watershed while the

  12. Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaurralde, R.C.; Thomson, A.M.; Williams, J.R.; Post, W.M.; McGill, W.B.; Owens, L.B.; Lal, R.

    2007-01-01

    The soil C balance is determined by the difference between inputs (e.g., plant litter, organic amendments, depositional C) and outputs (e.g., soil respiration, dissolved organic C leaching, and eroded C). There is a need to improve our understanding of whether soil erosion is a sink or a source of atmospheric CO2. The objective of this paper is to discover the long-term influence of soil erosion on the C cycle of managed watersheds near Coshocton, OH. We hypothesize that the amount of eroded C that is deposited in or out of a watershed compares in magnitude to the soil C changes induced via microbial respiration. We applied the erosion productivity impact calculator (EPIC) model to evaluate the role of erosion-deposition processes on the C balance of three small watersheds (∼1 ha). Experimental records from the USDA North Appalachian Experimental Watershed facility north of Coshocton, OH were used in the study. Soils are predominantly silt loam and have developed from loess-like deposits over residual bedrock. Management practices in the three watersheds have changed over time. Currently, watershed 118 (W118) is under a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) no till rotation, W128 is under conventional till continuous corn, and W188 is under no till continuous corn. Simulations of a comprehensive set of ecosystem processes including plant growth, runoff, and water erosion were used to quantify sediment C yields. A simulated sediment C yield of 43 ± 22 kg C ha -1 year -1 compared favorably against the observed 31 ± 12 kg C ha -1 year -1 in W118. EPIC overestimated the soil C stock in the top 30-cm soil depth in W118 by 21% of the measured value (36.8 Mg C ha -1 ). Simulations of soil C stocks in the other two watersheds (42.3 Mg C ha -1 in W128 and 50.4 Mg C ha -1 in W188) were off by -1 . Simulated eroded C re-deposited inside (30-212 kg C ha -1 year -1 ) or outside (73 -1 79 kg C ha -1 year -1 ) watershed boundaries compared in magnitude to a

  13. Modelling soil erosion risk based on RUSLE-3D using GIS in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling soil erosion risk based on RUSLE-3D. 393. Table 1. Land use/land cover, crop cover (C) and conservation practice (P) values. Sl. no. Land use/land cover. Area (%). C. P. 1. Agriculture land-1. 18.53. 0.5. 0.5. 2. Agriculture land-2. 7.08. 0.3. 0.4. 3. Orchard. 2.05. 0.1. 0.5. 4. Very dense forest. 6.88. 0.004. 1.0. 5.

  14. Physics of soil erosion at the microscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus here on the major and always topical issue of soil erosion by fluid flows, and more specifically on the determination of both a critical threshold for erosion occurrence and a kinetics that specifies the rate of eroded matter entrainment. A synthetic state-of-the-art is first proposed with a critical view on the most commonly used methods and erosion models. It is then discussed an alternative strategy, promoting the use of model materials that allow systematic parametric investigations with the purpose of first identifying more precisely the local mechanisms responsible for soil particle erosion and second ultimately quantifying both critical onsets and kinetics, possibly through existing or novel empirical erosion laws. Finally, we present and discuss several examples following this methodology, implemented either by means of experiments or numerical simulations, and coupling erosion tests in several particular hydrodynamical configurations with wisely selected mechanical tests.

  15. The impact of the soil surface properties in water erosion seen through LandSoil model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Follain, Stéphane; Cheviron, Bruno; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Couturier, Alain; Walter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative models of soil redistribution at the landscape scale are the current tools for understanding space-time processes in soil and landscape evolution. But models use larger and larger numbers of variables and sometimes it becomes difficult to understand their relative importance and model behaviours in critical conditions. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is widely used to clarify models behaviours, their structure giving fundamental information to ameliorate models their selves. We tested the LandSoil model (LANDscape design for SOIL conservation under soil use and climate change) a model designed for the analysis of agricultural landscape evolution at a fine spatial resolution scale [1-10 meters] and a mid-term temporal scale [10-100 years]. LandSoil is suitable for simulations from parcel to catchment scale. It is spatially distributed, event-based, and considers water and tillage erosion processes that use a dynamic representation of the agricultural landscape through parameters such as a monthly representation of soil surface properties. Our aim was to identify most significant parameters driving the model and to highlight potential particular/singular behaviours of parameter combinations and relationships. The approach was to use local sensitivity analysis, also termed 'one-factor-at-time' (OAT) which consists of a deterministic, derivative method, inquiring the local response O to a particular input factor Pi at a specified point P0 within the full input parameter space of the model expressed as: δO/δP = (O2-O1) / (P2-P1) The local sensitivity represents the partial derivatives of O with respect to Pi at the point P0. In the SA procedure the topographical entity is represented by a virtual hillslope on which soil loss and sensitivity are calculated. Virtual hillslope is inspired from the virtual catchment framework proposed by Cheviron at al. (2011): a fixed topology consisting of a 3X3 square pixel structure having 150 m length allowing to test

  16. Soil Erosion Prediction Using Morgan-Morgan-Finney Model in a GIS Environment in Northern Ethiopia Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreyesus Brhane Tesfahunegn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though scientific information on spatial distribution of hydrophysical parameters is critical for understanding erosion processes and designing suitable technologies, little is known in Geographical Information System (GIS application in developing spatial hydrophysical data inputs and their application in Morgan-Morgan-Finney (MMF erosion model. This study was aimed to derive spatial distribution of hydrophysical parameters and apply them in the Morgan-Morgan-Finney (MMF model for estimating soil erosion in the Mai-Negus catchment, northern Ethiopia. Major data input for the model include climate, topography, land use, and soil data. This study demonstrated using MMF model that the rate of soil detachment varied from 170 t ha−1 y−1, whereas the soil transport capacity of overland flow (TC ranged from 5 t ha−1 y−1 to >42 t ha−1 y−1. The average soil loss estimated by TC using MMF model at catchment level was 26 t ha−1 y−1. In most parts of the catchment (>80%, the model predicted soil loss rates higher than the maximum tolerable rate (18 t ha−1 y−1 estimated for Ethiopia. Hence, introducing appropriate interventions based on the erosion severity predicted by MMF model in the catchment is crucial for sustainable natural resources management.

  17. Modelling soil erosion at European scale: the importance of management practices and the future climate and land use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Meusburger, Katrin; Poesen, Jean; Lugato, Emanuele; Montanarella, Luca; Alewell, Christine; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of RUSLE2015 for modelling soil loss by water erosion at European scale has introduced important aspects related to management practices. The policy measurements such as reduced tillage, crop residues, cover crops, grass margins, stone walls and contouring have been incorporated in the RUSLE2015 modelling platform. The recent policy interventions introduced in Good Agricultural Environmental Conditions of Common Agricultural Policy have reduced the rate of soil loss in the EU by an average of 9.5% overall, and by 20% for arable lands (NATURE, 526, 195). However, further economic and political action should rebrand the value of soil as part of ecosystem services, increase the income of rural land owners, involve young farmers and organize regional services for licensing land use changes (Land Degradation and Development, 27 (6): 1547-1551). RUSLE2015 is combining the future policy scenarios and land use changes introduced by predictions of LUISA Territorial Modelling Platform. Latest developments in RUSLE2015 allow also incorporating the climate change scenarios and the forthcoming intensification of rainfall in North and Central Europe contrary to mixed trends in Mediterranean basin. The rainfall erosivity predictions estimate a mean increase by 18% in European Union by 2050. Recently, a module of CENTURY model was coupled with the RUSLE2015 for estimating the effect of erosion in current carbon balance in European agricultural lands (Global Change Biology, 22(5), 1976-1984; 2016). Finally, the monthly erosivity datasets (Science of the Total Environment, 579: 1298-1315) introduce a dynamic component in RUSLE2015 and it is a step towards spatio-temporal soil erosion mapping at continental scale. The monthly mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should apply in different seasons of the year. In the future, the soil erosion-modelling platform will

  18. Applying a process based erosion model to assess off-site effects of soil erosion from the regional scale to the measure level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Arevalo, Annika; Saathoff, Ulfert; Käpermann, Philipp; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Since soil erosion is one of the most important issues of global soil degradation, great effort was put into the application of erosion models for the assessment and prevention of on-site damages. Beside the primary impact of soil loss in decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant impacts if transported sediments are entering downslope ecosystems, settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. These off-site damages can be very costly, affect a lot of people and contaminate water-resources. The analysis of these problems is intensified by the requirements of new legislation, such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), providing new challenges for planning authorities in order to combat off-site damage. Hence there is strong public and scientific interest in understanding the processes of sediment as well as particle attached nutrient and pollutant transport. Predicting the frequency, magnitude and extent of off-site impacts of water erosion is a necessary precondition for adequate risk assessments and mitigation measures. Process based models are increasingly used for the simulation of soil erosion. Regarding the requirements of the WFD, these models need to deliver comparable estimates from the regional scale to the level of mitigation measures. This study aims on the application of the process based model EROSION 3D for off-site risk assessment on different scales for the German federal state of Saxony using available geo data, data base applications and GIS-routines. Following issues were investigated: - Where are the expected sediment deposition areas? - Which settlements, infrastructures and traffic routes are affected by sediment fluxes? - Which river sections are affected by sediment inputs? - Which river sections are affected by nutrient and heavy metal inputs? The model results identify the Saxon loess belt as highly endangered by off-site damages although hotspots can be found in the northern flatlands and the southern mountain range as

  19. Tolerable versus actual soil erosion rates in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, F. G. A.; Jones, R. J. A.; Rickson, R. J.; Smith, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    Erosion is a major threat to soil resources in Europe, and may impair their ability to deliver a range of ecosystem goods and services. This is reflected by the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which recommends an indicator-based approach for monitoring soil erosion. Defined baseline and threshold values are essential for the evaluation of soil monitoring data. Therefore, accurate spatial data on both soil loss and soil genesis are required, especially in the light of predicted changes in climate patterns, notably frequency, seasonal distribution and intensity of precipitation. Rates of soil loss are reported that have been measured, modelled or inferred for most types of soil erosion in a variety of landscapes, by studies across the spectrum of the Earth sciences. Natural rates of soil formation can be used as a basis for setting tolerable soil erosion rates, with soil formation consisting of mineral weathering as well as dust deposition. This paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil erosion and summarises current knowledge on rates of soil formation, which are then compared to rates of soil erosion by known erosion types, for assessment of soil erosion monitoring at the European scale. A modified definition of tolerable soil erosion is proposed as 'any actual soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur,' actual soil erosion being 'the total amount of soil lost by all recognised erosion types.' Even when including dust deposition in soil formation rates, the upper limit of tolerable soil erosion, as equal to soil formation, is ca. 1.4 t ha - 1 yr - 1 while the lower limit is ca. 0.3 t ha - 1 yr - 1 , for conditions prevalent in Europe. Scope for spatio-temporal differentiation of tolerable soil erosion rates below this upper limit is suggested by considering (components of) relevant soil functions. Reported rates of actual soil erosion vary much more than those for soil formation

  20. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model: A dynamic approach for predicting soil loss on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we present the improved Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM V2.3), a process-based erosion prediction tool specific for rangeland application. The article provides the mathematical formulation of the model and parameter estimation equations. Model performance is assessed agains...

  1. A method for modeling the effects of climate and land use changes on erosion and sustainability of soil in a Mediterranean watershed (Languedoc, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroissien, Jean-Baptiste; Darboux, Frédéric; Couturier, Alain; Devillers, Benoît; Mouillot, Florent; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Global climate and land use changes could strongly affect soil erosion and the capability of soils to sustain agriculture and in turn impact regional or global food security. The objective of our study was to develop a method to assess soil sustainability to erosion under changes in land use and climate. The method was applied in a typical mixed Mediterranean landscape in a wine-growing watershed (75 km(2)) within the Languedoc region (La Peyne, France) for two periods: a first period with the current climate and land use and a second period with the climate and land use scenarios at the end of the twenty-first century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B future rainfall scenarios from the Météo France General circulation model was coupled with four contrasting land use change scenarios that were designed using a spatially-explicit land use change model. Mean annual erosion rate was estimated with an expert-based soil erosion model. Soil life expectancy was assessed using soil depth. Soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy were combined into a sustainability index. The median simulated soil erosion rate for the current period was 3.5 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 273 years, showing a low sustainability of soils. For the future period with the same land use distribution, the median simulated soil erosion rate was 4.2 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 249 years. The results show that soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy are more sensitive to changes in land use than to changes in precipitation. Among the scenarios tested, institution of a mandatory grass cover in vineyards seems to be an efficient means of significantly improving soil sustainability, both in terms of decreased soil erosion rates and increased soil life expectancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Erosion and stability of a mine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.H.; Stadler, A.T.; Low, C.

    1996-01-01

    Mine soils developed from mine spoils commonly have a wide range of particle size. The slopes of old spoil piles usually are marked by gullies due to years of uncontrolled erosion. These characteristics raise questions about applicability of available theories and models for estimating runoff and erosion. An investigation was made to determine whether available erosion models can work for mine soils and can account for gully erosion. The investigation at an abandoned surface mine consisted of measurement of soil and sediment properties, measurement of runoff and erosion, observations of armor by rock fragments on gully floor, and calculations with available theories of sediment transport and slope stability. The results at this site suggest that (1) predictions with the ANSWERS model have about the same accuracy as those made for agricultural lands; (2) armor provided by rock fragments are temporary as they are periodically removed by debris flows; (3) detachment by rainfall impact is the primary cause of erosion on short steep slopes; and (4) a simplified method can be used for estimating erosion on such slopes

  3. Soil cover and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryrear, D.W.

    Wind erosion on agricultural lands can be reduced if the soil surface is protected with crop residues. In evaluating the influence of residues on wind erosion, previous research has expressed residues of various crops as an equivalent of flat, small grain. This becomes difficult as the density of the residue changes with weathering, or as crops other than the major cultivated crops are grown. Soil losses due to wind erosion were determined by covering various percentages of the soil surface with simulated flat residues (wood dowels 3.1 to 25.4 mm in diameter). Covering 20% of the soil surface reduced soil losses 57%, and a 50% cover reduced soil losses 95%. The expression SLR = 1.81 e/sup x/ where x = /sup -0.072% SC/ describes the relationship between soil loss ratio (SLR) and percent soil cover (% SC) with a correlation coefficient of -0.94 (soil cover limits 8 to 80%). The cover can be any nonerodible material such as large clods, gravel, cotton gin trash, or any diameter stick between 3.1 and 25.4 mm. Percent soil cover is easily measured in the field or can be estimated with a minimum of training and experience.

  4. Application of a modeling approach to designate soil and soil organic carbon loss to wind erosion on long-term monitoring sites (BDF) in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Rainer; Funk, Roger; Cordsen, Eckhard; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) loss is a serious problem in maize monoculture areas of Northern Germany. Sites of the soil monitoring network (SMN) "Boden-Dauerbeobachtung" show long-term soil and SOC losses, which cannot be explained by conventional SOC balances nor by other non-Aeolian causes. Using a process-based model, the main objective was to determine whether these losses can be explained by wind erosion. In the long-term context of 10 years, wind erosion was not measured directly but often observed. A suitable estimation approach linked high-quality soil/farming monitoring data with wind erosion modeling results. The model SWEEP, validated for German sandy soils, was selected using 10-minute wind speed data. Two similar local SMN study sites were compared, however, site A was characterized by high SOC loss and often affected by wind erosion, while the reference site B was not. At site A soil mass and SOC stock decreased by 49.4 and 2.44 kg m-2 from 1999 to 2009. Using SWEEP, a total soil loss of 48.9 kg m-2 resulted for 16 erosion events (max. single event 12.6 kg m-2). A share of 78% was transported by suspension with a SOC enrichment ratio (ER) of 2.96 (saltation ER 0.98), comparable to the literature. At the reference site measured and modeled topsoil losses were minimal. The good agreement between monitoring and modeling results suggested that wind erosion caused significant long-term soil and SOC losses. The approach uses results of prior studies and is applicable to similar well-studied sites without other noteworthy SOC losses.

  5. Assessing soil erosion risk in the Tillabery landscape, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that soil erosion output scenarios predict greater soil erosion in the study area from 2070 onwards. They suggest that human disturbance and topographic factors are the main impact factors in the affected areas. Key words: Tillabéry landscape (Niger), sheet and rill erosion modelling, data mining.

  6. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  7. Uncertainty in soil carbon accounting due to unrecognized soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Chappell, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The movement of soil organic carbon (SOC) during erosion and deposition events represents a major perturbation to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the recognized impact soil redistribution can have on the carbon cycle, few major carbon accounting models currently allow for soil mass flux. Here, we modified a commonly used SOC model to include a soil redistribution term and then applied it to scenarios which explore the implications of unrecognized erosion and deposition for SOC accounting. We show that models that assume a static landscape may be calibrated incorrectly as erosion of SOC is hidden within the decay constants. This implicit inclusion of erosion then limits the predictive capacity of these models when applied to sites with different soil redistribution histories. Decay constants were found to be 15-50% slower when an erosion rate of 15 t soil ha(-1)  yr(-1) was explicitly included in the SOC model calibration. Static models cannot account for SOC change resulting from agricultural management practices focused on reducing erosion rates. Without accounting for soil redistribution, a soil sampling scheme which uses a fixed depth to support model development can create large errors in actual and relative changes in SOC stocks. When modest levels of erosion were ignored, the combined uncertainty in carbon sequestration rates was 0.3-1.0 t CO2  ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This range is similar to expected sequestration rates for many management options aimed at increasing SOC levels. It is evident from these analyses that explicit recognition of soil redistribution is critical to the success of a carbon monitoring or trading scheme which seeks to credit agricultural activities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  9. Soil erosion in humid regions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion has significant implications for land productivity and surface water quality, as sediment is the leading water pollutant worldwide. Here, erosion processes are defined. The dominant factors influencing soil erosion in humid areas are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of precipitation, soil moisture, soil porosity, slope steepness and length,...

  10. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    scale using the Taguchi method. Journal of Hydrology, 448, 174-180. Asadi, H., Moussavi, A., Ghadiri, H., Rose, C. W. 2011. Flow-driven soil erosion processes and the size selectivity of sediment. Journal of Hydrology, 406(1), 73-81. Asadi, H., Raeisvandi, A., Rabiei, B., Ghadiri, H. 2012. Effect of land use and topography on soil properties and agronomic productivity on calcareous soils of a semiarid region, Iran. Land Degradation & Development, 23(5), 496-504. Ayoubi, S., Ahmadi, M., Abdi, M. R., Abbaszadeh Afshar, F. 2012. Relationships of 137 Cs inventory with magnetic measures of calcareous soils of hilly region in Iran. Journal of environmental radioactivity, 112, 45-51. Ayoubi, S., Mokhtari Karchegani, P., Mosaddeghi, M. R., Honarjoo, N. 2012. Soil aggregation and organic carbon as affected by topography and land use change in western Iran. Soil and Tillage Research, 121, 18-26. Emadodin, I., Bork, H. R. 2012. Degradation of soils as a result of long-term human-induced transformation of the environment in Iran: an overview. Journal of Land Use Science, 7(2), 203-219. Emadodin, I., Narita, D., Bork, H. R. 2012. Soil degradation and agricultural sustainability: an overview from Iran. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 14(5), 611-625. Haddadchi, A., Nosrati, K., Ahmadi, F. 2014. Differences between the source contribution of bed material and suspended sediments in a mountainous agricultural catchment of western Iran. CATENA, 116, 105-113. Heshmati, M., Arifin, A., Shamshuddin, J., Majid, N. M. 2012. Predicting N, P, K and organic carbon depletion in soils using MPSIAC model at the Merek catchment, Iran. Geoderma, 175, 64-77. Jafari, R., Bakhshandehmehr, L. 2013. Quantitative mapping and assessment of environmentally sensitive areas to desertification in central Iran. Land Degradation & Development.DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2227 Kavian, A., Azmoodeh, A., Solaimani, K. 2014. Deforestation effects on soil properties, runoff and erosion in northern Iran. Arabian

  11. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. C. (John); Wang, Z. L.

    2017-05-01

    To date interrill erosion processes are not fully understood under different rainfall and soil conditions. The objectives are to 1) identify the interrill erosion regime and limiting process under the study condition, 2) characterize the interactive effects of rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment transport competency and mode, and 3) develop a lumped interrill erosion model. A loess loam soil with 39% sand and 45% silt was packed to flumes and exposed to simulated rainfall. A complete factorial design with three factors was used, which included rainfall intensity (48, 62, 102, 149, and 170 mm h-1), slope gradient (17.6, 26.8, 36.4, 46.6, and 57.7%), and slope length (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 m). Rain splash, sediment discharge in runoff, and flow velocity were measured. Results showed that rainfall intensity played a dual role not only in detaching soil materials but also in enhancing sediment transport. Sediment transport was the process limiting interrill erosion rate under the study condition. Two major sediment transport modes were identified: rainfall-driven rolling/creeping and flow-driven rolling/sliding. The relative importance of each mode was largely determined by flow depth. The competence of the flow in transporting sediment decreased downslope as flow depth increased due to increased dissipation of raindrop energy. The optimal mean flow depth for the maximal interrill erosion rates was erosion rate. The negative correlation seemed stronger for heavier rains, indicating the cushioning effects of flow depth. Lumped interrill erosion models, developed from short slopes, are likely to overestimate erosion rates. Given transport as the limiting process, the so called erodibility value, estimated with those models, is indeed sediment transportability under the study condition. The effects of slope length on interrill erosion regimes need to be studied further under a wider range of conditions.

  12. Modeling climate change effects on runoff and soil erosion in southeastern Arizona rangelands and implications for mitigation with rangeland conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is expected to impact runoff and soil erosion on rangelands in the southwestern United States. This study was done to evaluate the potential impacts of precipitation changes on soil erosion and surface runoff in southeastern Arizona using seven GCM models with three emission scenarios...

  13. Modelling soil erosion risk based on RUSLE-3D using GIS in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    watershed ... Click here to view fulltext PDF ... The RUSLE-3D (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation-3D) model was implemented in geographic information system (GIS) for predicting the soil loss and the spatial patterns of soil ...

  14. Digital Elevation Models of Differences (DODs): implementation for assessment of soil erosion on recreational trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, A.; Ewertowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Tourism's negative impact on protected mountain areas is one of the main concerns for land managers. The impact on the natural environment is the most visible at locations of highly concentrated activities such as tourist trails, campsites, etc. The main indicators of the tourist trail degradation are vegetation loss (trampling of vegetation cover), change of vegetation type and composition, trail widening, muddiness and soil erosion. The last one is especially significant, since it can cause serious transformation to the land surface. Such undesirable changes cannot be repaired without high-cost management activities and in some cases they can made the trails difficult and unsafe to use. The scientific understanding of soil erosion in relation to human impact can be useful for a more effective management of protected natural areas (PNAs). The main objectives of this study are: (1) to analyse the spatial aspect of surface changes in microscale; (2) to quantify precisely the short-term rate of soil loss and deposition. Study area and methods: To gather precise and objective elevation data, an electronic total station with microprism were used. Measurements were taken in 12 test fields, located in two protected natural areas in south Poland: the Gorce National Park and Popradzki Landscape Park. The measuring places were located on the trails characterized by different slope, types of vegetation, and types of use. Each of the test fields was established by four special marks, firmly dug into the ground. Five sessions of measurement was carried out for each test field: August/September 2008, June 2009, August/September 2009, June 2010, August/September 2010. Generated DEMs (based on field surveys' results) were subtracted from each other, and thus we obtained a spatial picture of the loss or deposition of soil in each cell of the model, from one survey session to another. The subtraction of DEMs from subsequent time periods (DEMs of Difference - DoDs gave

  15. Process identification of soil erosion in steep mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous soil erosion processes were investigated in the Urseren Valley (Central Switzerland by means of measurements and simulations. The quantification of soil erosion was performed on hill slope scale (2·20 m for three different land use types: hayfields, pastures with dwarf shrubs and pastures without dwarf shrubs with three replicates each. Erosion rates during growing season were measured with sediment traps between June 2006 and November 2007. Long-term soil erosion rates were estimated based on Cs- 137 redistribution. In addition, soil moisture and surface flow were recorded during the growing season in the field and compared to model output. We chose the WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project to simulate soil erosion during the growing season. Model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species, fractional vegetation cover, initial saturation level, by laboratory analyses (grain size, organic matter and by literature study. The WEPP model simulates sheet erosion processes (interrill and splash erosion processes, please note that no rill erosion occurs at our sites. Model output resulted in considerable smaller values than the measured erosion rates with sediment traps for the same period. We attribute the differences to observed random gravity driven erosion of soil conglomerates. The Cs-137 measurements deliver substantially higher mean annual erosion rates, which are most likely connected to snow cover related processes such as snow gliding and avalanche activities.

  16. Soil erosion in Slovene Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Mikoš

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From the end of nineties of the 20th century, intense hydrologic and geomorphologic research is taking place in the Slovene Istria. As a part of this research also studies on soil erosion were undertaken in the period from 2005 to 2008. The field measurements were under taken onclosed 1m2 large erosion plots under three different land uses (on bare soils in an olive grove, on an overgrown meadow, in a forest, placed south of the Marezige village in the Rokava River basin.We show weekly measurements of surface erosion (interrill erosion for the period of 13 months (the end of March 2005 – the end of April 2006, as well as monthly and seasonal averages together with selected linear statistical correlations between soil erosion and weather parameters.From May 2005 to April 2006 the interrill erosion on bare soils in an olive grove with an inclination of 5.5° amounted to 9013 g/m2 (90 t/ha that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 8.5 mm/yr; on an overgrown meadow with an inclination of 9.4° it amounted to 168 g/m2 (1,68 t/ha that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 0.16 mm//yr; and in a forest with an inclination of 7.8° it amounted to 391 g/m2 (3,91 t/ha and in a forest with an inclination of 21.4° it amounted to 415 g/m2 (4,15 t/ha, respectively, that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 0.4 mm/yr.

  17. Sediment transport in forested head water catchments - Calibration and validation of a soil erosion and landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Webb, A. A.; Turner, L.

    2017-11-01

    Sediment transport and soil erosion can be determined by a variety of field and modelling approaches. Computer based soil erosion and landscape evolution models (LEMs) offer the potential to be reliable assessment and prediction tools. An advantage of such models is that they provide both erosion and deposition patterns as well as total catchment sediment output. However, before use, like all models they require calibration and validation. In recent years LEMs have been used for a variety of both natural and disturbed landscape assessment. However, these models have not been evaluated for their reliability in steep forested catchments. Here, the SIBERIA LEM is calibrated and evaluated for its reliability for two steep forested catchments in south-eastern Australia. The model is independently calibrated using two methods. Firstly, hydrology and sediment transport parameters are inferred from catchment geomorphology and soil properties and secondly from catchment sediment transport and discharge data. The results demonstrate that both calibration methods provide similar parameters and reliable modelled sediment transport output. A sensitivity study of the input parameters demonstrates the model's sensitivity to correct parameterisation and also how the model could be used to assess potential timber harvesting as well as the removal of vegetation by fire.

  18. Soil erosion and sediment yield from the degraded Mzinga River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erosion measurements and sediment yield modelling were done to monitor land use practices that contribute to catchment degradation. The results showed very high soil erosion losses on agricultural lands (33 tons/ha) and low soil losses from fallow (4.8 tons/ha) and degraded miombo woodlands (2.4 tons/ha).

  19. Efficiency test of modeled empirical equations in predicting soil loss from ephemeral gully erosion around Mubi, Northeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijasini John Tekwa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out to assess soil loss from ephemeral gully (EG erosion at 6 different locations (Digil, Vimtim, Muvur, Gella, Lamorde and Madanya around the Mubi area between April, 2008 and October, 2009. Each location consisted of 3 watershed sites from where data was collected. EG shape, land use, and conservation practices were noted, while EG length, width, and depth were measured. Physico-chemical properties of the soils were studied in the field and laboratory. Soil loss was both measured and predicted using modeled empirical equations. Results showed that the soils are heterogeneous and lying on flat to hilly topographies with few grasses, shrubs and tree vegetations. The soils comprised of sand fractions that predominated the texture, with considerable silt and clay contents. The empirical soil loss was generally related with the measured soil loss and the predictions were widely reliable at all sites, regardless of season. The measured and empirical aggregate soil loss were more related in terms of volume of soil loss (VSL (r2=0.93 and mass of soil loss (MSL (r2=0.92, than area of soil loss (ASL (r2=0.27. The empirical estimates of VSL and MSL were consistently higher at Muvur (less vegetation and lower at Madanya and Gella (denser vegetations in both years. The maximum efficiency (Mse of the empirical equation in predicting ASL was between 1.41 (Digil and 89.07 (Lamorde, while the Mse was higher at Madanya (2.56 and lowest at Vimtim (15.66 in terms of VSL prediction efficiencies. The Mse also ranged from 1.84 (Madanya to 15.74 (Vimtim in respect of MSL predictions. These results led to the recommendation that soil conservationists, farmers, private and/or government agencies should implement the empirical model in erosion studies around Mubi area.

  20. Physical basis and potential estimation techniques for soil erosion parameters in the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, W.P.; Simon, Andrew

    1984-01-01

    Simulation of upland-soil erosion by the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System currently requires the user to estimate two rainfall detachment parameters and three hydraulic detachmment paramenters. One rainfall detachment parameter can be estimated from rainfall simulator tests. A reformulation of the rainfall detachment equation allows the second parameter to be computed directly. The three hydraulic detachment parameters consist of one exponent and two coefficients. The initial value of the exponent is generally set equal to 1.5. The two coefficients are functions of the soil 's resistance to erosion and one of the two also accounts for sediment delivery processes not simulated in the model. Initial estimates of these parameters can be derived from other modeling studies or from published empirical relations. (USGS)

  1. Digital Terrain Modeling and Distributed Soil Erosion Simulation/Measurement for Minimizing Environmental Impacts of Military Training (CS-752)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, S

    2000-01-01

    In recognition of the negative repercussions that soil erosion and sediment deposition can have on military preparedness and the environment, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP...

  2. Natural and anthropogenic rates of soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regions of land that are brought into crop production from native vegetation typically undergo a period of soil erosion instability, and long term erosion rates are greater than for natural lands as long as the land continues being used for crop production. Average rates of soil erosion under natur...

  3. Soil erosion and desertification: a combined approach using RUSLE and ESAs models in the Tusciano basin (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paola, F.; Ducci, D.; Giugni, M.

    2009-04-01

    To identify the desertification prone areas the ESAs (Environmentally Sensitive Areas) model was developed in 1999 in the framework of MEDALUS (MEditerranean Desertification And Land USe) European project; this method has been used in many Mediterranean Countries (Greece, Portugal Italy, Egypt, etc.). The identification of areas sensitive to desertification by using the ESAs model has been carried out in the Tusciano river basin (261 km2) located in southern Italy (Campania region). All data defining the four groups of parameters related to soil quality, climate quality, vegetation quality, and management quality have been introduced in a geographical database, and overlain using a GIS. Afterwards, a sensitivity analysis highlighted the different impact of the desertification parameters on the mountainous, hilly, and downstream areas of the catchment, strongly different in terms of morphological, geological, climatic and land-use features. The assessment of desertification sensitivity shows a clear vulnerability status in the Tusciano river basin, where more than half of the area is susceptible to desertification risk. The results of the ESAs model have been combined with those of the soil loss, achieved using the RUSLE method, based approximately on the same environmental factors; nevertheless, ESAs model considers a wider range of parameters, allowing to characterize in detail the catchment, from the climatic, geomorphological, vegetational and socio-economical point of view. The comparison between the desertification prone areas map and the potential erosion map of the Tusciano river basin shows fundamental differences. The areas at higher erosion risk are located in the mountain and hilly sectors of the basin, while the downstream areas, at high desertification risk, are characterized by a low erosion risk. The hilly sector is especially prone to both risks, desertification and erosion. Finally, a correlation analysis for the risk classes was developed using

  4. Evaluating the new soil erosion map of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltner, István; Centeri, Csaba; Takács, Katalin; Pirkó, Béla; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Pásztor, László

    2017-04-01

    With growing concerns on the effects of climate change and land use practices on our soil resources, soil erosion by water is becoming a significant issue internationally. Since the 1964 publication of the first soil erosion map of Hungary, there have been several attempts to provide a countrywide assessment of erosion susceptibility. However, there has been no up-to-date map produced in the last decade. In 2016, a new, 1:100 000 scale soil erosion map was published, based on available soil, elevation, land use and meteorological data for the extremely wet year of 2010. The map utilized combined outputs for two spatially explicit methods: the widely used empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the process-based Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA) models. The present study aims to provide a detailed analysis of the model results. In lieu of available national monitoring data, information from other sources were used. The Soil Degradation Subsystem (TDR) of the National Environmental Information System (OKIR) is a digital database based on a soil survey and farm dairy data collected from representative farms in Hungary. During the survey all kind of degradation forms - including soil erosion - were considered. Agricultural and demographic data was obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH). Data from an interview-based survey was also used in an attempt to assess public awareness of soil erosion risks. Point-based evaluation of the model results was complemented with cross-regional assessment of soil erosion estimates. This, combined with available demographic information provides us with an opportunity to address soil erosion on a community level, with the identification of regions with the highest risk of being affected by soil erosion.

  5. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  6. Terrace erosion and sediment transport model: a new tool for soil conservation planning in bench-terraced steeplands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing soil erosion remains a major problem in Java's uplands. To elucidate the causes for this lack of impact, runoff and erosion processes were studied at a variety of spatial scales within a volcanic catchment in West Java. Research indicated that soil loss occurs via

  7. Dynamics of agricultural soil erosion in European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, L. F.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Dobrovol'skaya, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Socioeconomic transformation together with climate change in recent decades significantly affected the geography of agricultural erosion in European Russia. Calculations of erosion rate and soil loss from slopes using logical-mathematical erosion models within different landscape zones and administrative regions revealed spatial-temporal regularities in the dynamics of these parameters and made it possible to assess the role of changes in the main natural and anthropogenic factors of erosion. A universal significant reduction in the mass of soil material washed from tilled slopes is revealed on the background of multidirectional changes in erosion rate.

  8. Learning Style Responses to an Online Soil Erosion Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Martha; Kettler, Timothy; Hussman, Dann

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate responses from students with different learning styles to the use of computer technology as a supplemental tool in teaching soil erosion concepts. The online lesson utilized photographs, illustrations, animations, and an interactive model that allowed students to manipulate factors influencing soil erosion. Students…

  9. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of regions, vegetation types and forest stand density in controlling soil erosion were investigated in Beijing mountain forest, China. The main objective was to develop some models to estimate soil erosion under different forest conditions including regions, vegetation type, and stand density as influenced by artificial ...

  10. Prediction of soil stability and erosion in semiarid regions using numerical hydrological model (MCAT) and airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    promising models is the MCAT, which is a MATLAB library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models. The model applied in this paper presents an innovative infrastructural system for predicting soil stability and erosion impacts. This integrated model is applicable to mixed areas with spatially varying soil properties, landscape, and land-cover characteristics. Data from a semiarid site in southern Israel was used to evaluate the model and analyze fundamental erosion mechanisms. The findings estimate the sensitivity of the suggested model to the physical parameters and encourage the use of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery (HSI). The proposed model is integrated according to the following stages: 1. The soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture estimated via airborne HSI data, including soil surface clay and calcium carbonate erosions; 2. The mechanical stability of soil assessed via pedo-transfer function corresponding to load dependent changes in soil physical properties due to pre-compression stress (set of equations study shear strength parameters take into account soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture and ecological soil variables); 3. The precipitation-related runoff model program (RMP) satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of surface runoff for the current climate simulation; 4. The Monte Carlo Analysis Toolbox (MCAT), a library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models, is proposed as a tool for integrate all the approaches to an applicable model. The presented model overcomes the limitations of existing modeling methods by integrating physical data produced via HSI and yet stays generic in terms of space and time independency.

  11. Soil erosion dynamics response to landscape pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hao, F.; Wang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Simulating soil erosion variation with a temporal land use database reveals long-term fluctuations in landscape patterns, as well as priority needs for soil erosion conservation. The application of a multi-year land use database in support of a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) led to an accurate

  12. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  13. Estimation of soil erosion for a sustainable land use planning: RUSLE model validation by remote sensing data utilization in the Kalikonto watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andriyanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS are increasingly used for planning and natural resources management. GIS and RS is based on pixels is used as a tool of spatial modeling for predicting the erosion. One of the methods developed for predicting the erosion is a Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE. RUSLE is the method used for predicting the erosion associated with runoff gained from five parameters, namely: rain erosivity (R, soil erodibility (K, length of slopes (L, slope (S, and land management (CP. The main constraint encountered in the process of operating the GIS is the calculation of the slope length factor (L.This study was designed to create a plan of sustainable land use and low erosion through the RULSE erosion modeling by utilizing the remote sensing data. With this approach, this study was divided into three activities, namely (1 the preparation and analysis of spatial data for the determination of the parameters and estimating the erosion by using RUSLE models, (2 the validation and calibration of the model of RUSLE by measuring soil erosion at the scale of plots on the field, and (3 Creating a plan of sustainable land use and low erosion with RUSLE. The validation erosion shows the value of R2 = 0.56 and r = 0.74. Results of this study showed that the RUSLE model could be used in the Kalikonto watershed. The erosions at the value of the actual estimation, spatial Plan (RTRW and land capability class in the Kalikonto watershed were 72t / ha / year, 62 t / ha / year and 58 t / ha / year, respectively.

  14. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  15. Study on the standard of soil erosion gradation based on erosive daily rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Ye, Suigao; Shen, Zhaowei; Lu, Fangchun; Zhang, Jinjuan

    2017-11-01

    This paper took Yuyao city as the research area. the daily rainfall data of 30-year was collected from the typical rainfall station. And the daily rainfall power function model was used to calculate the rainfall erosivity. The weight that the rainfall erosivity of the rainfall less than 30mm accounted for the total annual rainfall erosivity was calculated and analyzed. A method for soil erosion intensity gradation based on daily rainfall was proposed. At the same time, according to People’s Republic of China water conservancy industry standard “the standards for classification and gradation of soil erosion”, the weight value was used to establish the gradation standard of soil erosion intensity. The daily soil loss tolerance was 7 t/km2 calculated by this method.

  16. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion to cropland is one of the major causes of severe soil erosion in Africa. This study assesses the current cropland extent and the related soil erosion risk in Rwanda, a country that experienced the most rapid population growth and cropland expansion in Africa over the last decade. The land cover land use (LCLU map of Rwanda in 2015 was developed using Landsat-8 imagery. Based on the obtained LCLU map and the spatial datasets of precipitation, soil properties and elevation, the soil erosion rate of Rwanda was assessed at 30-m spatial resolution, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model. According to the results, the mean soil erosion rate was 250 t·ha−1·a−1 over the entire country, with a total soil loss rate of approximately 595 million tons per year. The mean soil erosion rate over cropland, which occupied 56% of the national land area, was estimated at 421 t·ha−1·a−1 and was responsible for about 95% of the national soil loss. About 24% of the croplands in Rwanda had a soil erosion rate larger than 300 t·ha−1·a−1, indicating their unsuitability for cultivation. With a mean soil erosion rate of 1642 t·ha−1·a−1, these unsuitable croplands were responsible for 90% of the national soil loss. Most of the unsuitable croplands are distributed in the Congo Nile Ridge, Volcanic Range mountain areas in the west and the Buberuka highlands in the north, regions characterized by steep slopes (>30% and strong rainfall. Soil conservation practices, such as the terracing cultivation method, are paramount to preserve the soil. According to our assessment, terracing alone could reduce the mean cropland soil erosion rate and the national soil loss by 79% and 75%, respectively. After terracing, only a small proportion of 7.6% of the current croplands would still be exposed to extreme soil erosion with a rate >300 t·ha−1·a−1. These irremediable cropland areas should be returned to mountain forest to

  17. Characterisation of soil microtopography effects on runoff and soil erosion rates under simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil surface roughness is commonly identified as one of the dominant factors governing runoff and interrill erosion. Yet, because of difficulties in acquiring the data, most studies pay little attention to soil surface roughness. This is particularly true for soil erosion models which commonly don't...

  18. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model: A Dynamic Approach for Predicting Soil Loss on Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariano; Nearing, Mark A.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Armendariz, Gerardo; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Williams, C. Jason; Nouwakpo, Sayjro K.; Goodrich, David C.; Unkrich, Carl L.; Nichols, Mary H.; Holifield Collins, Chandra D.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we present the improved Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM V2.3), a process-based erosion prediction tool specific for rangeland application. The article provides the mathematical formulation of the model and parameter estimation equations. Model performance is assessed against data collected from 23 runoff and sediment events in a shrub-dominated semiarid watershed in Arizona, USA. To evaluate the model, two sets of primary model parameters were determined using the RHEM V2.3 and RHEM V1.0 parameter estimation equations. Testing of the parameters indicated that RHEM V2.3 parameter estimation equations provided a 76% improvement over RHEM V1.0 parameter estimation equations. Second, the RHEM V2.3 model was calibrated to measurements from the watershed. The parameters estimated by the new equations were within the lowest and highest values of the calibrated parameter set. These results suggest that the new parameter estimation equations can be applied for this environment to predict sediment yield at the hillslope scale. Furthermore, we also applied the RHEM V2.3 to demonstrate the response of the model as a function of foliar cover and ground cover for 124 data points across Arizona and New Mexico. The dependence of average sediment yield on surface ground cover was moderately stronger than that on foliar cover. These results demonstrate that RHEM V2.3 predicts runoff volume, peak runoff, and sediment yield with sufficient accuracy for broad application to assess and manage rangeland systems.

