WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling remediation technologies

  1. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  2. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  3. Remediation Technology for Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is the most commonly selected technology for remediation of ground water at Superfund sites in the USA. The next most common technology is Chemical treatment, followed by Air Sparging, and followed by Permeable Reactive Barriers. This presentation reviews the the...

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process was developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. P-2 Soil Remediation, Inc. formed a partnership with Weiss Associates and ElectroPetroleum, Inc. to apply the technology to contaminated sites. The ECRTs process was evaluated ...

  5. Dispersion modeling to compare alternative technologies for odor remediation at swine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Susan S; Graham, Brevick G; Williams, C Mike

    2008-09-01

    The effectiveness of 18 alternative technologies for reducing odor dispersion at and beyond the boundary of swine facilities was assessed in conjunction with an initiative sponsored through agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. The trajectory and spatial distribution of odor emitted at each facility were modeled at 200 and 400 m downwind from each site under two meteorological conditions (daytime and nighttime) using a Eulerian-Lagrangian model. To predict the dispersion of odor downwind, the geographical area containing the odorant sources at each facility was partitioned into 10-m2 grids on the basis of satellite photographs and architectural drawings. Relative odorant concentrations were assigned to each grid point on the basis of intensity measurements made by the trained odor panel at each facility using a 9-point rating scale. The results of the modeling indicated that odor did not extend significantly beyond 400 m downwind of any of the test sites during the daytime when the layer of air above the earth's surface is usually turbulent. However, modeling indicated that odor from all full-scale farms extended beyond 400 m onto neighboring property in the evenings when deep surface cooling through long-wave radiation to space produces a stable (nocturnal) boundary layer. The results also indicated that swine housing, independent of waste management type, plays a significant role in odor downwind, as do odor sources of moderate to moderately high intensity that emanate from a large surface area such as a lagoon. Human odor assessments were utilized for modeling rather than instrument measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or particulates less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10) because these physical measurements obtained simultaneously with human panel ratings were not found to accurately predict human odor intensity in the field.

  6. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  7. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  8. Remediation technologies for oil-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-30

    Oil-contaminated sediments pose serious environmental hazards for both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Innovative and environmentally compatible technologies are urgently required to remove oil-contaminated sediments. In this paper, various physical, chemical and biological technologies are investigated for the remediation of oil-contaminated sediments such as flotation and washing, coal agglomeration, thermal desorption, ultrasonic desorption, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and extraction using ionic liquids. The basic principles of these technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages for practical application have been discussed. A combination of two or more technologies is expected to provide an innovative solution that is economical, eco-friendly and adaptable.

  9. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  10. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  11. System description for DART (Decision Analysis for Remediation Technologies)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonte, J.; Bolander, T.; Nickelson, D.; Nielson, R.; Richardson, J.; Sebo, D.

    1997-09-01

    DART is a computer aided system populated with influence models to determine quantitative benefits derived by matching requirements and technologies. The DART database is populated with data from over 900 DOE sites from 10 Field Offices. These sites are either source terms, such as buried waste pits, or soil or groundwater contaminated plumes. The data, traceable to published documents, consists of site-specific data (contaminants, area, volume, depth, size, remedial action dates, site preferred remedial option), problems (e.g., offsite contaminant plume), and Site Technology Coordinating Group (STCG) need statements (also contained in the Ten-Year Plan). DART uses this data to calculate and derive site priorities, risk rankings, and site specific technology requirements. DART is also populated with over 900 industry and DOE SCFA technologies. Technology capabilities can be used to match technologies to waste sites based on the technology`s capability to meet site requirements and constraints. Queries may be used to access, sort, roll-up, and rank site data. Data roll-ups may be graphically displayed.

  12. Deicing/Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology Environment, Energy Security, & Sustainability (E2S2) Symposium & Exhibition Ernest N...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology 5a. CONTRACT...Issues C. PG Remediation Project D. Summary E. Questions 2 3 Background • Aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) work planes fly in the winter o Military

  13. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES-INDUCED COMPLEXATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry L. Burks

    2002-12-01

    The Project Team is submitting this Topical Report on the results of its bench-scale demonstration of ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) and in particular the Induced Complexation (ECRTs-IC) process for remediation of mercury contaminated soils at DOE Complex sites. ECRTs is an innovative, in-situ, geophysically based soil remediation technology with over 50 successful commercial site applications involving remediation of over two million metric tons of contaminated soils. ECRTs-IC has been successfully used to remediate 220 cu m of mercury-contaminated sediments in the Union Canal, Scotland. In that operation, ECRTs-IC reduced sediment total mercury levels from an average of 243 mg/kg to 6 mg/kg in 26 days of operation. The clean up objective was to achieve an average total mercury level in the sediment of 20 mg/kg.

  15. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  16. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised, wh

  17. DESCRIPTION OF MODELING ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF THE 200-ZP-1 REMEDIAL DESIGN/REMEDIAL ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VONGARGEN BH

    2009-11-03

    The Feasibility Study/or the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-28) and the Proposed Plan/or Remediation of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-33) describe the use of groundwater pump-and-treat technology for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) as part of an expanded groundwater remedy. During fiscal year 2008 (FY08), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport (flow and transport) model was developed to support remedy design decisions at the 200-ZP-1 OU. This model was developed because the size and influence of the proposed 200-ZP-1 groundwater pump-and-treat remedy will have a larger areal extent than the current interim remedy, and modeling is required to provide estimates of influent concentrations and contaminant mass removal rates to support the design of the aboveground treatment train. The 200 West Area Pre-Conceptual Design/or Final Extraction/Injection Well Network: Modeling Analyses (DOE/RL-2008-56) documents the development of the first version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS model of the Hanford Site's Central Plateau, as well as the initial application of that model to simulate a potential well field for the 200-ZP-1 remedy (considering only the contaminants carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99). This document focuses on the use of the flow and transport model to identify suitable extraction and injection well locations as part of the 200 West Area 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOEIRL-2008-78). Currently, the model has been developed to the extent necessary to provide approximate results and to lay a foundation for the design basis concentrations that are required in support of the remedial design/remediation action (RD/RA) work plan. The discussion in this document includes the following: (1) Assignment of flow and transport parameters for the model; (2) Definition of initial conditions for the transport model for each simulated contaminant of concern (COC) (i.e., carbon

  18. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  19. National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.

  20. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF WOOD PRESERVING SITES: OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first in a series of five articles describing the applicability, performance and cost of technologies for the remediation of contaminated soil and water at wood preserving sites. Site-specific treatability studies conducted under the supervision of the USEPA NRMRL fro...

  1. A Risk Analysis of Remediation Technologies for a DOE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for selecting a remediation technology to cleanup the Waste Area Group (WAG) 6 site at the Paducah Gaseous ... Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. WAG 6 is contaminated with an uncertain amount of trichloroethylene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99). Selecting a

  2. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  3. Environmental Remediation Technologies Derived from Space Industry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Sauser, Brian; Helminger, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, an abundance of effort and initiative was focused on propelling the space industry outward for planetary exploration and habitation. During these early years, the push to take space science to new levels indirectly contributed to the evolution of another science field that would not fully surface until the early 1980s, environmental remediation. This field is associated with the remediation or cleanup of environmental resources such as groundwater, soil, and sediment. Because the space-exploration initiative began prior to the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970, many NASA Centers as well as space-related support contractors allowed for the release of spent chemicals into the environment. Subsequently, these land owners have been directed by the EPA to responsibly initiate cleanup of their impacted sites. This paper will focus on the processes and lessons learned with the development, testing, and commercialization initiatives associated with four remediation technologies. The technologies include installation techniques for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), the use of ultrasound to improve long-term performance of PRBs, emulsified zero-valent iron for product-level solvent degradation, and emulsion technologies for application to metal and polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated media. Details of the paper cover technology research, evaluation, and testing; contracts and grants; and technology transfer strategies including patenting, marketing, and licensing.

  4. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy.

  5. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

  6. Y-12 Plant Remedial Action technology logic diagram. Volume I: Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Program addresses remediation of the contaminated groundwater, surface water and soil in the following areas located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Chestnut Ridge, Bear Creek Valley, the Upper and Lower East Fork Popular Creek Watersheds, CAPCA 1, which includes several areas in which remediation has been completed, and CAPCA 2, which includes dense nonaqueous phase liquid wells and a storage facility. There are many facilities within these areas that are contaminated by uranium, mercury, organics, and other materials. This Technology Logic Diagram identifies possible remediation technologies that can be applied to the soil, water, and contaminants for characterization, treatment, and waste management technology options are supplemented by identification of possible robotics or automation technologies. These would facilitate the cleanup effort by improving safety, of remediation, improving the final remediation product, or decreasing the remediation cost. The Technology Logic Diagram was prepared by a diverse group of more than 35 scientists and engineers from across the Oak Ridge Reservation. Most are specialists in the areas of their contributions. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  7. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  8. Developing technology of remediation of oil-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchyk, Lesya; Romaniuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Abstract ? The results of developing technologies for cleaning of soils from oil pollution on the example of Boryslav are shown. The prospects of tree species for the remediation of oil-contaminated soils are studied. The best results of cleaning oil contaminated soils with the application of Hippophae rhamnoides L. plants were obtained. It is a promising measure for restoring the oil-contaminated soils, attractive both from environmental and economical point of view.

  9. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D. [Enserch Environmental Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  10. Perchlorate Remediation Using New Nanoscale Polymer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    conditions to give a total of 101 g product. Reduce Amount of Reagents The propargyl tosylate initiated PEOX was analyzed for acetylene content. There...the copper(I) catalyzed reaction between azide functional groups (-N3) and propargyl or acetylenic functional groups (-C≡C-), has become a major...available at an affordable price . This potential perchlorate binding site was reacted with PEOX DP= 100 as a model compound in methanol. 1H-NMR and SEC

  11. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization by Pseudo......Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization...... saturation 7%) and agree satisfactory well with model predictions. In contrast, much larger mineralization rates are measured for wet conditions (water saturation of 68%). This discrepancy originates from extensive cell dispersal, not accounted for in the model, which occurs in wet conditions...

  12. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Gour T. [Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (Taiwan); National Central Univ. (Taiwan); Univ. of Central Florida (United States); Gwo, Jin Ping [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Siegel, Malcolm D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Ming-Hsu [National Central Univ. (Taiwan); ; Fang, Yilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Fan [Inst. of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Luo, Wensui [Inst. of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g.,Ni, Cr, Co).The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport models

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  14. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

  15. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Possible Applications of Soil Remediation Technologies in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakovs, Juris; Vircavs, Magnuss

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public concern about deleterious effects of contamination on the environment and human health has led to legislative actions aimed at controlling and regulating the emission of potential contaminants into the environment, but there is still a plethora of territories historically contaminated with different contaminants within the territory of Latvia. The purpose of the present study is to give an overview of the formerly and presently contaminated areas and give some recommendations for remediation. 242 first category contaminated territories (the contamination exceeds the acceptable normative 10 times or more) are mentioned in the National Register of Contaminated Territories, a lot of them are known as contaminated with hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, oil products, organic compounds and other contaminants in different amounts and concentrations. An overview of soil contamination in Latvia is provided, the planned and recommended research, as well as the planned remediation in pilot case studies, are described, giving a review of the historical contamination situation and of applications of the planned remediation technologies.

  17. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  18. Evaluation of Groundwater Remediation Technologies Based on Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the environment and may endanger human health. Therefore, it is very important to remediate oil pollution in the subsurface. However, it is necessary to choose the appropriate remediation technology. In this paper, 18 technologies are evaluated through constructing a parameter matrix with each technology and seven performance indicators, and a comprehensive analysis model is presented. In this model, four MCDA methods are used. They are SWA (Simple Weighted Addition Method, WP (Weighted Product Method, CGT (Cooperative Game Theory, and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. Mean ranking and Borda ranking methods are used to integrate the results of SWA, WP, CGT, and TOPSIS. Then two selection priorities of each method (mean ranking and Borda ranking are obtained. The model is proposed to help decide the best choice of remediation technologies. It can effectively reduce contingency, subjectivity, one-sidedness of the traditional methods and provide scientific reference for effective decision-making.

  19. Assessing Environmental Sustainability of Remediation Technologies in a Life Cycle Perspective is Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into remediation projects has attracted attention from remediation practitioners, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a popular tool to address the environmental dimension. The total number of studies has reached 31 since the first framework for LCA of site...... about the environmental sustainability of remediation technologies....

  20. ICS-UNIDO - Promoting sustainable POPs disposal and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinovyev, S.; Lodolo, A.; Miertus, S. [ICS-UNIDO, Trieste (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that a significant stock of polychlorinated hazards, including POP and PTS, has been produced and is stored nowadays or dispersed in the environment in many of Developing Countries and Countries with Economies in Transition. The obsolete industrial processes, giving rise to formation of dioxins, as well as former/current POP production/use (e.g. PCBs), coupled with uncontrolled use of polychlorinated pesticides in agriculture and improper storage of POP stockpiles have rendered vast territories in these countries highly contaminated and raised urgent issues of disposal of hazards and remediation of territories. The International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS), www.ics.trieste.it, is an autonomous institution within the legal framework of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) promoting a global programme on environmental protection, sustainable chemistry, catalysis, and clean technologies. An important part of its work programme is focused on the promotion of new technologies which can be helpful for the reduction of the formation of POPs (like dioxins and furans) in incineration processes and in obsolete technologies used in some industrial processes. Another hot issue is to promote safe technologies for the destruction of PCBs and polychlorinated pesticides. Particular efforts of ICS-UNIDO are directed towards the transfer of clean technologies to developing/transition countries. ICS-UNIDO, through its initiatives, seeks to establish a dialogue with local administrative, research, NGO, and industrial bodies in order to adopt sustainable technologies for POP disposal and management of contaminated sites.

  1. Development of an Expanded, High Reliability Cost and Performance Database for In Situ Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    large investment in groundwater remediation technologies more effective, end-users need quantitative, accurate, and reliable performance and cost ... technologies . The overall objective of this work was to develop a comprehensive remediation performance and cost database. N/A U U U UU 42 Travis...end-users need quantitative, accurate, and reliable performance and cost data for commonly used remediation technologies . While the data from an

  2. Development and applications of groundwater remediation technologies in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    The future of the development and application of groundwater remediation technologies will unfold in an atmosphere of heightened public concern and attention. Cleanup policy will undergo incremental change towards more comprehensive efforts which account for the impact of remediation on nearby resources. Newly discovered contaminants will cause the re-examination of "mature" technologies since they may be persistent, mobile and difficult to treat in-situ. Evaluations of the effectiveness of remedial technologies will eventually include by-product formation, geochemical consequences and sustainability. Long-term field trials of remedial technologies alone can provide the data necessary to support claims of effectiveness. Dans le futur, le développement et les applications des technologies de traitement des eaux souterraines seront déroulés en tenant compte de l'inquiétude et l'attention croissante de l'opinion publique. La politique de nettoyage va subir un changement vers des efforts plus compréhensifs qui prendront en compte l'impact du traitement sur les ressources voisines. Les nouveaux contaminants seront persistants, mobiles et difficile de traiter in situ; par conséquence ils vont provoquer la reexamination des technologies consacrées. L'évaluation de l'efficacité des technologies de traitement doit considérer l'apparition des produits secondaires ainsi que les conséquences géochimiques et le développement durable. Seulement les essais in situ, pendant des longues périodes sur les technologies peuvent fournir les éléments nécessaires pour démontrer leur efficacité. El futuro del desarrollo y de la aplicación de las tecnologías para la recuperación del agua subterránea, se revelará en una atmósfera de gran atención e interés público elevado. La política de limpieza sufrirá un cambio adicional hacia esfuerzos más tangibles, los cuales incluyan el impacto de la recuperación en los recursos circundantes. Los contaminantes

  3. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring and Remediation of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T. J.; Cady, R.

    2009-12-01

    NRC sponsors research to identify and assess characterization, modeling, monitoring and remediation methods used to quantify and evaluate radionuclide release and migration in the subsurface. The need for and selection of remediation methods is based on a dose assessment to determine compliance with regulatory criteria. If remediation is warranted, the choice of remediation methods is based upon site- and source-characterization data. This data is integrated in a Conceptual Site Model (CSM). The assumptions and parameterization of the CSM are tested using a program of field tests and confirmatory monitoring. In particular, the features, events and processes in the unsaturated zone where many leaks and spills originate need characterization and confirmatory monitoring. The choice of the remediation method, if warranted, is based upon the confirmed CSM and the monitoring baseline. Remediation strategies being considered are: in situ bioremediation; pump, treat, monitor and release; monitored natural attenuation. Successful remediation strategies include monitoring programs to determine their efficacy. This monitoring is coupled to performance assessment models using performance indicators (PIs). These PIs provide a measurable indication of remediation performance, and are derived from analysis of the CSM and the hydrologic, chemical and microbial functions of the chosen remediation method. Case studies illustrate these observations and provide detailed examples of CSMs and PIs.

  4. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for Task {number_sign}3.2 entitled, ``Modeling and iron dechlorination studies`` (September 26, 1994--August 31, 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.P.; Sivavec, T.M.; Principe, J.M. [General Electric Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Contamination in low-permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low-permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil, and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is complete. The present Topical Report for Task {number_sign}3.2 summarizes the modeling and dechlorination research conducted by General Electric Research and Development.

  5. Study on Obstacles to Continuous Cropping of Vegetables and Soil Remediation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingsheng FAN; Gang CHEN; Deli XU; Weimin FENG; Yuyu LU; Anqin GUAN

    2016-01-01

    Firstly,this paper analyzes the cause of obstacles to continuous cropping of vegetables,and then introduces the soil ecological remediation technology used for overcoming obstacles to continuous cropping of vegetables. Finally,this paper analyzes the effect of applying soil ecological remediation technology in overcoming obstacles to continuous cropping of vegetables.

  6. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  7. Evaluation of Bioaugmentation with Entrapped Degrading Cells as a Soil Remediation Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil augmentation with microbial degraders immobilized on carriers is evaluated as a potential remediation technology using a mathematical model that includes degradation within spatially distributed carriers and diffusion or advectiondispersion as contaminant mass transfer mechanisms. The total...... to determine whether the spatially distributed model is required. Results show that field scale applications of immobilized degraders will be limited by the amount of carriers required to reach acceptable degradation rates....... degraders have low intrinsic degradation rates and that only limited carrier to soil volume ratios are practically feasible, bioaugmented soils are characterized by low effective degradation ratesandcanbeconsidered fully mixed. A simple exponential model is then sufficient to predict biodegradation...

  8. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers

  9. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  10. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  11. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  12. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  13. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China.

  14. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-06

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  16. Engineering Issue: Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue papers are a series of documents that summarize the available information on specific contaminates, selected treatment and site remediation technologies, and related issues. This Engineering Issue paper is intended...

  17. Use of iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, Andrew B. [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: A.Cundy@brighton.ac.uk; Hopkinson, Laurence [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Whitby, Raymond L.D. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    Reactions involving iron play a major role in the environmental cycling of a wide range of important organic, inorganic and radioactive contaminants. Consequently, a range of environmental clean-up technologies have been proposed or developed which utilise iron chemistry to remediate contaminated land and surface and subsurface waters, e.g. the use of injected zero zero-valent iron nanoparticles to remediate organic contaminant plumes; the generation of iron oxyhydroxide-based substrates for arsenic removal from contaminated waters; etc. This paper reviews some of the latest iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation, their current state of development, and their potential applications and limitations.

  18. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program, Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements similar ongoing integrated demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISRIP has been conducting baseline assessments on in situ technologies to support program planning. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an assessment and evaluation of subsurface containment barrier technology in support of ISRIP`s Containment Technology Subprogram. This report summarizes the results of that activity and provides a recommendation for priortizing areas in which additional research and development is needed to advance the technology to the point of demonstration in support of DOE`s site restoration activities.

  19. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils.

  20. Heating Unsaturated Sediments Using Solar Energy to Enhance Passive Sediment Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sediment heating has been shown to enhance passive sediment remediation technologies such as bioremediation and barometric pumping (passive soil venting). Sediment heating raises the slow remediation rates that often limit the widespread use of these technologies. In bioremediation applications, a 10 degree C increase in subsurface temperature is expected to double the microbial activity, and thus the remediation rate. The removal rate of tetracholorethylene (PCE - a common subsurface contaminant) by passive soil vapor extraction is expected to nearly double in low-permeable sediments when the subsurface is heated 10 degree C from ambient temperatures due to an increased vapor pressure in the PCE. When the sediment is heated using renewable energy sources, these thermally enhanced remediation technologies can be environmentally benign alternatives to conventional remediation techniques that rely on large external energy inputs. The thermally enhanced passive technologies may be particularly useful for remediating unsaturated, low-permeable lenses that are troublesome to most conventional remediation technologies such as conventional soil vapor extraction and co-solvent flushes. The main objective of this work was to quantify subsurface sediment heating using a solar powered heat injection well. To do this, a pilot sediment heating system was installed in Vermont and high resolution meteorological and sediment temperature data were collected using a stand-alone data acquisition system. Unsaturated, silty sediments were heated in-situ by converting the direct and indirect solar energy available at the surface to heat energy in the subsurface using stand-alone renewable energy sources and a resistive element heat injection well. The heat injection well was powered by a 600-W passively tracking photovoltaic (PV) array and a small 1.2-m swept area wind turbine. It is envisioned that the heat injection well would be placed directly into an area of high subsurface

  1. Source zone remediation by zero valent iron technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    , most of them are limited by subsurface heterogeneities and/or the risk of inadvertent DNAPL displacement during field application. This thesis presents the results of an investigation of the potential for remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones by emerging zero valent iron (ZVI) based...

  2. A TOOL FOR STRATEGIC TARGET SETTING ON DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    A tool for strategic development and improvement of remediation technologies was proposed to set a target specification by applying the RNSOIL, an evaluation index of remediation technologies for contaminated soil. Under the scenario of agricultural site contamination with dieldrin and its remediation, improving items and the target values of the bioremediation using charcoal material (charcoal bioremediation), as a developing technology, were determined. The development target was that the RNSOIL value of charcoal bioremediation fell below that of high temperature thermal desorption as a competing technology. Sensitivity assessments of the RNSOIL selected a remediation period and an incubation volume for bacterial growth and settlement in the charcoal as improving properties. Risk assessment and life cycle inventory analysis was introduced to determine a human health risk due to contaminant, and a total cost of remediation or a CO2 emission accompanied with remediation, as evaluating factors of RNSOIL, respectively. Assessment based on the RNSOIL was able to show clearly improving items for achieving the target or items with great effect for improvement.

  3. Engaging with residents' perceived risks and benefits about technologies as a way of resolving remediation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jason; Rai, Tapan

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades the diversity of remediation technologies has increased significantly, with the breadth of technologies ranging from dig and dump to emergent technologies like phytoremediation and nanoremediation. The benefits of these technologies to the environment and human health are believed to be substantial. However, they also potentially constitute risks. Whilst there is a growing body of knowledge about the risks and benefits of these technologies from the perspective of experts, little is known about how residents perceive the risks and benefits of the application of these technologies to address contaminants in their local environment. This absence of knowledge poses a challenge to remediation practitioners and policy makers who are increasingly seeking to engage these affected local residents in choosing technology applications. Building on broader research into the perceived benefits and risks of technologies, and data from a telephone survey of 2009 residents living near 13 contaminated sites in Australia, regression analysis of closed-ended survey questions and coding of open-ended questions are combined to identify the main predictors of resident's perceived levels of risk and benefit to resident's health and to their local environment from remediation technologies. This research identifies a range of factors associated with the residents' physical context, their engagement with institutions during remediation processes, and the technologies which are associated with residents' level of perceived risk and benefit for human health and the local environment. The analysis found that bioremediation technologies were perceived as less risky and more beneficial than chemical, thermal and physical technologies. The paper also supports broader technology research that reports an inverse correlation between levels of perceived risks and benefits. In addition, the paper reveals the types of risks and benefits to human health and the local environment that

  4. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  5. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the

  7. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  8. Remediation of DNAPLs in Low Permeability Soils. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-09-01

    Dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds like trichloroethene (TCE) and perchloroethene (PCE) are prevalent at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), other government, and industrial sites. Their widespread presence in low permeability media (LPM) poses severe challenges for assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective remediation technologies. Most remedial methods that involve fluid flow perform poorly in LPM. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of remediation methods such as vapor extraction, free-product recovery, soil flushing, steam stripping, bioremediation, bioventing, and air sparging in LPM by enhancing formation permeability through the creation of fractures filled with high-permeability materials, such as sand. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of other remediation methods such as oxidation, reductive dechlorination, and bioaugmentation by enhancing delivery of reactive agents to the subsurface. Hydraulic fractures are typically created using a 2-in. steel casing and a drive point pushed into the subsurface by a pneumatic hammer. Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used for more than 50 years to stimulate the yield of wells recovering oil from rock at great depth and has recently been shown to stimulate the yield of wells recovering contaminated liquids and vapors from LPM at shallow depths. Hydraulic fracturing is an enabling technology for improving the performance of some remedial methods and is a key element in the implementation of other methods. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  9. Remedial actions: A discussion of technological, regulatory and construction issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrod, W.E.; Miller, R.A.; Barton, W.D. III; Pierce, T.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Div.

    1989-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation consists of approximately 35,252 acres located in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in Eastern Tennessee. Three Department of Energy facilities are located on the Reservation: the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The plants have, over the years, disposed of low-level and mixed waste in various areas on the reservation principally with shallow land burial. A discussion is presented of some of the actions to remediate and close areas used for disposal of waste in the past. Current or planned activities for waste disposal and storage are also discussed. Closures completed to date have complied with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Regulations. The new approach for disposal and storage has adopted ideas that have been successfully used by the French to dispose of low-level waste, as well as, improved on older shallow burial disposal techniques.

  10. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact on a population from an event resulting in dispersal and deposition of radionuclides in an urban area could be significant, in terms of both the number of people affected and the economic costs of recovery. The use of computer models for assessment of urban contamination situations...

  11. Implementing Problem Resolution Models in Remedy

    CERN Document Server

    Marquina, M A; Ramos, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of Problem Resolution Model (PRM) and describes the current implementation made by the User Support unit at CERN. One of the main challenges of User Support services in any High Energy Physics institute/organization is to address solving of the computing-relatedproblems faced by their researchers. The User Support group at CERN is the IT unit in charge of modeling the operations of the Help Desk and acts as asecond level support to some of the support lines whose problems are receptioned at the Help Desk. The motivation behind the use of a PRM is to provide well defined procedures and methods to react in an efficient way to a request for solving a problem,providing advice, information etc. A PRM is materialized on a workflow which has a set of defined states in which a problem can be. Problems move from onestate to another according to actions as decided by the person who is handling them. A PRM can be implemented by a computer application, generallyreferred to as Problem Report...

  12. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  13. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  14. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    to 75%. Moreover, a number of technology-specific improvements were identified, for instance by the substitution of stainless steel types in wells, heaters, and liners used in thermal conduction heating, thus reducing the nickel consumption by 45%. The combined effect of introducing all the suggested......In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...

  15. Bioslurping technology applications at Naval fuel remediation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppel, R.; Goetz, F. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Zwick, T.; Kittel, J. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Julio, S.D. [California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Bioventing accelerates the biodegradation of both high and low volatility fuels immobilized in the vadose zone by satisfying the high oxygen demand of in situ microorganisms through forced aeration of subsurface soils. However, many Naval field sites have light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) residing at and above the groundwater table. In such cases biodegradation of the LNAPL may be a very slow process because bioemulsification and bioavailability are impeded. Bioslurper systems are designed to recover LNAPL via vacuum-assisted pumping, while simultaneously promoting the remediation of vadose zone soil contamination via bioventing. Bioslurping has been ongoing at NAS Fallon, Nevada, for over three years and was initiated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii last summer. The sites have low volatility JP-5 jet fuel on the groundwater table in low to medium permeability soils. An arid bioventing site at Twentynine Palms, CA, appears to be moisture limited. Subsurface irrigation of the 190 ft vadose zone has increased mixed fuel biodegradation rates about 10-fold but wetting the contaminated zone has been a slow process.

  16. Scale-up on electrokinetic remediation: Engineering and technological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén; Navarro, Vicente; León, María J; Risco, Carolina; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo

    2016-09-05

    This study analyses the effect of the scale-up of electrokinetic remediation (EKR) processes in natural soils. A procedure is proposed to prepare soils based on a compacting process to obtaining soils with similar moisture content and density to those found in real soils in the field. The soil used here was from a region with a high agrarian activity (Mora, Spain). The scale-up study was performed in two installations at different scales: a mock-up pilot scale (0.175m(3)) and a prototype with a scale that was very similar to a real application (16m(3)). The electrode configuration selected consisted of rows of graphite electrodes facing each other located in electrolyte wells. The discharge of 20mg of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D] per kg of dry soil was treated by applying an electric potential gradient of 1Vcm(-1). An increase in scale was observed to directly influence the amount of energy supplied to the soil being treated. As a result, electroosmotic and electromigration flows and electric heating are more intense than in smaller-scale tests (24%, 1% and 25%, respectively respect to the values in prototype). In addition, possible leaks were evaluated by conducting a watertightness test and quantifying evaporation losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Electro-Fenton Technology to Remediation of Polluted Effluents by Self-Sustaining Process

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Ángeles Fernández de Dios; Olaia Iglesias; Marta Pazos; Maria Ángeles Sanromán

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel c...

  18. Assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release : tools, techniques and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kohlsmith, B. [Kinder Morgan Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Tools, techniques, and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation were presented as part of an assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release. The presentation discussed the initial assessment, as well as a discussion of remediation of hydrophobic soils, re-assessment, site specific criteria, a remediation trial involving bioventing and chemical oxidation, and a full scale remediation. The pipeline release occurred in the summer of 1977. The event was followed by a complete surface remediation with a significant amount of topsoil being removed and replaced. In 2004, a landowner complained of poor crop growth in four patches near the area of the historical spill. An initial assessment was undertaken and several photographs were presented. It was concluded that a comprehensive assessment set the base for a careful staged approach to the remediation of the site including the establishment of site specific criteria. The process was made possible with a high level of communication between all stakeholders. In addition, the most appropriate solution for the site was realized. figs.

  19. [Mixture Leaching Remediation Technology of Arsenic Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-feng; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Can; Yang, Qi; Deng, Lin-jing; Xie, Wei-qiang; Zhong, Yui; Huang, Bin; Yang, Wei-qiang; Zhang, Zhi-bei

    2016-03-15

    Soil contamination of arsenic pollution has become a severely environmental issue, while soil leaching is an efficient method for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil. In this study, batch tests were primarily conducted to select optimal mixture leaching combination. Firstly, five conventional reagents were selected and combined with each other. Secondly, the fractions were analyzed before and after the tests. Finally, to explore the feasibility of mixed leaching, three soils with different arsenic pollution levels were used to compare the leaching effect. Comparing with one-step washing, the two-step sequential washing with different reagents increased the arsenic removal efficiency. These results showed that the mixture of 4 h 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH + 4 h 0.1 mol · L⁻¹ EDTA was found to be practicable, which could enhance the removal rate of arsenic from 66.67% to 91.83%, and the concentration of arsenic in soil was decreased from 186 mg · kg⁻¹ to 15.2 mg · kg⁻¹. Furthermore, the results indicated that the distribution of fractions of arsenic in soil changed apparently after mixture leaching. Leaching process could significantly reduce the available contents of arsenic in soil. Moreover, the mixture of 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH + 0.1 mol L⁻¹ EDTA could well decrease the arsenic concentration in aluminum-type soils, while the mixture of 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ OX + 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH could well decrease the arsenic concentration in iron-type soils.

  20. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mehlhorn, Tonia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lester, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Morris, Jesse [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lowe, Kenneth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2016-04-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  1. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  2. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil using the CLEANSOIL technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, A. V.; Korzhov, Yu. V.; Lapshina, E. D.; Kul'Kov, M. G.; Yarkov, D. M.; Khoroshev, D. I.

    2011-04-01

    Approbation data of the innovative CLEANSOIL technology of soil purification after oil pollution are given. Drainage pipes filled with an adsorbent with microorganisms placed in the soil are used. It is revealed that the content of hydrocarbons under the technological constructions (metal columns and reservoirs) rises in comparison with the open oil-polluted areas. It is shown that the oil is destroyed quicker under the constructions versus in the open areas. The microorganisms better assimilate the n-alkanes with C14 chains than the C32-40 hydrocarbons. The application of a combined technology based on the sorption and reduction of the hydrocarbons by microorganisms makes it possible to quickly reduce the soil pollution by oil products without the soil cover's disturbance.

  3. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. A Fundamental study of remedial technology development to prevent stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Gyu; Lee, Chang Soon [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Most of the PWR Steam generators with tubes in Alloy 600 alloy are affected by Stress Corrosion Cracking, such as PWSCC(Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) and ODSCC(Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking). This study was undertaken to establish the background for remedial technology development to prevent SCC. in the report are included the following topics: (1) General: (i) water chemistry related factors, (ii) Pourbaix(Potential-pH) Diagram, (iii) polarization plot, (iv) corrosion mode of Alloy 600, 690, and 800, (v) IGA/SCC growth rate, (vi) material suspetibility of IGA/SCC, (vii) carbon solubility of Alloy 600 (2) Microstructures of Alloy 600 MA, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 600 SEN Alloy 690 TT(Optical, SEM, and TEM) (3) Influencing factors for PWSCC initiation rate of Alloy 600: (i) microstructure, (ii) water chemistry(B, Li), (iii) temperature, (iv) plastic deformation, (v) stress relief annealing (4) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) water chemistry(B, Li), (ii) Scott Model, (iii) intergranular carbide, (iv) temperature, (v) hold time (5) Laboratory conditions for ODSCC initiation rate: 1% NaOH, 316 deg C; 1% NaOH, 343 deg C; 50% NaOH, 288 deg C; 10% NaOH, 302 deg C; 10% NaOH, 316 deg C; 50% NaOH, 343 deg C (6) Sludge effects for ODSCC initiation rate: CuO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (7) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) Caustic concentration effect, (ii) carbonate addition effect (8) Sulfate corrosion: (i) sulfate ratio and pH effect, (ii) wastage rate of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (9) Crevice corrosion: (i) experimental setup for crevice corrosion, (ii) organic effect, (iii) (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NaOH) effect (10) Remedial measures for SCC: (i) Inhibitors, (ii) ZnO effect. (author). 30 refs., 174 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2011-04-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

  6. Bioremediation, an environmental remediation technology for the bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Iain M M; Philp, Jim C

    2013-06-01

    Bioremediation differs from other industrial biotechnologies in that, although bioremediation contractors must profit from the activity, the primary driver is regulatory compliance rather than manufacturing profit. It is an attractive technology in the context of a bioeconomy but currently has limitations at the field scale. Ecogenomics techniques may address some of these limitations, but a further challenge would be acceptance of these techniques by regulators.

  7. Decision support tools for evaluation and selection of technologies for soil remediation and disposal of halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, O.; Zinovyev, S.; Lodolo, A.; Vranes, S.; Miertus, S. [ICS-UNIDO, Trieste (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    One of the most justified demands in abating the pollution created by polychlorinated substances is the remediation of contaminated sites, mainly soil remediation, which is also the most complex technical task in removing pollution because of the necessity to process huge quantities of matrix and to account for numerous side factors. The commercial technologies are usually based on rather direct and simplified but also secure processes, which often approach remediation in a general way, where different types of pollutants can be decontaminated at the same time by each technology. A number of different soil remediation technologies are nowadays available and the continuous competition among environmental service companies and technology developers generates a further increase in the clean-up options. The demand for decision support tools that could help decision makers in selecting the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site has consequently increased. These decision support tools (DST) are designed to help decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the most suitable options in the DST is based on technical, economic, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all parties involved in the decision process to determine their relative importance for a particular remediation project. The aim of the present paper is to present the new approach for building decision support tool to evaluate different technologies for remediation and disposal of halogenated waste.

  8. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  9. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  10. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Containment technology refers to a broad range of methods that are used to contain waste or contaminated groundwater and to keep uncontaminated water from entering a waste site. The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development has instituted the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) to advance the state-of-the-art of innovative technologies that contain or treat, in situ, contaminated media such as soil and groundwater, to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. The information provided here is an overview of the state-of-the-art of containment technology and includes a discussion of ongoing development projects; identifies the technical gaps; discusses the priorities for resolution of the technical gaps; and identifies the site parameters affecting the application of a specific containment method. The containment technology described in this document cover surface caps; vertical barriers such as slurry walls, grout curtains, sheet pilings, frozen soil barriers, and vitrified barriers; horizontal barriers; sorbent barriers; and gravel layers/curtains. Within DOE, containment technology could be used to prevent water infiltration into buried waste; to provide for long-term containment of pits, trenches, and buried waste sites; for the interim containment of leaking underground storage tanks and piping; for the removal of contaminants from groundwater to prevent contamination from migrating off-site; and as an interim measure to prevent the further migration of contamination during the application of an in situ treatment technology such as soil flushing. The ultimate goal is the implementation of containment technology at DOE sites as a cost-effective, efficient, and safe choice for environmental remediation and restoration activities.

