WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling perspective future

  1. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  2. Studying cancer metastasis: Existing models, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marion, Denise M S; Domanska, Urszula M; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis causes most cancer-related deaths. Several model systems to study the complex and multi step process of metastasis exist, including in vitro systems, ex-vivo organ slices, Drosophila Melanogaster and zebrafish models and the use of the chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized chicken eggs. These models are relatively easy and cheap but often lack the opportunity to study the complete metastasis cascade. More complex but also more expensive is the use of animal models including the more recently developed patient derived tumor xenografts (PDTX). In this review, we give an overview of the existing metastatic models, discuss the challenges of improving current models to enhance translation from the preclinical to the clinical setting and consider future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Futures Business Models for an IoT Enabled Healthcare Sector: A Causal Layered Analysis Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Francis Gomes; Sara Moqaddemerad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate futures business research by proposing a novel way to combine business models as a conceptual tool with futures research techniques. Design: A futures perspective is adopted to foresight business models of the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled healthcare sector by using business models as a futures business research tool. In doing so, business models is coupled with one of the most prominent foresight methodologies, Causal Layered Analysis (CLA). Qualitative analysis...

  4. Perspectives on Global Energy Futures Simulation with the TIME model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.M.; Janssen, M.A.; Beusen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Many uncertainties and controversies surround the future of the global energy system. The Targets IMage Energy (TIME) model of which a concise description is given, is used to explore the consequences of divergent assumptions about some uncertain and controversial issues. The IPCC-IS92a Conventional

  5. Futures Business Models for an IoT Enabled Healthcare Sector: A Causal Layered Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Francis Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To facilitate futures business research by proposing a novel way to combine business models as a conceptual tool with futures research techniques. Design: A futures perspective is adopted to foresight business models of the Internet of Things (IoT enabled healthcare sector by using business models as a futures business research tool. In doing so, business models is coupled with one of the most prominent foresight methodologies, Causal Layered Analysis (CLA. Qualitative analysis provides deeper understanding of the phenomenon through the layers of CLA; litany, social causes, worldview and myth. Findings: It is di cult to predict the far future for a technology oriented sector like healthcare. This paper presents three scenarios for short-, medium- and long-term future. Based on these scenarios we also present a set of business model elements for different future time frames. This paper shows a way to combine business models with CLA, a foresight methodology; in order to apply business models in futures business research. Besides offering early results for futures business research, this study proposes a conceptual space to work with individual business models for managerial stakeholders. Originality / Value: Much research on business models has offered conceptualization of the phenomenon, innovation through business model and transformation of business models. However, existing literature does not o er much on using business model as a futures research tool. Enabled by futures thinking, we collected key business model elements and building blocks for the futures market and ana- lyzed them through the CLA framework.

  6. Modelling of radionuclide transport in forests: Review and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.; Schell, W.; Linkov, I.

    1997-01-01

    Ecological modeling is a powerful tool which can be used to synthesize information on the dynamic processes which occur in ecosystems. Models of radionuclide transport in forests were first constructed in the mid-1960's, when the consequences of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests and waste disposal in the environment were of great concern. Such models were developed based on site-specific experimental data and were designed to address local needs. These models had a limited applicability in evaluating distinct ecosystems and deposition scenarios. Given the scarcity of information, the same experimental data sets were often used both for model calibration and validation, an approach which clearly constitutes a methodological error. Even though the carry modeling attempts were far from being faultless, they established a useful conceptual approach in that they tried to capture general processes in ecosystems and thus had a holistic nature. Later, radioecological modeling attempted to reveal ecosystem properties by separating the component parts from the whole system, as an approach to simplification. This method worked well for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems, in which the biogeochemistry of radionuclide cycling is relatively well understood and can be influenced by fertilization. Several models have been successfully developed and applied to human dose evaluation and emergency response to contaminating events in agricultural lands

  7. Studying cancer metastasis : Existing models, challenges and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marion, Denise M. S.; Domanska, Urszula M.; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.

    Cancer metastasis causes most cancer-related deaths. Several model systems to study the complex and multi step process of metastasis exist, including in vitro systems, ex-vivo organ slices, Drosophila Melanogaster and zebrafish models and the use of the chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized

  8. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  9. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Owen, Toby; Becker, Luann; Blank, Jen; Brucato, John; Colangeli, Luigi; Derenne, Sylvie; Dutrey, Anne; Despois, Didier; Lazcano, Antonio; Robert, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space mi...

  10. Prediction of lake surface temperature using the air2water model: guidelines, challenges, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Piccolroaz

    2016-04-01

    leading to the risk of overfitting. The final aim of the work is to facilitate the use of the model also by scientists that do not necessarily have a solid background on modelling or physics. However, this work should not be considered simply as a collection of best practices, but also as the attempt to foster the communication and interaction among colleagues of a branch of science, limnology, that suffer of significant fragmentation. This is summarized in the future perspectives and challenges concerning potential improvements of the air2water, with a particular emphasis on possible cross-sectoral applications.

  11. Future energy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M. [Risoe National Lab., Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO{sub 2} 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments

  12. Future energy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO 2 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments. The

  13. Modelling tools to evaluate China's future energy system - a review of the Chinese perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2014-01-01

    compares 18 energy modelling tools from ten Chinese institutions. These models have been described in English language publications between 2005 and 2013, although not all are published in peer-reviewed journals. When comparing the results for three main energy system indicators across models, this paper...... finds that there are considerable ranges in the reference scenarios: (i) GDP is projected to grow by 630e840% from 2010 to 2050, (ii) energy demand could increase by 200e300% from 2010 to 2050, and (iii) CO2 emissions could rise by 160e250% from 2010 to 2050. Although the access to the modelling tools...... and the underlying data remains challenging, this study concludes that the Chinese perspective, independently from the modelling approach and institution, suggests a rather gradual and long-term transition towards a low carbon economy in China. Few reference scenarios include an emission peak or stabilisation period...

  14. Perspective on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    To anticipate future developments in the area of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management, an understanding of the following questions is necessary: what are the current regulatory policies, and What is the view toward proposed changes that affect the treatment of disposal of LLRW? The problem preventing resolution is proponents for change versus proponents for maintaining tradition. The paper discusses the author's anticipations for crises to develop prior to a decision-making mode

  15. A three-component model of future time perspective across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Margund K; John, Dennis T; Fung, Helene H; Lang, Frieder R

    2017-11-01

    Although extensive findings underscore the relevance of future time perspective (FTP) in the process of aging, the assumption of FTP as a unifactorial construct has been challenged. The present study explores the factorial structure of the FTP scale (Carstensen & Lang, 1996) as one of the most widely used measures (Ntotal = 2,170). Results support that FTP reflects a higher-order construct that consists of 3 interrelated components-Opportunity, Extension, and Constraint. It is suggested that the flexible usage of the FTP scale as an all compassing 10-item measure or with focus on specific components depends on the concrete research question. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR MAPPING AND 3D MODELING – CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Remondino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available UAV platforms are nowadays a valuable source of data for inspection, surveillance, mapping and 3D modeling issues. New applications in the short- and close-range domain are introduced, being the UAVs a low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Rotary or fixed wing UAVs, capable of performing the photogrammetric data acquisition with amateur or SLR digital cameras, can fly in manual, semi-automated and autonomous modes. With a typical photogrammetric pipeline, 3D results like DSM/DTM, contour lines, textured 3D models, vector data, etc. can be produced, in a reasonable automated way. The paper reports the latest developments of UAV image processing methods for photogrammetric applications, mapping and 3D modeling issues. Automation is nowadays necessary and feasible at the image orientation, DSM generation and orthophoto production stages, while accurate feature extraction is still an interactive procedure. New perspectives are also addressed.

  17. Waste biorefinery models towards sustainable circular bioeconomy: Critical review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Nikhil, G N; Chiranjeevi, P; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Rohit, M V; Kumar, A Naresh; Sarkar, Omprakash

    2016-09-01

    Increased urbanization worldwide has resulted in a substantial increase in energy and material consumption as well as anthropogenic waste generation. The main source for our current needs is petroleum refinery, which have grave impact over energy-environment nexus. Therefore, production of bioenergy and biomaterials have significant potential to contribute and need to meet the ever increasing demand. In this perspective, a biorefinery concept visualizes negative-valued waste as a potential renewable feedstock. This review illustrates different bioprocess based technological models that will pave sustainable avenues for the development of biobased society. The proposed models hypothesize closed loop approach wherein waste is valorised through a cascade of various biotechnological processes addressing circular economy. Biorefinery offers a sustainable green option to utilize waste and to produce a gamut of marketable bioproducts and bioenergy on par to petro-chemical refinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Past, Present, and Future Anthropogenic Emissions over Asia: a Regional Air Quality Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jung-Hun; Jung, Bujeon; Choi, Ki-Chul; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Rokjin J.; Youn, Daeok; Jeong, Jaein; Moon, Byung-Kwon; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2010-05-01

    Climate change will also affect future regional air quality which has potential human health, ecosystem, and economic implications. To analyze the impacts of climate change on Asian air quality, the NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea) integrated modeling framework was developed based on global-to-regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, we developed emission inventories for the modeling framework for 1980~2100 with an emphasis on Asia emissions. Two emission processing systems which have functions of emission projection, spatial/temporal allocation, and chemical speciation have been also developed in support of atmospheric chemistry models including GEOS-Chem and Models-3/CMAQ. Asia-based emission estimates, projection factors, temporal allocation parameters were combined to improve regional modeling capability of past, present and future air quality over Asia. The global CO emissions show a 23% decrease from the years 1980 to 2000. For the future CO (from year 2000 to 2100), the A2 scenario shows a 95% increase due to the B40 (Residential-Biofuel) sector of Western Africa, Eastern Africa and East Asia and the F51 (Transport Road-Fossil fuel) sector of Middle East, USA and South Asia. The B1 scenario, however, shows a 79% decrease of emissions due to B40 and F51 sectors of East Asia, South Asia and USA for the same period. In many cases, Asian emissions play important roles for global emission increase or decrease depending on the IPCC scenarios considered. The regional ozone forming potential will be changed due to different VOC/NOx emission ratio changes in the future. More similarities and differences of Asian emission characteristics, in comparison with its global counterpart, are investigated.

  19. Future perspectives of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Future perspectives of radiation chemistry are discussed by the analysis of the related information in detail as obtained from our recent surveys of publications and scientific meetings in radiation chemistry and its neighboring research fields, giving some examples, and are summarized as follows. (1) Traditionally important core-parts of radiation chemistry should be activated more. The corresponding research programs are listed in detail. (2) Research fields of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and technology in radiation research should interact more among them with each other. (3) Basic research of radiation chemistry should interact more with its applied research. (4) Interface research fields with radiation chemistry should be produced more with mutually common viewpoints and research interests between the two. Interfaces are not only applied research but also basic one.

  20. Biophysically-based modelling of the interstitial cells of Cajal: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eLees-Green

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility research is progressing rapidly, leading to significant advances in the last 15 years in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying motility, following the discovery of the central role played by the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC. As experimental knowledge of ICC physiology has expanded, biophysically-based modelling has become a valuable tool for integrating experimental data, for testing hypotheses on ICC pacemaker mechanisms, and for applications in in silico studies including in multiscale models. This review is focused on the cellular electrophysiology of ICC. Recent evidence from both experimental and modelling domains have called aspects of the existing pacemaker theories into question. Therefore, current experimental knowledge of ICC pacemaker mechanisms is examined in depth, and current theories of ICC pacemaking are evaluated and further developed. Existing biophysically-based ICC models and their physiological foundations are then critiqued in light of the recent advances in experimental knowledge, and opportunities to improve these models are identified. The review concludes by examining several potential clinical applications of biophysically-based ICC modelling from the subcellular through to the organ level, including ion channelopathies and ICC network degradation.

  1. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet - sea-level modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bas; Stocchi, Paolo; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2017-08-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established field of research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on the precise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the related stability of the grounding line position. Studies using fully coupled ice-sheet - sea-level models have shown that accounting for gravitationally self-consistent sea-level change will act to slow down the retreat and advance of marine ice-sheet grounding lines. Moreover, by simultaneously solving the 'sea-level equation' and modelling ice-sheet flow, coupled models provide a global field of relative sea-level change that is consistent with dynamic changes in ice-sheet extent. In this paper we present an overview of recent advances, possible caveats, methodologies and challenges involved in coupled ice-sheet - sea-level modelling. We conclude by presenting a first-order comparison between a suite of relative sea-level data and output from a coupled ice-sheet - sea-level model.

  2. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet – sea-level modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bas; Stocchi, Paolo; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van de Wal, Roderik S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established field of research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on the precise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the

  3. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet – sea-level modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.; Stocchi, P.; Whitehouse, P.L.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established fieldof research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on theprecise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the

  4. 3D modeling, custom implants and its future perspectives in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Custom implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to better performance over their generic counterparts. This is due to the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, reduced surgical times and better cosmesis. Application of 3D modeling in craniofacial surgery is changing the way surgeons are planning surgeries and graphic designers are designing custom implants. Advances in manufacturing processes and ushering of additive manufacturing for direct production of implants has eliminated the constraints of shape, size and internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for the fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation. This article will review recent trends in 3D modeling and custom implants in craniofacial reconstruction.

  5. Human Aquaporin-4 and Molecular Modeling: Historical Perspective and View to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Felice Mangiatordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the different aquaporins (AQPs, human aquaporin-4 (hAQP4 has attracted the greatest interest in recent years as a new promising therapeutic target. Such a membrane protein is, in fact, involved in a multiple sclerosis-like immunopathology called Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO and in several disorders resulting from imbalanced water homeostasis such as deafness and cerebral edema. The gap of knowledge in its functioning and dynamics at the atomistic level of detail has hindered the development of rational strategies for designing hAQP4 modulators. The application, lately, of molecular modeling has proved able to fill this gap providing a breeding ground to rationally address compounds targeting hAQP4. In this review, we give an overview of the important advances obtained in this field through the application of Molecular Dynamics (MD and other complementary modeling techniques. The case studies presented herein are discussed with the aim of providing important clues for computational chemists and biophysicists interested in this field and looking for new challenges.

  6. The Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM version 4.0 for atmospheric and oceanic flows: model formulation, recent developments, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Maronga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the current version of the Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM whose core has been developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Climatology at Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany. PALM is a Fortran 95-based code with some Fortran 2003 extensions and has been applied for the simulation of a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for more than 15 years. PALM is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures and was recently ported to general-purpose graphics processing units. In the present paper we give a detailed description of the current version of the model and its features, such as an embedded Lagrangian cloud model and the possibility to use Cartesian topography. Moreover, we discuss recent model developments and future perspectives for LES applications.

  7. The Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) version 4.0 for atmospheric and oceanic flows: model formulation, recent developments, and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronga, B.; Gryschka, M.; Heinze, R.; Hoffmann, F.; Kanani-Sühring, F.; Keck, M.; Ketelsen, K.; Letzel, M. O.; Sühring, M.; Raasch, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present the current version of the Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) whose core has been developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Climatology at Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany). PALM is a Fortran 95-based code with some Fortran 2003 extensions and has been applied for the simulation of a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for more than 15 years. PALM is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures and was recently ported to general-purpose graphics processing units. In the present paper we give a detailed description of the current version of the model and its features, such as an embedded Lagrangian cloud model and the possibility to use Cartesian topography. Moreover, we discuss recent model developments and future perspectives for LES applications.

  8. Revised hypothesis and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, P; Drummer, C; Christensen, N J

    2001-01-01

    Results from space have been unexpected and not predictable from the results of ground-based simulations. Therefore, the concept of how weightlessness and gravity modulates the regulation of body fluids must be revised and a new simulation model developed. The main questions to ask in the future...... activated by spaceflight? Why are the renal responses to saline and water stimuli in space attenuated compared with those of ground simulations? How can the effects of weightlessness on fluid and electrolyte regulation be correctly simulated on the ground? The information obtained from space may...... be of relevance to fluid and electrolyte balance in edematous patients....

  9. A perspective on future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1987-10-01

    Some of the physics and technical issues are discussed which must be resolved before a future linear collider can be built. These issues include the center of mass energy and luminosity required for research in the range desired, length and power requirements, and cost. It is proposed that research and development of such a machine should be done internationally

  10. Assessing recent and near-future changes in Southern California's groundwater storage from the perspective of regional climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sales, F.; Rother, D.

    2017-12-01

    Current climate change assessments project an increase in temperature throughout the western U.S. over the next century, while precipitation is projected to decrease in the Southwest. These assessments are based mainly on coarse spatial resolution general circulation model (GCM) simulations, which do not include groundwater (soil and aquifer) storage projections. However, water availability is a regionally variable resource and climate change impacts on groundwater distribution will probably differ regionally across the southwestern U.S. We have implemented a coupled atmosphere-biosphere-aquifer regional modelling system (WRF/SSiB2/SIMGM) to generate recent (2005-2017) and near-future (2018-2030) high-resolution groundwater projections for Southern California. These projections are obtained by dynamic downscaling data from the Global Operation Analysis (recent) and the NCAR Community Earth System Model CMIP5 global projections (near future), which supported the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report. Near-future simulations include three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios namely, RCP4.5, RCP6, and RCP8.5. The model can reasonably simulate the recent changes in Southern California's groundwater as indicated by a comparison to terrestrial water storage obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment dataset. In particular, the 2011-2017 drought is simulated well with total groundwater storages declining throughout the period, especially along the western portion of the domain, which includes the high-populated areas of western Los Angeles, San Diego, Ventura and Orange counties. In general, the near-future simulations show a decline in groundwater storage for the region. The largest changes are observed with the RCP8.5 emission pathway, towards to southeastern tier of the study area. In addition to groundwater, this downscaling experiment also generates high-resolution precipitation and temperature estimates, which

  11. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  12. Isobutane alkylation. Recent developments and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommeltoft, Sven Ivar [Haldor Topsoe A/S, Nymoellevej 55, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-11-30

    In the isobutane alkylation, alkylated gasoline is obtained which is a valuable blending component for the gasoline pool. Thereby the C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} cut from the FCC units can be extensively used. Established technologies and recent developments will be reviewed and future perspectives will be given.

  13. FINANCIAL MARKET OF AZERBAIJAN: CURRENT CONDITION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the economic model of Azerbaijan. Main components of the financial market are being analyzed: state budget, state oil fund, banking system, foreign debt and etc. This article assesses the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Moreover, future development perspectives of the financial market and the economy are being examined as well.

  14. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures. PMID:26571135

  15. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Nan, Ding; Yang, Yang; Yongjie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures.

  16. Endovascular Neurosurgery: Personal Experience and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jean

    2016-09-01

    From Luessenhop's early clinical experience until the present day, experimental methods have been introduced to make progress in endovascular neurosurgery. A personal historical narrative, spanning the 1980s to 2010s, with a review of past opportunities, current problems, and future perspectives. Although the technology has significantly improved, our clinical culture remains a barrier to methodologically sound and safe innovative care and progress. We must learn how to safely practice endovascular neurosurgery in the presence of uncertainty and verify patient outcomes in real time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Future perspective and healthy lifestyle choices in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-09-01

    Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Useless arithmetic or useful scientific tools? Evaluation of the current state and future perspectives of aquatic biogeochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhonditsis, G.

    2009-04-01

    What is the capacity of the current models to simulate the dynamics of environmental systems? How carefully do modelers develop their models? Which model features primarily determine our decision to utilize a specific model? How rigorously do we assess what a model can or cannot predict? The first part of my presentation is to answer some of these questions by reviewing the state of aquatic biogeochemical modeling; a research tool that has been extensively used for understanding and quantitatively describing aquatic ecosystems. Mechanistic aquatic biogeochemical models have form the scientific basis for environmental management decisions by providing a predictive link between management actions and ecosystem response; they have provided an important tool for elucidating the interactions between climate variability and plankton communities, and thus for addressing questions regarding the pace and impacts of climate change. The sizable number of aquatic ecosystem modeling studies which successfully passed the scrutiny of the peer-review process along with the experience gained from addressing a breadth of management problems can objectively reveal the systematic biases, methodological inconsistencies, and common misconceptions characterizing the modeling practice in environmental science. My arguments are that (i) models are not always developed in a consistent manner, clearly stated purpose, and predetermined acceptable model performance level, (ii) the potential "customers" select models without properly assessing their technical value, and (iii) oceanic modeling is a dynamic area of the current modeling practice whereas, model application for addressing environmental management issues on a local scale faces challenges as a scientific tool. The second part of my presentation argues that (i) the development of novel methods for rigorously assessing the uncertainty underlying model predictions should be a top priority of the modeling community, and (ii) the model

  19. Perioperative Pain: Molecular Mechanisms and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Talebi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute perioperative pain is seen in more than 80% of patients undergoing surgery, with almost 75% of them experiencing moderate, severe, or extreme pain; adequate postoperative pain management is not achieved in a satisfactory manner. This styudy was desined ana performed to assess the molecular mechanisms of acute pain management in order to find novel future perspectives.Materials and Methods: In this narrative review, molecular mechanisms of currently available pain controlling agents were assessed based on 3 steps: preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative phases. Drugs used in each phase and potential novel agents were assessed separately.Results: many currently available clinical agents were discussed and meanwhile, other potential drugs that could be among the future choices are discussed.Conclusion: cellular and molecular medicine could open new windows in order to discover novel agents for management of pain; we will have possibly many new agents that will be available in future while they will be different from currently used clinical pain killers.

  20. Training in urological robotic surgery. Future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sherbiny, Ahmed; Eissa, Ahmed; Ghaith, Ahmed; Morini, Elena; Marzotta, Lucilla; Sighinolfi, Maria Chiara; Micali, Salvatore; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Rocco, Bernardo

    2018-01-01

    As robotics are becoming more integrated into the medical field, robotic training is becoming more crucial in order to overcome the lack of experienced robotic surgeons. However, there are several obstacles facing the development of robotic training programs like the high cost of training and the increased operative time during the initial period of the learning curve, which, in turn increase the operative cost. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is the most commonly performed robotic surgery. Moreover, robotic surgery is becoming more popular among urologic oncologists and pediatric urologists. The need for a standardized and validated robotic training curriculum was growing along with the increased number of urologic centers and institutes adopting the robotic technology. Robotic training includes proctorship, mentorship or fellowship, telementoring, simulators and video training. In this chapter, we are going to discuss the different training methods, how to evaluate robotic skills, the available robotic training curriculum, and the future perspectives.

  1. Future-concepts of HRM in perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on the transition of HRM. The field of study adresses how four recent contributions on HRM transition might be understood according to the framework of the reflective business paradigm (Holmström, 2005). The contributions are building on different...... streams of applied research penetrating future-concepts. Each of the contributions is from highly influential knowledge institutions. The contributions are chosen as to illuminate different elements of the HRM transition. A Luhmann based approach is applied creating a meta-analysis (a third order analysis......) of how the four contributions on HRM transition might be understood according to the framework of the reflective society and business paradigm...

  2. Global perspectives on future nuclear energy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the nuclear sector from a global perspective. The aim is to show that nuclear power does have a future but that this will only be fully realised when the industry is able to demonstrate that it is part of the solution to the world's energy and environmental difficulties rather than part of the problem. The paper looks at the projected world energy demand as the population increases and countries develop, showing that nuclear power is required to meet this demand. In presenting nuclear power as a solution, the paper addresses the challenges facing us such as public confidence, environmental opposition, political issues and finance. It addresses the debate over reprocessing and direct disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and looks at the competition from other fuels. The paper suggests how the industry might approach these issues such that nuclear power is indeed regarded globally as a solution to some of the worlds most pressing problems. (author)

  3. The Relationships among Imagination, Future Imagination Tendency, and Future Time Perspective of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study were to investigate the relationships among imagination, future imagination tendency, and future time perspective of junior high school students, then to explore the future time perspective which is predicted by background variables, imaginative qualities, and future imagination tendency. The subjects were 331 from…

  4. Groundwater – Geothermal preliminary model of the Acque Albule Basin (Rome: future perspectives of geothermal resources exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Vigna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preliminary results of a groundwater and geothermal model applied to the hydrothermal system of the Tivoli- Guidonia plain, located in the east surroundings of Rome. This area, which is characterized by a thick outcropping travertine deposit, has been an important quarry extraction area since roman age. Today the extraction is in deepening helped by a large dewatering action. By an hydrogeological point of view, the travertine aquifer of the Tivoli- Guidonia Plain, is recharged by lateral discharge in the Lucretili and Cornicolani Mts., and by piping trough important regional faults, located in the basal aquiclude, in the central area of the basin. Piping hydrothermal groundwater is the main contribution on flow in the basin. Preliminary simulations of the groundwater-geothermal model, reproduce quite well the heat and mineralization plumes of groundwater observed in the travertine aquifer.

  5. Exploring futures from an energy perspective. A natural capital accounting model study into the long-term economic development potential of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorman, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    The need to quantify economic activity in physical flows has been stressed several times elsewhere. To relate economic development with 'physical reality', in this thesis Resource Accounting (or Natural Capital Accounting) has been adopted as a method. This physical perspective on sustainable development has been made operational by designing an ECCO (Enhancement of Capital Creation Options) model for the Netherlands using energy as a physical numeraire. The purpose of the model is to investigate the long-term physical aspects of contemporary and future (economic or political) strategies to move the economy towards a more sustainable state and to explore the dynamics of such a process. Chapter 2 deals with the physical nature of economic processes and the fundamental role of thermodynamics in an economic system. Chapter 3 discusses the application of the ECCO paradigm within the context of Natural Capital Accounting methodology. Furthermore, the main structure of an ECCO model is presented. Chapter 4 elaborates on the Dutch model. Historical trends in direct energy use and the methodology of I-O analysis as well as the results of I-O analysis are presented in chapter 5. A method has been developed to estimate the primary energy captured in capital stocks in the diverse ECCO sectors. This method as well as the results, derived from applying this method, are presented in chapter 6. In chapter 7 the application of ECCO as a tool for assessing long term physical consequences of different development strategies is discussed. With respect to reducing the throughput of matter and energy, this study concentrates on energy conservation to reduce the demand for primary energy and the transition to a more sustainable energy supply sector by introducing renewable energy sources. figs., tabs., appendices, refs

  6. System approaches to study root hairs as a single cell plant model: current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shakhawat eHossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of plant functional genomics derives primarily from measurements of gene, protein and/or metabolite levels averaged over the whole plant or multicellular tissues. These approaches risk diluting the response of specific cells that might respond strongly to the treatment but whose signal is diluted by the larger proportion of non-responding cells. For example, if a gene is expressed at a low level, does this mean that it is indeed lowly expressed or is it highly expressed, but only in a few cells? In order to avoid these issues, we adopted the soybean root hair cell, derived from a single, differentiated root epidermal cell, as a single-cell model for functional genomics. Root hair cells are intrinsically interesting since they are major conduits for root water and nutrient uptake and are also the preferred site of infection by nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria. Although a variety of other approaches have been used to study single plant cells or single cell types, the root hair system is perhaps unique in allowing application of the full repertoire of functional genomic and biochemical approaches. In this mini review, we summarize our published work and place this within the broader context of root biology, with a significant focus on understanding the initial events in the soybean-rhizobium interaction.