  19. Modelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides (MODERN) - Part 1: A new conversion model to derive soil redistribution rates from inventories of fallout radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of fallout radionuclides (FRN) has become one of the most commonly used tools to quantify sediment erosion or depositional processes. The conversion of FRN inventories into soil erosion and deposition rates is done with a variety of models, which suitability is dependent on the selected FRN, soil cultivation (ploughed or unploughed) and movement (erosion or deposition). The authors propose a new conversion model, which can be easily and comprehensively used for different FRN, land uses and soil redistribution processes. The new model MODERN (Modelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides) considers the precise depth distribution of any FRN at the reference site, and allows adapting it for any specific site conditions. MODERN adaptability and performance in converting different FRN inventories is discussed for a theoretical case as well as for two already published case studies i.e. a 137 Cs study in an alpine and unploughed area in the Aosta valley (Italy) and a 210 Pb ex study on a ploughed area located in the Transylvanian Plain (Romania). The tests highlight a highly significant correspondence (i.e. correlation factor of 0.91) between the results of MODERN and the published results of other models currently used by the FRN scientific community (i.e. the Profile Distribution Model and the Mass Balance Model). The development and the cost free accessibility of MODERN (see modern.umweltgeo.unibas.ch) will ensure the promotion of wider application of FRNs for tracing soil erosion and sedimentation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulating Climate Change Impact on Soil Erosion using RUSLE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    30

    station). This projected rainfall data was used to compute projected rainfall erosivity and further estimate the soil erosion employing RUSLE model over the three periods: 2020 (2011-2040),. 2050 (2041-2070), 2080 (2071-2099). The study will provide a preliminary evaluation of the potential impact of future climate change ...

  1. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SOIL EROSION IN THE DRĂGAN RIVER WATERSHED WITH THE U.S.L.E. TYPE ROMSEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba HORVÁTH

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative estimation of soil erosion in the Drăgan river watershed with the U.S.L.E. type Romsem modelSediment delivered from water erosion causes substantial waterway damages and water quality degradation. A number of factors such as drainage area size, basin slope, climate, land use/land cover may affect sediment delivery processes. The goal of this study is to define a computationally effective suitable soil erosion model in the Drăgan river watershed, for future sedimentation studies. Geographic Information System (GIS is used to determine the Universal Soil Loss Equation Model (U.S.L.E. values of the studied water basin. The methods and approaches used in this study are expected to be applicable in future research and to watersheds in other regions.

  2. Integrating atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Bout, Bastian Van den; Jetten, V.G.; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, this paper develops an integrated and spatially-distributed modelling approach, linking atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models, to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas. The modelling system is applied to a small urban catchment

  3. Wind erosion modelling in a Sahelian environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faye-Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.; Karssenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahel field observations of wind-blown mass transport often show considerable spatial variation related to the spatial variation of the wind erosion controlling parameters, e.g. soil crust and vegetation cover. A model, used to predict spatial variation in wind erosion and deposition is a

  4. {sup 137}Cs applicability to soil erosion assessment: theoretical and empirical model; Aplicabilidade do {sup 137}Cs para medir erosao do solo: modelos teoricos e empiricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    2004-02-15

    The soil erosion processes acceleration and the increase of soil erosion rates due to anthropogenic perturbation in soil-weather-vegetation equilibrium has influenced in the soil quality and environment. So, the possibility to assess the amplitude and severity of soil erosion impact on the productivity and quality of soil is important so local scale as regional and global scale. Several models have been developed to assess the soil erosion so qualitative as quantitatively. {sup 137}Cs, an anthropogenic radionuclide, have been very used to assess the superficial soil erosion process Empirical and theoretical models were developed on the basis of {sup 137} Cs redistribution as indicative of soil movement by erosive process These models incorporate many parameters that can influence in the soil erosion rates quantification by {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Statistical analysis was realized on the models recommended by IAEA to determinate the influence that each parameter generates in results of the soil redistribution. It was verified that the most important parameter is the {sup 137} Cs redistribution, indicating the necessity of a good determination in the {sup 137} Cs inventory values with a minimum deviation associated with these values. After this, it was associated a 10% deviation in the reference value of {sup 137} Cs inventory and the 5% in the {sup 137} Cs inventory of the sample and was determinate the deviation in results of the soil redistribution calculated by models. The results of soil redistribution was compared to verify if there was difference between the models, but there was not difference in the results determinate by models, unless above 70% of {sup 137} Cs loss. Analyzing three native forests and an area of the undisturbed pasture in the Londrina region, can be verified that the {sup 137} Cs spatial variability in local scale was 15%. Comparing the {sup 137} Cs inventory values determinate in the three native forest with the {sup 137} Cs inventory

  5. Quantification Of Erosion Rates Of Agriculturally Used Soils By Artificial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinand

    2010-05-01

    for 137Cs and 53 days for 7Be), delivery rates, delivery histories, and land use (Fig. 2). An Physical processes, such as water and wind, are the dominant factors moving 137Cs, 7Be tagged soil particles within and between landscape compartments. PIC Figure 2: Generalized sketch illustrating the distributions of 137Cs and 7Be in tilled and undisturbed soils 2 Erosion study at Young Moraine regions of Germany Recently, a study had been performed to evaluate erosion rates in a typical pattern of landscapes in the Young Moraine regions of North-East Germany [5]. The 137Cs concentrations were measured at selected sampling points of various study sites. Among the areas selected for sampling was Basedow, which is a cultivated area, situated north of Berlin. During a master thesis study at university of Bremen in the academic year 2008-2009 [6] a second sampling campaign was performed at the same study site and 137Cs and 7Be concentrations were measured. Two mathematical models (a proportional model and a mass balance model) were applied to estimate erosion or deposition rates giving a distinction between uncultivated or essentially undisturbed soils and cultivated or soils under permanent pasture (Fig.3A). An improved depositional model was developed during this study. The simulation results from this model are presented in Fig.4. Due to the half-life (53.2 days) of 7Be, a mass balance model was developed and used to calculate erosion rates from 7Be (Fig.3B). PIC Figure 3: A: Erosion rates for 137Cs calculated by mass balance model. B: Erosion rates calculated with mass balance model using the 7Be data at Basedow (2008). The results verify that there is long term erosion as a result of wind, water and agricultural practices. The annual erosion rates at Basedow calculated using a mass balance and a proportional model were in the range between 30-50 t ha-1yr-1. These values were comparable to the erosion rates calculated in the previous study [5] by the models mentioned above

  6. Soil erosion and sediment delivery in a mountain catchment under land use change: using point fallout 137Cs for calibrating a spatially distributed numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Beguería, S.; Lana-Renault, N.; Navas, A.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are strongly affected by land use/land cover (LULC). Spatially distributed erosion models are useful tools for comparing erosion resulting from current LULC with a number of alternative scenarios, being of great interest to assess the expected effect of LULC changes. In this study the soil erosion and sediment delivery model WATEM/SEDEM was applied to a small experimental catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Model calibration was carried out based on a dataset of soil redistribution rates derived from 137Cs inventories along three representative transects, allowing capture differences per land use in the main model parameters. Model calibration showed a good convergence to a global optimum in the parameter space. Validation of the model results against seven years of recorded sediment yield at the catchment outlet was satisfactory. Two LULC scenarios where then modeled to reproduce the land use at the beginning of the twentieth Century and a hypothetic future scenario, and to compare the simulation results to the current LULC situation. The results show a reduction of about one order of magnitude in gross erosion (3180 to 350 Mg yr-1) and sediment delivery (11.2 to 1.2 Mg yr-1 ha-1) during the last decades as a result of the abandonment of traditional land uses (mostly agriculture) and subsequent vegetation re-colonization. The simulation also allowed assessing differences in the sediment sources and sinks within the catchment.

  7. Soil erosion vulnerability in the verde river basin, southern minas gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Vinícius Augusto de; Mello, Carlos Rogério de; Durães, Matheus Fonseca; Silva, Antônio Marciano da

    2014-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental degradation processes. Mapping and assessment of soil erosion vulnerability is an important tool for planning and management of the natural resources. The objective of the present study was to apply the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using GIS tools to the Verde River Basin (VRB), southern Minas Gerais, in order to assess soil erosion vulnerability. A annual rainfall erosivity map was derived from the geographical model a...

  8. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  9. Mechanics of aeolian processes: Soil erosion and dust production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Aeolian (wind) processes occur as a result of atmosphere/land-surface system interactions. A thorough understanding of these processes and their physical/mechanical characterization on a global scale is essential to monitoring global change and, hence, is imperative to the fundamental goal of the Earth observing system (Eos) program. Soil erosion and dust production by wind are of consequence mainly in arid and semi arid regions which cover 36 percent of the Earth's land surface. Some recent models of dust production due to wind erosion of agricultural soils and the mechanics of wind erosion in deserts are reviewed and the difficulties of modeling the aeolian transport are discussed.

  10. Vegetated Reinforced Soil Slope Streambank Erosion Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sotir, Robbin B; Fischenich, J. C

    2003-01-01

    ...). The VRSS system is useful for the immediate repair or prevention of deeper failures providing a structurally sound system with soil reinforcement, drainage and erosion control typically on steepened...

  11. Using 7Be to document soil erosion on the weed plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Zhang Fengbao; Yang Mingyi

    2013-01-01

    Be tracing technology was applied to document soil erosion on the bare plot and weed plot, and compae soil erosion rate with the calculated rate. Results indicated that vegetation cover had obvious effect on the estimate of soil erosion rate on the weed plot using 7 Be measurement. Therefore, a factor of vegetation had been introduced into the Walling's model of converting 7 Be activity to soil erosion rate for estimating soil erosion rate on the weed slope surface. It was found that the soil erosion rates calculated by modified model were well close to the measured values on the weed plot, which illustrated that the modified model could be well used to estimate the rates of soil loss on the weed slope surface. These findings provide effective means for further study on the relationship between vegetation cover and soil erosion. (authors)

  12. Predicting of soil erosion with regarding to rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Razak, Mohd Amirun Anis Ab; Ahmad, Nordila

    2018-02-01

    The soil along the hill and slope are wearing away due to erosion and it can take place due to occurrence of weak and heavy rainfall. The aim of this study is to predict the soil erosion degree in Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) area focused on two major factor which is soil erodibility and rainfall erosivity. Soil erodibility is the possibilities of soil to detach and carried away during rainfall and runoff. The "ROM" scale was used in this study to determine the degree of soil erodibility, namely low, moderate, high, and very high. As for rainfall erosivity, the erosive power caused by rainfall that cause soil loss. A daily rainfall data collected from January to April was analyzed by using ROSE index classification to identify the potential risk of soil erosion. The result shows that the soil erodibilty are moderate at MTD`s hill, high at behind of block Lestari and Landslide MTD hill, and critical at behind the mess cadet. While, the highest rainfall erosivity was recorded in March and April. Overall, this study would benefit the organization greatly in saving cost in landslide protection as relevant authorities can take early measures repairing the most affected area of soil erosion.

  13. Soil erosion risk scenarios in the Mediterranean environment using RUSLE and GIS: An application model for Calabria (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, O.; Antronico, L.; Coscarelli, R.; Iaquinta, P.

    2009-11-01

    Soil erosion by water (WSE) has become a relevant issue at the Mediterranean level. In particular, natural conditions and human impact have made the Calabria (southern Italy) particularly prone to intense WSE. The purpose of this investigation is to identify areas highly affected by WSE in Calabria by comparing the scenarios obtained by assuming control and preventive measures and actions, as well as actual conditions generated by forest fires, also in the presence of conditions of maximum rainfall erosion. Geographic Information System techniques have been adopted to treat data of reasonable spatial resolution obtained at a regional scale for application to the RUSLE model. This work is based on the comparison of such data with a basic scenario that has been defined by the present situation (present scenario). In this scenario: (i) R has been assessed by means of an experimental relation adjusted to Calabria on the basis of 5-min observations; (ii) K has been drawn from the soil map of Calabria including 160 soilscapes; (iii) LS has been estimated according to the RUSLE2 model by using (among other subfactors) a 40-m square cell DTM; (iv) C has been derived by processing the data inferred from the project Corine Land Cover, whose legend includes 35 different land uses on three levels; and (v) P has been hypothesized as equal to 1. For the remaining three hypothesized scenarios, the RUSLE factors have been adjusted according to experimental data and to data in the literature. In particular, forest areas subject to fire have been randomly generated as far as fire location, extension, structure, and intensity are concerned. The values obtained by the application of the RUSLE model have emphasized that land management by means of measures and actions for reducing WSE causes a notable reduction of the erosive rate decreasing from ~30 to 12.3 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 . On the other hand, variations induced by hypothetical wildfires in forests on 10% of the regional territory

  14. Spatial and temporal diversification of crops dynamics in soil erosion modelling. A case study in the arable land of the upper Enziwigger River, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Alewell, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion by water is a widespread phenomenon that affects several Mediterranean and Alpine landscapes causing on-site and off-site environmental impacts. Recognized in the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection as one of the major threats to European soils (COM(2006)231), accelerated soil erosion is a major concern in landscape management and conservation planning (UN SDG 2.4). Agriculture and associated land-use change is the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion. This, because the soil displacement by water erosion mainly occurs when bare-sloped soil surfaces are exposed to the effect of rainfall and overland flow. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and other RUSLE-based models (which account for more than 90% of current worldwide modelling applications) describe the effect of the vegetation in the so called cover and management factor (C). The C-factor is generally the most challenging modelling component to compute over large study sites. To run a GIS-based RUSLE modelling for a study site greater than few hectares, the use of a simplified approach to assess the C-factor is inevitably necessary. In most of the cases, the C-factor values are assigned to the different land-use classes according to i) the C-values proposed in the literature, and ii) through land-use classifications based on vegetation indices (VI). In previous national (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421, 2016) and pan-European (Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 438-447, 2015) studies, we computed regional C-values through weighted average operations combining crop statistics with remote sensing and GIS modelling techniques. Here, we present the preliminary results of an object-oriented change detection approach that we are testing to acquire spatial as well temporal crops dynamics at field-scale level in complex agricultural systems.

  15. Spatial variability of soil erosion and soil quality on hillslopes in the Chinese loess plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Lindstrom, M.J.; Zhang, J.; Yang, J.

    2000-01-01

    Soil erosion rates and soil quality indicators were measured along two hillslope transects in the Loess Plateau near Yan'an, China. The objectives were to: (a) quantify spatial patterns and controlling processes of soil redistribution due to water and tillage erosion, and (b) correlate soil quality parameters with soil redistribution along the hillslope transects for different land use management systems. Water erosion data were derived from 137 Cs measurements and tillage erosion from the simulation of a Mass Balance Model along the hillslope transects. Soil quality measurements, i.e. soil organic matter, bulk density and available nutrients were made at the same sampling locations as the 137 Cs measurements. Results were compared at the individual site locations and along the hillslope transect through statistical and applied time series analysis. The results showed that soil loss due to water erosion and soil deposition from tillage are the dominant soil redistribution processes in range of 23-40 m, and soil deposition by water erosion and soil loss by tillage are dominant processes occurring in range of more than 80 m within the cultivated landscape. However, land use change associated with vegetation cover can significantly change both the magnitudes and scale of these spatial patterns within the hillslope landscapes. There is a strong interaction between the spatial patterns of soil erosion processes and soil quality. It was concluded that soil loss by water erosion and deposition by tillage are the main cause for the occurrence of significant scale dependency of spatial variability of soil quality along hillslope transects. (author)

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Soil Erosion in Songhua River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Li, Xiuhai; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jiang; Liang, Xin; Li, Dan; Ni, Chundi; Liu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, based on RS and GIS technology and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), the soil erosion dynamic changes during the two periods of 1990 and 2010 in Bin County was analyzed by using the Landsat TM data of the two periods, so as to reveal the soil erosion spatial distribution pattern and spatial and temporal dynamic evolution rule in the region. The results showed that: the overall patterns of soil erosion were basically the same in both periods, mainly featuring slight erosion and mild erosion, with the area proportions of 80.68% and 74.71% respectively. The slight and extremely intensive erosion changing rates showed a narrowing trend; mild, moderate and intensive erosion was increasing, with a trend of increased soil erosion; mild and intensive erosion were developing towards moderate erosion and moderate and extremely intensive erosion were progressing towards intensive erosion.

  17. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E

    2011-05-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  18. High Fidelity Modeling of Plume-Induced Soil Erosion During Lunar and Planetary Landing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During lunar and planetary landings, rocket plumes interact with the surface, ejecting soil and other particles into the surrounding environment. These particles,...

  19. Soil erosion - a local and national problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.G. Bates; O.R. Zeasman

    1930-01-01

    The erosion of soils through the action of rain water and that from melting snow is almost universal in its occurrence. The gradual erosion and levelling of any country is inevitable, being a process which has gone on as long as there has been free water on the face of the earth. Nevertheless, this process is an extremely slow one where the landscape is naturally well...

  20. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  1. Simulating climate change impact on soil erosion using RUSLE model - A case study in a watershed of mid-Himalayan landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Surya; Kumar, Suresh

    2017-06-01

    Climate change, particularly due to the changed precipitation trend, can have a severe impact on soil erosion. The effect is more pronounced on the higher slopes of the Himalayan region. The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of climate change on soil erosion in a watershed of the Himalayan region using RUSLE model. The GCM (general circulation model) derived emission scenarios (HadCM3 A2a and B2a SRES) were used for climate projection. The statistical downscaling model (SDSM) was used to downscale the precipitation for three future periods, 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2099, at large scale. Rainfall erosivity ( R) was calculated for future periods using the SDSM downscaled precipitation data. ASTER digital elevation model (DEM) and Indian Remote Sensing data - IRS LISS IV satellite data were used to generate the spatial input parameters required by RUSLE model. A digital soil-landscape map was prepared to generate spatially distributed soil erodibility ( K) factor map of the watershed. Topographic factors, slope length ( L) and steepness ( S) were derived from DEM. Normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the satellite data was used to represent spatial variation vegetation density and condition under various land use/land cover. This variation was used to represent spatial vegetation cover factor. Analysis revealed that the average annual soil loss may increase by 28.38, 25.64 and 20.33% in the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively under A2 scenario, while under B2 scenario, it may increase by 27.06, 25.31 and 23.38% in the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively, from the base period (1985-2013). The study provides a comprehensive understanding of the possible future scenario of soil erosion in the mid-Himalaya for scientists and policy makers.

  2. New perspectives on the soil erosion-soil quality relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality (defined as its ability to function within its ecosystem and within adjacent ecosystems) and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. The application of 137 Cs-redistribution techniques to the study of erosion has yielded major new insights into the soil erosion-soil quality relationship. In highly mechanized agricultural systems, tillage erosion can be the dominant cause of soil redistribution; in other agroecosystems, wind and water erosion dominate. Each causal factor results in characteristic landscape-scale patterns of redistribution. In landscapes dominated by tillage redistribution, highest losses occur in shoulder positions (those with convex downslope curvatures); in water-erosion-dominated landscapes, highest losses occur where slope gradient and length are at a maximum. Major impacts occur through the loss of organically-enriched surface material and through the incorporation of possibly yield-limiting subsoils into the rooting zone of the soil column. The potential impact of surface soil losses and concomitant subsoil incorporation on productivity may be assessed by examining the pedological nature of the affected soils and their position in the landscape. The development of sound conservation policies requires that the soil erosion-quality relationship be rigorously examined in the full range of pedogenic environments, and future applications of the 137 Cs technique hold considerable promise for providing this comprehensive global database. (author)

  3. Comparative analysis of soil erosion sensitivity using various quantizations within GIS environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Anastasiou, Theofilos; Potouridis, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a prominent cause of land degradation and desertification in Mediterranean countries. The detrimental effects of soil erosion are exemplified in climate (in particular climate change), topography, human activities and natural disasters. Modelling of erosion and deposition in

  4. [Estimation of the effect derived from wind erosion of soil and dust emission in Tianjin suburbs on the central district based on WEPS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Han, Ting-Ting; Li, Tao; Ji, Ya-Qin; Bai, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Bin

    2012-07-01

    Due to the lack of a prediction model for current wind erosion in China and the slow development for such models, this study aims to predict the wind erosion of soil and the dust emission and develop a prediction model for wind erosion in Tianjin by investigating the structure, parameter systems and the relationships among the parameter systems of the prediction models for wind erosion in typical areas, using the U.S. wind erosion prediction system (WEPS) as reference. Based on the remote sensing technique and the test data, a parameter system was established for the prediction model of wind erosion and dust emission, and a model was developed that was suitable for the prediction of wind erosion and dust emission in Tianjin. Tianjin was divided into 11 080 blocks with a resolution of 1 x 1 km2, among which 7 778 dust emitting blocks were selected. The parameters of the blocks were localized, including longitude, latitude, elevation and direction, etc.. The database files of blocks were localized, including wind file, climate file, soil file and management file. The weps. run file was edited. Based on Microsoft Visualstudio 2008, secondary development was done using C + + language, and the dust fluxes of 7 778 blocks were estimated, including creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes. Based on the parameters of wind tunnel experiments in Inner Mongolia, the soil measurement data and climate data in suburbs of Tianjin, the wind erosion module, wind erosion fluxes, dust emission release modulus and dust release fluxes were calculated for the four seasons and the whole year in suburbs of Tianjin. In 2009, the total creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes in the suburbs of Tianjin were 2.54 x 10(6) t, 1.25 x 10(7) t and 9.04 x 10(5) t, respectively, among which, the parts pointing to the central district were 5.61 x 10(5) t, 2.89 x 10(6) t and 2.03 x 10(5) t, respectively.

  5. Ascribing soil erosion of hillslope components to river sediment yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, soil erosion has increased in catchments of Iran. It is, therefore, necessary to understand soil erosion processes and sources in order to mitigate this problem. Geomorphic landforms play an important role in influencing water erosion. Therefore, ascribing hillslope components soil erosion to river sediment yield could be useful for soil and sediment management in order to decrease the off-site effects related to downstream sedimentation areas. The main objectives of this study were to apply radionuclide tracers and soil organic carbon to determine relative contributions of hillslope component sediment sources in two land use types (forest and crop field) by using a Bayesian-mixing model, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in sediment fingerprinting in a mountainous catchment of western Iran. In this analysis, 137 Cs, 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and soil organic carbon tracers were measured in 32 different sampling sites from four hillslope component sediment sources (summit, shoulder, backslope, and toeslope) in forested and crop fields along with six bed sediment samples at the downstream reach of the catchment. To quantify the sediment source proportions, the Bayesian mixing model was based on (1) primary sediment sources and (2) combined primary and secondary sediment sources. The results of both approaches indicated that erosion from crop field shoulder dominated the sources of river sediments. The estimated contribution of crop field shoulder for all river samples was 63.7% (32.4-79.8%) for primary sediment sources approach, and 67% (15.3%-81.7%) for the combined primary and secondary sources approach. The Bayesian mixing model, based on an optimum set of tracers, estimated that the highest contribution of soil erosion in crop field land use and shoulder-component landforms constituted the most important land-use factor. This technique could, therefore, be a useful tool for soil and sediment control management strategies. Copyright

  6. Coupling a high resolution soil erosion model with an agro-ecosystem model of SOC dynamics. An approach to assess the potential environmental effect of the new Common Agricultural Policy on soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Schütt, Brigitta; Lugato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    At the European Union level, the main mechanisms to promote a more sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture was introduced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform in 2003, through the Cross-compliance. According to this new regulation, the farmer support payments were regulated with respect to environmental, animal welfare and food safety standards. This brought to the Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC), firstly established by Council Regulation No. 1782/2003 and subsequently Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. The prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of soil organic matter were two of GAEC requirements, which each Member State was obliged to address through national standards such as: i) minimal soil cover maintenance (GAEC 4); ii) minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil loss (GAEC 5) and iii) maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices including ban on burning arable stubbles (GAEC 6). Although Member States are required to verify whether the farmers are compliant with the regulations (Cross-compliance), the environmental effect of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC) applications on erosion and carbon budgets are still little known and studied. To investigate the potential impacts of the GAEC, we coupled a high resolution erosion model based on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with the CENTURY biogeochemical model (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421; 2016). The Italian arable land was selected as a study area, since it is well-known to be highly sensitive to soil erosion. Multi scenario modelling approach was undertaken, i.e., i) a baseline scenario without scenario excluding GAEC (pre 2003 period); ii) a present scenario including the current GAEC standards (post 2003 period), and iii) a technical potential scenario assuming that the GAEC standards were applied to the entire Italian arable land. The results show a 10.8% decrease, from

  7. The Impact of Farming and Land Ownership on Soil Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Čermáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare two methods of farming, especially their effect on water soil erosion. The examined methods were (1 large-scale farming, where more than 50% of the land was leased, and (2 small-scale farming, where the land was almost exclusively privately owned. The research area was 8 cadastres in the district of Hodonín, South Moravia, Czech Republic. In these cadastres 48 land blocks representing both large-scale and small-scale farming (i.e. owners and tenants were chosen. The long-term average annual soil loss caused by water erosion (G was calculated using the erosion model USLE 2D and ArcGIS 10.1. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used for the statistical evaluation of the data. The difference between the soil loss (G on land blocks farmed by small producers (owners and large producers (tenants was significant (p < 0.05. Differences between the values of the cropping-management factor (C were not statistically significant (p = 0.054. Based on the analysis of other variables in the USLE equation it can be stated that a continuous slope length, conditioned by the size of land blocks, played an important role in the amount of soil loss caused by water erosion. Above all, to protect the soil from erosion and maintain soil quality it is necessary to reduce the size of land blocks farmed by tenants and improve the crop rotation systems.

  8. Natural and anthropogenic rates of soil erosion

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    Mark A. Nearing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regions of land that are brought into crop production from native vegetation typically undergo a period of soil erosion instability, and long term erosion rates are greater than for natural lands as long as the land continues being used for crop production. Average rates of soil erosion under natural, non-cropped conditions have been documented to be less than 2 Mg ha−1 yr−1. On-site rates of erosion of lands under cultivation over large cropland areas, such as in the United States, have been documented to be on the order of 6 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or more. In northeastern China, lands that were brought into production during the last century are thought to have average rates of erosion over this large area of as much as 15 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or more. Broadly applied soil conservation practices, and in particular conservation tillage and no-till cropping, have been found to be effective in reducing rates of erosion, as was seen in the United States when the average rates of erosion on cropped lands decreased from on the order of 9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 to 6 or 7 Mg ha−1 yr−1 between 1982 and 2002, coincident with the widespread adoption of new conservation tillage and residue management practices. Taking cropped lands out of production and restoring them to perennial plant cover, as was done in areas of the United States under the Conservation Reserve Program, is thought to reduce average erosion rates to approximately 1 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or less on those lands.

  9. Erosion of cohesive soil layers above underground conduits

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    Luu Li-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently developed 2D numerical modelling that combines Discrete Element (DEM and Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM, we simulate the destabilisation by an hydraulic gradient of a cohesive granular soil clogging the top of an underground conduit. We aim to perform a multi-scale study that relates the grain scale behavior to the macroscopic erosion process. In particular, we study the influence of the flow conditions and the inter-particle contact forces intensity on the erosion kinetic.

  10. Change Analysis on Soil Erosion of Fujian Province from 1990 TO 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Q.; Zeng, S. J.; Chen, X. G.; Lin, J. L.; Chen, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Soil erosion is one of major environment problems in the world, and China is one of the most serious soil erosion country. In this paper, Fujian province was used as a study area for its typical red soil region. Based on USLE model, the soil erosion modulus in 1990 and 2015 were calculated and turned to soil erosion intensity. The soil erosion distribution trend in Fujian province was decrease from south-east coastal zone to north-west inland region. In soil erosion areas, the main erosion type was light level with about 80 %, and the soil erosion levels above serious type were mainly sporadic distribution with less than 10 %. The soil erosion improved for the past 25 years. The areas of different erosion types all decreased, and the total erosion area reduced by 26.59 %. The improvement area mainly located in north-east, south and west region. The aggravation area mainly located in the north and some middle hilly regions. The impact of human activities is more significant for erosion control.

  11. Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of

  12. Ecological site‐based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P; Herrick, Jeffrey E; Duniway, Michael C

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation, or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explored how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting, and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass–succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 ha). We identified vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area could be effectively controlled when bare ground cover was 100 cm in length was less than ∼35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the

  13. Soil erosion as a driver of land-use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.M.; Govers, G.; Kosmas, C.; VanAcker, H.; Oost, van K.; Rounsevell, M.

    2005-01-01

    Although much research has been carried out on the crop productivity response to soil erosion, little is known about the role of soil erosion as a driver of land-use change. Given, however, the some-times large erosion-induced reductions in crop yields, it appears likely that erosion has a strong

  14. Soil erodibility mapping using the RUSLE model to prioritize erosion control in the Wadi Sahouat basin, North-West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Abderrezak Kamel; Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain; Dehni, Abdelatif

    2018-03-12

    Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km 2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P). The average annual soil loss rate in the Wadi Sahouat basin ranges from 0 to 255 t ha -1  year -1 , maximum values being observed over steep slopes of more than 25% and between 600 and 1000 m elevations. 3.4% of the basin is classified as highly susceptible to erosion, 4.9% with a medium risk, and 91.6% at a low risk. Google Earth reveals a clear conformity with the degree of zones to erosion sensitivity. Based on the soil loss map, 32 sub-basins were classified into three categories by priority of intervention: high, moderate, and low. This priority is available to sustain a management plan against sediment filling of the Ouizert dam at the basin outlet. The method enhancing the RUSLE model and confrontation with Google Earth can be easily adapted to other watersheds.

  15. Soil erosion assessment in the core area of the Loss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Quanjiu

    2017-11-01

    In order to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of erosion and sediment yield before and after Grain for Green Project in the Loss Plateau. The soil loss of Yulin is estimated by Chinese Water Erosion on Hill Slope Prediction Model. The result shows that the spatiotemporal variations of soil erosion are largely related to rainfall erosion distribution, slope, and land use type. The overall soil erosion categories in the south region are higher than that of the northwest. Mid slopes and valleys are the major topographical contributors to soil erosion. With the growth of slope gradient, soil erosion significantly increased. The soil loss has a decreasing tendency after Grain for Green Project. The results indicate that the vegetation restoration as part of the Grain for Green Project on the Loess Plateau is effective.

  16. A 137Cs erosion model with moving boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Chuan; Ji, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    A novel quantitative model of the relationship between diffused concentration changes and erosion rates using assessment of soil losses was developed. It derived from the analysis of surface soil 137 Cs flux variation under persistent erosion effect and based on the principle of geochemistry kinetics moving boundary. The new moving boundary model improves the basic simplified transport model (Zhang et al., 2008), and mainly applies to uniform rainfall areas which show a long-time soil erosion. The simulation results for this kind of erosion show under a long-time soil erosion, the influence of 137 Cs concentration will decrease exponentially with increasing depth. Using the new model fit to the measured 137 Cs depth distribution data in Zunyi site, Guizhou Province, China which has typical uniform rainfall provided a good fit with R 2  = 0.92. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple transport model and the new model, we take the Kaixian reference profile as example. The soil losses estimated by the previous simplified transport model are greater than those estimated by the new moving boundary model, which is consistent with our expectations. - Highlights: • The diffused moving boundary principle analysing 137 Cs flux variation. • The new erosion model applies to uniform rainfall areas. • The erosion effect on 137 Cs will decrease exponentially with increasing depth. • The new model provides two methods of calculating erosion rate.

  17. Soil erosion processes on sloping land using REE tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhenzhou; Liu Puling; Yang Mingyi; Lian Zhenlong; Ju Tongjun; Yao Wenyi; Li Mian

    2007-01-01

    Sheet erosion is the main performance in the slope soil erosion process at the primary stage of natural rainfall. For three times of rainfall during experiment, the ratios of sheet erosion to total erosion account for 71%, 48% and 49% respectively, which showed that the sloping erosion was still at the primary stage from sheet erosion to rill erosion. With the rainfall going, the rill erosion amount increase. It showed that soil erosion was changing from sheet erosion to rill erosion. The sources of sediment from different sections of the plot were analyzed, and the results indicated that whatever the sheet erosion changed, the ratio erosion of upper part of surface soil was always lower than 10%. Sheet erosion came mainly from the lower section of surface soil. With the ratios to the amount of total rill erosion changes, the rill erosion amount of each section regularly changes too. The general conclusion is that when the rainfall ends, relative erosion of different slope element to the foot of slope is: 1 meter away accounts for 16%, 2-4 meters away is 6% and 5-9 meters away is 3%. The ratio of rill erosion amount of these three slope element is 5:2:1, which shows the rill erosion amount are mainly from the slope element of 4 meters from the foot of slope. (authors)

  18. Past Holocene soil erosion modeling as a new way to decipher human-climate-environment interactions on natural geo-ecosystem over long time-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Anaëlle; Di Giovanni, Christian; Chapron, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a global phenomenon dealing with both environmental, societal and economic issues. Soil erosion is also one of the key processes when it is a matter of Human-climate-environment interactions [1, 2] since if mechanical erosion of continental surfaces initially results from climatic forcing, it can be largely amplified by anthropogenic activities. Using multi-scalar datasets to model long-term (Holocene) erosion fluxes in contrasted areas, where human pressure is well documented by geoarchaeology, we address how landscape evolution, geomorphological processes, ecosystem response and human impacts have been connected over time. Beyond that, such interdisciplinary and integrative approach allow (1) to locally date, qualify, and in particular quantify, both climate variability (rainfall) and impacts of human activities on soils, and (2) to discuss of potential feedback mechanisms and the legacy of past socio-cultural systems on actual geo-ecosystems. Lacustrine sediment represents one of the more relevant natural archives in order to reconstruct environmental or climatic variability and human activities over the past thousand years. Over the last 50 years, the edges of lakes Paladru (low altitude site, 640 m a.s.l.) and Blanc Huez (high-altitude site, 2250 m a.s.l.), both located in Western French Alps and therefore sensitive to the same climatic influences, have been deeply studied by archaeologists who documented and dated periods of enhanced human pressures (agriculture, mining [3, 4]). In these two case-studies, we were therefore able to confront the specific calendars of local human activities with past landscape evolution (vegetation cover, 5) and soil erosion fluxes reconstituted from specific organic tracers quantified into the lacustrine sediments [3, 6]. Results demonstrated that, over the Holocene, climatic forcing, and more particularly glacial fluctuations, influenced human accessibility to high-altitude sites (lake Blanc Huez) and therefore

  19. Determination of Soil Endangerment by Wind Erosion with Consideration of Legislative Changes in Acceptable Soil Loss

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    Streďanský Jozef

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Value tightening of acceptable soil loss by wind erosion in amendment to the Act No. 220/2004 on Protection and Use of Agricultural Land in the Slovak Republic from 1st of April 2013 is necessary to reconsider wind erosion intensity in agricultural territories. The paper presents results of wind erosion intensity calculation by using Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ that is recommended by Act No. 220/2004. As observed we choose cadastral area Moèenok territory and had determined and compared changes in levels of soil endangerment of arable land by wind and spatial delamination of wind erosion in specific territory of Moèenok. According to WEQ calculation, we determined that soil loss from 3778.85 ha arable land is 1220.52 ha, which is highly endangerment by wind erosion. By defining levels of soil erosion endangerment (LSEE, we found out that area in 3rd class of endangerment rose from 1.48% to 43.37% after changing acceptable soil from 40 to 15 t ha-1 year-1. Results enable us to specify priority areas where to implement erosion control measures in according to sustainable use and protection of arable land in model area.

  20. Soil deflation analyses from wind erosion events

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    Lenka Lackóová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various methods to assess soil erodibility for wind erosion. This paper focuses on aggregate analysis by a laser particle sizer ANALYSETTE 22 (FRITSCH GmbH, made to determine the size distribution of soil particles detached by wind (deflated particles. Ten soil samples, trapped along the same length of the erosion surface (150–155 m but at different wind speeds, were analysed. The soil was sampled from a flat, smooth area without vegetation cover or soil crust, not affected by the impact of windbreaks or other barriers, from a depth of maximum 2.5 cm. Prior to analysis the samples were prepared according to the relevant specifications. An experiment was also conducted using a device that enables characterisation of the vertical movement of the deflated material. The trapped samples showed no differences in particle size and the proportions of size fractions at different hourly average wind speeds. It was observed that most of particles travelling in saltation mode (size 50–500 μm – 58–70% – moved vertically up to 26 cm above the soil surface. At greater heights, particles moving in suspension mode (floating in the air; size < 100 μm accounted for up to 90% of the samples. This result suggests that the boundary between the two modes of the vertical movement of deflated soil particles lies at about 25 cm above the soil surface.

  1. Changes in micro-relief during different water erosive stages of purple soil under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Zheng, Zicheng; Li, Tingxuan; He, Shuqin

    2018-02-22

    This study investigated the variation characteristics of micro-topography during successive erosive stages of water erosion: splash erosion (SpE), sheet erosion (ShE), and rill erosion (RE). Micro-topography was quantified using surface elevation change, soil roughness (SR) and multifractal model. Results showed that the area of soil surface elevation decay increased gradually with the development of water erosion. With rainfall, the combined effects of the detachment by raindrop impact and the transport of runoff decreased SR, whereas rill erosion contributed to increase SR. With the increase in slope gradient, soil erosion area gradually decreased at the splash erosion stage. By contrast, soil erosion area initially decreased and then increased at the sheet and rill erosion stages. The width of the D q spectra (ΔD) values increased at the splash erosion stage and then decreased at the sheet and rill erosion stages on the 10° slope, opposite to that on the 15° slope. The ΔD values decreased with the evolution of water erosive stages on the 20° slope. The slope had an enhancing effect on the evolution of water erosion. In this study, we clarified the essence of micro-topography and laid a theoretical foundation for further understanding diverse hydrological processes.

  2. Prediction of Soil Erosion Rates in Japan where Heavily Forested Landscape with Unstable Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, K.; Oguro, M.; Miura, S.; Masaki, T.

    2016-12-01

    Soil is fundamental for plant growth, water conservation, and sustainable forest management. Multidisciplinary interest in the role of the soil in areas such as biodiversity, ecosystem services, land degradation, and water security has been growing (Miura et al., 2015). Forest is usually protective land use from soil erosion because vegetation buffers rainfall power and erosivity. However, some types of forest in Japan show high susceptibility to soil erosion due to little ground cover and steep slopes exceeding thirty degree, especially young Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations (Miura et al., 2002). This is a critical issue for sustainable forest management because C. obtusaplantations account for 10% of the total forest coverage in Japan (Forestry Agency, 2009). Prediction of soil erosion rates on nationwide scale is necessary to make decision for future forest management plan. To predict and map soil erosion rates across Japan, we applied three soil erosion models, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wischmeier and Smith, 1978), PESERA (Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment, Kirkby et al., 2003), and RMMF (Revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney, Morgan, 2001). The grid scale is 1-km. RUSLE and PESERA are most widely used erosion models today. RMMF includes interactions between rainfall and vegetation, such as canopy interception and ratio of canopy drainage in throughfall. Evaporated rainwater by canopy interception, generally accounts for 15-20% in annual rainfall, does not contribute soil erosion. Whereas, larger raindrops generated by canopy drainage produced higher splash erosion rates than gross rainfall (Nanko et al., 2008). Therefore, rainfall redistribution process in canopy should be considered to predict soil erosion rates in forested landscape. We compared the results from three erosion models and analyze the importance of environmental factors for the prediction of soil erosion rates. This research was supported by the Environment

  3. [Dynamics of soil erosion at upper reaches of Minjiang River based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Hu, Zhibi; Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman

    2005-12-01

    Based on TM and ETM imagines, and employing GIS technique and empirical Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model, this paper studied the dynamics of soil erosion at the upper reaches of Minjiang River during three typical periods, with the main affecting factors analyzed. The results showed that the soil erosion area was increased by 1.28%, 1.84 % and 1.70% in 1986, 1995 and 2000, respectively. The average erosion modulus was increased from 832.64 t x km(-2) x yr(-1) in 1986 to 1048.74 t x km(-2) yr(-2) in 1995 and reached 1362.11 t x km(-2) yr(-1) in 2000, and soil loss was mainly of slight and light erosion, companying with a small quantity of middling erosion. The area of soil erosion was small, and the degree was light. There was a significant correlation between slope and soil loss, which mainly happened in the regions with a slope larger than 25 degrees, and accounted for 93.65%, 93.81% and 92.71% of the total erosion in 1986, 1995 and 2000, respectively. As for the altitude, middling, semi-high and high mountains and dry valley were liable to soil erosion, which accounted for 98.21%, 97.63% and 99.27% of the total erosion in 1986, 1995 and 2000, respectively. Different vegetation had a significant effect on soil erosion, and shrub and newly restored forest were the main erosion area. Excessive depasture not only resulted in the degradation of pasture, but also led to slight soil erosion. Land use type and soil type also contributed to soil loss, among which, dry-cinnamon soil and calcic gray-cinnamon soil were the most dangerous ones needing more protection. Soil loss was also linearly increased with increasing population and households, which suggested that the increase of population and households was the driving factor for soil loss increase in this area.

  4. Soil erosion rates in two karst peak-cluster depression basins of northwest Guangxi, China: Comparison of the RUSLE model with 137Cs measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Teng; Chen, Hongsong; Polyakov, Viktor O.; Wang, Kelin; Zhang, Xinbao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Reliable estimation of erosion in karst areas is difficult because of the heterogeneous nature of infiltration and sub-surface drainage. Understanding the processes involved is a key requirement for managing against karst rock desertification. This study used the revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate the annual soil erosion rates on hillslopes and compared them with 137Cs budget in the depressions at two typical karst peak-cluster depression basins in northwest Guangxi, southwestern China. Runoff plots data were used to calibrate the slope length factor (L) of the RUSLE model by adjusting the accumulated area threshold. The RUSLE model was sensitive to the value of the threshold and required DEMs with 1 m resolution, due to the discontinuous nature of the overland flow. The average annual soil erosion rates on hillslopes simulated by the RUSLE were 0.22 and 0.10 Mg ha- 1 y- 1 during 2006 through 2011 in the partially cultivated GZ1 and the undisturbed GZ2 basins, respectively. The corresponding deposition rates in the depressions agreed well with the 137Cs records when recent changes in precipitation and land use were taken into consideration. The study suggests that attention should be given to the RUSLE-L factor when applying the RUSLE on karst hillslopes because of the discontinuous nature of runoff and significant underground seepage during storm events that effectively reduces the effects of slope length.

  5. Remote sensing techniques for the detection of soil erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following paper is a summary of a number of techniques initiated under the AgRISTARS (Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing) project for the detection of soil degradation caused by water erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices for resource inventories. Discussed are methods to utilize a geographic information system to determine potential soil erosion through a USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model; application of the Kauth-Thomas Transform to detect present erosional status; and the identification of conservation practices through visual interpretation and a variety of enhancement procedures applied to digital remotely sensed data.