  11. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... and technological competences, which helps to anchor the owner within the genealogical community....

  12. Application of screening model for assessing subsurface NAPL contamination and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, S.; Shiu, W.Y. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    To select the most appropriate technique for remediating non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL)-contaminated sites a full understanding is required of the characteristics of the site, the contaminant, and the effectiveness of the remedial measure. A screening model has been developed (MacFarlane and Mackay, in press) for evaluating the partitioning of components of NAPLs present in the subsurface environment and for providing order of magnitude estimates of the effectiveness, in terms of recovery time, of a variety of remedial technologies including water and solvent flushing, air and steam stripping, and enhanced degradation. The model calculations employ the fugacity concept which is found to simplify and clarify the calculations. Two types of calculations are employed in the screening assessment. Level 1 fugacity calculations are simple multimedia equilibrium calculations that deduce how a chemical partitions between media or phases in a defined environment. Level 2 fugacity calculations account for or quantify losses of chemical being conveyed out of the environment by advective flows in phases such as air or water or by degradation by chemical or biochemical reactions. The screening model was originally applied to an existing fractured bedrock site in Smithville, Ontario which is contaminated with a NAPL containing polychlorinated biphenyls, trichlorobenzene, and trichloroethylene. In this paper, the model approach is illustrated for vinyl chloride which may be present at the site due to biochemical reactions occurring in the subsurface. It is their aim to show that this approach can provide screening level insights into the behavior and remediation of NAPLs and can serve as a first step and justification towards more detailed modeling.

  13. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  14. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  15. Anthropology and decision making about chronic technological disasters: Mixed waste remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses two related case studies of decision making about the remediation of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The three goals of the paper are to (1) place current decision-making efforts in the varied and evolving social, political, regulatory, economic, and technological contexts in which they occur; (2) present definitions and attributes of {open_quotes}successful{close_quotes} environmental decision making from the perspectives of key constituency groups that participate in decision making; and (3) discuss the role of anthropology in addressing environmental decision making. Environmental decision making about remediation is extraordinarily complex, involving human health and ecological risks; uncertainties about risks, technological ability to clean up, the financial costs of clean up; multiple and sometimes conflicting regulations; social equity and justice considerations; and decreasing budgets. Anthropological theories and methods can contribute to better understanding and, potentially, to better decision making.

  16. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure.

  17. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process.

  18. Biosurfactant technology for remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Nair, Anupa; Dubey, Kirti V; Singh, S K; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-08-01

    This research focuses on column experiments conducted to evaluate the potential of environmentally compatible rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2 to remove heavy metals (Cd and Pb) from artificially contaminated soil. Results have shown that di-rhamnolipid removes not only the leachable or available fraction of Cd and Pb but also the bound metals as compared to tap water which removed the mobile fraction only. Washing of contaminated soil with tap water revealed that approximately 2.7% of Cd and 9.8% of Pb in contaminated soil was in freely available or weakly bound forms whereas washing with rhamnolipid removed 92% of Cd and 88% of Pb after 36 h of leaching. This indicated that di-rhamnolipid selectively favours mobilization of metals in the order of Cd>Pb. Biosurfactant specificity observed towards specific metal will help in preferential elution of specific contaminant using di-rhamnolipid. It was further observed that pH of the leachates collected from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with di-rhamnolipid solution was low (6.60-6.78) as compared to that of leachates from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with tap water (pH 6.90-7.25), which showed high dissolution of metal species from the contaminated soil and effective leaching of metals with treatment with biosurfactant. The microbial population of the contaminated soil was increased after removal of metals by biosurfactant indicating the decrease of toxicity of metals to soil microflora. This study shows that biosurfactant technology can be an effective and nondestructive method for bioremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soil.

  19. Bioslurping technology applications at naval middle distillate fuel remediation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppel, R.E.; Goetz, F.E. [Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Kittel, J.A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Abbott, J.E. [Battelle Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Bioslurping technology, a combination of bioventing and vacuum-enhanced free-product recovery of light, nonaqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL), has been employed at Fallon Naval Air Station, Nevada, for over 2 years and was initiated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii and a radar station near Hofn, Iceland. These sites have low-volatility fuels on the groundwater table in low- to medium-permeability soils. LNAPL recovery rates from 48 wells in silty fine sand to clay loam profiles at Fallon have ranged from 57 to 227 L/day with an average of 170 L/day at 10 to 30 cm of mercury vacuum. Mass discharge from the bioslurper system for LNAPL and vapor averaged 97% and 2.7%, respectively, with an average soil gas extraction rate of 0.024 m{sup 3}/min. Based on periodic soil gas analyses from 90 isolated soil gas sampling points in the vadose zone of the treatment plot, bioslurping appeared to satisfy O{sub 2} limitations i the contaminated soil profile. Despite no apparent O{sub 2} limitations in the contaminated soil profile. Despite no apparent O{sub 2} limitation for fuel biodegradation, low oxygen utilization rates were observed while performing in situ respiration tests following system shutdown. Preliminary in situ respirometry, soil gas, laboratory microcosm, stable carbon isotope, and soil characterization data indicate that both a low fuel surface area to volume ratio and bacterial cell damage may be involved in the observed low LNAPL bioemulsification and biodegradation rates.

  20. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Natsis, M.E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Walker, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  1. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Natsis, M.E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Walker, J.S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  2. Reference Guide to Non-combustion Technologies for Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Soil, Second Edition - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is the second edition of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) 2005 report and provides a high level summary of information on the applicability of existing and emerging noncombustion technologies for the remediation of...

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Dismantlement, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  4. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities.

  5. From conceptual model to remediation: bioavailability, a key to clean up heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Pedron, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    Processes of metal bioavailability in the soil To know the bioavailability processes at site specific levels is essential to understand in detail the risks associated with pollution, and to support the decision-making process, i.e. description of the conceptual model and choice of clean up technologies. It is particularly important to assess how chemical, physical and biological processes in the soil affect the reactions leading to adsorption, precipitation or release of contaminants. The measurement of bioavailability One of the main difficulties in the practical application of the bioavailability concept in soil remediation is the lack of consensus on the method to be used to measure bioavailability. The best strategy is to apply a series of tests to assess bioavailability, since no applicable method is universally valid under all conditions. As an example, bioavailability tests for phytotechnology application should consider two distinct aspects: a physico-chemical driven solubilization process and a physiologically driven uptake process. Soil and plant characteristics strongly influence bioavailability. Bioavailability as a tool in remediation strategies Bioavailability can be used at all stages in remediation strategies: development of the conceptual model, evaluation of risk assessment, and selection of the best technology, considering different scenarios and including different environmental objectives. Two different strategies can be followed: the reduction and the increase of bioavailability. Procedures that reduce bioavailability aim to prevent the movement of pollutants from the soil to the living organisms, essentially by: i) removal of the labile phase of the contaminant, i.e. the fraction which is intrinsic to the processes of bioavailability (phytostabilization); ii) conversion of the labile fraction into a stable fraction (precipitation or adsorption); iii) increase of the resistance to mass transfer of the contaminants (inertization). Procedures

  6. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  7. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  8. Better than Fuller:a two interests model of remedies for breach of contract

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, David

    2015-01-01

    The attempt to combine the contractual interests properly so-called with the restitution interest in the Fuller and Purdue three interests model of remedies for breach of contract is ineradicably incoherent. Stimulated by reflection on contemporary restitution doctrine’s understanding of the quasi-contractual remedies of recovery and quantum meruit, this paper argues that the complete elimination from the law of contract of the restitution interest, which incorporates those remedies into the ...

  9. [Recent advance in solidification/stabilization technology for the remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Han-zhou; Chen, Tong-bin; Jin, Meng-gui; Lei, Mei; Liu, Cheng-wu; Zu, Wen-pu; Huang, Li-mi

    2011-03-01

    Remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil is still a difficulty and a hotspot of international research projects. At present, the technologies commonly adopted for the remediation of contaminated sites mainly include excavation, solidification/stabilization (S/S), soil washing, soil vapor extraction (SVE), thermal treatment, and bioremediation. Based on the S/S technical guidelines of Unite State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and United Kingdom Environment Agency (EA) and the domestic and foreign patents, this paper introduced the concepts of S/S and its development status at home and abroad, and discussed its future development directions. Solidification refers to a process that binds contaminated media with a reagent, changing the media's physical properties via increasing its compressive strength, decreasing its permeability, and encapsulating the contaminants to form a solid material. Stabilization refers to the process that involves a chemical reaction which reduces the leachability of a waste, chemically immobilizes the waste and reduces its solubility, making the waste become less harmful or less mobile. S/S technology includes cement solidification, lime pozzolanic solidification, plastic materials stabilization, vitrification, and regent-based stabilization. Stabilization (or immobilization) treatment processes convert contaminants to less mobile forms through chemical or thermal interactions. In stabilization technology, the aim of adding agents is to change the soil physical and chemical properties through pH control technology, redox potential technology, precipitation techniques, adsorption technology, and ion-exchange technology that change the existing forms of heavy metals in soil, and thus, reduce the heavy metals bioavailability and mobility. This review also discussed the S/S evaluation methods, highlighted the need to enhance S/S technology in the molecular bonding, soil polymers, and formulation of China's S/S technical guidelines.

  10. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ``Pneumatic Excavator`` which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions.

  11. Effects of gentle remediation technologies on soil biological and biochemical activities - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, B.; Haag, R.; Renella, G.

    2009-04-01

    Remediation technologies for contaminated sites are generally designed to reduce risks for human health, groundwater or plant quality. While some drastic remediation measures such as soil excavation, thermal treatment or soil washing eliminate or strongly reduce soil life, in-situ treatments involving plants or immobilizing additives may also restore soil functionality by establishing or promoting a well structured and active community of soil organisms. Biological parameters that are sensitive to contaminants and other pedo-environmental conditions and which contribute to biogeochemical nutrient cycles, can be used as synthetic indicators of the progress and also the efficiency of given remediation approaches. Data from long-term studies on re-vegetated mine spoils show that biological and biochemical activity is enhanced with increasing plant density and diversity. Among the soil amendments, most measures that introduce organic matter or alkalinity to the contaminated soils also improve microbial or faunal parameters. Only few amendments, such as phosphates and chelators have deleterious effects on soil biota. In this review, soil microbial biomass and the activity of the enzymes phosphatase and arylsulphatase are identified as suitable and sensitive biological indicators for soil health. The results and future research needs are are summarized.

  12. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R

    2014-12-15

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes t...

  14. Acoustic Cavitation: A Potential Remediation Technology for On-Site Elimination of Perfluorinated Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, C. D.; Cheng, J.; Park, H.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals are emerging as globally ubiquitous contaminants which are recalcitrant to the conventional remediation techniques of adsorption and chemical oxidation. The release of these chemicals to the environment occurs from specific sites such as manufacturing plants, fire-fighting foams at airports and contaminated landfills. Even though these compounds are widely recognized as potentially hazardous, disposal regulations have been limited due to the ineffectiveness of current pump and treat technologies towards these species. We have shown that ultrasonically induced acoustic cavitation can effectively mineralize aqueous perfluorinated acid and sulfonate species by in situ pyrolysis and chemical oxidation at the lab and pilot scale. Efficiency has been tested on a variety of matrices such as tap water, groundwater and landfill pump-out with VOC content being the major detriment towards remediation. Advanced oxidation by the simultaneously application of ozone and ultrasound seems to partially eliminate this barrier by enhancing the rate of VOC mineralization. Application of this technology to a contaminated field site and the obstacles of scaling to such a degree are discussed.

  15. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites by DNA diagnosis-based bioslurping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-11-01

    The application of effective remediation technologies can benefit from adequate preliminary testing, such as in lab-scale and Pilot-scale systems. Bioremediation technologies have demonstrated tremendous potential with regards to cost, but they cannot be used for all contaminated sites due to limitations in biological activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a DNA diagnostic method that reduces the time to select contaminated sites that are good candidates for bioremediation. We applied an oligonucleotide microarray method to detect and monitor genes that lead to aliphatic and aromatic degradation. Further, the bioremediation of a contaminated site, selected based on the results of the genetic diagnostic method, was achieved successfully by applying bioslurping in field tests. This gene-based diagnostic technique is a powerful tool to evaluate the potential for bioremediation in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

  16. Assessing the Life Cycle Impact of Four Groundwater Remediation Technologies: P&T, EIB, PRB, and ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2012-12-01

    As sustainable remediation draws attention from both industry and academia, there is growing interest in evaluating the environmental sustainability of various environmental remediation technologies. This study aims at assessing four groundwater remediation technologies from a life cycle impact perspective: pump and treat (P&T), enhanced in-situ bioremediation (EIB), permeable reactive barrier (PRB), and in-situ soil mixing (ISM). The technologies were compared under a variety of scenarios, with site location, plume dimension, hydrology, and chemistry and geochemistry parameters changing in a wide range. This life cycle assessment (LCA) has chosen chlorinated ethylene as the study subject because chlorinated solvents are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soil and groundwater. The USEPA TRACI method was used in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). A multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) score is used to rank the four remediation technologies. The assessment results indicated that P&T tended to have the highest life cycle impact under most scenarios. The other three technologies can all be the most desired technology (with lowest life cycle impact), under different distributional, hydrogeological, and chemical conditions: PRB was the most desired when treatment zone was long, hydraulic gradient or hydraulic conductivity was low, or contaminants degraded fast in the reactive media; ISM became the most desirable when hydraulic gradient or hydraulic conductivity was very high; and EIB was most desirable under most other conditions.

  17. Potential applications of surface active compounds by Gordonia sp. strain BS29 in soil remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Andrea; Caredda, Paolo; Ruggeri, Claudio; La Colla, Paolo; Tamburini, Elena; Papacchini, Maddalena; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2009-05-01

    A wide range of structurally different surface active compounds (SACs) is synthesised by many prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Due to their properties, microbial SACs have been exploited in environmental remediation techniques. From a diesel-contaminated soil, we isolated the Gordonia sp. strain BS29 which extensively grows on aliphatic hydrocarbons and produces two different types of SACs: extracellular bioemulsans and cell-bound biosurfactants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential applications of the strain BS29 and its SACs in the following environmental technologies: bioremediation of soils contaminated by aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, and washing of soils contaminated by crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. Microcosm bioremediation experiments were carried out with soils contaminated by aliphatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, while batch soil washing experiments were carried out with soils contaminated by crude oil, PAHs or heavy metals. Bioremediation results showed that the BS29 bioemulsans are able to slightly enhance the biodegradation of recalcitrant branched hydrocarbons. On the other hand, we obtained the best results in soil washing of hydrocarbons. The BS29 bioemulsans effectively remove crude oil and PAHs from soil. Particularly, crude oil removal by BS29 bioemulsans is comparable to the rhamnolipid one in the same experimental conditions showing that the BS29 bioemulsans are promising washing agents for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  18. Soil hydrologic characterization for modeling large scale soil remediation protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Sica, Benedetto; Speranza, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    In Campania Region (Italy), the Ministry of Environment identified a National Interest Priority Sites (NIPS) with a surface of about 200,000 ha, characterized by different levels and sources of pollution. This area, called Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano includes some polluted agricultural land, belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces. In this area, a high level spotted soil contamination is moreover due to the legal and outlaw industrial and municipal wastes dumping, with hazardous consequences also on the quality of the water table. The EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS) has the major aim of defining an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of crops extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. In the framework of this project, soil hydrologic characterization plays a key role and modeling water flow and solute transport has two main challenging points on which we focus on. A first question is related to the fate of contaminants infiltrated from stormwater runoff and the potential for groundwater contamination. Another question is the quantification of fluxes and spatial extent of root water uptake by the plant species employed to extract pollutants in the uppermost soil horizons. Given the high variability of spatial distribution of pollutants, we use soil characterization at different scales, from field scale when facing root water uptake process, to regional scale when simulating interaction between soil hydrology and groundwater fluxes.

  19. The option to abandon : Stimulating innovative, groundwater remediation technologies characterized by technologies and uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compernolle, T.; van Passel, S.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on technology adoption demonstrate that uncertainty leads to a postponement of investments by integrating a wait option in the economic analysis. The aim of this study however is to demonstrate how the investment in new technologies can be stimulated by integrating an option to abandon.

  20. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  1. Remediation Technologies for Marine Oil Spills: A Critical Review and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Anthropogenic activities pollute the oceans with oil through land run off, vessels accidents, periodic tanker discharges and bilge discharges. Oil spills are environmental disasters that impact human, plants and wild life including birds, fish and mammals. Approach: In this study, the International Guidelines for Preventing Oils Spills and Response to Disasters were reviewed and the characteristics of oil spills were discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various oil spill response methods were evaluated. A comparative analysis were performed on the currently available remediation technologies using 10 evaluation criteria that included cost, efficiency, time, impact on wild life, reliability, level of difficulty, oil recovery, weather, effect on physical/chemical characteristics of oil and the need for further treatment. The advantages and disadvantages of each response method were used to determine the score assigned to that method. Results: There are many government regualtions for individual countries that serve as prevention mesures for oil spills in the offshore environment. They have to do with the design of equipment and machinery used in the offshore environment and performing the necessary safety inspections. The primary objectives of response to oil spill are: to prevent the spill from moving onto shore, reduce the impact on marine life and speed the degradation of any unrecovered oil. There are several physical, chemical, thermal and biological remediation technologies for oil spills including booms, skimmers, sorbents, dispersants, in-situ burning and bioremediation. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages and the choice of a particular technique will depend on: type of oil, physical, biological and economical characteristics of the spill, location, weather and sea conditions, amount spilled and rate of spillage, depth of water column, time of the year and effectiveness of technique. Coclusion

  2. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  3. A Cercla-Based Decision Model to Support Remedy Selection for an Uncertain Volume of Contaminants at a DOE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine E. Kerschus

    1999-03-31

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) operated by the Department of Energy is challenged with selecting the appropriate remediation technology to cleanup contaminants at Waste Area Group (WAG) 6. This research utilizes value-focused thinking and multiattribute preference theory concepts to produce a decision analysis model designed to aid the decision makers in their selection process. The model is based on CERCLA's five primary balancing criteria, tailored specifically to WAG 6 and the contaminants of concern, utilizes expert opinion and the best available engineering, cost, and performance data, and accounts for uncertainty in contaminant volume. The model ranks 23 remediation technologies (trains) in their ability to achieve the CERCLA criteria at various contaminant volumes. A sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effects of changes in expert opinion and uncertainty in volume. Further analysis reveals how volume uncertainty is expected to affect technology cost, time and ability to meet the CERCLA criteria. The model provides the decision makers with a CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology that is objective, traceable, and robust to support the WAG 6 Feasibility Study. In addition, the model can be adjusted to address other DOE contaminated sites.

  4. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  5. BioKonversion technology recovers, remediates and reuses waste and hydrocarbons from oil drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, A.

    2008-01-15

    Houston-based Nopal Group has developed a solution to dispose of oilfield waste in a safe and cost-effective manner. The company is actively engaged in a large-scale project to remediate a 400-hectare site on the Aspheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. The site is currently regarded as the most polluted place in the world after a century of oil extraction with little regard for the surrounding environment. The Nopal Group will use its patented BioKonversion technology, which cleanses the soil of hydrocarbons in a two-part process using a large machine known as the Green Machine. Several pipelines will need to be relocated, and ancient drilling rigs that have been there as long as 100 years will have to be dealt with. The cleanup cost has been estimated at between $20 million to $40 million, and will take between 18 and 36 months, depending on how deep into the ground the machines have to dig for hydrocarbons. The 90-foot by 40-foot machine processes drill cuttings, contaminated soil and drill fluids by first separating the dirt from the liquid hydrocarbons, which can be recycled or refined for resale. The remaining dirt, which still contains 3 to 7 percent oil, is then placed into a centrifuge and mixed with a heating agent and other elements, including naturally oleophilic kenaf powder. The process micronizes and absorbs hydrocarbons. Once the process is finished, the hydrocarbons are immediately non-detectable and non-leachable. The leftover benign dirt can be used as landfill cover, or mixed with road aggregate. BioKonversion can also be adapted for use on oil rigs. This article demonstrated that the process has clear advantages over traditional oilfield remediation methods such as land farming. Opportunities exist to utilize the process in Venezuela and Kuwait. 1 fig.

  6. Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings in Arid and Semiarid Environments—An Emerging Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Monica O.; Maier, Raina M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Unreclaimed mine tailings sites are a worldwide problem, with thousands of unvegetated, exposed tailings piles presenting a source of contamination for nearby communities. Tailings disposal sites in arid and semiarid environments are especially subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Phytostabilization, the use of plants for in situ stabilization of tailings and metal contaminants, is a feasible alternative to costly remediation practices. In this review we emphasize considerations for phytostabilization of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments, as well as issues impeding its long-term success. Data sources We reviewed literature addressing mine closures and revegetation of mine tailings, along with publications evaluating plant ecology, microbial ecology, and soil properties of mine tailings. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified in Web of Science and Agricola databases, and publications available through the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the United Nations Environment Programme. Data synthesis Harsh climatic conditions in arid and semiarid environments along with the innate properties of mine tailings require specific considerations. Plants suitable for phytostabilization must be native, be drought-, salt-, and metal-tolerant, and should limit shoot metal accumulation. Factors for evaluating metal accumulation and toxicity issues are presented. Also reviewed are aspects of implementing phytostabilization, including plant growth stage, amendments, irrigation, and evaluation. Conclusions Phytostabilization of mine tailings is a promising remedial technology but requires further research to identify factors affecting its long-term success by expanding knowledge of suitable plant species and mine tailings chemistry in ongoing field trials. PMID:18335091

  7. Electrokinetic-Fenton technology for the remediation of hydrocarbons historically polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ciprian; Popescu, Marius; Rosales, Emilio; Bocos, Elvira; Pazos, Marta; Lazar, Gabriel; Sanromán, M Angeles

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of the electrokinetic-Fenton technology coupled with surfactants in the treatment of real historically hydrocarbons polluted soils has been studied. The characterisation of these soils from Spain and Romania was performed and identified as diesel and diesel-motor oil spillages, respectively. Moreover, the ageing of the spillages produced by the soil contamination was estimated showing the historical pollution of the sites (around 11 and 20 years for Romanian and Spanish soils, respectively). An ex-situ electrochemical treatment was performed to evaluate the adequacy of surfactants for the degradation of the hydrocarbons present in the soils. It was found an enhancement in the solubilisation and removal of TPHs with percentages increasing from 25.7 to 81.8% by the presence of Tween 80 for Spanish soil and from 15.1% to 71.6% for Triton X100 in Romanian soil. Therefore, the viability of coupling enhanced electrokinetic and Fenton remediation was evaluated through a simulated in-situ treatment at laboratory scale. The results demonstrated that the addition of the selected surfactants improved the solubilisation of the hydrocarbons and influenced the electroosmotic flow with a slight decrease. The efficiency of the treatment increased for both considered soil samples and a significant degradation level of the hydrocarbons compounds was observed. Buffering of pH coupled with the addition of a complexing agent showed to be important in the treatment process, facilitating the conditions for the degradation reactions that take place into the soil matrix. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the selected techniques for remediation of the investigated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System Based on an Enhanced Concept--Effect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaburees, Patcharin; Triampo, Wannapong; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuedoung, Meechoke; Triampo, Darapond

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in computer technology during recent years, researchers have demonstrated the pivotal influences of computer-assisted diagnostic systems on student learning performance improvement. This research aims to develop a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System (DRLS) for an algebra course in a Thai lower secondary school context…

  9. Application of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of polluted effluents by self-sustaining process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Dios, Maria Ángeles; Iglesias, Olaia; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption.

  10. Application of Electro-Fenton Technology to Remediation of Polluted Effluents by Self-Sustaining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ángeles Fernández de Dios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption.

  11. Remediation trials for hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge from a soil washing process: evaluation of bioremediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, F J García; Pérez, R; Escolano, O; Rubio, A; Gimeno, A; Fernandez, M D; Carbonell, G; Perucha, C; Laguna, J

    2012-01-15

    The usual fate of highly contaminated fine products (silt-clay fractions) from soil washing plants is disposal in a dump or thermal destruction (organic contaminants), with consequent environmental impacts. Alternative treatments for these fractions with the aim of on-site reuse are needed. Therefore, the feasibility of two technologies, slurry bioremediation and landfarming, has been studied for the treatment of sludge samples with a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 2243 mg/kg collected from a soil washing plant. The treatability studies were performed at the laboratory and pilot-real scales. The bioslurry assays yielded a TPH reduction efficiency of 57% and 65% in 28 days at the laboratory and pilot scale, respectively. In the landfarming assays, a TPH reduction of 85% in six months was obtained at laboratory scale and 42% in three months for the bioremediation performed in the full-scale. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated by ecotoxicity assessments. The toxic effects in the initial sludge sample were very low for most measured parameters. After the remediation treatments, a decrease in toxic effects was observed in earthworm survival and in carbon mineralisation. The results showed the applicability of two well known bioremediation technologies on these residues, this being a novelty.

  12. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I.; Major, David W.; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale exper...

  13. Comparison of surrogate models with different methods in groundwater remediation process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiannan Luo; Wenxi Lu

    2014-10-01

    Surrogate modelling is an effective tool for reducing computational burden of simulation optimization. In this article, polynomial regression (PR), radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN), and kriging methods were compared for building surrogate models of a multiphase flow simulation model in a simplified nitrobenzene contaminated aquifer remediation problem. In the model accuracy analysis process, a 10-fold cross validation method was adopted to evaluate the approximation accuracy of the three surrogate models. The results demonstrated that: RBFANN surrogate model and kriging surrogate model had acceptable approximation accuracy, and further that kriging model’s approximation accuracy was slightly higher than RBFANN model. However, the PR model demonstrated unacceptably poor approximation accuracy. Therefore, the RBFANN and kriging surrogates were selected and used in the optimization process to identify the most cost-effective remediation strategy at a nitrobenzene-contaminated site. The optimal remediation costs obtained with the two surrogate-based optimization models were similar, and had similar computational burden. These two surrogate-based optimization models are efficient tools for optimal groundwater remediation strategy identification.

  14. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron-(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from ???2.4 to ???7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by ???18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron-(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of Pb are not attenuated by

  15. Innovative uses of LIDAR technology to assist in the remediation of former coal mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, G. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In this study, LIDAR data were used to construct precise topographic digital elevation maps (DEMs) in order to identify potential sites for mine water discharges from the Sydney coalfield in Nova Scotia (NS). LIDAR technology was used to assist in remediation activities at the site by producing location and elevation data to define the surface of the earth and the heights of above-ground features. An analysis of the LIDAR DEMs showed subsidence features that were not observed using traditional aerial photography methods. Features included areas of subsidence over shallow mine workings, depressions over former shafts, and evidence of bootleg mines near seam outcrops. The study showed that preferential subsidence creates topographic differences that can be detected using DEMs. Mine pillars can be detected over mines at depths of more than 25 meters. The DEMs also detected former mine shafts by identifying slight ground depressions formed over back-filled shafts. The DEMs were also able to detect bootleg pits as shallow as 0.5 meters. The pits can provide areas for the migration of acid mine water. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  16. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Patwardhan, A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs.

  17. Computational Enzymology and Organophosphorus Degrading Enzymes: Promising Approaches Toward Remediation Technologies of Warfare Agents and Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Teodorico C; de Castro, Alexandre A; Silva, Daniela R; Silva, Maria Cristina; Franca, Tanos C C; Bennion, Brian J; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The re-emergence of chemical weapons as a global threat in hands of terrorist groups, together with an increasing number of pesticides intoxications and environmental contaminations worldwide, has called the attention of the scientific community for the need of improvement in the technologies for detoxification of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. A compelling strategy is the use of bioremediation by enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these molecules to harmless chemical species. Several enzymes have been studied and engineered for this purpose. However, their mechanisms of action are not well understood. Theoretical investigations may help elucidate important aspects of these mechanisms and help in the development of more efficient bio-remediators. In this review, we point out the major contributions of computational methodologies applied to enzyme based detoxification of OPs. Furthermore, we highlight the use of PTE, PON, DFP, and BuChE as enzymes used in OP detoxification process and how computational tools such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics have and will continue to contribute to this very important area of research.

  18. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  19. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  20. Quantification of the effect of spatially varying environmental contaminants into a cost model for soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, J.M.; Aarts, L.; Tooren, C.F.; Stein, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of spatial variability of soil contaminants on cost calculations for soil remediation. Most cost models only provide a single figure, whereas spatial variability is one of the sources to contribute to the uncertainty. A cost model is applied to a study site

  1. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  2. Assessment of Corrosion Characteristics and Development of Remedial Technologies in Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Lim, Y. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    In general, materials having superior resistance to corrosion are used for main components and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) to improve their safety. During long-term operations in the high temperature and pressure environment, however, localized-corrosion related degradations occur frequently in those materials, leading to unexpected shutdown of the plants. The unexpected shutdowns may lower the operating efficiency of the power generation and expand the repair period, which results in a huge economical loss. Moreover, since the damages may cause a leakage of the primary coolant that brings about a contamination by radioactive substances, the corrosion related degradations of structural materials have become a menace to the safety of NPPs. The steam generator tubes forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs are one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion. Therefore, it is strongly required to verify the degradation mechanisms of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 materials used in the steam generator tubes and primary systems, to establish remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, (1) the assessment techniques of corrosion damages were improved and the database of the obtained results were established. (2) The basic technologies of the management of corrosion damages were developed for the practical use. (3) The fundamental technologies for inhibition and repair of corrosion damages were also developed. The results of this project are applicable to the assessment, failure analysis and life estimation of the materials against corrosion damages. The assessment data obtained in this work are available for the technical references of the corrosion failures of components in NPPs during operation. Furthermore, it is applicable to establish materials design requirements, to establish the optimum operation condition and to

  3. Evaluation and Screening of Remedial Technologies for Uranium at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmons, Michael J.

    2007-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is presently conducting a re-evaluation of remedies addressing persistent dissolved uranium concentrations in the upper aquifer under the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This work is being conducted as a Phase III feasibility study for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy. As part of the feasibility study process, a comprehensive inventory of candidate remedial technologies was conducted by PNNL. This report documents the identification and screening of candidate technologies. The screening evaluation was conducted in accordance with guidance and processes specified by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations associated with implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process.

  4. A review on the geoenvironmental and geoecological integrated technology for environmental remediation in Vietnam: approaches, contributions, challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trong Nhuan, Mai; Hoang Ha, Nguyen Thi; Hoai, Ta Thi; Dang Quy, Tran

    2017-06-01

    Geoenvironmental and geoecological integrated technology (GGIT) is a cost-effective and environment-friendly technology that encompasses the applications of earth science principles and functions of geological environment and ecosystems to assimilate and minimize the spread of pollutants, to enhance the sorption capacity and environmental remediation. On the basis of the integrated approaches such as system, anthropogenic activities - ecosystem - environment interaction, effectiveness and feasibility, GGIT has provided significant applications in Vietnam such as waste containment and remediation and environmental protection. The results of a pilot scale using iron mine drainage sludge and common reed (Phragmites australis) for wastewater treatment in a Pb-Zn mine in northern Vietnam indicated the effective and potential application of GGIT. However, GGIT has many challenges in limited funding conditions, constraints in the initial development of GGIT, incomplete transfer to users, and quantitative assessment of pollutant cleanup by natural environments and ecosystems. Environmental pollution quote, impacts to exposed organisms, increasing demands for application of low-cost technologies, the availability of potential sorbents, indigenous plants, and ecosystems for environmental remediation, and collaboration will promote development, contribution, and implementation of GGIT applications in Vietnam.

  5. Data and Model Uncertainties associated with Biogeochemical Groundwater Remediation and their impact on Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S.; Vesselinov, V. V.; O'Malley, D.; Karra, S.; Hansen, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Models and data are used to characterize the extent of contamination and remediation, both of which are dependent upon the complex interplay of processes ranging from geochemical reactions, microbial metabolism, and pore-scale mixing to heterogeneous flow and external forcings. Characterization is wrought with important uncertainties related to the model itself (e.g. conceptualization, model implementation, parameter values) and the data used for model calibration (e.g. sparsity, measurement errors). This research consists of two primary components: (1) Developing numerical models that incorporate the complex hydrogeology and biogeochemistry that drive groundwater contamination and remediation; (2) Utilizing novel techniques for data/model-based analyses (such as parameter calibration and uncertainty quantification) to aid in decision support for optimal uncertainty reduction related to characterization and remediation of contaminated sites. The reactive transport models are developed using PFLOTRAN and are capable of simulating a wide range of biogeochemical and hydrologic conditions that affect the migration and remediation of groundwater contaminants under diverse field conditions. Data/model-based analyses are achieved using MADS, which utilizes Bayesian methods and Information Gap theory to address the data/model uncertainties discussed above. We also use these tools to evaluate different models, which vary in complexity, in order to weigh and rank models based on model accuracy (in representation of existing observations), model parsimony (everything else being equal, models with smaller number of model parameters are preferred), and model robustness (related to model predictions of unknown future states). These analyses are carried out on synthetic problems, but are directly related to real-world problems; for example, the modeled processes and data inputs are consistent with the conditions at the Los Alamos National Laboratory contamination sites (RDX and

  6. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SEPARATION/CONCENTRATION TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide contamination includes a wide variety of compounds and may result from manufacturing improper storage, handling, disposal; or agricultural processes. It can occur in soil and can lead to secondary contamination of groundwater. Remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils...

  7. Model outputs for each hotspot site to identify the likely environmental, economic and social effects of proposed remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleskens, Luuk; Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Portuguese sites) a fire severity index under current conditions and under different technologies. The DESMICE model is informed by WB3 WOCAT database records, economic WB4 experimental results, additionally requested data on spatial variability of costs and benefits, and secondary data. It applies spatially......This report presents the PESERA-DESMICE model results for the study sites where it has been applied. Modelling has been the key strategy adopted in the DESIRE project to scale up results from the field to the regional level. The PESERA model, extended with several process descriptions to account...... for a variety of degradation types and to enable taking into account the effects of land degradation remediation options, has been calibrated to local study site conditions with local input data and verification results from WB4 trials and secondary sources. It is used to model erosion, biomass, and (for...

  8. Multi-criteria model to support decision-making for the remediation of urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, Christiano; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: christiano_luca@hotmail.com, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Rochedo, Pedro R.R., E-mail: rochedopedro@gmail.com [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de de Planejamento Energetico; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Under the environmental modeling Project of radioecology research area of IRD (CNEN), several tools have been developed to support post-emergency activities. Currently, a multi-criteria model is in development with the aim of supporting decision-making processes under the radiological protection point of view. At this stage, we are focusing on the decontamination of urban areas. The model includes five calculation modules: (1) averted doses to the public due to remediation procedures; (2) occupational exposure of remediation workers; (3) properties of the wastes generated by a remediation procedure; (4) classification of each procedure for a specific urban scenario based on previously calculated quantities; and, (5) multi-criteria rank calculation. The classification of procedures is based on two types of criteria previously defined, both also included as input data of the model. The first type, called Subjective Criteria, is based on experts' opinions collected through questionnaires. The second type, called Technical Criteria, is calculated according to the outputs of the three first modules of the program. The output of the model is a rank order list indicating the priority of procedures to use for each different type of urban environment. The use of results based on criteria and methods developed previously to the occurrence of a contamination event intends not only to provide an input to decision-making processes but also to improve public confidence on authorities responsible for the remediation decisions. (author)

  9. 土壤汞污染及其修复技术%Soil Mercury Pollution and Its Remediation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何姗姗; 李薇; 卢晗

    2016-01-01

    The main factors that caused the increase of the concentration of mercury in soil and the main factors affected the migration of mercury in soil were summarized. The main remediation technology and its application in controlling soil mercury pollution were reviewed. Focus on soil washing technology, stabilization/solidification technology, thermal treatment technology and bioremediation technology. The improvement measures of soil mercury remediation technology should be further studied. Promote the method of local conditions. Different treatments for different soils.%总结了导致土壤中汞浓度增加的来源,以及影响土壤中汞迁移的主要因素,这些因素对评价和优化修复技术是至关重要的。回顾了主要修复技术及其在控制土壤汞污染方面的应用。重点关注土壤淋洗技术,稳定化/固化技术,热处理技术和生物修复技术。应进一步对土壤汞修复技术的改进措施进行研究,提倡因地制宜的修复方法。

  10. Implementing heterogeneous catalytic dechlorination technology for remediating TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Matthew G; Cheng, Hefa; Hopkins, Gary D; Lebron, Carmen A; Reinhard, Martin

    2008-12-01

    To transition catalytic reductive dechlorination (CRD) into practice, it is necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and economic competitiveness of CRD-based treatment systems. A CRD system scaled up from previous laboratory studies was tested for remediating groundwater contaminated with 500-1200 microg L(-1) trichloroethylene (TCE) at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Groundwater was pumped from a treatment well at 2 gal min(-1), amended with hydrogen to 0.35 mg L(-1) and contacted for 2.3 min with 20 kg eggshell-coated Pd on alumina beads (2% Pd by wt) packed in a fixed-bed reactor, and then returned to the aquifer. Operation was continuous for 23 h followed a 1 h regeneration cycle. After regeneration, TCE removal was 99.8% for 4 to 9 h and then declined to 98.3% due to catalyst deactivation. The observed catalyst deactivation was tentatively attributed to formation of sulfidic compounds; modeling of catalyst deactivation kinetics suggests the presence of sulfidic species equivalent to 2-4 mg L(-1) hydrogen sulfide in the reactor water. Over the more than 100 day demonstration period, TCE concentrations in the treated groundwater were reduced by >99% to an average concentration of 4.1 microg L(-1). The results demonstrate CRD as a viable treatment alternative technically and economically competitive with activated carbon adsorption and other conventional physicochemical treatmenttechnologies.