  7. Handheld Echocardiography: Current State and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A; Sengupta, Partho P; Zoghbi, William A

    2017-11-28

    Echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for diagnosing cardiac conditions. Over the past 2 decades, technological advancements have resulted in the emergence of miniaturized handheld ultrasound equipment that is compact and battery operated, and handheld echocardiography can be readily performed at the point of care with reasonable image quality. The simplicity of use, availability at the patient's bedside, easy transportability, and relatively low cost have encouraged physicians to use these devices for prompt medical decision making. As a consequence, the use of handheld echocardiography is on the rise even among nonechocardiographers (intensivists, emergency care physicians, internists, and medical students). One of the real utilities of ultrasound-augmented clinical diagnosis is in evaluating patients efficiently and selecting patients for appropriate downstream diagnostic testing including comprehensive echocardiography. Although clinical evidence supports the use of handheld devices in various clinical settings and by different users, proficiency in point-of-care ultrasound requires dedicated training in both performance and interpretation. This review summarizes the existing literature on the use of handheld echocardiography in conducting focused cardiac examinations: its training requirements, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the care of the cardiovascular patient. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Perspectives on the Future of CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the future of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which in the past has pioneered the field of flow simulation. Over time CFD has progressed as computing power. Numerical methods have been advanced as CPU and memory capacity increases. Complex configurations are routinely computed now and direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) are used to study turbulence. As the computing resources changed to parallel and distributed platforms, computer science aspects such as scalability (algorithmic and implementation) and portability and transparent codings have advanced. Examples of potential future (or current) challenges include risk assessment, limitations of the heuristic model, and the development of CFD and information technology (IT) tools.

  9. String Phenomenology: Past, Present and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon E. Faraggi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The observation of a scalar resonance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, compatible with perturbative electroweak symmetry breaking, reinforces the Standard Model (SM parameterisation of all subatomic data. The logarithmic evolution of the SM gauge and matter parameters suggests that this parameterisation remains viable up to the Planck scale, where gravitational effects are of comparable strength. String theory provides a perturbatively consistent scheme to explore how the parameters of the Standard Model may be determined from a theory of quantum gravity. The free fermionic heterotic string models provide concrete examples of exact string solutions that reproduce the spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Contemporary studies entail the development of methods to classify large classes of models. This led to the discovery of exophobic heterotic-string vacua and the observation of spinor-vector duality, which provides an insight to the global structure of the space of (2,0 heterotic-string vacua. Future directions entail the study of the role of the massive string states in these models and their incorporation in cosmological scenarios. A complementary direction is the formulation of quantum gravity from the principle of manifest phase space duality and the equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics, which suggest that space is compact. The compactness of space, which implies intrinsic regularisation, may be tightly related to the intrinsic finite length scale, implied by string phenomenology.

  10. Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2012-10-01

    Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perspectives on multifield models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Multifield models for prediction of nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics are reviewed from the viewpoint of their structure and requirements for closure relationships. Their strengths and weaknesses are illustrated with examples, indicating that they are effective in predicting separated and distributed flow regimes, but have problems for flows with large oscillations. Needs for multifield models are also discussed in the context of reactor operations and accident simulations. The highest priorities for future developments appear to relate to closure relationships for three-dimensional multifield models with emphasis on those needed for calculations of phase separation and entrainment/de-entrainment in complex geometries.

  12. Perspectives on multifield models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.

    1997-01-01

    Multifield models for prediction of nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics are reviewed from the viewpoint of their structure and requirements for closure relationships. Their strengths and weaknesses are illustrated with examples, indicating that they are effective in predicting separated and distributed flow regimes, but have problems for flows with large oscillations. Needs for multifield models are also discussed in the context of reactor operations and accident simulations. The highest priorities for future developments appear to relate to closure relationships for three-dimensional multifield models with emphasis on those needed for calculations of phase separation and entrainment/de-entrainment in complex geometries

  13. Future Perspectives of the Implementation of EU Urban Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of opinions and recommendations adopted in the European Union vis-à-vis urban policy. The author analyses the Pact of Amsterdam and future perspectives of the implementation of EU Urban Agenda.

  14. Visual perspective in remembering and episodic future thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen B; Wooldridge, Cynthia L; Rice, Heather J; Berg, Jeffrey J; Szpunar, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, remembering and episodic future thinking are supported by a common set of constructive processes. In the present study, we directly addressed this assertion in the context of third-person perspectives that arise during remembering and episodic future thought. Specifically, we examined the frequency with which participants remembered past events or imagined future events from third-person perspectives. We also examined the different viewpoints from which third-person perspective events were remembered or imagined. Although future events were somewhat more likely to be imagined from a third-person perspective, the spatial viewpoint distributions of third-person perspectives characterizing remembered and imagined events were highly similar. These results suggest that a similar constructive mechanism may be at work when people remember events from a perspective that could not have been experienced in the past and when they imagine events from a perspective that could not be experienced in the future. The findings are discussed in terms of their consistency with--and as extensions of--the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis.

  15. Physics Perspectives for a Future Circular Collider: FCC-ee

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The lectures will briefly discuss the parameters of a Future Circular Collider, before addressing in detail the physics perspectives and the challenges for the experiments and detector systems. The main focus will be on ee and pp collisions, but opportunities for e—p physics will also be covered. The FCC physics perspectives will be presented with reference to the ongoing LHC programme, including the physics potential from future upgrades to the LHC in luminosity and possibly energy.  

  16. Physiotherapy Education: Global Trends, Perspectives and Future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advances in technology and the recent transformation in global communication, which are increasingly reducing the spatial limitation in education, have influenced perspectives on how education is delivered. This paper presents a global trend in higher education with particular reference to education and training in ...

  17. Public (Q)SAR Services, Integrated Modeling Environments, and Model Repositories on the Web: State of the Art and Perspectives for Future Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetko, Igor V; Maran, Uko; Tropsha, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Thousands of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships (Q)SAR models have been described in peer-reviewed publications; however, this way of sharing seldom makes models available for the use by the research community outside of the developer's laboratory. Conversely, on-line models allow broad dissemination and application representing the most effective way of sharing the scientific knowledge. Approaches for sharing and providing on-line access to models range from web services created by individual users and laboratories to integrated modeling environments and model repositories. This emerging transition from the descriptive and informative, but "static", and for the most part, non-executable print format to interactive, transparent and functional delivery of "living" models is expected to have a transformative effect on modern experimental research in areas of scientific and regulatory use of (Q)SAR models. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Vitamin D in asthma and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Haidong Huang,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,2 Paul Zarogoulidis,2,3 Kalliopi Domvri,2 Paschalina Giouleka,2 Antonis Papaiwannou,2 Stella Primikyri,2 Efi Mylonaki,2 Dionysis Spyratos,2 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,4 Ioannis Kioumis,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis2 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University Duisburg–Essen, Essen, Germany; 4II Medical Clinic, “Coburg” Hospital, University of Würzburg, Coburg, Germany Abstract: Humans have the ability to synthesize vitamin D during the action of ultraviolet (UV radiation upon the skin. Apart from the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism, another critical role for vitamin D in immunity and respiratory health has been revealed, since vitamin D receptors have also been found in other body cells. The term “vitamin D insufficiency” has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. This review focuses on the controversial relationship between vitamin D and asthma. Also, it has been found that different gene polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor have variable associations with asthma. Other studies investigated the vitamin D receptor signaling pathway in vitro or in experimental animal models and showed either a beneficial or a negative effect of vitamin D in asthma. Furthermore, a range of epidemiological studies has also suggested that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with low lung function. In the future, clinical trials in different asthmatic

  19. Seeing future success: does imagery perspective influence achievement motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Noelia A; Buehler, Roger

    2007-10-01

    Imagining future success can sometimes enhance people's motivation to achieve it. This article examines a phenomenological aspect of positive mental imagery--the visual perspective adopted--that may moderate its motivational impact. The authors hypothesize that people feel more motivated to succeed on a future task when they visualize its successful completion from a third-person rather than a first-person perspective. Actions viewed from the third-person perspective are generally construed at a relatively high level of abstraction--in a manner that highlights their larger meaning and significance--which should heighten their motivational impact. Three studies in the domain of academic motivation support this reasoning. Students experience a greater increase in achievement motivation when they imagine their successful task completion from a third-rather than a first-person perspective. Moreover, mediational analyses reveal that third-person imagery boosts motivation by prompting students to construe their success abstractly and to perceive it as important.

  20. No Future without Humanities: Literary Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Erik Larsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What might Humanities have to offer to the current big societal and technological challenges? The nine short position papers presented here were collected by Svend Erik Larsen from colleagues and members of the Academia Europaea Section for Literary and Theatrical Studies who have been actively involved in the changes within their discipline in the areas they introduce. They show emerging interdisciplinary fields, provide new insights, indicate significant cultural achievements and forge new collaborations in order to shape the outlines of the research landscape of the 21st century. Their main concern is not the future of Humanities, but the future with Humanities.

  1. The Future of Plastic Surgery: Surgeon's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin; Zor, Fatih

    2015-11-01

    Since the days of Sushruta, innovation has shaped the history of plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons have always been known as innovators or close followers of innovations. With this descriptive international survey study, the authors aimed to evaluate the future of plastic surgeons by analyzing how plastic surgery and plastic surgeons will be affected by new trends in medicine. Aesthetic surgery is the main subclass of plastic surgery thought to be the one that will change the most in the future. Stem cell therapy is considered by plastic surgeons to be the most likely "game changer." Along with changes in surgery, plastic surgeons also expect changes in plastic surgery education. The most approved assumption for the future of plastic surgery is, "The number of cosmetic nonsurgical procedures will increase in the future." If surgeons want to have better outcomes in their practice, they must at least be open minded for innovations if they do not become innovators themselves. Besides the individual effort of each surgeon, international and local plastic surgery associations should develop new strategies to adopt these innovations in surgical practice and education.

  2. Perspectives at the future accelerator facility FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, J.

    2005-01-01

    The future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt will provide ideal conditions for a diverse research programme addressing various aspects of strongly interacting systems, fundamental interactions and dense plasmas. The projected complex combines two new synchrotrons with various storage rings, foresees cooling of beams and permits fixed target as well as in-beam experiments. This presentation will focus on the future research activities at FAIR, which can be grouped into 5 research areas: the structure and reactions of rare isotopes, hadron physics with brilliant antiproton beams, nuclear matter at high densities, atomic physics of antimatter and in strong electromagnetic fields, and laser as well as ion induced plasma physics. Emphasis will be put on the experimental installations addressing nuclear physics with relevance for astrophysics. (author)

  3. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-12-31

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained.

  4. The Future Knowledge Worker: an Intercultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Diana LEON

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide empirical evidence regarding the influence of cultural specificity on the capacity of the European higher education institutions of developing the future knowledge workers. Therefore, an exploratory research is employed and the qualitative approach is combined with the qualitative one. The focus is on the European business faculties since they are the main provider of the advanced economies workforce. 24 units of analysis are selected based on five criteria: university’s number of students, research level, experience on the market, presence on QS Worlds University Ranking, position occupied in national ranking and access to information; for each of them, a content analysis is applied. Then, a logistic regression analysis is employed in order to determine whether cultural dimensions (independent variables influence the use of a specific teaching activity, the development of certain skills and faculties’ capacity of developing the future knowledge workers (dependent variables. The results show that power distance and uncertainty avoidance may decrease the odds of developing the future European knowledge worker while the long term orientation may increase these odds. All five clasical dimensions of Hofstede influence the development of graduates’ skills but only four of them have an impact on the teaching and evaluating activities, namely: power distance, individualism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance; the second one influences academics’ attitude towards increasing the use of practical activities within the courses while the other ones have an impact on the theoretical activities.

  5. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e + e - and μ + μ - colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained

  6. Physics perspectives for a Future Circular Collider: FCC-hh/eh - Physics-Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The lectures will briefly discuss the parameters of a Future Circular Collider, before addressing in detail the physics perspectives and the challenges for the experiments and detector systems. The main focus will be on ee and pp collisions, but opportunities for e—p physics will also be covered. The FCC physics perspectives will be presented with reference to the ongoing LHC programme, including the physics potential from future upgrades to the LHC in luminosity and possibly energy.

  7. Future Perspective : Design Process of Perfume Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    In a world where technology develops at a rapid speed a packaging designer should have the ability to adapt to the challenges in a world where the packaging landscape might look far more different from today. This thesis will look at possible future scenarios relating to resources, infrastructure and consumer behaviour in the year 2050. It will then go on to discuss the emergence of new packaging materials pitted to replace plastic, as well as take a look at printed electronics in packaging a...

  8. Future Time Perspective: Adolescents' Predictions of Their Interpersonal Lives in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, Lynn M.; Pike, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Investigated adolescent future time perspective in adolescents (N=125) aged 15 to 20 years. Found adolescents did not perceive divorce in their future although periods of singlehood, widowhood, and nuclear family life were perceived as extremely likely, particularly among female adolescents. (Author/ABL)

  9. Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models

  10. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-11-02

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and long-term future programs of accelerator-based HEP research. In this paper, we briefly review the post-LHC energy frontier options, both for lepton and hadron colliders in various regions of the world, as well as possible future intensity frontier accelerator facilities.

  11. CT colonography: current status in Europe and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefere, P.; Gryspeerdt, S.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we review the current status of CT colonography (CTC) in Europe and future perspectives of CTC including fecal tagging and CAD. There are several large multi-centre studies that have been initiated. Fecal tagging has gradually become a prerequisite to perform state-of-the-art CTC. However, CAD for fecal-tagging CTC remains a subject for future research. (orig.)

  12. The natural radiation environment: future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.

    1992-01-01

    The need to control the exposure of man to the natural radiation environment (NRE) is increasingly recognised. The main NRE sources and exposure situations warranting intensified efforts in the future are: exposure to radiation in space (astronaut: ≤ 1 mSv.d -1 ), technologically enhanced natural radiation (TENR; global impact: 400,000 man.Sv.y -1 ) and populations living in high background radiation areas (resident: ≤ 360 mGy.y -1 ). Data on NRE-TENR-induced biological effects are scarce and inconclusive, such as increased frequency of chromosome aberrations and mental retardation from environmental gamma radiation, but there are contradictory results for thorium and radon exposure induced lung cancer risk. Four coordinated actions are proposed, i.e. international standardisation of methods, coordination of multidisciplinary health effect studies, development of principles for NRE/TENR control, and establishment of an international clearing house for all NRE-related topics. (Author)

  13. Nanotechnology: Perspective for Future and Nanorisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhov, V.; Stepin, V.

    The technogenic type of development tends to standardize public life to a much greater extent than the traditionalist one. Science, education, technological progress and an expanding market generate a new way of thinking and a new lifestyle while transforming the traditional cultures. A radical change of values means a transition from the technogenic civilization to a new type of civilizational development, a third type in relation to both its traditionalist and technogenic predecessors. Nanoscience and nano-technology accumulate all changes in the modern science and technology. In this case we can not describe of nanosystems as a pure analogy with the mechanical systems. There are hybrid nanobiomachines. Nanotechnology is considered today as the beginning of the nanotechnological revolution and the future technological means fort the survival of the mankind. But these expectations are darkened from reasonable assumptions of the unforeseen assumptions negative consequences and risks from the implementation of these new technologies.

  14. International medical education and future directions: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    Internationalization, one of the most important forces in higher education today, presents a powerful challenge and an opportunity for medical schools. Factors encouraging internationalization include (1) globalization of health care delivery, (2) governmental pressures, (3) improved communication channels, (4) development of a common vocabulary, (5) outcome-based education and standards, (6) staff development initiatives, and (7) competitiveness and commercialization. A three-dimensional model--based on the student (local or international), the teacher (local or international), and the curriculum (local, imported, or international)-offers a range of perspectives for international medical education. In the traditional approach to teaching and learning medicine, local students and local teachers use a local curriculum. In the international medical graduate or overseas student model, students from one country pursue in another country a curriculum taught and developed by teachers in the latter. In the branch-campus model, students, usually local, have an imported curriculum taught jointly by international and local teachers. The future of medical education, facilitated by the new learning technologies and pedagogies, lies in a move from such international interconnected approaches, which emphasize the mobility of students, teachers, and curriculum across the boundaries of two countries, to a transnational approach in which internationalization is integrated and embedded within a curriculum and involves collaboration between a number of schools in different countries. In this approach, the study of medicine is exemplified in the global context rather than the context of a single country. The International Virtual Medical School serves as an example in this regard.

  15. Tourism Curriculum in a Global Perspective: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanacharoensil, Walanchalee

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the development of tourism curricula over the past 20 years from the perspective of global tourism. The paper proposes a generic framework for a future tourism curriculum on the basis of a review of literature in the American, British, and other European contexts. The proposed tourism curriculum aims to create well-rounded…

  16. National space legislation : future perspectives for Malaysian Space Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, Che Zuhaida Binti

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the future perspectives for Malaysian space law. It aims at demonstrating the development of Malaysian outer space activities inclusive of her status with respect to United Nations space conventions and her membership of international and regional space-related organizations.

  17. Radioimmunotherapy of cancer: Historical perspectives and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Khazaeli, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    The authors offer the historical perspectives and prospects for the future for radioimmunotherapy of cancer. The first radioimmunotherapy treatments, the development of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone as a tumor specific antigen and the use of monoclonal antibodies are described

  18. The Future Competencies of Department Chairs: A Human Resources Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Faye R.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study of department chairs, deans, and faculty at extensive research public universities in Florida resulted in the identification of 85 future competencies of department chairs using a human resources perspective. Results include a discussion of the top 20 most important competencies and the top 20 competencies anticipated to be…

  19. Bioreactor design and optimization – a future perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    Bioreactor design and optimisation are essential in translating the experience gained from lab or pilot scale experiments to efficient production processes in industrial scale bioreactors. This article gives a future perspective on bioreactor design and optimisation, where it is foreseen that tec...

  20. Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Finally, they stress that Africa must, and can, compete in an increasingly globalized world and, perhaps most importantly, that Africans must assume the leading role in defining the continent's development agenda. Our Continent, Our Future is the very first publication to present the African perspective on the Bretton Woods ...

  1. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in

  2. The future of CFD - a fluent perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbiah, S.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation attempts to take an intelligent look at what we can expect from commercial CFD technology in the next 5 to 10 years, by first looking at the past decade of progress and then by reviewing current trends and developing research initiatives. The presentation addresses this by looking at seven relevant categories: (1) computer technology, (2) model definition technology, (3) user environment technology, (4) data visualization technology, (5) solver technology, (6) physical modeling technology, and (7) software architecture technology. The influence of hardware technologies and solver algorithms on 'time to solution' is discussed, and we look beyond the current successes of parallel processing paradigms. The influence of the web is discussed in the context of user environment and model definition technology, and its co-related impact on software architecture and design. Examples are shown in every category to give a taste of what there is to come, and their possible impact on practical engineering work processes is discussed. (author)

  3. Achondroplasia: Current Options and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Houda; Latrech, Hanane

    2015-06-01

    Achondroplasia is a human bone genetic disorder of the growth plate and is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with essentially complete penetrance. Of these most have the same point mutation in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) which is a negative regulator of bone growth. The clinical and radiological features of achondroplasia can easily be identified; they include disproportionate short stature with rhizomelic shortening, macrocephaly with frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, lumbar hyperlordosis, and a trident hand configuration. The majority of achondroplasts have a normal intelligence, but many social and medical complications may compromise a full and productive life. Some of them have serious health consequences related to hydrocephalus, craniocervical junction compression, or upper-airway obstruction. In this article, we discuss a number of treatments from the surgical limb lengthening approach and the Recombinant Growth Hormone (rhGH) treatment, to future treatments, which include the Natriuretic Peptide C-type (CNP). The discussion is a comparative study of the complications and drawbacks of various experiments using numerous strategies.

  4. Perspective on future therapy of vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumpas, D T; Kritikos, H D; Daskalakis, N G

    2000-10-01

    This article summarizes recent advances in the management of various vasculitic syndromes and discusses potential new therapies based on a better understanding of their pathogenesis and natural history. Current efforts for optimization of testing for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and improvement of diagnostic criteria will certainly have a significant impact on future therapy. Biologic agents such as interferon-alpha are already in use in various vasculitides, whereas others, such as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, are in phase I clinical trials. Agents that selectively inhibit distinct steps in the pathogenesis of vasculitis are in preclinical or early clinical stages of development. Newer (mycophenolate mofetil, leflunamide) or older (methotrexate, azathioprine) immunosuppresive agents are finding new roles in the management of vasculitides. For patients with severe vasculitis, short-term use of cytotoxic agents, such as cyclophosphamide, alone or in combination with biologic agents, may expedite remission, which could then be better maintained with other, less toxic (and less expensive) immunosuppressive agents, such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and leflunamide. For patients with mild or moderately severe vasculitis, these latter agents alone may be adequate. New therapeutic studies in vasculitis should better address the impact of therapy on health-related quality of life and its long-term toxicity.

  5. Fosfomycin: Pharmacological, Clinical and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Corinne Dijkmans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin is a bactericidal, low-molecular weight, broad-spectrum antibiotic, with putative activity against several bacteria, including multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, by irreversibly inhibiting an early stage in cell wall synthesis. Evidence suggests that fosfomycin has a synergistic effect when used in combination with other antimicrobial agents that act via a different mechanism of action, thereby allowing for reduced dosages and lower toxicity. Fosfomycin does not bind to plasma proteins and is cleared via the kidneys. Due to its extensive tissue penetration, fosfomycin may be indicated for infections of the CNS, soft tissues, bone, lungs, and abscesses. The oral bioavailability of fosfomycin tromethamine is <50%; therefore, oral administration of fosfomycin tromethamine is approved only as a 3-gram one-time dose for treating urinary tract infections. However, based on published PK parameters, PK/PD simulations have been performed for several multiple-dose regimens, which might lead to the future use of fosfomycin for treating complicated infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Because essential pharmacological information and knowledge regarding mechanisms of resistance are currently limited and/or controversial, further studies are urgently needed, and fosfomycin monotherapy should be avoided.

  6. The future perspectives of pediatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, A J

    1996-02-01

    Pediatric neurosurgery as a subspecialty dealing primarily with such congenital and perinatal pathology as the dysraphic state, and various clinical entities having in common ventriculomegaly, is fast disappearing from the scene of neurosurgery in the industrialized world. Pari passu with this, one observes ever closer collaborative work between pediatric neurosurgeons and specialists in other pediatric disciplines such as oncology, radiology, orthopedics, and maxillofacial surgery: truly multidisciplinary activities. In addition, paramedical and specialized nursing personnel are participating actively, even in the decision-making and treatment-delivery aspects of pediatric neurosurgical care. The pediatric neurosurgeon is no longer the sole decision-maker, nor the automatic captain of the ship. Very probably, as in the whole history of human activities, new instrumentation will change somewhat what we do and with whom we collaborate. However, for the immediate future the major changes most probably will be expressions of socioeconomic readjustments, of ethical redefinitions, and of the to-and-fro movement into and out of pediatric neurosurgery by both neurosurgeons and ancillary medical personnel.

  7. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  8. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  9. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  10. Hib Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Essam Zarei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib causes many severe diseases, including epiglottitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. In developed countries, the annual incidence of meningitis caused by bacteria is approximately 5–10 cases per population of 100,000. The Hib conjugate vaccine is considered protective and safe. Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. While earlier developments of adjuvants created effective products, there is still a need to create new generations, rationally designed based on recent discoveries in immunology, mainly in innate immunity. Many factors may play a role in the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines, such as the polysaccharides and proteins carrier used in vaccine construction, as well as the method of conjugation. A Hib conjugate vaccine has been constructed via chemical synthesis of a Hib saccharide antigen. Two models of carbohydrate-protein conjugate have been established, the single ended model (terminal amination-single method and cross-linked lattice matrix (dual amination method. Increased knowledge in the fields of immunology, molecular biology, glycobiology, glycoimmunology, and the biology of infectious microorganisms has led to a dramatic increase in vaccine efficacy.

  11. Quantum Crystallography: Current Developments and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Alessandro; Bucinsky, Lukas; Claiser, Nicolas; Contreras-Garcia, Julia; Dittrich, Birger; Dominiak, Paulina M; Espinosa, Enrique; Gatti, Carlo; Giannozzi, Paolo; Gillet, Jean-Michel; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Macchi, Piero; Madsen, Anders Ø; Massa, Louis J; Matta, Cherif F; Merz, Kenneth M; Nakashima, Philip N H; Ott, Holger; Ryde, Ulf; Schwarz, Karlheinz; Sierka, Marek; Grabowsky, Simon

    2018-02-28

    Crystallography and quantum mechanics have always been tightly connected because reliable quantum mechanical models are needed to determine crystal structures. Due to this natural synergy, nowadays accurate distributions of electrons in space can be obtained from diffraction and scattering experiments. In the original definition of quantum crystallography (QCr) given by Massa, Karle and Huang, direct extraction of wavefunctions or density matrices from measured intensities of reflections or, conversely, ad hoc quantum mechanical calculations to enhance the accuracy of the crystallographic refinement are implicated. Nevertheless, many other active and emerging research areas involving quantum mechanics and scattering experiments are not covered by the original definition although they enable to observe and explain quantum phenomena as accurately and successfully as the original strategies. Therefore, we give an overview over current research that is related to a broader notion of QCr, and discuss options how QCr can evolve to become a complete and independent domain of natural sciences. The goal of this paper is to initiate discussions around QCr, but not to find a final definition of the field. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Gas detectors: recent developments and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauli, F.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty years after the invention of the multi-wire proportional chamber, and 20 from the first Vienna Wire Chamber Conference, the interest and research efforts devoted to gas detectors are still conspicuous, as demonstrated by the number of papers submitted to this conference. Innovative and performing devices have been perfected over the years, used in experiments, and still developed today. Introduced 10 years ago, the micro-strip gas chamber appears to fulfill the needs of high-luminosity trackers; progress in this field will be reported, followed by a discussion on discharge problems encountered and possible solutions. Recent and potentially more powerfull devices such as the micro-gap, narrow-gap and micro-dot chambers will be described. A new generation of detectors exploiting avalanche multiplication in narrow gaps has emerged recently, namely micromegas, CAT (compteur a trous) and the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM); whilst still in their infancy, they have promising performances with increased reliability in harsh operating conditions. I will describe also some 'tools of trade' used to model the counting action and to analyze the properties of the detectors, discuss limitations to their performances, and suggest ways to improvement. Several still controversial subjects of study (as for example, aging), and imaginative efforts of the experimenters ensure a continuing progress in the field of gas detectors, and new editions of this conference for years to come. (author)

  13. Prospective Teachers' Future Time Perspective and Professional Plans about Teaching: The Mediating Role of Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective teachers' academic optimism in the relationship between their future time perspective and professional plans about teaching. A total of 396 prospective teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in…

  14. Pathobiology of Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Research Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyuk Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiosarcoma (HSA is an aggressive and common cancer in dogs. While cutaneous masses are often treatable by tumor excision, visceral tumors are almost always incurable. Treatment advances for this disease have been limited due to a poor understanding of the overall tumor biology. Based upon its histological appearance, HSA has been presumed to originate from transformed endothelial cells; however, accumulating data now suggest a pluripotent bone marrow progenitor as the cell of origin for this disease. More recently, the identification of a novel subclassification of HSAs has provided a foundation to further our understanding of the cellular characteristics of HSA tumor cells, along with those of the cells comprising the tumor microenvironment. These discoveries hold promise for the development of new approaches to improve treatments for canine HSA, as well as to establish the utility of this disease as a spontaneous model to understand the pathogenesis and develop new treatments for vascular tumors of humans. In this review, we will provide a brief historical perspective and pathobiology of canine HSA, along with a focus on the recent advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of these tumors. In addition, future directions that should continue to improve our understanding of HSA pathogenesis will be discussed.