  6. DISPERSION OF GLYPHOSATE IN SOILS UNDERGOING EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Todorovic Rampazzo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Different physical, chemical and biological processes influence the behaviour of organic contaminants in soils. A better understanding of the organic pollutant behaviour in soils would improve the environmental protection. One possible way for better attenuation of the risk of pollution in agriculture can be achieved through ta better-specified pesticide management based on the adaptation of the pesticide type and application rates to the specific environmental characteristics of the area of application. Nowadays, one of the actually most applied herbicide world wide is glyphosate. Glyphosate is highly water soluble and traces have been found in surface and groundwater systems. For a better understanding of the natural influence of erosion processes on glyphosate behaviour and dispersion under heavy rain conditions after application in the field, two erosion simulation experiments were conducted on two different locations in Austria with completely different soil types in September 2008. The results of the experiments showed that under normal practical conditions (e.g. no rainfall is expected immediatly after application, the potential adsorption capacity of the Kirchberg soil (Stagnic Cambisol, with about 16.000 ppm Fe-oxides is confirmed compared to the low adsorption Chernosem soil (about 8.000 ppm pedogenic Fe-oxides.  Considering the enormous difference in the run-off amounts between the two sites Pixendorf and Kirchberg soils it can be concluded how important the soil structural conditions and vegetation type and cover are for the risks of erosion and, as a consequence, pollution of neighbouring waters. In the rainfall experiments under comparable simulation conditions, the amount of run-off was about 10 times higher at Kirchberg, owing to its better infiltration rate, than at the Pixendorf site. Moreover, the total loss of glyphosate (NT+CT through run-off at the Kirchberg site was more than double that at Pixendorf, which confirms the

  7. Soil Erosion Study on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau, because of its highly erodible loess soils and hilly topography, has been extensively studied by soil scientists and geomorphologists. As a research hotspot, there are five national-level field stations across the Loess Plateau, with hundreds of erosion plots set up with various sizes, lengths, slope angles and vegetation covers. In addition, huge indoor rain simulation facilities exist in in different institutes which can provide rainfall simulations under a wide range of controlled conditions. Consequently, national-level restoration projects have achieved tremendous improvements in curbing soil erosion and improving regional agro-ecosystem, mostly by afforestation and soil rehabilitation. However, when implementing the advanced techniques and models that have been widely applied in the rest of the world, there are often regional considerations, which demand new approaches to overcome. One example are the unintentional impacts of restoration efforts, such as the establishment of apple orchards. Over 20 years, they have caused an increase in soil erodibility and lowered local ground water levels. Neither before the introduction of this landscape rehabilitation technique, nor now, has the impact of intensive fruit production been systematically studied, despite lending itself to systematic experiments. The lack of research is attributed to the general idea that trees protect soils and improve environmental services. This presentation identifies several such specific regional environmental issues associated with soil erosion on the Loess Plateau and discusses strategies to avoid missing important research questions.

  8. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  9. Predicting the temporal relationship between soil cesium-137 and erosion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachanoski, R.G.; De Jong, E.

    1984-01-01

    A model was developed that predicts the amount of 137 Cs remaining in soil as a function of time and erosion rate. The model accounts for atmospheric deposition, radioactive decay, tillage dilution, and erosion transport of 137 Cs, as well as seasonal differences in 137 Cs deposition and erosion rates. The model was used to estimate minimum resolution of erosion estimates based on detection limits and accuracy of 137 Cs measurement by gamma spectroscopy, as a function of time and erosion rate. The analysis showed that under Saskatchewan conditions, changes in 137 Cs at a given site can be used to estimate erosion rates between 0.5 and 10 kg m -2 yr -1 with reasonable precision, provided the sampling interval is at least 15 yr. The relationship of fraction of 137 Cs lost vs. erosion as predicted by the model was compared with other methods being used. The model was used to estimate erosion from selected Saskatchewan soils where 137 Cs levels were measured in 1966 and again in 1981. Erosion rates calculated with the model varied from 1 kg m -2 yr -1 for a sandy loam soil in continuous forage to 19 kg m -2 yr -1 for a similar soil in a crop-fallow rotation. Erosion estimates using the model were higher than those calculated by assuming that soil loss was directly proportional to 137 Cs loss, especially when 137 Cs loss was high

  10. [Effects and mechanisms of plant roots on slope reinforcement and soil erosion resistance: a research review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan-Mei; Xia, Han-Ping; Li, Zhi-An; Cai, Xi-An

    2007-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in resisting the shallow landslip and topsoil erosion of slopes by raising soil shear strength. Among the models in interpreting the mechanisms of slope reinforcement by plant roots, Wu-Waldron model is a widely accepted one. In this model, the reinforced soil strength by plant roots is positively proportional to average root tensile strength and root area ratio, the two most important factors in evaluating slope reinforcement effect of plant roots. It was found that soil erosion resistance increased with the number of plant roots, though no consistent quantitative functional relationship was observed between them. The increase of soil erosion resistance by plant roots was mainly through the actions of fiber roots less than 1 mm in diameter, while fiber roots enhanced the soil stability to resist water dispersion via increasing the number and diameter of soil water-stable aggregates. Fine roots could also improve soil permeability effectively to decrease runoff and weaken soil erosion.

  11. Validation of Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for low-volume forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; R. B. Foltz; Charlie Luce

    1995-01-01

    Erosion rates of recently graded nongravel forest roads were measured under rainfall simulation on five different soils. The erosion rates observed on 24 forest road erosion plots were compared with values predicted by the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model, Version 93.1. Hydraulic conductivity and soil erodibility values were predicted from methods...

  12. Characterizing soil erosion potential using electrical resistivity imaging : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The erosion rate, or erodibility, of soil depends on many soil characteristics including: plasticity, : water content, grain size, percent clay, compaction, and shear strength. Many of these characteristics also : influence soil in situ bulk electric...

  13. Characterizing soil erosion potential using electrical resistivity imaging : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The erosion rate, or erodibility, of soil depends on many soil characteristics : including: plasticity, water content, grain size, percent clay, compaction, and shear : strength. Many of these characteristics also influence soil in situ bulk electric...

  14. [Assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on water environment based on the integration of soil erosion process and landscape pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Bing-Fang; Zeng, Yuan; Zhang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    The integration of the effects of landscape pattern to the assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on eco-environmental is of practical significance in methodological prospect, being able to provide an approach for identifying water body's sediment source area, assessing the potential risks of sediment export of on-site soil erosion to the target water body, and evaluating the capacity of regional landscape pattern in preventing soil loss. In this paper, the RUSLE model was applied to simulate the on-site soil erosion rate. With the consideration of the soil retention potential of vegetation cover and topography, a quantitative assessment was conducted on the impacts of soil erosion in the water source region of the middle route for South-to-North Water Transfer Project on rivers and reservoirs by delineating landscape pattern at point (or cell) scale and sub-watershed level. At point (or grid cell) scale, the index of soil erosion impact intensity (I) was developed as an indicator of the potential risk of sediment export to the water bodies. At sub-watershed level, the landscape leakiness index (LI) was employed to indicate the sediment retention capacity of a given landscape pattern. The results revealed that integrating the information of landscape pattern and the indices of soil erosion process could spatially effectively reflect the impact intensity of in situ soil erosion on water bodies. The LI was significantly exponentially correlated to the mean sediment retention capacity of landscape and the mean vegetation coverage of watershed, and the sediment yield at sub-watershed scale was significantly correlated to the LI in an exponential regression. It could be concluded that the approach of delineating landscape pattern based on soil erosion process and the integration of the information of landscape pattern with its soil retention potential could provide a new approach for the risk evaluation of soil erosion.

  15. Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Boardman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Concern about soil erosion on arable land in Britain dates back at least 40 years. Monitoring schemes and case studies have subsequently identified the areas at risk, the rates and frequencies and the major factors responsible for erosion. Initial concern focused on impacts on the farm and therefore on food production. Latterly the emphasis has shifted to off-farm impacts particularly reservoir sedimentation, muddy flooding of properties and the ecological damage to watercourses due to nutrient enrichment, pesticides and damage to fish spawning grounds from fine-sediment inputs. The shift has therefore been to concerns about a healthy and sustainable environment which includes soils. Government agencies, the water companies and the farming industry have lagged behind scientific studies in recognising and addressing erosion problems. Attempts at mitigation are now largely driven by the need to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive whereby watercourses must reach “good status” by 2015. Future changes in land use and climate will offer further challenges in terms of effective monitoring and compliance.

  16. Modelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides (MODERN) - Part 2: A comparison of different models to convert239+240Pu inventories into soil redistribution rates at unploughed sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Alewell, Christine; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E; Mabit, Lionel; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    Sheet erosion is one of the major threats to alpine soils. To quantify its role and impact in the degradation processes of alpine grasslands, the application of Fallout Radionuclides (FRN) showed very promising results. The specific characteristics of plutonium 239 + 240 ( 239+240 Pu), such as the homogeneous fallout distribution, the long half-life and the cost and time effective measurements make this tracer application for investigating soil degradation in Alpine grasslands more suitable than any other FRN (e.g. 137 Cs). However, the conversion of 239+240 Pu inventories into soil erosion rates remains a challenge. Currently available conversion models have been developed mainly for 137 Cs with later adaptation to other FRN (e.g. Excess 210 Pb, and 7 Be), each model being defined for specific land use (ploughed and/or unploughed) and processes (erosion or deposition). As such, they may fail in describing correctly the distribution of Pu isotopes in the soil. A new conversion model, MODERN, with an adaptable algorithm to estimate erosion and deposition rates from any FRN inventory changes was recently proposed (Arata et al., 2016). In this complementary contribution, the authors compare the application of MODERN to other available conversion models. The results show a good agreement between soil redistribution rates obtained from MODERN and from the models currently used by the FRN scientific community (i.e. the Inventory Method). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Gaining insights into interrill soil erosion processes using rare earth element tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing interest in developing process-based erosion models requires better understanding of the relationships among soil detachment, transportation, and deposition. The objectives are to 1) identify the limiting process between soil detachment and sediment transport for interrill erosion, 2) und...

  18. A Simple Close Range Photogrammetry Technique to Assess Soil Erosion in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the performance of a soil erosion prediction model depends on the ability to accurately measure the gain or loss of sediment in an area. Recent development in acquiring detailed surface elevation data (DEM) makes it feasible to assess soil erosion and deposition spatially. Digital photogr...

  19. Soil erosion vulnerability in the verde river basin, southern minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Augusto de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental degradation processes. Mapping and assessment of soil erosion vulnerability is an important tool for planning and management of the natural resources. The objective of the present study was to apply the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE using GIS tools to the Verde River Basin (VRB, southern Minas Gerais, in order to assess soil erosion vulnerability. A annual rainfall erosivity map was derived from the geographical model adjusted for Southeastern Brazil, calculating an annual value for each pixel. The maps of soil erodibility (K, topographic factor (LS, and use and management of soils (C were developed from soils and their uses map and the digital elevation model (DEM developed for the basin. In a GIS environment, the layers of the factors were combined to create the soil erosion vulnerability map according to RUSLE. The results showed that, in general, the soils of the VRB present a very high vulnerability to water erosion, with 58.68% of soil losses classified as "High" and "Extremely High" classes. In the headwater region of VRB, the predominant classes were "Very High" and "Extremely High" where there is predominance of Cambisols associated with extensive pastures. Furthermore, the integration of RUSLE/GIS showed an efficient tool for spatial characterization of soil erosion vulnerability in this important basin of the Minas Gerais state.

  20. Measurement of soil water erosion in Africa: the potential support provided by nuclear techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, Lionel

    2010-05-01

    Conservation of soil and water resources has become a major agronomic and environmental concern. Degradation phenomena, such as erosion, desertification and salinization affect 65% of soils worldwide. Soil degradation is currently affecting 1.9 billion hectares and is increasing at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. Almost 50% of 133 million ha degraded soils by overexploitation are located in Africa. The degradation of arable lands affects especially arid areas with poor vegetation cover and tropical areas with high intensity rainfall. Water erosion is by far the most common type of land degradation in Africa. Accelerated erosion decreases soil productivity, increases sedimentation and is related to environmental pollution problems in agro-ecosystems. To control soil erosion there is a need to assess the impact of major land use and the effectiveness of specific soil conservation technologies using various approaches. Effective erosion control starts with the knowledge of soil erosion rates and mechanisms. In Africa, various research projects on water erosion have been implemented involving different conventional techniques such as remote sensing, morphometric investigation, sediment transport models and sediment loading measurements, runoff plots and rainfall erosivity measurements. However, only limited quantitative data on erosion and sedimentation magnitude under African agroenvironmental condition are available. Traditional monitoring and modeling techniques for soil water erosion require many parameters and years of measurements of (inter-annual and mid-term) climatic variability and cropping practices. Conventional erosion and sedimentation methods are limited to provide mid-term trends in soil erosion, however fallout radionuclides (FRN) - e.g. 137-Cs, 210-Pb and 7-Be - have proven to be very powerful tools to trace soil erosion and sedimentation within the landscape from plot to basin scale. FRN techniques allow the estimation of short and

  1. Partnership building and stakeholder participation in soil erosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Partnership building and stakeholder participation in soil erosion management: A case study of Kasitu ... interventions in other areas of the district for the sustainable management of soils and curbing of erosion, which is a major problem facing this ... black clay soils, the rainfall is bimodal type and the climate is conducive for.

  2. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating surface soil erosion losses and mapping erosion risk for Yusufeli micro-catchment (Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tüfekçioğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet erosion, one of the most important types of water erosion, takes place on the top soil as tiny soil layer movement that affects lake and stream ecosystem. This type of erosion is very important because the productive soil layer on the top soil can be lost in a very short period of time. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of surface (sheet and rill soil erosion, and to identify areas under high erosion risk within the study area at Yusufeli province in Artvin by using RUSLE erosion methodology. As a result of the study it was found that the average annual potential soil loss by surface erosion was 3.6 ton ha-1yr-1. Additionally, the maps produced and conclusions reached by the study revealed that the areas of high erosion risk were identified spatially and measures to control erosion on some of these high risk areas can be possible with appropriate erosion control techniques.

  4. Sustainable agriculture, soil management and erosion from prehistoric times to 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Infante Amate, Juan; González Molina, Manuel; Fernández, David Soto; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    The rational use of soil requires the selection of management practices to take profit of the beneficial functions of plant growth, water and nutrient storage, and pollutants removal by filtering and decomposition without altering its properties. However, the first evidence of important and widespread erosion peaks can generally be found with the arrival of the first farmers all over the world. In areas with a long land-use history such as the Mediterranean, clear signs indicating the advanced degradation status of the landscape, such as heavily truncated soils, are visible throughout. Soil conservation practices are then aimed at reducing erosion to geological rates, in equilibrium with long-term soil formation rates, while maximizing agricultural production. The adoption of such practices in most areas of the world are as old as the earliest soil erosion episodes themselves. This work firstly reviews historical evidence linking soil management and soil erosion intensity, with examples from N Europe and the Mediterranean. In particular, work by the authors in olive orchards will be presented that shows how significant variations in soil erosion rates between could be linked to the historical soil management. The potential of historical documents for calibrating a soil erosion model is shown as the model, in this case RUSLE-based and combining tillage and water erosion, adequately represents the measured erosion rate dynamics. Secondly, results from present-day, long-term farm experiments in the EU are reviewed to evaluate the effect of different soil management practices on physical soil properties, such as bulk density, penetration resistance, aggregate stability, runoff coefficient or sediment yield. Finally, we reflect upon model and field data that indicate how future global climate change is expected to affect soil management and erosion and how the examples used above hold clues about sustainable historical management practices that can be used successfully

  5. The expansion of Brazilian agriculture: Soil erosion scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. Merten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the next 10 years Brazil’s agricultural area will expand to meet increased domestic and worldwide demand for food, fuel, and fiber. Present choices regarding land use will determine to what degree this expansion will have adverse effects that include soil erosion, reservoir siltation, water quality problems, loss of biodiversity and social conflict, especially around indigenous reservations. This paper presents an up-to-date inventory of soil erosion in Brazil caused by crop and livestock activities and provides estimates based on three different hypothetical land-use scenarios to accommodate the expansion of Brazilian agricultural activity by 2020: Scenario 1 – expansion of cropping into areas of natural vegetation, without adoption of conservation practices; Scenario 2 – expansion of cropping into areas of degraded pasture, without adoption of conservation practices; Scenario 3 – expansion of cropping into areas of degraded pasture, together with conservation practices in 100% of the expanded area. The worst-case scenario involves expansion of agriculture into areas of native vegetation in the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado and Brazilian rainforest (Amazon biomes, and could increase total soil erosion in Brazil (currently about 800 million metric tons a year by as much as 20%. In the best-case scenario, crop expansion under a conservation agriculture model would utilize currently degraded pasture, especially in the Savannah (circa 40 million hectares, reducing soil erosion in Brazil by around 20%. For this to occur, however, a national soil and water conservation policy needs to be implemented in Brazil to support a sustainable model of agriculture in which the environment can be preserved as much as possible.

  6. Science You Can Use Bulletin: From watersheds to the web: Online tools for modeling forest soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Bill Elliot; Pete Robichaud; Randy Foltz; Dennis Flanagan; Erin Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Forest erosion can lead to topsoil loss, and also to damaging deposits of sediment in aquatic ecosystems. For this reason, forest managers must be able to estimate the erosion potential of both planned management activities and catastrophic events, in order to decide where to use limited funds to focus erosion control efforts. To meet this need, scientists from RMRS (...

  7. Modeling erosion from forest roads with WEPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. McFero Grace

    2007-01-01

    Forest roads can be major sources of soil erosion from forest watersheds. Sediments from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery to stream systems resulting in degradation of water quality. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was used to predict erosion from forest road components under different management practices. WEPP estimates are...

  8. Forest soil erosion prediction as influenced by wildfire and roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W.

    2017-12-01

    Following a wildfire, the risk of erosion is greatly increased. Forest road networks may change the underlying topography and alter natural flow paths. Flow accumulation and energy can be redistributed by roads and alter soil erosion processes. A LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) DEM makes it possible to quantify road topography, and estimate how roads influence surface runoff and sediment transport in a fire-disturbed watershed. With GIS technology and a soil erosion model, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of roads on erosion and sediment yield following the Emerald Fire southwest of Lake Tahoe. The GeoWEPP model was used to estimate onsite erosion and offsite sediment delivery from each hillslope polygon and channel segment before and after fire disturbance in part of the burned area. The GeoWEPP flow path method was used to estimate the post-fire erosion rate of each GIS pixel. A 2-m resolution LiDAR DEM was used as the terrain layer. The Emerald Fire greatly increased onsite soil loss and sediment yields within the fire boundary. Following the fire, 78.71% of the burned area had predicted sediment yields greater than 4 Mg/ha/yr, compared to the preburn condition when 65.3% of the study area was estimated to generate a sediment yield less than 0.25 Mg/ha/yr. Roads had a remarkable influence on the flow path simulation and sub-catchments delineation, affecting sediment transport process spatially. Road segments acted as barriers that intercepted overland runoff and reduced downslope flow energy accumulation, therefore reducing onsite soil loss downslope of the road. Roads also changed the boundary of sub-catchment and defined new hydrological units. Road segments can transport sediment from one sub-catchment to another. This in turn leads to the redistribution of sediment and alters sediment yield for some sub-catchments. Culverts and road drain systems are of vital importance in rerouting runoff and sediment. Conservation structures can be

  9. The use of radionuclide techniques in soil erosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Mabit, L.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion is of concern since it can reduce soil productivity as a result of exportation of inorganic and organic material and nutrients out of the cultivated fields. These are the so-called 'onsite' impacts of erosion. Some of the exported materials, and the associated elements, find their way to water bodies The result is a degradation of the water quality due to suspended solids, sedimentation, eutrophication and pesticide toxicity, what is currently referred to as off-site impacts. Despite its importance, many countries lack reliable and comprehensive data on the problem, its magnitude and spatial extent. One of the reasons is that producing representative and reliable data on erosion is a long and resource intensive process.Fallout radionuclides (FRNs), such as 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have proven to be very powerful tracers of soil movements, that can complement interestingly more conventional approaches. Starting in the mid-1990's the IAEA has been actively involved in supporting coordinated research activities to further develop several methodological aspects related to the use of these isotopes and in the dissemination of the techniques among Member States, through the joint efforts of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the Soil Science Unit (SSU) of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory. A first Coordinated Research Project (CRP), from 1996 to 2001, helped to test and validate the basic assumptions underlying the use of FRN, to accelerate the development of conversion models used to translate FRN data into soil movements and to evaluate the effect of specific land use management on soil erosion. A second CRP, planned for 2003-2007, builds on the results of the first one to assess the efficiency of different soil conservation practices, to continue the validation of conversion models and the development of user-friendly software to

  10. Soil erosion in mountainous areas: how far can we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Erosion is the counter part of soil formation, is a natural process and cannot be completely impeded. With respect to soil protection, the term of tolerable soil erosion, having several definitions, has been created. Tolerable erosion is often equalled to soil formation or production. It is therefore crucial that we know the rates of soil formation when discussing sustainability of soil use and management. Natural rates of soil formation or production are determined by mineral weathering or transformation of parent material into soil, dust deposition and organic matter incorporation. In mountain areas where soil depth is a main limiting factor for soil productivity, the use and management of soils must consider how to preserve them from excessive depth loss and consequent degradation of their physical, chemical and biological properties. Even under natural conditions, landscape surfaces and soils are known to evolve in complex, non-linear ways over time. As a result, soil production and erosion change substantially with time. The fact that soil erosion and soil production processes are discontinuous over time is an aspect that is in most cases completely neglected. To conserve a given situation, tolerable values should take these dynamics into account. Measurements of long and short-term physical erosion rates, total denudation, weathering rates and soil production have recently become much more widely available through cosmogenic and fallout nuclide techniques. In addition to this, soil chronosequences deliver a precious insight into the temporal aspect of soil formation and production. Examples from mountainous and alpine areas demonstrate that soil production rates strongly vary as a function of time (with young soils and eroded surfaces having distinctly higher rates than old soils). Extensive erosion promotes rejuvenation of the surface and, therefore, accelerates chemical weathering and soil production - the resulting soil thickness will however be shallow

  11. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Flanagan; J. R. Frankenberger; T. A. Cochrane; C. S. Renschler; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltration, runoff, ET) component, which subsequently impacts the rest of the...

  12. Topographic variability and the influence of soil erosion on the carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Yannis G.; Bastola, Satish; Bras, Rafael L.; Billings, Sharon A.; Markewitz, Daniel; Richter, Daniel deB.

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion, particularly that caused by agriculture, is closely linked to the global carbon (C) cycle. There is a wide range of contrasting global estimates of how erosion alters soil-atmosphere C exchange. This can be partly attributed to limited understanding of how geomorphology, topography, and management practices affect erosion and oxidation of soil organic C (SOC). This work presents a physically based approach that stresses the heterogeneity at fine spatial scales of SOC erosion, SOC burial, and associated soil-atmosphere C fluxes. The Holcombe's Branch watershed, part of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory in South Carolina, USA, is the case study used. The site has experienced some of the most serious agricultural soil erosion in North America. We use SOC content measurements from contrasting soil profiles and estimates of SOC oxidation rates at multiple soil depths. The methodology was implemented in the tRIBS-ECO (Triangulated Irregular Network-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator-Erosion and Carbon Oxidation), a spatially and depth-explicit model of SOC dynamics built within an existing coupled physically based hydro-geomorphic model. According to observations from multiple soil profiles, about 32% of the original SOC content has been eroded in the study area. The results indicate that C erosion and its replacement exhibit significant topographic variation at relatively small scales (tens of meters). The episodic representation of SOC erosion reproduces the history of SOC erosion better than models that use an assumption of constant erosion in space and time. The net atmospheric C exchange at the study site is estimated to range from a maximum source of 14.5 g m-2 yr-1 to a maximum sink of -18.2 g m-2 yr-1. The small-scale complexity of C erosion and burial driven by topography exerts a strong control on the landscape's capacity to serve as a C source or a sink.

  13. Assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation through the use of the 137Cs and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decades the international scientific community has been increasingly aware of both the risk and the effects of soil erosion and sedimentation processes cause to sustainable agricultural activities and the quality of the superficial environment. Soil erosion is a major environmental worldwide concern of our time. Over the past thirty years two main streams of thought have developed about the effects of soil erosion. The first one, mainly based on ecologist and environmentalist criteria, believes that soil erosion is a true disease on the land that quickly depletes the soil production capacity with some additional subsequent effects such as eutrophication of water reservoirs and pollution of natural waters. The second one supports that soil erosion is a natural process shaping the overall landscape. Development of fertile soils on river valleys can be attributed to erosion processes in the upper reaches of catchment. Loss of productivity due to soil erosion on agricultural lands can be easily compensated by small addition of fertilisers . W h a t ever position we adopt a development of methods offering reliable data is needed. The use of models based on radiogenic isotopes distribution in soil profiles can offer valuable data set both in soil erosion and deposition. In addition, soil redistribution can be effectively assessed. These methods can be applied in a huge range of soil conditions in different geographic zones and the results are comparable at global scale. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored since 1995, the implementation of two co-ordinated research projects (CRP's) dealing with the application of the 137 Cs technique in soil erosion and sedimentation studies respectively. A joint Meeting of both CRP's was organised by the Land and Water Conservation Group of the Institute of Earth Sciences 'Jaume Almera', CSIC, in Barcelona, Spain, from 4 to 8 October 1999. This Special Issue of Acta Geologica Hispanica contains a

  14. An Assessment of the Impact of Urbanization on Soil Erosion in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of the People’s Republic of China, has experienced severe soil erosion following a period of rapid economic development and urbanization. To investigate how urbanization has influenced the extent of soil erosion in Inner Mongolia, we used urbanization and soil erosion data from 2000 through 2010 to determine the relationship between urbanization and soil erosion patterns. Two empirical equations—the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ—were used to estimate the intensity of soil erosion, and we performed backward linear regression to model how it changed with greater urbanization. There was an apparent increase in the rate of urbanization and a decrease in the area affected by soil erosion in 2010 compared to the corresponding values for 2000. The urban population stood at 11.32 million in 2010, which represented a 16.47% increase over that in 2000. The area affected by soil erosion in 2000 totaled 704,817 km2, yet it had decreased to 674,135 km2 by 2010. However, a path of modest urban development (rural–urban mitigation and reasonable industrial structuring (the development of GDP-2 may partially reduce urbanization’s ecological pressure and thus indirectly reduce the threat of soil erosion to human security. Therefore, to better control soil erosion in Inner Mongolia during the process of urbanization, the current model of economic development should be modified to improve the eco-efficiency of urbanization, while also promoting new modes of urbanization that are environmentally sustainable, cost-effective, and conserve limited resources.

  15. An Assessment of the Impact of Urbanization on Soil Erosion in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yan; Xiao, Yi; Rao, En-Ming; Jiang, Ling; Xiao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2018-03-19

    Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, has experienced severe soil erosion following a period of rapid economic development and urbanization. To investigate how urbanization has influenced the extent of soil erosion in Inner Mongolia, we used urbanization and soil erosion data from 2000 through 2010 to determine the relationship between urbanization and soil erosion patterns. Two empirical equations-the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ)-were used to estimate the intensity of soil erosion, and we performed backward linear regression to model how it changed with greater urbanization. There was an apparent increase in the rate of urbanization and a decrease in the area affected by soil erosion in 2010 compared to the corresponding values for 2000. The urban population stood at 11.32 million in 2010, which represented a 16.47% increase over that in 2000. The area affected by soil erosion in 2000 totaled 704,817 km², yet it had decreased to 674,135 km² by 2010. However, a path of modest urban development (rural-urban mitigation) and reasonable industrial structuring (the development of GDP-2) may partially reduce urbanization's ecological pressure and thus indirectly reduce the threat of soil erosion to human security. Therefore, to better control soil erosion in Inner Mongolia during the process of urbanization, the current model of economic development should be modified to improve the eco-efficiency of urbanization, while also promoting new modes of urbanization that are environmentally sustainable, cost-effective, and conserve limited resources.

  16. Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estríngana, Pablo; Dunkerley, David; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Desertification Control in the Mediterranean, CIHEAM-IAMZ, Zaragoza, pp. 75-86. Breshears, D.D., Nyhan, J.W., Heil, C.E., Wilcox, B.P. 1998. Effects of woody plants on microclimate in a semiarid woodland: Soil temperature and evaporation in canopy and intercanopy patches. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159, 1010-1017. Cammeraat, E.L.H., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C. 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semi-arid environment. Ecohydrology 3, 421-430. Cecchi, G.A., Kröpfl, A.I., Villasuso, N.M., Distel, R.A. 2006. Stemflow and soil water redistribution in intact and disturbed plants of Larrea divaricata in southern Argentina. Arid Land Research and Management 20, 209-217. Cerdà, A. 1997. The effect of patchy distribution of Stipa tenacissima L. on runoff and erosion. Journal of Arid Environments 36, 37-51. Cerdà, A. 1998. Relationship between climate and soil hydrological and erosional characteristics along climatic gradients in Mediterranean limestone areas. Geomorphology, 25, 123-134. Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., Poesen, J., 2007. Soil Water Erosion in Rural Areas. Catena special issue 71, 191- 252. Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J., 2009. Soil Erosion and Agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. Cerdà, A., Hooke, J., Romero-Diaz, A., Montanarella, L., Lavee, H., 2010. Soil erosion on Mediterranean type-ecosystems. Land Degradation and Development 21, 71-74. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. 2007. Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils. Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010. Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Delgado J, Llorens P, Nord G, Calder IR, Gallart F. 2010. Modelling the hydrological response of a Mediterranean medium-sized headwater basin subject to land cover change: the Cardener River

  17. Simulating climate change impact on soil erosion using RUSLE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate change, particularly due to the changed precipitation trend, can have a severe impact on soil erosion. The effect is more pronounced on the higher slopes of the Himalayan region. The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of climate change on soil erosion in a watershed of the Himalayan region using ...

  18. The Effect of Soil Erosion on Europe's Crop Yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.M.; Govers, G.; Jones, R.A.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Soil erosion negatively affects crop yields and may have contributed to the collapse of ancient civilizations. Whether erosion may have such an impact on modern societies as well, is subject to debate. In this paper we quantify the relationship between crop yields and soil water available to plants,

  19. Combination Approach to Assess Offsite Value of Soil Erosion Risk in Watersheds in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    , M. Kefi; , K. Yoshino

    2011-01-01

    Due to its both on-site and off-site effects, soil erosion is a major environmental phenomenon and it has economic, social and environmental consequences. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to estimate the soil loss and the offsite value of soil erosion by water effects in watersheds in Tunisia and consequently, its effects under specific environmental policy scenarios. The method was composed of environmental and economic model. Environmental method was a combination between t...

  20. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  1. Soil erosion and its control in Chile - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellies, A.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerate erosion in Chile is a consequence from land use that degrade soil such as compaction, loss of organic matter and soil structure. The erosion is favored by the very hilly landscape of the country that increases erosivity index and the high erodibility given by an elevated annual rate of rainfall with irregular distribution. Several experiences have demonstrated that adequate crop management and crop rotations can minimize erosion. The most effective control is achieved conserving and improving soil structure with management systems that include regular use of soil-improving crops, return of crop residues and tillage practices, thus avoiding unnecessary breakdown soil or compacted soil structure. Conservation tillage increased organic matter levels improving stabile soil structure, aeration and infiltration. (author) [es

  2. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  3. GEOSTATISTICAL BASED SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING OF SOIL EROSION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS CAUSATIVE FACTORS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULKADIR T. SHOLAGBERU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion hazard is the second biggest environmental challenges after population growth causing land degradation, desertification and water deterioration. Its impacts on watersheds include loss of soil nutrients, reduced reservoir capacity through siltation which may lead to flood risk, landslide, high water turbidity, etc. These problems become more pronounced in human altered mountainous areas through intensive agricultural activities, deforestation and increased urbanization among others. However, due to challenging nature of soil erosion management, there is great interest in assessing its spatial distribution and susceptibility levels. This study is thus intend to review the recent literatures and develop a novel framework for soil erosion susceptibility mapping using geostatistical based support vector machine (SVM, remote sensing and GIS techniques. The conceptual framework is to bridge the identified knowledge gaps in the area of causative factors’ (CFs selection. In this research, RUSLE model, field studies and the existing soil erosion maps for the study area will be integrated for the development of inventory map. Spatial data such as Landsat 8, digital soil and geological maps, digital elevation model and hydrological data shall be processed for the extraction of erosion CFs. GISbased SVM techniques will be adopted for the establishment of spatial relationships between soil erosion and its CFs, and subsequently for the development of erosion susceptibility maps. The results of this study include evaluation of predictive capability of GIS-based SVM in soil erosion mapping and identification of the most influential CFs for erosion susceptibility assessment. This study will serve as a guide to watershed planners and to alleviate soil erosion challenges and its related hazards.

  4. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  5. A preliminary assessment of the impact of landslide, earthflow, and gully erosion on soil carbon stocks in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, Les; Betts, Harley; Lynn, Ian; Marden, Mike; McNeill, Stephen; Page, Mike; Rosser, Brenda

    2018-04-01

    In geomorphically active landscapes such as New Zealand, quantitative data on the relationship between erosion and soil carbon (C) are needed to establish the effect of erosion on past soil C stocks and future stock changes. The soil C model currently used in New Zealand for soil C stock reporting does not account for erosion. This study developed an approach to characterise the effect of erosion suitable for soil C stock reporting and provides an initial assessment of the magnitude of the effect of erosion. A series of case studies were used to establish the local effect of landslide, earthflow, and gully erosion on soil C stocks and to compare field measurements of soil C stocks with model estimates. Multitemporal erosion mapping from orthophotographs was used to characterise erosion history, identify soil sampling plot locations, and allow soil C stocks to be calculated accounting for erosion. All eroded plots had lower soil C stocks than uneroded (by mass movement and gully erosion) plots sampled at the same sites. Landsliding reduces soil C stocks at plot and landscape scale, largely as a result of individual large storms. After about 70 years, soil C stocks were still well below the value measured for uneroded plots (by 40% for scars and 20-30% for debris tails) indicating that the effect of erosion is very persistent. Earthflows have a small effect on estimates of baseline (1990) soil C stocks and reduce soil C stocks at landscape scale. Gullies have local influence on soil C stocks but because they cover a small proportion of the landscape have little influence at landscape scale. At many of the sites, the soil C model overestimates landscape-scale soil C stocks.

  6. Headcut erosive regimes influenced by groundwater on disturbed agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, D L

    2011-02-01

    A series of simulated rainfall experiments, testing several soils and slope gradients in a 10 m x 0.8m laboratory flume, displayed close correlations between initial development of a water table at a 10 cm depth and highly erosive headcut formation. On some soils and gradients, highly erosive headcuts formed consistently and predictably within minutes or seconds of initial water table rise. However, headcuts alone were not good indicators of increased erosion. In most experiments some headcuts formed early, often when surface hydraulic parameter values reached established rill initiation thresholds, but resulted in little or no erosion increase. Later, at initial water table rise, other headcuts formed coincident with major erosion increase, often with surface hydraulic values then less than rill initiation thresholds. On the four soils tested, highly erosive headcuts never formed without groundwater development, except on steep 9 ° slopes. Common visual indicators such as headcut morphology and headcut advance rates were not effective means of determining either erosion or the existence of groundwater. Only local monitoring of subsurface moisture conditions with micro-standpipes and TDR aided in determining headcut processes and erosive regimes. Groundwater-influenced headcut formation was likely caused by increased soil pore-water pressures and decreased soil shear strengths in surface rainflow, not by sapping or seepage from the soil matrix. Highly erosive headcuts can thus form under common agricultural conditions where reductions in permeability, such as plow pans, exist near the surface--without the need for saturated soils. Headcut erosive regimes were also significantly influenced by soil type and slope gradient, with the greatest effects of groundwater on moderate slopes and fairly permeable soils. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Annotated bibliography on soil erosion and erosion control in subarctic and high-latitude regions of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Slaughter; J.W. Aldrich

    1989-01-01

    This annotated bibliography emphasizes the physical processes of upland soil erosion, prediction of soil erosion and sediment yield, and erosion control. The bibliography is divided into two sections: (1) references specific to Alaska, the Arctic and subarctic, and similar high-latitude settings; and (2) references relevant to understanding erosion, sediment production...

  8. Wind erosion control of soils using polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Movahedan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils is one of the most important problems in environment and agriculture which could affects several fields. Agricultural lands, water reservoires, irrigation canals, drains and etc. may be affected by wind erosion and suspended particles. As a result wind erosion control needs attention in arid and semi-arid regions. In recent years, some polymeric materials have been used for improvement of structural stability, increasing aggregate stability and soil stabilization, though kind of polymer, quantity of polymer, field efficiency and durability and environmental impacts are some important parameters which should be taken into consideration. In this study, a Polyvinil Acetate-based polymer was used to treat different soils. Then polymer-added soil samples were investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel to verify the effecte of polymer on wind erosion control of the soils and the results were compared with water treated soil samples. The results of wind tunnel experiments with a maximum 26 m/s wind velocity showed that there was a significat difference between the erosion of polymer treated and water treated soil samples. Application of 25g/m2 polymer to Aeolian sands reduced the erosion of Aeolian sands samples to zero related to water treated samples. For silty and calyey soils treated by polymer, the wind erosion reduced minimum 90% in relation to water treated samples.

  9. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Tillage Research, 152, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.still.2015.03.010 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Sala, G., Galati, A., Crescimanno, M., Cerdà, A., . . . La Mantia, T. (2017). Agricultural land abandonment in mediterranean environment provides ecosystem services via soil carbon sequestration. Science of the Total Environment, 576, 420-429. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.123 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S. S., Santoro, A., & Cerdà, A. (2011). Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research, 117, 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007 Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Cerdà, A., Pereira, P., & Gristina, L. (2016). Understanding the role of soil erosion on co2-c loss using 13c isotopic signatures in abandoned mediterranean agricultural land. Science of the Total Environment, 550, 330-336. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.095 Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., Brevik, E. C., & Cerdá, A. (2015). Soil organic carbon stocks assessment in mediterranean natural areas: A comparison of entire soil profiles and soil control sections. Journal of Environmental Management, 155, 219-228. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.03.039 Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., Keesstra, S., Cerdà , A., & Brevik, E. C. (2016). Long-term effects of soil management on ecosystem services and soil loss estimation in olive grove top soils. Science of the Total Environment, 571, 498-506. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.016 Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., & Zavala, L. M. (2015). Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period. Land Degradation and Development, 26(2), 180-192. doi:10.1002/ldr.2195 Prosdocimi, M., Burguet, M., Di Prima, S., Sofia, G., Terol, E., Rodrigo Comino, J., . . . Tarolli, P. (2017). Rainfall simulation and structure-from-motion photogrammetry for the analysis of soil water erosion in mediterranean vineyards. Science of the Total Environment, 574, 204

  10. Erosion of atmospherically deposited radionuclides as affected by soil disaggregation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claval, D.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Real, J.; Rouxel, R.; Mauger, S.; Sellier, L.

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of soil disaggregation with radionuclide erosion were studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory on samples from a loamy silty-sandy soil. The fate of 134 Cs and 85 Sr was monitored on soil aggregates and on small plots, with time resolution ranging from minutes to hours after contamination. Analytical experiments reproducing disaggregation mechanisms on aggregates showed that disaggregation controls both erosion and sorption. Compared to differential swelling, air explosion mobilized the most by producing finer particles and increasing five-fold sorption. For all the mechanisms studied, a significant part of the contamination was still unsorbed on the aggregates after an hour. Global experiments on contaminated sloping plots submitted to artificial rainfalls showed radionuclide erosion fluctuations and their origin. Wet radionuclide deposition increased short-term erosion by 50% compared to dry deposition. A developed soil crust when contaminated decreased radionuclide erosion by a factor 2 compared to other initial soil states. These erosion fluctuations were more significant for 134 Cs than 85 Sr, known to have better affinity to soil matrix. These findings confirm the role of disaggregation on radionuclide erosion. Our data support a conceptual model of radionuclide erosion at the small plot scale in two steps: (1) radionuclide non-equilibrium sorption on mobile particles, resulting from simultaneous sorption and disaggregation during wet deposition and (2) later radionuclide transport by runoff with suspended matter

  11. A geographic information system to predict soil erosion potential in rural transportation construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-30

    Topographic surface modeling using a Geographic Information System (GIS) can be useful for the prediction of soil erosion resulting from highway construction projects. The assumption is that terrain, along with other parameters, will influence the po...

  12. Ancient Agricultural Terraces and the Soil Erosion Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Geoarchaeology lies at the heart of debates about societal stability and change. Geomorphological research has been used as a foundation for simplistic models of resource depletion based almost entirely on the comparison of soil erosion rates with long-term so- called 'geological' rates. However, the neo-catastrophic collapse of complex agricultural societies is rare, and where it is convincing demonstrated it is even more rarely monocausal. Indeed many societies appear to have continued agricultural exploitation of climatically marginal lands for far longer than soil depletion estimates would forecast. One reason may be that this soil depletion approach has grossly simplified soil creation through weathering, and neglected how past agriculture also affected the soil creation rate (especially on some lithologies) and how soil was conserved (terraces) and utilised even after transport. However, we now have we know have some potentially valuable new tools, including mineral magnetics and cosmogenic nuclides, which can be used to estimate changing soil weathering rates. This approach will be discussed with examples from both the temperate and Mediterranean climatic zones and in relation to causative models of change in complex agricultural societies.

  13. Quantifying the erosion effect on current carbon budget of European agricultural soils at high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The idea of offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions by increasing global soil organic carbon (SOC), as recently proposed by French authorities ahead of COP21 in the 'four per mil' initiative, is notable. However, a high uncertainty still exits on land C balance components. In particular, the role of erosion in the global C cycle is not totally disentangled, leading to disagreement whether this process induces lands to be a source or sink of CO2. To investigate this issue, we coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km(2) resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). Based on data-driven assumptions, the simulation took into account also soil deposition within grid cells and the potential C export to riverine systems, in a way to be conservative in a mass balance. We estimated that 143 of 187 Mha have C erosion rates 0.45 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). In comparison with a baseline without erosion, the model suggested an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric C consistent with previous empirical-based studies. Integrating all C fluxes for the EU agricultural soils, we estimated a net C loss or gain of -2.28 and +0.79 Tg yr(-1) of CO2 eq, respectively, depending on the value for the short-term enhancement of soil C mineralization due to soil disruption and displacement/transport with erosion. We concluded that erosion fluxes were in the same order of current carbon gains from improved management. Even if erosion could potentially induce a sink for atmospheric CO2, strong agricultural policies are needed to prevent or reduce soil erosion, in order to maintain soil health and productivity. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  15. Distributed soil loss estimation system including ephemeral gully development and tillage erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. N. Vieira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling system is being developed to provide spatially-distributed runoff and soil erosion predictions for conservation planning that integrates the 2D grid-based variant of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, version 2 model (RUSLER, the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Estimator (EphGEE, and the Tillage Erosion and Landscape Evolution Model (TELEM. Digital representations of the area of interest (field, farm or entire watershed are created using high-resolution topography and data retrieved from established databases of soil properties, climate, and agricultural operations. The system utilizes a library of processing tools (LibRaster to deduce surface drainage from topography, determine the location of potential ephemeral gullies, and subdivide the study area into catchments for calculations of runoff and sheet-and-rill erosion using RUSLER. EphGEE computes gully evolution based on local soil erodibility and flow and sediment transport conditions. Annual tillage-induced morphological changes are computed separately by TELEM.