  11. Testing the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross Adaptation-Sensitization Model for Homeopathic Remedy Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Key concepts of the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross-Adaptation-Sensitization (NPCAS) Model for the action of homeopathic remedies in living systems include source nanoparticles as low level environmental stressors, heterotypic hormesis, cross-adaptation, allostasis (stress response network), time-dependent sensitization with endogenous amplification and bidirectional change, and self-organizing complex adaptive systems.

  12. Multi-phase flow modeling of soil contamination and soil remediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, van M.I.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis multi-phase flow models are used to study the flow behavior of liquid contaminants in aquifers and of gases that are injected below the groundwater table for remediation purposes. Considered problems are redistribution of a lens of light nonaqueous phase liquid(LNAPL)on a hor

  13. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  14. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Hill, D.G. [Weiss Associates, Emergyville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Weiss Associates is conducting a three phase program investigating the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I - Laboratory Scale Parametric Investigation; Phase II - Technology Scaling Study; and Phase III - Large Scale Field Tests. Phase I, the subject of this paper, consisted primarily of a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology was also examined. Phase II is a technology scaling study addressing the scale up between laboratory size samples on the order of inches, and the data required for field scale testing, on the order of hundreds of feet. Phase III will consist of field scale testing at an non-industrialized, non-contaminated site and at a contaminated site to validate the technology. Summarized herein are the results of the Phase I {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} investigation, and recommendations for Phase H. A general overview of AER technology along with the plan for the Phase I investigation was presented.

  15. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  16. Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menniti-Ippolito Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the cardinal principles of homeopathy is the "law of similarities", according to which patients can be treated by administering substances which, when tested in healthy subjects, cause symptoms that are similar to those presented by the patients themselves. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of pre-clinical (in vitro and animal studies aimed at evaluating the pharmacological activity or efficacy of some homeopathic remedies under potentially reproducible conditions. However, in addition to some contradictory results, these studies have also highlighted a series of methodological difficulties. The present study was designed to explore the possibility to test in a controlled way the effects of homeopathic remedies on two known experimental models of acute inflammation in the rat. To this aim, the study considered six different remedies indicated by homeopathic practice for this type of symptom in two experimental edema models (carrageenan- and autologous blood-induced edema, using two treatment administration routes (sub-plantar injection and oral administration. Methods In a first phase, the different remedies were tested in the four experimental conditions, following a single-blind (measurement procedure. In a second phase, some of the remedies (in the same and in different dilutions were tested by oral administration in the carrageenan-induced edema, under double-blind (treatment administration and measurement and fully randomized conditions. Seven-hundred-twenty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 170–180 g were used. Six homeopathic remedies (Arnica montana D4, Apis mellifica D4, D30, Atropa belladonna D4, Hamamelis virginiana D4, Lachesis D6, D30, Phosphorus D6, D30, saline and indomethacin were tested. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after edema induction. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student t test. Results In the first phase

  17. Fluoride adsorption by doped and un-doped magnetic ferrites CuCe(x)Fe(2-x)O4: Preparation, characterization, optimization and modeling for effectual remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Abdur; Yusoff, Ismail; Alias, Yatimah

    2015-12-15

    A series of doped and un-doped magnetic adsorbents CuCexFe2-xO4 (x=0.0-0.5) for fluoride were prepared with the micro-emulsion method. Fluoride adsorption was optimized for solution pH, temperature, contact time, and initial concentration and was monitored via normal phase ion chromatography (IC). The effect of concomitant anions was also explored to perform and simulate competitive fluoride adsorption in real water samples. Optimal adsorption was discovered by a simple quadratic model based on central composite design (CCD) and the response surface method (RSM). The adsorption, electrochemical and magnetic properties were compared between doped and un-doped ferrites. Doped ferrites (x=0.1-0.5) were found to be superior to un-doped ferrites (x=0) regarding the active sites, functional groups and fluoride adsorption. The characterization, optimization and application results of the doped ferrites indicated enhanced fluoride adsorption and easy separation with a simple magnet.

  18. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy.

  19. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  20. Environmental Remediation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 into Useful Green Products by Accelerated Carbonation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Suk You

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2, a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called ‘accelerated carbonation’, which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO2. Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC. Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper making industry. The quantity of captured CO2 in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO2 emissions and environmental remediation.

  1. Pumping through porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials: an alternative technology for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Ye, Yin-Dong; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xu; Wu, Liang; Wang, Jin-Long; Ding, Hang; Yong, Ni; He, Ling-Hui; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials (PHOMs) have been shown to be the most promising candidates for cleaning up oil spills; however, due to their limited absorption capacity, a large quantity of PHOMs would be consumed in oil spill remediation, causing serious economic problems. In addition, the complicated and time-consuming process of oil recovery from these sorbents is also an obstacle to their practical application. To solve the above problems, we apply external pumping on PHOMs to realize the continuous collection of oil spills in situ from the water surface with high speed and efficiency. Based on this novel design, oil/water separation and oil collection can be simultaneously achieved in the remediation of oil spills, and the oil sorption capacity is no longer limited to the volume and weight of the sorption material. This novel external pumping technique may bring PHOMs a step closer to practical application in oil spill remediation.

  2. MGP remediation using thermal desorption: emerging technology yields a permanent solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umfleet, D.E.; Bachman, S.A.; Highland, E. [Barr Engineering Company, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    An investigation of a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) at the site for Northwestern Public Service`s new operations buildings uncovered evidence of MGP residuals in the moist, clay-rich soils. On site-thermal desorption was selected as the remedial method. A low-temperature, counter-flow, direct-fired rotary desorber heats soils up to 1200{degree}F to volatilize organic fractions. Soils containing polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were excavated, treated effectively, and reused at the site as backfill. For the approximately 47,000 tons of soil processed, remediation costs were 82 dollars per ton. Site-specific factors affecting project costs included the volume of soil treated, soil type and condition, inclement weather, and market conditions. Soils were treated to below state-approved performance criterion, and remediation of the site was completed just 18 months after the project began. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Mobility of Nanoscale and Microscale iron for groundwater remediation: experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, T.; Gastone, F.; Sethi, R.

    2012-12-01

    viscosity, function of flow rate and on polymer and particle concentrations. The particle-porous medium interactions are modelled with a dual-site approach, accounting for straining and physico-chemical deposition/release phenomena. A general formulation for reversible deposition is also proposed, that includes all commonly applied dynamics (linear attachment, blocking, ripening). The progressive clogging of the porous medium, due to deposition and filtration of particles and aggregates, is modelled by tying porosity and permeability to deposited iron particles. E-MNM1D can be downloaded at www.polito.itgroundwatersoftware. The software is designed as a tool for inverse modelling of laboratory transport tests, and as a support in the design of field-scale applications of MZVI and NZVI-based remediation, in particular for the estimate of the radius of influence of the slurry injection. The work was partly funded by the European Union project AQUAREHAB (FP7 - Grant Agreement Nr. 226565). References 1. Tiraferri, A.; Sethi, R. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2009, 11(3), 635-645. 2. Tiraferri, A.; Chen, K.L.; Sethi, R.; Elimelech, M. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2008, 324(1-2), 71-79. 3. Dalla Vecchia, E.; Luna, M.; Sethi, R. Environmental Science & Technology 2009, 43(23), 8942-8947. 4. Tosco, T.; Sethi, R. Environmental Science and Technology 2010, 44(23), 9062-9068.

  4. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, associated with the contemporary and legacy effects of human activities, remain a serious environmental problem in the Antarctic and Arctic. The management of contaminated sites in these regions is often confounded by the logistical, environmental, legislative and financial challenges associated with operating in polar environments. In response to the need for efficient and safe methods for managing contaminated sites, several technologies have been adapted for on-site or in situ application in these regions. This article reviews six technologies which are currently being adapted or developed for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic. Bioremediation, landfarming, biopiles, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation and permeable reactive barriers are reviewed and discussed with respect to their advantages, limitations and potential for the long-term management of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Antarctic and Arctic. Although these technologies demonstrate potential for application in the Antarctic and Arctic, their effectiveness is dependent on site-specific factors including terrain, soil moisture and temperature, freeze–thaw processes and the indigenous microbial population. The importance of detailed site assessment prior to on-site or in situ implementation is emphasized, and it is argued that coupling of technologies represents one strategy for effective, long-term management of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic.

  5. Tank waste remediation system simulation analysis retrieval model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-09-30

    The goal of simulation was to test tll(., consequences of assumptions. For the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model, l@lie specific assumptions are primarily defined with respect to waste processing arid transfer timing. The model tracks 73 chem1913ical constituents from underground waste tanks to glass; yet, the detailed (@hemistrv and complete set of unit operations of the TWRS process flow sheet are represented only at the level necessary to define the waste processing and transfer logic and to estimate the feed composition for the treatment facilities. Tlierefor(,, the model should net be regarded as a substitute for the TWRS process flow sheet. Pra(!ticallv the model functions as a dyrt(imic extension of the flow sheet model. I I The following sections present the description, assunipt@ions, architecture, arid evalua- tion of the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model. Section 2 describes the model in terms of an overview of the processes represented. Section 3 presents the assumptions for the simulation model. Specific assumptions 9.tt(l parameter values used in the model are provided for waste retrieval, pretreatment, low-level waste (LLNN7) immobilization, and high-level waste (HLW) immobilization functions. Section 4 describes the model in terms of its functional architec- rare to d(@fine a basis for a systematic evaluation of the model. Finally, Section 5 documents an independent test and evaluation of the niodel`s performance (i.e., the verification and validation). Additionally, Appendix A gives a complete listing of the tank inventory used. Appendix B documents the verification and validation plan that was used for the (Section 5) evaluation work. A description and listing of all the model variables is given in Appendix C along with a complete source listing.

  6. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I remedial investigation: Sediment and Cesium-137 transport modeling report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B.; Bao, Y.S.; Moore, T.D.; Brenkert, A.L.; Purucker, S.T.; Reece, D.K.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and {sup 137}Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of {sup 137}Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations.

  7. 污染土壤修复技术的探讨%An analysis of Several Remediation Technologies of the Contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金一凡; 周连杰; 杰克; 叶旭明

    2012-01-01

    污染土壤修复技术目前广泛应用的是生物、换土、固化及淋洗修复技术等,对前3种修复技术在处理污染土壤的效果和过程上进行分析和对比,其结果表明都存在着优缺点.通过对污染土壤淋洗技术的定义及分类的了解和与前3种修复技术的比较,并在此基础上产生了移动式异位淋洗修复技术介绍了它的工艺流程及各机械装置的作用,通过对照原有的污染土壤淋洗修复技术,其表明移动式异位淋洗修复技术具有可移动性、修复效率高等特点,具有很大的工程应用价值.%Most commonly used remediation technologies for soil contamination include bioremediation technology,soil replacement remediation technology and solidification technology at present. Through analysis and comparison, the disadvantages of these three remediation technologies were listed. The drip washing technology of contaminated soil was defined and classified. On this basis, a mobile drip washing remediation technology for contaminated soils was developed. The function of each mechanical device in drip washing technological process was introduced. By comparing the original drip washing remediation technology of contaminated soils, a conclusion was drawed that mobile drip washing remediation technology of contaminated soils has mobility and high efficiency characteristics and has a great application value.

  8. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R; Van Passel, S.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Vanheusden, B.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural s...

  9. PREMChlor: Probabilistic Remediation Evaluation Model for Chlorinated Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Assessment in USUSEPA Superfund Program. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment : An International Journal, Vol. 5, 737–754. Delshad, M., G.A. Pope, and K...simulation-assessment modeling approach for analyzing environmental risks of groundwater contamination at waste landfill sites. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment : An

  10. Improving Risk Governance of Emerging Technologies through Public Engagement: The Neglected Case of Nano-Remediation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Wickson, Fern; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2012-01-01

    assessment. This paper therefore carries out a literature review to capture and analyse how governance strategies have focused on public engagement for NT and how such engagement relates to processes of risk analysis. To further investigate these issues, we focus on a specific NT application as a case study......: the use of nanoparticles for environmental remediation (nano-remediation). Through our review and analysis we find that the main approaches to incorporating public engagement into governance strategies have been the generation of a better understanding of public perceptions of NT and the setting......While public engagement is internationally considered to be crucial for successful governance of nanotechnologies (NT), it has not necessarily been clear what the relationship is (or should be) between these engagement efforts and the more traditional governance practice of scientific risk...

  11. Remediation of PCB contaminated soils in the Canadian Arctic: excavation and surface PRB technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinovich, Indra; Rutter, Allison; Poland, John S; Cairns, Graham; Rowe, R Kerry

    2008-12-15

    The site BAF-5 is located on the summit of Resolution Island, Nunavut, just southeast of Baffin Island at 61 degrees 35'N and 60 degrees 40'W. The site was part of a North American military defense system established in the 1950s that became heavily contaminated with PCBs during and subsequent, its operational years. Remediation through excavation of the PCB contaminated soil at Resolution Island began in 1999 and at its completion in 2006 approximately 5 tonnes of pure PCBs in approximately 20,000 m3 of soil were remediated. Remediation strategies were based on both quantity of soil and level of contamination in the soil. Excavation removed 96% of the PCB contaminated soil on site. In 2003, a surface funnel-and-gate permeable reactive barrier was design and constructed to treat the remaining contamination left in rock crevices and inaccessible areas of the site. Excavation had destabilized contaminated soil in the area, enabling contaminant migration through erosion and runoff pathways. The barrier was designed to maximize sedimentation through settling ponds. This bulk removal enabled the treatment of highly contaminated fines and water through a permeable gate. The increased sediment loading during excavation required both modifications to the funnel and a shift to a more permeable, granular system. Granulated activated charcoal was chosen for its ability to both act as a particle retention filter and adsorptive filter. The reduction in mass of PCB and volume of soils trapped by the funnel of the barrier indicate that soils are re-stabilizing. In 2007, nonwoven geotextiles were re-introduced back into the filtration system as fine filtering could be achieved without clogging. Monitoring sites downstream indicate that the barrier system is effective. This paper describes the field progress of PCB remediation at Resolution Island.

  12. Remediation Technologies for Environmental Projects in the United States Military: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    remediation method is appropriate for sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids ( DNAPLs ), metals, or semi-volatile organic compounds. If the... Mercury (mm Hg). Bioventing Fuel, BTEX, or THC hydrocarbon contamination (i.e.. non-halogenated hydrocarbon) in the vadose zone; - Soil gas...thorougly fractured bedrock. Capping DNAPL . sesnivolatile, or metal/inorganic contamination in the vadose zone; - Area of capping contamination less than 24

  13. Oil Spill Remediation Using Magnetic Particles: An Experiment in Environmental Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, John D.; Godhino, Leroy; Bigger, Stephen W.; Nguyen, Thi Man; Ngeh, Lawrence N.

    1997-12-01

    A simple experiment is described in which the potential of commercially available steel pellets coated with polyethylene (PE) or poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) to remediate an oil spill is demonstrated. Polymer-coated particles are weighed, immersed in oil, magnetically harvested and the remaining oil is weighed in order to enable students to quantitatively investigate the adsorption process. The possibility of recycling the beads and reclaiming the oil is also demonstrated.

  14. Dnapl Site Remediation: Status and Research Needs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroo, H. F.; Kueper, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    Remediation of sites impacted by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as chlorinated solvents remains technically challenging despite significant advances over the past 30 years. Contaminants are difficult to locate in the subsurface, and it is difficult to deliver remedial agents to the contamination effectively. If lower permeability media are present, these can act as diffusive sinks for aqueous and sorbed phase constituents, further complicating characterization and cleanup. DNAPL source zones are particularly difficult to remediate, and even after treatment these sources can persist for many decades, if not centuries, and it is difficult to transition sites to a passive management strategy. A recent expert panel on source zone remediation identified three overriding objectives for future remediation - to be more surgical, more sustainable, and more certain. Surgical remediation refers to precise delineation of contaminants and hydrogeology, with more targeted remediation efforts. Sustainable remediation refers to the growing need to consider all environmental impacts when developing remediation strategies, including energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, lifecycle impacts, and the increasing demand for clean water. Although considerable uncertainty is inherent in subsurface remediation, there is potential to reduce this uncertainty through improved monitoring and modeling. Specific characterization and remediation needs will be summarized separately. Improved technologies for source characterization are critical because inadequate characterization is common given the costs and limitations of current techniques. As a result, the performance of field-scale remediation technologies is frequently disappointing. Specific research needs to improve source zone characterization include: (i) better delineation and mass estimation, (ii) source zone architecture characterization methods, and (iii) increased resolution and fine-scale mapping of geologic

  15. Educational Technology Funding Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    Library and cross-disciplinary literature all stress the increasing importance of instructional technology in higher education. However, there is a dearth of articles detailing funding for library instructional technology. The bulk of library literature on funding for these projects focuses on one-time grant opportunities and on the architecture…

  16. Remediation of a historically Pb contaminated soil using a model natural Mn oxide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Clare M; Gray, Neil D; Tourney, Janette; Davenport, Russell J; Wade, Matthew; Finlay, Nina; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Johnson, Karen L

    2015-11-01

    A natural Mn oxide (NMO) waste was assessed as an in situ remediation amendment for Pb contaminated sites. The viability of this was investigated using a 10 month lysimeter trial, wherein a historically Pb contaminated soil was amended with a 10% by weight model NMO. The model NMO was found to have a large Pb adsorption capacity (qmax 346±14 mg g(-1)). However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the Pb contamination in the soils (3650.54-9299.79 mg kg(-1)), no treatment related difference in Pb via geochemistry could be detected. To overcome difficulties in traditional geochemical techniques due to pollutant heterogeneity we present a new method for unequivocally proving metal sorption to in situ remediation amendments. The method combines two spectroscopic techniques; namely electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Using this we showed Pb immobilisation on NMO, which were Pb free prior to their addition to the soils. Amendment of the soil with exogenous Mn oxide had no effect on microbial functioning, nor did it perturb the composition of the dominant phyla. We conclude that NMOs show excellent potential as remediation amendments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The Remediation Technology and Remediation Practice of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil%重金属污染土壤修复技术及其修复实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益宗; 郝晓伟; 雷鸣; 铁柏清

    2013-01-01

    近年来我国重金属污染事件频发,严重影响广大群众的身体健康,土壤重金属污染与防治成为人们关注的环境问题之一.作者结合多年的工作经验,综述了近年来国内外有关重金属污染土壤修复技术的研究进展,包括物理/化学修复技术、生物修复技术和农业生态修复技术等,对每种技术的基本修复原理、技术特点和应用范围进行了讨论.同时,对国内外典型的重金属污染土壤修复工程实践进行了介绍,以期为重金属污染土壤的修复提供借鉴和参考.%In recent years heavy metal pollution incidents happened frequently in our country, and they had serious impact on human health. How to control heavy metals-contaminated soil becomes one of the noted environmental problems. The present paper aims to provide a critical review on the remediation technology of soils contaminated by heavy metals, including physical / chemical remediation, bioremediation and agricultural ecological restoration technologies, and each kind of technology's remedial principle, technical characteristics and application range are discussed. At the same time, the domestic and foreign typical remediation practices of heavy metals-contaminated soil are introduced, in order to provide the reference for the remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil in China.

  18. Biological Remediation of Soil: An Overview of Global Market and Available Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Ward, Owen P.

    Due to a wide range of industrial and agricultural activities, a high number of chemical contaminants is released into the environment, causing a significant concern regarding potential toxicity, carcinogenicity, and potential for bioaccumulation in living systems of various chemicals in soil. Although microbial activity in soil accounts for most of the degradation of organic contaminants, chemical and physical mechanisms can also provide significant transformation pathways for these compounds. The specific remediation processes that have been applied to clean up contaminated sites include natural attenuation, landfarming, biopiling or composting, contained slurry bioreactor, bioventing, soil vapor extraction, thermal desorption, incineration, soil washing and land filling (USEPA 2004).

  19. Modeling Adsorption Kinetics (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    My talk will focus on modeling the kinetics of the adsorption and filtering process using differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. The models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group which is conducting research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration through biomass such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant.

  20. Harnessing microbial gene pools to remediate persistent organic pollutants using genetically modified plants--a viable technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Johnston, Emily J; Bruce, Neil C

    2015-11-01

    It has been 14 years since the international community came together to legislate the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), restricting the production and use of specific chemicals that were found to be environmentally stable, often bioaccumulating, with long-term toxic effects. Efforts are continuing to remove these pollutants from the environment. While incineration and chemical treatment can be successful, these methods require the removal of tonnes of soil, at high cost, and are damaging to soil structure and microbial communities. The engineering of plants for in situ POP remediation has had highly promising results, and could be a more environmentally-friendly alternative. This review discusses the characterization of POP-degrading bacterial pathways, and how the genes responsible have been harnessed using genetic modification (GM) to introduce these same abilities into plants. Recent advances in multi-gene cloning, genome editing technologies and expression in monocot species are accelerating progress with remediation-applicable species. Examples include plants developed to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), trichloroethylene (TCE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the costs and timescales needed to gain regulatory approval, along with continued public opposition, are considerable. The benefits and challenges in this rapidly developing and promising field are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to water monitoring and remediation that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  2. Technology for site remediation: availability, needs and opportunities for R and D at SCK/CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G.

    1996-09-18

    Considerable experience has been gained over the past years in the use of control and treatment technologies, applied to contaminated sites and environments. Although available technologies are adequate in many cases, it is recognized that many technologies are too costly or inadequate to address the multitude of contaminant problems. This insight has led national and international organizations as well as private organizations and universities to sponsor environment technology programmes to address technology needs. The United States Department of Energy for example has initiated an aggressive environmental technology development programme and the Commission of the European Union is sponsoring environmental technology development. An overview is given of innovative and emerging technologies that may become important. Opportunities for SCK/CEN in research, development, and demonstration programmes are outlined.

  3. Remediation of water pollution caused by pharmaceutical residues based on electrochemical separation and degradation technologies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric

    2012-04-01

    In the last years, the decontamination and disinfection of waters by means of direct or integrated electrochemical processes are being considered as a very appealing alternative due to the significant improvement of the electrode materials and the coupling with low-cost renewable energy sources. Many electrochemical technologies are currently available for the remediation of waters contaminated by refractory organic pollutants such as pharmaceutical micropollutants, whose presence in the environment has become a matter of major concern. Recent reviews have focused on the removal of pharmaceutical residues upon the application of other important methods like ozonation and advanced oxidation processes. Here, we present an overview on the electrochemical methods devised for the treatment of pharmaceutical residues from both, synthetic solutions and real pharmaceutical wastewaters. Electrochemical separation technologies such as membrane technologies, electrocoagulation and internal micro-electrolysis, which only isolate the pollutants from water, are firstly introduced. The fundamentals and experimental set-ups involved in technologies that allow the degradation of pharmaceuticals, like anodic oxidation, electro-oxidation with active chlorine, electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and photoelectrocatalysis among others, are further discussed. Progress on the promising solar photoelectro-Fenton process devised and further developed in our laboratory is especially highlighted and documented. The abatement of total organic carbon or reduction of chemical oxygen demand from contaminated waters allows the comparison between the different methods and materials. The routes for the degradation of the some pharmaceuticals are also presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  5. BIOREGIS software platform based on GIS technology to support in-situ remediation of petroleum contaminated sites. Case study: razvad - dambovita county, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anicai, Ovidiu [Institute for Computers - ITC SA, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [PSV COMPANY SA, Direction of Research, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-12-15

    With a need for the management of petroleum contaminated sites on Romanian territory, an experimental software platform involving ESRI-ArcGIS technologies (BIOREGIS) is presented in this study. The BIOREGIS platform is aimed to: (i) Build the structure of relational, standardized databases to store spatial and textual characteristic information on polluted sites for further risk analysis and planning of remediation actions, (ii) improve the pollution risk assessment methodology for Romanian petroleum contaminated sites and its informatics implementation, and (iii) develop and operate the software platform for pollution risk based management involving GIS/remote sensing technologies and remediation activities. The operation of BIOREGIS has been tested for a pilot contaminated area situated at Razvad - Dambovita County, which has been subjected to in situ remediation procedures involving both bioremediation and electrokinetic processes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. A simulation-based fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for optimal groundwater remediation under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Huang, G. H.; Lu, H. W.

    2008-12-01

    In this study a simulation-based fuzzy chance-constrained programming (SFCCP) model is developed based on possibility theory. The model is solved through an indirect search approach which integrates fuzzy simulation, artificial neural network and simulated annealing techniques. This approach has the advantages of: (1) handling simulation and optimization problems under uncertainty associated with fuzzy parameters, (2) providing additional information (i.e. possibility of constraint satisfaction) indicating that how likely one can believe the decision results, (3) alleviating computational burdens in the optimization process, and (4) reducing the chances of being trapped in local optima. The model is applied to a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in western Canada for supporting the optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The model solutions provide optimal groundwater pumping rates for the 3, 5 and 10 years of pumping schemes. It is observed that the uncertainty significantly affects the remediation strategies. To mitigate such impacts, additional cost is required either for increased pumping rate or for reinforced site characterization.

  7. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections.

  8. Modeling subsurface transport in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments to remediate a municipal drinking water aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bergvall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been carried out that cover the entire transport process of pesticides, from application at the soil surface, through subsurface transport, to contamination of drinking water in esker aquifers. In formerly glaciated regions, such as Scandinavia, many of the most important groundwater resources are situated in glaciofluvial eskers. The purpose of the present study was to model and identify significant processes that govern subsurface transport of pesticides in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments. To simulate the transport processes, we coupled a vadose zone model at soil profile scale to a regional groundwater flow model. The model was applied to a municipal drinking-water aquifer, contaminated with the pesticide-metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzoamide. At regional scale, with the combination of a ten-meter-deep vadose zone and coarse texture, the observed concentrations could be described by the model without assuming preferential flow. A sensitivity analysis revealed that hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer and infiltration rate accounted for almost half of the model uncertainty. The calibrated model was applied to optimize the location of extraction wells for remediation, which were used to validate the predictive modeling. Running a worst-case scenario, the model showed that the establishment of two remediation wells would clean the aquifer in four years, compared to nine years without them. Further development of the model would require additional field measurements in order to improve the description of macrodispersion in deep, sandy vadose zones. We also suggest that future research should focus on characterization of the variability of hydraulic conductivity and its effect on contaminant transport in eskers.

  9. Modeling subsurface transport in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments to remediate a municipal drinking water aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bergvall

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been carried out that cover the entire transport process of pesticides, from application at the soil surface, through subsurface transport, to contamination of drinking water in esker aquifers. In formerly glaciated areas, such as Scandinavia, many of the most important groundwater resources are situated in glaciofluvial eskers. The purpose of the present study was to model and identify significant processes that govern subsurface transport of pesticides in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments. To simulate the transport processes, we coupled a vadose zone model at the point scale to a regional groundwater flow model. The model was applied to a municipal drinking-water aquifer, contaminated with the pesticide-metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzoamide. A sensitivity analysis revealed that hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate accounted for almost half of the model uncertainty. For a ten-meter-deep vadose zone of coarse texture, macropore flow was found to be of minor importance for contaminant transport. The calibrated model was applied to optimize the location of extraction wells for remediation, which were used to verify the predictive modeling. Running a worst-case scenario, the model showed that the establishment of two remediation wells would clean the aquifer in four years, compared to nine years without them. Further development of the model would require additional field measurements to assess the importance of macropore flow in deep, sandy aquifers. We also suggest that future research should focus on characterization of the variability of hydraulic conductivity and its effect on contaminant transport in eskers.

  10. Persuasive Technology and Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe; Lindgren, Peter; Veirum, Niels Einar

    specific behavior, this results to the ability of designing for specific changes. Businesses use different persuasive technologies to persuade users, customers and network partners to change behavior. Operating more than one value proposition, both tangible and intangible value proposition, in combination...... seems to be crucial to the success of a persuasive business model. We will give a short introduction into the area of persuasive technology and business models. Moreover, we will present a number of concrete case examples where persuasive technologies were employed, the first in health care, the second...

  11. Mathematical Model of In-situ Ozonation for the Remediation of 2-Chlorophenol Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 宋孟浩; 黄金宝

    2003-01-01

    A microscopic diffusion-reaction model was developed to simulate in-situ ozonation for the remediation of contaminated soil, i.e., to predict the temporal and spatial distribution of target contaminant in the subsurface.The sequential strategy was employed to obtain the numerical solution of the model using finite difference method. A non-uniform grid of discretization points was employed to increase the accuracy of the numerical solution by means of coordinate transformation. One-dimensional column tests were conducted to verify the model. The column was packed with simulated soils that were spiked with 2-chlorophenol. Ozone gas passed through the column at a flow rate of 100 ml·min-1. The residual 2-chlorophenol content at different depths of the column was determined at fixed time intervals. Compared the experimental data with the simulated values, it was found that the mathematical model fitted data well during most time of the experiment.

  12. A remediation performance model for enhanced metabolic reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in fractured clay till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Chambon, Julie C.; Bjerg, Poul L.;

    2012-01-01

    ). The model is tested on lab batch experiments and applied to describe sediment core samples from a TCE-contaminated site. Model simulations compare favorably to field observations and demonstrate that dechlorination may be limited to narrow bioactive zones in the clay matrix around fractures and sand......A numerical model of metabolic reductive dechlorination is used to describe the performance of enhanced bioremediation in fractured clay till. The model is developed to simulate field observations of a full scale bioremediation scheme in a fractured clay till and thereby to assess remediation...... efficiency and timeframe. A relatively simple approach is used to link the fermentation of the electron donor soybean oil to the sequential dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) while considering redox conditions and the heterogeneous clay till system (clay till matrix, fractures and sand stringers...

  13. Advances in environmental remediation technologies for trichloroethylene pollution%三氯乙烯环境污染修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱翌; 岳飞飞; 褚衍洋

    2012-01-01

    三氯乙烯(TCE)是一种挥发性的有机溶剂,具有较强的环境毒性,对人体有很大危害,被列为"优先控制化合物"及"疑似致癌物质".近年来,许多研究者采用各类技术对TCE的降解进行了系统研究,并取得一定成效,为TCE环境污染的修复提供了多种方法.本文综述了物理修复、化学修复、植物修复及微生物修复等TCE原位修复方法的原理、效能、优缺点及各方法的影响因素,并展望了今后TCE修复技术的发展趋势.%Trichloroethylene(TCE) is a volatile organic solvent with strong environmental toxicity.Identified to be seriously harmful to human bodies,it has been classified as "priority-controlled compounds" and "suspected carcinogens".Recently,various technologies for TCE degradation have been systematically studied,with successful outcomes.They provide a variety of methods for environmental remediation for TCE pollutions.This paper reviews the mechanism,performance,and Pro/Con of several in situ remediation technologies,listed as physical remediation,chemical remediation,phytoremediation,and microbial remediation.An outlook on developing trend of TCE remediation technologies is also proposed.

  14. MISCONCEPTION REMEDIATION OF ATOMIC ORBITAL, MOLECULAR ORBITAL, AND HIBRIDIZIATION CONCEPTS BY COMPUTER ASISSTED INSTRUCTION WITH ANIMATION AND SIMULATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mursiti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation was used to misconception remediation of atomic orbital, molecular orbital, and hibridiziation concepts. The applicated instruction model was focused on concept approach with macromedia flash player and power point programme. The subject of this research were the 2nd semestre students of Chemistry Department. The data were collected by using of true-false pre-test and post- test followed by the reason of its. The analysis reveals that the Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation model increased the understanding of atomic orbital, molecular orbital, and hibridiziation concepts or remediation of concepts missconception, shown by the significant score gained between before and after the implementation of Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation model. The instruction model developed the students's generic skills too.   Keywords: animation simulation,misconception remediation, orbital, hibridization

  15. IN SITU AND EX SITU BIODEGRADATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SITES [ENGINEERING ISSUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is a grouping of technologies that use microbiota (typically, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi) to degrade or transform hazardous contaminants to materials such as carbon dioxide, water, inorganic salts, microbial biomass, and other byproducts that may be less haza...

  16. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  17. Groundwater Contamination: DOD Uses and Develops a Range of Remediation Technologies to Clean Up Military Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    DNAPL dense nonaqueous phase liquids DOD Department of Defense EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification...copper, lead, mercury , selenium, silver, and zinc. eIncludes, but is not limited to, oxygen-bearing chemicals that can be added to fuel to bring...technology is applicable to both dense and light nonaqueous phase liquids ( DNAPL and LNAPL).3 Benefits of enhanced recovery approaches include the

  18. Remediation Technology of Contaminated Areas with Organochlorines: A Preliminary Evaluation Seeking Potential Applications on the Site of Street Capua, Santo André - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silva Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to analyze the use of remediation technologies for areas contaminated with organochlorine based on a literature review and discussions with specialists. The remediation technologies analyzed were bioremediation, phytoremediation, nanotechnology, chemical oxidation, and thermal desorption. The purpose is to identify and compare “key problems” for each of these technologies envisaging the use of one or more of these them f or the remediation of the Capua Street site in Santo André, SP. Four databases were used in the preliminary literature review: Scopus, SciELO, Web of Science, and Science Direct. A survey questionnaire was designed to gather information on publications of scientific papers and patents, specific uses of these technologies by companies, and cases of application. Since the quality of the data and information obtained from this questionnaire application was not satisfactory, a new research approach for complementing them was undertaken. For this purpose, the Web of Science was selected as the most adequate data basis to carry out this second survey. However, it was realized that even for this database - that is reference for evaluating academic institutions, researchers and maturity of technologies – bias coming from the original data source can affect the survey results. Moreover, as the number of keywords used in the research consisted of generic terms for each technology, it can also be assumed that if some authors have used very specific terms, a small amount of work published by them would possibly have been misrepresented in the final result.

  19. Column Experiments of Smouldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for NAPL Source Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironi, P.; Switzer, C.; Rein, G.; Torero, J. L.; Gerhard, J. I.

    2008-12-01

    Smouldering combustion is an innovative approach that has significant potential for the remediation of industrial sites contaminated by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Many common liquid contaminants, including coal tar, solvents, oils and petrochemicals are combustible and release significant amounts of heat when burned. Smouldering combustion is the flameless burning of a condensed fuel that derives heat from surface oxidation reactions. Gerhard et al., 2006 (Eos Trans., 87(52), Fall Meeting Suppl. H24A) presented proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating that NAPLs embedded in a porous medium may be effectively destroyed via smouldering. Based upon that work, it was hypothesized that the process can be self- sustaining, such that, a short duration energy input (i.e., ignition) at a single location is sufficient to generate a reaction that propagates itself through the NAPL source zone until the NAPL is eliminated, provided that enough air is injected into the soil. In this work, this hypothesis is proven via column experiments at the intermediate bench scale (~ 30 cm) utilizing coal tar-contaminated quartz sands. Over 30 such experiments examine the sensitivity of NAPL smouldering to a series of fluid-media system variables and engineering control parameters, including contaminant type, NAPL saturation, water saturation, porous media type and air injection rate. Diagnostic techniques employed to characterize the results include temperature mapping, off-gas analysis (via FTIR), heat front mapping via digital imaging, and pre- and post-treatment soil analysis. The derived relationships between the manipulated system variables and experimental results are providing understanding of the mechanisms controlling the ignition and propagation of liquid smouldering. Such insight is necessary for the ongoing design of both ex situ and in situ pilot applications.