  15. Pathobiology of Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Research Advances and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Graef, Ashley J.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2015-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an aggressive and common cancer in dogs. While cutaneous masses are often treatable by tumor excision, visceral tumors are almost always incurable. Treatment advances for this disease have been limited due to a poor understanding of the overall tumor biology. Based upon its histological appearance, HSA has been presumed to originate from transformed endothelial cells; however, accumulating data now suggest a pluripotent bone marrow progenitor as the cell of origin for this disease. More recently, the identification of a novel subclassification of HSAs has provided a foundation to further our understanding of the cellular characteristics of HSA tumor cells, along with those of the cells comprising the tumor microenvironment. These discoveries hold promise for the development of new approaches to improve treatments for canine HSA, as well as to establish the utility of this disease as a spontaneous model to understand the pathogenesis and develop new treatments for vascular tumors of humans. In this review, we will provide a brief historical perspective and pathobiology of canine HSA, along with a focus on the recent advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of these tumors. In addition, future directions that should continue to improve our understanding of HSA pathogenesis will be discussed. PMID:29061949

  16. Management models for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonker, Jan; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    around the globe. Each of these models is described in a structured company-based story thus creating the backbone for the book at hand. The aim is to analyse these different kinds of institutional frameworks of excellence and discuss their nature, content and enactability. The result is a rich...... aspect of the company's operations such as processes; others are based on a holistic view of the organisation. This paper is based on a book project (2006-2007) entitled "Management Models for the Future" (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg - Germany) aiming to harvest twelve new company-based models from...

  17. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  18. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  19. Multifactor valuation models of energy futures and options on futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertus, Mark J.

    The intent of this dissertation is to investigate continuous time pricing models for commodity derivative contracts that consider mean reversion. The motivation for pricing commodity futures and option on futures contracts leads to improved practical risk management techniques in markets where uncertainty is increasing. In the dissertation closed-form solutions to mean reverting one-factor, two-factor, three-factor Brownian motions are developed for futures contracts. These solutions are obtained through risk neutral pricing methods that yield tractable expressions for futures prices, which are linear in the state variables, hence making them attractive for estimation. These functions, however, are expressed in terms of latent variables (i.e. spot prices, convenience yield) which complicate the estimation of the futures pricing equation. To address this complication a discussion on Dynamic factor analysis is given. This procedure documents latent variables using a Kalman filter and illustrations show how this technique may be used for the analysis. In addition, to the futures contracts closed form solutions for two option models are obtained. Solutions to the one- and two-factor models are tailored solutions of the Black-Scholes pricing model. Furthermore, since these contracts are written on the futures contracts, they too are influenced by the same underlying parameters of the state variables used to price the futures contracts. To conclude, the analysis finishes with an investigation of commodity futures options that incorporate random discrete jumps.

  20. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bryan, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  1. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilas, Germina; Bryan, Chris; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled ''Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors'', was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor's current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  2. A perspective on the future public health practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra; Hannah, Margaret; Lyon, Andrew; Reilly, David

    2012-09-01

    In the centuries following the Enlightenment, scientific and technological developments gave 'modern people' an unprecedented ability to understand, predict and control the natural world. This has brought health and social benefits unimaginable to our ancestors and sets us apart from all previous generations. Yet there is a wide-ranging body of evidence that suggests that modernity is now in decline, largely because its methods and mindset are increasingly recognized as unsustainable. Problems are manifest in the emergence of new public health epidemics such as obesity and addictive behaviours, the loss of well-being and increase in anxiety and depression in affluent society, and the persistence of ever-widening health and social inequalities at national and global levels. Still larger problems now confront us, such as climate change, peak oil and the loss of biodiversity, all of which are linked to the 'modern' way of life. We are potentially faced with the collapse of certain aspects of modern society: we are certainly faced with the prospect of inevitable change. While the broad public health community has an important role to play in developing workable solutions to such daunting problems, we argue that some profound changes will be needed in order for us to cope successfully. No blueprints for dealing with change exist, which means that we will need to learn our way into the future. In this paper we take a perspective on the role and nature of the future practitioner in public health and health promotion. We argue that future practitioners will need to develop new ways of thinking, being and doing; new perspectives and new forms of understanding the world. We believe our discipline - and people generally - to be capable of such development, as insights from multiple sources tell us that human nature is malleable, not fixed. We use this analysis to trace, as examples, the imagined lives of five women living in different eras over the course of history in a

  3. Ten years of multiple data stream assimilation with the ORCHIDEE land surface model to improve regional to global simulated carbon budgets: synthesis and perspectives on directions for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peylin, P. P.; Bacour, C.; MacBean, N.; Maignan, F.; Bastrikov, V.; Chevallier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the fate of carbon stocks and their sensitivity to climate change and land use/management strongly relies on our ability to accurately model net and gross carbon fluxes. However, simulated carbon and water fluxes remain subject to large uncertainties, partly because of unknown or poorly calibrated parameters. Over the past ten years, the carbon cycle data assimilation system at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement has investigated the benefit of assimilating multiple carbon cycle data streams into the ORCHIDEE LSM, the land surface component of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Earth System Model. These datasets have included FLUXNET eddy covariance data (net CO2 flux and latent heat flux) to constrain hourly to seasonal time-scale carbon cycle processes, remote sensing of the vegetation activity (MODIS NDVI) to constrain the leaf phenology, biomass data to constrain "slow" (yearly to decadal) processes of carbon allocation, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations to provide overall large scale constraints on the land carbon sink. Furthermore, we have investigated technical issues related to multiple data stream assimilation and choice of optimization algorithm. This has provided a wide-ranging perspective on the challenges we face in constraining model parameters and thus better quantifying, and reducing, model uncertainty in projections of the future global carbon sink. We review our past studies in terms of the impact of the optimization on key characteristics of the carbon cycle, e.g. the partition of the northern latitudes vs tropical land carbon sink, and compare to the classic atmospheric flux inversion approach. Throughout, we discuss our work in context of the abovementioned challenges, and propose solutions for the community going forward, including the potential of new observations such as atmospheric COS concentrations and satellite-derived Solar Induced Fluorescence to constrain the gross carbon fluxes of the ORCHIDEE

  4. Choices for A Brighter Future: Perspectives on Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-09-30

    The report discusses the perspectives on the evolving U.S. electricity future, the renewable electric technology portfolio, the regional outlook, and the opportunities to move forward. Renewables are at a critical juncture as the domestic electricity marketplace moves toward an era of increased choice and greater diversity. The cost and performance of these technologies have improved dramatically over the past decade, yet their market penetration has stalled as the power industry grapples with the implications of the emerging competitive marketplace. Renewable energy technologies already contribute to the global energy mix and are ready to make an even greater contribution in the future. However, the renewables industry faces critical market uncertainties, both domestically and internationally, as policy commitments to renewables at both the federal and state levels are being reshaped to match the emerging competitive marketplace. The energy decisions that we make, or fail to make, today will have long-lasting implications. We can act now to ensure that renewable energy will play a major role in meeting the challenges of the evolving energy future. We have the power to choose.

  5. Future perspectives of nutrigenomics foods: benefits vs. risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2009-02-01

    Nutrigenomics, defined as the application of high-throughput genomics tools in nutrition research is now past its incubation phase. The poorly understood associations of diet and disease prevention in particular will likely be the single most important catalyst to its accelerated and continued growth. Whether the goal of matching foods to individual genotypes to improve the health of those individuals can be attained, and personalised nutrigenomic foods enter the world's food markets, depends on numerous hurdles being overcome: some scientific in nature, some' technical and others related to consumer, market or ethical issues. Public adoption of new technologies is an important determinant for their success. Many of the drivers behind the trend in personalisation of food are now known, particularly ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) are the major drivers. Future development in the field of nutrigenomics undoubtedly will place its seemingly huge potential in better perspective. From the scientific responsibility point of view, one hopes that the new perspectives to be gained and progress to be made in this field will be so managed as to take the public at large on board, if we are to avoid another nutrition education disaster of the genetically modified organism type and dimension.

  6. Theranostic Implications of Nanotechnology in Multiple Sclerosis: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vikram Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis is a multifactorial disease with several pathogenic mechanisms and pathways. Successful MS management and medical care requires early accurate diagnosis along with specific treatment protocols based upon multifunctional nanotechnology approach. This paper highlights advances in nanotechnology that have enabled the clinician to target the brain and CNS in patient with multiple sclerosis with nanoparticles having therapeutic and imaging components. The multipartite theranostic (thera(py + (diagnostics approach puts forth strong implications for medical care and cure in MS. The current nanotheranostics utilize tamed drug vehicles and contain cargo, targeting ligands, and imaging labels for delivery to specific tissues, cells, or subcellular components. A brief overview of nonsurgical nanorepair advances as future perspective is also described. Considering the potential inflammatory triggers in MS pathogenesis, a multifunctional nanotechnology approach will be needed for the prognosis.

  7. Unraveling the plant microbiome: looking back and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBerg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotes develop close interactions with microorganisms that are essential for their performance and survival. Thus, eukaryotes and prokaryotes in nature can be considered as meta-organisms or holobionts. Consequently, microorganisms that colonize different plant compartments contain the plant’s second genome. In this respect, many studies in the last decades have shown that plant-microbe interactions are not only crucial in understanding plant growth and health, but also for sustainable crop production in a changing world. This mini-review acting as editorial presents retrospectives and future perspectives for plant microbiome studies as well as information gaps in this emerging research field. In addition, the contribution of this research topic to the solution of various issues is discussed.

  8. Nuclear and radiochemistry in China. Present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, W.Q.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear and radiochemistry is one of the frontier areas of chemistry with high impact on national security, energy supply, scientific advances, social and economic development. Nuclear and radiochemistry in China is now experiencing a renaissance, which is being strongly motivated by China's huge demand for nuclear energy. With this in review, the progress in nuclear and radiochemistry of China is selectively addressed. Some hot topics have been summarized and the main research results achieved by Chinese scientists in this field are highlighted, with emphasis on the basic nuclear chemistry, actinide and trans-actinide chemistry, chemistry of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, radioanalytical chemistry, environmental radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry, etc. Some measures about how to promote the radiochemical education and research in China are suggested, and future perspectives are briefly outlined as well. (orig.)

  9. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Marine Transportation in Turkey and A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet BALIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is one of the indicator and determining sectors of state economies. It’s shaped in parallel with the economic structure of the coastal countries in increasing or decreasing volumes. Especially with a significant advantage in international trade, sea transport is increasingly been competitive with other modes of transport. Considering the geographic location of Turkey, evaluating from criticial perspectives and developing meaningful proposals for effective solutions to such issues as strenghtening the alternative routes in seaborne trade and privitazing the ports that are to make further technological investments will enable to take effective and proactive measures concerning the future of this industry. In this study, the existing and likely expansions in the structure of shipping industry both in Turkey and in the world have been examined. In this examination, certain secondary data sets, such as the relevant literature and the recent statistical data, have been used.

  11. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  13. Micronutrient bioavailability: Dietary Reference Intakes and a future perspective1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of how the challenge of bioavailability was approached in establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes, with a special focus on folic acid, vitamin B-12, β-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc, the targeted micronutrients for this workshop. In a future perspective, the necessity of having a clear working definition of bioavailability is emphasized. The bioavailability of micronutrients should be considered, with advantage, under subheadings determined by the broad factors that affect bioavailability. Special emphasis is given to giving greater and specific attention to factors involved in the maintenance of homeostasis. These factors, it is argued, are best considered separately from even a broad definition of bioavailability and have the potential to provide new insights into some micronutrient requirements. PMID:20200261

  14. Apoptosis imaging: current state of the art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Wang Zizheng

    2007-01-01

    This review provides a critical and thorough overview of the radionpharmaceutical development and in vivo evaluation of all apoptosis-detecting radioligands that emerged so far, along with these possible applications in nuclear medicine. Radiolabelled annexin bears the promise of becoming a clinically applied radio-pharmaceutical with potential applications in cardiology and oncology. Visualization of cell death is important in pathologies such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Furthermore, radiolabelled annexin may be developed as a tool for monitoring cell death-induceing or cell death-preventing therapies. Some future perspective are presented with the aim of promoting the development of potential new strategies in pursuit of the idealcell death-detecting radioligand. (authors)

  15. Students' Models of Curve Fitting: A Models and Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta

    2010-01-01

    The Models and Modeling Perspectives (MMP) has evolved out of research that began 26 years ago. MMP researchers use Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) to elicit students' mental models. In this study MMP was used as the conceptual framework to investigate the nature of students' models of curve fitting in a problem-solving environment consisting of…

  16. Mobile Device Security: Perspectives of Future Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Barbara; Dolezel, Diane; McLeod, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare data breaches on mobile devices continue to increase, yet the healthcare industry has not adopted mobile device security standards. This increase is disturbing because individuals are often accessing patients' protected health information on personal mobile devices, which could lead to a data breach. This deficiency led the researchers to explore the perceptions of future healthcare workers regarding mobile device security. To determine healthcare students' perspectives on mobile device security, the investigators designed and distributed a survey based on the Technology Threat Avoidance Theory. Three hundred thirty-five students participated in the survey. The data were analyzed to determine participants' perceptions about security threats, effectiveness and costs of safeguards, self-efficacy, susceptibility, severity, and their motivation and actions to secure their mobile devices. Awareness of interventions to protect mobile devices was also examined. Results indicate that while future healthcare professionals perceive the severity of threats to their mobile data, they do not feel personally susceptible. Additionally, participants were knowledgeable about security safeguards, but their knowledge of costs and problems related to the adoption of these measures was mixed. These findings indicate that increasing security awareness of healthcare professionals should be a priority.

  17. Magnetic tomography - newer picture techniques and perspectives for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjesdal, Kjell-Inge; Smith, Hans-Joergen

    2000-01-01

    Background: From the very introduction of MRI into medicine, the modality has presented the user a long list of theoretical tissue contrast parameters. The development of MRI has been aimed at turning these theoretical possibilities into practical options. Material and method: We give an overview of the new MRI techniques and perspectives for the future based on literature search and our own experience. Results: Today, the modality offers state-of-the-art anatomical details as well as visualisation of several functional parameters such as perfusion, diffusion, blood oxygen saturation and tissue temperature. In the near future, MRI may provide absolute quantification of regional perfusion and rate of oxygen consumption in a clinical setting. New vascular and gastrointestinal contrast media will further increase the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. A continuous increase in imaging speed has made MRI capable of providing adequate ''fluoroscopic'' guidance during interventional procedures and real-time diagnostic imaging is only few years ahead. Interpretation: The spread of MRI installations will increase as a result of increasing demand for the best and least harmful diagnostic procedure. The main challenge to the MRI community will be to exploit the vast diagnostic possibilities

  18. Veterinary education in Africa: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J

    2009-03-01

    Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.

  19. Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Malchus B. Baker; Vicente L. Lopes

    2000-01-01

    Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest have been, are, and will be reflected by the nature of watershed management practices. Past perspectives evolved from considerations of increasing water yields and water quality concerns. Present perspectives are centered on minimizing adverse impacts to soil and water resources, sustaining high-quality water flows,...

  20. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: a study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, M.E.G.; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  1. Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source: current results and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque da Silva, Antonio Jose

    2013-03-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation in a great variety of fields in general, and condensed matter in particular, has increased steadily worldwide. This, to a large extent, is a result of the availability of the much brighter third-generation light sources, which opened up new experimental techniques. Brazil gave an important contribution to science in Latin America through the development of the necessary technology and the construction of the first synchrotron in the southern hemisphere, still the only one in Latin America. The Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron - LNLS, operates this installation as an open facility since 1997, having today more than 1300 users yearly. Despite all this success, the current Brazilian light source is a second-generation machine, with relatively low electron energy, high emittance and few straight sections for insertion devices. LNLS is currently engaged in the design and construction of a new, third-generation synchrotron light source. It is being planned to be a state of the art machine, providing tools for cutting edge research that are non existent today in Brazil. In this talk an overview of the status of the current Brazilian light source will be provided, illustrated with some experimental results from users, as well as the future perspectives of the new synchrotron source.

  2. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1 scale issue; (2 transportability issue; (3 data availability; and (4 uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  3. Remote sensing of ecosystem health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-11-07

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  4. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges. PMID:25386759

  5. Fractional flow reserve: lessons from PLATFORM and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Gianluca; Carità, Patrizia; Verdecchia, Massimo; Buccheri, Dario; Andreini, Daniele; Guaricci, Andrea I; Rabbat, Mark; Pepi, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    In the treatment of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) the identification of patients who may gain the highest benefit from further invasive treatments is of pivotal importance for the healthcare system. In this setting, it has been established that an ischemia-guided revascularization strategy yields improved clinical outcomes in a cost-effective fashion compared with anatomy-guided revascularization alone. Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered the gold standard, especially in the intermediate-range atherosclerotic lesions, for assessing lesion specific ischemia at the time of invasive coronary angiography and has now become the standard of reference for studies assessing the diagnostic performance of the various non-invasive stress tests. Coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) is an increasingly utilized non-invasive test that enables direct anatomical visualization of CAD in the epicardial coronary arteries with excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value. However, cCTA alone has poor specificity with FFR. With advances in computational fluid dynamics, it is possible to derive FFR from cCTA datasets improving its positive predictive value and specificity. The aim of this review is to summarize the technical aspects of FFR-CT, clinical evidence and limitations behind the novel technology, with a special focus on the recent PLATFORM Trial analyzing the effectiveness, clinical outcomes and resource utilization of FFR-CT. Finally, the future perspective of FFR-CT will be presented.

  6. Recent Advances and Future Perspectives on Microfluidic Liquid Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Trung Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdisciplinary research field of microfluidics has the potential to revolutionize current technologies that require the handling of a small amount of fluid, a fast response, low costs and automation. Microfluidic platforms that handle small amounts of liquid have been categorised as continuous-flow microfluidics and digital microfluidics. The first part of this paper discusses the recent advances of the two main and opposing applications of liquid handling in continuous-flow microfluidics: mixing and separation. Mixing and separation are essential steps in most lab-on-a-chip platforms, as sample preparation and detection are required for a variety of biological and chemical assays. The second part discusses the various digital microfluidic strategies, based on droplets and liquid marbles, for the manipulation of discrete microdroplets. More advanced digital microfluidic devices combining electrowetting with other techniques are also introduced. The applications of the emerging field of liquid-marble-based digital microfluidics are also highlighted. Finally, future perspectives on microfluidic liquid handling are discussed.

  7. Cancer metabolism: a modeling perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan eGhaffari Nouran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells alter their metabolism to maintain unregulated cellular proliferation and survival, but this transformation leaves them reliant on constant supply of nutrients and energy. In addition to the widely studied dysregulated glucose metabolism to fuel tumor cell growth, accumulating evidences suggest that utilization of amino acids and lipids contributes significantly to cancer cell metabolism. Also recent progresses in our understanding of carcinogenesis have revealed that cancer is a complex disease and cannot be understood through simple investigation of genetic mutations of cancerous cells. Cancer cells present in complex tumor tissues communicate with the surrounding microenvironment and develop traits which promote their growth, survival and metastasis. Decoding the full scope and targeting dysregulated metabolic pathways that support neoplastic transformations and their preservation requires both the advancement of experimental technologies for more comprehensive measurement of omics as well as the advancement of robust computational methods for accurate analysis of the generated data. Here, we review cancer-associated reprogramming of metabolism and highlight the capability of genome-scale metabolic modeling approaches in perceiving a system-level perspective of cancer metabolism and in detecting novel selective drug targets

  8. Future time perspective and promotion focus as determinants of intraindividual change in work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, Dorien T A M; Bal, P Matthijs; Kanfer, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    In the near future, workforces will increasingly consist of older workers. At the same time, research has demonstrated that work-related growth motives decrease with age. Although this finding is consistent with life span theories, such as the selection optimization and compensation (SOC) model, we know relatively little about the process variables that bring about this change in work motivation. Therefore, we use a 4-wave study design to examine the mediating role of future time perspective and promotion focus in the negative association between age and work-related growth motives. Consistent with the SOC model, we found that future time perspective was negatively associated with age, which, in turn, was associated with lower promotion focus, lower work-related growth motive strength, and lower motivation to continue working. These findings have important theoretical implications for the literature on aging and work motivation, and practical implications for how to motivate older workers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Time perspective and volunteerism: The importance of focusing on the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Alexander; Dwyer, Patrick C; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Because volunteerism is a planned activity that unfolds over time, people who more frequently focus on the future might also be more likely to initiate volunteerism and sustain it over time. Using longitudinal (Study 1) and experimental (Study 2) paradigms, we investigated whether time perspective, and in particular a person's orientation toward the future, is related to volunteers' beliefs and behavior. In Study 1, a person's dispositional level of future time perspective was closely linked to volunteer beliefs and behavior. In Study 2, people who wrote about the future reported higher intentions to volunteer, and this was particularly true for infrequent volunteers and those with lower levels of dispositional future time perspective. Across two studies, we found evidence that future time perspective, whether a chronic disposition or a pattern of thought elicited by someone else, is linked to volunteer beliefs and behavior.

  10. Past performance and future perspectives of burnout research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Schaufeli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction on the history of burnout, this article reviews the past performance of burnout research by answering ten key-questions: (1 How can burnout be assessed?; (2 Is burnout limited to the human services?; (3 Is burnout a mental disorder; (4 What is the prevalence of burnout?; (5 Is burnout a global phenomenon?; (6 Is burnout relevant for organisations; (7 What are the causes of burnout?; (8 What are the consequences of burnout?; (9 How can burnout be explained?; (10 Are burnout interventions effective? In the concluding section a future research agenda is drafted on the bases of the answers given to the previous questions. This agenda includes such issues as the measurement and conceptualisation of burnout, mild and severe forms of burnout, epidemiological and cross-cultural perspectives, organisational outcomes, longitudinal investigations, theoretical explanations, and interventions. Opsomming Na ’n kort inleiding oor die geskiedenis van uitbranding gee hierdie artikel ’n oorsig van vorige prestasie van navorsing ten opsigte van uitbranding deur tien sleutelvrae te beantwoord: (1 Hoe kan uitbranding bepaal word?; (2 Is uitbranding beperk tot die mens-dienste?; (3 Is uitbranding ’n geestesafwyking?; (4 Wat is die voorkoms van uitbranding?; (5 Is uitbranding ’n wêreldwye verskynsel?; (6 Is uitbranding relevant vir organisasies?; (7 Wat is die oorsake van uitbranding?; (8 Wat is die gevolge van uitbranding?; (9 Hoe kan uitbranding verklaar word?; (10 Is uitbrandingsingrepe effektief? In die gevolgtrekking word ’n toekomstige navorsingsagenda op grond van die antwoorde op die voorafgaande vrae opgestel. Hierdie agenda sluit aangeleenthede soos die meting en konseptualisering van uitbranding, matige en ernstige vorme van uitbranding, epidemiologiese en kruiskulturele perspektiewe, organisasie- uitkomste, longitudinale ondersoeke, teoretiese verklarings en intervensies in.

  11. Urban rainwater harvesting systems: Research, implementation and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisano, Alberto; Butler, David; Ward, Sarah; Burns, Matthew J; Friedler, Eran; DeBusk, Kathy; Fisher-Jeffes, Lloyd N; Ghisi, Enedir; Rahman, Ataur; Furumai, Hiroaki; Han, Mooyoung

    2017-05-15

    While the practice of rainwater harvesting (RWH) can be traced back millennia, the degree of its modern implementation varies greatly across the world, often with systems that do not maximize potential benefits. With a global focus, the pertinent practical, theoretical and social aspects of RWH are reviewed in order to ascertain the state of the art. Avenues for future research are also identified. A major finding is that the degree of RWH systems implementation and the technology selection are strongly influenced by economic constraints and local regulations. Moreover, despite design protocols having been set up in many countries, recommendations are still often organized only with the objective of conserving water without considering other potential benefits associated with the multiple-purpose nature of RWH. It is suggested that future work on RWH addresses three priority challenges. Firstly, more empirical data on system operation is needed to allow improved modelling by taking into account multiple objectives of RWH systems. Secondly, maintenance aspects and how they may impact the quality of collected rainwater should be explored in the future as a way to increase confidence on rainwater use. Finally, research should be devoted to the understanding of how institutional and socio-political support can be best targeted to improve system efficacy and community acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey

    2016-04-01

    metrics) (Csiszár, 1972). Fundamentally, models can only translate existing information - they cannot create information. That is, all of the information about any future (or otherwise unobserved event) is contained in the initial and boundary conditions of whatever model we will use to predict that phenomena (Gong et al., 2013). A model simply tells us how to process the available information in a way that is as close to isomorphic with how the system itself processes information. As such, models can only lose or corrupt information because at best a model can only perfectly extract all information contained in its input data; this is a theorem called the Data Processing Inequality (Cover and Thomas, 1991), and this perspective represents a purely ontological treatment of information in models. In practice, however, models provide information to scientists about how to translate information, and in this epistemic sense, models can provide positive quantities of information. During engineering-type efforts, where our goal is fundamentally to make predictions, we would measure the (possibly positive) net epistemic information from some hypothesized model relative to some uninformative prior, or relative to some competing model(s), to measure how much information we gain by running the model (Nearing and Gupta, 2015). True science-focused efforts, however, where the intent is learning rather than prediction, cannot rely on this type of comparative hypothesis testing. We therefore encourage scientists to take the first perspective outlined above and to attempt to measure the ontological information that is lost by their models, rather than the epistemological information that is gained from their models. This represents a radical departure from how scientists usually approach the problem of model evaluation. It turns out that it is possible to approximate the latter objective in practice. We are aware of no existing efforts to this effect in either the philosophy or

  13. Modelling electricity futures prices using seasonal path-dependent volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, Viviana; Maddalena, Lucia; Musti, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A no-arbitrage term structure model is applied to the electricity market. • Volatility parameters of the HJM model are estimated by using German data. • The model captures the seasonal price behaviour. • Electricity futures prices are forecasted. • Call options are evaluated according to different strike prices. - Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets gave rise to new patterns of futures prices and the need of models that could efficiently describe price dynamics grew exponentially, in order to improve decision making for all of the agents involved in energy issues. Although there are papers focused on modelling electricity as a flow commodity by using Heath et al. (1992) approach in order to price futures contracts, the literature is scarce on attempts to consider a seasonal volatility as input to models. In this paper, we propose a futures price model that allows looking into observed stylized facts in the electricity market, in particular stochastic price variability, and periodic behavior. We consider a seasonal path-dependent volatility for futures returns that are modelled in Heath et al. (1992) framework and we obtain the dynamics of futures prices. We use these series to price the underlying asset of a call option in a risk management perspective. We test the model on the German electricity market, and we find that it is accurate in futures and option value estimates. In addition, the obtained results and the proposed methodology can be useful as a starting point for risk management or portfolio optimization under uncertainty in the current context of energy markets.