  16. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1990-08-01

    Protective barriers have been identified as integral components of plans to isolate defense waste on the Hanford Site. The use of natural materials to construct protective barriers over waste site is being considered. Design requirements for protective barriers include preventing exposure of buried waste, and restricting penetration or percolation of surface waters through the waste zone. Studies were initiated to evaluate the effects of wind erosion on candidate protective barrier surfaces. A wind tunnel was used to provide controlled erosive stresses and to investigate the erosive effects of wind forces on proposed surface layers for protective barriers. Mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared and tested for resistance to wind erosion at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Aerosol Wind Tunnel Research Facility. These tests were performed to investigate surface deflation caused by suspension of soil from various surface layer configurations and to provide a comparison of the relative resistance of the different surfaces to wind erosion. Planning, testing, and analyzing phases of this wind erosion project were coordinated with other tasks supporting the development of protective barriers. These tasks include climate-change predictions, field studies and modeling efforts. This report provides results of measurements of deflation caused by wind forces over level surfaces. Section 2.0 reviews surface layer characteristics and previous relevant studies on wind erosion, describes effects of erosion, and discusses wind tunnel modeling. Materials and methods of the wind tunnel tests are discussed in Section 3.0. Results and discussion are presented in Section 4.0, and conclusions and recommendations Section 5.0. 53 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Effects of Rising Relative Energy Prices on Soil Erosion and Its Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lee D. Zinser; John A. Miranowski; James S. Shortle; Michael J. Monson

    1985-01-01

    Efforts to develop public programs to control soil erosion should not ignore other economic trends which may affect soil erosion. This programming analysis considers the impact of rising relative energy prices on cropland erosion in conjunction with alternative erosion control policies. Higher relative energy prices are found to reduce soil erosion significantly, complement soil loss restriction policies, and have an ambiguous impact on subsidies for soil erosion abatement.

  18. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and 137 Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. - Highlights: • Fine soil erosion showed large impact on radiocaesium wash-off. • Exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and eroded soil. • Radiocaesium concentration in the discharged soil was depending on land use

  19. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  20. Reduction Potato s hydric soil erosion using space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, E.; Rios, V.; Zelaya, D.; Rios, E.; Lepen, F.; Padilla, P.; Soria, F.

    The potato's crop has an econ omic importance in Tucuman's agricultural PBI (Gross Product Income) because its rank is fourth(4°). Production's potato area is a breakable agro system; its geographic location is in Pedemonte's agro-ecological region so is essential to handle hydric erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is improve crop's potato irrigation management through satellite information merge with farm's practices. The space technology consented to obtain Digital Model Soil using both unique differential and dual frequency GPS signals and total station. The irrigation practices were carried out due to irrigation management (FAO) and satellite imagine software (ENVI). Preliminary results of this experience allowed to follow the crop's growing through multitemporal study; reprogramming farm's irrigation practices intended for manage reduction hydric erosion and heighten economically its productivity for the next period

  1. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  2. Scaling up from field to region for wind erosion prediction using a field-scale wind erosion model and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobeck, T.M.; Parker, N.C.; Haskell, S.; Guoding, K.

    2000-01-01

    Factors that affect wind erosion such as surface vegetative and other cover, soil properties and surface roughness usually change spatially and temporally at the field-scale to produce important field-scale variations in wind erosion. Accurate estimation of wind erosion when scaling up from fields to regions, while maintaining meaningful field-scale process details, remains a challenge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using a field-scale wind erosion model with a geographic information system (GIS) to scale up to regional levels and to quantify the differences in wind erosion estimates produced by different scales of soil mapping used as a data layer in the model. A GIS was used in combination with the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ), a field-scale wind erosion model, to estimate wind erosion for two 50 km2 areas. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery from 1993 with 30 m resolution was used as a base map. The GIS database layers included land use, soils, and other features such as roads. The major land use was agricultural fields. Data on 1993 crop management for selected fields of each crop type were collected from local government agency offices and used to 'train' the computer to classify land areas by crop and type of irrigation (agroecosystem) using commercially available software. The land area of the agricultural land uses was overestimated by 6.5% in one region (Lubbock County, TX, USA) and underestimated by about 21% in an adjacent region (Terry County, TX, USA). The total estimated wind erosion potential for Terry County was about four times that estimated for adjacent Lubbock County. The difference in potential erosion among the counties was attributed to regional differences in surface soil texture. In a comparison of different soil map scales in Terry County, the generalised soil map had over 20% more of the land area and over 15% greater erosion potential in loamy sand soils than did the detailed soil map. As

  3. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  4. Assessing soil quality indicator under different land use and soil erosion using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Soil degradation associated with soil erosion and land use is a critical problem in Iran and there is little or insufficient scientific information in assessing soil quality indicator. In this study, factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were used to identify the most sensitive indicators of soil quality for evaluating land use and soil erosion within the Hiv catchment in Iran and subsequently compare soil quality assessment using expert opinion based on soil surface factors (SSF) form of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) method. Therefore, 19 soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties were measured from 56 different sampling sites covering three land use/soil erosion categories (rangeland/surface erosion, orchard/surface erosion, and rangeland/stream bank erosion). FA identified four factors that explained for 82 % of the variation in soil properties. Three factors showed significant differences among the three land use/soil erosion categories. The results indicated that based upon backward-mode DA, dehydrogenase, silt, and manganese allowed more than 80 % of the samples to be correctly assigned to their land use and erosional status. Canonical scores of discriminant functions were significantly correlated to the six soil surface indices derived of BLM method. Stepwise linear regression revealed that soil surface indices: soil movement, surface litter, pedestalling, and sum of SSF were also positively related to the dehydrogenase and silt. This suggests that dehydrogenase and silt are most sensitive to land use and soil erosion.

  5. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  6. Parameters of the occurrence of internal erosion processes in salty-sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Grozdana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at defining the conditions of the occurrence of internal erosion in silty-sandy soils. The susceptibility of this soil to internal erosion depends on the porosity, particle-size composition and hydro-geo-mechanical parameters. Internal erosion stability was analyzed by the introduction of the coefficient of particle composition as the critical particle-size condition, which is in fact the coefficient of internal erosion (Kue. Based on the study results, mathematical models and the functional correlation between water regime and resistant characteristics of silty-sandy soils, we defined the parameters of the occurrence of initial internal erosion and analyzed the effects of the practical application of the study results.

  7. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... estimate soil erosion under different forest conditions including regions, vegetation type, and stand density as influenced by ... health. The anti-scouring feature of the forest land soil is considered to be an important part of the assessment as such feature help soil resist from being washed. In the. 1960s, Zhu ...

  8. The International year of soils: thoughts on future directions for experiments in soil erosion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    the crucial role soil plays in food security, climate change adaptation and mitigation, essential ecosystem services, poverty alleviation and sustainable development. While erosion monitoring and modeling, as well as erosion risk assessment maps provide a solid foundation for decision makers, the attention of the public for "dirt" is often much easier to achieve by setting up a rainfall simulation experiment that illustrates the connection between a process, such as rainfall and runoff observed in daily life, and its causes and consequences. Exploring the potential of rainfall simulation experiments as an outreach tool should therefore be part of the soil science, geomorphology and hydrology community during the IYS 2015 and beyond.

  9. Updated measurements in vineyards improves accuracy of soil erosion rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Davis, Jason; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2018-01-01

    All rights reserved. Vineyards have proven to be one of the most degraded agricultural ecosystems due to very high erosion rates, which are typically measured at fine temporal and spatial scales. Long-term soil erosion measures are rare, but this information may be indispensable for a proper

  10. Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The processes and causes of accelerated erosion on cultivated fields in the South Welo zone of Ethiopia were assessed on the basis of information collected from field surveys, group discussions and secondary sources. The findings suggest that soil erosion by water on cultivated slopes in the zone is currently proceeding ...

  11. 75 FR 75961 - Notice of Implementation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System Calculations for the Natural Resources... Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) for soil erodibility system calculations scheduled for implementation for... Erosion Equation (WEQ) where applicable. DATES: Effective Date: This is effective December 7, 2010...

  12. Rate and cost of soil erosion in Monkayo, Compostela Valley Province Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine G. Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a major agricultural and environmental problem in the Philippines that is primarily caused by rainfall under upland, subsistence rainfed farming. The study sought to compare the degree of erosion as influenced by different upland tillage systems using soil erosion plots and MUSLE model, and estimate the cost of soil erosion in Monkayo, Compostela Valley. The erosion plots were laid on a 31.45 percent slope with a seasonal rainfall intensity of 2,314 mm. Corn (Zea mays L. planted through conventional tillage generated a mean soil loss of 2.64 t/ha/cropping, which is higher than the reduced tillage with a mean of 1.20 t/ha/cropping. The weighted on-site soil loss was 12 percent lower than the obtained soil erosion using the modified Universal Soil Loss Equation that is 2.97 t/ha. The study developed equations to estimate soil loss (t/ha per seasonal rainfall on three tillage systems using linear regression analysis which are: (1 E= -0.0031+0.0003R, (2 E= -0.0406+0.0011R, and (3 E=0.2249+0.0034R in corn grown on undisturbed land with natural vegetation, corn grown on bare soil through dibble method and corn planted through conventional planting system, respectively. On-site cost of erosion ranged from Php 1,473.42/ha/cropping to Php 1,938.81/ha/cropping. The amount of soil eroded can be attributed to the higher erositivity of rains, higher erodibility of the soil surface, and the poor soil cover.

  13. Potential threat of southern Moravia soils by wind erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dufková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion is caused by meteorological factors such as wind, precipitation and evaporation that influence the soil humidity. Erosive-climatological factor expresses wind and humidity conditions of particular landscape. This is an index of the influence of average soil surface humidity and average wind velocity on average soil erodibility by wind. On the basis of average wind velocity and Konček’s humidity index, the values of the erosive-climatological factor for three chosen areas of Czech republic (Telč-Kostelní Myslová, Znojmo-Kuchařovice and Brno-Tuřany, where the pro-cesses of wind erosion could exist, were evaluated. Thus, the change of the factor’s value during the period of 1961 – 2000 was studied. The linear trend for the region of Brno and Znojmo (dry areas shows increasing threat of soils by wind erosion, the contrary situation is at the humid area (Telč. The results prove the influence of soil humidity on the erosive-climatological factor and hereby the influence on wind erosion spreadout.

  14. A field method for soil erosion measurements in agricultural and natural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.P. Hsieh; K.T. Grant; G.C. Bugna

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important watershed processes in nature, yet quantifying it under field conditions remains a challenge. The lack of soil erosion field data is a major factor hindering our ability to predict soil erosion in a watershed. We present here the development of a simple and sensitive field method that quantifies soil erosion and the resulting...

  15. Redistribution of caesium-137 by erosion and deposition on an australian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallan, M.E.; Rose, C.W.; O'Leary, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Caesium-137, a nuclear fallout product which is carried down to the ground by rainfall and becomes tightly adsorbed to soil particles, is being used to study soil erosion and accumulation. The measurement of 137 Cs activity in soil cores in an upland catchment on the Darling Downs has revealed a vertical and areal distribution of this isotope which is in general agreement with expectations based on the topography, the observed erosion and deposition sites, the variation in 137 Cs fallout through time, and hypotheses of 137 Cs redistribution. Such information may allow the development of a practical technique for estimating soil erosion and accumulation rates using this isotope; it also allows testing of mathematical models of erosion/deposition processes

  16. Choosing the target of adaptive soil erosion management in Mediterranean. Long vs. Extreme erosion, internal vs. external catchment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Follain, Stéphane; David, Mélodie; Ciampalini, Rossano; Raclot, Damien; Crabit, Armand; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2017-04-01

    For soil resources protection and regulation of soil erosion off-site effects in Mediterranean, it is inevitable to adjust current land management planning to both, event magnitude and long-term erosion means [2, 3, 5]. Science-based soil protection measures need to be adjusted to spatial and temporal scale of practice differing between stakeholders and management aims, and reflect increasing frequency of torrential rainfalls leading to very high erosion rates in short time [3, 4]. In order to address selection of zero-soil erosion land management target, this study applies modelling approach for comparison of 7 land use scenarios using the LandSoil model [1]. We propose comparison of internal vs. external catchment dynamic at extreme event- and long-term scale as a tool for understanding effect of land management in targeting emerging erosion and connectivity patterns. Our results suggest, that proposed approach can be applied to identify best management scenario practices regarding different management aims of farmers and watershed managers. [1] Ciampalini R, Follain S, Le Bissonnais Y. 2012. LandSoil: A model for analysing the impact of erosion on agricultural landscape evolution. Geomorphology 175-176: 25-37. [2] David M, Follain S, Ciampalini R, Le Bissonnais Y, Couturier A, Walter C. 2014. Simulation of medium-term soil redistributions for different land use and landscape design scenarios within a vineyard landscape in Mediterranean France. Geomorphology 214: 10-21. [3] Smetanová A, Le Bissonnais Y, Raclot D, Nunes JP, Licciardello F, Le Bouteiller C, Latron J, Rodríguez-Caballero E, Mathys N, Klotz S, Mekki I, Gallart F, Solé Benet A, Pérez Gallego N, Andrieux P, Moussa R, Planchon O, Marisa Santos J, Alshihabi O, Chikhaoui M., submitted. Patterns of temporal variability and time compression of sediment yield in small Mediterranean catchments. Soil Use & Management [4] Smetanová A, Paton E, Maynard C, Tindale S, Fernandez-Getino A-P, Marques MJ, Bracken

  17. Effect of rainfall intensity and slope steepness on the development of soil erosion in the Southern Cis-Ural region (A model experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, N. V.; Gabbasova, I. M.; Komissarov, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of rainfall intensity on the erosion of residual calcareous agrogray soils and clay-illuvial agrochernozems in the Southern Cis-Ural region on slopes of different inclination and vegetation type has been studied by simulating with a small-size sprinkler. It has been shown that soil loss linearly depends on rainfall intensity (2, 4, and 6 mm/min) and slope inclination (3° and 7°). When the rainfall intensity and duration, and the slope inclination increase, soil loss by erosion from agrogray soils increases higher than from agrochernozems. On the plowland with a slope of 3°, runoff begins 12, 10, and 5 min, on the average, after the beginning of rains at these intensities. When the slope increases to 7°, runoff begins earlier by 7, 6, and 4 min, respectively. After the beginning of runoff and with its increase by 1 mm, the soil loss from slopes of 3° and 7° reaches 4.2 and 25.7 t/ha on agrogray soils and 1.4 and 4.7 t/ha on agrochernozems, respectively. Fallow soils have higher erosion resistance, and the soil loss little depends on the slope gradient: it gradually increases to 0.3-1.0 t/ha per 1 mm of runoff with increasing rainfall intensity and duration. The content of physical clay in eroded material is higher than in the original soils. Fine fractions prevail in this material, which increases their humus content. The increase in rainfall intensity and duration to 4 and 6 mm/min results in the entrapment of coarse silt and sand by runoff.

  18. Use of radioactive fallout cesium-137 to estimate soil erosion on three farms in west central Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, R.M.; Lal, R.; Kimble, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of soil erosion on productivity and environment quality requires comprehensive and credible estimates of erosion. Measuring concentration of 137 Cs fallout is a relatively simple and rapid technique for determining long-term mean annual rates of soil erosion and deposition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the 137 Cs activity-soil depth relationship in estimating soil erosion from arable land in west central Ohio. Thus, soil samples obtained from three to four genetic horizons of four erosion phases at three farms in Clark Co., Ohio, (hereafter called Sites A, B, and C) were analyzed for 137 Cs activity. Relationships between 137 Cs activity and soil depth at undisturbed reference sites were used to calculate the depth of soil eroded and mean annual erosion rates. Cumulative 137 Cs activities ranged from 6.8 mBq g-1 for the severely eroded phase at Site C to 16.6 mBq g-1 for the deposition phase at Site A. These activities corresponded to soil erosion rates of 125.9 Mg ha-1 y-1 for severe to 26.6 Mg ha-1 y-1 for deposition phases. A general trend of increasing soil erosion (by 24 to 85%) from slightly to severely eroded phases was observed although the data were highly variable. Estimated soil erosion rates depended on the regression model used and were more than an order of magnitude higher than those determined using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. Sampling rigorously at small depth increments by means of a core sampler, careful selection of reference sites, and calibration or validation of this technique with other models can improve estimation of soil erosion using 137 Cs. The 137 Cs technique is, however, limited to local scale estimates of erosion because the empirical models are site specific

  19. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date interrill erosion processes and regimes are not fully understood. The objectives are to 1) identify the erosion regimes and limiting processes between detachment and transport on steep slopes, 2) characterize the interactive effects between rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment trans...

  20. Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

    2013-07-30

    Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of wind erosion intensity on heavy clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozlovsky Dufková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion, common problem of light-textured soils, was determined on heavy clay soils in the foothills of Bílé Karpaty Mountains, Czech Republic. Soil erodibility by wind was determined from the Map of potential erodibility of soil by wind and from the calculation of potential and real soil loss by wind. All the determinations show underestimation of soil erodibility by wind on heavy clay soils, because methods that are used for this are based above all on the assessment of clay particles content and the presumption the more clay particles soil contains, the less vulnerable to wind erosion is. The potential erodibility of soil by wind is 0,09 t . ha−1 per year. The determined value does not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 10 t . ha−1 per year for deep soils. The real average erodibility of soil by wind has the highest value 1,47 g . m−2 on November 30th, 2008. Other soil losses that do not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 1,4 g . m−2, were determined on March 18th and 28th, 2008. Big difficulties come with the assessment of the erodibility of heavy clay soils in the areas, where soil erosion ve­ri­fia­bly exists, but it is not assessable by objective calculating methods. Evident necessity of new know­ledge concerning the determination of wind erosion intensity follows from the results.

  2. Soil erosion determinations using 137Cs technique in the agricultural regions of Gediz Basin, Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sac, M.; Ymurtaci, E.; Yener, G.; Ugur, A.; Ozden, B.; Camgoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    Gediz basin is one of the regions where intense agricultural activities take place in Western Turkey. Erosion and soil degradation has long been causing serious problems to cultivated fields in the basin. This work describes the application of two different 137 Cs models for estimating soil erosion rates in cultivated sites of the region. Soil samples were collected from five distinct cultivated regions subject to soil erosion. The variations of 137 Cs concentrations with depth in soil profiles were investigated. Soil loss rates were calculated from 137 Cs inventories of the samples using both Proportional Model (PM) and Simplified Mass Balance Model (SMBM). When Proportional Model was used, erosion and deposition rates varied from -15 to -28 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +41 t ha ha -1 y -1 , respectively, they varied from -16 to -33 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +55 t ha -1 y -1 with Simplified Mass Balance Model. A good agreement was observed between the results of two models up to 30 t ha -1 y -1 soil loss and gain in the study area. Ulukent, a small representative agricultural field, was selected to compare the present data of 137 Cs techniques with the results obtained by Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) applied in the area before. (authors)

  3. Assessing and monitoring soil erosion and land degradation in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Brearley, James

    2017-04-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) identifies the Mediterranean as one of the most seriously affected by land degradation and desertification (LDD) regions in the World. LDD is a complex process related with a multitude of biogeographical and socioeconomic parameters and is often assessed using proxies or indicators. One of the most important indicators of LDD is soil erosion. Here, we assess the evolution of soil erosion and LDD in the Mediterranean islands of Malta between 1986 and 2002. Soil erosion is estimated using the Revised Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). For the assessment of LDD, we employ a modification of the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) methodology with Landsat imagery and ancillary GIS datasets. We incorporate 4 vegetation-related indicators, 3 climate-related, 5 soil-related and 3 socio-economic ones in the final assessment of the evolution of LDD. Results show that there has been an increase in soil erosion rates and in the sensitivity to LDD in the areas of San Pawl il-Bahar and Il-Mizieb most likely due to the transition from agricultural use to Mediterranean shrubs. Also, almost the entire country is flagged as belonging to the 'Fragile' and 'Critical' ESAI classes. It is clear that soil erosion and LDD mitigation measures are necessary, especially in the most critical (i.e. 'C3') areas which occupy 10% of Malta.

  4. Estimating soil erosion losses in Korea with fallout cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, R.G.; Pilkyun Jung; Kwanshig Ryu; Kitai Um

    1987-01-01

    The contents of fallout 137 Cs in soil profiles were used to estimate erosion losses from steeply sloping croplands in Korea. Seven undisturbed sites with no apparent erosion or deposition, and 15 cropland sites were examined to a depth of 30 cm. The cropland sites had been cultivated for periods ranging from 5 to more than 80 y (median 10 y), and their slopes ranged from 5 to 26% (median 13%). All except one of the cropland sites contained less 137 Cs than undisturbed sites in the same area. Three cropland sites contained essentially no 137 Cs, indicating erosion of the entire cultivated layer of soil in from 6 to 10 years. Other cropland sites, particularly those with sandy texture, showed little loss of 137 Cs over longer periods of cultivation. Cesium-137 measurements may be useful in identifying site characteristics that reduce the vulnerability of sloping soils to erosion damage. (author)

  5. Estimating soil erosion response to land use/cover change in a catchment of the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation restoration project, named the Grain to Green Program, has been operating for more than ten years in the upper reaches of the Beiluo River basin, located in the Loess Plateau of China. It is significant to be able to estimate the success of preventing soil erosion. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and the Sediment Distributed Delivery (SEDD model were used to assess the annual soil loss derived from water erosion. The results showed that the study area suffered from primary land use changes, with increasing grassland and forest and decreasing farmland from 1990 to 2010. Based on that, the average soil erosion modulus decreased from 18,189.72 t/(km2 a in 1990–7408.93 t/(km2 a in 2000 and 2857.76 t/(km2 a in 2010. Compared with 1990, the average soil erosion modulus decreased by 59.0% and 84.3% for 2000 and 2010, respectively. Benefiting from the increased vegetation coverage and improved ecological environment, the soil erosion in this study area clearly declined. This research also found that the distribution of the three years of soil erosion was similarly based on topographic factors. The soil erosion modulus varied with different land use types and decreased in the order of residential area>farmland>grassland>forest. The average soil erosion modulus gradually increased with the increase of the slope gradient, and 76.08% of the total soil erosion was concentrated in the region with a gradient more than 15 degrees. The soil erosion modulus also varied with slope aspects in the order of sunny slope>half-sunny slope>half-shady slope>shady slope. This research provides useful reference for soil and water conservation and utilization in this area and offers a technical basis for using the RUSLE to estimate soil erosion in the Loess Plateau of China.

  6. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide

  7. Modelling catchment-scale erosion patterns in the East African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigiak, O.; Okoba, B.O.; Sterk, G.; Groenenberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prompt location of areas exposed to high erosion is of the utmost importance for soil and water conservation planning. Erosion models can be useful tools to locate sources of sediment and areas of deposition within a catchment, but the reliability of model predictions of spatial patterns of erosion

  8. Snowmelt water drives higher soil erosion than rainfall water in a mid-high latitude upland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuyang; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Zengchao; Yang, Bowen; Wang, Li

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of precipitation and temperature on soil erosion are pronounced in mid-high latitude areas, which lead to seasonal variations in soil erosion. Determining the critical erosion periods and the reasons behind the increased erosion loads are essential for soil management decisions. Hence, integrated approaches combining experiments and modelling based on field investigations were applied to investigate watershed soil erosion characteristics and the dynamics of water movement through soils. Long-term and continuous data for surface runoff and soil erosion variation characteristics of uplands in a watershed were observed via five simulations by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In addition, laboratory experiments were performed to quantify the actual soil infiltrabilities in snowmelt seasons (thawed treatment) and rainy seasons (non-frozen treatment). The results showed that over the course of a year, average surface runoff and soil erosion reached peak values of 31.38 mm and 1.46 t ha-1 a-1, respectively, in the month of April. They also ranked high in July and August, falling in the ranges of 23.73 mm to 24.91 mm and 0.55 t ha-1 a-1 to 0.59 t ha-1 a-1, respectively. With the infiltration time extended, thawed soils showed lower infiltrabilities than non-frozen soils, and the differences in soil infiltration amounts between these two were considerable. These results highlighted that soil erosion was very closely and positively correlated with surface runoff. Soil loss was higher in snowmelt periods than in rainy periods due to the higher surface runoff in early spring, and the decreased soil infiltrability in snowmelt periods contributed much to this higher surface runoff. These findings are helpful for identification of critical soil erosion periods when making soil management before critical months, especially those before snowmelt periods.

  9. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon in relation to water erosion and tillage erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Nie; Jianhui, Zhang; Zhengan, Su

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) are associated with soil erosion, yet there is a shortage of research concerning the relationship between soil erosion, SOC, and especially microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In this paper, we selected two typical slope landscapes including gentle and steep slopes from the Sichuan Basin, China, and used the (137)Cs technique to determine the effects of water erosion and tillage erosion on the dynamics of SOC and MBC. Soil samples for the determination of (137)Cs, SOC, MBC and soil particle-size fractions were collected on two types of contrasting hillslopes. (137)Cs data revealed that soil loss occurred at upper slope positions of the two landscapes and soil accumulation at the lower slope positions. Soil erosion rates as well as distribution patterns of the erosion is the major process of soil redistribution in the gentle slope landscape, while tillage erosion acts as the dominant process of soil redistribution in the steep slope landscape. In gentle slope landscapes, both SOC and MBC contents increased downslope and these distribution patterns were closely linked to soil redistribution rates. In steep slope landscapes, only SOC contents increased downslope, dependent on soil redistribution. It is noticeable that MBC/SOC ratios were significantly lower in gentle slope landscapes than in steep slope landscapes, implying that water erosion has a negative effect on the microbial biomass compared with tillage erosion. It is suggested that MBC dynamics are closely associated with soil redistribution by water erosion but independent of that by tillage erosion, while SOC dynamics are influenced by soil redistribution by both water erosion and tillage erosion.

  10. Dynamics of Soil Organic Carbon and Microbial Biomass Carbon in Relation to Water Erosion and Tillage Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Nie; Jianhui, Zhang; Zhengan, Su

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) are associated with soil erosion, yet there is a shortage of research concerning the relationship between soil erosion, SOC, and especially microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In this paper, we selected two typical slope landscapes including gentle and steep slopes from the Sichuan Basin, China, and used the 137Cs technique to determine the effects of water erosion and tillage erosion on the dynamics of SOC and MBC. Soil samples for the determination of 137Cs, SOC, MBC and soil particle-size fractions were collected on two types of contrasting hillslopes. 137Cs data revealed that soil loss occurred at upper slope positions of the two landscapes and soil accumulation at the lower slope positions. Soil erosion rates as well as distribution patterns of the erosion is the major process of soil redistribution in the gentle slope landscape, while tillage erosion acts as the dominant process of soil redistribution in the steep slope landscape. In gentle slope landscapes, both SOC and MBC contents increased downslope and these distribution patterns were closely linked to soil redistribution rates. In steep slope landscapes, only SOC contents increased downslope, dependent on soil redistribution. It is noticeable that MBC/SOC ratios were significantly lower in gentle slope landscapes than in steep slope landscapes, implying that water erosion has a negative effect on the microbial biomass compared with tillage erosion. It is suggested that MBC dynamics are closely associated with soil redistribution by water erosion but independent of that by tillage erosion, while SOC dynamics are influenced by soil redistribution by both water erosion and tillage erosion. PMID:23717530

  11. Land use and climate change impacts on runoff and soil erosion at the hillslope scale in the Brazilian Cerrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in land use and climate can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Predictio...

  12. Ground freezing effects on soil erosion of army training lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halvorson, Jonathan J

    1998-01-01

    .... Rut edges were zones of erosion and sidewall bases were zones of deposition. Ksubfs values were similar in and out of ruts formed on soil with 0-5 percent water by volume, but were lower in ruts formed on soil with about 15 percent water...

  13. Soil Erosion Study through Simulation: An Educational Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Thomas P.; Falkenmayer, Karen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for education about soil erosion and advocates the use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to show the impacts of human and natural action on the land. Describes the use of a computer simulated version of the USLE in several environmental and farming situations. (TW)

  14. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1983), EPIC (Williams et al. 1984), WEPP (Near- ing et al. 1989), AGNPS (Young et al. 1989), ..... river cells, and the other represents the land cells, which is superimposed upon layers such as soil types, land ...... Ricker M C, Odhiambo B K and Church J M 2008 Spa- tial analysis of soil erosion and sediment fluxes: A paired.

  15. Spatial Analysis of Soil Erosion in Swaziland | Manyatsi | UNISWA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a spatial analysis was undertaken to identify the impact of the factors controlling soil erosion: land management systems, stocking pressure, soil erodibility, average slope of the land, and mean annual rainfall. A binary classification was applied to a broad land cover classes map produced from image ...

  16. Soil Erosion Estimation Using Grid-based Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Vlasák

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion estimation is an important part of a land consolidation process. Universal soil loss equation (USLE was presented by Wischmeier and Smith. USLE computation uses several factors, namely R – rainfall factor, K – soil erodability, L – slope length factor, S – slope gradient factor, C – cropping management factor, and P – erosion control management factor. L and S factors are usually combined to one LS factor – Topographic factor. The single factors are determined from several sources, such as DTM (Digital Terrain Model, BPEJ – soil type map, aerial and satellite images, etc. A conventional approach to the USLE computation, which is widely used in the Czech Republic, is based on the selection of characteristic profiles for which all above-mentioned factors must be determined. The result (G – annual soil loss of such computation is then applied for a whole area (slope of interest. Another approach to the USLE computation uses grids as a main data-structure. A prerequisite for a grid-based USLE computation is that each of the above-mentioned factors exists as a separate grid layer. The crucial step in this computation is a selection of appropriate grid resolution (grid cell size. A large cell size can cause an undesirable precision degradation. Too small cell size can noticeably slow down the whole computation. Provided that the cell size is derived from the source’s precision, the appropriate cell size for the Czech Republic varies from 30m to 50m. In some cases, especially when new surveying was done, grid computations can be performed with higher accuracy, i.e. with a smaller grid cell size. In such case, we have proposed a new method using the two-step computation. The first step computation uses a bigger cell size and is designed to identify higher erosion spots. The second step then uses a smaller cell size but it make the computation only the area identified in the previous step. This decomposition allows a

  17. Feasibility of High-Resolution Soil Erosion Measurements by Means of Rainfall Simulations and SfM Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Hänsel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The silty soils of the intensively used agricultural landscape of the Saxon loess province, eastern Germany, are very prone to soil erosion, mainly caused by water erosion. Rainfall simulations, and also increasingly structure-from-motion (SfM photogrammetry, are used as methods in soil erosion research not only to assess soil erosion by water, but also to quantify soil loss. This study aims to validate SfM photogrammetry determined soil loss estimations with rainfall simulations measurements. Rainfall simulations were performed at three agricultural sites in central Saxony. Besides the measured data runoff and soil loss by sampling (in mm, terrestrial images were taken from the plots with digital cameras before and after the rainfall simulation. Subsequently, SfM photogrammetry was used to reconstruct soil surface changes due to soil erosion in terms of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs for the pre- and post-event (resolution 1 × 1 mm. By multi-temporal change detection, the digital elevation model of difference (DoD and an averaged soil loss (in mm is received, which was compared to the soil loss by sampling. Soil loss by DoD was higher than soil loss by sampling. The method of SfM photogrammetry-determined soil loss estimations also include a comparison of three different ground control point (GCP approaches, revealing that the most complex one delivers the most reliable soil loss by DoD. Additionally, soil bulk density changes and splash erosion beyond the plot were measured during the rainfall simulation experiments in order to separate these processes and associated surface changes from the soil loss by DoD. Furthermore, splash was negligibly small, whereas higher soil densities after the rainfall simulations indicated soil compaction. By means of calculated soil surface changes due to soil compaction, the soil loss by DoD achieved approximately the same value as the soil loss by rainfall simulation.

  18. Modeling Edge Effects of Tillage Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage erosion has been recognized as an important factor in redistribution of soil over time and in the development of morphological changes within agricultural fields. Field borders, fences, and vegetated strips that interrupt soil fluxes lead to the creation topographic discontinuities or lynche...

  19. Modeling the Contribution of Ephemeral Gully Erosion Under Different Soil Management in An Olive Orchard Microcatchment Using AnnAGNPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Spain, few studies have been carried out to explore the erosion caused by processes other than interrill and rill erosion, such as gully and ephemeral gully erosion, especially because most of the available studies have evaluated the erosion at plot scale. A study about the en...

  20. 7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... erosion. 610.12 Section 610.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to erosion for both the USLE and the RUSLE is A = R × K...

  1. 7 CFR 610.13 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to wind erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to wind erosion... Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.13 Equations for predicting soil loss due to wind erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to wind in the Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ) is E = f(IKCLV). (For...

  2. Combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion in a mollisol area under long-term agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Wu, Yuyang; Hao, Zengchao; Zhang, Qi; Bu, Qingwei; Gao, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion exhibits special characteristics in the process of agricultural development. Understanding the combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion, especially in the area under long-term agricultural cultivations, is vital to watershed agricultural and soil management. This study investigated the temporal-spatial patterns of the soil erosion based on a modified version of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and conducted a soil erosion contribution analysis. The land use data were interpreted from Landsat series images, and soil properties were obtained from field sampling, laboratory tests and SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water) model calculations. Over a long period of agricultural development, the average erosion modulus decreased from 187.7tkm -2 a -1 in 1979 to 158.4tkm -2 a -1 in 2014. The land use types were transformed mainly in the reclamation of paddy fields and the shrinking of wetlands on a large scale. Most of the soils were converted to loam from silty or clay loam and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K s ) of most soil types decreased by 1.11% to 43.6%. The rapidly increasing area of 49.8km 2 of paddy fields together with the moderate decrease of 14.0km 2 of forests, as well as K s values explained 87.4% of the total variance in soil erosion. Although changes in soil physical and water characteristics indicated that soil erosion loads should have become higher, the upsurge in paddy fields played an important role in mitigating soil erosion in this study area. These results demonstrated that land use changes had more significant impacts than soil property changes on soil erosion. This study suggested that rational measures should be taken to extend paddy fields and control the dry land farming. These findings will benefit watershed agricultural targeting and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of calibration equations of 137Cs methodology for soil erosion determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Elias Antunes dos

    2001-02-01

    Using the method of 137 Cs and gamma-ray spectrometry, soil samples of two plots erosion were studied at Londrina city. the soil class studied was a dystrophic dark red soil (LRd), with erosion indexes measured by Agronomic Institute of Parana State (IAPAR) using a conventional method, since 1976. Through the percentage reduction of 137 Cs related to the reference site, the soil losses were calculated using the proportional, mass balance and profile distribution models. Making the correlation between the 137 Cs concentrations and the erosion measured by IAPAR, two calibration equations were obtained and applied to the data set measured in the basin of the Unda river and compared to those models in the literature. As reference region, was chosen a natural forest located close to the plots. The average inventory of 137 Cs was 555± 16 Bq.m -2 . The inventories of the erosion plots varied from 112 to 136 Bq.m -2 for samples collected until 30 cm depth. The erosion rates estimated by the models varied from 64 to 85 ton.ha -1 .yr -1 for the proportional and profile distribution models, respectively, and 137 to 165 ton.ha -1 for the mass balance model, while the measured erosion obtained by IAPAR was 86 ton.ha -1 .yr -1 . From the two calibration equations obtained, the one that take into account the 137 Cs distribution with the soil profile was that showed the best consistence with the erosion rated for the basin of the Unda river (same soil class) in the range from 4 to 48 ton.ha -1 .yr -1 , while the proportional and profile distribution models applied rates from 7 to 45 ton.ha -1 .yr -1 and 6 to 69 ton.ha -1 .yr -1 , respectively. (author)

  4. Evaluation of soil erosion risk using Analytic Network Process and GIS: a case study from Spanish mountain olive plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhay, Olexandr; Arriaza, Manuel; Boerboom, Luc

    2009-07-01

    The study presents an approach that combined objective information such as sampling or experimental data with subjective information such as expert opinions. This combined approach was based on the Analytic Network Process method. It was applied to evaluate soil erosion risk and overcomes one of the drawbacks of USLE/RUSLE soil erosion models, namely that they do not consider interactions among soil erosion factors. Another advantage of this method is that it can be used if there are insufficient experimental data. The lack of experimental data can be compensated for through the use of expert evaluations. As an example of the proposed approach, the risk of soil erosion was evaluated in olive groves in Southern Spain, showing the potential of the ANP method for modelling a complex physical process like soil erosion.

  5. Effects of soil surface roughness on interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenfeng; Huang, Chihua

    2017-10-01

    Soil surface roughness significantly impacts runoff and erosion under rainfall. Few previous studies on runoff generation focused on the effects of soil surface roughness on the sediment particle size distribution (PSD), which greatly affects interrill erosion and sedimentation processes. To address this issue, a rainfall-simulation experiment was conducted with treatments that included two different initial soil surface roughnesses and two rainfall intensities. Soil surface roughness was determined by using photogrammetric method. For each simulated event, runoff and sediment samples were collected at different experimental times. The effective (undispersed) PSD of each sediment sample and the ultimate (after dispersion) PSD were used to investigate the detachment and transport mechanisms involved in sediment movement. The results show that soil surface roughness significantly delayed runoff initiation, but had no significant effect on the steady runoff rate. However, a significant difference in the soil loss rate was observed between the smooth and rough soil surfaces. Sediments from smooth soil surfaces were more depleted in clay-size particles, but more enriched in sand-size particles than those from rough soil surfaces, suggesting that erosion was less selective on smooth than on rough soil surfaces. The ratio of different sizes of transported sediment to the soil matrix indicates that most of the clay was eroded in the form of aggregates, silt-size particles were transported mainly as primary particles, and sand-size particles were predominantly aggregates of finer particles. Soil surface roughness has a crucial effect on the sediment size distribution and erosion processes. Significant differences of the enrichment ratios for the effective PSD and the ultimate PSD were observed under the two soil surface roughness treatments. These findings demonstrate that we should consider each particle size separately rather than use only the total sediment discharge in

  6. A semi-empirical model to assess uncertainty of spatial patterns of erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Vigiak, O.; Romanowicz, R.J.; Beven, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Distributed erosion models are potentially good tools for locating soil sediment sources and guiding efficient Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) planning, but the uncertainty of model predictions may be high. In this study, the distribution of erosion within a catchment was predicted with a

  7. Bioengineering Technology to Control River Soil Erosion using Vetiver (Vetiveria Zizaniodes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwati, M.; Pallu, S.; Selintung, M.; Lopa, R.

    2018-04-01

    Erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock or dissolved material from one location on the earth’s crust, and then transport it away to another location. Bioengineering is an attempt to maximise the use of vegetation components along riverbanks to cope with landslides and erosion of river cliffs and another riverbank damage. This study aims to analyze the bioengineering of Vetiver as a surface layer for soil erosion control using slope of 100, 200, and 300. This study is conducted with 3 variations of rain intensity (I), at 103 mm/hour, 107 mm/hour, and 130 mm/hour by using rainfall simulator tool. In addition, the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) method is used in order to measure the rate of soil erosion. In this study, there are few USLE model parameters were used such as rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, length-loss slope and stepness factor, cover management factor, and support practise factor. The results demonstrated that average of reduction of erosion rate using Vetiver, under 3 various rainfalls, namely rainfall intensity 103 mm/hr had reduced 84.971%, rainfall intensity 107 mm/hr had reduced 86.583 %, rainfall intensity 130 mm/hr had reduced 65.851%.

  8. An assessment of the global impact of 21st century land use change on soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Robinson, David A; Fleischer, Larissa R; Lugato, Emanuele; Ballabio, Cristiano; Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Modugno, Sirio; Schütt, Brigitta; Ferro, Vito; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Oost, Kristof Van; Montanarella, Luca; Panagos, Panos

    2017-12-08

    Human activity and related land use change are the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion, which has substantial implications for nutrient and carbon cycling, land productivity and in turn, worldwide socio-economic conditions. Here we present an unprecedentedly high resolution (250 × 250 m) global potential soil erosion model, using a combination of remote sensing, GIS modelling and census data. We challenge the previous annual soil erosion reference values as our estimate, of 35.9 Pg yr -1 of soil eroded in 2012, is at least two times lower. Moreover, we estimate the spatial and temporal effects of land use change between 2001 and 2012 and the potential offset of the global application of conservation practices. Our findings indicate a potential overall increase in global soil erosion driven by cropland expansion. The greatest increases are predicted to occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. The least developed economies have been found to experience the highest estimates of soil erosion rates.

  9. Remontant erosion in desert soils of Tamaulipas, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortiz, P.; Andrade-Limas, E.; De la Garza-Requena, F.; Castro-Meza, B.

    2012-04-01

    REMONTANT EROSION IN DESERT SOILS OF TAMAULIPAS MÉXICO Rivera-Ortiz, P.1; Andrade-Limas, E.1; De la Garza-Requena, F.1 and Castro-Meza, B.1 1Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, México The degradation of soil reduces the capacity of soils to produce food and sustain life. Erosion is one of the main types of soil degradation. Hydric erosion of remontant type can occur in soils located close to the channel of a river through the expansion of a gully that begins as a fluvial incision over the ravine of one side of the river. The incision takes place at the point of greatest flow of runoff from areas adjacent to empty into the river. The depth of the incision causes the growth of the gully by collapse to move their heads back, upstream. The soil loss by remontant erosion on land use in agriculture and livestock was estimated in order to understand the evolution of gullies formed by this type of erosion. Through measurements on satellite images and GPS (Global Positioning System) two gullies, developed on alluvial soils which drain into the river Chihue, were studied. The investigation was conducted during 2003 to 2010 period in the municipality of Jaumave, Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. Soil loss in gullies developed by remontant erosion was large and it was caused by soil collapse and drag of soil on the headers. The estimated loss of soil by remontant erosion was 3500 t in the deeper gully during 2010 and nearly 1200 t per year in the period 2003-2009. New sections of gully of about 20 m length, with more than 3 m deep and up to 13 m wide, were formed each year. This degradation has significantly reduced the productive surface of soil that for many years has been used to the cultivation of maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as pasture production.