  20. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Hoeffner

    2003-12-31

    The Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL) was contracted by the National Energy Technology Center to evaluate technologies that might be used to reduce the volume of plutonium-contaminated soil at the Nevada Test Site. The project has been systematically approached. A thorough review and summary was completed for: (1) The NTS soil geological, geochemical and physical characteristics; (2) The characteristics and chemical form of the plutonium that is in these soils; (3) Previous volume reduction technologies that have been attempted on the NTS soils; (4) Vendors with technology that may be applicable; and (5) Related needs at other DOE sites. Soils from the Nevada Test Site were collected and delivered to the CETL. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu-239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. Using the information obtained from these reviews, three vendors were selected to demonstration their volume reduction technologies at the CETL. Two of the three technologies, bioremediation and soil washing, met the performance criteria. Both were able to significantly reduce the concentration plutonium in the soil from around 1100 pCi/g to 200 pCi/g or less with a volume reduction of around 95%, well over the target 70%. These results are especially encouraging because they indicate significant improvement over that obtained in these earlier pilot and field studies. Additional studies are recommended.

  1. Reactant Carrier Microfoam Technology for In-Situ Remediation of Radionuclide and Metallic Contaminants in Deep Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Jansik, Danielle P.; Foote, Martin; Hart, Andrea T.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing advanced remedial technologies for addressing metal and radionuclide (Cr, Tc, and U) contamination in deep vadose zone environments. One of the transformational technology alternatives being considered by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, is the use of Reactant Carrier Microfoams (RCM) as a minimally invasive method for delivery and emplacement of reagents for in-situ immobilization of contaminants. Penetration of low permeability zones deep within the subsurface for Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) has been well-established. Use of surfactant foams have also been explored for mobilizing DNAPL from sediments. So far, the concept of using RCM for immobilizing labile metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone has not been explored. We, at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), conducted studies to develop stable foams as a means to deliver reductive and/or precipitating reactants to the deep subsurface. To test the feasibility of this approach, we developed a preliminary foam formulation consisting of a mixture of an anionic and a nonionic surfactant with a reactant consisting of a 9:1 blend of tripoly- and orthophosphate. The MSE Technology Applications, Inc (MSE) in collaboration with PNNL, conducted a scale-up test to evaluate the efficacy of this reactant carrier foam for in-situ immobilization of U containing sediment zones in a heterogenous sediment matrix. The data indicated that successful immobilization of U contamination is feasible using specifically tailored reactant carrier foam injection technology. Studies are continuing for developing more robust optimized RCM for highly mobile contaminants such as Cr (VI), Tc (VII) in the deep vadose zone.

  2. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  3. Effects of initial solute distribution on contaminant availability, desorption modeling, and subsurface remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Nathan W; Ball, William P; Bouwer, Edward J

    2007-01-01

    Low permeability regions in which solute movement is governed by diffusion reduce the availability of pollutants for remediation and can function as long-term sources of groundwater contamination. The inherent difficulty in understanding mass transfer from these regions of sequestered contamination is further complicated by unknown solute distributions within the low-permeability regions (sequestering regions). When models are calibrated to reproduce temporal histories of solute release from a sequestering region (desorption), the fitted parameter values are used to infer the physical or chemical characteristics of the media; however, the calibrated parameters also reflect the case-specific initial conditions (i.e., the solute distribution within the sequestering region domain at the onset of desorption). This phenomenon is demonstrated using model simulations of solute diffusion from hypothetical solids with characteristics similar to those of the well studied Borden, Ontario aquifer system. Solute release from the solids is simulated using a batch diffusion model under different initial solute distributions within the solids. The results of these model simulations are used to calibrate parameters of a multiple first-order rate desorption model (MRM) to illustrate how the fitted MRM parameters increase or decrease depending on the initial "aging" of the solids. Further numerical simulations are conducted for a one-dimensional flow system under steady-state and variable-rate hydraulic flushing. These simulations show that although aging reduces desorptive mass flux during early stages of flushing, aged sites have greater desorptive mass flux (greater solute availability) than "freshly" contaminated media during the later stages of remediation. Overall, the results demonstrate why the physicochemical meaning of observed desorption rates cannot be accurately deduced without first understanding the initial solute distribution within the media.

  4. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  5. Phase I Field Test Results of an Innovative DNAPL Remediation Technology: The Hydrophobic Lance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-01-28

    An innovative technology for recovery of pure phase DNAPL was deployed in the subsurface near the M-Area Settling Basin, continuing the support of the A/M Area Ground Water Corrective Action Program (per Part B requirements). This technology, the Hydrophobic Lance, operates by placing a neutral/hydrophobic surface (Teflon) in contact with the DNAPL. This changes the in situ conditions experienced by the DNAPL, allowing it to selectively drain into a sump from which it can be pumped. Collection of even small amounts of DNAPL can save years of pump-and-treat operation because of the generally low solubility of DNAPL components.

  6. Mining the waste: prospecting valuable residues optimising processes with modern technology sustainably remediating legacy sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lemière, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Prospecting valuable residuesAbandoned waste from closed mines or past operations may contain profitably recoverable commodities:-when the market price of the commodity increased significantly since mine closure,-when processing technology improved significantly since mine closure,-when another commodity present in the ore was not recovered and thus sent to waste, because it was not of commercial value at the time. This is especially relevant for some high-tech element...

  7. Smart technologies for detecting animal welfare status and delivering health remedies for rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, S M

    2014-04-01

    Although the emerging field of precision livestock farming (PLF) is predominantly associated with intensive animal production, there is increasing interest in applying smart technologies in extensive rangeland systems. Precision livestock farming technologies bring the possibility of closely monitoring the behaviour, liveweight and other parameters of individual animals in free-ranging systems. 'Virtual fencing', ideally based on positive reinforcement, i.e. rewarding animals for moving in a specified direction, has the potential to gently guide foraging livestock towards areas of vegetation identified by remote sensing. As well as reducing hunger, this could be integrated with weather forecasting to help ensure that animals are automatically directed to areas with appropriate shelter when adverse weather is forecast. The system could also direct animals towards handling facilities when required, reducing the fear and distress associated with being mustered. The integration of the various data collected by such a 'virtual shepherd' system should be able to rapidly detect disease and injury, and sick animals could then be automatically shepherded to an enclosure for treatment. In general, rangeland livestock already have the freedom to express normal behaviour, but PLF technologies could facilitate this. By bringing levels of monitoring and control normally associated with intensive production to rangeland systems, PLF has the potential, with appropriate adoption, to enhance the capacity of rangeland livestock production systems to meet key areas of welfare concern highlighted by the Five Freedoms.

  8. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  9. Bioprinting technologies for disease modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memic, Adnan; Navaei, Ali; Mirani, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    challenges of conventional in vitro assays through the development of custom bioinks and patient derived cells coupled with well-defined arrangements of biomaterials. Here, we provide an overview on the technological aspects of 3D bioprinting technique and discuss how the development of bioprinted tissue......There is a great need for the development of biomimetic human tissue models that allow elucidation of the pathophysiological conditions involved in disease initiation and progression. Conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro assays and animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate...... the critical characteristics of human physiology. Alternatively, three-dimensional (3D) tissue models are often developed in a low-throughput manner and lack crucial native-like architecture. The recent emergence of bioprinting technologies has enabled creating 3D tissue models that address the critical...

  10. Technology Survey to Support Revision to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200­-SW­-2 Operable Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nimmons, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-09-01

    A survey of technologies was conducted to provide information for a Data Quality Objectives process being conducted to support revision of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-SW-2 Operable Unit. The technology survey considered remediation and characterization technologies. This effort was conducted to address, in part, comments on the previous version of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-SW-2 Operable Unit as documented in 200­SW­1 and 200­SW­2 Collaborative Workshops-Agreement, Completion Matrix, and Supporting Documentation. By providing a thorough survey of remediation and characterization options, this report is intended to enable the subsequent data quality objectives and work plan revision processes to consider the full range of potential alternatives for planning of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study activities.

  11. Conceptual design and experiments of electrochemistry-flushing technology for the remediation of historically Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sun, Delin; Hu, Siyang; Hu, Jing; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2016-02-01

    A conceptual design and experiments, electrochemistry-flushing (E-flushing), using electrochemistry to enhance flushing efficiency for the remediation of Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil is presented. The rector contained three compartments vertically superposed. The upper was airtight cathode compartment containing an iron-cathode. The middle was soil layer. The bottom was anode compartment containing an iron-anode and connected to a container by circulation pumps. H2 and OH(-) ions were produced at cathode. H2 increased the gas pressure in cathode compartment and drove flushing solution into soil layer forming flushing process. OH(-) ions entered into soil layer by eletromigration and hydraulic flow to enhance the desorption of Cr(Ⅵ). High potential gradient was applied to accelerate the electromigration of desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) ions and produced joule heat to increase soil temperature to enhance Cr(Ⅵ) desorption. In anode compartment, Fe(2+) ions produced at iron-anode reduced the desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) into Cr(3+) ions, which reacted with OH(-) ions forming Cr(OH)3. Experimental results show that Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency of E-flushing experiments was more than double of flushing experiments and reached the maximum of removal efficiency determined by desorption kinetics. All electrochemistry processes were positively used in E-flushing technology.

  12. Completing the Remedial Sequence and College-Level Credit-Bearing Math: Comparing Binary, Cumulative, and Continuation Ratio Logistic Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is the most common subject area of remedial need and the majority of remedial math students never pass a college-level credit-bearing math class. The majorities of studies that investigate this phenomenon are conducted at community colleges and use some type of regression model; however, none have used a continuation ratio model. The…

  13. Completing the Remedial Sequence and College-Level Credit-Bearing Math: Comparing Binary, Cumulative, and Continuation Ratio Logistic Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is the most common subject area of remedial need and the majority of remedial math students never pass a college-level credit-bearing math class. The majorities of studies that investigate this phenomenon are conducted at community colleges and use some type of regression model; however, none have used a continuation ratio model. The…

  14. Modelling cadmium contamination in paddy soils under long-term remediation measures: Model development and stochastic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping

    2016-09-01

    A pollutant accumulation model (PAM) based on the mass balance theory was developed to simulate long-term changes of heavy metal concentrations in soil. When combined with Monte Carlo simulation, the model can predict the probability distributions of heavy metals in a soil-water-plant system with fluctuating environmental parameters and inputs from multiple pathways. The model was used for evaluating different remediation measures to deal with Cd contamination of paddy soils in Youxian county (Hunan province), China, under five scenarios, namely the default scenario (A), not returning paddy straw to the soil (B), reducing the deposition of Cd (C), liming (D), and integrating several remediation measures (E). The model predicted that the Cd contents of soil can lowered significantly by (B) and those of the plants by (D). However, in the long run, (D) will increase soil Cd. The concentrations of Cd in both soils and rice grains can be effectively reduced by (E), although it will take decades of effort. The history of Cd pollution and the major causes of Cd accumulation in soil were studied by means of sensitivity analysis and retrospective simulation.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF GEO-PROCESSING MODELS FOR THE AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF REMEDIATION PLAN AND NAVIGATION DATA TO USE IN INDUSTRIAL DISASTER REMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lucas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces research done on the automatic preparation of remediation plans and navigation data for the precise guidance of heavy machinery in clean-up work after an industrial disaster. The input test data consists of a pollution extent shapefile derived from the processing of hyperspectral aerial survey data from the Kolontár red mud disaster. Three algorithms were developed and the respective scripts were written in Python. The first model aims at drawing a parcel clean-up plan. The model tests four different parcel orientations (0, 90, 45 and 135 degree and keeps the plan where clean-up parcels are less numerous considering it is an optimal spatial configuration. The second model drifts the clean-up parcel of a work plan both vertically and horizontally following a grid pattern with sampling distance of a fifth of a parcel width and keep the most optimal drifted version; here also with the belief to reduce the final number of parcel features. The last model aims at drawing a navigation line in the middle of each clean-up parcel. The models work efficiently and achieve automatic optimized plan generation (parcels and navigation lines. Applying the first model we demonstrated that depending on the size and geometry of the features of the contaminated area layer, the number of clean-up parcels generated by the model varies in a range of 4% to 38% from plan to plan. Such a significant variation with the resulting feature numbers shows that the optimal orientation identification can result in saving work, time and money in remediation. The various tests demonstrated that the model gains efficiency when 1/ the individual features of contaminated area present a significant orientation with their geometry (features are long, 2/ the size of pollution extent features becomes closer to the size of the parcels (scale effect. The second model shows only 1% difference with the variation of feature number; so this last is less interesting for

  16. Dopamine selectively remediates 'model-based' reward learning: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Madeleine E; Foerde, Karin; Daw, Nathaniel D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-02-01

    Patients with loss of dopamine due to Parkinson's disease are impaired at learning from reward. However, it remains unknown precisely which aspect of learning is impaired. In particular, learning from reward, or reinforcement learning, can be driven by two distinct computational processes. One involves habitual stamping-in of stimulus-response associations, hypothesized to arise computationally from 'model-free' learning. The other, 'model-based' learning, involves learning a model of the world that is believed to support goal-directed behaviour. Much work has pointed to a role for dopamine in model-free learning. But recent work suggests model-based learning may also involve dopamine modulation, raising the possibility that model-based learning may contribute to the learning impairment in Parkinson's disease. To directly test this, we used a two-step reward-learning task which dissociates model-free versus model-based learning. We evaluated learning in patients with Parkinson's disease tested ON versus OFF their dopamine replacement medication and in healthy controls. Surprisingly, we found no effect of disease or medication on model-free learning. Instead, we found that patients tested OFF medication showed a marked impairment in model-based learning, and that this impairment was remediated by dopaminergic medication. Moreover, model-based learning was positively correlated with a separate measure of working memory performance, raising the possibility of common neural substrates. Our results suggest that some learning deficits in Parkinson's disease may be related to an inability to pursue reward based on complete representations of the environment.

  17. Biological remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a refinery's soil : comparison of different technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazare Couto, M.; Vasconcelos, T.S.D. [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Porto (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed bioremediation methods used at a refinery in Portugal with a high distillation capacity. The aim of the project was to develop a method for restoring contaminated sites using rhizoremediation and bio-augmentation. Hydrocarbon molecules were tightly sorbed to the soil particles at the refinery. Plants used in the bioremediation project included Scirpus maritimus and Juncus maritimus, as well as Cortoaderia selloana taken from an estuary near the refinery. Tests were conducted both with, and without the use of microorganisms. Commercial bio-augmentation products were used. Plant growth was evaluated for a period of 64 days. It was concluded that the technology is cheaper than many traditional methods of treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. tabs., figs.

  18. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    saturation 7%) and agree satisfactory well with model predictions. In contrast, much larger mineralization rates are measured for wet conditions (water saturation of 68%). This discrepancy originates from extensive cell dispersal, not accounted for in the model, which occurs in wet conditions...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  19. Modeling the effects and uncertainties of contaminated sediment remediation scenarios in a Norwegian fjord by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloranta, Tuomo M; Armitage, James M; Haario, Heikki; Naes, Kristoffer; Cousins, Ian T; Barton, David N

    2008-01-01

    Multimedia environmental fate models are useful tools to investigate the long-term impacts of remediation measures designed to alleviate potential ecological and human health concerns in contaminated areas. Estimating and communicating the uncertainties associated with the model simulations is a critical task for demonstrating the transparency and reliability of the results. The Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test(Extended FAST) method for sensitivity analysis and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for uncertainty analysis and model calibration have several advantages over methods typically applied for multimedia environmental fate models. Most importantly, the simulation results and their uncertainties can be anchored to the available observations and their uncertainties. We apply these techniques for simulating the historical fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Grenland fjords, Norway, and for predicting the effects of different contaminated sediment remediation (capping) scenarios on the future levels of PCDD/Fs in cod and crab therein. The remediation scenario simulations show that a significant remediation effect can first be seen when significant portions of the contaminated sediment areas are cleaned up, and that increase in capping area leads to both earlier achievement of good fjord status and narrower uncertainty in the predicted timing for this.

  20. Numerical modeling of Etla Valley aquifer, Oax., Mexico: Evolution and remediation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Marquez, E. L; Martinez-Serrano, R. G; Chavez, R. E; Crusillo, Y [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Jimenez, G [Facultad de Ingenieria, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Camops-Enriquez, O [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Short-term evolution (for 2001, 2005 and 2015) for the shallow aquifer of Etla Valley, Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was simulated based in a 3D hydrological model elaborated from the available geological, geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic parameters. The numerical simulations were based on Visual MODFLOW code. These simulations indicate that, if the actual extraction regime is maintained, the drawdown of the potentiometric surface will get worse to the SE of the study area (i. e. beneath Oaxaca city). The prevailing aquifer flow direction favors the ground water pollution by fertilizers and leakage from the sewage network (dumped to the Atoyac river). According to the numerical simulation, remediation of this situation is possible if the wells located in the neighborhood of Oaxaca City are relocated at the recharge zones (i. e. at the feet from Sierra de Juarez). This remediation scenario will allow a recovery of the drawdown of the potentiometric surface. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo geohidrologico evolutivo 3D a corto plazo (para los anos 2001, 2005 y 2015) del acuifero somero del Valle de Etla, Oaxaca, sureste de Mexico, basado en los parametros disponibles de geologia, geofisica, geoquimica e hidrologia. Las simulaciones numericas fueron realizadas en Visual MODFLOW. Estas simulaciones indican que, si el actual regimen de extraccion es mantenido, el abatimiento de la superficie potenciometrica puede ser mayor en el SE del area de estudio (i. e. cerca de la ciudad de Oaxaca). La contaminacion por fertilizantes y por las fugas de drenaje es favorecida por la direccion de flujo imperante en el acuifero (vaciandose en el rio Atoyac). De acuerdo a las simulaciones numericas, existe una posible remediacion de este proceso, relocalizando los pozos situados en la ciudad de Oaxaca en las zonas de recarga (i. e. en las faldas de la Sierra de Juarez). Este escenario de remediacion permitiria una recuperacion en el nivel de la superficie potenciometrica.

  1. Blind Inlet as a Possible Technology for the Remediation of Phosphorus from Surface Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmlechner, M.; Wu, X.; Livingston, S.; Klik, A.; Huang, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant life, but too much P in runoff water can cause eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. Hence, mitigation of agricultural P losses into the water cycle is a very important issue. In-stream P treatment is difficult to implement because the large amount of storm runoff needs to be treated in short durations. In this research, we evaluated the potential to use blind inlet as an in-field P treatment technology. A box system was built to simulate hydrological and chemical processes occurring in a blind inlet. Current blind inlets, which are already installed in the field, use a bed of limestone with a sand/pea gravel layer on the top. In this study, steel slags has been tested, which has a very high P sorption potential, as the filter media through a series of adsorption and desorption experiments. The P mass balance results are compared with the limestone material used in current blind inlet construction. The total mass of P which was absorbed by the limestone was 14 % of the P input into the system whereas 26 % P was absorbed by the steel slags. Therefore the steel slags show potential to sequester dissolved P. Additional research is on-going to come up with a design criteria for field implementation.

  2. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    , sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product, which is one of the objectives of this current study, is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. FBSR testing of a Hanford LAW simulant and a WTP-SW simulant at the pilot scale was performed by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC at Hazen Research Inc. in April/May 2008. The Hanford LAW simulant was the Rassat 68 tank blend and the target concentrations for the LAW was increased by a factor of 10 for Sb, As, Ag, Cd, and Tl; 100 for Ba and Re (Tc surrogate); 1,000 for I; and 254,902 for Cs based on discussions with the DOE field office and the environmental regulators and an evaluation of the Hanford Tank Waste Envelopes A, B, and C. It was determined through the evaluation of the actual tank waste metals concentrations that some metal levels were not sufficient to achieve reliable detection in the off-gas sampling. Therefore, the identified metals concentrations were increased in the Rassat simulant processed by TTT at HRI to ensure detection and enable calculation of system removal efficiencies, product retention efficiencies, and mass balance closure without regard to potential results of those determinations or impacts on product durability response such as Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). A WTP-SW simulant based on melter off-gas analyses from Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was also tested at HRI in the 15-inch diameter Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) dual reformer at HRI in 2008. The target concentrations for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were increased by 16X for Se, 29X for

  3. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    , sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product, which is one of the objectives of this current study, is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. FBSR testing of a Hanford LAW simulant and a WTP-SW simulant at the pilot scale was performed by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC at Hazen Research Inc. in April/May 2008. The Hanford LAW simulant was the Rassat 68 tank blend and the target concentrations for the LAW was increased by a factor of 10 for Sb, As, Ag, Cd, and Tl; 100 for Ba and Re (Tc surrogate); 1,000 for I; and 254,902 for Cs based on discussions with the DOE field office and the environmental regulators and an evaluation of the Hanford Tank Waste Envelopes A, B, and C. It was determined through the evaluation of the actual tank waste metals concentrations that some metal levels were not sufficient to achieve reliable detection in the off-gas sampling. Therefore, the identified metals concentrations were increased in the Rassat simulant processed by TTT at HRI to ensure detection and enable calculation of system removal efficiencies, product retention efficiencies, and mass balance closure without regard to potential results of those determinations or impacts on product durability response such as Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). A WTP-SW simulant based on melter off-gas analyses from Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was also tested at HRI in the 15-inch diameter Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) dual reformer at HRI in 2008. The target concentrations for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were increased by 16X for Se, 29X for

  4. An economic decision framework using modeling for improving aquifer remediation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.R.; Gwo, J.P.; Toran, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    Reducing cost is a critical challenge facing environmental remediation today. One of the most effective ways of reducing costs is to improve decision-making. This can range from choosing more cost- effective remediation alternatives (for example, determining whether a groundwater contamination plume should be remediated or not) to improving data collection (for example, determining when data collection should stoop). Uncertainty in site conditions presents a major challenge for effective decision-making. We present a framework for increasing the effectiveness of remedial design decision-making at groundwater contamination sites where there is uncertainty in many parameters that affect remediation design. The objective is to provide an easy-to-use economic framework for making remediation decisions. The presented framework is used to 1) select the best remedial design from a suite of possible ones, 2) estimate if additional data collection is cost-effective, and 3) determine the most important parameters to be sampled. The framework is developed by combining elements from Latin-Hypercube simulation of contaminant transport, economic risk-cost-benefit analysis, and Regional Sensitivity Analysis (RSA).

  5. Dissolved plume attenuation with DNAPL source remediation, aqueous decay and volatilization — Analytical solution, model calibration and prediction uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack C.; Park, Eungyu; Tang, Guoping

    2008-11-01

    A vertically-integrated analytical model for dissolved phase transport is described that considers a time-dependent DNAPL source based on the upscaled dissolution kinetics model of Parker and Park with extensions to consider time-dependent source zone biodecay, partial source mass reduction, and remediation-enhanced source dissolution kinetics. The model also considers spatial variability in aqueous plume decay, which is treated as the sum of aqueous biodecay and volatilization due to diffusive transport and barometric pumping through the unsaturated zone. The model is implemented in Excel/VBA coupled with (1) an inverse solution that utilizes prior information on model parameters and their uncertainty to condition the solution, and (2) an error analysis module that computes parameter covariances and total prediction uncertainty due to regression error and parameter uncertainty. A hypothetical case study is presented to evaluate the feasibility of calibrating the model from limited noisy field data. The results indicate that prediction uncertainty increases significantly over time following calibration, primarily due to propagation of parameter uncertainty. However, differences between the predicted performance of source zone partial mass reduction and the known true performance were reasonably small. Furthermore, a clear difference is observed between the predicted performance for the remedial action scenario versus that for a no-action scenario, which is consistent with the true system behavior. The results suggest that the model formulation can be effectively utilized to assess monitored natural attenuation and source remediation options if careful attention is given to model calibration and prediction uncertainty issues.

  6. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  7. EREM 2001 - 3. symposium and status report on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czurda, C.; Haus, R. (eds.); Hoetzl, H.

    2001-07-01

    Papers have been submitted by authors from around the world, reflecting the worldwide interest in electrokinetic remediation techniques. Therefore the symposium series plays a significant role in the presentation of recent advancements in electrochemical decontamination of polluted sediments on both scientific and technical level. In the field of potential cost-saving, innovative in-situ remediation technologies electrokinetics are already identified throughout the world. The main topics of the symposium are: electrokinetic models, electrokinetic transport processes, technical installation, combination of electroremediation with different remediation methods and the application in various electrokinetic field test demonstrations.

  8. Starlings as avian model and monitors of remedial actions on Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting behavior, productivity, and physical condition of starlings were evaluated between reference and PCB remediated sites. Nest box usage was similar among all...

  9. Guiding healthcare technology implementation: a new integrated technology implementation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Rhonda R; Titler, Marita G

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare technology is used to improve delivery of safe patient care by providing tools for early diagnosis, ongoing monitoring, and treatment of patients. This technology includes bedside physiologic monitors, pulse oximetry devices, electrocardiogram machines, bedside telemetry, infusion pumps, ventilators, and electronic health records. Healthcare costs are a challenge for society, and hospitals are pushed to lower costs by discharging patients sooner. Healthcare technology is being used to facilitate these early discharges. There is little understanding of how healthcare facilities purchase, implement, and adopt technology. There are two areas of theories and models currently used when investigating technology: technology adoption and implementation science. Technology adoption focuses mainly on how the end users adopt technology, whereas implementation science describes methods, interventions, and variables that promote the use of evidence-based practice. These two approaches are not well informed by each other. In addition, amplifying the knowledge gap is the limited conceptualization of healthcare technology implementation frameworks. To bridge this gap, an all-encompassing model is needed. To understand the key technology implementation factors utilized by leading healthcare facilities, the prevailing technology adoption and implementation science theories and models were reviewed. From this review, an integrated technology implementation model will be set forth.

  10. Engineering and environmental remediation scenarios due to leakage from the Gulf War oil spill using 3-D numerical contaminant modellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Al-Weshah, Radwan A.

    2016-12-01

    The transport groundwater modelling has been undertaken to assess potential remediation scenarios and provide an optimal remediation options for consideration. The purpose of the study was to allow 50 years of predictive remediation simulation time. The results depict the likely total petroleum hydrocarbon migration pattern in the area under the worst-case scenario. The remediation scenario simulations indicate that do nothing approach will likely not achieve the target water quality within 50 years. Similarly, complete source removal approach will also likely not achieve the target water quality within 50 years. Partial source removal could be expected to remove a significant portion of the contaminant mass, but would increase the rate of contaminant recharge in the short to medium term. The pump-treat-reinject simulation indicates that the option appears feasible and could achieve a reduction in the area of the 0.01 mg/L TPH contour area for both Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish by 35 and 30%, respectively, within 50 years. The rate of improvement and the completion date would depend on a range of factors such as bore field arrangements, pumping rates, reinjection water quality and additional volumes being introduced and require further optimisation and field pilot trials.

  11. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  12. Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles from Synthetic and Natural Sources: Remediation Model for PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Saeed, Fatima; Rafique, Uzaira

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of nanoscience and technology is gaining popularity with an increasing demand for metal nanoparticles applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, an attempt is made to compare the efficiency of two different synthesis methods and application of each for the remediation of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this regard, silver nanoparticles are prepared by green and wet chemical method using plant extract of garlic (Allium sativum). The extract is known to reduce the metal during synthesis and acts as stabilizing ligand. These synthesized silver nanoparticles (Agp) and (AgW) were applied as adsorbents in synthetic batch mode experiments at varying parameters of pH and temperature. A concentration of 0.01mg/L of Phenanthrene, Anthracene, and Pyrene were induced at fixed dosage of 1mg/Kg of adsorbent. Residual concentration of each PAH was analyzed on UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results indicated that both adsorbents follow the sequence of Phenanthrene>Pyrene>Anthracene with optimal removal of higher than 85% in each case. A distinguishing privilege is attained by Agp adsorbent showing 3, 3 and 11 orders of magnitude higher efficiency than Agw. It may be attributed to more functional groups in the plant extract participating in binding of PAH to the surface. Each synthesized adsorbents was characterized by FTIR, SEM and EDX. The average particle size was determined to be of the order of 13-26 nm. The study concludes the use of alternate economical and green adsorbents for control of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  13. Drivers and applications of integrated clean-up technologies for surfactant-enhanced remediation of environments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Shasha; Wick, Lukas Y; Peng, Dan; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Yin, Hua; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is considered as a promising and efficient remediation approach. This review summarizes and discusses main drivers on the application of SER in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and water. The effect of PAH-PAH interactions on SER efficiency is, for the first time, illustrated in an SER review. Interactions between mixed PAHs could enhance, decrease, or have no impact on surfactants' solubilization power towards PAHs, thus affecting the optimal usage of surfactants for SER. Although SER can transfer PAHs from soil/non-aqueous phase liquids to the aqueous phase, the harmful impact of PAHs still exists. To decrease the level of PAHs in SER solutions, a series of SER-based integrated cleanup technologies have been developed including surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR), surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR) and SER-advanced oxidation processes (SER-AOPs). In this review, the general considerations and corresponding applications of the integrated cleanup technologies are summarized and discussed. Compared with SER-AOPs, SEBR and SEPR need less operation cost, yet require more treatment time. To successfully achieve the field application of surfactant-based technologies, massive production of the cost-effective green surfactants (i.e. biosurfactants) and comprehensive evaluation of the drivers and the global cost of SER-based cleanup technologies need to be performed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    emulsified vegetable oil EX extraction well FRTR Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable gpm gallon per minute GSA General Services Administration...logic controller PRB permeable reactive barrier PVC polyvinyl chloride ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued) viii qPCR quantitative...situ growth of DHC and degradation of target contaminants. A slow-release carbon source, such as emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) is often utilized with

  15. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  16. Implications of soil mixing for NAPL source zone remediation: Column studies and modeling of field-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mitchell R.; Sale, Tom C.

    2015-06-01

    Soil remediation is often inhibited by subsurface heterogeneity, which constrains contaminant/reagent contact. Use of soil mixing techniques for reagent delivery provides a means to overcome contaminant/reagent contact limitations. Furthermore, soil mixing reduces the permeability of treated soils, thus extending the time for reactions to proceed. This paper describes research conducted to evaluate implications of soil mixing on remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. The research consisted of column studies and subsequent modeling of field-scale systems. For column studies, clean influent water was flushed through columns containing homogenized soils, granular zero valent iron (ZVI), and trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Within the columns, NAPL depletion occurred due to dissolution, followed by either column-effluent discharge or ZVI-mediated degradation. Complete removal of TCE NAPL from the columns occurred in 6-8 pore volumes of flow. However, most of the TCE (> 96%) was discharged in the column effluent; less than 4% of TCE was degraded. The low fraction of TCE degraded is attributed to the short hydraulic residence time ( 10 m) and reducing permeability by one-or-more orders of magnitude, the residence time could be greatly extended, potentially for periods of years to decades. Model output indicates that the fraction of TCE degraded can be increased to > 99.9%, given typical post-mixing soil permeability values. These results suggest that remediation performance can be greatly enhanced by combining contaminant degradation with an extended residence time.

  17. From Theory to PrACTice: A Cognitive Remediation Program Based on a Neuropsychological Model of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Delphine; Vehier, Aurélie; Chesnoy-Servanin, Gabrielle; Gouiller, Nicolas; D'Amato, Thierry; Saoud, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is one of the hallmark deficits of schizophrenia. A wide range of studies illustrate how it is strongly interconnected to clinical presentation and daily life functioning [see Ref. (1, 2)]. Hence, cognition is an important treatment target in schizophrenia. To address the challenge of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, a large number of cognitive remediation programs have been developed and evaluated over the past several decades. First, an overview of these programs is presented highlighting their specificity to cognitive deficit in schizophrenia using an integrated method. In this case, cognitive training focuses on enhancing several elementary cognitive functions considered as a prerequisite to social skills or vocational training modules. These programs are based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, moderate improvement for patients who benefit from these therapies has been observed as described in Wykes et al. review (3). Next, neuropsychological models of schizophrenia are then presented. They highlight the critical role of the internally generated intentions in appropriate willful actions. The cognitive control mechanism deals with this ability. Interestingly, available cognitive remediation programs have not been influenced by these models. Hence, we propose another alternative to set up a specific cognitive remediation program for schizophrenia patients by targeting the cognitive control mechanism. We describe the PrACTice program that is in the process of being validated.

  18. From theory to PrACTice: a cognitive remediation program based on a neuropsychological model of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine eFabre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is one of the hallmark deficits of schizophrenia. A wide range of studies illustrate how it is strongly interconnected to clinical presentation and daily life functioning (see Green, 1996 and Green et al., 2000. Hence, cognition is an important treatment target in schizophrenia. To address the challenge of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, a large number of cognitive remediation programs have been developed and evaluated over the past several decades. First, an overview of these programs is presented highlighting their specificity to cognitive deficit in schizophrenia using an integrated method. In this case, cognitive training focuses on enhancing several elementary cognitive functions considered as a prerequisite to social skills or vocational training modules. These programs are based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, moderate improvement for patients who benefit from these therapies has been observed as described in Wykes et al review (2011. Next, neuropsychological models of schizophrenia are then presented. They highlight the critical role of the internally generated intentions in appropriate willful actions. The cognitive control mechanism deals with this ability. Interestingly, available cognitive remediation programs have not been influenced by these models. Hence, we propose another alternative to set up a specific cognitive remediation program for schizophrenia patients by targeting the cognitive control mechanism. We describe the PrACTice program which is in the process of being validated.

  19. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination remediation using meshfree point collocation method and particle swarm optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mategaonkar Meenal; T I Eldho

    2012-06-01

    Remediation of the groundwater contamination problem is a tedious, time consuming and expensive process. Pump and treat (PAT) is one of the commonly used techniques for groundwater remediation in which the contaminated groundwater is pumped, treated and put back to the aquifer system or other sources. Developing simulation-optimization (S/O) model proved to be very useful in the design process of an effective PAT system. Simulation models help in predicting the spatial and temporal variation of the contamination plume while optimization models help in minimizing the cost of pumping. Generally, grid or mesh based models such as Finite Difference Method (FDM) or Finite Element Methods (FEM) is used for the groundwater flow and transport simulation. But it is found that grid/mesh generation is a time consuming process. Therefore, recently Meshfree (MFree) based numerical models are developed to avoid this difficulty of meshing and remeshing. MFree Point Collocation Method (PCM) is a simple meshfree method used for the simulation of coupled groundwater flow and contaminant transport. For groundwater optimization problems, even though number of methods such as linear programming, nonlinear programming, etc. are available, evolutionary algorithm based techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are found to be very effective. In this paper, a simulation model using MFree PCM for confined groundwater flow and transport and a PSO based single objective optimization model are developed and coupled to get an effective S/O model for groundwater remediation using PAT. The S/O model based on PCM and PSO is applied for a polluted hypothetical confined aquifer and its performance is compared with Finite Element Method–Binary Coded Genetic Algorithm (FEM–GA) model. It is found that both the models are in good agreement with each other showing the applicability of the present approach. The PCM–PSO based S/O model is simple and more

  20. Modelling in Medical Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Michel (Bowine)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractHealth care is a rapidly developing field in which new technologies are introduced continuously. Not all new technologies have the same impact however: most represent only small changes in existing technologies, whereas only a few - like organ transplants - really are revolutionary new d

  1. Modelling future improvements in the St. Louis River fishery from sediment remediation and aquatic habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of fish consumption advisories has a negative impact on fishing. In the St. Louis River, an important natural resource management goal is to reduce or eliminate fish consumption advisories by remediating contaminant sediments and improving aquatic habitat. However, w...

  2. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile l

  3. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile

  4. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  5. Rapid response tools and datasets for post-fire modeling: Linking Earth Observations and process-based hydrological models to support post-fire remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Miller; M. Billmire; W. J. Elliot; K. A. Endsley; P. R. Robichaud

    2015-01-01

    Preparation is key to utilizing Earth Observations and process-based models to support post-wildfire mitigation. Post-fire flooding and erosion can pose a serious threat to life, property and municipal water supplies. Increased runoff and sediment delivery due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties are of great concern. Remediation...

  6. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Iris R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS, a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting

  7. Seismic Physical Modeling Technology and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the seismic physical modeling technology in the CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration. It includes the seismic physical model positioning system, the data acquisition system, sources, transducers,model materials, model building techniques, precision measurements of model geometry, the basic principles of the seismic physical modeling and experimental methods, and two physical model examples.