  14. [Current status and future perspectives of extracorporeal blood purification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenhagen, D; Ahrenholz, P; Klinkmann, H

    1986-05-15

    After the description of the main indications for an extracorporeal blood purification the authors enter the at present existing and applied detoxication methods on the basis of membranes and absorbents, respectively. A short characterization of the most important membrane separation techniques peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, haemofiltration, haemodiafiltration and membrane plasma separation, respectively, is given. Moreover, an estimation of the cascade methods is given, i.e. the application of several separation filters. As adsorptive methods the haemoperfusion and the plasma perfusion, respectively, are assessed with their advantages and disadvantages and the authors enter the possibility of the combination of the procedures mentioned. As problems which are to be solved still in the first place the deficient blood compatibility, selectivity, individualization and continuity are discussed and ways of solution are shown which up to now are entered upon for the improvement and optimization, respectively, of the problems mentioned. In this case particularly the surface modification of materials and the search for new materials, respectively, as well as the use of special models is emphasized as important for future. In the field of selectivity adsorptive methods are to be developed in the first place which without danger of complications remove relevant metabolites from the organism. For the future is above all to be reckoned with the further development of so-called hybrid organs, since such organs may best repeat biological processes.

  15. Current Challenges and Future Perspectives of Accounting Education : An Inter-Disciplinary Research Approach

    OpenAIRE

    中村, 恒彦

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the current challenges and future perspectives of accounting education. To adapt to changes in contemporary society, discussions of accounting that focus only on the internal aspects of accounting will be insufficient. This paper is arranged in terms of four inter-disciplinary perspectives : liberal arts, critical thinking, multiple intelligence theory and experiential learning. The first and second of these perspectives address the challenges of accoun...

  16. Training the oncoplastic breast surgeon-current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Sue K; Pereira, Jerome H; Leinster, Sam; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Oncoplastic breast surgery has evolved to become a distinct subspecialty within the field of general surgery. The oncoplastic breast surgeon requires comprehensive knowledge and understanding of all aspects of breast oncology, in addition to technical proficiency in operative procedures to remodel and reconstruct the breast. This article describes current educational resources available for the training of oncoplastic breast surgeons both within the UK and internationally. A recent development is the online Master of Surgery degree in Oncoplastic Breast Surgery, based at the University of East Anglia in the UK. This innovative course combines delivery of clinical knowledge using interactive problem-based forum discussions with assessment of operative and decision making skills. The degree is facilitated and assessed by an expert specialist breast faculty, and requires students to achieve standards expected of a first year practising UK oncoplastic breast consultant. Future international developments using this blended educational model are discussed.

  17. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  18. Physics Perspectives for a Future Circular Collider: FCC-hh - Accelerator & Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The lectures will briefly discuss the parameters of a Future Circular Collider, before addressing in detail the physics perspectives and the challenges for the experiments and detector systems. The main focus will be on ee and pp collisions, but opportunities for e—p physics will also be covered. The FCC physics perspectives will be presented with reference to the ongoing LHC programme, including the physics potential from future upgrades to the LHC in luminosity and possibly energy.

  19. The future role of photovoltaics: A learning curve versus portfolio perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The current cost disadvantage of photovoltaics (PV) risks to reduce its relevance in climate policy strategies. Depending on the used assumptions, electricity from PV can become competitive between 2015 and 2040. Cost competitiveness is, however, a conditional criterion and as an alternative to the learning curve perspective, the future role of PV in electricity production is assessed from a portfolio theory or Capital Asset Pricing Model perspective. In this analysis, the focus is on the input price risks. Fossil fuel price volatility can strongly reduce the financial return of conventional generating technologies. From a welfare perspective, energy planners should try to minimise this risk by adding risk-neutral or no-risk technologies to their portfolio. With an analysis for the year 2025, we illustrate how the addition of renewable capacity to an existing portfolio can lower total portfolio risk without a significant reduction of profitability. PV then emerges as an attractive technology, especially once the best locations for wind energy are already developed

  20. The future role of photovoltaics: a learning curve versus portfolio perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, J.

    2007-01-01

    The current cost disadvantage of photovoltaics (PV) risks to reduce its relevance in climate policy strategies. Depending on the used assumptions, electricity from PV can become competitive between 2015 and 2040. Cost competitiveness is, however, a conditional criterion and as an alternative to the learning curve perspective, the future role of PV in electricity production is assessed from a portfolio theory or Capital Asset Pricing Model perspective. In this analysis, the focus is on the input price risks. Fossil fuel price volatility can strongly reduce the financial return of conventional generating technologies. From a welfare perspective, energy planners should try to minimise this risk by adding risk-neutral or no-risk technologies to their portfolio. With an analysis for the year 2025, we illustrate how the addition of renewable capacity to an existing portfolio can lower total portfolio risk without a significant reduction of profitability. PV then emerges as an attractive technology, especially once the best locations for wind energy are already developed. (author)

  1. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  2. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  3. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  4. Thermal hydraulic codes for LWR safety analysis - present status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staedtke, H. [Commission of the European Union, Ispra (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give a review on the current status and future perspective of present best-estimate Thermal Hydraulic codes. Reference is made to internationally well-established codes which have reached a certain state of maturity. The first part of the paper deals with the common basic code features with respect to the physical modelling and their numerical methods used to describe complex two-phase flow and heat transfer processes. The general predictive capabilities are summarized identifying some remaining code deficiencies and their underlying limitations. The second part discusses various areas including physical modelling, numerical techniques and informatic structure where the codes could be substantially improved.

  5. Hour glass half full or half empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full-they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around Age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty-they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time, even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared with men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events, and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as 2 dimensions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. A statistical model of future human actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, G.

    1992-02-01

    A critical review has been carried out of models of future human actions during the long term post-closure period of a radioactive waste repository. Various Markov models have been considered as alternatives to the standard Poisson model, and the problems of parameterisation have been addressed. Where the simplistic Poisson model unduly exaggerates the intrusion risk, some form of Markov model may have to be introduced. This situation may well arise for shallow repositories, but it is less likely for deep repositories. Recommendations are made for a practical implementation of a computer based model and its associated database. (Author)

  7. Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of oil price volatility are important inputs into macroeconometric models, financial market risk assessment calculations like value at risk, and option pricing formulas for futures contracts. This paper uses several different univariate and multivariate statistical models to estimate forecasts of daily volatility in petroleum futures price returns. The out-of-sample forecasts are evaluated using forecast accuracy tests and market timing tests. The TGARCH model fits well for heating oil and natural gas volatility and the GARCH model fits well for crude oil and unleaded gasoline volatility. Simple moving average models seem to fit well in some cases provided the correct order is chosen. Despite the increased complexity, models like state space, vector autoregression and bivariate GARCH do not perform as well as the single equation GARCH model. Most models out perform a random walk and there is evidence of market timing. Parametric and non-parametric value at risk measures are calculated and compared. Non-parametric models outperform the parametric models in terms of number of exceedences in backtests. These results are useful for anyone needing forecasts of petroleum futures volatility. (author)

  8. The Biological Revolution: Examining Values Through the Futures Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mary Kay; Franks, Betty Barclay

    The most value laden of futures issues are raised by contemporary biological research. Current biological research has reached the point where we must now ask such questions as: What should be the nature of the human in the future? Who should make these decisions? How should humans interact with the universe? The problems and possibilities of the…

  9. Obituaries and predictions: A sociological perspective on the future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion is a social phenomenon. Society and, therefore, religion will continue to exist as long as human beings exist. This article explores this syllogism, by analysing two 19th-century social theories on the future of religion. Weber was not positive as to the future of religion and foresaw that religion would die out at the ...

  10. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  11. Power from Perspective: Potential future United States energy portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce [University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37831-6038 (United States)], E-mail: btonn@utk.edu; Healy, K.C. [Deloitte Touche (United States); Gibson, Amy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37831-6038 (United States); Ashish, Ashutosh [Independent Consultant (United States); Cody, Preston; Beres, Drew [Deloitte Touche (United States); Lulla, Sam; Mazur, Jim [Independent Consultant (United States); Ritter, A.J. [Deloitte Touche (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary criteria (e.g., economic growth, technical feasibility). It is found that very different portfolios based on very different defining values can achieve the three primary goals. Commonalities among the portfolios include reliance upon cellulosic ethanol, nuclear power, and energy efficiency to meet year 2030 energy demands. It is concluded that the US energy portfolio must be diverse and to achieve national energy goals will require an explicit statement of goals, a strong role for government, and coordinated action across society.

  12. Power from Perspective. Potential future United States energy portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce; Gibson, Amy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37831-6038 (United States); Healy, K.C.; Cody, Preston; Beres, Drew; Ritter, A.J. [Deloitte Touche (United States); Ashish, Ashutosh; Lulla, Sam; Mazur, Jim [Independent Consultant (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary criteria (e.g., economic growth, technical feasibility). It is found that very different portfolios based on very different defining values can achieve the three primary goals. Commonalities among the portfolios include reliance upon cellulosic ethanol, nuclear power, and energy efficiency to meet year 2030 energy demands. It is concluded that the US energy portfolio must be diverse and to achieve national energy goals will require an explicit statement of goals, a strong role for government, and coordinated action across society. (author)

  13. Youth Perspectives on Sexual Health Workshops: Informing Future Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Heather; Jalloh, Chelsea; Wylie, John L

    2015-11-01

    Newcomer and street-involved youth provided their perspective on the design and content of a sexual education workshop. Following the workshop, focus group discussions were held with 80 youth from four youth-serving agencies. Youth expressed increased levels of confidence and empowerment, consistent with recent criticism that a focus on specific behaviors as intervention outcome measures may miss important psychosocial changes in participants. Some youth views on cultural adaptation of workshops were not consistent with current views expressed by some adult educators, highlighting the need to ensure a youth perspective is captured during intervention development. Finally, the dichotomous views that youth expressed regarding workshop activities emphasizes a research gap related to how best to adapt interventions to different cognitive capacities, literacy levels, and learning styles. Information of this kind is relevant in terms of knowledge translation from youth to program planners and educators. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Nanomedicine: Past, present and future - A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther H; Harford, Joe B; Eaton, Michael A W; Boisseau, Patrick M; Dube, Admire; Hayeshi, Rose; Swai, Hulda; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicine is an emerging and rapidly evolving field and includes the use of nanoparticles for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. In this mini-review, leaders in the field from around the globe provide a personal perspective on the development of nanomedicine. The focus lies on the translation from research to development and the innovation supply chain, as well as the current status of nanomedicine in industry. The role of academic professional societies and the importance of government funding are discussed. Nanomedicine to combat infectious diseases of poverty is highlighted along with other pertinent examples of recent breakthroughs in nanomedicine. Taken together, this review provides a unique and global perspective on the emerging field of nanomedicine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Modeling Present and Future River Runoff Using Global Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A265 274 October 1992 TBESIS Modeling Present and Future River Runoff Using Global Atmospheric Models Captain Scott C. Van Blarcum AFIT Student... ATMOSPHERIC MODELS BY SCOTT C. VAN BLARCUM A thesis submitted to the Graduate School-New Brunswick Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey in...03 020 I1UIlU1ll ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Modeling Present and Future River Runoff Using Global Atmospheric Models by SCOTT C. VAN BLARCUM Thesis

  16. Urban Planning for a Renewable Energy Future: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities from a Design Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandevijvere, H.; Stremke, S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban planning for a renewable energy future requires the collaboration of different disciplines both in research and practice. In the present article, the planning of a renewable energy future is approached from a designer’s perspective. A framework for analysis of the planning questions at hand is

  17. Futurism and Education: Some Perspectives for Global Educators. Occasional Papers Series, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Neal; Salomon, Manjula

    A working knowledge of futurist perspective is becoming essential to educators. While global education acquaints students with their responsibilities as members of a group extending beyond their personal and local boundaries, futurism awakens students to the interconnectedness of past, present, and future. Although debate exists over whether it is…

  18. The future of laboratory medicine - a 2014 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J; Polsky, Tracey G; Park, Jason Y; Fortina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the future is a difficult task. Not surprisingly, there are many examples and assumptions that have proved to be wrong. This review surveys the many predictions, beginning in 1887, about the future of laboratory medicine and its sub-specialties such as clinical chemistry and molecular pathology. It provides a commentary on the accuracy of the predictions and offers opinions on emerging technologies, economic factors and social developments that may play a role in shaping the future of laboratory medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Land-surface modelling in hydrological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jesper; Rosbjerg, Dan; Butts, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the different types of energy-based land-surface models (LSMs) and discuss some of the new possibilities that will arise when energy-based LSMs are combined with distributed hydrological modelling. We choose to focus on energy-based approaches......, and the difficulties inherent in various evaluation procedures are presented. Finally, the dynamic coupling of hydrological and atmospheric models is explored, and the perspectives of such efforts are discussed....

  20. Exploring the future of Enterprise Architecture: A Zachman perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lapalme, J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, and for the foreseeable future, organizations will face ever-increasing levels of complexity and uncertainty. Many believe that enterprise architecture (EA) will help organizations address such difficult terrain by guiding the design...

  1. 4WARD: A European Perspective towards the Future Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Marcus; Abramowicz, Henrik; Niebert, Norbert; Correia, Luis M.

    In this paper, we describe several approaches to address the challenges of the network of the future. Our main hypothesis is that the Future Internet must be designed for the environment of applications and transport media of the 21st century, vastly different from the initial Internet's life space. One major requirement is the inherent support for mobile and wireless usage. A Future Internet should allow for the fast creation of diverse network designs and paradigms and must also support their co-existence at run-time. We detail the technical and business scenarios that lead the development in the EU FP7 4WARD project towards a framework for the Future Internet.

  2. The curriculum for the doctor of the future: messages from the clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Nadine; Westerman, Michiel; Fokkema, Joanne P I; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Scheele, Fedde

    2011-01-01

    Medical curricula should focus on the future of health care. Contemporary competency frameworks for curriculum design such as Canadian Medical Education Directions for Specialists (CanMEDS), ACGME and Tomorrow's Doctors share this vision by stressing generic competencies. The objective of this study was to investigate how well a contemporary competency framework fits in with clinicians' perspectives on future health care. Using a strategic planning approach, a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire on the future of their profession was sent to 102 Dutch gynecologists. Through inductive analysis, a future perspective and its needed competencies were identified and compared to the CanMEDS framework. The 62 responses showed content validity for the CanMEDS roles. Additionally, two roles were identified: advanced technology user and entrepreneur. Within the role Communicator, the focus will change through more active patient participation. The roles Collaborator and Manager are predicted to change in focus because of an increase of complex interdisciplinary teamwork and leadership roles. By studying the Dutch gynecologists' perspective of the future in a strategic planning approach, two additional roles and focus areas within a contemporary competency framework were identified. The perspective of clinicians on future health care provides valuable messages on how to design future-proof curricula.

  3. Attributions, future time perspective and career maturity in nursing undergraduates: correlational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-25

    Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p undergraduate career maturity by elucidating the imperative roles of internal attributions and future time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.

  4. Medicinal plants useful for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Arjun; Balachandar, Selvakumar; Vijayananth, Pavadai; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem. The current therapies are inadequate and have numerous adverse effects. There is an acute need of potential alternative therapies. Medicinal plants are classical and most widespread form of medication for treating various human ailments throughout the world. For COPD also, various plants are practiced in many countries. We have surveyed the literatures for the medicinal plants which are used in obstructive lung diseases such as bronchitis and emphysema. These plants were segregated into two categories. Firstly, the plants which are used for obstructive lung diseases based on various traditional recommendations only. Secondly, the plants or their formulations which have been studied grossly in COPD patients and animal models for their scientific validation. Further, we have described some known cellular and molecular factors involved in COPD and their modulation by plant-derived compounds. Certain future perspectives have also been discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccination against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: Developments and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Major

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in patients and chimpanzees that spontaneously clear Hepatitis C Virus (HCV have demonstrated that natural immunity to the virus is induced during primary infections and that this immunity can be cross protective. These discoveries led to optimism regarding prophylactic HCV vaccines and a number of studies in the chimpanzee model have been performed, all of which resulted in modified infections after challenge but did not always prevent persistence of the virus. Therapeutic vaccine strategies have also been pursued in an effort to reduce the costs and side effects associated with anti-viral drug treatment. This review summarizes the studies performed thus far in both patients and chimpanzees for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination, assesses the progress made and future perspectives.

  6. The hygiene hypothesis: current perspectives and future therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiemsma LT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Leah T Stiemsma,1,2 Lisa A Reynolds,3 Stuart E Turvey,1,2,4 B Brett Finlay1,3,5 1Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of British Columbia, 2The Child and Family Research Institute, 3Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: Developed countries have experienced a steady increase in atopic disease and disorders of immune dysregulation since the 1980s. This increase parallels a decrease in infectious diseases within the same time period, while developing countries seem to exhibit the opposite effect, with less immune dysregulation and a higher prevalence of infectious disease. The “hygiene hypothesis”, proposed by Strachan in 1989, aimed to explain this peculiar generational rise in immune dysregulation. However, research over the past 10 years provides evidence connecting the commensal and symbiotic microbes (intestinal microbiota and parasitic helminths with immune development, expanding the hygiene hypothesis into the “microflora” and “old friends” hypotheses, respectively. There is evidence that parasitic helminths and commensal microbial organisms co-evolved with the human immune system and that these organisms are vital in promoting normal immune development. Current research supports the potential for manipulation of the bacterial intestinal microbiota to treat and even prevent immune dysregulation in the form of atopic disease and other immune-mediated disorders (namely inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes. Both human and animal model research are crucial in understanding the mechanistic links between these intestinal microbes and helminth parasites, and the human immune system. Pro-, pre-, and synbiotic, as well as treatment with live helminth and excretory/secretory helminth product therapies, are all potential

  7. Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raadgever, G. T.; Mostert, E.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2008-08-01

    This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A) "Anticipation and institutions", B) "Space for flooding" and C) "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards. An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1) setting the research agenda, 2) identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3) creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4) developing scenarios.

  8. RACK(1) to the future - a historical perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ron, Dorit

    2013-08-01

    This perspective summarises the first and long overdue RACK1 meeting held at the University of Limerick, Ireland, May 2013, in which RACK1’s role in the immune system, the heart and the brain were discussed and its contribution to disease states such as cancer, cardiac hypertrophy and addiction were described. RACK1 is a scaffolding protein and a member of the WD repeat family of proteins. These proteins have a unique architectural assembly that facilitates protein anchoring and the stabilisation of protein activity. A large body of evidence is accumulating which is helping to define the versatile role of RACK1 in assembling and dismantling complex signaling pathways from the cell membrane to the nucleus in health and disease. In this commentary, we first provide a historical perspective on RACK1. We also address many of the pertinent and topical questions about this protein such as its role in transcription, epigenetics and translation, its cytoskeletal contribution and the merits of targeting RACK1 in disease.

  9. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  10. Review and Future Perspective of Central Receiver Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-27

    accommodate, beyond which overgeneration, spillage, and instability may occur. Energy storage may well become a necessity in some areas in order to maintain reliability. Next-generation central receiver technologies will have higher operating temperatures and additional features that allow higher-efficiency power generation and deliver other cost-performance advantages. The underlying innovations will come from areas such as multi-physics modeling, high-temperature materials, novel power cycles and heat exchanger designs, and collector field sensing and performance monitoring technologies. Technology innovation is expected to improve the cost and performance of central receiver designs. To deliver value as a generation and storage option, central receiver technology must also be supported by flexible and robust financial models and comprehensive energy and ancillary service markets justifying the capital-intensive investment. Progress in these areas will position CSP central receiver technology for future deployment.

  11. Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-01

    overgeneration, spillage, and instability may occur. Energy storage may well become a necessity in some areas in order to maintain reliability. Next-generation central receiver technologies will have higher operating temperatures and additional features that allow higher-efficiency power generation and deliver other cost-performance advantages. The underlying innovations will come from areas such as multi-physics modeling, high-temperature materials, novel power cycles and heat exchanger designs, and collector field sensing and performance monitoring technologies. Technology innovation is expected to improve the cost and performance of central receiver designs. To deliver value as a generation and storage option, central receiver technology must also be supported by flexible and robust financial models and comprehensive energy and ancillary service markets justifying the capital-intensive investment. Progress in these areas will position CSP central receiver technology for future deployment.

  12. Future Perspectives for Arts-Based Methods in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Du, Xiangyun

    2018-01-01

    This chapter presents the concluding remarks for the collected contribution. Having traced multiple theoretical, empirical and practical implications for the arts-based methods in higher education and organisations, the different chapters have, on the one hand, shed an original light on specific...... conversations between scholars and educators are needed, and that artists have a central role in the future developments of this field. Whether professional or amateur artists is no matter, but the craft and creativity of art practices in the flesh must lead any future direction of arts-based methods....

  13. Climatic change. Future perspectives; Cambio climatico. Perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Madruga, D.; Garrido Morales, J.L.

    2012-07-01

    The present article aims to offer an overview of climate change in relation to aspects such as their relationship to greenhouse gases (GHG), effects on the environment, human being, economy, possible consequences in a future and the importance in the policies and decision taken and to mitigate global warming. (Author)

  14. The techno-entrepreneur of the future : Perspectives and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteijn, W.; Sjoer, E.

    2010-01-01

    Present sustainability problems require a new type of techno-entrepreneurship, in which traditional entrepreneurial qualities are combined with new capabilities related to the role, mission and responsibilities of future engineers. There are two sources of these new capabilities: Innovation Systems

  15. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...... some of the changes that may occur in the near future in the field of COPD....

  16. Medical Students' Perspective Towards Their Future Medical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:To evaluate the influencing factors towards choice of the medical profession and attitude towards future medical practice. Subjects and methods: One hundred thirty four students of the Gondar College of Medical Sciences were included in the study. Data was collected by using self-administered questionnaires.

  17. MRI quantification of rheumatoid arthritis: current knowledge and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Mikael; Østergaard, Mikkel; Cimmino, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    The international consensus on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involves early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for which a reliable identification of early disease is mandatory. Conventional radiography of the joints is considered the standard method for detect...... of inflammatory joint changes. In this review, we will discuss available data, advantages, limitations and potential future of MRI in RA....

  18. Borexino: recent results, detector calibration and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallavicini, Marco, E-mail: marco.pallavicini@ge.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica - Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 33 - 16146 - Genova, and INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D' Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Kerret, H. de; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 33 - 16146 - Genova (Italy) and INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    The Borexino experiment has been running since May 2007 at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, in Italy. Solar neutrinos are detected with a large unsegmented liquid scintillator detector with unprecedented radioactive purity. The main results obtained include the measurement of the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux, the measurement of the {sup 8}B neutrino flux with electron recoil energy threshold of 3.0 MeV and the first clear detection of geo-neutrinos (see Aldo Ianni's talk in these proceedings for further details). Borexino has recently completed a large calibration campaign, and better results on {sup 7}Be solar neutrino measurement are expected soon. Short and medium term perspectives are summarized in the conclusions.

  19. Smart City Analytics: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovannella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with a 'people centred' vision, this paper critically examines current approaches to smart cities benchmarking. In particular, by means of correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA we put in evidence present limitations of city rankings and, as well, the emergence of different perspectives for data interpretations. To follow, a possible redesign of the 'Smart Cities Analytics' grounded on the traces left by individuals, is suggested. In particular, as an example, we focus on the potentiality offered by automatic text analysis to extract people perceptions and expectations that, in turns, demonstrate the need to integrate bottom-up and top-down approaches to city benchmarking. Finally a novel definition of smart city based on the territorial state of flow is proposed and, as a consequence, a novel path toward smart city benchmarking suggested.

  20. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  1. The CSLA and CSLC Families: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Howard Liepman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA superfamily of proteins contains several sub-families of closely related CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CSL sequences, Among these, the CSLA and CSLC families are closely related to each other and are the most evolutionarily divergent from the CESA family. Significant progress has been made with the functional characterization of CSLA and CSLC genes, which have been shown to encode enzymes with 1,4-B-glycan synthase activities involved in the biosynthesis of mannan and possibly xyloglucan backbones, respectively. This review examines recent work on the CSLA and CSLC families from evolutionary, molecular, and biochemical perspectives. We pose a series of questions, whose answers likely will provide further insight about the specific functions of members of the CSLA and CSLC families and about plant polysaccharide biosynthesis is general.

  2. Structural DNA nanotechnology: state of the art and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Nangreave, Jeanette; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2014-08-13

    Over the past three decades DNA has emerged as an exceptional molecular building block for nanoconstruction due to its predictable conformation and programmable intra- and intermolecular Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions. A variety of convenient design rules and reliable assembly methods have been developed to engineer DNA nanostructures of increasing complexity. The ability to create designer DNA architectures with accurate spatial control has allowed researchers to explore novel applications in many directions, such as directed material assembly, structural biology, biocatalysis, DNA computing, nanorobotics, disease diagnosis, and drug delivery. This Perspective discusses the state of the art in the field of structural DNA nanotechnology and presents some of the challenges and opportunities that exist in DNA-based molecular design and programming.

  3. Mechanistic research in aquatic toxicology: perspectives and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Mark E

    2011-10-01

    On the 30th anniversary of the journal, I provide a perspective on some of the questions and opportunities for new understanding that will interest aquatic toxicologists during the next 30 years. I focus on mechanisms of toxicity involving transcription factors, signalling pathways, and gene networks involved in toxic and adaptive responses in aquatic animals. Prominent questions address the value of a toxicity pathways approach in aquatic systems, issues involving extrapolation among species, identification of susceptibility genes and useful biomarkers of adverse effect, new emerging contaminants, the importance of epigenetic mechanisms, effects of multiple stressors, evolutionary toxicology, and the relative roles of technical and conceptual limitations to our understanding of chemical effects on aquatic systems. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Teichmann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...

  5. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Current achievements and future perspectives in whole-organ bioengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Peloso, Andrea; Dhal, Abritee; Zambon, Joao P; Li, Peng; Orlando, Giuseppe; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible end-stage organ failure represents one of the leading causes of death, and organ transplantation is currently the only curative solution. Donor organ shortage and adverse effects of immunosuppressive regimens are the major limiting factors for this definitive practice. Recent developments in bioengineering and regenerative medicine could provide a solid base for the future creation of implantable, bioengineered organs. Whole-organ detergent-perfusion protocols permit clinicians t...

  7. Cloud forcing: A modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Mobely, R.L.; Drach, R.S.; Corsetti, T.G.; Williams, D.N.; Slingo, J.M.