  10. WIND EROSION INTENSITY DETERMINATION USING SOIL PARTICLE CATCHER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze wind erosion events in the real terrain conditions, we proposed to construct a prototype of soil particle catcher devices to trap soil particles. With these devices we are able to measure the intensity of wind erosion at six different heights above the soil surface in one location or at three different heights in two places. It is possible to use them for six different places at the same time as well. We performed field measurements to determine the amount of soil particles transported by the wind between 26th – 31st March 2012. Each measuring took 60 minutes. After this time the soil particle catchers were emptied and further measurements carried out. At the beginning we selected two places for measurement (soil HPJ 16 and 37 at two heights, one above the other. Then we used two measuring systems 40 m apart at two sites (D2 and D4 and the soil captured at two heights (0, 1. The maximum weight of soil particles trapped in measuring system D2 at height (0 was 1242.7 g at a wind speed of 9.6 ms-1. At measurement height (1 the maximum weight was 72.7 g trapped at the same average hourly rate, but during different measurement events. The measuring system at D4 trapped the highest amount of soil at a wind speed of 8.9 ms-1 (1141.7 g at height (0 and at a speed of 9.3 ms-1 (22.3 g at height (1. During the measurements with the two basic measuring systems D4 and D2, we measured the wind erosion intensity together with soil particle catchers D1 and D3. D3 was placed between devices D4 and D2, D1 was 20 m ahead D2. Soil particle catchers were placed on the soil surface at height position (0. We measured increasing soil erosion downwind on four locations spaced at 20 m. The results show that with there is an increasing quantity of particles collected as the erosive surface length increases, due to the so-called snowball effect. We analyzed selected trapped soil samples in order to determine the size of the soil particles and their proportion

  11. A Multidirectional Wind Erosion Model for Western Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; de Figueiredo, Tomás; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Wind erosion can trigger a non-visible loss of fine soil up to 40 t ha-1 per single event and is as such a major soil threat and environmental concern in areas susceptible to wind erosion. Western Saxony was assessed to be among the most susceptible landscapes not only within Germany but even within Europe (Borelli et al., 2015; Borelli et al., 2014). Moreover, wind erosion events in eastern Germany cause very severe off-site effects with impacts on road traffic. So far the wind erosion model that is normally applied in Germany is based on the norm DIN standard 19706. The DIN standard 19706 was revised by new controlling factors and fuzzy logic to consider the multi-directionality of wind and make it more realistic to wind erosion processes. The new factors are based on different datasets like (i) wind and temperature data (1hr resolution) for 9 gauging stations and interpolated long-term wind speed (1981-2000, 200m resolution) provided by the German Weather Service, (ii) soil erodibility extracted from the digital soil map 1:50,000, (iii) landscape components from different data sources (ATKIS, OpenStreetMap and others), and (iv) a DEM (20m resolution) for local orographic modeling. For a risky sub-region, local wind speeds and directions were modelled based on the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programs (WAsP) orography-model to assess road bodies for priority actions. Major improvements of the proposed model are the consideration of changing wind directions and the implementation of factors on soil cover and field length. An estimation of the long-term spatiotemporal variability under changing climate is possible with the model conception. The revised model assesses 3.6% of western Saxonies agricultural fields under very high risk to wind erosion. Larger fields (greater than 116 ha) are connected to a higher frequency (51.7%) of very high risk. Only a small proportion (5.2%) of the high risk class was found in small fields (smaller than 21 ha). Fields under

  12. Soil-Erosion Models: Where do we Really Stand? Short Communication (Discussion) on the papers by Wainwright et al. (2008a, b, c)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, et al. (Earth Surface Processes and Landforms; 2008a, b, c) propose a new model (MAHLERAN) for simulating catchment-scale erosion resulting from rainfall-runoff events. In justification for this new model, several existing process-based models are criticized in regard to their theoretic...

  13. Soil erosion evolution and spatial correlation analysis in a typical karst geomorphology using RUSLE with GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cheng; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Li, Yangbing; Tian, Yichao; Li, Yue; Wu, Luhua; Luo, Guangjie

    2017-07-01

    Although some scholars have studied soil erosion in karst landforms, analyses of the spatial and temporal evolution of soil erosion and correlation analyses with spatial elements have been insufficient. The lack of research has led to an inaccurate assessment of environmental effects, especially in the mountainous area of Wuling in China. Soil erosion and rocky desertification in this area influence the survival and sustainability of a population of 0.22 billion people. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution of soil erosion and explores its relationship with rocky desertification using GIS technology and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Furthermore, this paper analyzes the relationship between soil erosion and major natural elements in southern China. The results are as follows: (1) from 2000 to 2013, the proportion of the area experiencing micro-erosion and mild erosion was at increasing risk in contrast to areas where moderate and high erosion are decreasing. The area changes in this time sequence reflect moderate to high levels of erosion tending to convert into micro-erosion and mild erosion. (2) The soil erosion area on the slope, at 15-35°, accounted for 60.59 % of the total erosion area, and the corresponding soil erosion accounted for 40.44 %. (3) The annual erosion rate in the karst region decreased much faster than in the non-karst region. Soil erosion in all of the rock outcrop areas indicates an improving trend, and dynamic changes in soil erosion significantly differ among the various lithological distribution belts. (4) The soil erosion rate decreased in the rocky desertification regions, to below moderate levels, but increased in the severe rocky desertification areas. The temporal and spatial variations in soil erosion gradually decreased in the study area. Differences in the spatial distribution between lithology and rocky desertification induced extensive soil loss. As rocky desertification became worse, the erosion

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of a process based erosion model using FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelmann, Petra; Wienhöfer, Jan; Zehe, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    Erosion, sediment redistribution and related particulate transport are severe problems in agro-ecosystems with highly erodible loess soils. They are controlled by various factors, for example rainfall intensity, topography, initial wetness conditions, spatial patterns of soil hydraulic parameters, land use and tillage practice. The interplay between those factors is not well understood. A number of models were developed to indicate those complex interactions and to estimate the amount of sediment which will be removed, transported and accumulated. In order to make use of physical-based models to provide insight on the physical system under study it is necessary to understand the interactions of parameters and processes in the model domain. Sensitivity analyses give insight in the relative importance of model parameters, which in addition is useful for judging where the greatest efforts have to be spent in acquiring or calibrating input parameters. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the erosion-related parameters in the CATFLOW model. We analysed simulations from the Weiherbach catchment, where good matches of observed hydrological response and erosion dynamics had been obtained in earlier studies. The Weiherbach catchment is located in an intensively cultivated loess region in southwest Germany and due to the hilly landscape and the highly erodible loess soils, erosion is a severe environmental problem. CATFLOW is a process-based hydrology and erosion model that can operate on catchment and hillslope scales. Soil water dynamics are described by the Richards equation including effective approaches for preferential flow. Evapotranspiration is simulated using an approach based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The model simulates overland flow using the diffusion wave equation. Soil detachment is related to the attacking forces of rainfall and overland flow, and the erosion resistance of the soil. Sediment transport capacity and sediment

  15. Soil erosion and sediment yield and their relationships with vegetation cover in upper stream of the Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, A G

    2010-12-15

    Soil erosion is a significant concern when considering regional environmental protection, especially in the Yellow River Basin in China. This study evaluated the temporal-spatial interaction of land cover status with soil erosion characteristics in the Longliu Catchment of China, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. SWAT is a physical hydrological model which uses the RUSLE equation as a sediment algorithm. Considering the spatial and temporal scale of the relationship between soil erosion and sediment yield, simulations were undertaken at monthly and annual temporal scales and basin and sub-basin spatial scales. The corresponding temporal and spatial Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) information was summarized from MODIS data, which can integrate regional land cover and climatic features. The SWAT simulation revealed that the annual soil erosion and sediment yield showed similar spatial distribution patterns, but the monthly variation fluctuated significantly. The monthly basin soil erosion varied from almost no erosion load to 3.92 t/ha and the maximum monthly sediment yield was 47,540 tones. The inter-annual simulation focused on the spatial difference and relationship with the corresponding vegetation NDVI value for every sub-basin. It is concluded that, for this continental monsoon climate basin, the higher NDVI vegetation zones prevented sediment transport, but at the same time they also contributed considerable soil erosion. The monthly basin soil erosion and sediment yield both correlated with NDVI, and the determination coefficients of their exponential correlation model were 0.446 and 0.426, respectively. The relationships between soil erosion and sediment yield with vegetation NDVI indicated that the vegetation status has a significant impact on sediment formation and transport. The findings can be used to develop soil erosion conservation programs for the study area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Riparian erosion vulnerability model based on environmental features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Acosta, Alejandra; Chu, Maria L; Guzman, Jorge A; Starks, Patrick J; Moriasi, Daniel N

    2017-12-01

    Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify areas along the riparian zone that are susceptible to erosion. The methodology was developed by integrating the physically-based watershed model MIKE-SHE, to simulate water movement, and a habitat suitability model, MaxEnt, to quantify the probability of presences of elevation changes (i.e., erosion) across the watershed. The presences of elevation changes were estimated based on two LiDAR-based elevation datasets taken in 2009 and 2012. The changes in elevation were grouped into four categories: low (0.5 - 0.7 m), medium (0.7 - 1.0 m), high (1.0 - 1.7 m) and very high (1.7 - 5.9 m), considering each category as a studied "species". The categories' locations were then used as "species location" map in MaxEnt. The environmental features used as constraints to the presence of erosion were land cover, soil, stream power index, overland flow, lateral inflow, and discharge. The modeling framework was evaluated in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed in southcentral Oklahoma. Results showed that the most vulnerable areas for erosion were located at the upper riparian zones of the Cobb and Lake sub-watersheds. The main waterways of these sub-watersheds were also found to be prone to streambank erosion. Approximatively 80% of the riparian zone (streambank

  17. Susceptibility of coarse-textured soils to soil erosion by water in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salako, F.K.

    2004-01-01

    The application of soil physics for the evaluation of factors of soil erosion in the tropics received considerable attention in the last four decades. In Nigeria, physical characteristics of rainfall such as drop size and drop-size distribution, rainfall intensity at short intervals and kinetic energy of rainfall were evaluated using different methods. Thus, compound erosivity indices were evaluated which showed a similar trend in annual rainfall erosivity with annual rainfall amounts. Attempts have also been made to use geostatistical tools and fractal theory to describe temporal variability in rainfall erosivity. High erosivity aggravates the vulnerability of coarse-textured soils to erosion. These soils, high in sand content were poorly aggregated and structurally weak. Thus, they were easily detached and transported by runoff. Long-term data are needed to describe factors of soil erosion in the tropics but quite often, equipment are not available or poorly maintained where available such that useful data are not collected. A greater cooperation of pure physicists, soil physicists and engineers in the developing nations is needed to improve or design equipment and methods for the characterization of factors of soil erosion in the tropics. (author)

  18. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and (137)Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of CREAMS [Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems] and ERHYM-II [Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model] computer models for simulating soil water movement on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundre, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    The major goal of radioactive waste management is long-term containment of radioactive waste. Long-term containment is dependent on understanding water movement on, into, and through trench caps. Several computer simulation models are available for predicting water movement. Of the several computer models available, CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) and ERHYM-II (Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model) were tested for use on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The models were calibrated, tested for sensitivity, and used to evaluate some basic trench cap designs. Each model was used to postdict soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff of two watersheds for which such data were already available. Sensitivity of the models was tested by adjusting various input parameters from high to low values and then comparing model outputs to those generated from average values. Ten input parameters of the CREAMS model were tested for sensitivity. 17 refs., 23 figs., 20 tabs

  20. Soil erosion and organic matter loss by using fallout 137Cs as tracer in Miyun reservoir valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Zhang Zhigang; Li Junbo; Feng Yan; Zhao Hong; Yin Xunxiao; Zhu Fengyun

    2005-01-01

    Miyun reservoir is one of the important water sources for Beijing, the water quality of the reservoir is directly influenced by soil erosion. Based on measuring the 137 Cs concentrations, organic content in the soil of selected sampling sites, the authors investigated the relationship between the quality of soil erosion and organic matters. According to classificatory standards of soil erosion, the intensity of erosion in Miyun reservoir valley is light and moderate, but in some parts erosion is serious. The land use model has dramatic influence on distribution of organic matters in the soil. Unreasonable human activities could cause serious increase of organic matter runoff and soil erosion intensity. Distributions of organic matters were increased in the following order: bush land > forestry > orchard > farmland. Organic matters in the upper course were higher than in the circumference of reservoir. The simulated model suggests that there is a cubic relation between the contents of organic matters and 137 Cs concentrations (r 2 =0.9). The math model in the single sights can forecast soil erosion and changes of concentrations of organic matters in the soils, so that the chemical analysis and measurements are simplified. (authors)

  1. A comparison of methods in estimating soil water erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Pando Moreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between direct field measurements and predictions of soil water erosion using two variant; (FAO and R/2 index of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE was carried out in a microcatchment o 22.32 km2 in Northeastern Mexico. Direct field measurements were based on a geomorphologic classification of the area; while environmental units were defined for applying the equation. Environmental units were later grouped withir geomorphologic units to compare results. For the basin as a whole, erosion rates from FAO index were statistical!; equal to those measured on the field, while values obtained from the R/2 index were statistically different from the res and overestimated erosion. However, when comparing among geomorphologic units, erosion appeared overestimate! in steep units and underestimated in more flat areas. The most remarkable differences on erosion rates, between th( direct and FAO methods, were for those units where gullies have developed, fn these cases, erosion was underestimated by FAO index. Hence, it is suggested that a weighted factor for presence of gullies should be developed and included in RUSLE equation.

  2. Seasonality of soil erosion under mediterranean conditions at the Alqueva Dam watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vera; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The Alqueva reservoir created the largest artificial lake of Western Europe in 2010. Since then, the region has faced challenges due to land-use changes that may increase the risk of erosion and shorten the lifetime of the reservoir, increasing the need to promote land management sustainability. This paper investigates the aspect of seasonality of soil erosion using a comprehensive methodology that integrates the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) approach, geographic information systems, geostatistics, and remote-sensing. An experimental agro-silvo pastoral area (typical land-use) was used for the RUSLE factors update. The study confirmed the effect of seasonality on soil erosion rates under Mediterranean conditions. The highest rainfall erosivity values occurred during the autumn season (433.6 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1)), when vegetation cover is reduced after the long dry season. As a result, the autumn season showed the highest predicted erosion (9.9 t ha(-1)), contributing 65 % of the total annual erosion. The predicted soil erosion for winter was low (1.1 t ha(-1)) despite the high rainfall erosivity during that season (196.6 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1)). The predicted annual soil loss was 15.1 t ha(-1), and the sediment amount delivery was 4,314 × 10(3) kg. Knowledge of seasonal variation would be essential to outline sustainable land management practices. This model will be integrated with World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies methods to support decision-making in that watershed, and it will involve collaboration with both local people and governmental institutions.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Responses of Soil Erosion to Climate Change Impacts in a Transnational Watershed in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Quy Giang; Le Thi Giang; Kosuke Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely predicted that Southeast Asia is among the regions facing the most severe climate change impacts. Despite this forecast, little research has been published on the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion in this region. This study focused on the impact of climate change on spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in the Laos–Vietnam transnational Upper Ca River Watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) coupled with downscaled global climate models...

  4. Process-oriented modelling to identify main drivers of erosion-induced carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Florian; Sommer, Michael; Van Oost, Kristof; Bens, Oliver; Fiener, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Coupled modelling of soil erosion, carbon redistribution, and turnover has received great attention over the last decades due to large uncertainties regarding erosion-induced carbon fluxes. For a process-oriented representation of event dynamics, coupled soil-carbon erosion models have been developed. However, there are currently few models that represent tillage erosion, preferential water erosion, and transport of different carbon fractions (e.g. mineral bound carbon, carbon encapsulated by soil aggregates). We couple a process-oriented multi-class sediment transport model with a carbon turnover model (MCST-C) to identify relevant redistribution processes for carbon dynamics. The model is applied for two arable catchments (3.7 and 7.8 ha) located in the Tertiary Hills about 40 km north of Munich, Germany. Our findings indicate the following: (i) redistribution by tillage has a large effect on erosion-induced vertical carbon fluxes and has a large carbon sequestration potential; (ii) water erosion has a minor effect on vertical fluxes, but episodic soil organic carbon (SOC) delivery controls the long-term erosion-induced carbon balance; (iii) delivered sediments are highly enriched in SOC compared to the parent soil, and sediment delivery is driven by event size and catchment connectivity; and (iv) soil aggregation enhances SOC deposition due to the transformation of highly mobile carbon-rich fine primary particles into rather immobile soil aggregates.

  5. Quantifying Soil Erosion and Deposition Rates in Tea Plantation Area, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia Using 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Che Yasmin Amirudin; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat; Ab Khalik Wood

    2014-01-01

    The soil erosion and deposition in the hilly area is a great concern for the planters. In this study, the tea plantation was chosen to quantify the rates of soil erosion and deposition for it will provide information on the improvement of soil conditions and cost reduction of fertilizer consumption. The aims of this research are to determine the rate of soil erosion and deposition using environmental radionuclide, 137 Cs. Soil profile samples were collected by using scrapper plate and two cores soil sample were collected in the undisturbed forests area nearby. The 137 Cs activity concentration was measured using low background coaxial hyper pure germanium detector gamma spectrometer based on 137 Cs gamma energy peak at 661.66 keV. The highest erosion rate using Proportional Models and Mass Balance Model 1 was found in point HE top area which is 52.39 t ha -1 yr -1 and 95.53 t ha -1 yr -1 respectively while the lowest at location HF top which is 4.78 t ha -1 yr -1 and 4.97 t ha -1 yr -1 . The deposition rate was higher in HF center which is 216.82 t ha -1 yr -1 and 97.51 t ha -1 yr -1 and the lowest at HE center which is 0.05 t ha -1 yr -1 for both models used. (author)

  6. Soil erosion assessment using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in a GIS framework: A case study of Zacatecas, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzos Arroyo, L. I.; Prol Ledesma, R. M.; da Silva Pinto da Rocha, F. J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), which is considered to be a contemporary approach in soil loss assessment, was used to assess soil erosion hazard in the Zacatecas mining district. The purpose of this study is to produce erosion susceptibility maps for an area that is polluted with mining tailings which are susceptible to erosion and can disperse the particles that contain heavy metals and other toxic elements. USLE method is based in the estimation of soil loss per unit area and takes into account specific parameters such as precipitation data, topography, soil erodibility, erosivity and runoff. The R-factor (rainfall erosivity) was calculated from monthly and annual precipitation data. The K-factor (soil erodibility) was estimated using soil maps available from the CONABIO at a scale of 1:250000. The LS-factor (slope length and steepness) was determined from a 30-m digital elevation model. A raster-based Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to interactively calculate soil loss and map erosion hazard. The results show that estimated erosion rates ranged from 0 to 4770.48 t/ha year. Maximum proportion of the total area of the Zacatecas mining district have nil to very extremely slight erosion severity. Small areas in the central and south part of the study area shows the critical condition requiring sustainable land management.

  7. Understanding soil erosion impacts in temperate agroecosystems: bridging the gap between geomorphology and soil ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C.; Rowan, J. S.; McKenzie, B. M.; Neilson, R.

    2013-04-01

    Soil is a key asset of natural capital, providing a myriad of goods and ecosystem services that sustain life through regulating, supporting and provisioning roles, delivered by chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is accelerated erosion, which raises a natural process to unsustainable levels, and has downstream consequences (e.g. economic, environmental and social). Global intensification of agroecosystems is a major cause of soil erosion which, in light of predicted population growth and increased demand for food security, will continue or increase. Elevated erosion and transport is common in agroecosystems and presents a multi-disciplinary problem with direct physical impacts (e.g. soil loss), other less tangible impacts (e.g. loss of ecosystem productivity), and indirect downstream effects that necessitate an integrated approach to effectively address the problem. Climate is also likely to increase susceptibility of soil to erosion. Beyond physical response, the consequences of erosion on soil biota have hitherto been ignored, yet biota play a fundamental role in ecosystem service provision. To our knowledge few studies have addressed the gap between erosion and consequent impacts on soil biota. Transport and redistribution of soil biota by erosion is poorly understood, as is the concomitant impact on biodiversity and ability of soil to deliver the necessary range of ecosystem services to maintain function. To investigate impacts of erosion on soil biota a two-fold research approach is suggested. Physical processes involved in redistribution should be characterised and rates of transport and redistribution quantified. Similarly, cumulative and long-term impacts of biota erosion should be considered. Understanding these fundamental aspects will provide a basis upon which mitigation strategies can be considered.

  8. Use RUSLE2 model to assess the impact of soil erosion on playa inundation and hydrophyte conditions in the Rainwater Basin, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenghong; Gu, Yue; Jiang, Weiguo; Xue, Yuan; Bishop, Andy; LaGrange, Ted; Nugent, Eleanor

    2016-06-01

    Playas in the Rainwater Basin region in Nebraska are globally important wetlands that are continuously threatened by culturally accelerated sedimentation. Using annual habitat survey data and wetland vegetation inventories, inundation and hydrophyte community distributions were evaluated for properties under different types of conservation status. Annual soil erosion rates from surrounding watersheds were calculated to estimate sediment accumulated rates using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 (RUSLE2). The slope-length component of the RUSLE2 was derived from 2009 light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data after the methods described by Van Remortel (Computers & Geosciences 30:1043-1053, 2004). Wetlands enrolled in conservation programs were inundated more and were dominated to a greater degree by hydrophytes than wetlands not enrolled in these programs. The mean estimated soil erosion rate at the Rainwater Basin landscape level was 4.67 tons/ha/year, and the mean estimated sediment accumulation depth for public watersheds was estimated as 0.19 cm/year. Without appropriate conservation actions, the current inundated acres and wetland acres growing hydrophytes would be further reduced by sediment accumulation. The results illustrated the importance of conservation programs to protect wetlands.

  9. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    yr-1 in 2013, respectively, with means of total soil loss during the study period of 15.25 t ha-1 yr-1 and 0.17 t ha-1 yr-1. The erosivity-weighted C-factor for the undisturbed cerrado vegetation was 0.013. Previous studies have shown that, in general, the C-factors for Brazilian crops cover an approximate 10-fold range, from 2 to 39-times greater than the C-factor for undisturbed cerrado. Our results suggest that though soil erosion under undisturbed Cerrado is important, shifts in land use from the native to cultivated vegetation may result in orders of magnitude increases in soil loss rates. These results provide benchmark values that will be useful to evaluate past and future land use changes using soil erosion models and measurements.

  10. SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION IN ROMANIA - SOME FIGURES, FACTS AND ITS IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastel Mircea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a common and finite resource, soil - as a natural and very complex ecosystem, is essential to human society. Inseveral regions of Europe, including Romania too, soil resources are degraded due to different causes, or, sometimes,irreversibly lost, mainly due to erosion, decline in organic matter or contamination. As regard to soil erosion only, inRomania, about 42% of the total agricultural lands are affected by water erosion in different forms and intensities.Soil degradation has negative impacts on other areas also, not only in-site but also off-site, areas which are alsoconsidered of common interest for the people (e.g. air and water quality, biodiversity and climate change. Costs torestore such a damages and environmental quality in general may be very high and thus preferable to be avoided.To maintain and/or improve a good quality of the soils for a long period of time, there needed to be implemented inRomania , as much as possible, some agri-environmental schemes, according to the current EU models and policies, inparticular, through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP.The paper briefly presents and analyzes such agri-environmental schemes developed for the agricultural lands from thehilly areas in Romania that is very affected by water erosion and landslides – the Curvature zone of Sub-Carpathians.The schemes, developed within the Research Station for Soil Erosion and Conservation Aldeni-Buzau, which belongs tothe University of Agricultural Sciences in Bucharest, is based on friendly agricultural practices to be implemented onagricultural lands located on slopes. Also, the new conceptual European model, known as Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responces (DPSIR, adapted for the soil erosion impact assesment on environment, will be herepresented, in order to be promoted and used on a large scale in Romania as well.

  11. Distribution of rock fragments and their effects on hillslope soil erosion in purple soil, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-04-01

    Purple soil is widely distributed in Sichuan Basin and Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Purple soil region is abundant in soil fertility and hydrothermal resources, playing an important role in the agricultural development of China. Soil erosion has long been recognized as a major environmental problem in the purple soil region where the population is large and slope farming is commonly practiced, and rainstorm is numerous. The existence of rock fragments is one of the most important characteristics of purple soil. Rock fragments at the soil surface or in the soil layer affect soil erosion processes by water in various direct and indirect ways, thus the erosion processes of soil containing rock fragments have unique features. Against the severe soil degradation by erosion of purple soil slope, carrying out the research about the characteristics of purple soil containing rock fragments and understanding the influence of rock fragments on soil erosion processes have important significance, which would promote the rational utilization of purple soil slope land resources and accurate prediction of purple soil loss. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of rock fragments in purple soil slope and the impact of rock fragment content on soil physical properties and soil erosion. First, field sampling methods were used to survey the spatial variability of rock fragments in soil profiles and along slope and the physical properties of soils containing rock fragments. Secondly, indoor simulated rainfall experiments were used to exam the effect of rock fragments in the soil layer on soil erosion processes and the relationships between rainfall infiltration, change of surface flow velocity, surface runoff volume and sediment on one hand, and rock fragment content (Rv, 0% 30%, which was determined according the results of field investigation for rock fragment distribution) on the other were investigated. Thirdly, systematic analysis about the

  12. Analysis of soil erosion factors in the river-basin of water tank Šance: confrontation of results of methodologies observing soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Palíková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is still an issue in forestry and in human water-resources activities connected with landscape management and the protection of surface waters. The methods recently assessing the water erosion include: monitoring of suspended sediments in water, monitoring of dynamics of soil pro­per­ties, assessing the inclination of soil towards soil erosion, monitoring of effectiveness of erosion control measures, erosion processes modeling etc. (Buzek, 1981; Buzek, 1983; Holý, 1994; Jařabáč, Belský, 2008.The river basin of the water tank Šance is very important as a source of potable water and this importance is advanced, when water tank is clogged up by suspended sediments.Erosion was assessed by two methods in ArcMap 9.3 working with original data: the first method is Universal equation calculating an average annual soil loss from surface (USLE (Wischmeier, Smith, cit. in Janeček, 2002; the second method assesses the potential erosion (MPE, using specific soil properties as factors, evaluating the rate of the intensity of erosion (Kučera, Palíková; 2009.Each method uses different ways for the description of the erodibility: USLE describes a long-term average annual soil loss as a consequence of surface erosion. It gives exact values of sediments in t . ha−1 . year−1, but from the other point of view, this method is primarily created for an agricultural land. Compared with USLE, MPE solves potential erosion and gives relative values of the erosion tendency of an environment. PME could give a new point of view on the assessing of the erosion.The river basin Ostravice above water tank Šance was used to compare these two methods. As a control measure, dates of the assessment of the water sediments regime (Buzek, 2001 were used. This observation was pursued in waters of the gagin station ČHMÚ Ostrava in Staré Hamry in according Stehlík (1969. This 25-year process of measuring shows the value of 2.47 t . ha−1

  13. Mapping soil erosion susceptibility using GIS techniques within the Danube floodplain, the Calafat - Turnu Măgurele sector (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuş Oana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube floodplain, the Calafat - Turnu Măgurele sector, through its main features (topographic and climatic characteristics, land use and soil type and human activities, constitutes an area exposed to soil erosion. The main objective of the present research is to map soil erosion susceptibility using the GIS techniques for the computation and representation of areas, which are exposed to soil erosion correlated with the field data for the validation. Analyzing the entire model, the relatively simple methodology, the database consistence, the comparability of the results with the existent soil erosion values at national and local scale, we can say that the model was applied with success in the studied area (areas and classes of water erosion susceptibility: very low, low, moderate, high - Ciupercenii Noi, Desa, Măceşu de Jos, Grojdibodu, Orlea, very high - Rast, Negoi, Catane, Bistreţ, Goicea; areas and classes of wind erosion susceptibility: very low, low, moderate - Ciupercenii Noi, Dăbuleni, Ianca, high - Calafat, Poiana Mare, Desa, Goicea, Piscu Vechi, very high - Poiana Mare, Rast, Negoi, Bistreţ, Gighera, Orlea. The soil erosion susceptibility map can be useful for planning erosion control measures and for selecting suitable sites for runoff plot experiments.

  14. Effects of traditional land transactions on soil erosion and land degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Leduka, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    A research report on the effects of traditional land transactions on soil erosion and land degradation in Lesotho. This report focuses on the land transactions in Lesotho and how these transaction affect the growing erosion rates of the soil.

  15. Remote sensing as a tool for estimating soil erosion potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Morgan, K. M.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation is a frequently used methodology for estimating soil erosion potential. The Universal Soil Loss Equation requires a variety of types of geographic information (e.g. topographic slope, soil erodibility, land use, crop type, and soil conservation practice) in order to function. This information is traditionally gathered from topographic maps, soil surveys, field surveys, and interviews with farmers. Remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques provide an alternative method for collecting information regarding land use, crop type, and soil conservation practice. Airphoto interpretation techniques and medium altitude, multi-date color and color infrared positive transparencies (70mm) were utilized in this study to determine their effectiveness for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. Successful results were obtained within the test site, a 6136 hectare watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  16. profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control technologies by ... of the costs and benefits associated with utilisation of a new technology is as one of the major obstacles to farmers adopting improved technologies. Similarly ..... acceptable financial returns despite increases in.

  17. profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control technologies by communities in the highlands of eastern Uganda; a hot spot for this land degradation agent. A survey was conducted using 240 farmers in the highlands of eastern Uganda. The findings from Partial Budget Analysis.

  18. Mapping soil erosion in a quaternary catchment in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An example is the Umzimvubu Local Municipality, where most households are strongly reliant on agriculture for their livelihood. Sustainable agriculture and proper land management in these rural areas require information relevant to the spatial distribution of soil erosion. This study was therefore aimed at generating such ...

  19. Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land management (SLM) technologies is one of the major constraints to technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control ...

  20. A simplified close range photogrammetry method for soil erosion assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased affordability of consumer grade cameras and the development of powerful image processing software, digital photogrammetry offers a competitive advantage as a tool for soil erosion estimation compared to other technologies. One bottleneck of digital photogrammetry is its dependency...

  1. Soil erosion and carbon budget in Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Santoro, Antonino; Gristina, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards of Mediterranean regions are characterized by low organic matter level and high sediment and nutrient erosion rates, which are the main causes of soil degradation and low sustainability of vine production. Alternative soil management - cover crops, green manure of prune residues, buffer strip- has widely applied as soil management practices to reduce soil degradation processes. However, the effectiveness of innovative soil management should be evaluated in relation to climatic and soil conditions. Many studies have been carried out in Sicilian vineyards in order to improve the sustainability with particular attention to: reduction of erosion, increase of soil organic matter, managing of nitrogen content and prune residue input. Besides the ecosystem service and its related economic aspects of the different soil management has been evaluated to analyze the wine growers and researchers demands. The aim of this work is to describe the state of art of scientific results on different soil management in Sicilian vineyards in the last 15 years, highlighting criticisms and lack of knowledge.

  2. Wind erosion on heavy-textured soils: calculation and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozlovsky Dufková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The equation that expresses the influence of factors affecting soil aggregates breakdown, and thus wind erosion, originated from the results of laboratory simulations of soil aggregates breakdown due to low temperatures treatment, field measurements of air temperature and soil moisture, and statistical evaluation of gained outcomes. All the analyses, whether field or laboratory, were realized on three different soils from three different localities of the Bílé Karpaty Mountains foothills – Ostrožská Nová Ves, Blatnice pod Svatým Antonínkem, and Suchá Loz. The statistically significant factors, influencing the soil aggregates breakdown, were determined using multiple regression analysis and stepwise regression. Soil moisture content at time of freezing was the most significant factor affecting soil aggregates breakdown, content of soil particles < 0.01 mm was the least significant one. Based on the results of laboratory and field research there was created a map of heavy-textured soils that are vulnerable to wind erosion.

  3. Effects of Land-use Changes On Soils' Vulnerability To Gross Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, A.; Castellarin, A.; Montanari, A.

    The analysis investigates the effects of land-use changes on annual gross erosion through the application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The study area is a wide geographical region (22000 square kilometres) in northern-central Italy. The presence in the study area of an extended mountain chain particularly exposed to soil erosion makes the estimation of annual gross erosion rather interesting because of the useful indications it may provide in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, which was empirically derived for plots, is usually applied at most at basin scale. In the present study the method is implemented in a distributed frame- work through a discretisation of the study area in elementary square cells. The local amount of annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining several kinds of morpho- logical, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated on the basis of local estimates of the rainfall depth with 6-hour storm duration and 2-year return period, while the soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land-use, pedology and ge- omorphology. The model estimates of annual gross erosion are validated for a recent land-use scenario. Furthermore, different historical land-use scenarios of the district of Bologna, a large portion of the area under study (3720 square kilometres), allow the assessment of how real land-use changes may affect the soil erosion process.

  4. The Effect on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kazım

    2016-04-01

    The Effects on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications Kazım Gür1, Kazim Çarman2 and Wim M.Cornelis3 1Bahri Daǧdaş International Agricultural Research Instıtute, 42020 Konya, Turkey 2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, University of Selçuk, 42031 Konya, Turkey 3Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 653 Coupure Links, 9000 Gent, Belgium Traditional soil cultivation systems, with excessive and inappropriate soil tillage, will generally lead to soil degradation and loss of soil by wind erosion. Continuous reduced tillage and no-till maintaining soil cover with plant residues called Conservation Agriculture that is considered as effective in reducing erosion. There exist a wide variety of practices using different tools that comply with reduced tillage principles. However, few studies have compared the effect of several of such tools in reducing wind erosion and related soil and surface properties. We therefore measured sediment transport rates over bare soil surfaces (but with under stubbles of wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to three tillage practices using two pulling type machines and one type of power takeoff movable machines and generated with a portable field wind tunnel. At 10 ms-1, sediment transport rates varied from 107 to 573 gm-1h-1, and from 176 to 768 gm-1h-1 at 13 ms-1. The lowest transport rates were observed for N(no-tillage) and the highest for Rr(L-type rototiller). After tillage, surface roughness, mean weighted diameter, wind erodible fraction, mechanical stability and soil water content were measured as well and varied from 5.0 to 15.9%, 6.9 to 13.8 mm, 14.3 to 29.7%, 79.5 to 93.4% and 8.6 to 15.1%, respectively, with again N is being the most successful practice. In terms of conservation soil tillage technique, it can be said that the applications compared with each other; direct sowing machine is more appropriate and cause to the less erosion.

  5. How development and disturbance of biological soil crust do affect runoff and erosion in drylands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, S.; Canton, Y.; Afana, A.; Lazaro, R.; Domingo, F.; Sole-Benet, A.

    2009-07-01

    Deserts and semiarid ecosystems (shrub lands and grasslands) are the largest terrestrial biome, covering more than 40% of the Earth's terrestrial surface and Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are the predominant surface type in most of those ecosystems covering up to 70% of its surface. BSCs have been demonstrated to be very vulnerable to disturbance due to human activities and their loss has been implicated as a factor leading to accelerate soil erosion and other forms of land degradation. Incorporation of the response of different type of soil crusts and the effects of the their disturbance is likely to improve the prediction of runoff and water erosion models in arid and semi-arid catchments. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of crust disturbance on infiltration and erosion. Extreme rainfall simulations at micro plots scale were performed in two semiarid ecosystems with different lithology and conditions of occurrence of BSCs: El Cautivo and Amoladeras. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Assessment of wind erosion threat for soils in cadastral area of Hajske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchova, Z.; Stredanska, A.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution illustrates the application of methods of erosion threat assessment in lan adaptation projects. Calculations of the soil erosion index of particular soil blocks are demonstrated for the cadastral area of Hajske. Two methods for assessment of erosion threat have been applied. First the assessment based on the ecological soil-quality units (ESQU) has been performed. Next, the Pasak method for a detailed analysis of the soil erosion threat was applied. Both of the mentioned approaches are recommended for the land adaption projects. Based on the results, the soil blocks have been ranked by their soil erosion threat. (authors)

  7. Meteorological conditions during extreme wind erosion events on heavy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislava Mužíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion in the Czech Republic conditions poses relatively a lot of danger, especially for the most fertile areas, where agricultural land is more vulnerable due to the large pieces of land and inappropriate crop rotation. This process causes damage to agriculture by loss of topsoil, fertilizers, seeds and crop damage as well as sedimentation in water recipients and on roads. It also has negative impacts on human health (airborne dust. Wind erosion is especially affected by climatic elements (wind, temperature, precipitation and evaporation etc. and soil characteristics (soil type, content of erodible particles, soil moisture. Wind erosion affects mainly light and medium heavy soil. South Moravia is an example of the territories to which this rule does not apply. Although soils in the Carpathian flysch subsoil are mainly heavy, erosion has been causing damage here for many decades. Quite strong dust storms are not rare, especially at the end of winter and in early spring when the soil is not covered by vegetation.Notable cases of dust storms in the area were recorded in local chronicles, and then written in the summary publication by dr. Švehlík. Interest of this publication was focused on the most destructive cases of dust storms in Bílé Karpaty foothills. The aim was to study meteorological conditions during the period before and during the occurrence of dust storms in the area in detail and to find the relationship between weather and the intensity of wind erosion. The data of wind speed and direction, temperature, precipitation and snow were evaluated. In all cases the average daily air temperature and ground air temperature was over the freezing point or closely under it. The temperature generally increased before the dust storm occurrence and it often happened from negative to positive temperature and the soil probably defrosted. Snow cover was very small or there was no snow cover at all. In the course of April wind erosion

  8. Soil erosion in the Herschel district of South Africa: changes over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erosion in rangelands is widely believed to be caused primarily by overgrazing. The aims of this study, conducted in a severely eroded district under communal tenure, were to establish (1) how the extent and severity of soil erosion have changed over time, (2) how soil erosion varies within the district and what ...

  9. Physical erosion modelling of complex morphodynamics in the upper Val d'Orcia: a combination of EROSION 3D, UAV, SFM and CANUPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Arno; Kaiser, Andreas; Neugirg, Fabian; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the Mediterranean Basin soil erosion is both a widely spread and a landscape shaping process. In order to increase the understanding of morphodynamics inside large Italian badland areas, so called Calanchi, the process based erosion model EROSION 3D was parameterized by artificial rainfall simulations, soil sampling and an UAV based high resolution digital elevation model. Vegetation structures were removed with the CANUPO-classifier in CloudCompare. The rainfall experiments proved to be a convenient but costly tool for deriving the model input parameters. While building up the model, different composition of the inhomogeneous soil surface was considered. A diverse behavior against erosion by water was observed. The results showed that the deposition surfaces of rotational or translational slides, besides calanco depth contour, tend to degrade. Although these deposits present a comparatively low bulk density, they reduce the infiltration due to soil surface clogging and cause less erosion resistances. The differential consideration of erosion sub-processes turns out as particularly challenging. The simulation of a reference year showed an annual soil export from the catchment of 43 t/ha, which corresponds to an average surface lowering of 3 mm. Sheet erosion represents an amount of about 5% of the total erosion of badlands. Furthermore, infiltration depth, amount of runoff, sediment concentration, and grain size composition of the deposits were calculated. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of denudation processes in Calanchi badlands. The presented process-based modeling of badlands is contributing a new aspect to erosion research.

  10. Tedmical Note on Local Adaptations to Soil Erosion and Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digenous soil and water conservation practices in response to soil erosion and low soil moisture. The main indigenous methods used were intercropping, trash lines, stone bunds, minimum tillage, grass strips, ''janyajuu t t terraces and their combinations. The farmers' decision to adapt a particular tech- nique was influenced ...

  11. Soil heating in chaparral fires: effects on soil properties, plant nutrients, erosion, and runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano; Raymond M. Rice; Conrad C. Eugene

    1979-01-01

    This state-of-the-art report summarizes what is known about the effects of heat on soil during chaparral fires. It reviews the literature on the effects of such fires on soil properties, availabilty and loss of plant nutrients, soil wettability, erosion, and surface runoff. And it reports new data collected during recent prescribed burns and a wildfire in southern...

  12. Estimating soil erosion on hiking trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Peeters, Mattias; Kuppen, Emiel; Blok, Kas; Dilly, Lina

    2017-04-01

    Natural parks and protected natural areas provide excellent recreational opportunities for outdoor activities through the richness of the natural environment and the abundance of walking trails. Hiking, mountain biking and running have rapidly gained popularity over recent years increasing concerns about the erosion and degradation of hiking trails caused by (over)use. This is also the case in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southeast Spain, which is a popular destination for tourists due to its diverse fauna and flora. The increasing number of tourists together with the negative impacts of climate change necessitates a better understanding of the key soil erosion processes impacting hiking trails. There are 4 scenic trail routes in the Natural Park amounting to 21 km plus an additional network of unofficial trails. Apart from the heavy touristic traffic on the trails there are large trail running events with up to 1000 participants becoming increasingly popular, however local park authorities have voiced concerns about the impacts of these activities on the trails. Despite the popularity of walking trails around the world, there is a paucity of research exploring soil erosion from these features. Therefore, the aims of this study are: 1) to ascertain the amount of erosion that occurs on trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park, and 2) determine the key factors that influence soil erosion. Some 100 km of trails were evaluated (both official and unmarked trails), with route segments ranging between 2 and 10 km. A trail classification system was developed to group trail segments based on their surface characteristics (bedrock, gravel, mixed sediment, soil or man-made) and specific erosion features (rills, ditch-shaped, tilted). For each class, the average erosion rate was calculated which ranged from 262 t/ha for soil-based trails to 2006 t/ha for heavily eroded, ditch-shaped trails. The spatial distribution of the different erosion rates and trail types were

  13. Spatial and Temporal Evaluation of Soil Erosion with RUSLE: A case Study in an Olive Orchard Microcathment in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil loss is commonly estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Since RUSLE is an empirically based soil loss model derived from surveys on plots, the high spatial and temporal variability of erosion in Mediterranean environments and scale effects provo...