  8. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  9. Features and Remediation technologies of Pollution in Lead - Zinc Mining Areas of China%我国铅锌矿污染特点及修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁桂莲; 钱建平; 张力

    2011-01-01

    我国铅锌矿污染的一般特点是:多元素复合污染;污染元素赋存形式复杂;常叠加化学药剂的污染;重金属污染具有隐蔽性、累积性及不可逆性;部分矿山伴生放射性污染等。针对铅锌矿区的不同污染特点,目前常用的污染修复方法有:电动修复法、合磷物质修复法和植物修复法等。电动修复法适宜于低渗透性污染土壤的修复,具有修复时间短、修复彻底、不会引入环境有害物质等优点。含磷物质是一种廉价有效的重金属污染土壤修复剂,可针对土壤重金属污染的实际状况施以不同类型的含磷化合物以降低有效态重金属的含量。超富集植物修复则具有操作技术简单、成本低%The pollution of the lead- zinc mining areas in China is characterized by combined multi - element pollution, complex existing forms of contaminating elements, generally combined with the chemical agents pollution, the concealment, accumulation and irreversibility of heavy metal pollution, accompanying radioactive contamination in some mines, and so on. The com- mon methods of pollution remediation include electrokinetic re mediation; contaminated soil remediation using phosphorus - containing substances and phytoremediation in lead - zinc miningareas. Electrokinetic remediation is suitable for low permeability polluted soil, and has many advantages such as short repairing time, complete effect, without introduction of harmful substances into the environment. Phosphorus - containing substances are cheap and effective agent for the remediation of heavy metal - contaminated soil. Different types of phosphorus compounds can be reduced the content of available heavy metals in soil according to contaminated situation. The remediation of heavy metal - contaminated soil by hyper accumulator plants, is a promising technology, which has the advantages of simple,low cost, less environmental disturbance and being suitable

  10. An age structured demographic model of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of technology transitions lie complex processes of technology choices. Understanding and planning sustainability transitions requires modelling work, which necessitates a theory of technology substitution. A theoretical model of technological change and turnover is presented, intended as a methodological paradigm shift from widely used conventional modelling approaches such as cost optimisation. It follows the tradition of evolutionary economics and evolutionary game theory, using ecological population growth dynamics to represent the evolution of technology populations in the marketplace, with substitutions taking place at the level of the decision-maker. Extended to use principles of human demography or the age structured evolution of species in interacting ecosystems, this theory is built from first principles, and through an appropriate approximation, reduces to a form identical to empirical models of technology diffusion common in the technology transitions literature. Using an age structure...

  11. Role of natural attenuation, phytoremediation and hybrid technologies in the remediation of a refinery soil with old/recent petroleum hydrocarbons contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Maria Nazaré P F S; Pinto, Dorabela; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, Teresa S D

    2012-09-01

    Within a search for a biological remediation technology to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from a contaminated soil from a refinery, the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was compared with the use of transplants of Cortaderia selloana both in the absence and in the presence of soil amendments. After 31 months of experiments, MNA was effective in removing most of the recent PHC contamination (50% of the initial total contamination) at 5-20 cm depth. The presence of weathered contamination explains the existence of an established community of PHC degraders, as can be inferred by the most probable number technique. C. selloana, in its turn, showed capacity to mobilize the most recalcitrant fraction of PHC to its roots, nevertheless masking its remediation capacity. The use of a hybrid technology (C. selloana together with treatments with a surfactant and a bioaugmentation product) improved the removal of PHC at 15-20 cm depth, the presence of C. selloana facilitating the migration of additives into the deeper layers of soil, which can be considered a secondary but positive role of the plant. In the surface soil layer, which was exposed to both microorganisms and the atmosphere, a further 20% of weathered PHC contamination disappeared (70% total removal) as a result of photo- and chemical degradation. Periodic revolving of the soil, like tillage, to expose all the contaminated soil to the atmosphere will therefore be a reliable option for reducing the contamination of the refinery soil if conditions (space and equipment) permit this operation.

  12. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to metal-contaminated sites in Antarctica and the Arctic: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of contaminated land requires a sound understanding of site geology, chemistry and biology. This is particularly the case for Antarctica and the Arctic, which function using different legislative frameworks to those of industrialized, temperate environments and are logistically challenging environments to operate in. This paper reviews seven remediation technologies currently used, or demonstrating potential for on-site or in situ use at metal-contaminated sites in polar environments, namely permeable reactive barriers (PRB, chemical fixation, bioremediation, phytoremediation, electrokinetic separation, land capping, and pump and treat systems. The technologies reviewed are discussed in terms of their advantages, limitations and overall potential for the management of metal-contaminated sites in Antarctica and the Arctic. This review demonstrates that several of the reviewed technologies show potential for on-site or in situ usage in Antarctica and the Arctic. Of the reviewed technologies, chemical fixation and PRB are particularly promising technologies for metal-contaminated sites in polar environments. However, further research and relevant field trials are required before these technologies can be considered proven techniques.

  13. Technology and Online Education: Models for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Catherine W.; Sonnenberg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper contends that technology changes advance online education. A number of mobile computing and transformative technologies will be examined and incorporated into a descriptive study. The object of the study will be to design innovative mobile awareness models seeking to understand technology changes for mobile devices and how they can be…

  14. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system

    OpenAIRE

    Bell Iris R; Koithan Mary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience. Discussion The ...

  15. Comparative application of different risk assessment models and implications on resulting remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, Andrea; Callegari, Arianna; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of contaminated soils and their productive recovery is a quite controversial environmental and economic problem with important consequences for its social, public health and sustainability aspects. The sheer number and characteristics of the polluted sites are so large and varied, and the definition of priorities related to their remediation interventions so site-dependent, that proper characterization and final environmental quality goals reflect a strategic importance. One of the possible approaches to site specific approach and site priority ranking can be that of carrying out, respectively, absolute and comparative analysis procedures. An important aspect to be solved is represented by the necessity to consider not only the potential risk to public health, but also the best possible financial return from the investments for remediation, especially when carried out with public money. In this paper, different contaminated sites' risk assessment approaches are considered, compared and their applicability to support sustainable policies discussed using a case study.

  16. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  17. The highly successful safe remediation of the Fernald waste pits undertaken under the privatization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Mark; Lojek, Dave; Murphy, Con

    2003-02-23

    Remediation of eight waste pits at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site, located northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, involves excavating approximately one million tonnes in-situ of low-level waste which were placed in pits during Fernald's production era. This unique project, one of the largest in the history of CERCLA/Superfund, includes uranium and thorium contaminated waste, soils and sludges. These wet soils and sludges are thermally dried in a processing facility to meet Department of Transportation (DOT) transportation and disposal facility waste acceptance criteria, loaded into railcars and shipped to the Envirocare waste disposal facility at Clive, Utah. This project is now approximately 60% complete with more than 415,000 tonnes (460,000 tons) of waste material safely shipped in 74 unit trains to Envirocare. Work is scheduled to be completed in early 2005. Success to date demonstrates that a major DOE site remediation project can be safely and successfully executed in partnership with private industry, utilizing proven commercial best practices, existing site labor resources and support of local stakeholders. In 1997 under the DOE's privatization initiative, Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald) solicited the services of the remediation industry to design, engineer, procure, construct, own and operate a facility that would undertake the remediation of the waste pits. The resulting procurement was awarded to IT Corporation, currently Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc. (Shaw). The contractor was required to finance the procurement and construction of its facilities and infrastructure. The contract was performance-based and payment would be made on the successful loadout of the waste from the facility on a per-ton basis meeting the Envirocare waste acceptance criteria. This paper details the performance to date, the challenges encountered, and the seamless partnering between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Fluor Fernald

  18. STUDY ON BIODEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN BULK IN THE REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodecontaminare methods are based on biodegradation in the subsurface presence of microorganisms capable of degrading most of carbonaceous organic pollutants and much of inorganic pollutants. Biodegradation in bulk meet that principle biological decontamination several ways. These methods are intended solely for solids, and is often used for on-site remediation of soils contaminated with organic products. Station bioremediation ensure reducing the harmfulness of residues from oil exploitation activities considered hazardous, using a bioremediation process. Bioremediation process will lead to reduction of oil content and thus reducing the hazard of waste.

  19. A Model Technology Educator: Thomas A. Edison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzer, William S.; Rogers, George E.; Bush, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Reflecting back over a century ago to the small village of Menlo Park, New Jersey provides insight into a remarkable visionary and an exceptional role model for today's problem-solving and design-focused technology educator: Thomas A. Edison, inventor, innovator, and model technology educator. Since Edison could not simply apply existing knowledge…

  20. Research of Home Information Technology Adoption Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ao Shan; Ren Weiyin; Lin Peishan; Tang Shoulian

    2008-01-01

    The Information Technology at Home has caught the attention of various industries such as IT, Home Appliances, Communication, and Real Estate. Based on the information technology acceptance theories and family consumption behaviors theories, this study summarized and analyzed four key belief variables i.e. Perceived Value, Perceived Risk, Perceived Cost and Perceived Ease of Use, which influence the acceptance of home information technology. The study also summaries three groups of external variables. They axe social, industrial, and family influence factors. The social influence factors include Subjective Norm; the industry factors include the Unification of Home Information Technological Standards, the Perfection of Home Information Industry Value Chain, and the Competitiveness of Home Information Industry; and the family factors include Family Income, Family Life Cycle and Family Educational Level. The study discusses the relationship among these external variables and cognitive variables. The study provides Home Information Technology Acceptance Model based on the Technology Acceptance Model and the characteristics of home information technology consumption.

  1. 溢油污染发生后的物理和化学修复技术%The Physical and Chemical Remediation Technology after the Oil Spill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋生奎; 李钦华; 徐新; 曹泽煜; 王杰辉

    2014-01-01

    目前溢油污染已经严重影响到人类的健康和生存质量,威胁到人类的可持续发展。溢油污染事件发生后,应当组织专业人员对泄漏油品采取有效控制、可靠回收,并采用适宜的物理和化学环境修复技术应急处理溢油污染,对于控制污染面积、保证溢油环境污染修复效果具有重要的意义。%Nowadays, the oil spill pollution seriously affected the human health and quality of life , threatening the human sustainable development.After the oil spill pollution incident occurs , the professional staff should be organized to take effective control of leak oil and make reliable recovery and also use the proper physical and chemical environmental remediation technology for emergency treatment of oil spill pollution , which would be of great importance for controlling pollution area and ensuring the effect of oil spill pollution remediation.

  2. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  3. 铅污染土壤修复工艺技术研究%Process of lead-contaminated soil remediation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舒

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the acceleration of the process of urban development , pollution, corporate legacy of contaminated sites attracted more and more attention , business-contaminated soils have a great adverse environmental problems .Since the soil began to be concerned about heavy metal pollution prevention , soil contamination is very difficult to repair , pollutant treatment cost is very expensive , requires fast and efficient technique to accelerate the repair of contaminated land .In this article, select a typical lead-contaminated soil as research, discusses lead-acid batteries contaminated land restoration technology , the value of contaminated sites by soil characteristics and environmental risk assessment to determine the feasibility of restoration and repair , by cleaning soil remediation technologies , to optimize the basic parameters of soil remediation , soil remediation test analysis derived optimal technology .%近年来,随着城市建设进程的加快,污染企业遗留下来的污染场地引起越来越多的关注,企业对土壤的污染产生很大不良的环境问题。自土壤重金属污染防治被关注开始,土壤污染的修复是很困难的,污染物处理费用非常昂贵,需要快速而有效的技术来加速修复土地的污染区。在本文中,选取一个典型铅污染土壤为研究方向,论述铅蓄电池中铅酸污染地块的修复工艺技术,对受污染场地土壤特性和环境风险进行评估,确定修复的可行性和修复的价值,通过土壤修复清洗技术,优化土壤修复基本参数,测试分析得出土壤修复最优工艺技术。

  4. Technology Transfer: A Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    34 Caveman Club-Without Nail." More serious scholars indicate that understand- ing how to start and maintain fires was the first tech- nology transfer of...others. From caveman clubs to hyper- velocity missiles, technology transfer has played a significant military role; it also has assisted imperialis- tic

  5. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  6. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies and pr...

  7. Reseach of Supply Chain Modeling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The supply chain modeling technology is research. Firstly, the concept of supply chain and supply chain management is introduced. Secondly, enterprise-modeling methods, such as CIM-OSA, GIM-GRAI, PERA and ARIS, are analyzed and compared. The supply chain modeling technology is studied. Then the ARIS-based supply chain modeling method is proposed and the supply chain operation reference model is set up. Finally, the applications of ARIS-based supply chain modeling method in Shanghai Turbine Generator Co. Ltd. (STGC) is described in detail.

  8. 精密修复工艺在喜河水电站的应用%Application of Precise Remedy Technology in Xihe Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新

    2015-01-01

    针对喜河水电站机组接力器在运行过程中出现的损坏漏油现象,客观地分析了活塞杆损坏的原因,提出了运用精密修复工艺现场修复的方法,提高了工作效率,降低了成本。%Concerning oil leakage of servomotor during operation in Xihe Hydropower Plant, causes for the rod damage are analyzed objective-ly.The precise remedy technology is proposed for repair at site.This improves work efficiency and reduces cost.

  9. Feature Technology in Product Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu; NING Ruxin

    2006-01-01

    A unified feature definition is proposed. Feature is form-concentrated, and can be used to model product functionalities, assembly relations, and part geometries. The feature model is given and a feature classification is introduced including functional, assembly, structural, and manufacturing features. A prototype modeling system is developed in Pro/ENGINEER that can define the assembly and user-defined form features.

  10. Technology Acceptance Model for Wireless Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, June; Yu, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Chang; Yao, James E.

    2003-01-01

    Develops a technology acceptance model (TAM) for wireless Internet via mobile devices (WIMD) and proposes that constructs, such as individual differences, technology complexity, facilitating conditions, social influences, and wireless trust environment determine user-perceived short and long-term usefulness, and ease of using WIMD. Twelve…

  11. Business Model Discovery by Technology Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Muegge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Value creation and value capture are central to technology entrepreneurship. The ways in which a particular firm creates and captures value are the foundation of that firm's business model, which is an explanation of how the business delivers value to a set of customers at attractive profits. Despite the deep conceptual link between business models and technology entrepreneurship, little is known about the processes by which technology entrepreneurs produce successful business models. This article makes three contributions to partially address this knowledge gap. First, it argues that business model discovery by technology entrepreneurs can be, and often should be, disciplined by both intention and structure. Second, it provides a tool for disciplined business model discovery that includes an actionable process and a worksheet for describing a business model in a form that is both concise and explicit. Third, it shares preliminary results and lessons learned from six technology entrepreneurs applying a disciplined process to strengthen or reinvent the business models of their own nascent technology businesses.

  12. Causal Models for Safety Assurance Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fulfillment of NASA's System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technology (SSAT) project at NASA requires leveraging vast amounts of data into actionable knowledge. Models...

  13. A merge model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Bahn, O.

    2002-03-01

    A new version of the MERGE model, called MERGE-ETL, has been developed to consider endogenous technological change in the energy system. The basic formulation of MERGE-ETL as well as some first results are reported here. (author)

  14. Global Health Innovation Technology Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Harding

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic technology and business process disparities between High Income, Low Middle Income and Low Income (HIC, LMIC, LIC research collaborators directly prevent the growth of sustainable Global Health innovation for infectious and rare diseases. There is a need for an Open Source-Open Science Architecture Framework to bridge this divide. We are proposing such a framework for consideration by the Global Health community, by utilizing a hybrid approach of integrating agnostic Open Source technology and healthcare interoperability standards and Total Quality Management principles. We will validate this architecture framework through our programme called Project Orchid. Project Orchid is a conceptual Clinical Intelligence Exchange and Virtual Innovation platform utilizing this approach to support clinical innovation efforts for multi-national collaboration that can be locally sustainable for LIC and LMIC research cohorts. The goal is to enable LIC and LMIC research organizations to accelerate their clinical trial process maturity in the field of drug discovery, population health innovation initiatives and public domain knowledge networks. When sponsored, this concept will be tested by 12 confirmed clinical research and public health organizations in six countries. The potential impact of this platform is reduced drug discovery and public health innovation lag time and improved clinical trial interventions, due to reliable clinical intelligence and bio-surveillance across all phases of the clinical innovation process.

  15. Global Health Innovation Technology Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Harding

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic technology and business process disparities between High Income, Low Middle Income and Low Income (HIC, LMIC, LIC research collaborators directly prevent the growth of sustainable Global Health innova‐ tion for infectious and rare diseases. There is a need for an Open Source-Open Science Architecture Framework to bridge this divide. We are proposing such a framework for consideration by the Global Health community, by utiliz‐ ing a hybrid approach of integrating agnostic Open Source technology and healthcare interoperability standards and Total Quality Management principles. We will validate this architecture framework through our programme called Project Orchid. Project Orchid is a conceptual Clinical Intelligence Exchange and Virtual Innovation platform utilizing this approach to support clinical innovation efforts for multi-national collaboration that can be locally sustainable for LIC and LMIC research cohorts. The goal is to enable LIC and LMIC research organizations to acceler‐ ate their clinical trial process maturity in the field of drug discovery, population health innovation initiatives and public domain knowledge networks. When sponsored, this concept will be tested by 12 confirmed clinical research and public health organizations in six countries. The potential impact of this platform is reduced drug discovery and public health innovation lag time and improved clinical trial interventions, due to reliable clinical intelligence and bio-surveillance across all phases of the clinical innovation process.

  16. BUSINESS MODEL PATTERNS FOR DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    BENJAMIN AMSHOFF; CHRISTIAN DÜLME; JULIAN ECHTERFELD; JÜRGEN GAUSEMEIER

    2015-01-01

    Companies nowadays face a myriad of business opportunities as a direct consequence of manifold disruptive technology developments. As a basic characteristic, disruptive technologies lead to a severe shift in value-creation networks giving rise to new market segments. One of the key challenges is to anticipate the business logics within these nascent and formerly unknown markets. Business model patterns promise to tackle this challenge. They can be interpreted as proven business model elements...

  17. Applying multivariate analysis as decision tool for evaluating sediment-specific remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate methodology was employed for finding optimum remediation conditions for electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment from an Arctic location in Norway. The parts of the experimental domain in which both sediment- and technology-specific remediation objectives were met were...

  18. Waste minimization in the remediation of contaminated sites: using the oil belt skimmer technology for the removal of heavy hydrocarbons from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Notarnicola, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater. For this purpose, several tests at laboratory scale and full-scale experimentations with duration greater than 1 year were carried out. The obtained results showed the feasibility of the investigated technology for groundwater decontamination in the cases where the water mobility (of the aquifer) was low and in the presence of oil thicknesses greater than 2 cm. The heavy hydrocarbon recovery capacities were in the range of 33.3-85.5 l/h with the best performances in the cases of supernatant thickness ≥2 cm and pumping of the water table in such a way that the oil acquires a higher mobility in the aquifer. Moreover, the recovery capacity was found to be dependent on the rainfall pattern as well as on the groundwater fluctuation. Compared to the pump-and-treat system, the investigated technology allowed reducing by 98.7 % the amount of waste to be disposed suggesting the use in presence of high thickness of the oils. Finally, in a view of system optimization, treatment trains based on the combination of the oil belt skimmer technology and the pump-and-treat system should be carefully assessed.

  19. Advances in technology: commercialization models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinakis, Yorgos D.

    2016-01-01

    Through the lens of the philosophy of science, we reconsider things that are currently being taken for granted and locate issues that are not currently being treated. In general, that lens has been more focused on views of scientific theories rather than theories of models. A philosophy of sciencety

  20. Estimating Cleanup Times Associated with Combining Source-Area Remediation with Monitored Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Remediation Innovative Technology Seminar RPM remedial project manager SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act SEAM3D Sequential Electron Acceptor Model, 3D SEDA ...calibration). Applications of NAS at both at the Seneca Army Depot Activity ( SEDA ) Ash Landfill and Hill AFB OU2 (Figures 3 and 4, respectively...will contribute to concentration variability relative to the ideal solution. The response in TCE concentration at two monitoring wells at the SEDA

  1. 多氯联苯污染土壤修复技术研究进展%Remediation Technologies of PCBs-Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 谯华; 方振东; 郝全龙; 张楷; 余海波

    2014-01-01

    多氯联苯是环境中广泛存在的一种持久性有机化合物,具有三致作用。多氯联苯具有疏水性和亲脂性,土壤是其在环境中的最终归宿,因此,多氯联苯污染土壤的修复越来越受到重视。简介了多氯联苯的基本性质、土壤环境中多氯联苯的污染现状,综述了国内外多氯联苯污染土壤修复技术的研究进展,并对其发展前景进行了展望。%Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants in environ-ment,which are toxic,carcinogenic and mutagenic.For PCBs are hydrophobic and lipophilic,soil is its final des-tination in environment.Hence,PCBs-contaminated soil is increasingly attaining more and more attention.In this paper,basic properties of PCBs and the situation of PCBs-contaminated soil were described.Remediation technologies of PCBs-contaminated soil were reviewed both at home and abroad.The prospect of technology de-velopment was also presented.

  2. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  3. Theoretical Model of Steel Continuous Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Gheorghies; I Crudu; C Teletin; C Spanu

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model adapted for studying steel continuous casting technology was proposed.The model based on system theory contained input/output,command,and control parameters.The process was divided into five stages,i.e.,tundish,mold,guiding system,guiding-drawing system,and guiding-drawing-soft reduction system.The model can be used to describe the physicoehemical processes,thermal processes,chemical processes,and characteristics of the cast material according to the above-mentioned stages.It can also be applied to other metallurgical technologies and even to other industries (chemistry,food,etc.).

  4. Mathematical Modeling of the Agriculture Crop Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Drucioc

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The organized structure of computer system for economic and ecological estimation of agriculture crop technologies is described. The system is composed of six interconnected blocks. The linear, non-linear and stochastic mathematical models for machinery sizing and selection in farm-level cropping system is presented in the mathematical model block of computer system.

  5. Endogenizing technological progress: The MESEMET model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); G.H.A. van Hagen; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); J. van Sinderen (Jarig)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper endogenizes technology and human capital formation in the MESEM model that was developed by van Sinderen (Economic Modelling, 1993, 13, 285-300). Tax allowances for private R&D expenditures and public expenditures on both education and R& D are effective instruments to stimula

  6. Remedy for fictive negative pressures in biphasic finite element models of the intervertebral disc during unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Galbusera, Fabio; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl

    2011-03-01

    Previous biphasic finite element studies investigated the temporal response of a spinal segment under rather simplified loading conditions with no attention to unloading and recovery phases. Employment of existing constitutive relations in porous media yields rather large suction-type pore pressures in the disc as the load suddenly disappears. Such negative pressures are absent in vivo and are hence fictive. The aim of this study was to search for remedies to avoid the computation of negative pressures upon unloading. Partial saturation for the disc or a rest load (RL) higher than 400 N totally eliminated the negative pressures. Decreasing the voids ratio (VR) also led to a reduced negative pressure. When defining a partial saturated disc or using a lower VR in combination with a boundary pressure of 0.25 MPa and a RL of 350 N, no negative pressure was calculated. It appears that the constraint of full saturation and a high mobile fluid fraction of the disc tissues along with inadequate tissue properties are the likely causes of negative pressures during unloading.

  7. Simple model of dissolved oxygen consumption in a bay within high organic loading: an applied remediation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Ramón; Vargas, José; Pagliero, Liliana

    2006-07-01

    San Vicente Bay is a coastal shallow embayment in Central Chile with multiple uses, one of which is receiving wastewater from industrial fisheries, steel mill effluents, and domestic sewage. A simulation model was developed and applied to dissolved oxygen consumption by organic residues released into this embayment. Three compartments were established as function of: depth, circulation and outfall location. The model compartments had different volumes, and their oxygen saturation value was used as baseline. The parameters: (a) BOD5 of the industrial and urban effluents, (b) oxygen demand by organic sediments, (c) respiration, (d) photosynthesis and (e) re-aeration were included in the model. Iteration results of the model showed severe alterations in Compartment 1, with a decrease of 65% in the oxygen below saturation. Compartment 2 showed a small decline (10%) and compartment 3 did not show apparent changes in oxygen values. Measures recommended for remediation were to decrease the BOD5 loading by 30% in the affected sector. Iteration of the model for 200 h following recommendations derived from the preceding results produced an increase in saturation of 60% (5 ml O2 L(-1)), which suggested an improvement of the environmental conditions.

  8. APPLICATION OF WATER FLOW AND GEOCHEMICAL MODELS TO SUPPORT THE REMEDIATION OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM THE URANIUM MINING SITE OF POCOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the use of two numerical models (HYDRUS-2D and STEADQL-v4) for simulating water flow and relevant geochemical processes in one of the waste rock piles of the first uranium mine in Brazil, in order to facilitate the selection of appropriate remediation strategies. The long time s...

  9. Asian Remedial Plan: A Study of Sheltered and Co-Taught Classes in New Instructional Model Secondary Schools. Final Report No. 9202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Judy; And Others

    This study assesses students' perceptions of and performance in sheltered and co-taught classes in an Asian remedial plan in Philadelphia's (Pennsylvania) New Instructional Model (NIM) secondary schools. The study used end-of-year marks and student focus groups to collect data. The focus groups were conducted with 247 Asian limited English…

  10. Evidence of poor adherence to secondary prevention after acute coronary syndromes: possible remedies through the application of new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin; Ingram, Nicola; Keenan, Jan; Choudhury, Robin P

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to secondary prevention medications following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is disappointingly low, standing around 40-75% by various estimates. This is an inefficient use of the resources devoted to their development and implementation, and also puts patients at higher risk of poor outcomes post-ACS. Numerous factors contribute to low adherence including poor motivation, forgetfulness, lack of education about medications, complicated polypharmacy of ACS regimens, (fear of) adverse side effects and limited practical support. Using technology to improve adherence in ACS is an emerging strategy and has the potential to address many of the above factors-computer-based education and mobile phone reminders are among the interventions trialled and appear to improve adherence in patients with ACS. As we move into an increasingly technological future, there is potential to use devices such as smartphones and tablets to encourage patient responsibility for medications. These handheld technologies have great scope for allowing patients to view online medical records, education modules and reminder systems, and although research specific to ACS is limited, they have shown initial promise in terms of uptake and improved adherence among similar patient populations. Given the overwhelming enthusiasm for handheld technologies, it would seem timely to further investigate their role in improving ACS medication adherence.

  11. Summary of the NATO/CCMS Conference The Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and GroundWater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem of contamination to land and groundwa- ter from improper handling of hazardous materials/ waste is faced by all countries. Also, the need for reliable, cost-effective technologies to address this problem at contaminated sites exists throughout the world. Many countrie...

  12. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  13. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 7 entitled: Development of degradation processes, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackin, M.J.; Heitkamp, M.A.; Ho, Sa V. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to law permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The Lasagna technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The general concept of the technology is to use electrokinetics to move contaminants from the soils into {open_quotes}treatment zones{close_quotes} where the contaminants can be removed from the water by either adsorption or degradation. The focus of technical task No. 7 was to optimize the conditions required for electro-osmotic movement of contaminants and microbial degradation in the treatment zones. This topical report summarizes the results of aerobic microbial research performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating the chemical-degrading organisms into biotreatment zones in laboratory-scale electro-osmosis units and to demonstrate the combination of electrokinetics and aerobic microbial degradation for the removal of contaminants from clay. Also included in this report are the results of investigating microbial movement during electro-osmosis and studies involving the optimization of the microbial support matrix in the biozone. The Stanford study was conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of rates of anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of TCE to ethylene and of factors affecting these rates in order to determine the potential for application of TCE biodegradation as part of the Lasagna technology.

  14. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2017-04-03

    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  15. Natural attenuation software (NAS): Assessing remedial strategies and estimating timeframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) is a screening tool to estimate remediation timeframes for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and to assist in decision-making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA using site-specific remediation objectives. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include are advection, dispersion, sorption, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, and biodegradation of either petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated ethylenes. Newly-implemented enhancements to NAS designed to maximize the utility of NAS for site managers were observed. NAS has expanded source contaminant specification options to include chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes, and to allow for the analysis of any other user-defined contaminants that may be subject to microbially-mediated transformations (heavy metals, radioisotopes, etc.). Included is the capability to model co-mingled plumes, with constituents from multiple contaminant categories. To enable comparison of remediation timeframe estimates between MNA and specific engineered remedial actions , NAS was modified to incorporate an estimation technique for timeframes associated with pump-and-treat remediation technology for comparison to MNA. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  16. [Advance in enzymological remediation of polluted soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Chen, Lijun; Liu, Guifen; Wu, Zhijie

    2003-12-01

    Soils enzymes play an important role in the remediation of polluted soils. The enzymological remediation of polluted soils has the characteristics of high specialization, wide applicability, and little sensitivity to the ambient factors. This paper reviewed the advantages of enzymological remediation of polluted soils, the methods and technologies of enzyme immobilization, and the removal mechanisms of pollutants by oxidoreductases. The sources and characteristics of the enzymes used to remediation were also introduced, and some suggestions about the research in the future were put forward.

  17. IFP technologies for flow assurance. Modeling, thermal insulation, deposit prevention, additives, testing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Flow assurance has become one of the central topics covering the choice of a given field architecture and the specification of its production process. The relevant analysis includes the evaluation of risks and uncertainties associated with operational procedures, and contributes to a better estimate of the economics of a specific hydrocarbon production. This brochure presents an overview of innovative technologies, either available through IFP licensees or still under development by IFP and its industrial partners. The purpose of these technologies, related to Flow Assurance, is to secure the production operations, minimizing the down times, and reducing the production costs, particularly in the field of thermal insulation, deposit prevention and remediation. All these technologies benefit from the input of highly skilled teams from the Applied Mechanics, Applied Chemistry and Physical Chemistry Divisions of IFP, and rely on the design and use of sophisticated experimental laboratory and pilot equipment as well as advanced simulations and predictive modeling.

  18. Passive remediation of acid mine drainage using cryptocrystalline magnesite: a batch experimental and geochemical modelling approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available on the geology of the rock hosting the minerals. These effluents must be collected and treated before release into surface water bodies. Mining companies are in constant search for cheaper, effective and efficient mine water treatment technologies. This study...

  19. Hydrogeo-chemical impacts of air sparging remediation on a semi-confined aquifer: evidences from field monitoring and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W; Yang, Y S; Lu, Y; Du, X Q; Zhang, G X

    2013-01-01

    Air sparging (AS) was explored for remediation of a petroleum contaminated semi-confined groundwater system in NE China. Physical, hydro-chemical and hydraulic behaviors in subsurface environment during AS were investigated with support of modeling to understand the hydrogeo-chemical impacts of AS on the aquifer. The responses of groundwater, dissolved oxygen and temperature indicated that the radius of influence of AS was up to 8-9 m, and a 3D boundary of the zone of influence (ZOI) was accordingly obtained with volume of 362 m(3). Water mounding unlike normal observations was featured by continuous up-lift and blocked dissipation. AS induced water displacement was calculated showing no obvious spreading of contaminant plume under this AS condition. Slug tests were employed before and after AS to reveal that the physical perturbation led to sharp increase in permeability and porosity. Modeling indicated that the regional groundwater flow field was not affected by AS except the physical perturbation in ZOI. Hydro-chemically increase of pH and Eh, and reduction of TDS, electrical conductivity and bicarbonate were observed in ZOI during AS. PHREEQC modeling inferred that these chemical phenomena were induced by the inorganic carbon transfer during air mixing.

  20. Slurry bioreactor modeling using a dissimilatory arsenate-reducing bacterium for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Satoshi; Kanzaki, Masaya; Yamamuara, Shigeki; Kashiwa, Masami; Fujita, Masanori; Ike, Michihiko

    2009-02-01

    A slurry bioreactor using a dissimilatory arsenate (As(V))-reducing bacterium is proposed for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. Bacterial As(V) reduction can cause arsenic extraction from the solid to the liquid phase because arsenite, As(III), is much less adsorptive than As(V). A mathematical model was developed incorporating the reversible sorption process of arsenic as well as bacterial growth and decay via As(V) reduction. A linear isotherm equation expressed the sorption process. The model included Haldane kinetics with high As(V) concentrations and cell inactivation by toxicity due to As(III). Extraction experiments used synthetic contaminated soils (forest soil, Soil SF, 1100 mg kg(-1); paddy soil, Soil SP, 1100 mg kg(-1)) and actual contaminated soils (Soil AH 2200 mg kg(-1) and Soil AL, 220 mg kg(-1)) at 5% w/v slurry concentration. Simulation results matched the observed changes of arsenic concentrations in the liquid phase. The respective extraction efficiencies of arsenic were 63%, 41%, 20%, and 55% for SF, SP, AH, and AL soils. Sensitivity analyses showed that the rate-limiting step was the desorption rate of As(V) from the solid to the liquid phase, rather than the As(V)-reducing rate. The proposed model provides a useful framework for understanding and predicting the extraction of arsenic from soil.

  1. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  2. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufiq

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  3. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  4. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 9. Part I. TCE degradation using nonbiological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.P.; Sivavec, T.M.; Baghel, S.S. [General Electric Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low-permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge for in situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low-permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is used to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Draft Topical Report for Task No. 9 summarizes laboratory investigations into TCE degradation using nonbiological methods. These studies were conducted by the General Electric Company. The report concentrates on zero valent iron as the reducing agent and presents data on TCE and daughter product degradation rates in batch experiments, column studies, and electroosmotic cells. It is shown that zero valent iron effectively degrades TCE in electroosmotic experiments. Daughter product degradation and gas generation are shown to be important factors in designing field scale treatment zones for the Lasagna{trademark} process.

  5. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology: Task 1 -- Evaluation of treatment zone formation options. Topical report, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, S.H.; Landis, R.C.; Griffith, R.J.; Schultz, D.S. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Quinton, G.E. [E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report presents the results of evaluations by E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc. of treatment zone and electrode emplacement alternatives for use in the integrated treatment process. Specifically, the scope of this study was limited to vertical configuration emplacements. Several promising alternatives were identified ranging from approaches involving standard excavation techniques to relatively specialized geotechnical construction methods which could be modified for the treatment zone emplacement purpose. Information developed in this report is designed to help the user select the most promising emplacement method(s) for a given site on the basis of (1) depth of emplacement, and (2) restrictions on handling excavated soils. Advantages, disadvantages, and estimated costs are identified for each alternative, and possible bases for improvement and cost reduction through further development are described.

  6. A comparative research of different ensemble surrogate models based on set pair analysis for the DNAPL-contaminated aquifer remediation strategy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi; Xue, Haibo; Lin, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Surrogate-based simulation-optimization technique is an effective approach for optimizing the surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) strategy for clearing DNAPLs. The performance of the surrogate model, which is used to replace the simulation model for the aim of reducing computation burden, is the key of corresponding researches. However, previous researches are generally based on a stand-alone surrogate model, and rarely make efforts to improve the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model sufficiently by combining various methods. In this regard, we present set pair analysis (SPA) as a new method to build ensemble surrogate (ES) model, and conducted a comparative research to select a better ES modeling pattern for the SEAR strategy optimization problems. Surrogate models were developed using radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN), support vector regression (SVR), and Kriging. One ES model is assembling RBFANN model, SVR model, and Kriging model using set pair weights according their performance, and the other is assembling several Kriging (the best surrogate modeling method of three) models built with different training sample datasets. Finally, an optimization model, in which the ES model was embedded, was established to obtain the optimal remediation strategy. The results showed the residuals of the outputs between the best ES model and simulation model for 100 testing samples were lower than 1.5%. Using an ES model instead of the simulation model was critical for considerably reducing the computation time of simulation-optimization process and maintaining high computation accuracy simultaneously.

  7. Remedies proposed for China's groundwater problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A.

    Groundwater experts and hydrologists from China and 10 other nations recently gathered in Beijing to exchange state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge on groundwater hydrology, modeling, remediation, and management. The participants also reviewed groundwater environmental conditions in China, identified key problems, and made recommendations to help guide the nation's groundwater policy.The Regional Workshop on Ground Water Contamination, held from July 31 to August 4, 1995, was the fifth of a series of regional workshops sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment of the United Nations Environmental Program. Earlier workshops were held in Thailand (1991), Costa Rica (1993), the Czech Republic (1994), and Australia (1994).

  8. Exemplary Training Models in Industrial Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Michael J., Comp.

    Prepared by Canadian, Chinese Taipei, and Thai educational agencies and based on surveys of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation member nations, this report provides descriptions of 52 exemplary industrial technology training models in Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, the People's Republic…

  9. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Concrete Decontamination Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A. Ross, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Concrete surfaces contaminated with radionuclides present a significant challenge during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process. As structures undergo D and D, coating layers and/or surface layers of the concrete containing the contaminants must be removed for disposal in such a way as to present little to no risk to human health or the environment. The selection of a concrete decontamination technology that is safe, efficient, and cost-effective is critical to the successful D and D of contaminated sites. To support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management objectives and to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the best-suited concrete floor decontamination technology(s) for a given site, two innovative and three baseline technologies have been assessed under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The innovative technologies assessed include the Pegasus Coating Removal System and Textron's Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling System. The three baseline technologies assessed include: the Wheelabrator Blastrac model 1-15D, the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model GPx-1O-18 HO Rider, and the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model EC-7-2. These decontamination technology assessments provide directly comparable performance data that have previously been available for only a limited number of technologies under restrictive site-specific constraints. Some of the performance data collected during these technology assessments include: removal capability, production rate, removal gap, primary and secondary waste volumes, and operation and maintenance requirements. The performance data generated by this project is intended to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  11. Engineering Applications of Microbial Remediation Technology in Organic Contaminated Sites%微生物技术修复有机污染场地的工程化应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝廷; 李建洲; 雷继雨

    2012-01-01

    综述了国内外微生物技术在有机污染场地修复中的应用,对几种有机污染场地修复技术进行了重点介绍,包括生物通风法、地下水曝气法、生物堆法、生物反应器法以及土壤耕作法的工程化应用,并对微生物修复技术今后的发展方向进行了展望.%The latest microbial remediation technology of organic contaminated site is reviewed. Several kinds of engineering applications are discussed in detail,which mainly included bioventing,air sparging,biopile,bioreactor and land farming. As well,the review discusses the future development of microbial site remediation technology.