    1990-11-01

    Radiation fields from a perpetual July integration of a T106 version of the ECMWF operational model are used as surrogate observations of the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere to illustrate various difficulties that modellers might face when trying to reconcile cloud radiation forcings derived from satellite observations with model-generated ones. Differences between the so-called Methods 1 and 2 of Cess and Potter (1987) and a variant Method 3 are addressed. Method 1 is shown to be the least robust of all methods, due to potential uncertainties related to persistent cloudiness, length of the period over which clear-sky conditions are looked for, biases in retrieved clear-sky quantities due to an insufficient sampling of the diurnal cycle. We advocate the use of Method 2 as the only unambiguous one to produce consistent radiative diagnostics for intercomparing model results. Impact of the three methods on the derived sensitivities and cloud feedbacks following an imposed change in sea surface temperature (used as a surrogate climate change) is discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  8. Hydraulic Redistribution: A Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Verma, P.; Loheide, S. P., III

    2014-12-01

    Roots play a key role in the soil water balance. They extract and transport water for transpiration, which usually represents the most important soil water loss in vegetated areas, and can redistribute soil water, thereby increasing transpiration rates and enhancing root nutrient uptake. We present here a two-dimensional model capable of describing two key aspects of root water uptake: root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution. Root water compensation is the ability of root systems to respond to the reduction of water uptake from areas of the soil with low soil water potential by increasing the water uptake from the roots in soil parts with higher water potential. Hydraulic redistribution is a passive transfer of water through the root system from areas of the soil with greater water potential to areas with lower water potential. Both mechanisms are driven by gradients of water potential in the soil and the roots. The inclusion of root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution in models can be achieved by describing root water uptake as a function of the difference in water potential between soil and root xylem. We use a model comprising the Richards equation for the water flow in variably saturated soils and the Darcy's equation for the water flow in the xylem. The two equations are coupled via a sink term, which is assumed to be proportional to the difference between soil and xylem water potentials. The model is applied in two case studies to describe vertical and horizontal hydraulic redistribution and the interaction between vegetation with different root depths. In the case of horizontal redistribution, the model is used to reproduce the fluxes of water across the root system of a tree subjected to uneven irrigation. This example can be extended to situations when only part of the root system has access to water, such as vegetation near creeks, trees at the edge of forests, and street trees in urban areas. The second case is inspired by recent

  9. [Nurse's craft: an analysis and some future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, Ana Lúcia Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    This text, while considering nursing as a profession, makes evident, initially, a perspective to develop it: the one that proves that we are capable to transform at least the world of health which we live in. In order to do this I propose myself to know it as e world of work and of health practices which has been, as I debate, historically determined. Such practices, according to their evolution, are configured in capitalism as a service, what gives to it a special characteristic in this production process. The profession of nursing while a participant of the collective work develops, however, its own original task, which has been being defined within this context, based on its own work processes--of care taking, educating, managing, which, keeping in mind its economic, political and symbolic properties discussed in this paper, will be able to open the necessary fissures for the daily action of a project takes uses as a reference the interest of the health service user, represented by his health needs.

  10. A Perspective on the Rise of Optofluidics and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the field of optofluidics has thrived from the immense efforts of researchers from diverse communities. The concept of optofluidics combines optics and microfluidics to exploit novel properties and functionalities. In the very beginning, the unique properties of liquid, such as mobility, fungibility and deformability, initiated the motivation to develop optical elements or functions using fluid interfaces. Later on, the advancements of microelectromechanical system (MEMS and microfluidic technologies enabled the realization of optofluidic components through the precise manipulation of fluids at microscale thus making it possible to streamline complex fabrication processes. The optofluidic system aims to fully integrate optical functions on a single chip instead of using external bulky optics, which can consequently lower the cost of system, downsize the system and make it promising for point-of-care diagnosis. This perspective gives an overview of the recent developments in the field of optofluidics. Firstly, the fundamental optofluidic components will be discussed and are categorized according to their basic working mechanisms, followed by the discussions on the functional instrumentations of the optofluidic components, as well as the current commercialization aspects of optofluidics. The paper concludes with the critical challenges that might hamper the transformation of optofluidic technologies from lab-based procedures to practical usages and commercialization.

  11. Dentists' perspective about dental amalgam: current use and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurji, Eman; Scott, Thayer; Mangione, Thomas; Sohn, Woosung

    2017-06-01

    In 2013, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) reached a binding agreement - a.k.a. the Minamata treaty - to decrease dental amalgam use. This study aims to investigate US dentists' current practice and opinions about amalgam use, and to determine factors affecting their amalgam use and opinions. A total of 45,557 general dentists and 5,101 pediatric dentists were invited to participate in a pre-tested electronic survey. The survey consisted of 12 close-ended questions using a 5-point Likert Scale. The Qualtrics™ software was used to distribute the survey, followed by three reminders. Response rate was 5.2 percent for general dentists, and 17.6 percent for pediatric dentists. Sixty-two percent of general dentists and 56 percent of pediatric dentists reported using amalgam. Most dentists disagreed with banning amalgam, while agreeing with installing amalgam separators. Environmentally conscious dentists were more likely to agree with banning amalgam and installing amalgam separators. Responding dentists favor the continued use of dental amalgam. Their perspectives vary by several factors including dentists' environmental consciousness. Policies toward minimizing amalgam's environmental impact need to be implemented. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies: Historical Perspective and Future Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been expended over the past two and a half decades to understand many aspects of camelid heavy chain antibodies, from their biology, evolution, and immunogenetics to their potential applications in various fields of research and medicine. In this article, I present a historical perspective on the development of camelid single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or V H Hs, also widely known as nanobodies) since their discovery and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these unique molecules in various areas of research, industry, and medicine. Commercialization of camelid sdAbs exploded in 2001 with a flurry of patents issued to the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and later taken on by the Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB) and, after 2002, the VIB-founded spin-off company, Ablynx. While entrepreneurial spirit has certainly catalyzed the exploration of nanobodies as marketable products, IP restrictions may be partially responsible for the relatively long time span between the discovery of these biomolecules and their entry into the pharmaceutical market. It is now anticipated that the first V H H-based antibody drug, Caplacizumab, a bivalent anti-vWF antibody for treating rare blood clotting disorders, may be approved and commercialized in 2018 or shortly thereafter. This elusive first approval, along with the expiry of key patents, may substantially alter the scientific and biomedical landscape surrounding camelid sdAbs and pave the way for their emergence as mainstream biotherapeutics.

  13. Future Perspectives in the Management of Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-04-01

     The author presents a solicited "white paper" outlining her perspective on the role of nerve transfers in the management of nerve injuries.  PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were evaluated to compare nerve graft and nerve transfer. An evaluation of the scientific literature by review of index articles was also performed to compare the number of overall clinical publications of nerve repair, nerve graft, and nerve transfer. Finally, a survey regarding the prevalence of nerve transfer surgery was administrated to the World Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery (WSRM) results.  Both nerve graft and transfer can generate functional results and the relative success of graft versus transfer depended on the function to be restored and the specific transfers used. Beginning in the early 1990s, there has been a rapid increase from baseline of nerve transfer publications such that clinical nerve transfer publication now exceeds those of nerve repair or nerve graft. Sixty-two responses were received from WSRM membership. These surgeons reported their frequency of "usually or always using nerve transfers for repairing brachial plexus injuries as 68%, radial nerves as 27%, median as 25%, and ulnar as 33%. They reported using nerve transfers" sometimes for brachial plexus 18%, radial nerve 30%, median nerve 34%, ulnar nerve 35%.  Taken together this evidence suggests that nerve transfers do offer an alternative technique along with tendon transfers, nerve repair, and nerve grafts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Treatment of preeclampsia: current approach and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzan, Ecaterina; Doyle, Ross; Brown, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy, occurring in about 6-8 % of pregnancies. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that occurs after 20 weeks' gestation, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Preeclampsia can also occur superimposed upon chronic hypertension. Eclampsia is the convulsive form of preeclampsia, and affects 0.1 % of all pregnancies. In low-income and middle-income countries, preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with 10-15 % of direct maternal deaths. Women who develop preeclampsia in pregnancy are at greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events even years after their pregnancies. There is significant progress in the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of preeclampsia, although its therapeutics remains challenging; delivery of the fetus is still the definitive treatment. Different international societies have produced recommendations and guidelines for clinicians treating preeclampsia, with an overall goal of improving maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review, we focus on the level of blood pressure at which to commence treatment and the current clinical management strategies available to treat and possibly prevent preeclampsia. We also briefly outline some newer perspectives on management of the disorder.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Tramalloni, Daniela; Valle, Ivana; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a widely distributed and common virus, that causes benign lesions (such as warts and papillomas) but, if not cleared, can lead to malignant lesions as well, such as intraepithelial lesions and neoplasia. An extensive body of researches has demonstrated that E1 and E2 are involved in viral transcription and replication, E5, E6, and E7 act as oncoproteins, whilst L1 and L2 contribute to the formation of the capsid. However, this view has been recently challenged, since also E2 could play a role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, a complex picture is emerging, opening new ways and perspectives. The present article provides an overview of the biology of HPV, paying particular attention to its structural details and molecular mechanisms. The article also shows how this knowledge has been exploited for developing effective vaccines, both prophilactic/preventive and therapeutic ones. L1-based prophylactic vaccines, like Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardasil 9, have been already licensed, whilst L2-based second generation preventive vaccines are still under clinical trials. New, highly immunogenic and effective vaccines can be further developed thanks to computer-aided design and bioinformatics/computational biology. The optimization of combinational therapies is another promising opportunity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies: Historical Perspective and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Arbabi-Ghahroudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous effort has been expended over the past two and a half decades to understand many aspects of camelid heavy chain antibodies, from their biology, evolution, and immunogenetics to their potential applications in various fields of research and medicine. In this article, I present a historical perspective on the development of camelid single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHHs, also widely known as nanobodies since their discovery and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these unique molecules in various areas of research, industry, and medicine. Commercialization of camelid sdAbs exploded in 2001 with a flurry of patents issued to the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB and later taken on by the Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB and, after 2002, the VIB-founded spin-off company, Ablynx. While entrepreneurial spirit has certainly catalyzed the exploration of nanobodies as marketable products, IP restrictions may be partially responsible for the relatively long time span between the discovery of these biomolecules and their entry into the pharmaceutical market. It is now anticipated that the first VHH-based antibody drug, Caplacizumab, a bivalent anti-vWF antibody for treating rare blood clotting disorders, may be approved and commercialized in 2018 or shortly thereafter. This elusive first approval, along with the expiry of key patents, may substantially alter the scientific and biomedical landscape surrounding camelid sdAbs and pave the way for their emergence as mainstream biotherapeutics.

  17. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005, had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample participants answered a booklet that included Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale (1993; Nagpal and Sell’s Subjective Well-being Scale (1992, and three items specially developed to explore academic, labor, and family future perspectives. Development: correlation analysis indicated positive significant associations between resilience’s components (Personal realization; Self- determination, and Adaptation, and specific well-being dimensions. Likewise, resilience’s components and subjective well being dimensions showed significant correlations with positive future perspectives. No gender-specific differences were observed in any of the variables under analysis. Results: findings showed that adolescent resilience would be associated to familiar emotional support and positive social interchanges. Future orientations could be considered a new resilience protective factor. Social, familiar, and educational implications of these finding are discussed. A research agenda designed to further our understanding of resilience, well-being, and future perspectives linkages is proposed. 

  18. Current reality and future perspective from a major producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, P.; Cassidy, R.

    2006-01-01

    Is the hydrogen economy of the future just another fish story? Absolutely not! There have been many changes affecting the energy equation over the last 10 years and conditions have changed. In this presentation, we examined the reasons why, in the very near future, hydrogen production and distribution will be increasingly visible on many industries' radar screens. Our presentation provides an overview of the fundamental energy triangle and its myriad opportunities. We will look at the excitement being generated by gasification, GTL, and the expected availability of 'cheap' hydrogen. We will seek to confirm that experimental projects are now behind us. We will demonstrate that we are ready to move rapidly towards the pre-commercial applications that will eventually provide significant savings and other benefits to a wide variety of industries. Beyond our ability to produce and deliver hydrogen, Air Liquide is an enabler of the H 2 economy. We are actively developing the H 2 architecture and infrastructure that will allow many Canadian firms - who have already demonstrated leadership in H 2 technologies - to expand their markets and grow into highly successful organizations. Air Liquide has the strength of 104 years of scientific achievement, technical excellence, and business success. The Air Liquide Group is dedicated to devoting the necessary resources - on both sides of the Atlantic and around the world - to ensure the successful implementation of a number of innovative H 2 projects. Our presentation includes a brief description of some of these projects. We think you will be surprised at their variety and impressed by how these projects are closely related to today's energy issues. We hope to convince you that the hydrogen economy of the future is filled with promise and potential. (author)

  19. Charged particle activation analysis: present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis is a highly sensitive nuclear analytical technique for the determination of elements at trace and ultra trace levels. CPAA involves the irradiation of samples with high energy charged particles, both light ions and heavy ions, from an accelerator in the energy range of 10 to 100 MeV. CPAA has been developed and standardized for the determination of several elements at trace levels in various types of materials using high energy ion beams from VEC machine at Kolkata. A brief review on CPAA is presented here based on our present works and its applications in future. (author)

  20. Japanese superconducting maglev: Present state and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi

    1990-06-01

    Maglev (magnetic levitation vehicle) being developed as a new transportation means running at a speed of 500 km/h has various advantages in safety, mass transportation and less environment polution as well as high-speed. The development of this system is rapidly advancing into the practical stage, that is, the commercial stage of the maglev train as a mass transportation system for intercity high-speed service. This paper describes the present state of research and development as well as future prospects of maglev.

  1. Future of Christian health services – an economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Flessa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Christian Health Services have a proud history of healing and compassion especially in developing countries, their future is affected by secular changes in the financing and provision of health care services. However, the nature of life as it is evolving in modern society promises a need for the capacity to deal with increasing dynamics, complexity and uncertainty. In these circumstances the potential capacity of Christians in their institutions and churches to provide Unconditional Reliability suggests a new opportunity. The components of Unconditional Reliability and how they affect the portfolio of Christian Health Services is explained. Effective Christian Health Services will require appropriate analysis of their portfolios.

  2. Direct strip casting of steel - historical perspective and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, P.A.; Hunter, A.; Ferry, M.

    2000-01-01

    The commercialisation of direct strip casting (DSC) of steel represents the realisation of a dream cherished by engineers for over one hundred and fifty years. The story of the global competition for DSC of steel, that has ingredients of romanticism of chasing of a dream, adventure and intrigue, is being played out across continents over dozens of decades with an interplay of setbacks and successes. At this stage, DSC is set to make a profound impact on the steelmaking landscape. This paper reviews the important milestones in this compelling story, presents the current status and then gazes into the crystal ball in an attempt to predict which turn the story may take in the near future. The constraints and critical challenges for the successful commercialisation of DSC are highlighted. Recent results are discussed relating the production process to quality control and properties of unalloyed, low carbon strip-cast steels. future metallurgical challenges include a better understanding of solidification mechanism during high-speed casting and secondary processing variables affecting the final microstructure of austenitic grains

  3. Indian Pediatric Postgraduate's Perspective on Future Career Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneha, Latha M; Ravindran, Manipriya; Kumar, Rekha; Venkatraman, Padmasani; Scott, Julius; Kannan, LakshmiNarayan

    2017-03-01

    To determine the factors that influence Pediatric residents to pursue a subspecialty career and establish their choice of future workplace. The present questionnaire based study was conducted during a National level pediatric post graduate exam refresher course in Chennai, India and involved Pediatric residents from all parts of India. Datas was analysed with the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 18.0). Seventy five respondents participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of the female students reported that marriage has an influence on whether or not to do sub specialisation and their choice of it while 92% of the male students found it irrelevant. Fifty-one (male - 75%, female - 58%) students pragmatically cited "interest in the subject Pediatrics" when asked for the reason choosing Pediatrics as their future career. Neonatology was the most chosen speciality followed by Critical Care and Cardiology. When asked to indicate the most important factors that is likely to influence their decision whether or not to pursue sub speciality program, the largest proportion of students identified "financial reasons" (31; 41%) followed by "job opportunities" (16; 21%). Pediatric residents should compulsorily be exposed to all subspecialties during their post-graduation. Adequate career guiding and exposure to various subspecialties will make the residents pursue subjects like Pediatric Nephrology, Hemato-oncology, Developmental Pediatrics and Hepatology which have less takers.

  4. Future perspective of cost for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    The report presents and discussed results of evaluation of the cost for power generation in this and forthcoming years on the basis of an analysis of the current fuel prices and the economics of various power sources. Calculations show that nuclear power generation at present is inferior to coal-firing power generation in terms of required costs, but can become superior in the future due to an increased burn-up and reduced construction cost. Investigations are made of possible contributions of future technical improvements to reduction in the overall cost. Results suggest that nuclear power generation will be the most efficient among the various electric sources because of its technology-intensive feature. Development of improved light water reactors is of special importance to achieve a high burn-up and reduced construction costs. In general, the fixed cost accounts for a large part of the overall nuclear power generation cost, indicating that a reduction in construction cost can greatly increase the economic efficiency. Changes in the yen's exchange rate seem to have little effect on the economics of nuclear power generation, which represents another favorable aspect of this type of energy. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Status of nuclear regulatory research and its future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the regulatory research comprising an examination of the research system, its areas and contents, and the goals and financial resources is undertaken. As a result of this study, the future direction of regulatory research and its implementation strategies are suggested to resolve the current issues emerging from this examination. The major issues identified in the study are; (a) an insufficient investment in nuclear regulatory and safety research, (b) an interfacial discrepancy between similar research areas, and (c) a limitation of utilizing research results. To resolve these issues, several measures are proposed : (1) developing a lead project to establish a comprehensive infrastructure for enhancing research cooperation between nuclear organizations including institutes, industry, and universities, with an aim to improve cooperation between projects and to strengthen overall coordination functions among research projects, (2) introducing a certification system on research outcome to promote the proliferation of both research results themselves and their application with a view to enhancing the research quality, (3) strengthening the cooperative system to promote the international cooperative research, and (4) digitalizing all documents and materials relevant to safety and regulatory research to establish KIMS (knowledge and information based management system). It is expected that the aforementioned measures suggested in this study will enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of both nuclear regulatory and safety research, if they are implemented after deliberating with the government and related nuclear industries in the near future

  6. Radioisotope Therapy of Japan: Future Perspective and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Ikebuchi, Shuji; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Oriuchi, Noboru; Kinuya, Seigo; Hosono, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, because of the rapid increase in the number of thyroid cancer patients and the recent severe shortage of radioisotope therapy wards, the prolonged waiting time for the admission to the radioisotope therapy wards has become a social problem. This situation is against one of the main purposes of the Cancer Control Promotion Plan of our nation, which is advocating an equal accessibility of medical care for the Japanese citizens. In 2015, diet discussions about the problems of radioisotope therapy took place and the prime minister stated that the promotion of radioisotope therapy is one of the most important issues in Japan, therefore further promotion of research and development is anticipated in this field. In this article, we have summarized the problems during radioisotope therapy, and have added our recommendations in the social and medical realizable countermeasures in future, according to the deep considerations of medical economy in Japan, an assumption of disease prevalence of thyroid cancer in the future, and the situations of foreign countries.

  7. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  8. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology.

  9. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  10. Global energy shifts: Future possibilities in historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Bruce Michael

    2000-11-01

    This study adopts a macro-comparative, world-systems perspective in order to shed light on the dynamics that led to a global shift away from primary reliance on coal and towards over-reliance on petroleum. It is argued that the interaction of three global dynamics, those of geopolitical rivalry, commercial competition, and social unrest, undermined the nineteenth-century international coal system and paved the way for the consolidation of an international petroleum system in the twentieth century. Specifically, the historical analysis presented in this dissertation shows that: (1) intervention by state agents was absolutely crucial in the early development and later expansion of the international petroleum system; (2) private coal companies attempted to prevent the consolidation of an oil-based energy system, but these older companies were out-competed by newer, multinational petroleum corporations; and (3) waves of labor unrest in established coal industries played a key role in prompting a relatively rapid shift away from coal and towards petroleum. Indeed, a key conclusion of this study is that pressures exerted by such social movements as labor unions, nationalist movements, and environmental coalitions have played as important a role in influencing energy trajectories as the more commonly-recognized actions of governmental and corporate actors. By examining contemporary patterns of state and private investments in a cluster of new energy technologies, as well as the growing influence of environmental regulations it is argued that global dynamics are beginning to favor a shift towards new, more environmentally sustainable energy technologies. The fuel cell is highlighted as one new energy technology that is poised to enter into widespread diffusion in the coming decades, though potentials for expansions in wind, solar, small-scale hydro-electric, and modern biomass systems are also examined. Although significant hurdles must be overcome, this study concludes by

  11. Mathematical modeling a chemical engineer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Aris

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is the art and craft of building a system of equations that is both sufficiently complex to do justice to physical reality and sufficiently simple to give real insight into the situation. Mathematical Modeling: A Chemical Engineer's Perspective provides an elementary introduction to the craft by one of the century's most distinguished practitioners.Though the book is written from a chemical engineering viewpoint, the principles and pitfalls are common to all mathematical modeling of physical systems. Seventeen of the author's frequently cited papers are reprinted to illus

  12. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29364917

  13. Proton electromagnetic form factors: Basic notions, present achievements and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacetti, Simone, E-mail: simone.pacetti@pg.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia dell’Universitá degli Studi di Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle [CEA, IRFU, SPhN, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, 91406 Orsay (France)

    2015-01-20

    The aim of this report is to give basic notions on electromagnetic hadron form factors (FFs), as they are understood at the present time, to summarize and analyze the present experimental results and available theoretical models and to open a view on future perspectives. FFs are fundamental quantities, which describe the internal, dynamical structure of hadrons. Although the theoretical formalism was settled in the middle of last century, as well as the first experiments in electron–proton elastic scattering for which R. Hofstadter got the Nobel prize in 1961, a renewed activity is due to recent, surprising results and to the opening of new experimental possibilities. An elegant formalism was built on the assumption of a hadron electromagnetic interaction based on the exchange of a virtual photon of four-momentum q{sup 2}. In this case FFs are analytic functions of only one variable, q{sup 2}, and the electromagnetic vertex γ{sup ∗}hh (h is any hadron) is defined by two structure functions, which, in turn, are expressed in terms of (2S+1) FFs, S being the hadron spin, assuming parity and time-invariance. Our aim is to anticipate the potentiality contained in the future data, combined with the present knowledge, to point out the relevant observables and the most significative measurements, and to give predictions to be compared to the data when they will be available.

  14. Proton electromagnetic form factors: Basic notions, present achievements and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Simone; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give basic notions on electromagnetic hadron form factors (FFs), as they are understood at the present time, to summarize and analyze the present experimental results and available theoretical models and to open a view on future perspectives. FFs are fundamental quantities, which describe the internal, dynamical structure of hadrons. Although the theoretical formalism was settled in the middle of last century, as well as the first experiments in electron-proton elastic scattering for which R. Hofstadter got the Nobel prize in 1961, a renewed activity is due to recent, surprising results and to the opening of new experimental possibilities. An elegant formalism was built on the assumption of a hadron electromagnetic interaction based on the exchange of a virtual photon of four-momentum q2. In this case FFs are analytic functions of only one variable, q2, and the electromagnetic vertex γ∗ hh (h is any hadron) is defined by two structure functions, which, in turn, are expressed in terms of (2 S + 1) FFs, S being the hadron spin, assuming parity and time-invariance. Our aim is to anticipate the potentiality contained in the future data, combined with the present knowledge, to point out the relevant observables and the most significative measurements, and to give predictions to be compared to the data when they will be available.

  15. Proton electromagnetic form factors: Basic notions, present achievements and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacetti, Simone; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give basic notions on electromagnetic hadron form factors (FFs), as they are understood at the present time, to summarize and analyze the present experimental results and available theoretical models and to open a view on future perspectives. FFs are fundamental quantities, which describe the internal, dynamical structure of hadrons. Although the theoretical formalism was settled in the middle of last century, as well as the first experiments in electron–proton elastic scattering for which R. Hofstadter got the Nobel prize in 1961, a renewed activity is due to recent, surprising results and to the opening of new experimental possibilities. An elegant formalism was built on the assumption of a hadron electromagnetic interaction based on the exchange of a virtual photon of four-momentum q 2 . In this case FFs are analytic functions of only one variable, q 2 , and the electromagnetic vertex γ ∗ hh (h is any hadron) is defined by two structure functions, which, in turn, are expressed in terms of (2S+1) FFs, S being the hadron spin, assuming parity and time-invariance. Our aim is to anticipate the potentiality contained in the future data, combined with the present knowledge, to point out the relevant observables and the most significative measurements, and to give predictions to be compared to the data when they will be available

  16. Regulatory perspective on future climates at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.M.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Brooks, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Current regulations of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) require that any performance assessment supporting the license application for a high-level waste (HLW) repository must consider the potential for changes in hydrologic conditions caused by reasonably foreseeable climatic conditions. The requirement is important because the earth's climate will almost certainly change significantly during the thousands of years that disposed nuclear wastes will remain hazardous. More importantly, climate controls the range of precipitation, which in turn controls the rates of infiltration, deep percolation, and groundwater flux through a geologic repository located in an unsaturated environment. Therefore, future changes in climate could significantly influence waste isolation in a repository at Yucca Mountain

  17. Current situation and future perspectives of digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Bautz, W.; Hermann, K.P.; Wacker, T.

    2008-01-01

    Digital mammography has extensively replaced conventional film screen mammography and is now the standard in combination with soft copy reading in clinical as well as screening mammography. Large international multicenter studies demonstrate an equivalent or superior detection rate of breast cancers by digital in comparison to conventional mammography especially in dense breasts, premenopausal and perimenopausal women and women less than 50 years old. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is important for the experienced investigator (increased specificity). Digital mammography also offers further options, such as tomosynthesis, digital contrast-enhanced mammography and the combination of digital mammography and ultrasound. The future in breast diagnosis will be the fusion of images from different digital systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  19. Advancement of remote systems technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 9 references, 5 figures

  20. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Bleeker, Albert; Hensen, Arjan; Vermeulen, Alex

    Agricultural emissions in Europe are important to several atmospheric transport-related environmental issues. These include local and regional air quality problems, such as PM exposure, eutrophication and acidification, toxics and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in a number of environmental impacts. Over Europe, agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and the contribution to the different issues are variable. Most important are ammonia (90%), PM (20%) and methane and nitrous oxide (both 5%). Policies have been developed to combat some of the emissions with success in some countries. However, future, national and European policies are necessary to successfully decrease emissions and its related problems. Current research issues include the quantification of non-point sources, the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of ammonia, the quantification of landscape processes and the primary and secondary emissions of PM.

  1. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A.; Vermeulen, A.T.