  14. Analysis of shallow landslides and soil erosion induced by rainfall over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Della Sala, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Due to heavy rainstorms, steep hillslopes may be affected by either shallow landslides or soil superficial erosion (Acharya et al., 2011), which originate different flow-like mass movements in adjacent or overlapping source areas (Cascini et al., 2013). Triggering analysis (Cascini et al., 2011) is a relevant issue for hazard assessment that is, in turn, the first step of risk analysis procedures (Fell et al., 2008). Nevertheless, the available approaches separately consider shallow landslides and soil erosion. Specifically, quantitative models for landslides triggering analysis allow simulating the physical processes leading to failure such as pore water pressure increase and soil shear mobilization and provide estimates of the amount of material potentially involved; however, success of quantitative methods must be carefully evaluated in complex geological setting as recently outlined (Sorbino et al., 2010) and further applications to real case histories are straightforward. On the other hand, a wide range of models exist for soil erosion analysis, which differ in terms of complexity, processes considered and data required for the model calibration and practical applications; in particular, quantitative models can estimate the source areas and the amount of eroded soil through empirical relationships or mathematical equations describing the main physical processes governing soil erosion (Merritt et al., 2003). In this work a spatially distributed analysis is proposed for testing the potentialities of two available models to respectively investigate the spatial occurrence of first-time shallow landslides and superficial soil erosion repeatedly occurring in a large test area of the Southern Italy. Both analyses take into account the seasonal variation of soil suction, rainfall characteristics and soil cover use (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013). The achieved results show that the source areas of shallow landslides strongly depend on rainfall intensity and duration and

  15. Risk assessment of pesticide transport with water erosion: A conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Van Der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Gai, Lingtong; Wesseling, Jan G.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry, and pesticide pollution has become an important issue worldwide. Entraining in runoff and being attached to eroded soil particles, posing a risk to water and soil quality and human health. In order to assess the risk of pesticide during water erosion processes, a simple integrative model of pesticide transport by runoff and erosion was developed. Taking soil hydrological and pesticide behaviour into account, such as water infiltration, erosion, runoff, and pesticide transport and degradation in soil, the conceptual framework was based on the known assumptions such as the convection-dispersion equation and lognormal distributions of soil properties associated with transport, sorption, degradation, and erosion. A sensitivity analysis was conducted and the results indicated that the total amount of pesticide related to soil eroded by water washing increased with slope gradient, rainfall intensity, and water field capacity of the soil. The mass of transported pesticide decreased as the micro-topography of the soil surface became obviously and the time from pesticide sprayed to erosion occurring associated with pesticide degradation negatively influenced the total amount of transported pesticide. The mechanisms involved in pesticide transport, such as runoff, infiltration, soil erosion, and pesticide transport and decay in the topsoil, thus can be well accounted for pesticide risk assessment especially in the region with intensive pesticide use and soil water erosion events.

  16. Searching for plant root traits to improve soil cohesion and resist soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, Sarah; Smyth, Kevin; Denbigh, Tom; Weldon, Laura; Higgins, Ben; Matyjaszkiewicz, Antoni; Meersmans, Jeroen; Chenchiah, Isaac; Liverpool, Tannie; Quine, Tim; Grierson, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion poses a serious threat to future food and environmental security. Soil erosion protection measures are therefore of great importance for soil conservation and food security. Plant roots have proven to be very effective in stabilizing the soil and protecting the soil against erosion. However, no clear insights are yet obtained into the root traits that are responsible for root-soil cohesion. This is important in order to better select the best species for soil protection. Research using Arabidopsis mutants has made great progress towards explaining how root systems are generated by growth, branching, and responses to gravity, producing mutants that affect root traits. In this study, the performance of selected Arabidopsis mutants is analyzed in three root-soil cohesion assays. Measurements of detachment, uprooting force and soil detachment are here combined with the microscopic analysis of root properties, such as the presence, length and density of root hairs in this case. We found that Arabidopsis seedlings with root hairs (wild type, wer myb23, rsl4) were more difficult to detach from gel media than hairless (cpc try) or short haired (rsl4, rhd2) roots. Hairy roots (wild type, wer myb23) on mature, non-reproductive rosettes were more difficult to uproot from compost or clay soil than hairless roots (cpc try). At high root densities, erosion rates from soils with hairless roots (cpc try) were as much as 10 times those seen from soils occupied by roots with hairs (wer myb23, wild type). We find therefore root hairs play a significant role in root-soil cohesion and in minimizing erosion. This framework and associated suite of experimental assays demonstrates its ability to measure the effect of any root phenotype on the effectiveness of plant roots in binding substrates and reducing erosion.

  17. Thermomechanical Erosion Modelling of Baydaratskaya Bay, Russia with COSMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, S.G.; Lubbad, R; Le, T.M.H.; Nairn, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Rapid coastal erosion threatens Arctic coastal infrastructure, including communities and industrial installations. Erosion of permafrost depends on numerous processes, including thermal and mechanical behaviour of frozen and unfrozen soil, nearshore hydrodynamics, atmospheric forcing, and the

  18. The influence of changes in land use and landscape patterns on soil erosion in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Li, Yueqiang; Yi, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to have a good understanding of the relation between soil erosion and landscape patterns so that soil and water conservation in river basins can be optimized. In this study, this relationship was explored, using the Liusha River Watershed, China, as a case study. A distributed water and sediment model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was developed to simulate soil erosion from different land use types in each sub-basin of the Liusha River Watershed. Observed runoff and sediment data from 1985 to 2005 and land use maps from 1986, 1995, and 2000 were used to calibrate and validate the model. The erosion modulus for each sub-basin was calculated from SWAT model results using the different land use maps and 12 landscape indices were chosen and calculated to describe the land use in each sub-basin for the different years. The variations in instead of the absolute amounts of the erosion modulus and the landscape indices for each sub-basin were used as the dependent and independent variables, respectively, for the regression equations derived from multiple linear regression. The results indicated that the variations in the erosion modulus were closely related to changes in the large patch index, patch cohesion index, modified Simpson's evenness index, and the aggregation index. From the regression equation and the corresponding landscape indices, it was found that watershed erosion can be reduced by decreasing the physical connectivity between patches, improving the evenness of the landscape patch types, enriching landscape types, and enhancing the degree of aggregation between the landscape patches. These findings will be useful for water and soil conservation and for optimizing the management of watershed landscapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Deforestation Effects on Soil Erosion in the Lake Kivu Basin, D.R. Congo-Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and natural grassland conversion to agricultural land use constitute a major threat to soil and water conservation. This study aimed at assessing the status of land cover and land use (LCLU in the Lake Kivu basin, and its related impacts in terms of soil erosion by water using the Universal Soil Erosion Equation (USLE model. The results indicated that the Lake Kivu basin is exposed to soil erosion risk with a mean annual rate of 30 t·ha−1, and only 33% of the total non-water area is associated with a tolerable soil loss (≤10 t·ha−1·year−1. Due to both natural factors (abundant tropical precipitation and steep slopes and anthropogenic activities without prior appropriate conservation practices, all land-use types—namely settlement, cropland, forestland, and grassland—are exposed to a severe mean erosion rate of 41 t·ha−1·year−1, 31 t·ha−1·year−1, 28 t·ha−1·year−1, and 20 t·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The cropland that occupied 74% of the non-water area in 2015 was the major contributor (75% to the total annual soil loss in the Lake Kivu basin. This study showed that conservation practices in the cropland cells would result in a mean erosion rate of 7 t·ha−1·year−1, 18 t·ha−1·year−1, and 35 t·ha−1·year−1 for terracing, strip-cropping, and contouring, respectively. The adoption of terracing would be the best conservation practice, among others, that could reduce soil erosion in cropland areas up to about 23%. The erosion risk minimization in forests and grasslands implies an increase in overstorey canopy and understorey vegetation, and control of human activities such as fires, mining, soil compaction from domestic animals grazing, and so on. Soil erosion control in settled areas suggests, among other things, the revegetation of construction sites, establishment of outlet channels, rainfall water harvesting systems, and pervious paving block with grass.

  20. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards. A review based on published data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Cerdà, Artemi; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    soil and water management techniques to the farmers and implement soil erosion mitigation policies at appropriate spatial scales. Acknowledgements The RECARE project is funded by the European Commission FP7 program, ENV.2013.6.2-4 "Sustainable land care in Europe". References Blavet, D., De Noni, G., Le Bissonnais, Y., Leonard, M., Maillo, L., Laurent, J.Y., Asseline, J., Leprun, J. C., Arshad, M. A., Roose, E.: Effect of land use and management on the early stages of soil water erosion in French Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research, 106, 124-136, 2009. Brenot, J., Quiquerez, A., Petit, C., Garcia, J.-P., Davy, P.: Soil erosion rates in Burgundian vineyards, Bolletino della Società Geologica Italiana, Volume Speciale 6, 169-174, 2006. Casalí, J., Giménez, R., De Santisteban, L., Alvarez-Mozos, J., Mena, J., Del Valle de Lersundi, J.: Determination of long-term erosion rates in vineyards of Navarre (Spain) using botanical benchmarks, Catena, 78, 12-19, doi:10.1016/ j.catena.2009.02.015, 2009. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S. H.: Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils, Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336, doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010, 2007. Ferrero, A., Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J.: Effects of tractor traffic on spatial variability of soil strength and water content in grass covered and cultivated sloping vineyard, Soil & Tillage Research, 84, 127-138, 2005. Leh, M., Bajwa, S., Chaubey, I.: Impact of land use change on erosion risk: and integrated remote sensing geographic information system and modeling methodology, Land Degradation & Development, 24, 409- 421, doi 10.1002/ldr.1137, 2013. Leonard, J., Andrieux, P.: Infiltration characteristics of soils in Mediterranean vineyards in southern France, Catena, 32, 209-223, 1998. Martinez-Casasnovas, J. A., Ramos, M. C., Benites, G.: Soil and water assessment tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (NE

  1. Interrill soil erosion on flysch soil under different types of land use in Slovenian Istria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, M; Petan, S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the results of interrill soil erosion measurements from recent years in Slovenian Istria are presented. Eight l-m2 erosion plots were set up on locations with different land use types: on bare soil in a young olive grove (2), in an overgrown meadow (2) and in a forest (4). Surface runoff from each of the erosion plots was collected in reservoirs. As a rule, samples from the reservoirs were taken weekly. The samples were dried in the laboratory, where the concentration of undissolved particles was determined. A tipping bucket rain gauge was located next to the erosion plots for monitoring of precipitation and intensity of erosive events. The results show that only a few major erosive events are responsible for the greater part of the eroded soil. Interrill soil erosion in the first year (May 2005-April 2006) was estimated at 90.1 t/ha on bare soil with a slope of 5.5 0 , and 118.2 t/ha in the second year (August 2006-July 2007), despite the lower cumulative rainfall amount.

  2. Measuring and Mapping Patterns of Soil Erosion and Deposition Related to Soil Carbonate Concentrations Under Agricultural Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Robert H; Sherrod, Lucretia A; Green, Timothy R

    2017-09-12

    Spatial patterns of soil erosion and deposition can be inferred from differences in ground elevation mapped at appropriate time increments. Such changes in elevation are related to changes in near-surface soil carbonate (CaCO3) profiles. The objective is to describe a simple conceptual model and detailed protocol for repeatable field and laboratory measurements of these quantities. Here, accurate elevation is measured using a ground-based differential global positioning system (GPS); other data acquisition methods could be applied to the same basic method. Soil samples are collected from prescribed depth intervals and analyzed in the lab using an efficient and precise modified pressure-calcimeter method for quantitative analysis of inorganic carbon concentration. Standard statistical methods are applied to point data, and representative results show significant correlations between changes in soil surface layer CaCO3 and changes in elevation consistent with the conceptual model; CaCO3 generally decreased in depositional areas and increased in erosional areas. Maps are derived from point measurements of elevation and soil CaCO3 to aid analyses. A map of erosional and depositional patterns at the study site, a rain-fed winter wheat field cropped in alternating wheat-fallow strips, shows the interacting effects of water and wind erosion affected by management and topography. Alternative sampling methods and depth intervals are discussed and recommended for future work relating soil erosion and deposition to soil CaCO3.

  3. Land use and climate change impacts on runoff and soil erosion at the hillslope scale in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anache, Jamil A A; Flanagan, Dennis C; Srivastava, Anurag; Wendland, Edson C

    2018-05-01

    Land use and climate change can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) model for different land uses under subtropical conditions in the Cerrado biome; predict runoff and soil erosion for these different land uses; and simulate runoff and soil erosion considering climate change. We performed the model calibration using a 5-year dataset (2012-2016) of observed runoff and soil loss in four different land uses (wooded Cerrado, tilled fallow without plant cover, pasture, and sugarcane) in experimental plots. Selected soil and management parameters were optimized for each land use during the WEPP model calibration with the existing field data. The simulations were conducted using the calibrated WEPP model components with a 100-year climate dataset created with CLIGEN (weather generator) based on regional climate statistics. We obtained downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) projections, and runoff and soil loss were predicted with WEPP using future climate scenarios for 2030, 2060, and 2090 considering different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The WEPP model had an acceptable performance for the subtropical conditions. Land use can influence runoff and soil loss rates in a significant way. Potential climate changes, which indicate the increase of rainfall intensities and depths, may increase the variability and rates of runoff and soil erosion. However, projected climate changes did not significantly affect the runoff and soil erosion for the four analyzed land uses at our location. Finally, the runoff behavior was distinct for each land use, but for soil loss we found similarities between pasture and wooded Cerrado, suggesting that the soil may attain a sustainable level when the land management follows conservation

  4. Fire and grazing effects on wind erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Lance T; Wester, David B; Mitchell, Robert B; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D

    2005-01-01

    Selective grazing of burned patches can be intense if animal distribution is not controlled and may compound the independent effects of fire and grazing on soil characteristics. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of patch burning and grazing on wind erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature in sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia Torr.) mixed prairie. We selected 24, 4-ha plots near Woodward, OK. Four plots were burned during autumn (mid-November) and four during spring (mid-April), and four served as nonburned controls for each of two years. Cattle were given unrestricted access (April-September) to burned patches (erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature were measured monthly. Wind erosion varied by burn, year, and sampling height. Wind erosion was about 2 to 48 times greater on autumn-burned plots than nonburned plots during the dormant period (December-April). Growing-season (April-August) erosion was greatest during spring. Erosion of spring-burned sites was double that of nonburned sites both years. Growing-season erosion from autumn-burned sites was similar to nonburned sites except for one year with a dry April-May. Soil water content was unaffected by patch burn treatments. Soils of burned plots were 1 to 3 degrees C warmer than those of nonburned plots, based on mid-day measurements. Lower water holding and deep percolation capacity of sandy soils probably moderated effects on soil water content and soil temperature. Despite poor growing conditions following fire and heavy selective grazing of burned patches, no blowouts or drifts were observed.

  5. Soil erosion spatial distribution patterns of different slopes by using 137Cs tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingyi; Tian Junliang; Liu Puling

    1999-01-01

    The soil erosion spatial patterns of several slopes were studied through measuring 137 Cs in the top layer soil on the different slopes. The results show that all the soil erosion spatial distribution patterns are in fluctuate trend. The soil erosion is more severe in the middle part on the short farmland slope. The erosion pattern of the gully base show violent head ward erosion. Because of the influence of vegetation cover and other factor, the erosion patterns on the gully slopes are complex. The soil erosion differs obviously with the compound slopes of the same slope gradient and slope length. In general, the main factor that influence soil erosion is the change of the micro-landforms in a long period

  6. EVALUATION OF SOIL EROSION IN REGHIN HILLS USING THE USLE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SZILAGYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the main causes of degradation of large areas of agricultural land, causing great economic loss by removing fertile soil. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE predicts the long term average annual rate of erosion on a field slope based on rainfall pattern, soil type, topography, crop system and management practices but does not however predict the soil loss resulting from gully erosion.

  7. Combined use of stable isotopes and fallout radionuclides as soil erosion indicators in a forested mountain site, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, K.; Mabit, L.; Alewell, C.; Park, J.H.; Sandor, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and to validate the suitability of the stable nitrogen and carbon isotope signature as soil erosion indicators in a mountain forest site in South Korea. Our approach is based on the comparison of the isotope signature of ''stable'' landscape positions (reference sites), which are neither affected by erosion nor deposition, with eroding sites. For undisturbed soils we expect that the enrichment of δ 15 N and δ 13 C with soil depth, due to fractionation during decomposition, goes in parallel with a decrease in nitrogen and carbon content. Soil erosion processes potentially weaken this correlation. The 137 Cs method and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were applied for the soil erosion quantification. Erosion rates obtained with the 137 Cs method range from 0.9 t ha -1 yr -1 to 7 t ha -1 yr -1 . Considering the steep slopes of up to 40 and the erosive monsoon events (R factor of 6600 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 ), the rates are plausible and within the magnitude of the RUSLE-modeled soil erosion rates, varying from 0.02 t ha -1 yr -1 to 5.1 t ha -1 yr -1 . The soil profiles of the reference sites showed significant (p < 0.0001) correlations between nitrogen and carbon content and its corresponding δ 15 N and δ 13 C signatures. In contrast, for the eroding sites this relationship was weaker and for the carbon not significant. These results confirm the usefulness of the stable carbon isotope signature as a qualitative indicator for soil disturbance. We could show further that the δ 15 N isotope signature can be used similarly for uncultivated sites. We thus propose that the stable δ 15 N and δ 13 C signature of soil profiles could serve as additional indicators confirming the accurate choice of the reference site in soil erosion studies using the 137 Cs method.

  8. The Impact of Land Use Changes on Soil Erosion and Sediment Cycle Using Distributed Modeling in A Tropical Watershed in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudha Siswanto, Shantosa; Francés, Félix

    2017-04-01

    High precipitation amount in tropical rainforest such as in West Java, Indonesia, results a massive run off and increase the possibility of erosion, sedimentation and floods. These conditions are aggravated by improper land use management such as deforestation. The objective of the present study is to identify the effect land use change on erosion and sediment. In order to shed more light on the problem, a distributed hydrological-sediment model, called TETIS, has been implemented. The model used 30 years of Hydro meteorological data. The required parameters were estimated using GIS. Three historical land uses (LU 1994, LU 2009 and LU 2014) and three scenarios (Indonesian government plan, conservation and natural vegetation) have been implemented. The return period of flood quantiles were calculated by the Maximum-Likelihood-method. Annual historical bathymetries in the reservoir were used to calibrate and validate the sediment sub-model involving Miller's density evolution and trap efficiency of Brune's equation. The actual evapotranspiration from 1994 to 2014 has reduced 11.0%, the overland flow has increased 17.5%, and meanwhile water yield has increased from 853.8 mm/yr to 963.6 mm/yr. The range of potential erosion was vary from 0 to 16.690 t/ha/yr with 37.26% of area higher than tolerable erosion (TE = 13.5 t/ha/yr). The percentage of actual erosion rate based on Hammer classification for low, moderate, high and severe were recorded as follow: 67, 8, 5 and 20% for LU 1994; 65, 9, 6 and 21% for LU 2009; 66, 8, 5 and 21% for LU 2014; 77, 7, 4 and 13% for Indonesian government plan scenario; 83, 9, 6 and 2% for conservation scenario and 98, 2, 0 and 0% for natural vegetation scenario, respectively. Meanwhile, the percentage of actual erosion rate that higher than tolerable erosion for LU 1994, LU 2009, LU 2014, Indonesian government plan, conservation and natural vegetation were 17,81%, 18.68%, 18.68%, 11.3%, 0.01% and 0%, respectively. The sediment yield

  9. Soil Erosion and the Carbon Cycle: Perspectives From the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, R. O.; Smith, S. V.; Renwick, W. H.; Buddemeier, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion, particularly accelerated erosion associated with agriculture and other human modification of land cover, has traditionally been viewed as a source of CO2 release to the atmosphere. The two primary lines of evidence for this interpretation have been the removal of soil organic carbon (SOC) at erosional sites and the low proportional transport of eroded SOC in rivers to the ocean. The imbalance between eroded SOC and the SOC in river sediments is explained via deposition as colluvium, floodplain sediments, or in natural and artificial water bodies and subsequent oxidation. In this context floodplains have been viewed as major sediment sinks in agricultural regions and erosion is a net source of CO2. Both model studies and regional budgetary analyses in the Mississippi River Basin lead to an alternative interpretation. Erosion at a site displaces SOC-rich topsoil. SOC displacement does not necessarily establish accelerated oxidation rates for this SOC. Rivers transport a small proportion of bulk erosion products (~10%) to the ocean; and most bulk erosion products are re-deposited after erosion. Important sites for re-deposition include geomorphic features such as natural lakes, both large and small artificial water bodies (reservoirs and ponds), and alluvial depositional sites. In recent decades the locus of the dominant sediment sinks has shifted to ponds and reservoirs as artificial impoundments have proliferated. Thus an increasing proportion of eroded soil is being deposited in subaqueous rather than subaerial environments. Regional examination of the SOC in depositional sites indicates that these sites have about the same SOC concentrations as their upland counterparts. Depositional areas occupy ~10% of the upland (erosional) area and have deposition rates of a magnitude capable of balancing the erosional loss. Various lines of evidence suggest that the oxidation rates per unit area in the depositional sites are about the same as or lower than the

  10. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Martí et al., 2012; Fernández et al., 2012; Guénon, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", Köppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerdà et al., 1995; Cerdà 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerdà, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; González-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fayós, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; González-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bodí et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-García et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fayós et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor

  11. The contribution of mulches to control high soil erosion rates in vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena; José Marqués, María; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    soil. The results show that the soil erosion is reduced by 10 on straw mulch covered soils and by 4 on chipped branches covered soil. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2013. Modelling post-tree-haversting soil erosion and sediment deposition potential in the Turano River Basin (Italian Central Apennine). Land Degradation & Development, DOI 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. García-Moreno, J., Gordillo-Rivero, Á.J., Zavala, L.M., Jordán, A., Pereira, P. 2013. Mulch application in fruit orchards increases the persistence of soil water repellency during a 15-years period. Soil and Tillage Research 130, 62-68. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion vulnerability across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Segura; G. Sun; S. McNulty; Y. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall runoff erosivity (R) is one key climate factor that controls water erosion. Quantifying the effects of climate change-induced erosivity change is important for identifying critical regions prone to soil erosion under a changing environment. In this study we first evaluate the changes of R from 1970 to 2090 across the United States under nine climate conditions...

  13. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  14. Facing the scaling problem: A multi-methodical approach to simulate soil erosion at hillslope and catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmengler, A. C.; Vlek, P. L. G.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling soil erosion requires a holistic understanding of the sediment dynamics in a complex environment. As most erosion models are scale-dependent and their parameterization is spatially limited, their application often requires special care, particularly in data-scarce environments. This study presents a hierarchical approach to overcome the limitations of a single model by using various quantitative methods and soil erosion models to cope with the issues of scale. At hillslope scale, the physically-based Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP)-model is used to simulate soil loss and deposition processes. Model simulations of soil loss vary between 5 to 50 t ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the spatial location on the hillslope and have only limited correspondence with the results of the 137Cs technique. These differences in absolute soil loss values could be either due to internal shortcomings of each approach or to external scale-related uncertainties. Pedo-geomorphological soil investigations along a catena confirm that estimations by the 137Cs technique are more appropriate in reflecting both the spatial extent and magnitude of soil erosion at hillslope scale. In order to account for sediment dynamics at a larger scale, the spatially-distributed WaTEM/SEDEM model is used to simulate soil erosion at catchment scale and to predict sediment delivery rates into a small water reservoir. Predicted sediment yield rates are compared with results gained from a bathymetric survey and sediment core analysis. Results show that specific sediment rates of 0.6 t ha-1 yr-1 by the model are in close agreement with observed sediment yield calculated from stratigraphical changes and downcore variations in 137Cs concentrations. Sediment erosion rates averaged over the entire catchment of 1 to 2 t ha-1 yr-1 are significantly lower than results obtained at hillslope scale confirming an inverse correlation between the magnitude of erosion rates and the spatial scale of the model. The

  15. Simulating soil erosion risk for Pan-European land use and climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, S.; Kirby, M.; Daroussin, J.; Jones, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Soil is a vital resource with multiple functions and with high regional and internal variability. Accelerated soil erosion is a cause for decline in soil quality and is increasingly being recognized as a serious environmental problem. Soil erosion is a function of factors such as: land use and

  16. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  17. A case study of soil erosion and sedimentation magnitudes in Morocco using 137-Cs & 210-Pbex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, L.,; Benmansour, M.,; Nouira, A.,

    2010-05-01

    Despite the severity of land degradation in Morocco, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion rates. Most of the previous research used conventional measurements. Since the mid 1990's only a few studies reported the use of the 137-Cs approach and, excess lead-210 (210-Pbex) as soil tracer in Morocco. The site under investigation is a one hectare agricultural field dominated by cereals under conventional tillage (plough depth ~ 16 cm) and semiarid climate located in Marchouch 68 km south east from Rabat (Morocco). In this field, 50 soil core samples were collected along 5 parallel transects. The initial 137-Cs and 210-Pb fallout were assessed through 12 core samples collected in an undisturbed pasture located 3 km from the field studied. After γ-spectrometry analysis, the areal activities of 137-Cs and 210-Pbex were converted into soil redistribution rates using the convertion model Mass Balance Model II (MBM II). Soil redistribution rates obtained from both isotopes were analyzed using geostatistic approach and a classical interpolation concept (Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW)). Maps of soil redistribution were established and a sediment budget for the whole field was calculated. For the reference site, the vertical distribution associated with both radionuclides was similar and concentrated in the top 10 cm with a clear exponential decrease with depth. The reference inventories values were estimated at 3305 Bq m-2 (n = 12; CV of 30%) and 1445 Bq m-2 (n = 12; CV of 18%) for 210-Pbex and 137-Cs, respectively. For the cultivated site, experimental variograms of soil redistribution rate calculated from the data provided by the 137-Cs and 210-Pbex results were fitted. Following the optimization of variographic parameters and the cross-validation analysis, the geostatistical study of the data set reported a very weak autocorrelation. So, a simple spatialisation of the data set using IDW2 was used to spatialise the soil redistribution

  18. The Effect of Land Use on Soil Erosion in the Guadiana Watershed in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANIA DEL MAR LÓPEZ; T. MITCHELL AIDE; SCATENA F. N.

    1998-01-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System to determine the influence of land use and other environmental factors on soil erosion in the Guadiana watershed in Puerto Rico. Mean annual erosion, suspended sediment discharge, and the rainfall-erosion factor of the RUSLE increased with annual rainfall....

  19. Timing of erosion and satellite data: a multi-resolution approach to soil risk mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Jong, de S.M.; Sterk, G.; Rodrigues, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Erosion reduces soil productivity and causes negative downstream impacts. Erosion processes occur on areas with erodible soils and sloping terrain when high-intensity rainfall coincides with limited vegetation cover. Timing of erosion events has implications on the selection of satellite imagery,

  20. Quantification soil production and erosion using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosseto, Anthony; Suresh, P. O.

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a critical resource, especially in the context of a rapidly growing world's population. Thus, it is crucial to be able to quantify how soil resources evolve with time and how fast they become depleted. Over the past few years, the application of cosmogenic isotopes has permitted to constrain rates of soil denudation. By assuming constant soil thickness, it is also possible to use these denudation rates to infer soil production rates (Heimsath et al. 1997). However, in this case, it is not possible to discuss any imbalance between erosion and production, which is the core question when interested in soil resource sustainability. Recently, the measurement of uranium-series isotopes in soils has been used to quantify the residence time of soil material in the weathering profile and to infer soil production rates (Dequincey et al. 2002; Dosseto et al. 2008). Thus, the combination of U-series and cosmogenic isotopes can be used to discuss how soil resources evolve with time, whether they are depleting, increasing or in steady-state. Recent work has been undertaken in temperate southeastern Australia where a several meters thick saprolite is developed over a graniodioritc bedrock and underlains a meter or less of soil (Dosseto et al., 2008) and in tropical Puerto Rico, also in a granitic catchment. Results show that in an environment where human activity is minimal, soil and saprolite are renewed as fast as they are destroyed through denudation. Further work is investigating these processes at other sites in southeastern Australia (Frogs Hollow; Heimsath et al. 2001) and Puerto Rico (Rio Mameyes catchment; andesitic bedrock). Results will be presented and a review of the quantification of the rates of soil evolution using isotopic techniques will be given. Dequincey, O., F. Chabaux, et al. (2002). Chemical mobilizations in laterites: Evidence from trace elements and 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66(7): 1197-1210. Dosseto, A., S. P

  1. Drawing a representative sample from the NCSS soil database: Building blocks for the national wind erosion network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing national wind erosion models for the continental United States requires a comprehensive spatial representation of continuous soil particle size distributions (PSD) for model input. While the current coverage of soil survey is nearly complete, the most detailed particle size classes have c...

  2. Estimation of soil erosion risk within an important agricultural sub-watershed in Bursa, Turkey, in relation to rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Aksoy, Ertugrul

    2015-07-01

    This paper integrates the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a GIS model to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss and identify areas of soil erosion risk in the Uluabat sub-watershed, an important agricultural site in Bursa Province, Turkey. The total soil loss from water erosion was 473,274 Mg year(-1). Accordingly, 60.3% of the surveyed area was classified into a very low erosion risk class while 25.7% was found to be in high and severe erosion risk classes. Soil loss had a close relationship with land use and topography. The most severe erosion risk typically occurs on ridges and steep slopes where agriculture, degraded forest, and shrubs are the main land uses and cover types. Another goal of this study was to use GIS to reveal the multi-year urbanization status caused by rapid urbanization that constitutes another soil erosion risk in this area. Urbanization has increased by 57.7% and the most areal change was determined in class I lands at a rate of 80% over 25 years. Urbanization was identified as one of the causes of excessive soil loss in the study area.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Responses of Soil Erosion to Climate Change Impacts in a Transnational Watershed in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Quy Giang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely predicted that Southeast Asia is among the regions facing the most severe climate change impacts. Despite this forecast, little research has been published on the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion in this region. This study focused on the impact of climate change on spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in the Laos–Vietnam transnational Upper Ca River Watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT coupled with downscaled global climate models (GCMs was employed for simulation. Soil erosion in the watershed was mostly found as “hill-slope erosion”, which occurred seriously in the upstream area where topography is dominated by numerous steep hills with sparse vegetation cover. However, under the impact of climate change, it is very likely that soil erosion rate in the downstream area will increase at a higher rate than in its upstream area due to a greater increase in precipitation. Seasonally, soil erosion is predicted to increase significantly in the warmer and wetter climate of the wet season, when higher erosive power of an increased amount and intensity of rainfall is accompanied by higher sediment transport capacity. The results of this study provide useful information for decision makers to plan where and when soil conservation practice should be focused.

  4. Soil erosion predictions from a landscape evolution model - An assessment of a post-mining landform using spatial climate change analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G R; Verdon-Kidd, D; Lowry, J B C

    2017-12-01

    Landscape Evolution Modelling (LEM) technologies provide a means by which it is possible to simulate the long-term geomorphic stability of a conceptual rehabilitated landform. However, simulations rarely consider the potential effects of anthropogenic climate change and consequently risk not accounting for the range of rainfall variability that might be expected in both the near and far future. One issue is that high resolution (both spatial and temporal) rainfall projections incorporating the potential effects of greenhouse forcing are required as input. However, projections of rainfall change are still highly uncertain for many regions, particularly at sub annual/seasonal scales. This is the case for northern Australia, where a decrease or an increase in rainfall post 2030 is considered equally likely based on climate model simulations. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate a spatial analogue approach to develop point scale hourly rainfall scenarios to be used as input to the CAESAR - Lisflood LEM to test the sensitivity of the geomorphic stability of a conceptual rehabilitated landform to potential changes in climate. Importantly, the scenarios incorporate the range of projected potential increase/decrease in rainfall for northern Australia and capture the expected envelope of erosion rates and erosion patterns (i.e. where erosion and deposition occurs) over a 100year modelled period. We show that all rainfall scenarios produce sediment output and gullying greater than that of the surrounding natural system, however a 'wetter' future climate produces the highest output. Importantly, incorporating analogue rainfall scenarios into LEM has the capacity to both improve landform design and enhance the modelling software. Further, the method can be easily transferred to other sites (both nationally and internationally) where rainfall variability is significant and climate change impacts are uncertain. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  5. The price of soil erosion : an economic evaluation of soil conservation and watershed development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is the principal cause of land degradation, and a major constraint to agricultural development in developing countries. In semi-arid zones measures have to be taken to reduce on-site soil, water and nutrient losses and in sub-humid mountainous zones the focus should also be on

  6. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these

  7. Technical note on local adaptations to soil erosion and low soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the local adaptations to soil erosion and low soil water status in the semi arid Tharaka area in Kenya. Personal interviews and non-participant observations were used to solicit information from 137 small-scale farmers. A workshop was held in each of the three village clusters at the beginning and at the ...

  8. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of classical and radionuclide methods to investigate soil erosion in the Beskidy Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, W.

    1997-01-01

    Information concerning the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition on cultivated hillslopes is difficult to obtain using conventional soil loss monitoring techniques. The use of the fallout radionuclides 134 Cs and 137 Cs as a sediment tracers offers considerable potential for elucidating patterns of soil redistribution. This paper presents the results of an investigation of soil erosion on a cultivate hillslope within the Homerka drainage basin in the Polish Flysch Carpathians, based on 134 Cs and 137 Cs measurements. The 137 Cs inventories of soils in this region reflect inputs from both bomb and Chernobyl-derived fallout. The high degree of spatial variability associated with Chernobyl fallout deposition poses considerable limitations on the potential for using radiocesium measurements to elucidate detailed patterns of soil loss. With an application of cesium method it was stated that during the last 35 years sediment storage within the edge of agricultural terraces is ca. 4 mm year -1 on the average on agricultural experimental slope in the drainage basin of Homerka. This value reflects tillage and dispersed wash and is comparable with the intensity of erosion on agricultural plots. The results provided by the 137 Cs measurements are consistent with other process-based measurements undertaken on the slopes and with available evidence concerning the dominant sources of suspended sediment transported by the local streams. A general model of soil loss and sediment delivery from cultivated slopes in the Polish Flysch Carpathians is proposed. (author)

  10. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  11. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  12. Soil erosion evolution and spatial correlation analysis in a typical karst geomorphology using RUSLE with GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zeng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although some scholars have studied soil erosion in karst landforms, analyses of the spatial and temporal evolution of soil erosion and correlation analyses with spatial elements have been insufficient. The lack of research has led to an inaccurate assessment of environmental effects, especially in the mountainous area of Wuling in China. Soil erosion and rocky desertification in this area influence the survival and sustainability of a population of 0.22 billion people. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution of soil erosion and explores its relationship with rocky desertification using GIS technology and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the relationship between soil erosion and major natural elements in southern China. The results are as follows: (1 from 2000 to 2013, the proportion of the area experiencing micro-erosion and mild erosion was at increasing risk in contrast to areas where moderate and high erosion are decreasing. The area changes in this time sequence reflect moderate to high levels of erosion tending to convert into micro-erosion and mild erosion. (2 The soil erosion area on the slope, at 15–35°, accounted for 60.59 % of the total erosion area, and the corresponding soil erosion accounted for 40.44 %. (3 The annual erosion rate in the karst region decreased much faster than in the non-karst region. Soil erosion in all of the rock outcrop areas indicates an improving trend, and dynamic changes in soil erosion significantly differ among the various lithological distribution belts. (4 The soil erosion rate decreased in the rocky desertification regions, to below moderate levels, but increased in the severe rocky desertification areas. The temporal and spatial variations in soil erosion gradually decreased in the study area. Differences in the spatial distribution between lithology and rocky desertification induced extensive soil loss. As rocky desertification

  13. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance retain terraces on soil erosion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The GAEC standard retain terraces of cross compliance prohibits farmers the elimination of existing terraces, with the aim to ensure the protection of soil from erosion. In the Italian literature there are not field studies to quantify the effects of the elimination or degradation of terraces on soil erosion. Therefore, the modeling approach was chosen and applied in a scenario analysis to evaluate increasing levels of degradation of stone wall terraces. The study was conducted on two sample areas: Lamole (700.8 ha, Tuscany and Costaviola (764.73 ha, Calabria with contrasting landscapes. The Universal Soil Loss Equation model (USLE was applied in the comparative assessment of the soil erosion risk (Mg . ha-1 . yr-1, by simulating five increasing intensity of terrace degradation, respectively: conserved partially damaged, very damaged, partially removed, removed, each of which corresponding to different values of the indexes of verification in case of infringement to GAEC standard provided for by the AGEA rules which have come into force since December 2009 (Agency for Agricultural Payments. To growing intensity of degradation, a progressive loss of efficacy of terraces was attributed by increasing the values of the LS factor (length and slope of USLE in relation with the local modification of the length and steepness of the slope between adjacent terraces. Basically, it was simulated the gradual return to the natural morphology of the slope. The results of the analysis showed a significant increase in erosion in relationship with increasing degradation of terraces. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that the GAEC standard retain terraces is very effective with regard to the primary objective of reducing erosion. A further statistical analysis was performed to test the protective value of terraces against soil erosion in areas where agriculture was abandoned. The analysis was carried out by comparing the specific risk of erosion (Mg . ha-1

  14. Pyrogenic Carbon Erosion: Implications for Stock and Persistence of Pyrogenic Carbon in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B. Abney

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC constitutes an important pool of soil organic matter (SOM, particularly for its reactivity and because of its assumed long residence times in soil. In the past, research on the dynamics of PyC in the soil system has focused on quantifying stock and mean residence time (MRT of PyC in soil, as well as determining both PyC stabilization mechanisms and loss pathways. Much of this research has focused on decomposition as the most important loss pathway for PyC from soil. However, the low density of PyC and its high concentration on the soil surface after fire indicates that a significant proportion of PyC formed or deposited on the soil surface is likely laterally transported away from the site of production by wind and water erosion. Here, we present a synthesis of available data and literature to compare the magnitude of the water-driven erosional PyC flux with other important loss pathways, including leaching and decomposition, of PyC from soil. Furthermore, we use a simple first-order kinetic model of soil PyC dynamics to assess the effect of erosion and deposition on residence time of PyC in eroding landscapes. Current reports of PyC MRT range from 250 to 660 years. Using a specific example-based model system, we find that ignoring the role of erosion may lead to the under- or over-estimation of PyC MRT on the centennial time scale. Furthermore, we find that, depending on the specific landform positions, timescales considered, and initial concentrations of PyC in soil, ignoring the role of erosion in distributing PyC across a landscape can lead to discrepancies in PyC concentrations on the order of several 100 g PyC m−2. Erosion is an important PyC flux that can act as a significant control on the stock and residence time of PyC in the soil system.

  15. Pyrogenic carbon erosion: implications for stock and persistence of pyrogenic carbon in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Rebecca B.; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

    2018-03-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) constitutes an important pool of soil organic matter, particularly for its reactivity and because of its assumed long residence times in soil. In the past, research on the dynamics of PyC in the soil system has focused on quantifying stock and mean residence time of PyC in soil, as well as determining both PyC stabilization mechanisms and loss pathways. Much of this research has focused on decomposition as the most important loss pathway for PyC from soil. However, the low density of PyC and its high concentration on the soil surface after fire indicates that a significant proportion of PyC formed or deposited on the soil surface is likely laterally transported away from the site of production by wind and water erosion. Here, we present a synthesis of available data and literature to compare the magnitude of the water-driven erosional PyC flux with other important loss pathways, including leaching and decomposition, of PyC from soil. Furthermore, we use a simple first-order kinetic model of soil PyC dynamics to assess the effect of erosion and deposition on residence time of PyC in eroding landscapes. Current reports of PyC mean residence time (MRT) range from 250 to 660 years. Using a specific example-based model system, we find that ignoring the role of erosion may lead to the under- or over-estimation of PyC MRT on the centennial time scale. Furthermore, we find that, depending on the specific landform positions, timescales considered, and initial concentrations of PyC in soil, ignoring the role of erosion in distributing PyC across a landscape can lead to discrepancies in PyC concentrations on the order of several hundred g PyC m-2. Erosion is an important PyC flux that can act as a significant control on the stock and residence time of PyC in the soil system.

  16. Mapping soil erosion hotspots and assessing the potential impacts of land management practices in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamene, Lulseged; Adimassu, Zenebe; Ellison, James; Yaekob, Tesfaye; Woldearegay, Kifle; Mekonnen, Kindu; Thorne, Peter; Le, Quang Bao

    2017-09-01

    An enormous effort is underway in Ethiopia to address soil erosion and restore overall land productivity. Modelling and participatory approaches can be used to delineate erosion hotspots, plan site- and context-specific interventions and assess their impacts. In this study, we employed a modelling interface developed based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation adjusted by the sediment delivery ratio to map the spatial distribution of net soil loss and identify priority areas of intervention. Using the modelling interface, we also simulated the potential impacts of different soil and water conservation measures in reducing net soil loss. Model predictions showed that net soil loss in the study area ranges between 0.4 and 88 t ha- 1 yr- 1 with an average of 12 t ha- 1 yr- 1. The dominant soil erosion hotspots were associated with steep slopes, gullies, communal grazing and cultivated areas. The average soil loss observed in this study is higher than the tolerable soil loss rate estimated for the highland of Ethiopia. The scenario analysis results showed that targeting hotspot areas where soil loss exceeds 10 t ha- 1 yr- 1 could reduce net soil loss to the tolerable limit (< 2 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The spatial distribution of soil loss and the sediment yield reduction potential of different options provided essential information to guide prioritization and targeting. In addition, the results can help promoting awareness within the local community of the severity of the soil erosion problem and the potential of management interventions. Future work should include cost-benefit and tradeoff analyses of the various management options for achieving a given level of erosion reduction.

  17. 1 Indigenous Approach to the Control of Soil Erosion among Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Idian', 'Agbin-Taala',. 'Agbin-la', 'Agbin-Po' and ... controlling erosion, their practices coincidentally assist in averting soil erosion to considerable degree. The paper therefore .... Simple statistical tools (percentages) were used to analyze the ...

  18. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the assistance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the PSED model can handle and analyze extremely large hydrologic and physiographic datasets and simulate the physical erosion process without the need for simplification. We verified the PSED model using three typhoon events and 40 rainfall events.