  12. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Tornberg, R. [Radon Centres Ltd., Grove Farm, Moulton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump tology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  13. The problem with total error models in establishing performance specifications and a simple remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwer, Jan S

    2016-08-01

    A recent issue in this journal revisited performance specifications since the Stockholm conference. Of the three recommended methods, two use total error models to establish performance specifications. It is shown that the most commonly used total error model - the Westgard model - is deficient, yet even more complete models fail to capture all errors that comprise total error. Moreover, total error models are often set at 95% of results, which leave 5% of results as unspecified. Glucose meter performance standards are used to illustrate these problems. The Westgard model is useful to asses assay performance but not to set performance specifications. Total error can be used to set performance specifications if the specifications include 100% of the results.

  14. System/Design Trade Study Report for the Navigation of the Airborne, Ground Vehicular and Man-Portable Platforms in Support of the Buried Ordnance Detection, Identification, and Remediation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division Project Manager: Gerard Snyder 301/743-6855 2008 Stump Neck Road Indian Head ...NUMBER 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-95043 Supporting Contractor: PRC, Inc. 801 North Strauss Avenue Indian Head ...available on the market today for detection, mapping and remediation of hazardous materials have not been developed to the level that could be

  15. Model-based Scenario Analysis of the Impact of Remediation Measures on Metal Leaching from Soils Contaminated by Historic Smelter Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Bronders, Jan; van der Grift, Bas; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    A spatially distributed model for leaching of Cd from the unsaturated zone was developed for the Belgian-Dutch transnational Kempen region. The model uses as input land-use maps, atmospheric deposition data, and soil data and is part of a larger regional model that simulates transport of Cd in soil, groundwater, and surface water. A new method for deriving deposition from multiple sites was validated using soil data in different wind directions. Leaching was calculated for the period 1890 to 2010 using a reconstruction of metal loads in the region. The model was able to reproduce spatial patterns of concentrations in soil and groundwater and predicted the concentration in shallow groundwater adequately well for the purpose of evaluating management options. For 42% of the data points, measurements and calculations were within the same concentration class. The model was used for forecasting under a reference scenario, an autonomous development scenario including climate change, and a scenario with implementation of remediation measures. The impact of autonomous development (under the most extreme scenario of climatic change) amounted to an increase of 10% in cumulative Cd flux after 100 yr as compared with the reference scenario. The impact of remediation measures was mainly local and is less pronounced (i.e., only 3% change in cumulative flux at the regional scale). The integrated model served as a tool to assist in developing management strategies and prioritization of remediation of the wide-spread heavy metal contamination in the region.

  16. Empirical Study on Establishment of TPL Service Remediation Model%第三方物流服务补救模型构建及实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟运开; 时郁; 时文汕

    2014-01-01

    在现有文献研究的基础上,改进了物流服务补救体系,提出了顾客导向的第三方物流企业服务补救模型。以快递行业为例,设计了调查问卷,通过对数据的统计分析,找出目前快递企业服务补救中存在的问题以及对顾客满意度影响最大的补救措施,并证明了顾客满意度对重购意愿和口碑评价有正向影响,对现有研究有一定的拓展和推动作用。%In this paper, on the basis of available literatures, we modified the current logistics service remediation system and proposed the customer-oriented service remediation model of the third party logistics enterprises. Then with the express delivery industry as the example, we designed the corresponding survey questionnaire, identified statistically the problems existing in the service remediation system of the express delivery enterprises as well as the remedial measures with the heaviest influence on customer satisfaction, and at the end, proved that customer satisfaction had positive influence on the repurchase willingness and word-of-mouth evaluation of the customers.

  17. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated acquatic ecosystems: The project ``moira``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U. [Studsvik Eco and AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Brittain, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). LFI Zoological Museum; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Universidad Politecnica (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Hakanson, L. [KEMA Nuclear, Arnhem (Niger); Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems.

  18. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  19. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  20. Layers And Processes In The Model Of Technological Postal System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucia Madleňáková; Radovan Madleňák; Paweł Droździel; Ivan Kurtev

    2015-01-01

    The paper include important aspects of layer model of postal technological system such as makes the possibility to define rules for regulating, technical and technological requirements and interfaces...

  1. Therapeutic effects of remediating autophagy failure in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease by enhancing lysosomal proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Mohan, Panaiyur S; Kaushik, Susmita; Kumar, Asok; Ohno, Masuo; Schmidt, Stephen D; Wesson, Daniel W; Bandyopadhyay, Urmi; Jiang, Ying; Pawlik, Monika; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Yang, Austin J; Wilson, Donald A; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Westaway, David; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A

    2011-07-01

    The extensive autophagic-lysosomal pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain has revealed a major defect: in the proteolytic clearance of autophagy substrates. Autophagy failure contributes on several levels to AD pathogenesis and has become an important therapeutic target for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. We recently observed broad therapeutic effects of stimulating autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD that exhibits defective proteolytic clearance of autophagic substrates, robust intralysosomal amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, extracellular β-amyloid deposition and cognitive deficits. By genetically deleting the lysosomal cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin B (CstB), to selectively restore depressed cathepsin activities, we substantially cleared Aβ, ubiquitinated proteins and other autophagic substrates from autolysosomes/lysosomes and rescued autophagic-lysosomal pathology, as well as reduced total Aβ40/42 levels and extracellular amyloid deposition, highlighting the underappreciated importance of the lysosomal system for Aβ clearance. Most importantly, lysosomal remediation prevented the marked learning and memory deficits in TgCRND8 mice. Our findings underscore the pathogenic significance of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in AD and demonstrate the value of reversing this dysfunction as an innovative therapeautic strategy for AD.

  2. Product with service, technology with business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product/Service-S...... promising concept beyond PSS design; via an integrated development of technology and business model. This can be of particular interest for further research, especially due to its high freedom for designers....

  3. Soil remediation via bioventing, vapor extraction and transition regime between vapor extraction and bioventing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Comparison of the BV, SVE and AIBV technologies indicated that all of those technologies are efficient for remediation of unsaturated zone, but after specific remediation time frames, only AIBV able to support guide line values and protect ground waters.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  5. A structural model of technology acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Erasmus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Enterprise resource systems have not always led to significant organisational enhancement and many projects in which these systems have been implemented turn out to be over budget, not on time and unsuccessful.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to test the technology acceptance model within a South African SAP® Enterprise Resource Planning user environment.Motivation for the study: No study could be traced in which the technology acceptance model has been evaluated in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The 23-item Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire was deployed amongst SAP® Enterprise Resource Planning users (N = 241. Main findings: The results confirmed significant paths from perceived usefulness of the information system to attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use it. Furthermore, behavioural intention to use the system predicted actual use thereof. Perceived ease of use indirectly affected attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use via perceived usefulness of the information system.Practical/managerial implications: Practitioners should build user confidence by ensuring the ease of use of a new system, providing relevant education, training and guidance and reiterating its usefulness and future added value to the user’s job and career.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of individuals’ perceptions of information system usage on their attitudes, behavioural intentions and actual use of such a system.

  6. 客土改良技术及其在砷污染土壤修复中的应用展望%Application and outlook of alien earth soil-improving technology in arsenic-contaminated soil remediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯李云; 曾希柏; 张杨珠

    2015-01-01

    砷是一种毒性很强且对人体健康威胁很大的金属元素,土壤砷污染与修复长期以来受到各国政府和科学家的广泛关注。客土改良技术是污染土壤修复中较常用和有效的方法之一,近年来逐渐受到关注。本文在简述土壤中砷来源及其危害的基础上,重点对近年来该技术在土壤改良及污染土壤修复中的应用进行了系统整理,并以此为基础,比较了砷污染土壤的物理、化学及生物修复的效果。结合我国部分地区耕地砷污染较严重的现状,认为客土改良技术见效快、改良较彻底、且具有较高的实用性。同时,论文还对客土技术在砷污染土壤修复中的研究重点及应用前景等进行了展望。%Arsenic is a metalloid element with severe toxicity that poses a huge threat to human health. Arsenic-contaminated soils and the remediation of these soils have drawn widespread concerns from governments and the scientific community. There has been a growing interest in alien earth soil-improving technology in recent years, evident in the more frequent use of this technology in the remediation of contaminated soils that has so far proven to be one of the most effective methods. Based on the sources and toxicity of arsenic soils, a systematic review was conducted on the application of alien earth soil-improving technology in remediating arsenic- contaminated soils. The effectiveness of the physical, chemical and biological remediation techniques in arsenic-contaminated soils was also compared. In terms of serious arsenic pollution in some cultivated lands in China, alien earth soil-improving technology was noted to be an effective and practical method of restoration of contaminated soils. Based on this finding, further in-depth researches on the application and outlook of alien earth soil-improving technology in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils were proposed.

  7. MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE AEROCONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-07-01

    Selection of the appropriate composition and optimal technological parameters is performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 software programme developed at MSUCE. The software is based on the methodology that is based on complete factorial experiments, experiments based on fractional replicates and testing of all essential statistical hypotheses. Linear, incomplete quadratic and quadratic equations generated as a result of experiments make it possible to design a model that represents natural processes in the adequate manner. The model is analytically optimized and interpreted thereafter.

  8. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies: from mouse model to human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie

    2013-08-01

    To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on traditional Chinese medicine. FAHF-2 has proven to be well tolerated and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after the discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in individuals with food allergies. An ongoing Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies.

  9. Modeling vertical and horizontal solute transport for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.

    1992-11-01

    This technical memorandum presents a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of a contaminant that originates as a liquid release, moves vertically downward through a vadose zone, mixes with initially clean groundwater in an unconfined aquifer, and ends at a downgradient extraction well. Vertical and horizontal segments of the contaminant pathway are coupled by assuming that the breakthrough curve of the contaminant at the water table acts as a contaminant source for the unconfined aquifer. For simplicity, this source is assumed to be a time-shifted unit square wave having an amplitude equal to the peak breakthrough concentration at the water table and a duration equal to the full width of the breakthrough curve at the half-maximum concentration value. The effects of dilution at the water-table interface are evaluated with a simple mass-balance equation. Comparing the model results for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site near St. Louis, Missouri, and the Envirocare facility located near Salt Lake City, Utah, with those obtained from a solution formulated with the real and imaginary parts of a Fourier series in Laplace space indicates that the model provides a conservative estimate of the contaminant breakthrough curve at the receptor.

  10. Sustainability likelihood of remediation options for metal-contaminated soil/sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Taylor, Jessica S; Baek, Kitae; Khan, Eakalak; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Multi-criteria analysis and detailed impact analysis were carried out to assess the sustainability of four remedial alternatives for metal-contaminated soil/sediment at former timber treatment sites and harbour sediment with different scales. The sustainability was evaluated in the aspects of human health and safety, environment, stakeholder concern, and land use, under four different scenarios with varying weighting factors. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to reveal the likelihood of accomplishing sustainable remediation with different treatment options at different sites. The results showed that in-situ remedial technologies were more sustainable than ex-situ ones, where in-situ containment demonstrated both the most sustainable result and the highest probability to achieve sustainability amongst the four remedial alternatives in this study, reflecting the lesser extent of off-site and on-site impacts. Concerns associated with ex-situ options were adverse impacts tied to all four aspects and caused by excavation, extraction, and off-site disposal. The results of this study suggested the importance of considering the uncertainties resulting from the remedial options (i.e., stochastic analysis) in addition to the overall sustainability scores (i.e., deterministic analysis). The developed framework and model simulation could serve as an assessment for the sustainability likelihood of remedial options to ensure sustainable remediation of contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advances and Prospects in Remediation Technology and Large-scale Applications for Petroleum Contaminated Soil%石油污染场地土壤修复技术及工程化应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘五星; 骆永明; 王殿玺

    2011-01-01

    在分析当前我国土壤受石油污染的状况基础上,介绍目前修复石油污染场地土壤的技术,包括物理修复、化学修复和生物修复等.并对各种技术的修复原理、研究进展、优缺点及其发展趋势进行了综述,结合我国的研究现状与工作基础对该领域今后的研究方向与重点进行了展望.%On the analysis of current Chinese situation of petroleum-contaminated soil, some methods for remediation technologies of the contaminated field were presented such as physical, chemical remediation and bioremediation, etc. The research direction and key research work were prospected according to technical principles of the methods, advantages and disadvantages of each remediation technology, developing trend and research work in the field of China.

  12. Photovoltaic power for remote site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torr, S.; Jensen, E.; Dingman, C.; Brewster, M.L. [Komex International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper described how photovoltaic solar power and remediation technologies can be integrated to remediate salt and hydrocarbon contaminated soils at remote sites. The integrated method can be applied in a variety of situations, such as groundwater extraction, reverse osmosis treatment, soil vapour extraction, and a solar mobile power station. The simplicity of the designs, the maximization of system efficiency, and minimization of operation and maintenance requirements ensure the success of the systems. The remedial goals combined with the applied technology, help in determining whether the photovoltaic powered systems should operate on an intermittent or continual basis. Higher system outputs are normally obtained with continual operation, but they also yield increased design complexity and inefficiencies. The authors stated that as the technology of photovoltaic power evolves, efficiencies and costs will improve, thereby increasing its progressive use as a renewable energy source for remote sites remediation. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: A model post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Verplanck, Philip L.; Broshears, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    A post audit for a reactive transport model used to evaluate acid mine drainage treatment systems is presented herein. The post audit is based on a paired synoptic approach in which hydrogeochemical data are collected at low (existing conditions) and elevated (following treatment) pH. Data obtained under existing, low-pH conditions are used for calibration, and the resultant model is used to predict metal concentrations observed following treatment. Predictions for Al, As, Fe, H+, and Pb accurately reproduce the observed reduction in dissolved concentrations afforded by the treatment system, and the information provided in regard to standard attainment is also accurate (predictions correctly indicate attainment or nonattainment of water quality standards for 19 of 25 cases). Errors associated with Cd, Cu, and Zn are attributed to misspecification of sorbent mass (precipitated Fe). In addition to these specific results, the post audit provides insight in regard to calibration and sensitivity analysis that is contrary to conventional wisdom. Steps taken during the calibration process to improve simulations of As sorption were ultimately detrimental to the predictive results, for example, and the sensitivity analysis failed to bracket observed metal concentrations.

  14. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  15. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model.......This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... development are one of the main causes for the very diverging results which have been obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analysing the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. One of the objectives for studies comparing model results have been to create comparable model assumptions regarding...

  16. Model outputs for each hotspot site to identify the likely environmental, economic and social effects of proposed remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleskens, Luuk; Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Portuguese sites) a fire severity index under current conditions and under different technologies. The DESMICE model is informed by WB3 WOCAT database records, economic WB4 experimental results, additionally requested data on spatial variability of costs and benefits, and secondary data. It applies spatially...... multiple stakeholders in very different contexts into the modelling process, in order to enhance both the realism and relevance of outputs for policy and practice; b) site-selection modelling is being applied to land degradation mitigation to enable landscape-scale assessments of the most economically...

  17. Modeling active capping efficacy. 1. Metal and organometal contaminated sediment remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Priscilla Z; Yin, Ke; Rockne, Karl J

    2008-12-01

    Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag, As, Ba, Hg, CH3Hg, and CN transport through sand, granular activated carbon (GAC), organoclay, shredded tires, and apatite caps was modeled by deterministic and Monte Carlo methods. Time to 10% breakthrough, 30 and 100 yr cumulative release were metrics of effectiveness. Effective caps prevented above-cap concentrations from exceeding USEPA acute criteria at 100 yr assuming below-cap concentrations at solubility. Sand caps performed best under diffusion due to the greater diffusive path length. Apatite had the best advective performance for Cd, Cr, and Pb. Organoclay performed best for Ag, As, Ba, CH3Hg, and CN. Organoclay and apatite were equally effective for Hg. Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine output sensitivity. Sand was effective under diffusion for Cr within the 50% confidence interval (CI), for Cd and Pb (75% CI), and for As, Hg, and CH3Hg (95% CI). Under diffusion and advection, apatite was effective for Cd, Pb, and Hg (75% CI) and organoclay was effective for Hg and CH3Hg (50% CI). GAC and shredded tires performed relatively poorly. Although no single cap is a panacea, apatite and organoclay have the broadest range of effectiveness. Cap performance is most sensitive to the partitioning coefficient and hydraulic conductivity, indicating the importance of accurate site-specific measurement for these parameters.

  18. Perils of categorical thinking: "Oxic/anoxic" conceptual model in environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Given ambient atmospheric oxygen concentrations of about 21 percent (by volume), the lower limit for reliable quantitation of dissolved oxygen concentrations in groundwater samples is in the range of 0.1–0.5 mg/L. Frameworks for assessing in situ redox condition are often applied using a simple two-category (oxic/anoxic) model of oxygen condition. The "oxic" category defines the environmental range in which dissolved oxygen concentrations are clearly expected to impact contaminant biodegradation, either by supporting aerobic biodegradation of electron-donor contaminants like petroleum hydrocarbons or by inhibiting anaerobic biodegradation of electron-acceptor contaminants like chloroethenes. The tendency to label the second category "anoxic" leads to an invalid assumption that oxygen is insignificant when, in fact, the dissolved oxygen concentration is less than detection but otherwise unknown. Expressing dissolved oxygen concentrations as numbers of molecules per volume, dissolved oxygen concentrations that fall below the 0.1 mg/L field detection limit range from 1 to 1017 molecules/L. In light of recent demonstrations of substantial oxygen-linked biodegradation of chloroethene contaminants at dissolved oxygen concentrations well below the 0.1–0.5 mg/L field detection limit, characterizing "less than detection" oxygen concentrations as "insignificant" is invalid.

  19. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  20. SIMPLE ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR HEAT FLOW IN FRACTURES - APPLICATION TO STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION CONDUCTED IN FRACTURED ROCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of fractured rock sites contaminated by non-aqueous phase liquids has long been recognized as the most difficult undertaking of any site clean-up. Recent pilot studies conducted at the Edwards Air Force Base in California and the former Loring Air Force Base in Maine ...

  1. RECENT RELATED RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chih Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology Acceptance Model is widely applied to access users’ usage in various information system/information technology areas. Learning the critical role of Technology Acceptance Model can guide researchers to design different users’ interface for different online customers, and consequently achieve high user usage in different application areas. This study reviewed 24 studies to understand the past, now and future of Technology Acceptance Model. We discussed the related studies to clarify the extension of Technology Acceptance Model. Besides, the application areas are elaborated including electronic service, mobile data service, self-service technology, electronic learning and so on. Finally, the article concluded the conclusions and future research direction.

  2. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  3. Managing soil remediation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  4. RECENT RELATED RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chih Chen; Shing-Han Li; Chien-Yi Li

    2011-01-01

    Technology Acceptance Model is widely applied to access users’ usage in various information system/information technology areas. Learning the critical role of Technology Acceptance Model can guide researchers to design different users’ interface for different online customers, and consequently achieve high user usage in different application areas. This study reviewed 24 studies to understand the past, now and future of Technology Acceptance Model. We discussed the related studies to ...

  5. CFD Modeling for Mercury Control Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, J.I.

    2006-12-01

    Compliance with the Clean Air Mercury Rule will require implementation of dedicated mercury control solutions at a significant portion of the U.S. coal-fired utility fleet. Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) upstream of a particulate control device (ESP or baghouse) remains one of the most promising near-term mercury control technologies. The DOE/NETL field testing program has advanced the understanding of mercury control by ACI, but a persistent need remains to develop predictive models that may improve the understanding and practical implementation of this technology. This presentation describes the development of an advanced model of in-flight mercury capture based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model makes detailed predictions of the induct spatial distribution and residence time of sorbent, as well as predictions of mercury capture efficiency for particular sorbent flow rates and injection grid configurations. Hence, CFD enables cost efficient optimization of sorbent injection systems for mercury control to a degree that would otherwise be impractical both for new and existing plants. In this way, modeling tools may directly address the main cost component of operating an ACI system – the sorbent expense. A typical 300 MW system is expected to require between $1 and $2 million of sorbent per year, and so even modest reductions (say 10-20%) in necessary sorbent feed injection rates will quickly make any optimization effort very worthwhile. There are few existing models of mercury capture, and these typically make gross assumptions of plug gas flow, zero velocity slip between particle and gas phase, and uniform sorbent dispersion. All of these assumptions are overcome with the current model, which is based on first principles and includes mass transfer processes occurring at multiple scales, ranging from the large-scale transport in the duct to transport within the porous structure of a sorbent particle. In principle any single one of these processes

  6. [Simulation on remediation of benzene contaminated groundwater by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan-Ling; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Dan; Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Jia, Xiao-Yang

    2012-11-01

    Air sparging (AS) is one of the in situ remedial technologies which are used in groundwater remediation for pollutions with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, the field design of air sparging system was mainly based on experience due to the lack of field data. In order to obtain rational design parameters, the TMVOC module in the Petrasim software package, combined with field test results on a coking plant in Beijing, is used to optimize the design parameters and simulate the remediation process. The pilot test showed that the optimal injection rate was 23.2 m3 x h(-1), while the optimal radius of influence (ROI) was 5 m. The simulation results revealed that the pressure response simulated by the model matched well with the field test results, which indicated a good representation of the simulation. The optimization results indicated that the optimal injection location was at the bottom of the aquifer. Furthermore, simulated at the optimized injection location, the optimal injection rate was 20 m3 x h(-1), which was in accordance with the field test result. Besides, 3 m was the optimal ROI, less than the field test results, and the main reason was that field test reflected the flow behavior at the upper space of groundwater and unsaturated area, in which the width of flow increased rapidly, and became bigger than the actual one. With the above optimized operation parameters, in addition to the hydro-geological parameters measured on site, the model simulation result revealed that 90 days were needed to remediate the benzene from 371 000 microg x L(-1) to 1 microg x L(-1) for the site, and that the opeation model in which the injection wells were progressively turned off once the groundwater around them was "clean" was better than the one in which all the wells were kept operating throughout the remediation process.

  7. Uncertainty modeling process for semantic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel N. Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of uncertainty across application domains generates a need for principled support for uncertainty management in semantically aware systems. A probabilistic ontology provides constructs for representing uncertainty in domain ontologies. While the literature has been growing on formalisms for representing uncertainty in ontologies, there remains little guidance in the knowledge engineering literature for how to design probabilistic ontologies. To address the gap, this paper presents the Uncertainty Modeling Process for Semantic Technology (UMP-ST, a new methodology for modeling probabilistic ontologies. To explain how the methodology works and to verify that it can be applied to different scenarios, this paper describes step-by-step the construction of a proof-of-concept probabilistic ontology. The resulting domain model can be used to support identification of fraud in public procurements in Brazil. While the case study illustrates the development of a probabilistic ontology in the PR-OWL probabilistic ontology language, the methodology is applicable to any ontology formalism that properly integrates uncertainty with domain semantics.

  8. Acceptance model and use of technology in science and technology domain / M.V Tshevhase

    OpenAIRE

    Tshivhase, M V

    2012-01-01

    The research is intended to develop the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the science domain and determine whether it could provide enough explanation of the acceptance in terms of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and attitude towards use and intention of use in the science and technology domain. The study has investigated the contribution to technology acceptance by examining a research model that integrates age, gender, technology competency and the differen...

  9. How is technology accepted by users? A review of technology acceptance models and theories

    OpenAIRE

    Alomary, Azza; Woollard, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a literature review of the popular theories and models of technology acceptance of relevance to today’s technology developments in the 4E context. The original technology acceptance model (TAM) was derived from the theory of reasoned action and has since been developed and extended to include factors of age, gender, prior experience, ability, etc. It provides the framework to measure users’ perceptions of and intentions to use technology within and across organisations. Th...

  10. Towards a Model of Technology Adoption: A Conceptual Model Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Pat; Moreton, Rob

    A conceptual model for Information Communication Technology (ICT) adoption by Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is proposed. The research uses several ICT adoption models as its basis with theoretical underpinning provided by the Diffusion of Innovation theory and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Taking an exploratory research approach the model was investigated amongst 200 SMEs whose core business is ICT. Evidence from this study demonstrates that these SMEs face the same issues as all other industry sectors. This work points out weaknesses in SMEs environments regarding ICT adoption and suggests what they may need to do to increase the success rate of any proposed adoption. The methodology for development of the framework is described and recommendations made for improved Government-led ICT adoption initiatives. Application of the general methodology has resulted in new opportunities to embed the ethos and culture surrounding the issues into the framework of new projects developed as a result of Government intervention. A conceptual model is proposed that may lead to a deeper understanding of the issues under consideration.

  11. Remediation management of complex sites using an adaptive site management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, John; Spreng, Carl; Hawley, Elisabeth L; Deeb, Rula

    2017-04-08

    Complex sites require a disproportionate amount of resources for environmental remediation and long timeframes to achieve remediation objectives, due to their complex geologic conditions, hydrogeologic conditions, geochemical conditions, contaminant-related conditions, large scale of contamination, and/or non-technical challenges. A recent team of state and federal environmental regulators, federal agency representatives, industry experts, community stakeholders, and academia worked together as an Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) team to compile resources and create new guidance on the remediation management of complex sites. This article summarizes the ITRC team's recommended process for addressing complex sites through an adaptive site management approach. The team provided guidance for site managers and other stakeholders to evaluate site complexities and determine site remediation potential, i.e., whether an adaptive site management approach is warranted. Adaptive site management was described as a comprehensive, flexible approach to iteratively evaluate and adjust the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key aspects of adaptive site management were described, including tools for revising and updating the conceptual site model (CSM), the importance of setting interim objectives to define short-term milestones on the journey to achieving site objectives, establishing a performance model and metrics to evaluate progress towards meeting interim objectives, and comparing actual with predicted progress during scheduled periodic evaluations, and establishing decision criteria for when and how to adapt/modify/revise the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key findings will be published in an ITRC Technical and Regulatory guidance document in 2017 and free training webinars will be conducted. More information is available at www.itrc-web.org. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 环境中六溴环十二烷的修复技术研究进展%Advances in Environmental Remediation Technologies for Hexabromocyclododecane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱翌; 朱晓艳

    2014-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a kind of brominated flame retardants (BRFs), widely used in plastics, foams, fibers, textiles, electronic products, and other organic materials. It can also be used as flame retardant additives in PE, polycarbonate, and unsaturated polyester plastics. This material has abilities of long-term accumulation, migration, and transformation as one of persistent organic pollutants (pops) in the environment, exerting a potential threat to human beings. The recent increasing usage of HBCD even make the situation worse. Technologies of removing HBCD in the environment have drawn much attention around the world. The recent domestic and abroad HBCD removal and degradation techniques, including physical remediation, chemical remediation, and bioremediation, are reviewed in this paper. The principles, applicable conditions, and pros and cons of the three methods are also discussed. Photo-degradation and microbial degradation are described in details. Utilizing light and catalyst in water, photo-degradation has advantages of high efficiency and clean environment, with drawbacks of critical conditions and high costs. Microbial degradation uses certain microorganisms to achieve HBCD degradation, and the degrading efficiency under anaerobic conditions is significantly higher than under aerobic conditions. This method does not produce secondary pollution. However, the development is not mature with few studies. The current HBCD phytoremediation is rarely reported. The usage of phytoremediation on HBCD should be focus of such research efforts in the future. The authors hold that the photo-degradation and microbial degradation shall be the main developing methods. Or the two above methods can be combined to acquire a better result. Microbial metabolism method is a promising technique for future development.%六溴环十二烷(hexabromocyclododecane,HBCD)是一种非芳香的溴代环烷烃,作为阻燃剂被广泛应用于塑料、泡沫、纤

  13. A Model of Technological Growth under Emission Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Rovenskaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest and analyze a model of global technological growth under a prescribed constraint on the annual emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). The model assumes that industrial GHG emission is positively related to the world's production output driven by the development of the "production"technology stock. "Cleaning" technology is developed in parallel to keep the annual GHG emission within a "safety" zone. The ratio between annual investment in "cleaning" technology and annual investment in "...

  14. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.;

    2005-01-01

    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...

  15. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Self Organizing Map (SOM for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy modeling for technology marketing. Also PCA and SOM are used to analyze patent data in STP modeling. To verify improved performance of our study, we make experiments using patent data from USPTO.

  16. 土壤砷污染及其修复技术的研究进展%Advances in the Study of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil and Its Remediation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李圣发; 王宏镔

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination soils have become a serious issue in relation to environmental and public health,which gained the close attention of the people.This article reviews the status,sources and danger of arsenic contamination soils,and the physical-chemical remediation and bioremediation(especially phytoremediation) technology are also discussed.In addition,the future study on remediation technology for arsenic-contaminated soils was prospected.%土壤砷污染已成为严重的环境和公共健康问题,日益受到人们的密切关注。综述了土壤砷污染的现状、来源及其危害,同时探讨了土壤砷污染的物理化学修复和生物修复(特别是植物修复)技术的研究现状;并对今后砷污染修复研究方向进行了展望。

  17. Agro-ecological Remediation Technologies on Heavy Metal Contamination in Cropland Soils%农田土壤重金属污染的农业生态修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铁铮; 马友华; 徐露露; 付欢欢; 聂静茹

    2013-01-01

    This article summarized the common agro-ecological remediation technology of heavy metal contamination in cropland soils, in-cluding the rational application of fertilizer, bio-organic fertilizer use, straw application, adjusting the crop planting structure, screening lowly-enriched heavy metal crop varieties and tolerant varieties, super-deep plow, soil moisture control, lime application and so on. The out-look of the remediation technology of heavy metal contamination in cropland soils was prospected.%总结了常见的农田土壤重金属污染的农业生态修复技术,包括合理施用化肥、施用生物有机肥、秸秆还田、调整作物种植结构、筛选重金属低积累作物品种和耐性作物品种、深耕深翻、控制土壤水分以及施用石灰等修复措施,并对农田土壤重金属污染修复技术的前景进行了展望。

  18. Building information modeling based on intelligent parametric technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xudong; TAN Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to push the information organization process of the building industry,promote sustainable architectural design and enhance the competitiveness of China's building industry,the author studies building information modeling (BIM) based on intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling is a new technology in the field of computer aided architectural design,which contains not only geometric data,but also the great amount of engineering data throughout the lifecycle of a building.The author also compares BIM technology with two-dimensional CAD technology,and demonstrates the advantages and characteristics of intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling,which is based on intelligent parametric modeling technology,will certainly replace traditional computer aided architectural design and become the new driving force to push forward China's building industry in this information age.

  19. Remedy Evaluation Framework for Inorganic, Non-Volatile Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2013-05-01

    Contaminants in the vadose zone may act as a potential long-term source of groundwater contamination and need to be considered in remedy evaluations. In many cases, remediation decisions for the vadose zone will need to be made all or in part based on projected impacts to groundwater. Because there are significant natural attenuation processes inherent in vadose zone contaminant transport, remediation in the vadose zone to protect groundwater is functionally a combination of natural attenuation and use of other remediation techniques, as needed, to mitigate contaminant flux to groundwater. Attenuation processes include both hydrobiogeochemical processes that serve to retain contaminants within porous media and physical processes that mitigate the rate of water flux. In particular, the physical processes controlling fluid flow in the vadose zone are quite different and generally have a more significant attenuation impact on contaminant transport relative to those within the groundwater system. A remedy evaluation framework is presented herein that uses an adaptation of the established EPA Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation approach and a conceptual model based approach focused on identifying and quantifying features and processes that control contaminant flux through the vadose zone. A key concept for this framework is to recognize that MNA will comprise some portion of all remedies in the vadose zone. Thus, structuring evaluation of vadose zone waste sites to use an MNA-based approach provides information necessary to either select MNA as the remedy, if appropriate, or to quantify how much additional attenuation would need to be induced by a remedial action (e.g., technologies considered in a feasibility study) to augment the natural attenuation processes and meet groundwater protection goals.

  20. MODELING PROBABILISTIC CONFLICT OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Desyatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently for the study of conflict increasingly used method of mathematical optical modeling. Its importance stems from the fact that experimental research such conflicts rather time-consuming and complex. However, existing approaches to the study of conflict do not take into account the stochastic nature of the systems, suffers from conceptual incompleteness. There is a need to develop models, algorithms and principles, in order to assess the conflict, to choose conflict resolution to ensure that not the worst of conditions. For stochastic technological systems as a utility function, we consider the probability of achieving a given objective. We assume that some system S1 is in conflict with the system S2, (SR2R К SR1R, if q(SR1R,SR2R

  1. Use of additive technologies for practical working with complex models for foundry technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovik, E.; Butsanets, A. A.; Ageeva, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of research of additive technology (3D printing) application for developing a geometrically complex model of castings parts. Investment casting is well known and widely used technology for the production of complex parts. The work proposes the use of a 3D printing technology for manufacturing models parts, which are removed by thermal destruction. Traditional methods of equipment production for investment casting involve the use of manual labor which has problems with dimensional accuracy, and CNC technology which is less used. Such scheme is low productive and demands considerable time. We have offered an alternative method which consists in printing the main knots using a 3D printer (PLA and ABS) with a subsequent production of castings models from them. In this article, the main technological methods are considered and their problems are discussed. The dimensional accuracy of models in comparison with investment casting technology is considered as the main aspect.

  2. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C. [LIMOS UMR 7137 CNRS-UHP Nancy - Faculty of Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persistent and toxic soil pollutants that are of major public concern due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic property. Phyto-remediation is the use of plants and their associated microorganisms for remediation of polluted soils. Phyto-remediation could be used in conjunction with other remediation technologies to reduce the contamination to safe levels and maintain or restore soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Most plant species form mycorrhizas with symbiotic fungi. It was shown that AM fungi enhance survival and plant growth in PAH contaminated soils. Mycorrhizal fungi also enhance the biotransformation or biodegradation of PAH, although the effect differed between soils. A rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere gradient of PAH concentrations was observed, with decreased PAH concentration with decreased distance to roots. Different microbial communities were found in the rhizosphere of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants in comparison to bulk soil, suggesting that AM could affect PAH degradation by changing microbial communities. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and nutrients on the ability of alfalfa to grow on soil contaminated with PAHs before and after two remediation treatments. We used soil from an industrial site (Homecourt, North East part of France) highly contaminated with PAH (2000 mg kg{sup -1}), which has been partially treated by two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption). The bio-pile treatment consisted of piling the contaminated soil with stimulation of aerobic microbial activity by aeration and addition of nutrient solution, and reduced PAH concentration to around 300 mg kg-1. With the thermal desorption treatment the soil was heated to around 500 deg. C so that PAH vaporized and were separated from the soil. The residual PAH concentration in soil was 40 mg kg{sup -1}. Treated and non-treated contaminated soil was planted with alfalfa

  3. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  4. Bionic models for new sustainable energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner Inst., Dept. Solare Energetik, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the boundary conditions of an abundant, but diluted solar energy supply nature has successfully evolved sophisticated regenerative energy technologies, which are not yet familiar to human engineering tradition. Since until the middle of this century a substantial contribution of renewable energy to global energy consumption is required in order to limit environmental deterioration, bionic technologies may contribute to the development of commercially affordable technical options. Four biological energy technologies have been selected as examples to discuss the challenges, both in scientific and technological terms, as well as the material research aspects involved: photovoltaics based on irreversible kinetics, tensile water technology, solar powered protonic energy circuits, fuel cell catalysis based on abundant transition metals. (orig.)

  5. Rural technology and agribusiness in Argentina. The rationale underpinning the dominant technological model

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M. Caceres

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses the main characteristics of the technological model fostered by agribusiness in Argentina, discusses its main problems and highlights the need to analyze it within a broader economic and political context. This technology is described as a technological fix and three main attributes are presented: instantaneity, transitoriness, and recurrence. The supposed efficiency of the productive model fostered by agribusiness occurs at the expense of natural capital depletion and at t...

  6. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  7. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy m...