    2008-08-01

    Agricultural emissions in Europe are important to several atmospheric transport-related environmental issues. These include local and regional air quality problems, such as PM exposure, eutrophication and acidification, toxics and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in a number of environmental impacts. Over Europe, agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and the contribution to the different issues are variable. Most important are ammonia (90%), PM (20%) and methane and nitrous oxide (both 5%). Policies have been developed to combat some of the emissions with success in some countries. However, future, national and European policies are necessary to successfully decrease emissions and its related problems. Current research issues include the quantification of non-point sources, the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of ammonia, the quantification of landscape processes and the primary and secondary emissions of PM

  2. Advancement of remote systems technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Feldman, M.J.

    1984-04-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  3. Advancement of remote technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  4. Advancement of remote systems technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division, Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Teletec concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  5. Advancement of remote technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  6. A Perspective of Inclusion: Challenges for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Luise Braunsteiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The term, inclusion, particularly in the educational setting, is still based on a deficit view. Perceptions of ‘dis’-ability create barriers to true inclusion and are often reinforced through higher education training programs. To promote inclusive values, acceptance of individual and cultural differences must be included in all curricula, not solely within special education. The future of a truly inclusive education relies on a cultural shift that supports and nurtures differences, and views success through a lens not focused on standardization but on diversity. The Index for Inclusion (The Index has been utilized worldwide to support schools, to remove perceived barriers and to establish increasingly inclusive school cultures and practices. The Index aids in the creation of a culture that is dedicated to identifying and reducing barriers to inclusion and increases the learning and participation for all students.

  7. A critical evaluation of the validity of episodic future thinking: A clinical neuropsychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Amanda M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic future thinking is defined as the ability to mentally simulate a future event. Although episodic future thinking has been studied extensively in neuroscience, this construct has not been explored in depth from the perspective of clinical neuropsychology. The aim of this critical narrative review is to assess the validity and clinical implications of episodic future thinking. A systematic review of episodic future thinking literature was conducted. PubMed and PsycInfo were searched through July 2015 for review and empirical articles with the following search terms: "episodic future thinking," "future mental simulation," "imagining the future," "imagining new experiences," "future mental time travel," "future autobiographical experience," and "prospection." The review discusses evidence that episodic future thinking is important for adaptive functioning, which has implications for neurological populations. To determine the validity of episodic future thinking, the construct is evaluated with respect to related constructs, such as imagination, episodic memory, autobiographical memory, prospective memory, narrative construction, and working memory. Although it has been minimally investigated, there is evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for episodic future thinking. Research has not addressed the incremental validity of episodic future thinking. Practical considerations of episodic future thinking tasks and related constructs in a clinical neuropsychological setting are considered. The utility of episodic future thinking is currently unknown due to the lack of research investigating the validity of episodic future thinking. Future work is discussed, which could determine whether episodic future thinking is an important missing piece in standard clinical neuropsychological assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: history and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinfante, Nicolás; Arbelo, Dolores; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS; http://www.secs.com.es) has reached sixty years of existence, after being established in 1947 at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) as an initiative of renowned scientists including José María Albareda, Salvador Rivas Goday, Fernando Burriel, Tomás Alvira and others. However, soil studies in Spain began in the first third of XX century, coordinated by Emilio Huguet del Villar, internationally outstanding researcher who was the President of the Subcommittee for the Mediterranean Region of the International Society Soil Science, with the activities of the Forest Research Institute and the Institute of Mediterranean Soils of the Regional Catalonian Government. With the creation of the CSIC and the Spanish Institute of Soil Science and Agrobiology, directed by José M. Albareda, Soil Science research was promoted in all scientific fields and through the Spanish geography. The SECS is considered equally heiress of previously existing organizations, in particular the Spanish Commission of Soil Science and Phytogeography, created in 1925, which was the Spanish voice in various international organizations and meetings related with Soil Science. After these years, Soil Science has developed considerably, showing a great diversification of fields of study and research and its applications, as well as a growing social awareness of the soil degradation processes and the need to implement measures to protect natural resources nonrenewable on a human scale, and an increasing role of universities and CSIC in Soil Science research. Currently, the SECS is a scientific organization dedicated to promoting the study, knowledge, research and protection of soil resources; spread the scientific importance of soil functions as nonrenewable natural resource in society and promote the interest in its protection; and preserve the knowledge about soils, their management and use, both from productive and environmental perspectives

  9. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  10. Where to go in the near future: diverging perspectives on online public service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Jochen; Grönlund, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Although the electronic government is under heavy development, a clear vision doesn’t seem to exist. In this study 20 interviews among leaders in the field of e-government in the Netherlands resulted in different perspectives on the future of electronic public service delivery. The interviews

  11. Designing IB Curricula for Future Global Careerists: A Boundaryless Career Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suutari, Vesa; Smale, Adam

    2008-01-01

    New career realities appear to be reshaping the necessary tools, skills and attitudes individuals must possess in order to establish a successful career in the international business arena. In particular, the boundaryless career perspective provides an interesting point of departure from which to analyze the kinds of competences future global…

  12. Patent and intellectual property rights related to pharmaceuticals: global future perspectives: Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatani, Takeshi S

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese patent system is reviewed and summarized from pharmaceutical industrial point of view. Current systems and practice are introduced and current problems in pharma patent are discussed, and perspective for future patent system in the field of pharmaceutical industry is discussed and proposed.

  13. Enhancing student motivation: a longitudinal intervention study based on future time perspective theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, J.; Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van

  14. Conference Scene: From innovative polymers to advanced nanomedicine: Key challenges, recent progress and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, Jan; Hennink, W.E.; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in polymer-based controlled delivery systems have made a significant clinical impact. The second Symposium on Innovative Polymers for Controlled Delivery (SIPCD) was held in Suzhou, China to address the key challenges and provide up-to-date progress and future perspectives in the

  15. Classifying new anti-tuberculosis drugs: rationale and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tiberi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs is important as it helps the clinician to build an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases that do not fulfil the criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines, the choice of drugs was based on efficacy and toxicity in a step-down manner, from group 1 first-line drugs and groups 2–5 second-line drugs, to group 5 drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence. In the revised WHO classification, exclusively aimed at managing drug-resistant cases, medicines are again listed in hierarchical order from group A to group D. In parallel, a possible future classification is independently proposed. The aim of this viewpoint article is to describe the evolution in WHO TB classification (taking into account an independently proposed new classification and recent changes in WHO guidance, while commenting on the differences between them. The latest evidence on the ex-group 5 drugs is also discussed.

  16. Programmed cell death in periodontitis: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B; Zhou, T; Yang, W L; Liu, J; Shao, L Q

    2017-07-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent infectious disease, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, and is the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is initiated by periodontal pathogens, while other risk factors including smoking, stress, and systemic diseases aggravate its progression. Periodontitis affects many people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens and risk factors destroy the periodontium are unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), different from necrosis, is an active cell death mediated by a cascade of gene expression events and can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. Although PCD is involved in many inflammatory diseases, its correlation with periodontitis is unclear. After reviewing the relevant published articles, we found that apoptosis has indeed been reported to play a role in periodontitis. However, the role of autophagy in periodontitis needs further verification. Additionally, implication of necroptosis or pyroptosis in periodontitis remains unknown. Therefore, we recommend future studies, which will unravel the pivotal role of PCD in periodontitis, allowing us to prevent, diagnose, and treat the disease, as well as predict its outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Improved Vaccine against PRRSV: Current Progress and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, one of the most economically significant pathogens worldwide, has caused numerous outbreaks during the past 30 years. PRRSV infection causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in growing and finishing pigs, leading to huge economic losses for the swine industry. This impact has become even more significant with the recent emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSV strains from China, further exacerbating global food security. Since new PRRSV variants are constantly emerging from outbreaks, current strategies for controlling PRRSV have been largely inadequate, even though our understanding of PRRSV virology, evolution and host immune response has been rapidly expanding. Meanwhile, practical experience has revealed numerous safety and efficacy concerns for currently licensed vaccines, such as shedding of modified live virus (MLV, reversion to virulence, recombination between field strains and MLV and failure to elicit protective immunity against heterogeneous virus. Therefore, an effective vaccine against PRRSV infection is urgently needed. Here, we systematically review recent advances in PRRSV vaccine development. Antigenic variations resulting from PRRSV evolution, identification of neutralizing epitopes for heterogeneous isolates, broad neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV, chimeric virus generated by reverse genetics, and novel PRRSV strains with interferon-inducing phenotype will be discussed in detail. Moreover, techniques that could potentially transform current MLV vaccines into a superior vaccine will receive special emphasis, as will new insights for future PRRSV vaccine development. Ultimately, improved PRRSV vaccines may overcome the disadvantages of current vaccines and minimize the PRRS impact to the swine industry.

  18. Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Alamar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

  19. Classical swine fever in pigs: recent developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Vishal; Nandi, S; Ravishankar, C; Upmanyu, V; Verma, Rishendra

    2014-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of clinical signs and similarity in disease manifestations to other diseases make CSF difficult to diagnose with certainty. The disease is further complicated by the presence of a number of different strains belonging to three phylogenetic groups. Advanced diagnostic techniques allow detection of antigens or antibodies in clinical samples, leading to implementation of proper and effective control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including portable real-time PCR, provide diagnosis in a few hours with precision and accuracy, even at the point of care. The disease is controlled by following a stamping out policy in countries where vaccination is not practiced, whereas immunization with live attenuated vaccines containing the 'C' strain is effectively used to control the disease in endemic countries. To overcome the problem of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, different types of marker vaccines, with variable degrees of efficacy, along with companion diagnostic assays have been developed and may be useful in controlling and even eradicating the disease in the foreseeable future. The present review aims to provide an overview and status of CSF as a whole with special reference to swine husbandry in India.

  20. Monoamine neurotransmitter disorders--clinical advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joanne; Papandreou, Apostolos; Heales, Simon J; Kurian, Manju A

    2015-10-01

    The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are important genetic syndromes that cause disturbances in catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline) and serotonin homeostasis. These disorders result in aberrant monoamine synthesis, metabolism and transport. The clinical phenotypes are predominantly neurological, and symptoms resemble other childhood neurological disorders, such as dystonic or dyskinetic cerebral palsy, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and movement disorders. As a consequence, monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are under-recognized and often misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders requires detailed clinical assessment, cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter analysis and further supportive diagnostic investigations. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is paramount, as many are responsive to treatment. The treatment is usually mechanism-based, with the aim to reverse disturbances of monoamine synthesis and/or metabolism. Therapeutic intervention can lead to complete resolution of motor symptoms in some conditions, and considerably improve quality of life in others. In this Review, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and management of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders, and consider novel concepts, the latest advances in research and future prospects for therapy.

  1. Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, M C; Tosetti, Roberta; Landahl, Sandra; Bermejo, Antonio; Terry, Leon A

    2017-01-01

    Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC) as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

  2. Microbial lipolytic fusion enzymes: current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiukaite, Renata; Gricajeva, Alisa

    2017-11-27

    Genetic fusion of coding ORFs or connection of proteins in a post translational process are rather novel techniques to build products called fusion proteins that possess combined characteristics of their parental biomolecules. This attractive strategy used to create new enzymes not only diversifies their functionality by improving thermostability, thermo- and catalytic activity, substrate specificity, regio- or enantio-selectivity but also facilitates their purification and increases their yield. Many examples of microbial synthetic fusion biocatalysts are associated with fused enzymes that are involved in biomass degradation. However, one of the leading production segments is occupied by microbial lipolytic enzymes (lipases and esterases). As powerful biocatalysts these enzymes found their application in detergent, food, oil and fat, pulp and paper, leather, textile, cosmetics, biodiesel production industries. Moreover, lipolytic enzymes market is predicted to maintain leadership up to the year of 2024 and exceed millions of dollars. Recently, creation of lipolytic fusion biocatalysts for industrial applications gained more attention since it is not only a way of achievement of enzymes with improved properties but also a way to reduce industrial energy costs and ensure other economic benefits. This paper provides a comprehensive review on current state of microbial lipolytic fusion enzymes and their future potential.

  3. Early Modern Consumption History: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Ryckbosch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated by wide-ranging theories on its cultural and economic significance, the history of early modern consumption in the Low Countries has received a remarkable amount of attention in historiography during the last three decades. During this period the growing body of empirical evidence, as well as shifting theoretical frameworks, have gradually altered our understanding of early modern patterns of consumption, their causes and consequences. The current article presents a review of the main tendencies in the field of early modern consumption history, and the challenges to this historiographical field these have presented. Based on these challenges, the article suggests new avenues for future research. Vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis. Hedendaagse uitdagingen entoekomstperspectievenGestimuleerd door verstrekkende nieuwe theorieën over haar cultureleen economische betekenis, heeft de historiografie met betrekking totvroegmoderne consumptie in de Nederlanden op opmerkelijk veel aandacht mogen rekenen tijdens de voorbije drie decennia. Daarbij hebben zowel een groeiende beschikbaarheid van empirisch bronnenmateriaal, als verschuivende theoretische perspectieven,  geleidelijk aan ons begrip van vroegmoderne consumptiepatronen, en hun oorzaken en gevolgen grondig veranderd. Het huidige artikel biedt een overzicht van de belangrijkste tendensen in het domein van de vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis, gevolgd door nieuwe uitdagingen en toekomstperspectieven.

  4. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  5. Target Therapies for Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giovanni Vitale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcomas (CS in gynecology are very infrequent and represent only 2–5% of uterine cancers. Despite surgical cytoreduction and subsequent chemotherapy being the primary treatment for uterine CS, the overall five-year survival rate is 30 ± 9% and recurrence is extremely common (50–80%. Due to the poor prognosis of CS, new strategies have been developed in the last few decades, targeting known dysfunctional molecular pathways for immunotherapy. In this paper, we aimed to gather the available evidence on the latest therapies for the treatment of CS. We performed a systematic review using the terms “uterine carcinosarcoma”, “uterine Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumors”, “target therapies”, “angiogenesis therapy”, “cancer stem cell therapy”, “prognostic biomarker”, and “novel antibody-drug”. Based on our results, the differential expression and accessibility of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-1 on metastatic/chemotherapy-resistant CS cells in comparison to normal tissues and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2 open up new possibilities in the field of target therapy. Nevertheless, future investigations are needed to clarify the impact of these new therapies on survival rate and medium-/long-term outcomes.

  6. Targeting connexin 43 in diabetic wound healing: Future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unknown mechanisms of impaired tissue repair in diabetes mellitus are making this disease a serious clinical problem for the physicians worldwide. The lacuna in the knowledge of the etiology of diabetic wounds necessitates more focused research in order to develop new targeting tools with higher efficacy for their effective management. Gap-junction proteins, connexins, have shown some promising results in the process of diabetic wound healing. Till now the role of connexins has been implicated in peripheral neuropathy, deafness, skin disorders, cataract, germ cell development and treatment of cancer. Recent findings have revealed that gap junctions play a key role in normal as well as diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this review is to provide the information related to etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation of diabetic wounds and to analyze the role of connexin 43 (Cx43 in the diabetic wound healing process. The current control strategies and the future research challenges have also been discussed briefly in this review.

  7. Sustainable WEE management in Malaysia: present scenarios and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Hasan Shumon, Md; Ahmed, S.

    2013-12-01

    Technological advances have resulted development of a lot of electronic products for continuously increasing number of customers. As the customer taste and features of these products change rapidly, the life cycles have come down tremendously. Therefore, a large volume of e-wastes are now emanated every year. This scenario is very much predominant in Malaysia. On one hand e-wastes are becoming environmental hazards and affecting the ecological imbalance. On the other, these wastes are remaining still economically valuable. In Malaysia, e-waste management system is still in its nascent state. This paper describes the current status of e-waste generation and recycling and explores issues for future e-waste management system in Malaysia from sustainable point of view. As to draw some factual comparisons, this paper reviews the e-waste management system in European Union, USA, Japan, as a benchmark. Then it focuses on understanding the Malaysian culture, consumer discarding behavior, flow of the materials in recycling, e-waste management system, and presents a comparative view with the Swiss e-waste system. Sustainable issues for e-waste management in Malaysia are also presented. The response adopted so far in collection and recovery activities are covered in later phases. Finally, it investigates the barriers and challenges of e-waste system in Malaysia.

  8. [Clinical neuropsychology in perspective: future challenges based on current developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2012-02-01

    New lines of translational, interdisciplinary research are emerging among different fields of the neurosciences, which often point at clinical neuropsychology as the hinge discipline capable of linking the basic findings with their clinical implications and thereby endow them with some meaning for phenomenological experience. To establish the great lines of progress made in the fields of neuroscience and neuropsychology in recent years, so as to be able to foresee the strategic lines and priorities of neuroscience in the near future. To achieve this aim, the first step will be to identify the changes of paradigm that have taken place in the areas of neuroscience and psychology in the last two decades. The next step will be to propose new topics and fields of application that these changes in paradigm offer and demand from neuroscience. The false dichotomies of genes versus environment, mind versus brain, and reason versus emotion are considered, as are the new applications of neuropsychology to the understanding of psychopathological disorders, from the neurodegenerative to neurodevelopment, from 'dirty' drugs to cognitive and affective enhancers.

  9. Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Conceptual Evolution, Current Strategies, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Sheng Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of oncolytic virus (OV-mediated cancer therapy has been shifted from an operational virotherapy paradigm to an immunotherapy. OVs often induce immunogenic cell death (ICD of cancer cells, and they may interact directly with immune cells as well to prime antitumor immunity. We and others have developed a number of strategies to further stimulate antitumor immunity and to productively modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME for potent and sustained antitumor immune cell activity. First, OVs have been engineered or combined with other ICD inducers to promote more effective T cell cross-priming, and in many cases, the breaking of functional immune tolerance. Second, OVs may be armed to express Th1-stimulatory cytokines/chemokines or costimulators to recruit and sustain the potent antitumor immunity into the TME to focus their therapeutic activity within the sites of disease. Third, combinations of OV with immunomodulatory drugs or antibodies that recondition the TME have proven to be highly promising in early studies. Fourth, combinations of OVs with other immunotherapeutic regimens (such as prime-boost cancer vaccines, CAR T cells; armed with bispecific T-cell engagers have also yielded promising preliminary findings. Finally, OVs have been combined with immune checkpoint blockade, with robust antitumor efficacy being observed in pilot evaluations. Despite some expected hurdles for the rapid translation of OV-based state-of-the-art protocols, we believe that a cohort of these novel approaches will join the repertoire of standard cancer treatment options in the near future.

  10. Improved Vaccine against PRRSV: Current Progress and Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yuchen; Wu, Chunyan; Gu, Guoqian; Sun, Weiyao; Zhang, Yan-Jin; Zhou, En-Min

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), one of the most economically significant pathogens worldwide, has caused numerous outbreaks during the past 30 years. PRRSV infection causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in growing and finishing pigs, leading to huge economic losses for the swine industry. This impact has become even more significant with the recent emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSV strains from China, further exacerbating global food security. Since new PRRSV variants are constantly emerging from outbreaks, current strategies for controlling PRRSV have been largely inadequate, even though our understanding of PRRSV virology, evolution and host immune response has been rapidly expanding. Meanwhile, practical experience has revealed numerous safety and efficacy concerns for currently licensed vaccines, such as shedding of modified live virus (MLV), reversion to virulence, recombination between field strains and MLV and failure to elicit protective immunity against heterogeneous virus. Therefore, an effective vaccine against PRRSV infection is urgently needed. Here, we systematically review recent advances in PRRSV vaccine development. Antigenic variations resulting from PRRSV evolution, identification of neutralizing epitopes for heterogeneous isolates, broad neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV, chimeric virus generated by reverse genetics, and novel PRRSV strains with interferon-inducing phenotype will be discussed in detail. Moreover, techniques that could potentially transform current MLV vaccines into a superior vaccine will receive special emphasis, as will new insights for future PRRSV vaccine development. Ultimately, improved PRRSV vaccines may overcome the disadvantages of current vaccines and minimize the PRRS impact to the swine industry. PMID:28894443

  11. EARTH OBSERVATION ACTIVITIES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. El-Magd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was one of the first developing countries in Africa that used earth observation and remote sensing in various applications since 1970s. It has grown up in the last decades to build its own capacity in space science and technology that ended up by launching earth observation satellites. At the same time Egypt continued to develop the capacity in EO applications and contribute to the national development plans. In this domain NARSS, the governmental research institute that lead the EO and space applications has completed many research and development projects in EO applications in mineral resources exploration, coastal and marine resources, air quality, water resources management, food security, etc. This was via operational projects with the stakeholders and users to ensure sustainability and operation of the services. For example, NARSS has developed an operational system to monitor the national crop rice using EO information that capable to provide the actual land planted with rice and predict the yield. The system has enabled to provide recommendations for other plots of land that suitable for rice plantation. In the area of environmental hazards, many projects on the flash floods and the vulnerability to flash flood hazards were developed providing decision makers with vulnerability maps and Atlases on national level. Further details on the EO activities and future plans at NARSS, Egypt will be presented in this paper.

  12. Computerisation of procedures. Lessons learned and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Pirus, D.; Nilsen, S.; Bisio, R.; Hulsund, J.-E.; Zhang, W.

    2003-07-01

    The computerisation of the procedures has been investigated for several years. Even though guidelines for such computerisation have been proposed, there is a need to extend and revise these guidelines. In this report, we look at what has been achieved so far, both within the Halden Project as well as within other organisations related to nuclear power plants. These experiences are often related to testing of particular computerised procedure systems either in research laboratories or in nuclear utilities. These activities have accumulated a body of general knowledge on the subject, as documented in other 'lessons learned' reports of the past. This report will extend this accepted body of knowledge. Furthermore, we identify the unresolved problems that need to be further studied to make usable computerised procedures for the future. The report identifies selected qualities that should be reinforced to make computerised procedure systems better. In particular, the integration aspect is emphasised. A flexible integration with the operator tasks and the remaining interfaces of the control room is important. Unless this integration is accomplished, the computerised procedures will not be functional. Another aspect of integration is combination with other systems inclusive those systems that deal with the plant documentation, electronic or paper based. This kind of integration is important to the safe and reliable operation of the plant. Good integration with plant documentation is instrumental in creating reliable QA of the procedures that covers the whole life cycle of the procedure. (Author). 48 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  14. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Future Time Perspective and Awareness of Age-Related Change: Examining their Role in Predicting Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how two distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime – future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC) – are associated with one another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the U.S. and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40–98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. PMID:27243764

  16. Heavy hadron spectroscopy: A quark model perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Caramés, T.F.; Garcilazo, H.

    2013-01-01

    We present recent results of hadron spectroscopy and hadron–hadron interaction from the perspective of constituent quark models. We pay special attention to the role played by higher order Fock space components in the hadron spectra and the connection of this extension with the hadron–hadron interaction. The main goal of our description is to obtain a coherent understanding of the low-energy hadron phenomenology without enforcing any particular model, to constrain its characteristics and learn about low-energy realization of the theory

  17. Bromine and water quality – Selected aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winid, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Bromine is a microelement present in waters, both in inorganic and in a wide range of organic compounds, though at lower concentrations. Typically, concentrations of organobromine compounds in waters are several orders of magnitude lower than of bromides. Two issues are addressed in the paper: the influence of bromides on the quality of treated waters and organobromines as contaminants of natural waters. Bromide presence in treated water gives rise to formation of potentially mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Registered amounts of DBPs in potable waters, exceeding the admissible levels, and the published data on DBPs in waters used for leisure and recreation activities, clearly indicate the health risk. Major sources are identified and registered concentrations of EDB, DBCB, methyl bromide, bromacil and PBDEs in the aquatic environment are summarized. The effects of bromide on DBPs formation and numerous examples of organobromine contamination of the aquatic environment indicate that the presence of bromides and organobromine compounds in the aquatic environment will have to be given more consideration, for several reasons. Firstly, larger amounts of bromide are present in saline and contaminated waters and the proportion of such waters being handled is increasing. Similarly, the processes of water purification, treatment and disinfection are now playing a major role. Secondly, emissions from manufacturing of bromine-containing materials growing, due to, inter alia, intensive development of the electronic industry and the plastic manufacturing sector. Thirdly, bromine compounds are also used as medicine ingredients. There is now a growing awareness of the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Fourth, low bromide concentrations in hypergene zones may be modified in the future, partly because of the climate changes, which may give rise to difficulties with water treatment systems. Water quality standards having relevance to water used for

  18. Advanced therapy medicinal products: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies that encompass gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products. These therapies are expected to bring important health benefits, but also to substantially impact the pharmaceuticals budget. The aim of this study was to characterise the ATMPs in development and discuss future implications in terms of market access. Clinical trials were searched in the following databases: EudraCT (EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials), ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization). Trials were classified by category of ATMP as defined by European regulation EC No. 1394/2007, as well as by development phase and disease area. The database search identified 939 clinical trials investigating ATMPs (85% ongoing, 15% completed). The majority of trials were in the early stages (Phase I, I/II: 64.3%, Phase II, II/III: 27.9%, Phase 3: 6.9%). Per category of ATMP, we identified 53.6% of trials for somatic cell therapies, 22.8% for tissue-engineered products, 22.4% for gene therapies, and 1.2% for combined products (incorporating a medical device). Disease areas included cancer (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (19.4%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), immune system and inflammation (11.5%), neurology (9.1%), and others. Of the trials, 47.2% enrolled fewer than 25 patients. Due to the complexity and specificity of ATMPs, new clinical trial methodologies are being considered (e.g., small sample size, non-randomised trials, single-arm trials, surrogate endpoints, integrated protocols, and adaptive designs). Evidence generation post-launch will become unavoidable to address payers' expectations. ATMPs represent a fast-growing field of interest. Although most of the products are in an early development phase, the combined trial phase and the potential to cure severe chronic conditions suggest that ATMPs may reach the market earlier than

  19. Anticipating our future robot society : The evaluation of future robot applications from a user's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.M.A.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2016-01-01

    With an expected growth of robots in our future society, we believe that potential implications for robot applications should be addressed. Therefore, we conducted an online questionnaire among the general Dutch population (n= 1162) to map the societal impact of robots by identifying potential

  20. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  1. Bionic hand exoprosthesis--perspectives for the future in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogarasteanu, M E; Barbilian, A G

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetics is a modern area of interest and a challenge in Orthopedics. Over time, there has been a transition from an artisanal method of prosthetics production to modern concepts and materials, including a re-education through virtual reality. The conditions for an efficient fitting of a prosthesis include the necessity that the prosthesis respects the form and function of the lost limb, both anatomically and biomechanically. Prosthetics are made individually, personalized according to sex, age, physiological characteristics, profession and preference. In our country, thoracic limb prosthetics has a relatively short-recorded history of approximately a century, the most preeminent centers being in Iasi, Cluj and Bucharest. Currently, thoracic limb prosthetics, and particularly hand prosthetics, are in a period of development. A technique for amputation and stump reamputation called "circumferential osteoneuromioplasty" (CONM) is currently being used in the Orthopedics and Trauma Clinic of the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. The method was created with the purpose of obtaining distinct myoelectric signals of better quality, following the contraction of each muscle. The CONM method can be used in conjuncture with both the new hand prostheses that are currently available in Romania, and with the model that is being developed by a mixed team from the Polytechnic University in Bucharest, in collaboration with the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest.