  19. Use of 137Cs technique for soil erosion study in the agricultural region of Casablanca in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, A.; Sayouty, E.H.; Benmansour, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerated erosion and soil degradation currently cause serious problems to the Oued El Maleh basin (Morocco). Furthermore, there is still only limited information on rates of soil loss for optimising strategies for soil conservation. In the present study we have used the 137 Cs technique to assess the soil erosion rates on an agricultural land in Oued el Maleh basin near Casablanca (Morocco). A small representative agricultural field was selected to investigate the soil degradation required by soil managers in this region. The transect approach was applied for sampling to identify the spatial redistribution of 137 Cs. The spatial variability of 137 Cs inventory has provided evidence of the importance of tillage process and the human effects on the redistribution of 137 Cs. The mean 137 Cs inventory was found about 842 Bq m -2 , this value corresponds to an erosion rate of 82 tha -1 yr -1 by applying simplified mass balance model in a preliminary estimation. When data on site characteristics were available, the refined mass balance model was applied to highlight the contribution of tillage effect in soil redistribution. The erosion rate was estimated about 50 tha -1 yr -1 . The aspects related to the sampling procedures and the models for calculation of erosion rates are discussed

  20. Reduction of the efficacy of biochar as soil amendment by soil erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Greenwood, Philip

    Biochar is primarily used as soil amendment to improve soil quality and to sequester more carbon (C) to increase both medium- and long-term soil C stocks. These positive effects are obviously diminished if biochar is eroded and transported out of the field. Due to its low bulk density......, the preferential mobilization and redistribution of biochar in the landscape seems probable. Therefore, the question has been raised in recent years of how vulnerable biochar actually is to soil erosion. This is especially relevant on soils which are regularly cultivated and are vulnerable to soil erosion...... themselves. However, so far few studies about the erodibility of biochar exist and the answer to this question is still unknown. It is therefore important to further our knowledge about mobilization and transport be-haviour of biochar. Moreover, such knowledge could have profound economic implications...

  1. Scenario Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Xiejia Watershed Based on Improved CSLE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieying; Yu, Ming; Wu, Yong; Huang, Yao; Nie, Yawen

    2018-01-01

    According to the existing research results and related data, use the scenario analysis method, to evaluate the effects of different soil and water conservation measures on soil erosion in a small watershed. Based on the analysis of soil erosion scenarios and model simulation budgets in the study area, it is found that all scenarios simulated soil erosion rates are lower than the present situation of soil erosion in 2013. Soil and water conservation measures are more effective in reducing soil erosion than soil and water conservation biological measures and soil and water conservation tillage measures.

  2. What can we learn from national-scale geodata describing soil erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaud, Pia; Anderson, Karen; Carvalho, Jason; Evans, Martin; Glendell, Miriam; James, Mike; Lark, Murray; Quine, Timothy; Quinton, John; Rawlins, Barry; Rickson, Jane; Truckell, Ian; Brazier, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The United Kingdom has a rich dataset of soil erosion observations, which have been collected using a wide range of methodologies, across various spatial and temporal scales. Yet, while observations of soil erosion have been carried out along-side agricultural development and intensification, understanding whether or not the UK has a soil erosion problem remains a question to be answered. Furthermore, although good reviews of existing soil erosion rates exist, there is no single resource that brings all of this work together. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to build a picture of why attempts to quantify erosion rates across the UK empirically have fallen short, through: (1) Collating all available, UK-based and empirically-derived soil erosion datasets into a spatially explicit and open-access database, (2) Developing an understanding of observed magnitudes of erosion, in the UK, (3) Evaluating impact of non-environmental controls on erosion observations i.e. study methodologies, and (4) Exploring trends between environmental controls and erosion rates. To-date, the database holds over 1500 records, which include results from both experimental and natural conditions, across arable, grassland and upland environments. Of the studies contained in the database, erosion has been observed ca. 40% of instances, ranging from soil loss via visible erosion features, such as rills or gullies, through volumetric assessments. Furthermore, there has been an inherent bias in the UK towards quantifying soil erosion in locations with either a known history or high probability of erosion occurrence. As a consequence, we conclude that such databases, may not be used to make a statistically unbiased assessment of national-scale erosion rates, however, they can highlight maximum likely rates under a wide range of soil, topography and land use conditions. Finally, this work suggests there is a strong argument for a replicable and statistically robust national soil

  3. Remote sensing monitoring on soil erosion based on LUCC in Beijing mountain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiying, Chen

    2014-01-01

    The eco-environmental problems caused by land use and land cover change have been a severe block to regional sustainable development in the Beijing mountain areas. In this study, two temporal Landsat TM images in 2002 and 2009 were used, the soil erosion factors included vegetation coverage, slope and land use were calculated. The soil erosion degree was divided into six levels, micro, mild, moderate, strong, intensive and severe. The raster data with 30 m × 30 m pixels small-class of the soil erosion map was used to extract soil erosion information. This thesis evaluated soil erosion dynamic in Beijing mountain areas based on land use and land cover change with the combination of technologies and methodologies of multi-temporal satellite remote sensing, GIS and field investigation. The soil erosion change and their driving forces were analysed. The results showed micro and mild soil erosion mainly existed in the Beijing mountain areas. The moderate erosion emerged in the areas with both slope and poor vegetation cover. The strong, intensive and severe soil erosion were rare but distributed in mountainous areas in Huairou, Miyun, and Mentougou. The soil erosion situation has improved markedly due to environment management from 2002 to 2009

  4. Estimation of small-scale soil erosion in laboratory experiments with Structure from Motion photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer-Puig, Matilde; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Lerma, José Luis; Ibáñez-Asensio, Sara

    2017-10-01

    The quantitative estimation of changes in terrain surfaces caused by water erosion can be carried out from precise descriptions of surfaces given by means of digital elevation models (DEMs). Some stages of water erosion research efforts are conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulators and soil boxes with areas less than 1 m2. Under these conditions, erosive processes can lead to very small surface variations and high precision DEMs are needed to account for differences measured in millimetres. In this paper, we used a photogrammetric Structure from Motion (SfM) technique to build DEMs of a 0.5 m2 soil box to monitor several simulated rainfall episodes in the laboratory. The technique of DEM of difference (DoD) was then applied using GIS tools to compute estimates of volumetric changes between each pair of rainfall episodes. The aim was to classify the soil surface into three classes: erosion areas, deposition areas, and unchanged or neutral areas, and quantify the volume of soil that was eroded and deposited. We used a thresholding criterion of changes based on the estimated error of the difference of DEMs, which in turn was obtained from the root mean square error of the individual DEMs. Experimental tests showed that the choice of different threshold values in the DoD can lead to volume differences as large as 60% when compared to the direct volumetric difference. It turns out that the choice of that threshold was a key point in this method. In parallel to photogrammetric work, we collected sediments from each rain episode and obtained a series of corresponding measured sediment yields. The comparison between computed and measured sediment yields was significantly correlated, especially when considering the accumulated value of the five simulations. The computed sediment yield was 13% greater than the measured sediment yield. The procedure presented in this paper proved to be suitable for the determination of sediment yields in rainfall-driven soil

  5. Estimating potential soil erosion for environmental services in a sugarcane growing area using multisource remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulianga, B.; Bégué, A.; Simoes, M.; Clouvel, P.; Todoroff, P.

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of landscapes is crucial in modelling potential soil erosion to ascertain environmental services that are provided by the main land use in the ecosystem. Remote sensing techniques have proved successful in characterization of landscapes. In this study area of a rain-fed Kibos-Miwani sugar zone of Kenya, we used Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data extracted from satellite imagery to characterize the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the vegetation conditions, and to model potential soil erosion. Data used included Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m NDVI acquired in the period 2000 to 2013; 30 m Landsat5 time series images acquired between November 2010 and June 2011; a 30 m digital elevation model (DEM); and ground observations (land cover and soil characteristics). Temporal NDVI was extracted directly from MODIS 250 m images to study the changes in seasonal vegetation conditions with time, and spatial NDVI was extracted by analysing Landsat5 images at the field scale. NDVI extracted from Landsat images for a specific date, represented vegetation conditions for that simulation period. To compute potential soil erosion, we used Landsat 5 NDVI, the slope, aspect, curvature and soil physical properties as input data sets in the spatially explicit Fuzzy-based dynamic soil erosion model (FuDSEM). Land cover data collected revealed that sugarcane was the main land use, occupying 76% of the land cover. Results were consistent with crop management practices, illustrating a spatially heterogeneous land scape with varied vegetation conditions throughout the year. Out of simulations, we noted a homogeneous low erosion risk in areas with natural land cover with a global mean of 0.42. Medium to intense erosion risk in cropped areas was evident, with erosion risk varying from one pixel to the other. Simulation results suggest that crop management practices (planting and harvesting processes) are the drivers of erosion

  6. Effects of Land Use and Slope Gradient on Soil Erosion in a Red Soil Hilly Watershed of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanyu Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to develop an appropriate plan of land use under suitable slope gradient to control soil erosion from a red soil hilly watershed of southern China by using the GeoWEPP (Geo-spatial Interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project model. The model was calibrated and validated using monitoring data of the outlet from 2010 to 2012, in which the 2010 and 2012 annual total runoff and sediment yield data were used for calibration, and the 2011 monthly runoff and sediment yield data for validation. The performance of the model in validation period were good with a high coefficient of determination values of 0.98 and 0.93 and Nash-Sutcliffe simulations of 0.96 and 0.91 while low root mean square error values of 6.91 mm and 0.35 t respectively for runoff and sediment yield. Subsequently, the model was used to simulate four typical land use (forest, farm, orchard, and fallow land in the study area to evaluate their impacts on soil erosion production. The results showed that the runoff decreased by 44.7% and 61.1% for forest and orchard land compared to the current land use, as well as the sediment yield decreased by 43.7% and 68.6%. While the runoff and sediment yield increased by 52.2% and 42.6% for farm land, and 48.8% and 29.6% for fallow land. As the same time, soil erosion increased with increasing of the slope gradient of the quadratic regression equation for all land use. The critical slope gradient of 15° for returning the farmland to forest or others is suitable in the red soil region but is not accurate. The result of the study provides good scientific evidence for developing an appropriate plan of land use in the watershed and other similar areas.

  7. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmansour, M.; Mabit, L.; Nouira, A.; Moussadek, R.; Bouksirate, H.; Duchemin, M.; Benkdad, A.

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation – mainly caused by soil erosion – is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42′ W, 33° 47′ N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha −1 yr −1 and 12.1 ha −1 yr −1 for 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the 137 Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. - Highlights: ► Net erosion rates estimated by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex techniques were found comparable. ► The water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field. ► Soil erosion process has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. ► The prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of

  8. Changeability of soil erosion variables in small field plots from different rainfall durations with constant intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebikord, Azadeh; Khaledi Darvishan, Abdulvahed; Alavi, Seyed Jalil

    2017-05-01

    Rainfall duration is among the most effective characteristics of erosivity factor on runoff, splash and soil loss, especially when a rainfall duration is selected for laboratory or field plot studies. Selecting the appropriate rainfall duration particularly in laboratory studies (because of higher relative changes in lower durations), may lead to decrease the errors in the studied treatments. The rainfall duration must be well considered before any experiments exploring the effect of rainfall as one of the main factors. Therefore, the present study was conducted in field plots with area of 1 m2 located in an 18% slope, loamy-clay, under rainfall simulation with the intensity of 40 mm h-1. Total and net splashes, sediment concentration, soil loss, sheet erosion and sediment delivery ratio were measured and evaluated in 6 levels of rainfall duration (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min), with 3 replications. The results showed that, although the runoff volume increased with increasing rainfall duration generally, there was insufficient capacity for runoff to transport the considerable amounts of the splashed and eroded soil to the plot outlet. The translocation of soil surface particles and sheet erosion were therefore increased due to more duration of rainfall and runoff, while a significant portion of the eroded soil, even after 30 min rainfall duration was not transported to the plot outlet. Based on the results, the sensitivity and efficiency of Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Generalized Additive Model (GAM) in the evaluation of the differences between hydrological responses in various rainfall durations were different. According to the results, there was a change in the average ratio of sediment delivery in studied treatments from 0.41 to 13.03% for 5 and 30 min respectively. The results clearly showed that the duration corresponding to the intensity is the best choice to adopt soil erosion studies at plot and experimental conditions.

  9. Ecological effects of the Hayman Fire - Part 3: Soil properties, erosion, and implications for rehabilitation and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan E. Cipra; Eugene F. Kelly; Lee MacDonald; John Norman

    2003-01-01

    This team was asked to address three questions regarding soil properties, erosion and sedimentation, and how aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have responded or could respond to various land management options. We have used soil survey maps, burn severity maps, and digital elevation model (DEM) maps as primary map data. We used our own field measurements and...

  10. Land management, erosion problems and soil and water conservation in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, T.; Sterk, G.

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of soil erosion processes, attitude towards rational use of resources and institutional support affect the capability of farmers to implement soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. This research was conducted to determine soil erosion problems and the factors that affect the

  11. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  12. Farmers' indicators for soil erosion mapping and crop yield estimation in central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoba, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    The central highlands of Kenya is characterised by abundant rainfall and fertile volcanic soils that support agricultural activities but problems of soil erosion are widespread in the region. Past efforts to control the soil erosion problems were through application of regulations that enforced

  13. Soil Erosion Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Wadi Yalamlam Basin, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbou A. Bahrawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the major environmental problems in terms of soil degradation in Saudi Arabia. Soil erosion leads to significant on- and off-site impacts such as significant decrease in the productive capacity of the land and sedimentation. The key aspects influencing the quantity of soil erosion mainly rely on the vegetation cover, topography, soil type, and climate. This research studies the quantification of soil erosion under different levels of data availability in Wadi Yalamlam. Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques have been implemented for the assessment of the data, applying the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE for the calculation of the risk of erosion. Thirty-four soil samples were randomly selected for the calculation of the erodibility factor, based on calculating the K-factor values derived from soil property surfaces after interpolating soil sampling points. Soil erosion risk map was reclassified into five erosion risk classes and 19.3% of the Wadi Yalamlam is under very severe risk (37,740 ha. GIS and RS proved to be powerful instruments for mapping soil erosion risk, providing sufficient tools for the analytical part of this research. The mapping results certified the role of RUSLE as a decision support tool.

  14. Impact of cornstalk buffer strip on hillslope soil erosion and its hydrodynamic understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erosion is still a serious concern on the Loess Plateau despite extensive soil conservation measures. Cornstalk buffer strip is not well utilized on the Loess Plateau, and there is little information on the hydrodynamic understanding of this soil erosion control practice. A simulated rainfall e...

  15. Scenario Studies on Effects of Soil Infiltration Rates, Land Slope, and Furrow Irrigation Characteristics on Furrow Irrigation-Induced Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibal, Jibrin M; Ramalan, A A; Mudiare, O J; Igbadun, H E

    2014-01-01

    Furrow irrigation proceeds under several soil-water-furrow hydraulics interaction dynamics. The soil erosion consequences from such interactions in furrow irrigation in Samaru had remained uncertain. A furrow irrigation-induced erosion (FIIE) model was used to simulate the potential severity of soil erosion in irrigated furrows due to interactive effects of infiltration rates, land slope, and some furrow irrigation characteristics under different scenarios. The furrow irrigation characteristics considered were furrow lengths, widths, and stream sizes. The model itself was developed using the dimensional analysis approach. The scenarios studied were the interactive effects of furrow lengths, furrow widths, and slopes steepness; infiltration rates and furrow lengths; and stream sizes, furrow lengths, and slopes steepness on potential furrow irrigation-induced erosion, respectively. The severity of FIIE was found to relate somewhat linearly with slope and stream size, and inversely with furrow lengths and furrow width. The worst soil erosion (378.05 t/ha/yr) was found as a result of the interactive effects of 0.65 m furrow width, 50 m furrow length, and 0.25% slope steepness; and the least soil erosion (0.013 t/ha/yr) was induced by the combined effects of 0.5 l/s, 200 m furrow length, and 0.05% slope steepness. Evidently considering longer furrows in furrow irrigation designs would be a better alternative of averting excessive FIIE.

  16. Estimation of Soil Erosion Dynamics in the Koshi Basin Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Assess Priority Areas for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Kabir; Murthy, M S R; Wahid, Shahriar M; Matin, Mir A

    2016-01-01

    High levels of water-induced erosion in the transboundary Himalayan river basins are contributing to substantial changes in basin hydrology and inundation. Basin-wide information on erosion dynamics is needed for conservation planning, but field-based studies are limited. This study used remote sensing (RS) data and a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the spatial distribution of soil erosion across the entire Koshi basin, to identify changes between 1990 and 2010, and to develop a conservation priority map. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) was used in an ArcGIS environment with rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover-management, and support practice factors as primary parameters. The estimated annual erosion from the basin was around 40 million tonnes (40 million tonnes in 1990 and 42 million tonnes in 2010). The results were within the range of reported levels derived from isolated plot measurements and model estimates. Erosion risk was divided into eight classes from very low to extremely high and mapped to show the spatial pattern of soil erosion risk in the basin in 1990 and 2010. The erosion risk class remained unchanged between 1990 and 2010 in close to 87% of the study area, but increased over 9.0% of the area and decreased over 3.8%, indicating an overall worsening of the situation. Areas with a high and increasing risk of erosion were identified as priority areas for conservation. The study provides the first assessment of erosion dynamics at the basin level and provides a basis for identifying conservation priorities across the Koshi basin. The model has a good potential for application in similar river basins in the Himalayan region.

  17. Estimation of Soil Erosion Dynamics in the Koshi Basin Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Assess Priority Areas for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Uddin

    Full Text Available High levels of water-induced erosion in the transboundary Himalayan river basins are contributing to substantial changes in basin hydrology and inundation. Basin-wide information on erosion dynamics is needed for conservation planning, but field-based studies are limited. This study used remote sensing (RS data and a geographic information system (GIS to estimate the spatial distribution of soil erosion across the entire Koshi basin, to identify changes between 1990 and 2010, and to develop a conservation priority map. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE was used in an ArcGIS environment with rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover-management, and support practice factors as primary parameters. The estimated annual erosion from the basin was around 40 million tonnes (40 million tonnes in 1990 and 42 million tonnes in 2010. The results were within the range of reported levels derived from isolated plot measurements and model estimates. Erosion risk was divided into eight classes from very low to extremely high and mapped to show the spatial pattern of soil erosion risk in the basin in 1990 and 2010. The erosion risk class remained unchanged between 1990 and 2010 in close to 87% of the study area, but increased over 9.0% of the area and decreased over 3.8%, indicating an overall worsening of the situation. Areas with a high and increasing risk of erosion were identified as priority areas for conservation. The study provides the first assessment of erosion dynamics at the basin level and provides a basis for identifying conservation priorities across the Koshi basin. The model has a good potential for application in similar river basins in the Himalayan region.

  18. Estimation of Soil Erosion Dynamics in the Koshi Basin Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Assess Priority Areas for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Kabir; Murthy, M. S. R.; Wahid, Shahriar M.; Matin, Mir A.

    2016-01-01

    High levels of water-induced erosion in the transboundary Himalayan river basins are contributing to substantial changes in basin hydrology and inundation. Basin-wide information on erosion dynamics is needed for conservation planning, but field-based studies are limited. This study used remote sensing (RS) data and a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the spatial distribution of soil erosion across the entire Koshi basin, to identify changes between 1990 and 2010, and to develop a conservation priority map. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) was used in an ArcGIS environment with rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover-management, and support practice factors as primary parameters. The estimated annual erosion from the basin was around 40 million tonnes (40 million tonnes in 1990 and 42 million tonnes in 2010). The results were within the range of reported levels derived from isolated plot measurements and model estimates. Erosion risk was divided into eight classes from very low to extremely high and mapped to show the spatial pattern of soil erosion risk in the basin in 1990 and 2010. The erosion risk class remained unchanged between 1990 and 2010 in close to 87% of the study area, but increased over 9.0% of the area and decreased over 3.8%, indicating an overall worsening of the situation. Areas with a high and increasing risk of erosion were identified as priority areas for conservation. The study provides the first assessment of erosion dynamics at the basin level and provides a basis for identifying conservation priorities across the Koshi basin. The model has a good potential for application in similar river basins in the Himalayan region. PMID:26964039

  19. Transfer equations for modeling interrill erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Nouhou bako, Amina; Darboux, Frédéric; James, François; Lucas, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Numerous models are available for matter transfer along an hillslope. They are usually process-specific, requiring to use several models to simulate transfers along an hillslope. To overcome this issue, we develop a new model valid for chemical (nutrients, pollutants, dissolved carbon) and particle transfers by water. It is able to simulate both interrill and rill erosion. This new equation encompasses the previous models of Gao et al. (2004), Hairsine and Rose (1992, 1991) and Lajeunesse et ...

  20. Soil erosion evolution and spatial correlation analysis in a typical karst geomorphology using RUSLE with GIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zeng; C. Zeng; C. Zeng; S. Wang; S. Wang; X. Bai; X. Bai; Y. Li; Y. Tian; Y. Tian; Y. Li; L. Wu; L. Wu; G. Luo; G. Luo

    2017-01-01

    Although some scholars have studied soil erosion in karst landforms, analyses of the spatial and temporal evolution of soil erosion and correlation analyses with spatial elements have been insufficient. The lack of research has led to an inaccurate assessment of environmental effects, especially in the mountainous area of Wuling in China. Soil erosion and rocky desertification in this area influence the survival and sustainability of a population of 0.22 billion people. This...

  1. Soil erosion evolution and spatial correlation analysis in a typical karst geomorphology, using RUSLE with GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Cheng; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Li, Yangbing; Tian, Yichao; Li, Yue; Wu, Luhua; Luo, Guangjie

    2017-01-01

    In spite of previous studies on soil erosion in Karst landform, limited data are available regarding the spatial and temporal evolution and the correlation of spatial elements of soil erosion in Karst. The lack of this study leads to misassessment of environmental effects on the region especially in the mountainous area of Wuling in China. Soil erosion and rocky desertification in this area influence the survival and development of 0.22 billion people. For this reason, the typical Karst area ...

  2. Mapping Erosion Risk in California's Rangelands Using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salls, W. B.; O'Geen, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil loss constitutes a multi-faceted problem for agriculture: in addition to reducing soil fertility and crop yield, it compromises downstream water quality. Sediment itself is a major issue for aquatic ecosystems, but also serves as a vector for transporting nutrients, pesticides, and pathogens. Rangelands are thought to be a contributor to water quality degradation in California, particularly in the northern Coast Range. Though total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) have been imposed in some watersheds, and countless rangeland water quality outreach activities have been conducted, the connection between grazing intensity recommendations and changes in water quality is poorly understood at the state level. This disconnect gives rise to poorly informed regulations and discourages adoption of best management practices by ranchers. By applying the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) at a statewide scale, we highlighted areas most prone to erosion. We also investigated how two different grazing intensity scenarios affect modeled soil loss. Geospatial data layers representing the USLE parameters—rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, and cover—were overlaid to model annual soil loss. Monitored suspended sediment data from a small North Coast watershed with grazing as the predominant land use was used to validate the model. Modeled soil loss values were nearly one order of magnitude higher than monitored values; average soil loss feeding the downstream-most site was modeled at 0.329 t ha-1 yr-1, whereas storm-derived sediment passing the site over two years was calculated to be 0.037 t ha-1 yr-1. This discrepancy may stem from the fact that the USLE models detached sediment, whereas stream monitoring reflects sediment detached and subsequently transported to the waterway. Preliminary findings from the statewide map support the concern that the North Coast is particularly at risk given its combination of intense rain, erodible soils, and

  3. Progress of nuclide tracing technique in the study of soil erosion in recent decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Yang Mingyi; Liu Puling; Tian Junliang

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade nuclide tracing technique has been widely employed in the investigation of soil erosion, which makes the studies of soil erosion into a new and rapid development period. This paper tried to review the recent progress of using 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex , 7 Be, composite tracers and REE-INAA in soil erosion rate, sedimentation rate, sediment source and soil erosion processes study, and also the existing research results. The trends for future development and questions are also discussed. (authors)

  4. Delineation of rill soil erosion from uav-borne remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is a very important factor of land degradation and is especially oppressive when it occurs on productively used areas such as agricultural fields. Rill and interrill soil erosion, although less serious and smaller in size then gully erosion, might also bring serious damages. Depending...... on the time of occurrence it may prevent the field from being used, hampering soil cultivation and resulting in yields reduction. Therefore, reliable information on rill soil erosion of agricultural areas is fundamental for land managers, farmers and decision makers...

  5. 137Cs use in estimating soil erosion: 30 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Significant amounts of fallout 137 Cs from nuclear weapons tests were introduced to the landscape during the 1950s and 1960s. Once 137 Cs reaches the soil surface it is strongly and quickly adsorbed by clay particles, and is essentially nonexchangeable in most environments. Thus, 137 Cs becomes and effective tracer of the movement of soil particles across the landscape. Over the past 30 years, researchers have shown that 137 Cs can be used to study soil movement. Early work used empirical relationships between soil loss and 137 Cs loss to estimate erosion. This was followed by the development of proportional and theoretical models to relate 137 Cs movement and soil redistribution. Most of the problems related to the 137 Cs technique are the same as those encountered with other techniques (i.e., sampling, measurement). The 137 Cs technique can make actual measurements of soil loss and redeposition in fields, fostering the formulation of better plans to conserve the quality of the landscape. This paper reviews the development of the 137 Cs technique to show how it can be used to understand erosion and soil movement on the landscape. (author)

  6. Characteristics and distribution of soil piping erosion in loess-derived soils of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verachtert, E.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Subsurface erosion (piping, tunnel erosion) in non-karstic landscapes has been considered of little importance compared to sheet and gully erosion for a long time. Although the basic factors responsible for piping in certain environments are well understood, there is still uncertainty about the topographic and soil properties inducing subsurface pipe development in loess-derived soils under temperate climate. Therefore, this research aims at understanding the factors controlling the occurrence of piping erosion in the loess-derived soils of the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). Analysis of ortho photos as well as field surveys were conducted to detect the sites with piping in the study area. Enquiries among farmers and technical services were carried out. In total, 114 sites (parcels) with 301 collapsed soil pipes were found in a 170 kM 2 study area. For each site with piping, data was collected on possible controlling factors: topographic parameters, land use, lithology and soil type. Land use plays an important role as 94% of the sites with piping are found under pasture. (Author) 15 refs.

  7. Characteristics and distribution of soil piping erosion in loess-derived soils of Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verachtert, E.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2009-07-01

    Subsurface erosion (piping, tunnel erosion) in non-karstic landscapes has been considered of little importance compared to sheet and gully erosion for a long time. Although the basic factors responsible for piping in certain environments are well understood, there is still uncertainty about the topographic and soil properties inducing subsurface pipe development in loess-derived soils under temperate climate. Therefore, this research aims at understanding the factors controlling the occurrence of piping erosion in the loess-derived soils of the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). Analysis of ortho photos as well as field surveys were conducted to detect the sites with piping in the study area. Enquiries among farmers and technical services were carried out. In total, 114 sites (parcels) with 301 collapsed soil pipes were found in a 170 kM{sup 2} study area. For each site with piping, data was collected on possible controlling factors: topographic parameters, land use, lithology and soil type. Land use plays an important role as 94% of the sites with piping are found under pasture. (Author) 15 refs.

  8. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions

  9. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions.

  10. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  11. (210)Pb as a tracer of soil erosion, sediment source area identification and particle transport in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although (137)Cs has been used extensively to study soil erosion and particle transport in the terrestrial environment, there has been much less work using excess or unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) to study the same processes. Furthermore, since (137)Cs activities in soils are decreasing because of radioactive decay, some locations have an added complication due to the addition of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, and the activities of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere are low, there is a need to develop techniques that use (210)Pbxs to provide estimates of rates of soil erosion and particle transport. This paper reviews the current status of (210)Pbxs methods to quantify soil erosion rates, to identify and partition suspended sediment source areas, and to determine the transport rates of particles in the terrestrial landscape. Soil erosion rates determined using (210)Pbxs are based on the unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) inventory in the soil, the depth distribution of (210)Pbxs, and a mass balance calibration ('conversion model') that relates the soil inventory to the erosion rate using a 'reference site' at which neither soil erosion nor soil deposition has occurred. In this paper several different models are presented to illustrate the effects of different model assumptions such as the timing, depth and rates of the surface soil mixing on the calculated erosion rates. The suitability of model assumptions, including estimates of the depositional flux of (210)Pbxs to the soil surface and the post-depositional mobility of (210)Pb are also discussed. (210)Pb can be used as one tracer to permit sediment source area identification. This sediment 'fingerprinting' has been extended far beyond using (210)Pb as a single radioisotope to include numerous radioactive and stable tracers and has been applied to identifying the source areas of suspended sediment based on underlying rock type, land use (roads, stream banks, channel beds, cultivated or uncultivated lands, pasture lands

  12. Relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in Mediterranean areas. A comparative study of three typical sceneries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juan; Priego-Navas, Mercedes; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Generally, literature shows that the high variability of rainfall-induced soil erosion is related to climatic differences, relief, soil properties and land use. Very different runoff rates and soil loss values have been reported in Mediterranean cropped soils depending on soil management practices, but also in soils under natural vegetation types. OBJECTIVES The aim of this research is to study the relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in three typical Mediterranean areas from southern Spain: olive groves under conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-till practices, and soils under natural vegetation. METHODS Rainfall simulation experiments have been carried out in order to assess the relationship between soil erosion risk, land use, soil management and soil properties in olive-cropped soils under different types of management and soils under natural vegetation type from Mediterranean areas in southern Spain RESULTS Results show that mean runoff rates decrease from 35% in olive grove soils under conventional tillage to 25% in olive (Olea europaea) grove soils with minimum tillage or no-till practices, and slightly over 22% in soils under natural vegetation. Moreover, considering the different vegetation types, runoff rates vary in a wide range, although runoff rates from soils under holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia), 25.70%, and marginal olive groves , 25.31%, are not significantly different. Results from soils under natural vegetation show that the properties and nature of the organic residues play a role in runoff characteristics, as runoff rates above 50% were observed in less than 10% of the rainfall simulations performed on soils with a organic layer. In contrast, more than half of runoff rates from bare soils reached or surpassed 50%. Quantitatively, average values for runoff water losses increase up to 2.5 times in unprotected soils. This is a key issue in the study area, where mean annual rainfall is above 600 mm

  13. Modeling of water erosion by seagis model. Case Watershed Dam Siliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabaan, Chayma

    2016-01-01

    water erosion is a complicated phenomenon, largely obvious in north Africa, especially in the watershed of Siliana, where natural factors and the aggressiveness of the environment do affect the loss of soil there, which characterized by a form so uneven with attitudes that vary from 700 to 1350 m rigid going from 5 to 10 pour cent and sometimes more. Moreover, it has drained with a thick hydrographic network. Generally, water erosion depends of the importance and the frequent agent factor of this erosion ( rain and streaming), soil type, the topography and the occupation of soil. The usage of mathematic models has to take on consideration of these parameters. The main objective of this work consist in developing put into affect a geomatic approach of stimulation which aims at estimate in time and space, the impact of the climate, and the soil occupation on the water erosion and the transportation of the sediments diversions into sliding of a small watershed. Locally, this approach allows evaluating the parameters of water erosion of SEAGIS model (USLE/RUSLE) to an extent that is identifies and drowing the emergency areas of intervention in the watershed of Siliana.

  14. Application of the 137Cs determination to evaluate the erosion rates in cultivated soils in the west part of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Castillo, Reinaldo; Peralta Vital, Jose Luis; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge; Riverol Rosquet, Mario; Penna Valenti, Fermin; Cabrera Calcedo, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows the experience in the application of 137Cs technique to estimate the erosion rates in cultivated soils (Ultisol) in the west part of the country, and the validation of the technique results by comparison against the results from traditional methods (watershed segments). The proportional, the simplified balance of mass and the balance of mass models were used to calculate the erosion rates, for three segments. In the evaluated area, have been obtained erosion rates from 3.5 to 7.1 t/ha/y for the segment I, from 5.17 to 10.3 t/ha/y for the segment III and from 2.3 to 17 t/ha/y for the segment IX. The conclusions are, the 137Cs technique is reliable for the estimation of erosion rates in the evaluated soil and the mass balance model obtained the nearest values to the estimated by watershed segments

  15. Estimating soil erosion from the redistribution of fallout cesium 137 in an agricultural land of province of Camaguey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido Flores, O.; Barreras Caballero, A.A.; Montalvan Estrada, A.; Gandarilla Benitez, J. E.; Font Vila, L.

    2000-01-01

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. Significant amounts of fallout Cesium-137 ( Cs) from nuclear weapons tests were introduced to the landscape during the 1950s and 1960s. Once Cs reaches the soil surface it is strongly and quickly adsorbed by clay particles, and is essentially nonexchangeable in most environments. Thus, in recent years, the fallout Cs has found increasing application in investigations of soil erosion on agricultural land. By comparing Cs inventories from different points in fields with the reference inventory for the area it is possible to assemble information on the rates and patterns of soil loss. An investigation of soil erosion was undertaken in the 4 ha field of La Victoria 1 Farm. Three models for converting Cs measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates on studied cultivated field have been used, The Proportional Model, The Gravimetric Approach and Simplified Mass Balance Model. Using the first one net soil erosion was calculated to be 9.6 t.ha .year . Estimates of soil loss using the gravimetric method and simplified mass balance model were found to be 9.5 and 14.9 t.ha .year ,respectively. Preliminary results suggest that Cs technique may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss

  16. Assessing soil erosion risk using RUSLE through a GIS open source desktop and web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L; Teodoro, A C; Gonçalves, J A; Soares, D; Cunha, M

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem. An estimation of the expected soil loss by water-caused erosion can be calculated considering the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide different tools to create categorical maps of soil erosion risk which help to study the risk assessment of soil loss. The objective of this study was to develop a GIS open source application (in QGIS), using the RUSLE methodology for estimating erosion rate at the watershed scale (desktop application) and provide the same application via web access (web application). The applications developed allow one to generate all the maps necessary to evaluate the soil erosion risk. Several libraries and algorithms from SEXTANTE were used to develop these applications. These applications were tested in Montalegre municipality (Portugal). The maps involved in RUSLE method-soil erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, topographic factor, cover management factor, and support practices-were created. The estimated mean value of the soil loss obtained was 220 ton km(-2) year(-1) ranged from 0.27 to 1283 ton km(-2) year(-1). The results indicated that most of the study area (80 %) is characterized by very low soil erosion level (soil erosion was higher than 962 ton km(-2) year(-1). It was also concluded that areas with high slope values and bare soil are related with high level of erosion and the higher the P and C values, the higher the soil erosion percentage. The RUSLE web and the desktop application are freely available.

  17. Surface Roughness effects on Runoff and Soil Erosion Rates Under Simulated Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil surface roughness is identified as one of the controlling factors governing runoff and soil loss yet, most studies pay little attention to soil surface roughness. In this study, we analyzed the influence of random soil surface roughness on runoff and soil erosion rates. Bulk samples of a silt l...

  18. Estimating effectiveness of crop management for reduction of soil erosion and runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavcova, K.; Studvova, Z.; Kohnova, S.; Szolgay, J.

    2017-10-01

    The paper focuses on erosion processes in the Svacenický Creek catchment which is a small sub-catchment of the Myjava River basin. To simulate soil loss and sediment transport the USLE/SDR and WaTEM/SEDEM models were applied. The models were validated by comparing the simulated results with the actual bathymetry of a polder at the catchment outlet. Methods of crop management based on rotation and strip cropping were applied for the reduction of soil loss and sediment transport. The comparison shows that the greatest intensities of soil loss were achieved by the bare soil without vegetation and from the planting of maize for corn. The lowest values were achieved from the planting of winter wheat. At the end the effectiveness of row crops and strip cropping for decreasing design floods from the catchment was estimated.

  19. Use of Low-Cost Methods of Soil Erosion Control In Kisii District, South Western kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzabi, A.W; Makini, F; Onyango, M; Mureithi, J.G

    1999-01-01

    Kisii District has a topography of undulating hills and is prone to severe soil erosion. The average rainfall is 1900 mm and occurs in biomodal pattern. During a participatory appraisal survey in 1995, farmers indicated that soil erosion in the area had contributed to decline in soil fertility resulting in low crop yields. To address this problem, an on-farm trial was conducted in 1996 at Nyamonyo village to test the effectiveness of four low cost methods of controlling soil erosion. These included maize stover trash line, sweet potatoes,Penicum maximum var. Makarikari grass strip and vetiveria zizanioides (Vertiver) grass strip. A treatment without soil erosion control measure was included. The trial was planted in three farms which acted as replicates. The treatments were planted in runoff plots measuring 4 x 2 m in which had a maize crop were laid down in a randomized complete block design. Surface runoff and eroded soils were collected in 50-l buckets. The experimental site had a slope ranging from 16 to 35%. Preliminary results indicated that maize stover trash line and sweet potato strips were more effective in controlling soil erosion than the grass strips. As the season progressed the grass strips became increasingly more effective in erosion control. The trail is still continuing but results indicate that for short term soil erosion control, maize stover trash lines and sweet potatoes are more effective while Makarikari and Vertiver grass strips are promising as long term soil erosion control measure

  20. Effect of soil erosion on the biodiversity of soil crust within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative cover in the former sites reduced both wind and water erosion. However, areas below waterfalls had the highest protein due to the proximity of microorganisms to water that might have accumulated here during winter. The water facilitated accelerated metabolic activities of all microphytes. Keywords: soil crust ...

  1. Soil hydraulic properties of topsoil along two elevation transects affected by soil erosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikodem, A.; Kodešová, R.; Jakšík, O.; Jirků, V.; Fér, M.; Klement, A.; Žigová, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2013) ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly /10./. 07.04.2013-12.04.2013, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : topsoil * hydraulic properties * erosion processes Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-7924.pdf

  2. Bryophyte-dominated biological soil crusts mitigate soil erosion in an early successional Chinese subtropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Nebel, Martin; Goebes, Philipp; Käppeler, Kathrin; Schmidt, Karsten; Shi, Xuezheng; Song, Zhengshan; Webber, Carla L.; Weber, Bettina; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in an early successional subtropical forest plantation and their impact on soil erosion. Within a biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment in southeast China (biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) China), the effect of these biocrusts on sediment delivery and runoff was assessed within micro-scale runoff plots under natural rainfall, and biocrust cover was surveyed over a 5-year period. Results showed that biocrusts occurred widely in the experimental forest ecosystem and developed from initial light cyanobacteria- and algae-dominated crusts to later-stage bryophyte-dominated crusts within only 3 years. Biocrust cover was still increasing after 6 years of tree growth. Within later-stage crusts, 25 bryophyte species were determined. Surrounding vegetation cover and terrain attributes significantly influenced the development of biocrusts. Besides high crown cover and leaf area index, the development of biocrusts was favoured by low slope gradients, slope orientations towards the incident sunlight and the altitude of the research plots. Measurements showed that bryophyte-dominated biocrusts strongly decreased soil erosion, being more effective than abiotic soil surface cover. Hence, their significant role in mitigating sediment delivery and runoff generation in mesic forest environments and their ability to quickly colonise soil surfaces after disturbance are of particular interest for soil erosion control in early-stage forest plantations.

  3. Plot-slope soil erosion using 7Be measurement and rill fractal dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengbao; Yang Mingyi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intended to use 7 Be measurement and fractal theory to quantify soil erosion process on slope. The results showed that contribution rate of inter rill erosion was more than that of rill erosion during early stage of rainfall. When it rained, contribution rate of rill erosion began to be higher than inter rill erosion and become the main part of erosion during medium stage of rainfall. The trend of contribution rate of inter rill erosion was growing and the rill erosion was lowering during late stage of rainfall. Rill fractal dimension on the plot slope was almost growing larger during rainfall,growing quickly during early stage of rainfall and slowly during the late stage. Correlations was positive between rill fractal dimension and total erosion amount, also positive between rill fractal dimension and rill erosion. The correlations was positive between rill fractal dimension variation and total erosion amount, also was positive between rill fractal dimension variation and rill erosion amount. The best correlation was observed between rill fractal dimension and rill erosion amount. These results indicated that the rill fractal dimension on the plot slope could represent the development process of rill,the complex degree of rill and the variation of soil erosion intensity on the entire slope. (authors)

  4. Erosion risk assessment in the southern Amazon - Data Preprocessing, data base application and process based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Herrmann, Marie-Kristin; Herrmann, Anne-Katrin; Schultze, Nico; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The study region along the BR 16 highway belongs to the "Deforestation Arc" at the southern border of the Amazon rainforest. At the same time, it incorporates a land use gradient as colonization started in the 1975-1990 in Central Mato Grosso in 1990 in northern Mato Grosso and most recently in 2004-2005 in southern Pará. Based on present knowledge soil erosion is one of the key driver of soil degradation. Hence, there is a strong need to implement soil erosion control measures in eroding landscapes. Planning and dimensioning of such measures require reliable and detailed information on the temporal and spatial distribution of soil loss, sediment transport and deposition. Soil erosion models are increasingly used, in order to simulate the physical processes involved and to predict the effects of soil erosion control measures. The process based EROSION 3D simulation model is used for surveying soil erosion and deposition on regional catchments. Although EROSION 3D is a widespread, extensively validated model, the application of the model on regional scale remains challenging due to the enormous data requirements and complex data processing operations. In this context the study includes the compilation, validation and generalisation of existing land use and soil data in order to generate a consistent EROSION 3D input datasets. As a part of this process a GIS-linked data base application allows to transfer the original soil and land use data into model specific parameter files. This combined methodology provides different risk assessment maps for certain demands on regional scale. Besides soil loss and sediment transport, sediment pass over points into surface water bodies and particle enrichment can be simulated using the EROSION 3D model. Thus the estimation of particle bound nutrient and pollutant inputs into surface water bodies becomes possible. The study ended up in a user-friendly, timesaving and improved software package for the simulation of soil loss and

  5. Could anthropogenic soil erosion have influenced Mediterranean vegetation distribution over the Holocene?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Pamela M; Kaplan, Jed O; Davis, Basil A S

    2010-01-01

    The circum-Mediterranean region is characterized by a strongly seasonal climate with rainy winters and intense summertime drought, steep topography, and a multi-millennial history of intensive human land use, all of which make its soils vulnerable to erosion. The historical and stratigraphic record documents severe and long-term soil erosion in several locations in the Mediterranean. A forest-to-scrub transition in Mediterranean vegetation between the mid-Holocene (6,000 yr BP) and the present is evident in the observational palaeorecord. Debate as to the causes of this shift is ongoing. This study seeks to test the sensitivity of large-scale vegetation patterns to changes in soil physical properties such as depth, content of coarse fragments, and organic matter content using the Mediterranean region as a case study. We find that simulated biomes are sensitive to changes in some soil physical properties at some locations, but that threshold values for soil change to affect vegetation are very high. Additional work is required to analyze the role that other soil physical properties, and climate change, played in influencing Holocene land cover change in the Mediterranean, and to improve model representations of relevant processes.