  8. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the sediment transport modeling task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This site-specific Work Plan/Health and Safety Checklist (WP/HSC) is a supplement to the general health and safety plan (HASP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 remedial investigation and site investigation (WAG 2 RI&SI) activities [Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169)] and provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 RI&SI Sediment Transport Modeling Task. This WP/HSC identifies specific site operations, site hazards, and any recommendations by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) health and safety organizations [i.e., Industrial Hygiene (IH), Health Physics (HP), and/or Industrial Safety] that would contribute to the safe completion of the WAG 2 RI&SI. Together, the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI&SI (ORNL/ER-169) and the completed site-specific WP/HSC meet the health and safety planning requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.120 and the ORNL Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Program Manual. In addition to the health and safety information provided in the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI&SI, details concerning the site-specific task are elaborated in this site-specific WP/HSC, and both documents, as well as all pertinent procedures referenced therein, will be reviewed by all field personnel prior to beginning operations.

  9. Development of new remediation technologies for contaminated soils based on the application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles and bioremediation with compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galdames

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop new techniques for the remediation of contaminated soils based on the application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI and bioremediation with compost from organic wastes and a mixed technique of both. An assessment of the effectiveness of remediation in two soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals was carried out, with the aim of looking for positive synergies by combining the two techniques, and demonstrating their viability on an industrial scale. The application of nZVI for in situ immobilization of As and Cr in two different soils (Soil I from a contaminated industrial site and Soil II, contaminated artificially showed a decrease in the concentration of As in Soil I and Soil II, as well as a decrease in Cr concentration for Soil I and Soil II in the leachate of both soils. The addition of compost and nanoparticles under uncontrolled environmental conditions in biopiles was able to produce a decrease in the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons of up to 60% in the two soils. Especially, degradation and transformation of longer chains occurred. A significant reduction of ecotoxicity was observed throughout the process in the biopile of soil II, not reaching the LC50 even with 100% of the sample after the treatment, in both earthworm and seeds growth tests.

  10. "Soft Technology" and Criticism of the Western Model of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Alternatives to the capitalistic Western model of develoment are suggested. Three problems afflicting Western society--alienation, resource exploitation, and eviornmental stability--are discussed and a model which advocates both political and technological change is proposed. (SM)

  11. Modeling and simulation technology readiness levels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Robert L.; Shneider, Max S.; Marburger, S. J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an effort to establish a framework for assigning and communicating technology readiness levels (TRLs) for the modeling and simulation (ModSim) capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories. This effort was undertaken as a special assignment for the Weapon Simulation and Computing (WSC) program office led by Art Hale, and lasted from January to September 2006. This report summarizes the results, conclusions, and recommendations, and is intended to help guide the program office in their decisions about the future direction of this work. The work was broken out into several distinct phases, starting with establishing the scope and definition of the assignment. These are characterized in a set of key assertions provided in the body of this report. Fundamentally, the assignment involved establishing an intellectual framework for TRL assignments to Sandia's modeling and simulation capabilities, including the development and testing of a process to conduct the assignments. To that end, we proposed a methodology for both assigning and understanding the TRLs, and outlined some of the restrictions that need to be placed on this process and the expected use of the result. One of the first assumptions we overturned was the notion of a ''static'' TRL--rather we concluded that problem context was essential in any TRL assignment, and that leads to dynamic results (i.e., a ModSim tool's readiness level depends on how it is used, and by whom). While we leveraged the classic TRL results from NASA, DoD, and Sandia's NW program, we came up with a substantially revised version of the TRL definitions, maintaining consistency with the classic level definitions and the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) approach. In fact, we substantially leveraged the foundation the PCMM team provided, and augmented that as needed. Given the modeling and simulation TRL definitions and our proposed assignment methodology, we

  12. ABOUT COMPLEX APPROACH TO MODELLING OF TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Honcharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems arise in the process of designing, production and investigation of a complicated technological machine. These problems concern not only properties of some types of equipment but they have respect to regularities of control object functioning as a whole. A technological machine is thought of as such technological complex where it is possible to lay emphasis on a control system (or controlling device and a controlled object. The paper analyzes a number of existing approaches to construction of models for controlling devices and their functioning. A complex model for a technological machine operation has been proposed in the paper; in other words it means functioning of a controlling device and a controlled object of the technological machine. In this case models of the controlling device and the controlled object of the technological machine can be represented as aggregate combination (elements of these models. The paper describes a conception on realization of a complex model for a technological machine as a model for interaction of units (elements in the controlling device and the controlled object. When a control activation is given to the controlling device of the technological machine its modelling is executed at an algorithmic or logic level and the obtained output signals are interpreted as events and information about them is transferred to executive mechanisms.The proposed scheme of aggregate integration considers element models as object classes and the integration scheme is presented as a combination of object property values (combination of a great many input and output contacts and combination of object interactions (in the form of an integration operator. Spawn of parent object descendants of the technological machine model and creation of their copies in various project parts is one of the most important means of the distributed technological machine modelling that makes it possible to develop complicated models of

  13. Reaction Paper on Remediation in the Community College Mathematics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn

    Remedial mathematics has taken several forms over the years--across the nation, within departments, and among mathematics instructors. There is a growing debate over the effectiveness of remedial courses in relationship to eventual student matriculation, which increases institution funding. The use of technology, real-life problems and projects,…

  14. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  15. Modeling and optimization of the lifetime of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hritonenko, Natali

    1996-01-01

    Modern economic growth is characterized by structural changes based on the introduction of new technologies into economics. The replacement and renova­ tion of technologies in industrial environments undergoing technical change is clearly one of the key aspects of economic development. The mathematical modeling of evolutionary economics under technical change (TC) has been rigorously considered by many authors during last decades. There is a wide variety of economic approaches and models describing different aspects of technical change. Among these are the models of embodied technical progress [19], [35], [70], [129], endogenous growth models [94], [102], the models of technological innovations [31], [32], [41], and others. The perspective self­ organization evolutionary approach is developed in [20], [38], [122], [123], [124], [126], which unites the aspects of diffusion of new technologies, technological and behavioral diversity of firms, learning mechanisms, age-dependent effects, and other important fea...

  16. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  17. Integrated modelling in materials and process technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2008-01-01

    Integrated modelling of entire process sequences and the subsequent in-service conditions, and multiphysics modelling of the single process steps are areas that increasingly support optimisation of manufactured parts. In the present paper, three different examples of modelling manufacturing...... processes from the viewpoint of combined materials and process modelling are presented: solidification of thin walled ductile cast iron, integrated modelling of spray forming and multiphysics modelling of friction stir welding. The fourth example describes integrated modelling applied to a failure analysis...

  18. Field analytical support during Superfund site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, W.L.; Catherman, D.R. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    ERM-FAST{reg_sign} Services has provided cost-effective and critical field analytical support for a wide variety of investigatory and remedial projects over the past four years. Two recent projects involving soils remediation at Superfund sites exemplify the power of real time field analytical support in reducing time and expense during a project`s remedial phase. ERM-FAST on-site analytical facilities were able to meet, in a real time scenario, all data quality objectives (DQOs), all regulatory agency requirements, and satisfied the client`s needs. ERM-FAST made this possible through the development of unique analytical strategies, the proper selection of analytical technologies, and by streamlining the analytical methodologies. Both of these remedial efforts offer illustrations of the effectiveness of field analysis for vastly differing site contaminants. This case study focuses on the use of portable Gas Chromatography (GC) instrumentation as a tool for providing analytical support during a CERCLA site remediation program. The project discussed provides an example of how low cost portable analytical instrumentation can be utilized in a field setting to meet analytical DQOs consistent with CERCLA compliance and to meet the requirements for remedial activity cost control. Substantial savings were realized both by reducing total project analytical cost, and by efficient and effective process and schedule management.

  19. 农业种植园区肥料与农药污染土壤修复技术及示范年度报告%Soil Remediation Technology and Demonstration of Agricultural Lands Polluted by Fertilizer and Pesticide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴龙华; 胡鹏杰

    2016-01-01

    Several soil remediation technologies were developed for agricultural lands polluted by the long term application of fertilizer and pesticide. These technologies include:(1) Phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators and high-accumulating rice cultivals combined with microorganism for slightly Cd polluted paddy soils. A remediation technology demonstration base was established in a Cd polluted farmland. Crop rotation techniques with Sedum and high accumulation rice cultivals were established. Cd removal rate from soil reached 21.1% in first season of Sedum. Enhanced microbial remediation technology for hyperaccumulator was conducted. Safety incineration technology and heavy metal recovery technology for Sedum were established. (2) Combined remediation of chemical stabilization and bioremediation for heavy metal comtanminated soils. Chemical and physical stability of Cd polluted soils with nano-chitosan materials were conducted. Soil moisture management technology for rice production safety control in Cd polluted soils was established.(3) chemical stabilization based on biochar and biodegradation with bacterium for heavy metal and organophosphorus pesticides contanminated intensive vegetable lands in suburban areas. An expanding culture medium inoculant technology based on urban kitchen waste was developed.(4) Intensive remediation technology based on plasmid pDOD transfer and herbicide metribuzin degrading bacteria for typical persistence pesticide contaminated soils. A long herbicide metribuzin degrading bacteria ZCT was isolated, and the degradation characteristics of pesticides were studied.(5) Combined remediation of chemical stabilization and bioremediation for acidified orchard soil. Physical improvement of soil acidification and Cu contamination was carried out, and evaporation remediation technologies for soil Cu were studied. A remediation demonstration bases of orchard soil contaminated with Cu was estabilished.%针对我国长期施用肥料与农药导致

  20. System Architecture Modeling for Technology Portfolio Management using ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert W.; O'Neil, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Strategic planners and technology portfolio managers have traditionally relied on consensus-based tools, such as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in planning the funding of technology development. While useful to a certain extent, these tools are limited in the ability to fully quantify the impact of a technology choice on system mass, system reliability, project schedule, and lifecycle cost. The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) aims to provide strategic planners a decision support tool for analyzing technology selections within a Space Exploration Architecture (SEA). Using ATLAS, strategic planners can select physics-based system models from a library, configure the systems with technologies and performance parameters, and plan the deployment of a SEA. Key parameters for current and future technologies have been collected from subject-matter experts and other documented sources in the Technology Tool Box (TTB). ATLAS can be used to compare the technical feasibility and economic viability of a set of technology choices for one SEA, and compare it against another set of technology choices or another SEA. System architecture modeling in ATLAS is a multi-step process. First, the modeler defines the system level requirements. Second, the modeler identifies technologies of interest whose impact on an SEA. Third, the system modeling team creates models of architecture elements (e.g. launch vehicles, in-space transfer vehicles, crew vehicles) if they are not already in the model library. Finally, the architecture modeler develops a script for the ATLAS tool to run, and the results for comparison are generated.

  1. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  2. How do dynamic capabilities transform external technologies into firms’ renewed technological resources? – A mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Ning, Lutao

    2016-01-01

    microfoundations of dynamic technological capabilities, mediate the relationship between external technology breadth and firms’ technological innovation performance, based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability view. Using a sample of listed Chinese licensee firms, we find that firms must broadly......How externally acquired resources may become valuable, rare, hard-to-imitate, and non-substitute resource bundles through the development of dynamic capabilities? This study proposes and tests a mediation model of how firms’ internal technological diversification and R&D, as two distinctive...... explore external technologies to ignite the dynamism in internal technological diversity and in-house R&D, which play their crucial roles differently to transform and reconfigure firms’ technological resources....

  3. How do dynamic capabilities transform external technologies into firms’ renewed technological resources? – A mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Ning, Lutao

    2016-01-01

    How externally acquired resources may become valuable, rare, hard-to-imitate, and non-substitute resource bundles through the development of dynamic capabilities? This study proposes and tests a mediation model of how firms’ internal technological diversification and R&D, as two distinctive...... microfoundations of dynamic technological capabilities, mediate the relationship between external technology breadth and firms’ technological innovation performance, based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability view. Using a sample of listed Chinese licensee firms, we find that firms must broadly...... explore external technologies to ignite the dynamism in internal technological diversity and in-house R&D, which play their crucial roles differently to transform and reconfigure firms’ technological resources....

  4. Research Progress of Biomass Remediation Technology for Oil-contaminated Soil%生物质修复石油污染土壤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史作然; 单广波; 闫松; 刘宇

    2016-01-01

    As the problem of soil contaminated by crude oil becomes increasingly prominent, the research on remediation of petroleum contaminated soil is also more and more. In this paper, the effect of the biomass, such as poultry excrement, garden waste and wheat straw, on the remediation of petroleum contaminated soil was summarized. The use of biomass mainly includes three types: direct addition to the soil, bio compost with oil-contaminated soil and use of biochar obtained by high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. These methods can improve and repair the oil contaminated soil in a certain degree. However, these methods are only limited to laboratory research, and further research is needed to be used in practice.%随着石油污染土壤问题的日益突出,对石油污染土壤修复的研究也越来越多。主要综述了畜禽粪便、园林废弃物、小麦秸秆等生物质在修复石油污染土壤方面的作用。对生物质的利用主要包括三种:直接施加到土壤上、和被石油污染的土壤进行生物堆肥以及经高温裂解得到生物炭来修复石油污染土壤。这几种方法都能够在一定程度上对石油污染土壤进行改善和修复。不过,这些方法都还只局限于实验室研究,还需要进一步研究将其应用于实际中。

  5. Understanding the impact of technology on firms’ business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalcante, Sergio Andre

    2013-01-01

    of a new business model for the partner companies in the consortium. Practical implications – This paper is important in that it will help companies understand technological impact from a business model perspective, thereby enabling them to manage innovation better by distinguishing between the creation......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a new global positioning technology on firms’ business models. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical setting was a consortium of Danish organizations, established to develop a positioning-based technology platform as a basis...... for innovative commercial products and/or services. Three of the consortium companies were selected for case-study research. Findings – The main findings were that companies will use the new technology to extend their existing business models, and that the technology platform potentially represents the creation...

  6. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Bluestein, Joel [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rodriguez, Nick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Knoke, Stu [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  7. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  8. Analysing Models as a Knowledge Technology in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Models belong to a wider family of knowledge technologies, applied in the transport area. Models sometimes share with other such technologies the fate of not being used as intended, or not at all. The result may be ill-conceived plans as well as wasted resources. Frequently, the blame for such a ......Models belong to a wider family of knowledge technologies, applied in the transport area. Models sometimes share with other such technologies the fate of not being used as intended, or not at all. The result may be ill-conceived plans as well as wasted resources. Frequently, the blame...... critical analytic literature on knowledge utilization and policy influence. A simple scheme based in this literature is drawn up to provide a framework for discussing the interface between urban transport planning and model use. A successful example of model use in Stockholm, Sweden is used as a heuristic...

  9. A Network Analysis Model for Selecting Sustainable Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsung Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most companies develop technologies to improve their competitiveness in the marketplace. Typically, they then patent these technologies around the world in order to protect their intellectual property. Other companies may use patented technologies to develop new products, but must pay royalties to the patent holders or owners. Should they fail to do so, this can result in legal disputes in the form of patent infringement actions between companies. To avoid such situations, companies attempt to research and develop necessary technologies before their competitors do so. An important part of this process is analyzing existing patent documents in order to identify emerging technologies. In such analyses, extracting sustainable technology from patent data is important, because sustainable technology drives technological competition among companies and, thus, the development of new technologies. In addition, selecting sustainable technologies makes it possible to plan their R&D (research and development efficiently. In this study, we propose a network model that can be used to select the sustainable technology from patent documents, based on the centrality and degree of a social network analysis. To verify the performance of the proposed model, we carry out a case study using actual patent data from patent databases.

  10. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering o

  11. New Metacognitive Model for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Addressing metacognitive functions has been shown to improve performance at the individual, team, group, and organizational levels. Metacognition is beginning to surface as an added cognate discipline for the field of human performance technology (HPT). Advances from research in the fields of cognition and metacognition offer a place for HPT to…

  12. New Metacognitive Model for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Addressing metacognitive functions has been shown to improve performance at the individual, team, group, and organizational levels. Metacognition is beginning to surface as an added cognate discipline for the field of human performance technology (HPT). Advances from research in the fields of cognition and metacognition offer a place for HPT to…

  13. Empirical modeling of information communication technology usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-11-01

    Nov 1, 2015 ... Information Communication Technology (ICT) usage behavior), based on ... highly integrated ICT schemes with competent personnel, using ICTs in .... skilled business teachers, office administrators and ... management of various aspects of the learning ..... Library, 31(6):792-807. doi: 10.1108/EL-04-2012-.

  14. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISM MODELS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION DIFFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiuping; HU Minan

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanism and principle of diffusion of technology diffusion on the basis of quantitative analysis. Then it sets up the diffusion model of innovation incorporating price, advertising and distribution, the diffusion model of innovation including various kinds of consumers, and the substitute model between the new technology and the old one applied systems dynamics, optimization method, probabilistic method and simulation method on computer. Finally this paper concludes with some practical observations from a case study.

  16. A novel bio-adsorbent of mint waste for dyes remediation in aqueous environments: study and modeling of isotherms for removal of methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ainane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using mint waste as a bioadsorbent for the removal of dye (Methylen Blue from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were carried out by monitoring the pH, the bio-adsorbent dose and the initial dye concentration. Attempts have also been made to monitor the adsorption process through Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. These results have demonstrated the immense potential of mint waste as a bioadsorbent for dyes remediation in polluted water and wastewater. Finally followed by the process of adsorption phenomenon was achieved by fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, the results shows that the adsorption is mechanical trapping.

  17. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  18. GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Transition to monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as soon as conditions are favorable to effectively remediate residual contaminants.  Use of...considered to decrease energy consumption and criteria air pollution .  Use adjacent soil for backfill/ soil cover material at a landfill to...adoption. The technologies covered include air sparging, biosparging, soil vapor extraction (SVE), enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), in situ

  19. Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip; Tushman, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    Based on longitudinal studies of the cement, glass, and minicomputer industries, this article proposes a technological change model in which a technological breakthrough, or discontinuity, initiates an era of intense technical variation and selection, culminating in a single dominant design and followed by a period of incremental technical…

  20. Perceived Convenience in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model: Mobile Technology and English Learning for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…

  1. Understanding Student Teachers' Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Validation and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan

    2013-01-01

    This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…

  2. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  3. Mercury contaminated sediment sites—An evaluation of remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Chattopadhyay, Sandip, E-mail: Sandip.Chattopadhyay@tetratech.com [Tetra Tech, Inc., 250 West Court Street, Suite 200W, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to methylmercury (MeHg). Consequently, Hg in historically-contaminated sediments can result in high levels of significant exposure for aquatic species, wildlife and human populations consuming fish. Even if source control of contaminated wastewater is achievable, it may take a very long time, perhaps decades, for Hg-contaminated aquatic systems to reach relatively safe Hg levels in both water and surface sediment naturally. It may take even longer if Hg is present at higher concentration levels in deep sediment. Hg contaminated sediment results from previous releases or ongoing contributions from sources that are difficult to identify. Due to human activities or physical, chemical, or biological processes (e.g. hydrodynamic flows, bioturbation, molecular diffusion, and chemical transformation), the buried Hg can be remobilized into the overlying water. Hg speciation in the water column and sediments critically affect the reactivity (i.e. conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to MeHg), transport, and its exposure to living organisms. Also, geochemical conditions affect the activity of methylating bacteria and its availability for methylation. This review paper discusses remedial considerations (e.g. key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. -- Highlights: ► Managing mercury-contaminated sediment sites are challenging to remediate. ► Remediation technologies are making a difference in managing these sites. ► Partitioning plays a dominant role in the distribution of mercury species. ► Mathematical

  4. Modelling architectures in multi-product oriented technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir

    This thesis investigates the use of architecture modelling in a technology development context.This context presents greater uncertainties than more mature new product development. Applications—the use of products based on the technology being developed—are not fully identified and the requiremen...... frameworks in a technology development projectare presented, along with descriptive results on the context of technology development gained through active participation in the case project.......This thesis investigates the use of architecture modelling in a technology development context.This context presents greater uncertainties than more mature new product development. Applications—the use of products based on the technology being developed—are not fully identified and the requirements...... to be fulfilled are not completely defined.The products to be based on the technology are yet to be developed as the foundation for their development will be developed during the technology development. Furthermore, the production of a new technology is not defined as both the technology and derivative products...

  5. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning

  6. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  7. Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Please cite as: Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), International Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd Edition, Springer, June 2008

  8. Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Please cite as: Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), International Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd Edition, Springer, June 2008

  9. Modelling Benefits-Oriented Costs for Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of technology enhanced learning (TEL) methods changes the deployment of the most important resource in the education system: teachers' and learners' time. New technology promises greater personalization and greater productivity, but without careful modeling of the effects on the use of staff time, TEL methods can easily increase…

  10. Dystechnia: technology deficient model and suggestions for entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Farhadi nahad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lack of interconnection among system components creates a limitation in technology adoption by the reduction or absence of potential users’ perception implying the second-order ignorance state (ignorance of ignorance. Effect of defective or fail in use, extend or logistic technology is dystechnia presenting everywhere and its origin implicitly implies in entrepreneurial opportunity. The identification and exploitation of economic potential by changing the means of economic production and control is called entrepreneurship which strategically allocate economic resource from present approach to innovative one again. Technology Adoption Model is a theoretical construct of the relationship between potential users’ perception and behavioral intentions resulting in actual technology adoption. The attention of Technology Adoption Model is assumes a practical or technological system, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use determining the intention to use adjusting the actual acceptance respectively. This is the start of entrepreneurial solutions as an option to the dystechnic status upon which Technology Adoption Model is worked. The aim of present study is considering dystechnia phenomenon anticipating Technology Adoption Model as well as entrepreneurial mechanisms which the phenomenon is cured.

  11. How large-scale energy-environment models represent technology and technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    In the process of selecting measures against global warming, it is important to consider the introduction of technological innovations into the models, and studies were made in this connection. An induced technical change model has to be an economically total model that represents various incentives involving the form of profits from innovations; profits from cost functions, research-and-development production functions, and abstract profits from empirical estimates; and the dimensions in which technological change is assumed to progress. Under study at the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum is how to represent various technological assumptions and development, which is necessary to predict the cost for dealing with global warming. At the conference of February 2001, 10 cases of preliminary model scenarios were discussed. In one case, for instance, a carbon tax of $25/ton in 2010 is raised $25 every decade to be $100/ton in 2040. Three working groups are engaged in the study of long-run economy/technology baseline scenarios, characterization of current and potential future technologies, and ways of modeling technological change. (NEDO)

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS MODELING AIMING TO IMPROVE ITS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling procedure of one real technological system. In this study, thecopper extraction from the copper flotation waste generated at the Bor Copper Mine (Serbia, werethe object of modeling. Sufficient data base for statistical modeling was constructed using theorthogonal factorial design of the experiments. Mathematical model of investigated system wasdeveloped using the combination of linear and multiple linear statistical analysis approach. Thepurpose of such a model is obtaining optimal states of the system that enable efficient operationsmanagement. Besides technological and economical, ecological parameters of the process wereconsidered as crucial input variables.

  13. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modeling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, L C; Fleskens, L; Reed, M S; de Vente, J; Zengin, M

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  14. The technology acceptance model: predicting nurses' intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika

    2011-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine factors and predictors that influence nurses' intention to use the eICU technology, to examine the applicability of the Technology Acceptance Model in explaining nurses' intention to use the eICU technology in healthcare settings, and to provide psychometric evidence of the measurement scales used in the study. The study involved 117 participants from two healthcare systems. The Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model was developed based on the original Technology Acceptance Model that was initially developed by Fred Davis in 1986. The eICU Acceptance Survey was used as an instrument for the study. Content validity was examined, and the reliability of the instrument was tested. The results show that perceived usefulness is the most influential factor that influences nurses' intention to use the eICU technology. The principal factors that influence perceived usefulness are perceived ease of use, support from physicians, and years working in the hospital. The model fit was reasonably adequate and able to explain 58% of the variance (R = 0.58) in intention to use the eICU technology with the nursing sample.

  15. Risk Management Technologies With Logic and Probabilistic Models

    CERN Document Server

    Solozhentsev, E D

    2012-01-01

    This book presents intellectual, innovative, information technologies (I3-technologies) based on logical and probabilistic (LP) risk models. The technologies presented here consider such models for structurally complex systems and processes with logical links and with random events in economics and technology.  The volume describes the following components of risk management technologies: LP-calculus; classes of LP-models of risk and efficiency; procedures for different classes; special software for different classes; examples of applications; methods for the estimation of probabilities of events based on expert information. Also described are a variety of training courses in these topics. The classes of risk models treated here are: LP-modeling, LP-classification, LP-efficiency, and LP-forecasting. Particular attention is paid to LP-models of risk of failure to resolve difficult economic and technical problems. Amongst the  discussed  procedures of I3-technologies  are the construction of  LP-models,...

  16. A DYNAMICAL SYSTEM APPROACH IN MODELING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Husniah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a mathematical model of two parties technology transfer from a leader to a follower. The model is reconstructed via dynamical system approach from a known standard Raz and Assa model and we found some important conclusion which have not been discussed in the original model. The model assumes that in the absence of technology transfer from a leader to a follower, both the leader and the follower have a capability to grow independently with a known upper limit of the development. We obtain a rich mathematical structure of the steady state solution of the model. We discuss a special situation in which the upper limit of the technological development of the follower is higher than that of the leader, but the leader has started earlier than the follower in implementing the technology. In this case we show a paradox stating that the follower is unable to reach its original upper limit of the technological development could appear whenever the transfer rate is sufficiently high.  We propose a new model to increase realism so that any technological transfer rate could only has a positive effect in accelerating the rate of growth of the follower in reaching its original upper limit of the development.

  17. An Improved Valuation Model for Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ako Doffou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates some of the parameters of the Schwartz and Moon (2001 model using cross-sectional data. Stochastic costs, future financing, capital expenditures and depreciation are taken into account. Some special conditions are also set: the speed of adjustment parameters are equal; the implied half-life of the sales growth process is linked to analyst forecasts; and the risk-adjustment parameter is inferred from the company’s observed stock price beta. The model is illustrated in the valuation of Google, Amazon, eBay, Facebook and Yahoo. The improved model is far superior to the Schwartz and Moon (2001 model.

  18. Polymer Matrix Composites using Fused Deposition Modeling Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology that allows fabrication of complex three-dimensional geometries layer-by-layer. The goal of...

  19. Radio frequency heating for in-situ remediation of DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Woburn, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In-situ radio frequency (RF) heating technology for treating soils contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is described. RF imparts heat to non-conducting materials through the application of carefully controlled RF transmissions, improving contaminant flow characteristics and facilitating separation and removal from subsurface soils. The paper outlines advantages and limitations of RF remediation, process operations, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, and costs. Two case histories of RF remediation are briefly summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  1. Study on Modeling Technology in Digital Reactor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓平; 罗月童; 童莉莉

    2004-01-01

    Modeling is the kernel part of a digital reactor system. As an extensible platform for reactor conceptual design, it is very important to study modeling technology and develop some kind of tools to speed up preparation of all classical computing models. This paper introduces the background of the project and basic conception of digital reactor. MCAM is taken as an example for modeling and its related technologies used are given. It is an interface program for MCNP geometry model developed by FDS team (ASIPP & HUT), and designed to run on windows system. MCAM aims at utilizing CAD technology to facilitate creation of MCNP geometry model. There have been two ways for MCAM to utilize CAD technology:(1) Making use of user interface technology in aid of generation of MCNP geometry model;(2) Making use of existing 3D CAD model to accelerate creation of MCNP geometry model. This paper gives an overview of MCAM's major function. At last, several examples are given to demonstrate MCAM's various capabilities.

  2. The Technological Barriers of Using Video Modeling in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Desha; Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to identify the technological barriers teachers encounter when attempting to implement video modeling in the classroom. Video modeling is an emerging evidence-based intervention method used with individuals with autism. Research has shown the positive effects video modeling can have on its recipients. Educators…

  3. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Simonas Tamaliūnas; Henrikas Sivilevičius

    2011-01-01

    The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP). The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonas Tamaliūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP. The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Data integration technologies to support integrated modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, M.J.R.; Roosenschoon, O.R.; Lokers, R.M.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Randen, van Y.; Verweij, P.J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the recent years the scientific activities of our organisation in large research projects show a shifting priority from model integration to the integration of data itself. Our work in several large projects on integrated modelling for impact assessment studies has clearly shown the importance

  6. Data integration technologies to support integrated modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, M.J.R.; Roosenschoon, O.R.; Lokers, R.M.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Randen, van Y.; Verweij, P.J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the recent years the scientific activities of our organisation in large research projects show a shifting priority from model integration to the integration of data itself. Our work in several large projects on integrated modelling for impact assessment studies has clearly shown the importance

  7. Rural technology and agribusiness in Argentina. The rationale underpinning the dominant technological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Caceres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main characteristics of the technological model fostered by agribusiness in Argentina, discusses its main problems and highlights the need to analyze it within a broader economic and political context. This technology is described as a technological fix and three main attributes are presented: instantaneity, transitoriness, and recurrence. The supposed efficiency of the productive model fostered by agribusiness occurs at the expense of natural capital depletion and at the costs internalized by other social actors. This is happening either via accumulation by dispossession, or through the socialization and temporal deferment of its negative externalities. Its strength largely transcends the technological domains. To bring this model into question would imply not only to object its visible head (i.e., agribusiness, but also to question the institutions (scientific, educative, juridical, and administrative and the political structures that support it. Finally, the paper discusses some alternatives and suggests to develop a political agronomy for Latin America. 

  8. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  9. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  10. Predicting nurses' use of healthcare technology using the technology acceptance model: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian

    2015-05-01

    The benefits of healthcare technologies can only be attained if nurses accept and intend to fully use them. One of the most common models utilized to understand user acceptance of technology is the Technology Acceptance Model. This model and modified versions of it have only recently been applied in the healthcare literature among nurse participants. An integrative literature review was conducted on this topic. Ovid/MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL were searched yielding a total of 982 references. Upon eliminating duplicates and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the review included a total of four dissertations, three symposium proceedings, and 13 peer-reviewed journal articles. These documents were appraised and reviewed. The results show that a modified Technology Acceptance Model with added variables could provide a better explanation of nurses' acceptance of healthcare technology. These added variables to modified versions of the Technology Acceptance Model are discussed, and the studies' methodologies are critiqued. Limitations of the studies included in the integrative review are also examined.

  11. Projects at the Western Environmental Technology Office. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report contains brief outlines of the multiple projects under the responsibility of the Western Environmental Technology Office in Butte Montana. These projects include biomass remediation, remediation of contaminated soils, mine waste technology, and several other types of remediation.

  12. A Technology-based Model for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Math Emporium, opened in 1997, is an open 7000-squaremeter facility with 550+ workstations arranged in an array of widely spaced hexagonal "pods", designed to support group work at the same time maintaining an academic air. We operate it 24/7 with math support personnel in attendance 12 hours per day. Students have access to online course resources at all times, from anywhere. We have used this unique asset to transform traditional classroom-based courses into technology based learning programs that have no class meetings at all. The structure of the program is very different from the conventional one, having a new set of expectations and motivations. The results include: more effective students, substantial cost savings, economies of scale and scope and a stream-lined process for creating new on-line courses.

  13. A model for technology assessment and commercialization for innovative disruptive technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KASSICIEH, SULEIMAN K.; WALSH, STEVE; MCWHORTER,PAUL J.; CUMMINGS JR.,JOHN C.; WILLIAMS,W. DAVID; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.

    2000-05-17

    Disruptive technologies are scientific discoveries that break through the usual product technology capabilities and provide a basis for a new competitive paradigm as described by Anderson and Tushman [1990], Tushman and Rosenkopf [1992], and Bower and Christensen [1995]. Discontinuous innovations are products/processes/services that provide exponential improvements in the value received by the customer much in the same vein as Walsh [1996], Lynn, Morone and Paulson [1996], and Veryzer [1998]. For more on definitions of disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations, see Walsh and Linton [1999] who provide a number of definitions for disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations. Disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations present a unique challenge and opportunity for R and D organizations seeking to build their commercialization efforts and to reinvent the corporation. These technologies do not have a proven path from scientific discovery to mass production and therefore require novel approaches. These critically important technologies are the wellspring of wealth creation and new competency generation but are not readily accepted by the corporate community. They are alternatively embraced and eschewed by the commercial community. They are finally accepted when the technology has already affected the industry or when the technological horse has already flown out of the hanger. Many firms, especially larger firms, seem reluctant to familiarize themselves with these technologies quickly. The trend seems to be that these firms prefer to react to a proven disruptive technology that has changed the product market paradigm. If true, then there is cause for concern. This paper will review the literature on disruptive technologies presenting a model of the progression from scientific idea to mass production for disruptive technologies contrasted to the more copious incremental technologies. The paper will then describe Sandia National Laboratories

  14. A Systematic Evaluation Model for Solar Cell Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels, including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear energy, are the primary electricity sources currently. However, with depletion of fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear crisis, and increasing environmental consciousness, the demand for renewable energy resources has skyrocketed. Solar energy is one of the most popular renewable energy resources for meeting global energy demands. Even though there are abundant studies on various solar technology developments, there is a lack of studies on solar technology evaluation and selection. Therefore, this research develops a model using interpretive structural modeling (ISM, benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks concept (BOCR, and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP to aggregate experts' opinions in evaluating current available solar cell technology. A case study in a photovoltaics (PV firm is used to examine the practicality of the proposed model in selecting the most suitable technology for the firm in manufacturing new products.

  15. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 12 and 13 entitled: Large scale field test of the Lasagna{trademark} process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athmer, C.J.; Ho, Sa V.; Hughes, B.M. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to instant degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electroosmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the field experiment conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, KY. The test site covered 15 feet wide by 10 feet across and 15 feet deep with steel panels as electrodes and wickdrains containing granular activated carbon as treatment zone& The electrodes and treatment zones were installed utilizing innovative adaptation of existing emplacement technologies. The unit was operated for four months, flushing TCE by electroosmosis from the soil into the treatment zones where it was trapped by the activated carbon. The scale up from laboratory units to this field scale was very successful with respect to electrical parameters as weft as electroosmotic flow. Soil samples taken throughout the site before and after the test showed over 98% TCE removal, with most samples showing greater than 99% removal.

  16. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  17. A quantitative model of technological catch-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gholizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a quantitative model for the analysis of technological gap. The rates of development of technological leaders and followers in nanotechnology are expressed in terms of coupled equations. On the basis of this model (first step comparative technological gap and rate of that will be studied. We can calculate the dynamics of the gap between leader and follower. In the Second step, we estimate the technology gap using the metafrontier approach. Then we test the relationship between the technology gap and the quality of dimensions of the Catch-up technology which were identified in previous step. The usefulness of this approach is then demonstrated in the analysis of the technological gap of nanotechnology in Iran, the leader in Middle East and the world. We shall present the behaviors of the technological leader and followers. At the end, analyzing Iran position will be identified and implying effective dimension of catch-up Suggestions will be offered which could be a fundamental for long-term policies of Iran.

  18. Mathematical modeling courses for Media technology students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timcenko, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses curriculum development for Mathematical Modeling course at Medialogy education. Medialogy as a study line was established in 2002 at Faculty for Engineering and Natural Sciences at Aalborg University, and mathematics curriculum has already been revised three times, Mathematic...

  19. Technology Transition a Model for Infusion and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Vernotto C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has as part of its charter the mission of transferring technologies developed for the space program into the private sector for the purpose of affording back to the American people the economical and improved quality of life benefits associated with the technologies developed. In recent years considerable effort has been made to use this program for not only transitioning technologies out of the NASA Mission Directorate Programs, but also to transfer technologies into the Mission Directorate Programs and leverage the impact of government and private sector innovation. The objective of this paper is to outline an approach and the creation of a model that brings together industry, government, and commercialization strategies. When these elements are integrated, the probability of successful technology development, technology infusion into the Mission Programs, and commercialization into the private sector is increased. This model primarily addresses technology readiness levels between TRL 3 and TRL 6. This is typically a gap area known as the valley of death. This gap area is too low for commercial entities to invest heavily and not developed enough for major programs to actively pursue. This model has shown promise for increasing the probably of TRL advancement to an acceptable level for NASA programs and/or commercial entities to afford large investments toward either commercialization or infusion.

  20. Technology diffusion in energy-economy models: The case of Danish vintage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological vintage models to describe technology diffusion. The focus is on short- to medium-term issues. Three different models of Danish energy supply and demand are used to illustrate......Technological progress is an important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological progress and diffusion of new technologies are among the reasons for diverging results obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analyzing...... of residential heat demand, fuel price increases are found to accelerate diffusion by increasing replacement rates for heating equipment....