  2. Probabilistic safety assessment past, present and future. An IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.; Niehaus, F.; Tomic, B.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the high level of development that probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods have reached, a number of issues place constraints on its use in supporting decision making on safety matters. A recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) represents an important step in reaching international consensus on the use of PSA. PSA is ''strongly encouraged'' by INSAG; however, it is noted that ''PSA methodology is not sufficiently mature for its present status to be frozen''. The main aspects of the report are discussed in this paper. The paper next discusses three main categories of PSA application, namely the adequacy of design and procedures, optimization of operational activities and regulatory applications. For each of the applications, the objectives, specific modelling requirements and the prospects for implementation are presented. Consistent with its statutory functions, an important aspect of the work of the IAEA is to reach international consensus on the possibilities of and limitations on the use of PSA methods. Whereas past efforts have been concentrated on promotion and assistance to perform Level 1 PSAs, work is now extending with emphasis on PSA applications, Level 2 and Level 3 analysis, external events and shutdown risks. The main elements of IAEA's PSA Programme are discussed. Finally some challenges related to the use of PSA in the backfitting of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and countries of the former USSR are addressed. (orig.)

  3. Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Costa, Solange; Fraga, Sonia; Bessa, Maria Joao; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, including superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have a number of interesting applications, especially in the biomedical field, that make them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials. They are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Together with these valuable uses, concerns regarding the onset of unexpected adverse health effects following exposure have been also raised. Nevertheless, despite the numerous ION purposes being explored, currently available information on their potential toxicity is still scarce and controversial data have been reported. Although ION have traditionally been considered as biocompatible - mainly on the basis of viability tests results - influence of nanoparticle surface coating, size, or dose, and of other experimental factors such as treatment time or cell type, has been demonstrated to be important for ION in vitro toxicity manifestation. In vivo studies have shown distribution of ION to different tissues and organs, including brain after passing the blood-brain barrier; nevertheless results from acute toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity investigations in different animal models do not provide a clear overview on ION safety yet, and epidemiological studies are almost inexistent. Much work has still to be done to fully understand how these nanomaterials interact with cellular systems and what, if any, potential adverse health consequences can derive from ION exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Localisation and World Modelling: An Architectural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Micucci

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous robot world modelling is a “chicken-and-egg” problem: position estimation needs a model of the world, whereas world modelling needs the robot position. Most of the works dealing with this issue propose holistic solutions under an algorithmic perspective by neglecting software architecture issues. This results in huge and monolithic pieces of software where implementation details reify strategic decisions. An architectural approach founded on separation of concerns may help to break the loop. Localisation and modelling, acting on different time scales, are mostly independent of each other. Sometimes synchronisation is required. Whenever needed, an external strategy tunes the relative rates of the two activities. The paper introduces rationale, design, and implementation of such a system which relies on Real-Time Performers, a software architecture providing suitable architectural abstractions to observe and control the system's temporal behaviour.

  5. Localisation and World Modelling: an Architectural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico G. Sorrenti

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous robot world modelling is a "chicken-and-egg" problem: position estimation needs a model of the world, whereas world modelling needs the robot position. Most of the works dealing with this issue propose holistic solutions under an algorithmic perspective by neglecting software architecture issues. This results in huge and monolithic pieces of software where implementation details reify strategic decisions. An architectural approach founded on separation of concerns may help to break the loop. Localisation and modelling, acting on different time scales, are mostly independent of each other. Sometimes synchronisation is required. Whenever needed, an external strategy tunes the relative rates of the two activities. The paper introduces rationale, design, and implementation of such a system which relies on Real-Time Performers, a software architecture providing suitable architectural abstractions to observe and control the system's temporal behaviour.

  6. Photovoltaic energy mini-generation: Future perspectives for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Duarte; Wemans, Joao; Lima, Joao; Malico, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the benefits of developing the mini-generation PV market in Portugal. It presents the legal framework and current status of the Portuguese PV electricity sector, and compares the country to other European nations: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. A model that combines PVGIS with a self-developed financial tool is used to assess the feasibility of a 150 kW mini-generation system using five different technologies: fixed mount, single-axis tracking, double-axis tracking, low concentration and medium concentration (MCPV). The profitability of the mini-generation systems in the seven countries studied is calculated and compared. According to this analysis, MCPV and, of the conventional technologies, the single-axis tracking systems are the most profitable technologies. Despite the attractiveness of the current Portuguese feed-in tariffs and of the abundant solar resource, investors are discouraged and the country's PV market is far from mature. Specific mini-generation regulations should focus on a fast and transparent licensing procedure and should promote the access to financing. This would attract new investments, which would result in the growth of the PV electricity produced, and would help Portugal to meet its European Union Renewable Energy targets. - Highlights: → This work promotes the development of a mini-generation PV market in Portugal. → The Portuguese current status and legal framework is compared to other EU countries. → The profitability of 5 different PV technologies is compared for 7 European countries. → The Portuguese growth potential for PV energy is still big. → Portugal, due to its radiation levels, presents excellent investment opportunities.

  7. A happier and less sinister past, a more hedonistic and less fatalistic present and a more structured future: time perspective and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Uta; Rosenberg, Patricia; Nima, Ali Al; Gamble, Amelie; Gärling, Tommy; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have established a link between how people relate to their past, present, and future (i.e., time perspective) and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect). Time perspective comprises five dimensions: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Hedonistic, Present Fatalistic, and Future. Life satisfaction can also be evaluated in relation to different time frames. Moreover, approach related positive affect is associated to a different concept of well-being labeled psychological well-being. In the present study we extend previous findings by investigating the effect of time perspective on the time frame of evaluations of life satisfaction (past, present, future) and by investigating the relationship between time perspective and psychological well-being. Method. Questionnaires on time perspective (Zimbardo's Time Perspective Inventory), temporal life satisfaction (Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale), affect (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule), and psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version) were answered by 453 individuals. Two different structural equation models were tested, one of the relationship between time perspective and temporal life satisfaction, and the other of the relationship between time perspective, affect and psychological well-being. Results. Time perspective affected life satisfaction depending on the time scale on which it was evaluated-memory of a negative past influenced life satisfaction in all time frames, and a positive view of the past influenced both past and future life satisfaction. Moreover, less rumination about past negative events (i.e., low score on Past Negative), the tendency to take risks in the present to achieve happy feelings and/or avoid boredom (i.e., high scores on Present Hedonistic), and a less hopeless and pessimistic view about the present (low scores on Present Fatalistic) were associated with higher levels of

  8. A happier and less sinister past, a more hedonistic and less fatalistic present and a more structured future: time perspective and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Sailer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have established a link between how people relate to their past, present, and future (i.e., time perspective and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect. Time perspective comprises five dimensions: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Hedonistic, Present Fatalistic, and Future. Life satisfaction can also be evaluated in relation to different time frames. Moreover, approach related positive affect is associated to a different concept of well-being labeled psychological well-being. In the present study we extend previous findings by investigating the effect of time perspective on the time frame of evaluations of life satisfaction (past, present, future and by investigating the relationship between time perspective and psychological well-being.Method. Questionnaires on time perspective (Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory, temporal life satisfaction (Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, affect (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, and psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-Being—short version were answered by 453 individuals. Two different structural equation models were tested, one of the relationship between time perspective and temporal life satisfaction, and the other of the relationship between time perspective, affect and psychological well-being.Results. Time perspective affected life satisfaction depending on the time scale on which it was evaluated—memory of a negative past influenced life satisfaction in all time frames, and a positive view of the past influenced both past and future life satisfaction. Moreover, less rumination about past negative events (i.e., low score on Past Negative, the tendency to take risks in the present to achieve happy feelings and/or avoid boredom (i.e., high scores on Present Hedonistic, and a less hopeless and pessimistic view about the present (low scores on Present Fatalistic were associated with higher

  9. A happier and less sinister past, a more hedonistic and less fatalistic present and a more structured future: time perspective and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Uta; Rosenberg, Patricia; Nima, Ali Al; Gamble, Amelie; Gärling, Tommy; Archer, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have established a link between how people relate to their past, present, and future (i.e., time perspective) and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect). Time perspective comprises five dimensions: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Hedonistic, Present Fatalistic, and Future. Life satisfaction can also be evaluated in relation to different time frames. Moreover, approach related positive affect is associated to a different concept of well-being labeled psychological well-being. In the present study we extend previous findings by investigating the effect of time perspective on the time frame of evaluations of life satisfaction (past, present, future) and by investigating the relationship between time perspective and psychological well-being. Method. Questionnaires on time perspective (Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory), temporal life satisfaction (Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale), affect (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule), and psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-Being—short version) were answered by 453 individuals. Two different structural equation models were tested, one of the relationship between time perspective and temporal life satisfaction, and the other of the relationship between time perspective, affect and psychological well-being. Results. Time perspective affected life satisfaction depending on the time scale on which it was evaluated—memory of a negative past influenced life satisfaction in all time frames, and a positive view of the past influenced both past and future life satisfaction. Moreover, less rumination about past negative events (i.e., low score on Past Negative), the tendency to take risks in the present to achieve happy feelings and/or avoid boredom (i.e., high scores on Present Hedonistic), and a less hopeless and pessimistic view about the present (low scores on Present Fatalistic) were associated with higher levels of

  10. Computational brain models: Advances from system biology and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational brain models focused on the interactions between neurons and astrocytes, modeled via metabolic reconstructions, are reviewed. The large source of experimental data provided by the -omics techniques and the advance/application of computational and data-management tools are being fundamental. For instance, in the understanding of the crosstalk between these cells, the key neuroprotective mechanisms mediated by astrocytes in specific metabolic scenarios (1 and the identification of biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases (2,3. However, the modeling of these interactions demands a clear view of the metabolic and signaling pathways implicated, but most of them are controversial and are still under evaluation (4. Hence, to gain insight into the complexity of these interactions a current view of the main pathways implicated in the neuron-astrocyte communication processes have been made from recent experimental reports and reviews. Furthermore, target problems, limitations and main conclusions have been identified from metabolic models of the brain reported from 2010. Finally, key aspects to take into account into the development of a computational model of the brain and topics that could be approached from a systems biology perspective in future research are highlighted.

  11. The future of hydropower planning modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Zuñiga, D.; Nowak, W.; Olivares, M. A.; Castelletti, A.; Thilmant, A.

    2017-12-01

    Planning the investment and operation of hydropower plants with optimization tools dates back to the 1970s. The focus used to be solely on the provision of energy. However, advances in computational capacity and solving algorithms, dynamic markets, expansion of renewable sources, and a better understanding of hydropower environmental impacts have recently led to the development of novel planning approaches. In this work, we provide a review, systematization, and trend analysis of these approaches. Further, through interviews with experts, we outline the future of hydropower planning modeling and identify the gaps towards it. We classified the found models along environmental, economic, multipurpose and technical criteria. Environmental interactions include hydropeaking mitigation, water quality protection and limiting greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs. Economic and regulatory criteria consider uncertainties of fossil fuel prices and relicensing of water rights and power purchase agreements. Multipurpose considerations account for irrigation, tourism, flood protection and drinking water. Recently included technical details account for sedimentation in reservoirs and variable efficiencies of turbines. Additional operational considerations relate to hydrological aspects such as dynamic reservoir inflows, water losses, and climate change. Although many of the above criteria have been addressed in detail on a project-to-project basis, models remain overly simplistic for planning large power fleets. Future hydropower planning tools are expected to improve the representation of the water-energy nexus, including environmental and multipurpose criteria. Further, they will concentrate on identifying new sources of operational flexibility (e.g. through installing additional turbines and pumps) for integrating renewable energy. The operational detail will increase, potentially emphasizing variable efficiencies, storage capacity losses due to sedimentation, and the

  12. Status and perspectives of nanoscale device modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macucci, M.; Lannaccone, G.; Greer, J.

    2001-01-01

    During the meetings of the theory and modelling working group, within the MEL-ARI (Microelectronics Advanced Research Initiative) and NID-FET (Nanotechnology information Devices-Future and Emerging Technologies) initiatives of the European Commission, we have been discussing the current status...

  13. Adaptation and development of software simulation methodologies for cardiovascular engineering: present and future challenges from an end-user perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuccarini, V; Narracott, A J; Burriesci, G; Zervides, C; Rafiroiu, D; Jones, D; Hose, D R; Lawford, P V

    2009-07-13

    This paper describes the use of diverse software tools in cardiovascular applications. These tools were primarily developed in the field of engineering and the applications presented push the boundaries of the software to address events related to venous and arterial valve closure, exploration of dynamic boundary conditions or the inclusion of multi-scale boundary conditions from protein to organ levels. The future of cardiovascular research and the challenges that modellers and clinicians face from validation to clinical uptake are discussed from an end-user perspective.

  14. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic emotional stress: Review and perspectives for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Carlos C

    2017-03-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Adolescence has been proposed as a developmental period of vulnerability to stress. This idea has been mainly supported by experimental research in animals demonstrating a higher impact of chronic emotional stress in adolescents compared with adults. Adolescent vulnerability is also based on evidence that stress during this developmental period affects development, so that enduring changes are found in adult animals that experienced stress during adolescence. The purpose of the present review is to discuss experimental research in rodent models that investigated the impact of long-term exposure to stressful events during adolescence on cardiovascular function. The development of cardiovascular function and autonomic activity in rodents is initially reviewed. Then, a discussion of an adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular effects of chronic stress is presented. From the reviewed literature, perspective for future research is proposed to better elucidate adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular complications evoked by chronic emotional stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Magmaris: a new generation metallic sirolimus-eluting fully bioresorbable scaffold: present status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapetto, Claudio; Leoncini, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have reached a high safety and efficacy profile, becoming the best option for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) based revascularization. However, despite their optimal performance, a few concerns remain regarding their use, mainly due to permanent caging of the vessels and its consequences, first of all late stent thrombosis (ST). Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) aim to overcome these issues. The results achieved in randomized controlled trials (RCT) by the first generation of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) based scaffolds were promising at 1 year, but the first long term reports (albeit flawed by non-optimal implantation technique) have been disappointing, showing, for instance, an increased risk of ST and target vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI). In such a scenario the advent of a newer generation magnesium (Mg) based BRS is welcome, mainly because of its innovative mechanical and chemical features coupled with well proven biocompatibility. Despite being in its infancy, this technology seems to promise a great potential. In our article, we review the Magmaris (Biotronik AG, Bülach, Switzerland) Mg BRS development from animal models to human use, underscore its best qualities and weaknesses, and provide hints of its possible future perspectives.

  16. Landowners' perspectives on the rural future and the role of forests across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elands, Birgit; Præstholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    are important to many landowners. Moreover, a polarisation seems to be developing between a minority of full-time farmers with progressive farming prospects and the vast majority of landowners with declining prospects or little dependency on primary production. More importantly, the research reveals a third...... countries perceive future development. Landowners' prospects for change are investigated on both the locality and enterprise level. Special attention is given to the role of forestry as a potential future development perspective. The results reveal that both restructuring and modernisation perspectives...... that it is not only part-time, hobby and retired farmers that are engaged in "restructuring" activities, but also full-time farmers. As regards the role of forests, the majority of landowners do not interpret forests in an economic development context, but as green infrastructure important to the local quality...

  17. Current Situation and Future Perspectives of Chinese Popular Music in Global Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Music industry, as a rising star of cultural industries, is playing an increasingly important role in globalization of international economy. Nowadays western music has cornered most of the modern music market for a long time while Korea and Japan’s modern music developed quickly these last 20 years which gave Chinese music market huge pressure. Under the background the author aims to observe and analyze present market situation and future perspective of Chinese popular music in this study. ...

  18. Soil Degradation and Soil Quality in Western Europe: Current situation and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    VIRTO Iñigo; IMAZ María José; FERNANDEZ UGALDE OIHANE; GARTZIA-BENGOETXEA Nahia; ENRIQUE Alberto; BESCANSA Paloma

    2014-01-01

    The extent and causes of chemical, physical and biological degradation of soil, and of soil loss, vary greatly in different countries in Western Europe. The objective of this review paper is to examine these issues and also strategies for soil protection and future perspectives for soil quality evaluation, in light of present legislation aimed at soil protection. Agriculture and forestry are the main causes of many of the above problems, especially physical degradation, erosion and organic m...

  19. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: An historical perspective and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbles, John [Steel Industry Consultant, Mason, OH (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Renowned industry expert Dr. John Stubbles has projected the energy savings that the U.S. steel industry could reasonably expect to achieve in the report, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities (PDF 432 KB). The report examines the potential impacts of state-of-the-art technologies and operating practices, as well as structural changes in the industry itself.

  20. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Omar

    2015-01-01

    Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005), had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys) Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample parti...

  1. Commentary on the Future of Community Psychology: Perspective of a Research Community Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G

    2016-12-01

    Community psychology is commented upon from the perspective of a community psychologist who was trained in the Community Psychology Program at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Her background and training are reviewed. A brief survey of research on homelessness as a frame for community psychology research is presented. Concluding remarks are provided on the future of research in community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  2. Physical Education Teachers’ Perspectives in a Changing World: From Future Studies to New Physical Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Voitovska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical education teachers’ perspectives in a changing world. Technologies of transhumanism are aimed at expanding human biological capabilities and creating a posthuman, in which natural organs and organ systems are planned to replace with artificial transplants. Thus, these technologies make it necessary to reconsider the established views on physical culture and the goals of teaching physical education. The author uses the comparative analysis to compare the foundations of futures studies, using examples from the academic journal Future Human Image, specializing in futures studies, as well as the physical education teachers’ perspectives which are revealed in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE. This journal focuses on the stimulating discussion, study, and critique of teaching, teacher education, and curriculum in fields related to physical activity in schools, communities, higher education, and sport. As a result of the analysis, the author concludes that in spite of ideas of transhumanism and other futures studies, physical culture and physical education, which move into the mass consciousness actively, retain topicality. The recommendations are taken into account in futures studies and studies in the field of physical culture.

  3. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part I: Clinical and network analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. Part I includes the clinical phenotyping and diagnostic methods, EEG network-analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches. In Part II, experimental and translational approaches will be discussed (Bauer et al., 2017) [1]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  4. Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars M. Göllner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay of gratification (DoG in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the “marshmallow test,” whereas the studies on self-regulation (SR in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs [future time perspective (FTP and episodic future thinking (EFT] as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9–14, 18–25, 35–55, 65–80, 80+ participated in the study (N = 96. While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was the lowest [i.e., self-control (SC was the highest] in young/middle adults; however, it was the highest (i.e., SC was the lowest in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

  5. Modelling of future hydrogeological conditions at SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, L.G.; Stigsson, M. [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose is to estimate the future groundwater movements at the SFR repository and to produce input to the quantitative safety assessment of the SFR. The future flow pattern of the groundwater is of interest, since components of the waste emplaced in a closed and abandoned repository will dissolve in the groundwater and be transported by the groundwater to the ground surface. The study is based on a system analysis approach. Three-dimensional models were devised of the studied domain. The models include the repository tunnels and the surrounding rock mass with fracture zones. The formal models used for simulation of the groundwater flow are three-dimensional mathematical descriptions of the studied hydraulic system. The studied domain is represented on four scales - regional, local, semi local and detailed - forming four models with different resolutions: regional, local, semi local and detailed models. The local and detailed models include a detailed description of the tunnel system at SFR and of surrounding rock mass and fracture zones. In addition, the detailed model includes description of the different structures that take place inside the deposition tunnels. At the area studied, the shoreline will retreat due to the shore level displacement; this process is included in the models. The studied period starts at 2000 AD and continues until a steady state like situation is reached for the surroundings of the SFR at ca 6000 AD. The models predict that as long as the sea covers the ground above the SFR, the regional groundwater flow as well as the flow in the deposition tunnels are small. However, due to the shore level displacement the shoreline (the sea) will retreat. Because of the retreating shoreline, the general direction of the groundwater flow at SFR will change, from vertical upward to a more horizontal flow; the size of the groundwater flow will be increased as well. The present layout of the SFR includes five deposition tunnels: SILO, BMA, BLA, BTF1

  6. The Bioeconomy Model in Future Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipate Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The future of sustainable development is the bioeconomy with the ―global‖ solution; both global and local action for developed the renewable energy generation. When local solutions are implemented is being laid for global solutions are positive affect the national economy. The implementation of the bioeconomy strategy used by society to prevent urgent problems, such as increasing competition for natural resources, climate change, rural sustainable development. The bioeconomy is a new economic and social order and promotes systemic change from using non-renewable resources to renewables. Bioeconomy reveals that production, which involves the transformation of a limited stock of matter and energy, but respecting the same laws that govern entropy closed systems, the entropy or unavailable matter and energy in the forms tend to increase continuously. Economic growth not only increases the apparent output per unit of inputs, which is performed using finite stock of matter and energy in the world. The current economy is based on fossil fuels and other material inputs suffering entropic degradation, both in the raw material extraction and pollution. The production, even if technical progress leads to lower overall yields. The idea of a steady state as the final economic growth that perpetuated indefinitely pendulum model is an impossibility

  7. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  8. Multi-perspective workflow modeling for online surgical situation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Stefan; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Surgical workflow management is expected to enable situation-aware adaptation and intelligent systems behavior in an integrated operating room (OR). The overall aim is to unburden the surgeon and OR staff from both manual maintenance and information seeking tasks. A major step toward intelligent systems behavior is a stable classification of the surgical situation from multiple perspectives based on performed low-level tasks. The present work proposes a method for the classification of surgical situations based on multi-perspective workflow modeling. A model network that interconnects different types of surgical process models is described. Various aspects of a surgical situation description were considered: low-level tasks, high-level tasks, patient status, and the use of medical devices. A study with sixty neurosurgical interventions was conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach and its robustness against incomplete workflow recognition input. A correct classification rate of over 90% was measured for high-level tasks and patient status. The device usage models for navigation and neurophysiology classified over 95% of the situations correctly, whereas the ultrasound usage was more difficult to predict. Overall, the classification rate decreased with an increasing level of input distortion. Autonomous adaptation of medical devices and intelligent systems behavior do not currently depend solely on low-level tasks. Instead, they require a more general type of understanding of the surgical condition. The integration of various surgical process models in a network provided a comprehensive representation of the interventions and allowed for the generation of extensive situation descriptions. Multi-perspective surgical workflow modeling and online situation models will be a significant pre-requisite for reliable and intelligent systems behavior. Hence, they will contribute to a cooperative OR environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cone beam computed tomographic imaging: perspective, challenges, and the impact of near-trend future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraiso

    2012-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered as a valuable imaging modality for improving diagnosis and treatment planning to achieve true guidance for several craniofacial surgical interventions. A new concept and perspective in medical informatics is the highlight discussion about the new imaging interactive workflow. The aim of this article was to present, in a short literature review, the usefulness of CBCT technology as an important alternative imaging modality, highlighting current practices and near-term future applications in cutting-edge thought-provoking perspectives for craniofacial surgical assessment. This article explains the state of the art of CBCT improvements, medical workstation, and perspectives of the dedicated unique hardware and software, which can be used from the CBCT source. In conclusion, CBCT technology is developing rapidly, and many advances are on the horizon. Further progress in medical workstations, engineering capabilities, and improvement in independent software-some open source-should be attempted with this new imaging method. The perspectives, challenges, and pitfalls in CBCT will be delineated and evaluated along with the technological developments.

  10. The perspective awareness model - Eliciting multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of attention is given to the importance of communication in environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. However, very little attention is given to eliciting multiple perspectives so as to formulate high quality decisions. Plans that are based on a limited number of perspectives tend to be narrowly focused whereas those that are based on a wide variety of perspectives tend to be comprehensive, higher quality, and more apt to be put into application. In addition, existing methods of dialogue have built-in limitations in that they typically draw from the predominant thinking patterns which focus in some areas but ignore others. This can result in clarity but a lack of comprehensiveness. This paper presents a Perspective Awareness Model which helps groups such as partnering teams, interagency teams, steering committees, and working groups elicit a wide net of perspectives and viewpoints. The paper begins by describing five factors that makes cooperation among such groups challenging. Next, a Perspective Awareness Model that makes it possible to manage these five factors is presented. The two primary components of this model --- the eight 'Thinking Directions' and the 'Shared Documentation' --- are described in detail. Several examples are given to illustrate how the Perspective Awareness Model can be used to elicit multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions in the area of environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. (authors)

  11. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzerman MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maarten J IJzerman,1,3 Andrea Manca,2,3 Julia Keizer,1 Scott D Ramsey4 1Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK; 3Department of Population Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg, 4Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Personalized medicine (PM or precision medicine has been defined as an innovative approach that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles in prevention and treatment of disease. In PM, genomic information may contribute to the molecular understanding of disease, to optimize preventive health care strategies, and to fit the best drug therapies to the patient's individual characteristics. Evidence development in the era of genomic medicine is extremely challenging due to a number of factors. These include the rapid technological innovation in molecular diagnostics and targeted drug discoveries, and hence the large number of mutations and multiple ways these may influence treatment decisions. Although the evidence base for PM is evolving rapidly, the main question to be explored in this article is whether existing evidence is also fit for comparative effectiveness research (CER. As a starting point, this paper therefore reflects on the evidence required for CER and the evidence gaps preventing decisions on market access and coverage. The paper then discusses challenges and potential barriers for applying a CER paradigm to PM, identifies common methodologies for designing clinical trials in PM, discusses various approaches for analyzing clinical trials to infer from population to individual level, and presents an example of a clinical trial in PM (The RxPONDER TRIAL demonstrating good practice. The paper concludes with a future perspective, including modeling approaches for evidence synthesis.Keywords: personalized

  12. “Omics”-Informed Drug and Biomarker Discovery: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Matthews

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry faces unsustainable program failure despite significant increases in investment. Dwindling discovery pipelines, rapidly expanding R&D budgets and increasing regulatory control, predict significant gaps in the future drug markets. The cumulative duration of discovery from concept to commercialisation is unacceptably lengthy, and adds to the deepening crisis. Existing animal models predicting clinical translations are simplistic, highly reductionist and, therefore, not fit for purpose. The catastrophic consequences of ever-increasing attrition rates are most likely to be felt in the developing world, where resistance acquisition by killer diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and HIV have paced far ahead of new drug discovery. The coming of age of Omics-based applications makes available a formidable technological resource to further expand our knowledge of the complexities of human disease. The standardisation, analysis and comprehensive collation of the “data-heavy” outputs of these sciences are indeed challenging. A renewed focus on increasing reproducibility by understanding inherent biological, methodological, technical and analytical variables is crucial if reliable and useful inferences with potential for translation are to be achieved. The individual Omics sciences—genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics—have the singular advantage of being complimentary for cross validation, and together could potentially enable a much-needed systems biology perspective of the perturbations underlying disease processes. If current adverse trends are to be reversed, it is imperative that a shift in the R&D focus from speed to quality is achieved. In this review, we discuss the potential implications of recent Omics-based advances for the drug development process.