  6. Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on Soil Erosion Rates in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Martínez-Santiago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although water-eroded soil (WES resulting from human activities has been recognized as the leading global cause of land degradation, the soil erosion risks from climate change are not clear. Studies have reported that WES is the second most significant cause of soil loss in Mexico, and its future trajectory has not been sufficiently evaluated. The aims of this study are to 1 determine the impacts of climate change on WES and its distribution for the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico, and to 2 compare the present and future soil loss rates for the study unit (SU. The State of Aguascalientes is located in the “Region del Bajio.” The impact of climate change on WES was evaluated using the near-future divided world scenario (A2 presented in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 18 weather stations were downscaled to model historic laminar water erosion (HLWE and changes therein in the A2 near-future scenario for 2010–2039 (LWEScA2. Due to future changes in mean annual rainfall (MAR levels, a change in the LWEScA2 of between 1.6 and 8.9% could result in average soil losses up to 475.4 t ha-1 yr-1, representing a loss of slightly more than a 30-mm layer of mountain soil per year. The risk zones, classified as class 4 for LWE, are located to western of the State in part of municipalities of Calvillo, Jesus María, San José de Gracia y Cosio, where there are typical hills and falls with soil very sensitive to rain erosion.

  7. Assessing soil erosion rates for a large catchment in the Central Highlands of Vietnam using fallout radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Nguyen Minh Dao; Nguyen Thi Huong Lan; Nguyen Thi Mui; Le Xuan Thang; Phan Quang Trung; Trinh Cong Tu; Tran Tien Dung

    2014-01-01

    . Consequently, the drainage capacity was reduced and the frequency of flooding increased during rainy season. Additionally, life-span of irrigative or hydroelectric reservoirs considerably decreased. Ham Thuan reservoir supplying water to a 300 MW hydroelectric power plant in this region is a typical example with the loss of capacity of about 418 970 m 3 per year. There is an existence of farming practice models which could reduce soil erosion rates by 30% - 45% in comparison with others having the same slope and rainfall. Although these models did not give the effectiveness as good as those developed by researchers, they have been created and accepted by farmers. Popularizing these optimal farming practices for farmers imitation is feasible for this region. This approach is probably suitable to current farming culture of local farmers. (author)

  8. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  9. Soil erosion and conservation in the United States: An overview. Agriculture information bulletin. (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, R.; Sandretto, C.; Crosswhite, W.; Osborn, C.T.

    1995-10-01

    Soil erosion on agricultural land in the United States does not pose an immediate threat to the Nation`s ability to produce food and fiber. However, erosion is impairing long-term soil productivity in some areas and is the largest contributor to nonpoint source pollution of the Nation`s waterways. Conservation and commodity programs are currently being coordinated to futher conservation objectives. This report provides background information on soil use, erosion, and conservation policies and programs; summarizes assessments of economic and environmental effects of erosion; and discusses policies and programs as well as options for their improvement.

  10. Soil erosion assessment using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) study from Ankara-Guvenc Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengiz, Orhan; Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Baskan, Oguz

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research was to assess vulnerable soil erosion risk with qualitative approach using GIS in Ankara-Guvenc Basin. The study area is located about 44 km north of Ankara and covers 17.5 km2. The selected theme layers of this model include topographic factor, soil factors (depth, texture, impermeable horizon) and land use. Slope layer and land use-land cover data were prepared by using DEM and Landsat-TM satellite image. According to land use classification, the most common land use type and land cover are rangeland (50.5%) then, rainfed (36.4%), week forest land (3.2%), irrigated land (0.7%) and other various lands (rock out crop and lake) (9.2%). Each land characteristic is also considered as a thematic layer in geographical information systems (GIS) process. After combination of the layers, soil erosion risk map was produced. The results showed that 44.4% of the study area is at high soil erosion risk, whereas 42% of the study area is insignificantly and slightly susceptible to erosion risk. In addition, it was found that only 12.6% of the total area is moderately susceptible to erosion risk. Furthermore, conservation land management measures were also suggested for moderate, high and very high erosion risk areas in Ankara-Guvenc Basin.

  11. Effect of land use land cover change on soil erosion potential in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arabinda; Tiwari, Kamlesh N; Bhadoria, P B S

    2011-02-01

    Universal soil loss equation (USLE) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system to determine the influence of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on soil erosion potential of a reservoir catchment during the period 1989 to 2004. Results showed that the mean soil erosion potential of the watershed was increased slightly from 12.11 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 1989 to 13.21 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 2004. Spatial analysis revealed that the disappearance of forest patches from relatively flat areas, increased in wasteland in steep slope, and intensification of cultivation practice in relatively more erosion-prone soil were the main factors contributing toward the increased soil erosion potential of the watershed during the study period. Results indicated that transition of other land use land cover (LUC) categories to cropland was the most detrimental to watershed in terms of soil loss while forest acted as the most effective barrier to soil loss. A p value of 0.5503 obtained for two-tailed paired t test between the mean erosion potential of microwatersheds in 1989 and 2004 also indicated towards a moderate change in soil erosion potential of the watershed over the studied period. This study revealed that the spatial location of LUC parcels with respect to terrain and associated soil properties should be an important consideration in soil erosion assessment process.

  12. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  13. Does a more sophisticated storm erosion model improve probabilistic erosion estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Callaghan, D.; Roelvink, D.

    2013-01-01

    The dependency between the accuracy/uncertainty of storm erosion exceedance estimates obtained via a probabilistic model and the level of sophistication of the structural function (storm erosion model) embedded in the probabilistic model is assessed via the application of Callaghan et al.'s (2008)

  14. Soil erosion from harvested sites versus streamside management zone sediment deposition in the Piedmont of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; W. Michael Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Amy W. Easterbrook

    2006-01-01

    Forestry best management practices were primarily developed to address two major issues related to soil erosion: water quality and site productivity. Sixteen watersheds managed as loblolly pine plantations in the piedmont region were monitored for soil erosion and water quality prior to treatment. Subsequently, all watersheds were harvested with clearcutting, ground-...

  15. soil groups relative susceptibility to erosion in parts of south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    erosion by water determined based on the amount of soil lost during the various runs. Based on the ... Keywords: erosion; rainfall; soil relative suscebility ... Shales. Sandstone. Shale. Shale and Sandstone. Shale and Sandstone. Shales and Siltstone. Siltstone. Coastal Plain Sands. Shale and Sandstone. Akaeze. Akwete.

  16. Quantification of soil erosion and transport processes in the in the Myjava Hill Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavcová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Velisková, Yvetta; Studvová, Zuzana; Socuvka, Valentin; Németová, Zuzana; Duregová, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study is a complex analysis of soil erosion processes and proposals for erosion control in the region of the Myjava Hill Land located in western Slovakia. The Myjava Hill Land is characteristic of quick runoff response, intensive soil erosion by water and related muddy floods, which are determined by both natural and socio-economic conditions. In this paper a case study in the Svacenický Creek catchment, with a focus on the quantification of soil loss from the agriculturally arable lands and sediment transport to the dry water reservoir (polder) of the Svacenický Creek is presented. Erosion, sediment transport, and the deposition of sediments in the water reservoir represent a significant impact on its operation, mainly with regard to reducing its accumulation volume. For the analysis of the soil loss and sediment transport from the Svacenický Creek catchment, the Universal Soil Loss Equation, the USLE 2D, and the Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) models were applied. Because the resulting values of the soil loss exceeded the values of the tolerated soil loss, erosion control measures by strip cropping were designed. Strip cropping is based on altering crop strips with protective (infiltration) strips. The effectiveness of the protective (infiltration) strips for reducing runoff from the basin by the SCS-CN method was estimated. Monitoring the morphological parameters of bottom sediments and their changes over time is crucial information in the field of water reservoir operations. In September 2015, the AUV EcoMapper was used to gather the data information on the Svacenický Creek reservoir. The data includes information about the sediment depths and parameters of the water quality. The results of the surveying are GIS datasets and maps, which provide a higher resolution of the bathymetric data and contours of the bottom reservoir. To display the relief of the bottom, the ArcMap 10.1. software was used. Based on the current status of the bottom

  17. Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    carbon content of the topsoil (averaged on the first 50 cm of soil depth) with the table published by Stone and Hilborn (2012). The slope-length and slope gradient (LS) factors were derived from the Digital Terrain Model of Sicily (20 x 20 m) using the formulas proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (1978), and revised by McCool et al. (1987 and 1989). The C factor were applied according previous studies in the same area and ranged among 0.22 and 0.12 and less than 0.10 using permanent species able to reduce erosion rate up to 90% (Gristina et al., 2006; Novara et al. 2011). The scenario analysis of the soil erosion reduction after the adoption of AEM could be used by policy makers as a base for the evaluation of the Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) to be paid to farmers through the future Agro-Ecosystem measures incentives. Gristina, L., Bagarello, V., Ferro, V., Poma, I., 2006. Cover and management factor for Sicilian vineyard systems. In: 14th International Soil conservation Organization Conference—Water Management and Soil Conservation in Semi-arid Environments, 14-19 May 2006, Marrakech, Marocco (ISCO2006), pp. 1-4. A Novara, L Gristina, SS Saladino, A Santoro, A Cerda 2011 Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140-147

  18. [Calculation of soil water erosion modulus based on RUSLE and its assessment under support of artificial neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhuan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jixian

    2006-06-01

    With Hengshan County of Shanxi Province in the North Loess Plateau as an example, and by using ETM + and remote sensing data and RUSLE module, this paper quantitatively derived the soil and water loss in loess hilly region based on "3S" technology, and assessed the derivation results under the support of artificial neural network. The results showed that the annual average erosion modulus of Hengshan County was 103.23 t x hm(-2), and the gross erosion loss per year was 4. 38 x 10(7) t. The erosion was increased from northwest to southeast, and varied significantly with topographic position. A slight erosion or no erosion happened in walled basin, flat-headed mountain ridges and sandy area, which always suffered from dropping erosion, while strip erosion often happened on the upslope of mountain ridge and mountaintop flat. Moderate rill erosion always occurred on the middle and down slope of mountain ridge and mountaintop flat, and weighty rushing erosion occurred on the steep ravine and brink. The RUSLE model and artificial neural network technique were feasible and could be propagandized for drainage areas control and preserved practice.

  19. Plutonium in Soils from Northeast China and Its Potential Application for Evaluation of Soil Erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Surface and soil core samples from northeast China were analyzed for Pu isotopes. The measured 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios and 239 1 240Pu/137Cs activity ratios revealed that the global fallout is the dominant source of Pu and 137Cs at these sites. Migration behavior of Pu varying with land type....... While only half inventory of Pu was obtained in another soil core and no sub-surface maximum value occurred. Erosion of topsoil in the site should be the most possible reason for the significantly lower Pu inventory, which is also supported by the reported 137Cs profiles. These results demonstrated...... that Pu could be applied as an ideal substitute of 137Cs for soil erosion study in the future....

  20. Evaluation of Soil Erosion and Sustainable Land Use Management in the Sarısu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karaş

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use management requires controlling natural resources for sustainability. Soil erosion related to improper land use is a major issue around the world. Land degradation may harm the health of ecosystems. Defining the soil loss in a basin is the starting point in the restoration of soil quality for crop production. Reducing soil losses to a tolerable rate is one of the primary objectives for sustainability and soil conservation. Central Anatolia is under considerable risk due to an increase in the cultivation of marginal lands for food production. Cultivated lands have already been reached the final limits throughout the last 50 years. Moreover, forests and considerable areas of pasture have recently been converted to ploughed fields due to agricultural expansion. This study was conducted in the Sarısu basin to evaluate soil losses and land use management for sustainability. The Universal Soil Loss Equation model and Geographic Information System techniques were used to estimate the soil losses. The mean potential soil loss of the basin was calculated to be 1.88 t ha-1 per year with the Universal Soil Loss Equation model. These results are comparatively small when compared to the average value for Turkey of 13 t ha-1 yearly. Our calculated results are closer to the value for the Sakarya river basin, which is approximately 2.77 t ha-1 y-1. In this study, land usages in the Sarısu basin were evaluated in terms of soil losses, tolerable soil loss rates and soil conservation precautions.

  1. Modelling of environmental and climatic problems: Wind and water erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Magnitude of wind and water erosion mainly depend on wind velocity, rainfall rate, slope and soil characteristics. The main purpose of this lecture is to define the role of small, meso and large scale phenomena (local and synoptic fluctuations) on water and wind erosion. These lecture notes present some results on wind speed simulation and seasonal fluctuations of water deficit for the selected station in different erosion risque and transition regions of Turkey. (author)

  2. The use of 137Cs to establish longer-term soil erosion rates on footpaths in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway-Dyer, S J; Walling, D E

    2010-10-01

    There is increasing awareness of the damage caused to valuable and often unique sensitive habitats by people pressure as degradation causes a loss of plant species, disturbance to wildlife, on-site and off-site impacts of soil movement and loss, and visual destruction of pristine environments. This research developed a new perspective on the problem of recreational induced environmental degradation by assessing the physical aspects of soil erosion using the fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs). Temporal sampling problems have not successfully been overcome by traditional research methods monitoring footpath erosion and, to date, the (137)Cs technique has not been used to estimate longer-term soil erosion in regard to sensitive recreational habitats. The research was based on-sites within Dartmoor National Park (DNP) and the South West Coast Path (SWCP) in south-west England. (137)Cs inventories were reduced on the paths relative to the reference inventory (control), indicating loss of soil from the path areas. The Profile Distribution Model estimated longer-term erosion rates (ca. 40 years) based on the (137)Cs data and showed that the combined mean soil loss for all the sites on 'paths' was 1.41 kg m(-2) yr(-1) whereas the combined 'off path' soil loss was 0.79 kg m(-2) yr(-1), where natural (non-recreational) soil redistribution processes occur. Recreational pressure was shown to increase erosion in the long-term, as greater soil erosion occurred on the paths, especially where there was higher visitor pressure. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  4. Impact of Soil Conservation Measures on Erosion Control and Soil Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This publication summarises the lessons learnt from a FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality over a five-year period across a wide geographic area and range of environments. It demonstrates the new trends in the use of fallout radionuclide-based techniques as powerful tools to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures. As a comprehensive reference material it will support IAEA Member States in the use of these techniques to identify practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  5. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  7. The Cannona Data Base: long-term field data for studies on soil management impact on runoff and erosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Ferraris, Stefano; Opsi, Francesca; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    Long-term data have been collected by IMAMOTER-CNR from field-scale vineyard plots within the Tenuta Cannona Vine and Wine Experimental Centre of Regione Piemonte, which is located in a valuable vine production area in north-western Italy. Since 2000, runoff and soil erosion monitoring has been carried out under natural rainfall conditions on three parallel field plots (75 m long and 16,5 m wide, slope gradient about 15%) that are conducted with different inter-rows soil management techniques (conventional tillage, reduced tillage, controlled grass cover). Experimental plots are part of a 16-hectars experimental vineyard, managed in according to conventional farming for wine production. Recurrent surveys have been carried out in the runoff plots to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the soil bulk density, soil moisture and penetration resistance. The primary intent of the program was to evaluate the effects of agricultural management practices and tractor traffic on the hydrologic, soil erosion and soil compaction processes in vineyard. The Cannona Data Base (CDB) represents a data collection which is unique in Italy, showing the response of soil to rainfall in terms of runoff and soil erosion over more than a decade. It includes data for more than 200 runoff events and over 70 soil loss events; moreover, periodic measurements for soil physical characteristics are included for the three plots. The CDB can now be accessed via a website supported by the CNR, that is addressed to water and land management researchers and professionals. The CDB is currently used to calibrate a model for runoff and soil erosion prediction in vineyard environment. The CDB website includes a descriptive and informative section, which contains results of over than 10 years of experimental activity, reports and presentations, addressed to enhance the awareness of citizens and stakeholders about land degradation processes and about impacts of different soil management practices

  8. Erosion and Errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.; Heeres, Glenn; Os, van Bertil; Derickx, Willem; Schoorl, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Slope soil erosion is one of the main threats to archaeological sites. Several methods were applied to establish the erosion rates at archaeological sites. Digital elevation models (DEMs) from three different dates were used. We compared the elevations from these three models to estimate erosion. We

  9. Using Cesium-137 technique to study the characteristics of different aspect of soil erosion in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region on Loess Plateau of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2005-01-01

    The most serious soil erosion on Loess Plateau exists in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region. In the past 20 years, the types and intensity of soil erosion and its temporal and spatial distribution were studied, but studies on the difference of soil erosion between slope aspects and slope positions in this area have no report. However, it is very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the characteristics of different aspects and positions of soil loss for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in this area. The spatial pattern of net soil loss on 4 downslope transects in four aspects (east, west, south and north) on a typical Mao (round loess mound) in Liudaogou catchment in Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region was measured in 2000 using the resident cesium-137 deficit technique. The purposes of this investigation were undertaken to determine whether or not {sup 137}Cs measurement would give a useful indication of the extent of soil loss and their characteristics from cultivated hillsides in different slope aspect and slope position in the study area. The results showed that the difference of soil erosion in different aspect was significant and the erosion rate was in this order: north>east>south>west. Compared with other areas, the difference of erosion rate between north hillside and south hillside was on the contrary, and the possible explanations could be the effect of wind erosion. Also, the percentage of wind erosion was estimated to be at least larger than 18% of total soil loss by comparing the difference of erosion amount in south hillside and north hillside. The erosion rates on different slope positions in all aspects were also different, the highest net soil loss occurred in the lower slope position, and the upper and middle slope positions were slight. The general trend of net soil loss on sloping surface was to increase in fluctuation with increasing downslope distance.

  10. Potential fragility levels for erosion and landslides in soils of Ibague municipality (Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Leal Villamil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the methodology of potential soil fragility, described by Alarcón and Gayoso (1999, the evaluation and spatial distribution of the potential fragility for erosion and  landslides, was carried out in the soils of the municipality of Ibagué. Edaphic variables were taken from units of soils according to two systems of classification: Comité de Cafeteros de Colombia (1973 and IGAC (2004. Environmental variables of precipitation and altimetry were obtained from the hydrographic basin ordination and management plan of the Coello and Torare rivers (CORTOLIMA, 2006 and the forestry planning project for the Department of Tolima (Universidad del Tolima and CORTOLIMA, 2007. According to the numerical information organized in maps and the mathematical models established for the nomograms of the base methodology, the rates of potential fragility of the two phenomena of soil degradation were determined. The results show that with the soil classification system IGAC, the municipality of Ibagué is more sensitive to phenomena of landslides rather than to erosion, opposed to what is shown in the system of the Comité de Cafeteros de Colombia. Both systems coincide in stating that the zones with higher propensity to these phenomena are located mainly near the Combeima Canyon, in the mountainous area near the municipality of Cajamarca, as well as the hills and mountains that surround the urban area

  11. Simulating the Impact of Future Land Use and Climate Change on Soil Erosion and Deposition in the Mae Nam Nan Sub-Catchment, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Tripathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the possible impacts of climate change and land use change and its combined effects on soil loss and net soil loss (erosion and deposition in the Mae Nam Nan sub-catchment, Thailand. Future climate from two general circulation models (GCMs and a regional circulation model (RCM consisting of HadCM3, NCAR CSSM3 and PRECIS RCM ware downscaled using a delta change approach. Cellular Automata/Markov (CA_Markov model was used to characterize future land use. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and sedimentation modeling in Idrisi software were employed to estimate soil loss and net soil loss under direct impact (climate change, indirect impact (land use change and full range of impact (climate and land use change to generate results at a 10 year interval between 2020 and 2040. Results indicate that soil erosion and deposition increase or decrease, depending on which climate and land use scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion and deposition in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods. The combined climate and land use change analysis revealed that land use planning could be adopted to mitigate soil erosion and deposition in the future, in conjunction with the projected direct impact of climate change.

  12. Diachronical soil surveys: a way to quantify long term diffuse erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, Nathalie; Brieuc, Michel; Xavier, Legrain; Gilles, Colinet; Aurore, Degré

    2015-04-01

    The loess belt of Western Europe is a high-risk area regarding diffuse erosion. It is due to the climate and the topography but also to the soil type. Loamy soils are naturally highly sensitive to diffuse erosion. Hence, these soils are very fertile. So, they are intensively cultivated which increases their sensitivity to erosion. Sheet erosion is an erosion type strongly represented in these regions. Contrarily to the concentrated form of erosion which happens more brutally, sheet erosion needs long-term observation time-scales, which remains rare. In Belgium, a soil map was established in 1956. This map is quite detailed and notably informs about the different horizons which are in the profile (ploughed horizon, eluvial horizon, clay included between the horizons, carbonate-free loess horizon, and all these were characterised by drainage class) and their depth. It was based on a dense augering network across the country (one point every 75 meters). A new augering campaign was done again in 2014. It consisted in one observation every 50 meters on an agricultural watershed of 124 hectares located in the centre of Belgium. This catchment has been cultivated since the 14th century and is representative of the local context (gentle slope (3-8%), plot size (mean value of 10 ha), …). We compared the two soil maps produced on this site with a 58years time lapse. Results show that the large majority of the watershed falls from upslope soils with weak erosion to slope soils with strong erosion. The soil thickness diminished in some zones to 1m10 (minimum estimation) of erosion. This comparison shows that very few upslope soils are preserved. On the other hand, the areas where colluviums were present to the full depth stay at the same place in the main thalweg of the watershed. Other areas on the watershed seem to be subject to a (minimum estimation) of 40cm of sediments deposition. Large areas in the watershed suffered from erosion and came to deposition areas as the

  13. The study on dynamic characteristics of soil erosion in Yuyao City of Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yefeng; Zhang, Jinjuan; Li, Gang; Shen, Zhaowei; Lu, Fangchun; Zhou, Xijiong

    2017-08-01

    Taking Yuyao city as the study area, using GIS technology to establish a database of soil ero-sion. Based on the database, soil erosion in the study area was Evaluated and the dynamic variation of soil erosion intensity was analyzed. The results showed that during the past ten years from 2004-2014, the overall situation of soil erosion in Yuyao city had improved, and the total area of soil erosion decreased year by year, with an average annual reduction rate of 3.3199 km2/a. But high intensity erosion area increased due to mining, quarrying, road building caused by. And some area had the evil trend, however the area was not large. In the process of the dynamic transition of erosion, the weakening area of erosion mainly came from the transition of slightly eroded area to non-apparently eroded area. the exacerbating erosion area mainly came from the transition of non-apparently eroded area to the slightly and moderately eroded area.

  14. Effect of some surface and subsurface attributes on soil water erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; César Ramos, Júlio; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Mirás Avalos, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon depending on climate, topography, soil intrinsic characteristics, crop and residue cover, and management and conservation practices that may be accelerated by man activities. Within the above mentioned factors, soil cover and soil management most influence soil erosion. Soil management includes mechanical mobilization and in soil conservationist systems soil residues are mobilized for increasing soil surface roughness. Even if soil roughness is ephemeral, it increases soil water storage and sediment retention in surface microdepressions, which contributes to decrease water erosion. Conservationist soil management systems also maintain the soil surface covered by crop residues, which are more persistent than roughness and contribute to dissipate kinetic energy from raindrops and partly also from runoff. Crop residues are more efficient than soil roughness in controlling water erosion because of its ability to retain detached soil particles. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of both soil cover by crop residues and soil surface roughness in controlling water erosion. A field experiments was performed on an Inceptisol in South Brazil under simulated rainfall conditions during 2012. The following treatments were evaluated: 1) residues of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), 2) residues of common vetch (Vicia sativa), 3) scarification after cultivation of Italian ryegrass, 4) scarification after cultivation of common vetch, 5) scarified bare soil with high roughness as a control. Treatments #1 and 2 involved no-tilled soil with a rather smooth soil surface, where roots and crop residues of the previous crop were maintained. Treatments # 3 and 4 involved a rather high roughness, absence of previous crop residues and maintenance of antecedent roots. Experimental plots were 11 m long and 3.5 m wide with an area of 38.5 m2. Six successive simulated rainfall tests were applied using a rotating-boom rain simulator

  15. Vegetation Restoration, Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield on the Loess Plateau After "GFG" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Juying

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is an increasing environmental problem globally, and the Chinese Loess Plateau suffers the most severe soil erosion in the world. To control soil and water losses and improve ecosystem of the Loess Plateau, significant efforts have been made since the 1950s, especially the implementation of "Grain for Green (GFG)" policy in 1999 on a large scale. After about 15 years of "GFG" implementation, vegetation restored evidently, and soil erosion and sediment yield reduced markedly on the Loess Plateau region. However, for the lager-scale afforestation on the Loess Plateau, the relationship between afforestation and soil water carrying capacity, the sustainability of afforestation and ecosystem should be considered. Although the comprehensive practices have achieved remarkable soil erosion control, soil erosion is still likely to be very severe during heavy rainstorms, especially in gully slope. Attention should be paid in strengthening the storage and drainage measures in the inter-gully to prevent gravitational erosion by reducing the slope runoff flowing down the gully. Proper and rational control measures and management methods in different sections must be investigated further and focused on preventing soil erosion at the sources rather than intercepting sediment with potential risk to the watershed.

  16. [Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0

  17. Tillage erosion and its effect on soil properties and crop yield in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckrath, G; Djurhuus, J; Quine, T A; Van Oost, K; Govers, G; Zhang, Y

    2005-01-01

    Tillage erosion had been identified as a major process of soil redistribution on sloping arable land. The objectives of our study were to investigate the extent of tillage erosion and its effect on soil quality and productivity under Danish conditions. Soil samples were collected to a 0.45-m depth on a regular grid from a 1.9-ha site and analyzed for 137Cs inventories, as a measure of soil redistribution, soil texture, soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, and phosphorus (P) contents. Grain yield was determined at the same sampling points. Substantial soil redistribution had occurred during the past decades, mainly due to tillage. Average tillage erosion rates of 2.7 kg m(-2) yr(-1) occurred on the shoulderslopes, while deposition amounted to 1.2 kg m(-2) yr(-1) on foot- and toeslopes. The pattern of soil redistribution could not be explained by water erosion. Soil organic carbon and P contents in soil profiles increased from the shoulder- toward the toeslopes. Tillage translocation rates were strongly correlated with SOC contents, A-horizon depth, and P contents. Thus, tillage erosion had led to truncated soils on shoulderslopes and deep, colluvial soils on the foot- and toeslopes, substantially affecting within-field variability of soil properties. We concluded that tillage erosion has important implications for SOC dynamics on hummocky land and increases the risk for nutrient losses by overland flow and leaching. Despite the occurrence of deep soils across the study area, evidence suggested that crop productivity was affected by tillage-induced soil redistribution. However, tillage erosion effects on crop yield were confounded by topography-yield relationships.

  18. Reduction of the efficacy of biochar as soil amendment by soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is primarily used as soil amendment to improve soil quality and to sequester more carbon (C) to increase both medium- and long-term soil C stocks. These positive effects are obviously diminished if biochar is eroded and transported out of the field. Due to its low bulk density, the preferential mobilization and redistribution of biochar in the landscape seems probable. Therefore, the question has been raised in recent years of how vulnerable biochar actually is to soil erosion. This is especially relevant on soils which are regularly cultivated and are vulnerable to soil erosion themselves. However, so far few studies about the erodibility of biochar exist and the answer to this question is still unknown. It is therefore important to further our knowledge about mobilization and transport behaviour of biochar. Moreover, such knowledge could have profound economic implications for farmers committed to its use, as a high net annual loss of biochar by erosion could exceed any net annual economic gain. The overall objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the erodibility of biochar, when erosion events occur directly or soon after its application. The estimation of the financial value of the eroded biochar and its cost-effectiveness were scaled up from plot to field scale. In this investigation, the biochar was applied to the soil surface of three plots on a recently cultivated sandy field near Viborg in northern Jutland, Denmark at concentrations equivalent to 1.5-2.0 kg m-2. After application, the biochar was manually incorporated into the till-zone (20cm). With the Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator erosion events of a duration of 30 minutes and with a rainfall intensity of approx. 90 mm h-1 were conducted on both biochar and reference plots. The erodibility of biochar by wind erosion was due to very rainy wet soil surface conditions, tested with dried soil in the laboratory, in order to be able to at least reflect the worst case scenario. The

  19. 7Be in soil, deposited dust and atmospheric air and its using to infer soil erosion along Alexandria region, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, I H; Abdel-Halim, A A

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the radioactivity behavior of 7 Be in surface soil, airborne and deposited dust along Alexandria region in Egypt. The results obtained were used to predict scavenging processes of 7 Be from surface soil to infer soil erosion and land vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise. The areal activity concentrations of 7 Be in surface soil were investigated in 30 undisturbed sites and 7 Be inventories were determined via deposited dust in 10 locations. Results of the former were found to be ranged from 78 Bq/m 2 to 104 Bq/m 2 . High levels were observed in western sites associated with high dust deposition rate. On the other hand, low levels were found in the eastern sites, those may be attributed to scavenging processes such as land erosion toward the direction to the sea. The effective removal rates of 7 Be were calculated using the box-model, showing a broad special trend of inventories generally decreasing eastwards. The scavenging rates were ranged between 3.13 yr -1 in western sites to 5.34 yr -1 in eastern ones which denote that the east of the city suffers from rapid soil erosion. The airborne 7 Be was monthly monitored along the period from October 2014 to September 2015 through one site located at the mid of the city. The results revealed lower values in winter and autumn than in summer and spring ranged between 6.2 mBq/m 3 and 10.5 mBq/m 3 . These levels are comparable with that in other world regions and the seasonal variations are associated with the prevailing climatic conditions in Alexandria region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the efficiency of Mediterranean ditch networks in preventing vineyards soil erosion within landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levavasseur, Florent; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Lagacherie, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Water erosion of cultivated soils is a threat to the sustainability of agriculture, especially in Mediterranean areas. For a long time, Mediterranean farmers have thus adopted some soil conservation practices. Actual ditch networks, which are generally associated with terraces, result from historical successive farmer settlements and are one of these soil conservation practices. By intercepting surface run-off, ditches decrease slope length and prevent soil erosion on downstream plots. However, since water erosion hazard and ditch network geometries are highly variable in vineyards landscape and since ditch building and maintaining are costly, the objective of this study was to identify and map the resulting efficiency of ditch networks in preventing soil erosion. For a given area, a ditch network efficiency is defined here as the balance between the network density, i.e. network cumulated length for a given area unit, and the erosion sensitivity over an area which measures the performance of the ditch network in limiting soil erosion. The erosion efficiency of ditch networks was thus identified using both i) computer generated ditch networks with various spatial configurations and ii) the stream power index as an erosion sensitivity indicator, computed from a DTM in which each ditch network was burned. The stream power index of the actual networks were compared with a set of generated networks whose density and topology were selected to maximize the performance in preventing soil erosion thanks to the use of a self-developed optimized stochastic network generator. For four 1 km² hillslopes, we showed that the performances of actual networks to prevent soil erosion was among the best that were obtained by simulated networks with even greater densities. Furthermore, we showed that the stream power index values that accounted for the actual ditch networks to prevent soil erosion hazard was both minimal and weakly variable in the whole study area (30 km²) at

  1. Validation of a probabilistic post-fire erosion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Robichaud; William J. Elliot; Sarah A. Lewis; Mary Ellen Miller

    2016-01-01

    Post-fire increases of runoff and erosion often occur and land managers need tools to be able to project the increased risk. The Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) uses the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model as the underlying processor. ERMiT predicts the probability of a given amount of hillslope sediment delivery from a single rainfall or...

  2. Institutional landmarks in Brazilian research on soil erosion: a historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of soil erosion in Brazil has been a focus of agricultural scientific research since the 19th century. The aim of this study was to provide a historical overview of the institutional landmarks which gave rise to the first studies in soil erosion and established the foundations of agricultural research in Brazil. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century saw the founding of a series of institutions in Brazil, such as Botanical Gardens, executive institutions, research institutes, experimental stations, educational institutions of agricultural sciences, as well as the creation and diversification of scientific journals. These entities, each in its own way, served to foster soil erosion research in Brazil. During the Imperial period (1808-1889, discussions focused on soil degradation and conserving the fertility of agricultural land. During the First Republic (1889-1930, with the founding of various educational institutions and consolidation of research on soil degradation conducted by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas in the State of São Paulo, studies focused on soil depletion, identification of the major factors causing soil erosion and the measures necessary to control it. During the New State period (1930-1945, many soil conservation practices were developed and disseminated to combat erosion and field trials were set up, mainly to measure soil and water losses induced by hydric erosion. During the Brazilian New Republic (1945-1964, experiments were conducted throughout Brazil, consolidating soil and water conservation as one of the main areas of Soil Science in Brazil. This was followed by scientific conferences on erosion and the institutionalization of post-graduate studies. During the Military Regime (1964-1985, many research and educational institutions were founded, experimental studies intensified, and coincidently, soil erosion reached alarming levels which led to the development of the no-tillage system.

  3. The delicate balance between soil production and erosion, and its role on landscape evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosseto, A., E-mail: tonyd@uow.edu.au [GeoQuEST Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong. Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Buss, Heather [US Geological Survey. Menlo Park, CA (United States); Suresh, P.O. [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University. North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > The uranium-series isotope composition of regolith material can be used to determine the soil residence time. > Soil residence times up to 30 and 90 kyr are calculated for Frogs Hollow and Bisley, respectively. > Production rates are relatively similar for granitic and shale lithologies, but much higher over volcanic parent rock. > Soil production matches erosion in soil-mantled landscapes, demonstrating quantitatively that this type of landscape results from a balance between these two processes > Soil production is up to two orders of magnitude slower than erosion in cultivated areas. - Abstract: The diversity in landscapes at the Earth's surface is the result, amongst other things, of the balance (or imbalance) between soil production and erosion. While erosion rates are well constrained, it is only recently that we have been able to quantify rates of soil production. Uranium-series isotopes have been useful to provide such estimates independently of erosion rates. In this study, new U-series isotope are presented data from weathering profiles developed over andesitic parent rock in Puerto Rico, and granitic bedrock in southeastern Australia. The site in Australia is located on a highland plateau, neighbouring a retreating escarpment where soil production rates between 10 and 50 mm/kyr have been determined. The results show that production rates are invariant in these two regions of Australia with values between 15 and 25 mm/kyr for the new site. Andesitic soils show much faster rates, about 200 mm/kyr. Overall, soil production rates determined with U-series isotopes range between 10 and 200 mm/kyr. This is comparable to erosion rates in soil-mantled landscapes, but faster than erosion in cratonic areas and slower than in alpine regions and cultivated areas. This suggests that soil-mantled landscapes maintain soil because they can: there is a balance between production and erosion. Similarly, thick weathering profiles develop in cratonic areas

  4. Assessing and mapping the severity of soil erosion using the 30-m Landsat multispectral satellite data in the former South African homelands of Transkei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutloali, Khoboso E.; Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2017-08-01

    Soil erosion is increasingly recognised as the principal cause of land degradation, loss of agricultural land area and siltation of surrounding water waterbodies. Accurate and up-to-date soil erosion mapping is key in understanding its severity if these negative impacts are to be minimised and affected areas rehabilitated. The aim of this work was to map the severity of soil erosion, based on the 30-m Landsat series multispectral satellite data in the former South African homelands of Transkei between the year 1994 and 2010. Further, the study assessed if the observed soil erosion trends and morphology that existed in this area could be explained by biophysical factors (i.e. slope, stream erosivity, topographic wetness index) retrieved from the 30-m ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The results of this study indicate that the Transkei region experiences varying erosion levels from moderate to very severe. The large portion of the land area under the former homelands was largely affected by rill erosion with approximately 74% occurring in the year 1984 and 54% in 2010. The results also revealed specific thresholds of soil erosion drivers. These include steeper areas (≥30°), high stream power index greater than 2.0 (stream erosivity), relatively lower vegetation cover (≤15%) and low topographic wetness index (≤5%). The results of this work demonstrate the severity of soil erosion in the Southern African former homelands of Transkei for the year 1984 and 2010. Additionally, this work has demonstrated the significance of the 30-m Landsat multispectral sensor in examining soil erosion occurrence at a regional scale where in-depth field work still remains a challenging task.

  5. The effect of Bahiagrass roots on soil erosion resistance of Aquults in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chao; Guo, Zhonglu; Li, Zhaoxia; Cai, Chongfa

    2017-05-01

    Herbaceous species, especially their roots, are believed to have an important role in enhancing soil strength and protecting soil against erosion. This study evaluated the effects of root distribution characteristics on soil shear resistance and soil detachment rates, correlations among root mechanical properties, root chemical composition and root parameters, and whether the Wu-Waldron model can accurately estimate soil reinforcement by roots. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) was planted in planter boxes by overlapping four rectangle frames (0.4 × 0.1 × 0.1 m). A series of laboratory tests of direct shear strength and soil detachment were conducted on two soils that were derived from granite and shale with different soil depths and sowing densities. The results indicated that soil aggregate stability was positively correlated with root characteristics. Over 70% of the total measured root parameters were distributed in the upper 20 cm of the soil, and they decreased with increasing soil depth and decreasing sowing density. The tensile properties (root tensile strength and root tensile force) were significantly correlated with root diameter. The contents of root main chemical compositions were significantly correlated with root diameter while hemicellulose showed no obvious trend with root diameter (P = 0.12). Root tensile strength and root tensile force were also significantly correlated with the contents of these four compositions, except hemicellulose. The relative soil detachment demonstrated a significant negative correlation with root parameters with sowing densities from 5 to 30 g m- 2, and it remained at a relatively low value when the sowing density was > 20 g m- 2. The soil detachment rate, erodibility factor and critical flow shear stress were well correlated with the root area ratio, sowing density, and soil depth. The Wu-Waldron model was found to be inappropriate for these soils, as it overestimated additional soil shear strength due to roots by 152

  6. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  7. Use of 7Be to document soil erosion associated with a short period of extreme rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, A.; Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Castillo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Intensification and expansion of agricultural production since the 1970s have increased soil erosion problems in south-central Chile. Quantitative information on soil loss is needed for erosion risk assessment and to establish the effectiveness of improved land management practices. Since information from traditional sources, such as erosion plots, is limited, attention has been directed to the use of environmental radionuclides for documenting erosion rates. Cs-137 has been successfully utilised for this purpose, but only provides information on medium-term erosion rates. There is also a need to document event-related soil erosion. This paper outlines the basis for using 7 Be measurements to document short-term erosion and reports its successful use for quantifying the erosion that occurred within an arable field, as a result of a period of heavy rainfall (400 mm in 27 days) occurring in May 2005. The study field had been under a no-till, no-burning system for 18 years, but immediately prior to the period of heavy rainfall the harvest residues were burnt. The erosion recorded therefore reflected both the extreme nature of the rainfall and the effects of the burning in increasing surface runoff and erosion. The sampled area corresponded to that used previously by the authors to document the medium-term erosion rates associated with both conventional tillage and the subsequent switch to a no-till system. Comparisons between the erosion documented for the period of heavy rainfall in 2005 with these medium-term erosion rates permits some tentative conclusions regarding the importance of extreme events and the impact of burning in increasing the erosion associated with the no-till system

  8. Mapping and Modelling Land Susceptibility to Water Erosion in Eastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunmilayo Akinyemi, Felicia; Mashame, Gofamodimo

    2017-04-01

    Soil loss by water erosion is a major environmental challenge globally and semi-arid environments are not exempted. This study employs a spatial modelling technique that applies the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate annual soil loss in the Palapye area of the Lotsane sub-basin in Eastern Botswana. Soil loss estimation within a GIS environment allows for the integration of datasets from various sources and enables the mapping of the spatial distribution of soil loss. With the high sensitivity of semi-arid areas to climate change, this study further investigates how rates of soil loss would vary using both historical (1990-2012) and near range 21st Century (2015-2028) under two IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs): RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Topography and vegetation cover seems to play a prominent role in soil loss as it occurs mostly along tracks and/or footpaths, bare land, river banks and on the steep hilly slopes in the south eastern part. For RCP 4.5, the highest projected average annual soil loss due to water erosion is 307 Mg ha-1 year-1, whereas, for RCP 8.5, the highest is 330 Mg ha-1 year-1. In general, projected soil losses are higher for RCP8.5 than for RCP4.5. This study aids the validation of empirical models and contributes to the understanding of soil erosion rates under present conditions and future climate.

  9. Rare earth elements tracing the soil erosion processes on slope surface under natural rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingyong; Tan Shuduan; Dang Haishan; Zhang Quanfa

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment using rare earth elements (REEs) as tracers was conducted to investigate soil erosion processes on slope surfaces during rainfall events. A plot of 10 m x 2 m x 0.16 m with a gradient of 20 o (36.4%) was established and the plot was divided into two layers and four segments. Various REE tracers were applied to the different layers and segments to determine sediment dynamics under natural rainfall. Results indicated that sheet erosion accounted for more than 90% of total erosion when the rainfall amount and density was not large enough to generate concentrated flows. Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface, and the primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed. In rill erosion, sediment discharge mainly originated from the toe-slope and moved upwards as erosion intensified. The results obtained from this study suggest that multi-REE tracer technique is valuable in understanding the erosion processes and determining sediment sources. - Highlights: → Soil erosion processes with rare earth elements was conducted under natural rainfall. → Experimental setup developed here has seldom implemented in the world. → Sheet erosion is the main erosion type and main contributor to sediment loss. → Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface. → The primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed.

  10. Use of rare earth oxides and iron oxides as soil erosion tracers in water erosion experiments at hillslope scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, G.; Cañasveras, J. C.; Barrón, V.; Boulal, H.; Gómez, H.; Conde, E.; Fernández, M.; Gómez, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    The characteristics of the ideal soil erosion have been defined by several authors, for example by Zhang et al. (2001). Despite intensive research on erosion tracers in the last decades there is not a single tracer fulfilling all these characteristics. That is why research on different soil erosion tracers remains as an active field. Two desirable characteristics in erosion tracers are that they should be relatively inexpensive (to purchase and analyze) and that they should be determined with high accuracy in soil or sediment. The availability of multiple tracers is another of the