  1. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  2. Theoretic models for recommendation and implementation of assistive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Jesus Alves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest international researches seek to understand the factors affecting the successful use of assistive technology devices through studies regarding the assessments systematizing; abandonment of devices; or theoric models that consider the aspects of those devices implementation. In Brazil the researches are focused on developing new technologies and there are still not sufficient studies related to the successful use of devices and ways of assistive technology implementation. Objective: To identify conceptual models used for indication and implementation of assistive technology devices. Method: Literature review. The survey was conducted in six databases: CINAHAL, Eric, GALE, LILACS, MEDLINE e PsycInfo. A critical analysis described by Grant and Booth was used. Results: There are no records of a Brazilian survey and among 29 selected articles, 17 conceptual models used in the area of AT were found; of these, 14 were specific to AT. The results showed that the new conceptual models of TA are under development and the conceptual model “Matching Person and Technology – MPT” was the most mentioned. Conclusion: We can observe that the practices related to TA area in international context shows a correlation with conceptual models, thus, we hope this study might have the capacity to contribute for the propagation of this precepts at national level

  3. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  4. Modeling Technology in Traveling-Wave Fault Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jinrui

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical research and equipment development of traveling-wave fault location seriously depend on digital simulation. Meanwhile, the fault-generated transient traveling wave must be transferred through transmission line, mutual inductor and secondary circuit before it is used. So this paper would maily analyze and summarize the modeling technology of transmission line and mutual inductor on the basis of the research achievement. Firstly several models of transmission line (multiple Π or T line model, Bergeron line model and frequency-dependent line model are compared in this paper with analysis of wave-front characteristics and characteristic frequency of traveling wave. Then modeling methods of current transformer, potential transformer, capacitive voltage transformer, special traveling-wave sensor and secondary cable are given. Finally, based on the difficult and latest research achievements, the future trend of modeling technology in traveling-wave fault location is prospected.  

  5. An Empirically Grounded Model of the Adoption of Intellectual Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    1992-01-01

    Data on adoption of 43 user-developed computing applications in 3 large corporations were analyzed to develop an empirically grounded model of the adoption process for intellectual technologies. A five-stage model consisting of Resource Acquisition, Application Development, Adoption/Renewal, Routinization/Enhancement, and External Adoption was…

  6. Applying the ARCS Motivation Model in Technological and Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction) motivation model into traditional classroom instruction-learning process. Viewing that technological and vocational students have low confidence and motivation in learning, the authors applied the ARCS motivation model not only in the…

  7. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  8. Stochastic Technology Choice Model for Consequential Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Arne; Bardow, André; Suh, Sangwon

    2016-12-06

    Discussions on Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) have relied largely on partial or general equilibrium models. Such models are useful for integrating market effects into CLCA, but also have well-recognized limitations such as the poor granularity of the sectoral definition and the assumption of perfect oversight by all economic agents. Building on the Rectangular-Choice-of-Technology (RCOT) model, this study proposes a new modeling approach for CLCA, the Technology Choice Model (TCM). In this approach, the RCOT model is adapted for its use in CLCA and extended to incorporate parameter uncertainties and suboptimal decisions due to market imperfections and information asymmetry in a stochastic setting. In a case study on rice production, we demonstrate that the proposed approach allows modeling of complex production technology mixes and their expected environmental outcomes under uncertainty, at a high level of detail. Incorporating the effect of production constraints, uncertainty, and suboptimal decisions by economic agents significantly affects technology mixes and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the system under study. The case study also shows the model's ability to determine both the average and marginal environmental impacts of a product in response to changes in the quantity of final demand.

  9. A Causal Model of Teacher Acceptance of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Ling; Lieu, Pang-Tien; Liang, Jung-Hui; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Wong, Seng-lee

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a causal model for investigating teacher acceptance of technology. We received 258 effective replies from teachers at public and private universities in Taiwan. A questionnaire survey was utilized to test the proposed model. The Lisrel was applied to test the proposed hypotheses. The result shows that computer self-efficacy has…

  10. A Strategic Science and Technology Planning and Development Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    developed process model to the research and technology initiatives of the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center...action teams were formed (under change management sponsorship of a champion) to formulate and implement an improved process model considered essential

  11. Changing Models for Researching Pedagogy with Information and Communications Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changing models of pedagogy by drawing on recent research with teachers and their students as well as theoretical developments. In relation to a participatory view of learning, the paper reviews existing pedagogical models that take little account of the use of information and communications technologies as well as those that…

  12. A Model of Teacher Professional Development to Support Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehman, Lee; Bonk, Curt; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the professional development model of Teacher Institute for Curriculum Knowledge about Integration of Technology (TICKIT). This paper will situate the TICKIT model with past findings from professional development research, and provide researchers and practitioners facilitating future programs advice based…

  13. Mouse Xenograft Model for Mesothelioma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize a new mouse model for monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates that target malignant mesotheliomas. Applications of the technology include models for screening compounds as potential therapeutics for mesothelioma and for studying the pathology of mesothelioma.

  14. Evaluation of Remedial Programs at UC Davis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    Efforts at the University of California, Davis, (UC Davis) to develop standard evaluation models for remedial programs are described, and three UC Davis evaluation studies are considered. A standard evaluation model entails a formal orientation, a singular values perspective, and a primary audience of program funders and oversight agencies. The…

  15. Status of international environmental remediation activities: A report from the Prague conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, S.C.; Thornhill, C.K.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    The Prague Conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation provided extensive interchange of ideas and insight into new technologies and management approaches throughout the world. A variety of environmental remediation technologies have potential application to Department of Energy facilities; others illustrate pitfalls to be avoided. This paper presents the highlights from the first environmental remediation (ER) technical program in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers` series of international nuclear waste management conferences. This program covers ER technologies, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) technologies and experience, ER site characterization and modeling, management of and results from actual clean up actions, and data on several major international environmental problems. Focusing on direct benefits to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ER Program, this paper summarizes pertinent technical information, identifies useful technical papers, lists key technical contacts, and identifies specific actions to obtain additional information. US attendance at meetings like this is normally quite limited compared to attendance at North American meetings. The purpose of this paper then is to increase general awareness of this meeting in US technical circles and to broadly disseminate key information to US ER programs and contractors. To do this, the paper is organized to present background information on the conference itself, document the beneficial technical information, and outline ongoing information exchange activities.

  16. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  17. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack; Palumbo, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    A Workshop on Accelerating Development of Practical Field-Scale Bioremediation Models; An Online Meeting, 23 January to 20 February 2008; A Web-based workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (DOE/ERSP) was organized in early 2008 to assess the state of the science and knowledge gaps associated with the use of computer models to facilitate remediation of groundwater contaminated by wastes from Cold War era nuclear weapons development and production. Microbially mediated biological reactions offer a potentially efficient means to treat these sites, but considerable uncertainty exists in the coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes and their mathematical representation.

  18. MODEL PERILAKU PENGGUNAAN TIK “NR2007” PENGEMBANGAN DARI TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL (TAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Neila Ramdhani

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and criticizes a Technology Acceptance Model which was developed by Fred D. Davis in 1986. TAM was built to predict the way people accept and adopt the technology. TAM was inspired by theory of reasoned action (TRA) formulated by Martin Fishbein & Icek Ajzen in 1975, although the model does not completely adopt the TRA model. TAM does not include Subjective Norm as a factor in predicting the use of technology. As a theory, TAM has been used by many res...

  19. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Levenspiel, Octave

    2012-01-01

    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  20. A Practical Modeling Approach for NAPL Dissolution Kinetics, Microbially-Mediated Redox Reactions and Aquifer-Aquitard Diffusion to Assess Remedial Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J.; Kim, U.; Widdowson, M.; Chappel, F.

    2008-12-01

    Explicit modeling of contaminant dissolution from heterogeneously distributed NAPL sources, microbial growth and reaction kinetics, and diffusion into or out of low permeability layers pose significant difficulties. These include the need to estimate a large number of parameters, which may subject to great uncertainty due to inverse problem ill-posedness given limited data, and to a lesser extent, the large computational effort that may be required to solve a rigorously formulated problem. An upscaled model for NAPL dissolution kinetics is utilized in the present study based on previous work, with extentions to consider concurrent effects of residual DNAPL and pools or lenses and to consider multi-component NAPL mixtures. An approach is presented to model microbially-mediated redox reactions subject to the assumption that microbial growth and reaction rates are primarily limited by transport processes rather than by microbial kinetics at time and space scales relevant for many remediation problems. The simplified model requires only stoichiometric coefficients for electron donor and electron acceptor half-reactions and the fraction of electron donor needed for cell synthesis. Contaminant diffusion into low permeability layers and subsequent back-diffusion is approximated as a first-order mass transfer problem with an effective mass transfer coefficient computed from aquifer-aquitard properties by equating second moments of diffusion and mass transfer solutions. Accuracy of the simplified model formulation is evaluated for a hypothetical problem involving a DNAPL source consisting of a mixture of TCE and Stoddard solvent with background dissolved organic carbon, oxygen and sulfate in groundwater for 40 years followed by injection of vegetable oil as a supplemental electron donor to enhance reductive dechlorination. The simplified solution is compared to numerical results that consider multi-species Monod kinetics with explicit treatment of back-diffusion.

  1. Model of Providing Assistive Technologies in Special Education Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Chakpitak, Nopasit

    2015-05-14

    Most students diagnosed with disabilities in Thai special education schools received assistive technologies, but this did not guarantee the greatest benefits. The purpose of this study was to survey the provision, use and needs of assistive technologies, as well as the perspectives of key informants regarding a model of providing them in special education schools. The participants were selected by the purposive sampling method, and they comprised 120 students with visual, physical, hearing or intellectual disabilities from four special education schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand; and 24 key informants such as parents or caregivers, teachers, school principals and school therapists. The instruments consisted of an assistive technology checklist and a semi-structured interview. Results showed that a category of assistive technologies was provided for students with disabilities, with the highest being "services", followed by "media" and then "facilities". Furthermore, mostly students with physical disabilities were provided with assistive technologies, but those with visual disabilities needed it more. Finally, the model of providing assistive technologies was composed of 5 components: Collaboration; Holistic perspective; Independent management of schools; Learning systems and a production manual for users; and Development of an assistive technology center, driven by 3 major sources such as Government and Private organizations, and Schools.

  2. Computational technology of multiscale modeling the gas flows in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podryga, V. O.

    2016-11-01

    The work is devoted to modeling the gas mixture flows in engineering microchannels under conditions of many scales of computational domain. The computational technology of using the multiscale approach combining macro - and microscopic models is presented. At macrolevel the nature of the flow and the external influence on it are considered. As a model the system of quasigasdynamic equations is selected. At microlevel the correction of gasdynamic parameters and the determination of boundary conditions are made. As a numerical model the Newton's equations and the molecular dynamics method are selected. Different algorithm types used for implementation of multiscale modeling are considered. The results of the model problems for separate stages are given.

  3. 40 CFR 300.430 - Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquids, areas contaminated with high concentrations of toxic compounds, and highly mobile materials. (B... is liquid, highly toxic or highly mobile, will be combined with engineering controls (such as... the selection of remedy. (E) EPA expects to consider using innovative technology when such...

  4. Importance of Computer Model Validation in Pyroprocessing Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y. E.; Li, Hui; Yim, M. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this research, we developed a plan for experimental validation of one of the computer models developed for ER process modeling, i. e., the ERAD code. Several candidate surrogate materials are selected for the experiment considering the chemical and physical properties. Molten salt-based pyroprocessing technology is being examined internationally as an alternative to treat spent nuclear fuel over aqueous technology. The central process in pyroprocessing is electrorefining(ER) which separates uranium from transuranic elements and fission products present in spent nuclear fuel. ER is a widely used process in the minerals industry to purify impure metals. Studies of ER by using actual spent nuclear fuel materials are problematic for both technical and political reasons. Therefore, the initial effort for ER process optimization is made by using computer models. A number of models have been developed for this purpose. But as validation of these models is incomplete and often times problematic, the simulation results from these models are inherently uncertain.

  5. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  6. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...

  7. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  8. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.D. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1995-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  9. Information Technology Model for Product Lifecycle Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanumathi KS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An aircraft is a complex, multi-disciplinary, system-engineered product that requires real-time global technical collaboration through its life-cycle. Engineering data and processes which form the backbone of the aircraft should be under strict Configuration Control (CC. It should be model-based and allow for 3D visualization and manipulation. This requires accurate, realtime collaboration and concurrent engineering-based business processes operating in an Integrated Digital Environment (IDE. The IDE uses lightweight, neutral Computer Aided Design (CAD Digital Mock-Up (DMU. The DMU deals with complex structural assemblies and systems of more than a hundred thousand parts created by engineers across the globe, each using diverse CAD, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM, Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, Supply Chain Management(SCM,Customer Relationship Management(CRM and Computer Aided Maintenance Management System (CAMMS systems. In this paper, a comprehensive approach to making such an environment a reality is presented.

  10. Mapping Contaminant Remediation with Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Power, C.; Tsourlos, P.; Karaoulis, M.; Giannopoulos, A.; Soupios, P. M.; Simyrdanis, K.

    2014-12-01

    The remediation of sites contaminated with industrial chemicals - specifically dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like coal tar and chlorinated solvents - represents a major geoenvironmental challenge. Remediation activities would benefit from a non-destructive technique to map the evolution of DNAPL mass in space and time. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has long-standing potential in this context but has not yet become a common tool at DNAPL sites. This work evaluated the potential of time-lapse ERT for mapping DNAPL mass reduction in real time during remediation. Initially, a coupled DNAPL-ERT numerical model was developed for exploring this potential at the field scale, generating realistic DNAPL scenarios and predicting the response of an ERT survey. Also, new four-dimensional (4D) inversion algorithms were integrated for tracking DNAPL removal over time. 4D ERT applied at the surface for mapping an evolving DNAPL distribution was first demonstrated in a laboratory experiment. Independent simulation of the experiment demonstrated the reliability of the DNAPL-ERT model for simulating real systems. The model was then used to explore the 4D ERT approach at the field scale for a range of realistic DNAPL remediation scenarios. The approach showed excellent potential for mapping shallow DNAPL changes. However, remediation at depth was not as well resolved. To overcome this limitation, a new surface-to-horizontal borehole (S2HB) ERT configuration is proposed. A second laboratory experiment was conducted that demonstrated that S2HB ERT does better resolve changes in DNAPL distribution relative to surface ERT, particularly at depth. The DNAPL-ERT model was also used to demonstrate the improved mapping of S2HB ERT for field scale DNAPL scenarios. Overall, this work demonstrates that, with these innovations, ERT exhibits significant potential as a real time, non-destructive geoenvironmental remediation site monitoring tool.

  11. Using ASCEM Modeling and Visualization to Inform Stakeholders of Contaminant Plume Evolution and Remediation Efficacy at F-Basin Savannah River, SC – 15156

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arora, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Krishnan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Moulton, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lipnikov, K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gable, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Freshley, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-28

    Communication with stakeholders, regulatory agencies, and the public is an essential part of implementing different remediation and monitoring activities, and developing site closure strategies at contaminated sites. Modeling of contaminant plume evolution plays a critical role in estimating the benefit, cost, and risk of particular options. At the same time, effective visualization of monitoring data and modeling results are particularly important for conveying the significance of the results and observations. In this paper, we present the results of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project, including the discussion of the capabilities of newly developed ASCEM software package, along with its application to the F-Area Seepage Basins located in the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). ASCEM software includes state-of-the-art numerical methods for simulating complex flow and reactive transport, as well as various toolsets such as a graphical user interface (GUI), visualization, data management, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation. Using this software, we have developed an advanced visualization of tritium plume migration coupled with a data management system, and simulated a three-dimensional model of flow and plume evolution on a high-performance computing platform. We evaluated the effect of engineered flow barriers on a nonreactive tritium plume, through advanced plume visualization and modeling of tritium plume migration. In addition, we developed a geochemical reaction network to describe complex geochemical processes at the site, and evaluated the impact of coupled hydrological and geochemical heterogeneity. These results are expected to support SRS’s monitoring activities and operational decisions.

  12. Lipid Processing Technology: Building a Multilevel Modeling Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Mukkerikar, Amol

    2011-01-01

    in design and analysis of unit operations; iv) the information and models developed are used as building blocks in the development of methods and tools for computer-aided synthesis and design of process flowsheets (CAFD). The applicability of this methodology is highlighted in each level of modeling through......The aim of this work is to present the development of a computer aided multilevel modeling network for the systematic design and analysis of processes employing lipid technologies. This is achieved by decomposing the problem into four levels of modeling: i) pure component property modeling...... and a lipid-database of collected experimental data from industry and generated data from validated predictive property models, as well as modeling tools for fast adoption-analysis of property prediction models; ii) modeling of phase behavior of relevant lipid mixtures using the UNIFACCI model, development...

  13. Linking deposit morphology and clogging in subsurface remediation: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, David C. [University of Colorado Denver

    2013-12-11

    Groundwater is a crucial resource for water supply, especially in arid and semiarid areas of the United States west of the 100th meridian. Accordingly, remediation of contaminated groundwater is an important application of science and technology, particularly for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees a number of groundwater remediation sites from Cold War era mining. Groundwater remediation is complex, because it depends on identifying, locating, and treating contaminants in the subsurface, where remediation reactions depend on interacting geological, hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological factors. Within this context, permeability is a fundamental concept, because it controls the rates and pathways of groundwater flow. Colloid science is intimately related to permeability, because when colloids are present (particles with equivalent diameters between 1 nanometer and 10 micrometers), changes in hydrological or geochemical conditions can trigger a detrimental reduction in permeability called clogging. Accordingly, clogging is a major concern in groundwater remediation. Several lines of evidence suggest that clogging by colloids depends on (1) colloid deposition, and (2) deposit morphology, that is, the structure of colloid deposits, which can be quantified as a fractal dimension. This report describes research, performed under a 2-year, exploratory grant from the DOE’s Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program. This research employed a novel laboratory technique to simultaneously measure flow, colloid deposition, deposit morphology, and permeability in a flow cell, and also collected field samples from wells at the DOE’s Old Rifle remediation site. Field results indicate that suspended solids at the Old Rifle site have fractal structures. Laboratory results indicate that clogging is associated with colloid deposits with smaller fractal dimensions, in accordance with previous studies on initially clean granular media. Preliminary

  14. Factors of adoption of mobile information technology by homecare nurses: a technology acceptance model 2 approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiying; Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive healthcare support through mobile information technology solutions is playing an increasing role in the attempt to improve healthcare and reduce costs. Despite the apparent attractiveness, many mobile applications have failed or have not been implemented as predicted. Among factors possibly leading to such outcomes, technology adoption is a key problem. This must be investigated early in the development process because healthcare is a particularly sensitive area with vital social implications. Moreover, it is important to investigate technology acceptance using the support of scientific tools validated for relevant information systems research. This article presents an empirical study based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 in mobile homecare nursing. The study elicited the perceptions of 91 Canadian nurses who used personal digital assistants for 1 month in their daily activities. A partial least squares modeling data analysis revealed that nurse's perception of usefulness is the main factor in the adoption of mobile technology, having subjective norm and image within the organization as significant antecedents. Overall, this study was the first attempt at investigating scientifically, through a pertinent information systems research model, user adoption of mobile systems by homecare nursing personnel.

  15. A Fuzzy Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for Groundwater Remediation Design at Contaminated Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy simulation-based optimization approach (FSOA is developed for identifying optimal design of a benzene-contaminated groundwater remediation system under uncertainty. FSOA integrates remediation processes (i.e., biodegradation and pump-and-treat, fuzzy simulation, and fuzzy-mean-value-based optimization technique into a general management framework. This approach offers the advantages of (1 considering an integrated remediation alternative, (2 handling simulation and optimization problems under uncertainty, and (3 providing a direct linkage between remediation strategies and remediation performance through proxy models. The results demonstrate that optimal remediation alternatives can be obtained to mitigate benzene concentration to satisfy environmental standards with a minimum system cost.

  16. NMOS symmetric load ring VCOs modeling for submicron technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, M. Helena

    2005-06-01

    Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) are a key element in PLL design. The simulation of VCOs is a time consuming process because transient circuit simulations must run long enough that the steady state is attained. Furthermore, the robustness of design against operating and technological conditions must also be tested by simulating the circuits at several corners, thus making the design methodology based in iterative simulation rather prohibitive for this class of circuits. The development of efficient and reliable VCO models is therefore a very important task, not only for the automation of the circuit design, but for design space exploration as well. Besides accuracy and simplicity, models must easily adapt to the rapid technology evolution. In order to grant such robustness, we must develop models based on transistor level technological parameters. This paper presents an accurate model for submicron Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs). The model obtained is based on the Npower MOS model, yielding quite accurate results for sub micron technologies. An example considering a 1.2V TSMC013 VCO is presented, where the accuracy of the results obtained against Hspice simulation is shown. Results obtained in about 2 seconds have 4% average error, compared to simulations taking over 15 minutes.

  17. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  18. Nanoscale Metallic Iron for Environmental Remediation: Prospects and Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Noubactep, Chicgoua; Crane, Richard; 10.1007/s11270-011-0951-1

    2012-01-01

    The amendment of the subsurface with nanoscale metallic iron particles (nano-Fe0) has been discussed in the literature as an efficient in situ technology for groundwater remediation. However, the introduction of this technology was controversial and its efficiency has never been univocally established. This unsatisfying situation has motivated this communication whose objective was a comprehensive discussion of the intrinsic reactivity of nano-Fe0 based on the contemporary knowledge on the mechanism of contaminant removal by Fe0 and a mathematical model. It is showed that due to limitations of the mass transfer of nano-Fe0 to contaminants, available concepts cannot explain the success of nano-Fe0 injection for in situ groundwater remediation. It is recommended to test the possibility of introducing nano-Fe0 to initiate the formation of roll-fronts which propagation would induce the reductive transformation of both dissolved and adsorbed contaminants. Within a roll-front, FeII from nano-Fe0 is the reducing age...

  19. Supply chain production model with preservation technology under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to characterize the preservation technology for deteriorating items to reduce the deterioration rate. This model assumes a single producer and single supplier and formulates a production model with a time varying rate of deterioration rate. Here production and demand are treated as a fuzzy variables and total cost is minimized for both the crisp and fuzzy model. Shortage is allowed on the supplier’s part, which is partially backlogged. A solution procedure is presented to determine an optimal replenishment cycle and total cost per unit time, which is a convex function of preservation technology cost. Results have been validated with relevant example. In a way, the proposed model provides a unique theory to reduce the deterioration rate for the production model.

  20. Remedial action assessment system: Decision support for environmental cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    A large number of hazardous waste sites across the United States await treatment. Waste sites can be physically complex entities composed of multiple, possibly interacting contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The sites may be active as well with contaminants escaping through one or more potential escape paths. Treatment of these sites requires a long and costly commitment involving the coordination of activities among several waste treatment professionals. In order to reduce the cost and time required for the specification of treatment at these waste sites. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) was proposed. RAAS is an automated information management system which utilizes a combination of expert reasoning and numerical models to produce the combinations of treatment technologies, known as treatment trains, which satisfy the treatment objectives of a particular site. In addition, RAAS supports the analysis of these trains with regard to effectiveness and cost so that the viable treatment trains can be measured against each other. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system designed and constructed using object-oriented tools and techniques. RAAS is advertised as a hybrid system because it combines, in integral fashion, numerical computing (primarily quantitative models) with expert system reasoning. An object-oriented approach was selected due to many of its inherent advantages, among these the naturalness of modeling physical objects and processes.

  1. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 11 entitled: Evaluation of TCE contamination before and after the field experiment, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, B.M.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task No. 11 summarizes the results of TCE analysis in soil and carbon before and after conducting the field experiment. In addition, a discussion of the TCE material balance demonstrates that the Lasagna{trademark} process is effective in moving TCE from the contaminated soil into carbon treatment zones in the field experiment at DOE`s Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky.

  2. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  3. EDTA retention and emissions from remediated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2016-05-01

    EDTA-based remediation is reaching maturity but little information is available on the state of chelant in remediated soil. EDTA soil retention was examined after extracting 20 soil samples from Pb contaminated areas in Slovenia, Austria, Czech Republic and USA with 120 mM kg(-1) Na2H2EDTA, CaNa2EDTA and H4EDTA for 2 and 24 h. On average, 73% of Pb was removed from acidic and 71% from calcareous soils (24 h extractions). On average, 15% and up to 64% of applied EDTA was after remediation retained in acidic soils. Much less; in average 1% and up to the 22% of EDTA was retained in calcareous soils. The secondary emissions of EDTA retained in selected remediated soil increased with the acidity of the media: the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) solution (average pH end point 3.6) released up to 36% of EDTA applied in the soil (28.1 mmol kg(-1)). Extraction with deionised water (pH > 6.0) did not produce measurable EDTA emissions. Exposing soil to model abiotic (thawing/freezing cycles) and biotic (ingestion by earthworms Lumbricus rubellus) ageing factors did not induce additional secondary emissions of EDTA retained in remediated soil.

  4. Advanced computer modeling techniques expand belt conveyor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alspaugh, M.

    1998-07-01

    Increased mining production is continuing to challenge engineers and manufacturers to keep up. The pressure to produce larger and more versatile equipment is increasing. This paper will show some recent major projects in the belt conveyor industry that have pushed the limits of design and engineering technology. Also, it will discuss the systems engineering discipline and advanced computer modeling tools that have helped make these achievements possible. Several examples of technologically advanced designs will be reviewed. However, new technology can sometimes produce increased problems with equipment availability and reliability if not carefully developed. Computer modeling techniques that help one design larger equipment can also compound operational headaches if engineering processes and algorithms are not carefully analyzed every step of the way.

  5. A RCK Model with Endogenous Fertility and Exogenous Technological Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The technological change as an exogenous variable is introduced into the RCK model with endogenous fertility in this paper. It is proved that the model has at least a nonzero steady state and the nonzero steady state is unique when the parameters satisfies some conditions. By phrase protrait analysis, the unique nonzero steady state is saddle and the economy has a unique optimal growth path. The results obtained implies that the relationship between the technological change and population growth rate determinated by the economic structure and the parental ethies. For the economy in which the parents is selfish, promoting the technologlcal change rate decreases the fertility at the steady state. On the other hand, for the economy in which the parents is less selfish, the fertility increases as the technological change rate increases.

  6. PRB技术处理垃圾渗滤液污染地下水的应用研究%Study on Application of PRB Technology in Situ Remediation of Groundwater Polluted by Landfill Leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先斌; 施永生; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous development of urbanization,generation of leachate from more and more domestic garbage led to groundwater pollution increasingly significant. Four kinds of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) were designed by using iron powder,modified coal cinder, bentonite, activated carbon,zeolite,quartz sand and their mixtures as reaction medium,for studying the feasibility and the efficiency of PRB technology in remediation of groundwater polluted by landfill leachate. The results indicated that the CODCr removal rate was 85. 7%~91. 9%,which showed that PRB technology was an efficient method for the treatment of groundwater polluted by landfill leachate,and yet was expected to be further explored.%随着城市化的不断发展,生活垃圾渗滤液污染地下水的问题越来越突出,污染地下水的修复研究迫在眉睫.以铁粉、改性煤渣、膨润土、活性炭、沸石、石英砂及其混合物为反应介质,设计了4种地下可渗透反应墙(PRB),对PRB技术处理垃圾渗滤液污染地下水的可行性和有效性进行了实验模拟研究.结果表明:CODCr的去除率为85.7%~91.9%,PRB技术处理垃圾渗滤液污染地下水有一定的可行性,但有待继续深入研究.

  7. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  8. Remediation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products using an aerobic granular sludge sequencing bioreactor and microbial community profiling using Solexa sequencing technology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Zhonglin; Wang, Xiaochun; Li, Jinchunzi; Shen, Jimin; Xu, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a new type of organic pollution derived from pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is gradually on the rise. Wastewater treatment to remove PPCPs was investigated using an aerobic granular sludge sequencing bioreactor (GSBR). After optimization of influent organic load, hydraulic shear stress, sludge settling time, etc., aerobic granular sludge was analyzed for its physiological and biochemical characteristics and tested for its efficacy to remove PPCPs wastewater. The granular sludge effectively removed some but not all of the PPCPs tested; removal correlated with the microbial profiles in the granules, as assessed using Solexa sequencing technology. Sequencing revealed the presence of five phylogenetic groups: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, an unclassified genus, and Zoogloea. The results demonstrated changes in the microbial profiles with time in response to the presence of PPCPs. The effects of PPCPs on microbial communities in granular sludge process are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A state of the art on electrochemical noise technique. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technology in nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Yi, Yong Sun; Chung, Man Kyo

    2003-02-01

    The studies for the application of electrochemical noise technique were reviewed in terms of principle, analysing method and application examples of this technique. Because 4% of the economic damage of industry is caused by metallic corrosion, it is important to find and protect corrosive materials and location. By corrosion monitoring of industrial facilities such as nuclear power plant using Electrochemical Noise Measurement(ENM), corrosion attack can be detected and furthermore it can be indicated whether the attacked materials is replaced by new one or not. According to development of control and electronic technology, it was easy to apply ENM to the industry and the interest in ENM also increased. As corrosion is produced on a metal under corrosive environment, local anode(oxidation) and cathode(reduction) are formed. Hence, there is potential difference and current flow between the anode and cathode. ENM is monitoring the potential difference and the current flow with time by high impedance load voltmeter and Zero Resistance Ammeter(ZRA), respectively. The potential difference and current flow generated spontaneously without any application of current and potential between electrodes are monitored by electrochemical noise technique, Thereby ENM can be regarded as the most ideal corrosion monitoring method for the industrial facility and nuclear power plant having corrosion damage and difficulty in access of human body. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the spontaneous and reliable results from the metals damaged by ununiform and localized corrosion such as pitting and SCC using ENM while it is difficult to obtain the reliable result using traditional linear polarization and ac-impedance measurement. In many countries, there are extensive works concerned with application of electrochemical noise technique to corrosion monitoring of nuclear power plant and other industrial facilities, whereas there is little work on this field in Korea. Systematic study for

  10. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

  11. Review of early assessment models of innovative medical technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Krahn, Murray D; Kidholm, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hospitals increasingly make decisions regarding the early development of and investment in technologies, but a formal evaluation model for assisting hospitals early on in assessing the potential of innovative medical technologies is lacking. This article provides an overview of models...... for early assessment in different health organisations and discusses which models hold most promise for hospital decision makers. METHODS: A scoping review of published studies between 1996 and 2015 was performed using nine databases. The following information was collected: decision context, decision...... problem, and a description of the early assessment model. RESULTS: 2362 articles were identified and 12 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. An additional 12 studies were identified and included in the review by searching reference lists. The majority of the 24 early assessment studies were variants...

  12. A Model of Homeschooling Based on Technology in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd. Nazri Abdul; Siraj, Saedah; Ibrahim, Ruslina

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and belief in strengthening family ties. The purpose of this study is to produce a model of homeschooling technology-based learning activities in Malaysia as a guideline to improve the quality of education, curriculum and organize…

  13. The Media Adoption Stage Model of Technology for Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brent Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study examined survey data from professional credentialed members of the American Art Therapy Association and 8 follow up interviews to determine how art therapists adopt or reject technology and/or new digital media for therapeutic use with their clients. Using Rogers's (2003) "diffusion of innovation" model, the author identified a…

  14. Modelling a technology push by using hybrid franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, Jan; Pennink, Bartjan; Simaputang, T.; Siswanto, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a technology push to stimulate entrepreneurship in remote areas in developing countries can be examined in the context of a franchising model (social or commercial franchising). The results of this study (fieldwork in Kalimantan, Indonesia) point to a high feasibility of introducing a te

  15. Understanding Student Teachers’ Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM Validation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Teck, Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM in the context of Malaysian student teachers’ integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, and structural equation modelling (SEM was used for model comparison and hypotheses testing. The goodness-of-fit test of the analysis shows partial support of the applicability of the TAM in a Malaysian context. Overall, the TAM accounted for 37.3% of the variance in intention to use technology among student teachers and of the five hypotheses formulated, four are supported. Perceived usefulness is a significant influence on attitude towards computer use and behavioural intention. Perceived ease of use significantly influences perceived usefulness, and finally, behavioural intention is found to be influenced by attitude towards computer use. The findings of this research contribute to the literature by validating the TAM in the Malaysian context and provide several prominent implications for the research and practice of technology integration development.

  16. Technological Learning in Energy Models: Experience and Scenario Analysis with MARKAL and the ERIS Model Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    1999-09-01

    Understanding technology dynamics, a fundamental driving factor of the evolution of energy systems, is essential for sound policy formulation and decision making. Technological change is not an autonomous process, but evolves from a number of endogenous interactions within the social system. Technologies evolve and improve only if experience with them is possible. Efforts must be devoted to improve our analytical tools concerning the treatment given to the technological variable, recognising the cumulative and gradual nature of technological change and the important role played by learning processes. This report presents a collection of works developed by the authors concerning the endogenisation of technological change in energy optimisation models, as a contribution to the Energy Technology Dynamics andAdvanced Energy System Modelling Project (TEEM), developed in the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme JOULE III of the European Union (DGXII). Here, learning curves, an empirically observed manifestation of the cumulative technological learning processes, are endogenised in two energy optimisation models. MARKAL, a widely used bottom-up model developed by the ETSAP programme of the IEA and ERIS, a model prototype, developed within the TEEM project for assessing different concepts and approaches. The methodological approach is described and some results and insights derived from the model analyses are presented. The incorporation of learning curves results in significantly different model outcomes than those obtained with traditional approaches. New, innovative technologies, hardly considered by the standard models, are introduced to the solution when endogenous learning is present. Up-front investments in initially expensive, but promising, technologies allow the necessary accumulation of experience to render them cost-effective. When uncertainty in emission reduction commitments is considered, the results point also in the direction of undertaking early

  17. Technological Learning in Energy Models: Experience and Scenario Analysis with MARKAL and the ERIS Model Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    1999-09-01

    Understanding technology dynamics, a fundamental driving factor of the evolution of energy systems, is essential for sound policy formulation and decision making. Technological change is not an autonomous process, but evolves from a number of endogenous interactions within the social system. Technologies evolve and improve only if experience with them is possible. Efforts must be devoted to improve our analytical tools concerning the treatment given to the technological variable, recognising the cumulative and gradual nature of technological change and the important role played by learning processes. This report presents a collection of works developed by the authors concerning the endogenisation of technological change in energy optimisation models, as a contribution to the Energy Technology Dynamics andAdvanced Energy System Modelling Project (TEEM), developed in the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme JOULE III of the European Union (DGXII). Here, learning curves, an empirically observed manifestation of the cumulative technological learning processes, are endogenised in two energy optimisation models. MARKAL, a widely used bottom-up model developed by the ETSAP programme of the IEA and ERIS, a model prototype, developed within the TEEM project for assessing different concepts and approaches. The methodological approach is described and some results and insights derived from the model analyses are presented. The incorporation of learning curves results in significantly different model outcomes than those obtained with traditional approaches. New, innovative technologies, hardly considered by the standard models, are introduced to the solution when endogenous learning is present. Up-front investments in initially expensive, but promising, technologies allow the necessary accumulation of experience to render them cost-effective. When uncertainty in emission reduction commitments is considered, the results point also in the direction of undertaking early

  18. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we intert...... universe. We believe our approach can be more generally useful for designing future rich, enjoyable and meaningful transmedia experiences....

  19. Remediation of radionuclide pollutants through biosorption - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nilanjana [Environmental Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-01-15

    The development of nuclear science and technology has led to the increase of nuclear wastes containing radionuclides to be released and disposed in the environment. Pollution caused by radionuclides is a serious problem throughout the world. To solve the problem, substantial research efforts have been directed worldwide to adopt sustainable technologies for the treatment of radionuclide containing wastes. Biosorption represents a technological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent remediation technology for cleaning up radionuclides from aqueous environment. A variety of biomaterials viz. algae, fungi, bacteria, plant biomass, etc. have been reported for radionuclide remediation with encouraging results. This paper reviews the achievements and current status of radionuclide remediation through biosorption which will provide insights into this research frontier. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Methodological proposal for the remediation of a site affected by phosphogypsum deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Bolivar, J. P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The accumulation of phosphogysum (PY) produces a well known environmental problems. The proposals for the remediation of these sites require multidisciplinary and very specific studies. Since they cover large areas a sampling design specifically outlined for each case is necessary in order the contaminants, transfer pathways and particular processes can be correctly identified. In addition to a suitable sampling of the soil, aquatic medium and biota, appropriate studies of the space-temporal variations by means of control samples are required. Two different stages should be considered: 1.- Diagnostic stage This stage includes preliminary studies, identification of possible sources of radiosotopes, design of the appropriate sampling plan, hydrogeological study, characterization and study of the space-temporal variability of radioisotopes and other contaminants, as well as the risk assessement for health and ecosystems, that depends on the future use of the site. 2.- Remediation proposal stage It comprises the evaluation and comparison of the different procedures for the decontamination/remediation, including models experiments at the laboratory. To this respect, the preparation and detailed study of a small scale pilot project is a task of particular relevance. In this way the suitability of the remediating technology can be checked, and its performance optimized. These two stages allow a technically well-founded proposal to be presented to the Organisms or Institutions in charge of the problem and facilitate decision-making. It both stages be included in a social communication campaign in order the final proposal be accepted by stakeholders.