  13. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  15. [Diagnosis and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease: Present and Future Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Wook

    2016-06-25

    Peptic ulcer disease is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in gastroenterology clinics. After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshall, it has been identified as the most important cause of peptic ulcer. Eradication of H. pylori markedly reduces the post-treatment recurrence rate of peptic ulcer. However, as human populations age, the incidence of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases increases and consequent use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-in-flammatory drugs increases. Thus causes and presenting patterns of peptic ulcer have changed. In this review, I describe new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for peptic ulcer disease and explore future perspectives.

  16. Current development and future perspectives of the application of radioisotopes and radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, H.

    1994-01-01

    Development of the use of radioisotopes and radiation is reviewed over the last thirty years based on the statistics on the distribution of radioisotopes and generators in Japan. The prosperity and decline of radioisotopes are discussed accompanying the technological and sociological environment of their use. There is a tendency to substitute non-radio technology for the use of radioisotope and radiation. Future perspectives are studied on the use of major radioisotopes. Status of the use of radiation generators is also described. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  17. High-resolution mass spectrometry in toxicology: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) approaches using time-of-flight or Orbitrap techniques for research and application in various toxicology fields, particularly in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology published since 2013 and referenced in PubMed. In the introduction, an overview on applications of HRMS in various toxicology fields is given with reference to current review articles. Papers concerning HRMS in metabolism, screening, and quantification of pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and toxins in human body samples are critically reviewed. Finally, a discussion on advantages as well as limitations and future perspectives of these methods is included.

  18. Status and future perspectives of PWR and comparing views on WWER fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidinger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview on status and future perspectives of the Western PWR fuel technology. For easer understanding and correlating, some comparing views to the WWER fuel technology are provided. This overview of the PWR fuel technology of course can not go into the details of the today used designs of fuel, fuel rods and fuel assemblies. However, it tries to describe the today achieved capability of PWR fuel technology with regard to reliability, efficiency and safety

  19. Present status and future perspective of research and test reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaieda, Keisuke; Baba, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfill a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present, four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has reached first criticality and is waiting for the power-up test. This paper introduce these reactors and describes their present operational status. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives are also reported. (author)

  20. [The Woman and the Care of Life. Historical Understanding and Future Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé García, M Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Over the ages of humanity, women has established a special relationship life care's with the most vulnerable. Women dedicated to the professional care have always existed, also to the unpaid home care of the sick, elderly, with some disability, and children. This study has been carried out a historical and current verification of this question, marking its most characteristic and significant features. From that perspective, we tried to answer these key questions: causes that have motivated this fact, its social consequences and, finally, the most important future implications for all, men and women that, surely, we will be caregivers and strapped for care in our illness.

  1. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  2. Current status and future perspectives of accelerator-based x-ray light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    State-of-the-art x-ray light sources are nowadays based on large-scale electron accelerators, because the synchrotron radiation (SR) and x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) radiation generated by high-energy electron beams have many advantages over other alternatives in terms of the wavelength tunability, high brightness and flux, high coherence, flexible polarization states, and so on. This is the reason why SR and XFEL light sources have largely contributed to the evolution of x-ray science. This paper reviews the current status of such accelerator-based x-ray light source facilities and discusses their future perspectives.

  3. IAEA activities in nuclear safety: future perspectives. Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid, 28 May 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document represents the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council in Madrid, on 28 May 1998, on Agency's activities in nuclear safety. The following aspects are emphasized: Agency's role in creating a legally binding nuclear safety regime, non-binding safety standards, services provided by the Agency to assist its Member States in the Application of safety standards, Agency's nuclear safety strategy, and future perspective concerning safety aspects related to radioactive wastes, residues of past nuclear activities, and security of radiological sources

  4. Palaeohydrogeological modelling for potential future repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In order to consider the future behaviour of a groundwater system over time scales of relevance to repository safety assessment, it is necessary to develop an understanding of how the groundwater system has changed over time. This can be done through studying the palaeohydrogeology of the groundwater system. The EQUIP project (Evidence from Quaternary Infills for Palaeohydrogeology) set out to develop and evaluate methodologies for obtaining palaeohydrogeological information from fracture infill minerals formed under past groundwater conditions. EQUIP was a collaborative project funded jointly by the European Commission and, in the UK, by the Environment Agency and UK Nirex Limited. The project also involved partners in Finland, France, Spain and Sweden. The fracture infill material chosen for this investigation was calcite, because its reactions in low temperature groundwater environments are fairly well understood and it is fairly ubiquitous in both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. In addition, geochemical modelling suggests that plausible time scales for growth of individual calcite crystals are in the range 10 to 10,000 years, so they may accumulate a record of groundwater evolution over periods of significant climate change. The project was based on four sites, having different climate histories and geological conditions, at which drillcore samples of the deep crystalline rocks, accompanied by hydrogeological and hydrochemical data for the current groundwater conditions, were already available. The principal study sites were Olkiluoto in Finland, Aspo/Laxemar in Sweden, Sellafield in the UK and Vienne in France. The results of the study focus on the morphology and bulk compositions of calcite, compositional zoning of calcite crystals and compositions of fluid inclusions. There are systematic variations in bulk compositions with depth and also in discrete compositional fluctuations (or zones) in individual calcite crystals. These are inferred to reflect

  5. Hour Glass Half-Full or Half-Empty? Future Time Perspective and Preoccupation with Negative Events Across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the “here and now.” Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a US national adult life-span sample (N= 3,933, 18-93 yrs), we found that a two-factor model of future time perspective (focus on future opportunities; focus on limited time) fit the data better than a one-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full—they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty—they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time. This pattern held even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared to men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as two dimensions are discussed. PMID:27267222

  6. Testing evolutionary models of senescence: traditional approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Chloe; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-12-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the existence of senescence is a paradox. Why has senescence not been more effectively selected against given its associated decreases in Darwinian fitness? Why does senescence exist and how has it evolved? Three major theories offer explanations: (1) the theory of mutation accumulation suggested by PB Medawar; (2) the theory of antagonistic pleiotropy suggested by GC Williams; and (3) the disposable soma theory suggested by TBL Kirkwood. These three theories differ in the underlying causes of aging that they propose but are not mutually exclusive. This paper compares the specific biological predictions of each theory and discusses the methods and results of previous empirical tests. Lifespan is found to be the most frequently used estimate of senescence in evolutionary investigations. This measurement acts as a proxy for an individual's rate of senescence, but provides no information on an individual's senescent state or "biological age" throughout life. In the future, use of alternative longitudinal measures of senescence may facilitate investigation of previously neglected aspects of evolutionary models, such as intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity in the process of aging. DNA methylation data are newly proposed to measure biological aging and are suggested to be particularly useful for such investigations.

  7. For or Against the Eurozone? Romanian Students’ Perspective on the Economic Crisis and Their Future as European Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Daniela MIHALCEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and of the aftermath of the economic crisis, the pillars on which the EU stands no longer satisfy the demands and necessities of the European citizens (Van Ham, 2005; Habermas, 2012.  The euro crisis has generated, on one hand, a gap between the “center” and the “periphery” that can be correlated with the fragmentation both of the EU’s spheres of influence and of the European financial market (Dobrescu & Palada, 2012; EFCR, 2013.  On the other hand, the euro crisis has generated a lack of solidarity and confidence in the European project. At this point, the major challenge for the European Union is not only the Euro-zone crisis, but also the level of confidence amongst young people. Recent polls (Gallup, 2013; Pew Research Center, 2013 indicate a dramatic rise in pessimism among Europe’s young people that have been labeled as “the Lost Generation” (European Commission, 2012. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on Romanian students’ attitudes towards the future of the European project and towards their European identity. The study aims at identifying the major concerns of Romanian students in terms of their future as European citizens. Our approach of this subject covers two perspectives: the first one is the utilitarian perspective, that is taking into consideration the actual advantages of the Europeanization process and the sustainability of the European social and economic model in the current national economic context; the second one is the identity perspective, that is taking into account the impact of the economic crisis on the Romanian students’ sense of belonging to the European community. The results of our study indicate that, overall, the Romanian youth holds an optimistic view concerning the EU, however they express some concerns in terms of lack of solidarity and fear of national identity loss.

  8. Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.; Walter, E.

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modified spot model. Using the martingale property of the modified price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. We estimate

  9. Towards a Critical Futurism. Part Two: Revising and Refining a Futurist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Whether accepted notions of science provide appropriate models for futurism is discussed, underlying ideological issues are examined, and ways in which futurists may re-interpret their own roles are presented. (Author/RM)

  10. Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System - Global Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, James; Fortes, Patrícia; Krook-Riekkola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In a climate constrained future, hybrid energy-economy model coupling gives additional insight into interregional competition, trade, industrial delocalisation and overall macroeconomic consequences of decarbonising the energy system. Decarbonising the energy system is critical in mitigating...

  11. Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System - National Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, James; Fortes, Patrícia; Krook-Riekkola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In a climate constrained future, hybrid energy-economy model coupling gives additional insight into interregional competition, trade, industrial delocalisation and overall macroeconomic consequences of decarbonising the energy system. Decarbonising the energy system is critical in mitigating...

  12. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release

  13. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  14. 2016 ASMS Workshop Review: Next Generation LC/MS: Critical Insights and Future Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongying; Makarov, Alexander; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-04-17

    The pilot workshop on BNext Generation LC/MS: Critical Insights and Future Perspectives was held on the evening of June 6, 2016 at the 64th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics held in San Antonio, TX. The workshop, chaired by Hongying Gao (Pfizer), consisted of stimulating talks from distinguished speakers and open discussion among the audience and invited presenters.The objectives of this workshop were to better understand the advances and limitations of current technologies; to exchange perspectives on the next generation LC/MS; and to discuss/debate the features of next generation LC/MS focusing on the following three questions: (1) What would the next generation LC/MS look like? (2) How would it change the way we do analysis? and (3) What fundamental issues need to be resolved? A real-world case in the biopharmaceutical industry was presented by Hongying Gao on the needs by industry for LC/MS innovation and technology advancements. The primary invited speakers were Alexander Makarov (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and Richard (Dick) Smith (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory). The open discussions started with Q&A and comments for Alexander Makarov and Dick Smith, followed by insights and perspectives from members of the audience and other invited presenters who shared their thoughts addressing the above questions.

  15. Modeling and Simulation in Healthcare Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    information all have equal “weight” in the information world Computers Internet Simulation The Future Distribute & communicate Predict, plan & train...Acquire & analyze Third Leg of the Information Age Satava 2 Feb 1999 Simulation Computers Acquire Analyze Simulation Predict, Train Internet Communicate...Serendipity Inspiration FURTHER PROOF: Current evidence is inadequate for Event horizons Cognition Genome Quantum mechanics Memes Etc New

  16. Integrated environmental modeling: a vision and roadmap for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniak, Gerard F.; Olchin, Gabriel; Goodall, Jonathan; Voinov, Alexey; Hill, Mary; Glynn, Pierre; Whelan, Gene; Geller, Gary; Quinn, Nigel; Blind, Michiel; Peckham, Scott; Reaney, Sim; Gaber, Noha; Kennedy, Philip R.; Hughes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the extent of the environmental system involved, dynamic and interdependent nature of stressors and their impacts, diversity of stakeholders, and integration of social, economic, and environmental considerations. IEM provides a science-based structure to develop and organize relevant knowledge and information and apply it to explain, explore, and predict the behavior of environmental systems in response to human and natural sources of stress. During the past several years a number of workshops were held that brought IEM practitioners together to share experiences and discuss future needs and directions. In this paper we organize and present the results of these discussions. IEM is presented as a landscape containing four interdependent elements: applications, science, technology, and community. The elements are described from the perspective of their role in the landscape, current practices, and challenges that must be addressed. Workshop participants envision a global scale IEM community that leverages modern technologies to streamline the movement of science-based knowledge from its sources in research, through its organization into databases and models, to its integration and application for problem solving purposes. Achieving this vision will require that the global community of IEM stakeholders transcend social, and organizational boundaries and pursue greater levels of collaboration. Among the highest priorities for community action are the development of standards for publishing IEM data and models in forms suitable for automated discovery, access, and integration; education of the next generation of environmental stakeholders, with a focus on transdisciplinary research, development, and

  17. Systems Thinking for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: A Review of Recent Developments, Applications, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tracking the environmental impacts of production, use, and disposal of products (e.g., goods, and services have been an important issue in the global economy. Although Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a widely applied method to track these environmental impacts and support policies, it has certain limitations and an isolated way of evaluating the environmental impacts with no consideration of social and economic impacts and mechanisms. To overcome the limits of current LCA, three mechanisms have been proposed in the literature: (1 broadening the indicators by including social and economic indicators in addition to the environmental impacts; (2 broadening the scope of analysis from product-level assessment to national and global levels; (3 deepening the assessment by inclusion of more mechanisms to account for interrelations among the system elements, uncertainty analysis, stakeholder involvement, etc. With these developments, LCA has been evolving into a new framework called Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA. Practical application of LCSA requires integration of various methods, tools, and disciplines. In this study, a comprehensive literature review is conducted to investigate recent developments, current challenges, and future perspectives in the LCSA literature. According to the review, a high number (40% of LCSA studies are from the environmental science discipline, while contributions from other disciplines such as economics (3% and social sciences (9% are very low. On broadening the scope of analysis, 58% of the studies are product-level works, while 37% quantified the impacts at national level and achieved an economy-wide analysis, and only 5% of the studies were able to quantify the global impacts of products using LCSA framework. Furthermore, current applications of LCSA have not considered the rebound effects, feedback mechanisms, and interrelations of the system of interest sufficiently. To address these challenges, we present a

  18. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY ABOUT BUSINESS MODELS: STAKEHOLDERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojoagă Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations inform stakeholders about their current and future activities, processes, created value, strategic intentions, and other information that may influence the established relationships. Organizations choose to communicate with stakeholders by different means and in varied ways. The annual report represents a way of communicating between companies and their stakeholders, and it is offering comprehensive information about how companies operates and creates value. The business model is an emerging concept in management literature and practice. The concept describes the logic by which a organization creates, maintains and delivers value for its stakeholders. Through annual reports organisations can communicate to stakeholders information about their business models.We investigated how information about business models is explicitly communicated through annual reports, and how this information is reffering to stakeholders. Our paper aims to reveal which stakeholders are more often mentioned when organizations are communicating about business models through annual reports. This approach shows the attention degree given by organizations to stakeholders. We perceived this from a strategic point of view, as a strategic signal. Thus, we considered if the stakeholder is mentioned more frequent in the communicated message it has a greater role in communication strategy about business model. We conducted an exploratory research and have realized a content analysis.The analysed data consist in over a thousand annual reports from 96 organizations. We analysed the informations transmitted by organizations through annual reports. The annual reports were for a time period of 12 years. Most of the selected companies are multi-business, and are operating in different industries. The results show the stakeholder’s hierarchy based on how often they were mentioned in the communicated messages about business models through annual reports. Based on our

  19. Ophthalmology's future in the next decade: a historical and comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S H

    1999-01-01

    To gain a historical and comparative perspective about the future of ophthalmology within the profession of medicine. A literature search is made of disciplines other than medicine (history, sociology, philosophy, economics, and ethics) in order to assess factors responsible for survival and healthiness of a profession. The "learned" professions (medicine, law, and theology) are assessed. Other "professional" careers valued by society (sports and classical music) are reviewed. From the perspective of other disciplines, the future of ophthalmology is seen as vulnerable and fragile. Survival of professions, be they classically or economically defined, is linked to societal needs, a profession's unique commitment and ability to provide services to society, and the profession's maintenance of knowledge as well as skill-based services. Historical evidence has shown erosion of a profession's power consequent to capitalist influences, government influences, access of skills by less trained individuals, and elitist posturing by a profession. Comparative evidence has shown societal acceptance of an escalation of salaries for designated superstars, increasing roles and influence of managerial personnel, and trivialization of values other than economic ones. Attention to historical and comparative trends by individual ophthalmologists as well as associations representing ophthalmologists is mandatory if ophthalmology as we know it is to survive within the profession of medicine.

  20. Sites with nuclear facilities in the state of dismantling and their future from the public perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretz, Simon Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The thesis on the public perspective at sites of nuclear facility dismantling covers the following issues: the change of German energy landscapes under social and political points of view, theoretical frame of the work, combination of empirical studies and the theoretical approaches in a space concept, action model and hypotheses on the situation and development in communities with nuclear facilities in the state of dismantling, description of the interviewees, and the empirical results of the interviews.

  1. The first GCC Marine Biotechnology Symposium: Emerging Opportunities and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Stephen; Delghandi, Madjid; Dobretsov, Sergey; Al-Oufi, Hamed; Al-Habsi, Saoud; Burgess, J Grant

    2015-06-01

    With its diverse, living marine resources and rapidly growing educational and research infrastructure, the Sultanate of Oman is well-positioned to take advantage of the commercial opportunities presented by marine biotechnology. In recognition of potential development, an international symposium, Marine Biotechnology-Emerging Opportunities and Future Perspectives, was held in Muscat, November 12-13, 2013. Three keynote addresses were given, 23 oral presentations made, and a poster exhibition held. The final session reviewed national and regional issues, and the delegates agreed informally on a number of future actions. The potential for future development of marine biotechnology was recognized by all delegates, and following the symposium, they were surveyed for their views on how best to sustain and develop new activities. One hundred percent of respondents found the meeting useful and would support future symposia in the region. Fifty-one percent of Omani respondents recognized major organizational challenges and obstacles to the development of marine biotechnology compared with 23 % of overseas respondents. The need for greater collaboration between research institutions within the GCC region was recognized by 98 % of all respondents. The presentations and survey outcomes are reviewed in this paper.

  2. Hydrological catchment modelling: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses basic issues in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, ranging from the roles of physically-based and data-driven rainfall runoff models, to the concepts of predictive uncertainty and equifinality and their implications. The evolution of a wide range of hydrological catchment models employing the physically meaningful and data-driven approaches introduces the need for objective test beds or benchmarks to assess the merits of the different models in reconciling the alternative approaches. In addition, the paper analyses uncertainty in models and predictions by clarifying the meaning of uncertainty, by distinguishing between parameter and predictive uncertainty and by demonstrating how the concept of equifinality must be addressed by appropriate and robust inference approaches. Finally, the importance of predictive uncertainty in the decision making process is highlighted together with possible approaches aimed at overcoming the diffidence of end-users.

  3. Anticipated future of Latvia and Russia during a global economic crisis: A mixed methods perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesovs Aleksandrs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study explored subjective predictors of more positive evaluation of the future of the country during a global socioeconomic crisis. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen for an exploration of students’ expectations in Russia and Latvia as countries contrasting in macro-contextual conditions. In 2009, Study 1 was designed as a thematic analysis of essays on topic “The Future of Latvia/Russia”. The results demonstrated that the future of a country is anticipated by taking into account external influences, the present of the country, and its perceived power and stability. In 2011, Study 2 involved these themes as independent variables in a multiple regression model. The results demonstrated that positive evaluation of the present and higher perceived power of the country are individuallevel predictors of more positive evaluation of its future. Observed concordance of models indicates relatively high importance of subjective view of the country in the changing world.

  4. Perceiving design as modelling: A cybernetic systems perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Wynn, David C.; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The creation and use of models is central to engineering design, to the extent that designing might be perceived as a propagation from model to model and modelling may be described as the language of the designer (the terms product model and artefact model are used synonymously throughout...... out to add value for a given purpose and context. Implications of a cybernetic perspective that could guide effective modelling in design are discussed....

  5. Patient Perspectives on EMS Alternate Destination Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Kevin G; Shastry, Siri; Loo, George T; Reid, Daniel; Grudzen, Corita; Shah, Manish N; Chapin, Hugh H; First, Brandon; Sirirungruang, Sasilada; Alpert, Erin; Chason, Kevin; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a large number of ambulance transports to emergency departments (ED) could have been safely treated in an alternative environment, prompting interest in the development of more patient-centered models for prehospital care. We examined patient attitudes, perspectives, and agreement/comfort with alternate destinations and other proposed innovations in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care delivery and determined whether demographic, socioeconomic, acuity, and EMS utilization history factors impact levels of agreement. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of patients and caregivers presenting to an urban academic ED between July 2012 and May 2013. Respondents were surveyed on levels of agreement with 13 statements corresponding to various aspects of a proposed patient-centered emergency response system including increased EMS access to healthcare records, shared decision making with the patient and/or primary care physician, transport to alternative destinations, and relative importance of EMS assessment versus transportation. Information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, level of acuity, and EMS utilization history were also determined via survey and chart review. Responses were analyzed descriptively and compared across patient characteristics using chi-square and regression analyses. A total of 621 patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who agreed or strongly agreed with each of the 13 statements ranged from 48.2 to 93.8%. About 86% agreed with increased EMS access to healthcare records; approximately 72% agreed with coordinating disposition decisions with a primary physician; and about 58% supported transport to alternative destinations for low acuity conditions. No association was found between levels of agreement and the patient's level of acuity or EMS utilization history. Only Black or Hispanic race showed isolated associations with lower rates of agreement with some aspects of an innovative

  6. Control Architecture Modeling for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    and operation structures; and finally the application to some concrete study cases, including a present system balancing, and proposed control structures such as Microgrids and Cells. In the second part, the main contributions are the outline of a formation strategy, integrating the design and model...

  7. Future of human models for crash analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de

    2001-01-01

    In the crash safety field mathematical models can be applied in practically all area's of research and development including: reconstruction of actual accidents, design (CAD) of the crash response of vehicles, safety devices and roadside facilities and in support of human impact biomechanical

  8. Future Perspectives of ERAS: A Narrative Review on the New Applications of an Established Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bugada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ERAS approach (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery is a multimodal, perioperative pathway designed to achieve early recovery after surgery. ERAS has shown documented efficacy in elective surgery, and the concept of “multimodal” and “multidisciplinary” approach seems still to be of higher importance than each single item within ERAS protocols. New perspectives include the use of ERAS in emergency surgery, where efficacy and safety on outcome have been documented, and flexibility of traditional items may add benefits for traditionally high-risk patients. Obstetric surgery, as well, may open wide horizons for future research, since extremely poor data are currently available, and ERAS benefits may translate even on the baby. Finally, the concept of “outcome” may be extended when considering the specific setting of cancer surgery, in which variables like cancer recurrence, early access to adjuvant therapies, and, finally, long-term survival are as important as the reduced perioperative complications. In this perspective, different items within ERAS protocols should be reinterpreted and eventually integrated towards “protective” techniques, to develop cancer-specific ERAS approaches keeping pace with the specific aims of oncologic surgery.

  9. Medical radiation countermeasures for nuclear and radiological emergencies: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Arora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs occurred globally and recent incidences in India are indicating toward the need for comprehensive medical preparedness required both at incident site and hospitals. The enhanced threat attributed toward insurgency is another causative factor of worry. The response capabilities and operational readiness of responders (both health and non-health service providers in contaminated environment need to be supported by advancement in R & D and technological efforts to develop prophylactics and radiation mitigators. It is essential to develop phase 1 alternatives of such drugs for unseen threats as a part of initial preparedness. At the incident site and hospital level, external decontamination procedures need to be standardized and supported by protective clothing and Shudika kits developed by INMAS. The medical management of exposure requires systematic approach to perform triage, resuscitation and curative care. The internal contamination requires decorporation agents to be administered based on procedural diagnostics. Various key issues pertaining to policy decisions, R & D promotion, community awareness, specialized infrastructure for NREs preparedness has been discussed. The present review is an attempt to provide vital information about the current status of various radiation countermeasures and future perspective(s ahead.

  10. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. A Survey of Strategies to Modulate the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Pathway: Current and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs constitute the largest subdivision of the TGF-β family of ligands and are unequivocally involved in regulating stem cell behavior. Appropriate regulation of canonical BMP signaling is critical for the development and homeostasis of numerous human organ systems, as aberrations in the BMP pathway or its regulation are increasingly associated with diverse human pathologies. In this review, we provide a wide-perspective on strategies that increase or decrease BMP signaling. We briefly outline the current FDA-approved approaches, highlight emerging next-generation technologies, and postulate prospective avenues for future investigation. We also detail how activating other pathways may indirectly modulate BMP signaling, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between the BMP and Activin/TGF-β pathways.

  12. Present status and future perspectives of research and test reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Kaieda, Keisuke

    2000-01-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfill a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has recently reached first criticality and now in the power up test. In 1966, the Kyoto University built the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and started its operation for joint use program of the Japanese universities. This paper introduces these reactors and describes their present operational status and also efforts for aging management. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives is also reported. (author)

  13. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of ultrasound elastographic techniques in chronic liver disease: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscaglia, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.piscaglia@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Marinelli, Sara, E-mail: sara_marinelli@libero.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş”, Timişoara (Romania); Serra, Carla, E-mail: carla.serra@aosp.bo.it [Division of Medical Liver Transplant Care, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Venerandi, Laura, E-mail: laura.venerandi@gmail.com [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Leoni, Simona, E-mail: leonisimona@yahoo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Salvatore, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.salvatore@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This review illustrates the state of the art clinical applications and the future perspectives of ultrasound elastographic methods for the evaluation of chronic liver diseases, including the most widely used and validated technique, transient elastography, followed by shear wave elastography and strain imaging elastography. Liver ultrasound elastography allows the non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness, providing information regarding the stage of fibrosis, comparable to liver biopsy which is still considered the gold standard; in this way, it can help physicians in managing patients, including the decision as to when to start antiviral treatment. The characterization of focal liver lesions and the prognostic role of the elastographic technique in the prediction of complications of cirrhosis are still under investigation.

  15. Achievements, challenges, and future perspectives of epidemiologic research in restless legs syndrome (RLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchietti, Daniel L; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Inoue, Yuichi; Berger, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    In the 20 years since the initial consensus on a common definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS), over 600 scientific reports on epidemiological aspects of RLS have been published. Most are descriptive and address important issues such as prevalence, familial patterns, comorbidities, and quality of life. While the establishment of prospective cohort studies and the use of secondary data sources are rather new to RLS research, both options significantly broaden the possibilities for analysis of disease risk factors. These two options, as well as the inclusion of a broader phenotyping of individual patients, have great potential to elucidate etiologic factors for RLS and expand knowledge about this common disorder. This article summarizes achievements in the area of RLS epidemiology, describes current challenges, and highlights future perspectives in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat Shock Proteins in Vascular Diabetic Complications: Review and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bellini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are a large family of proteins highly conserved throughout evolution because of their unique cytoprotective properties. Besides assisting protein refolding and regulating proteostasis under stressful conditions, HSPs also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Therefore, HSPs are crucial in counteracting the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia in target organs of diabetes vascular complications. Changes in HSP expression have been demonstrated in diabetic complications and functionally related to hyperglycemia-induced cell injury. Moreover, associations between diabetic complications and altered circulating levels of both HSPs and anti-HSPs have been shown in clinical studies. HSPs thus represent an exciting therapeutic opportunity and might also be valuable as clinical biomarkers. However, this field of research is still in its infancy and further studies in both experimental diabetes and humans are required to gain a full understanding of HSP relevance. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and discuss future perspective.

  17. Microbial monitoring of crewed habitats in space-current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

    2014-09-17

    Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed.

  18. Microbial Monitoring of Crewed Habitats in Space—Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:25130885

  19. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Yang, Pingfang; Woo, Sun Hee; Chin, Chiew Foan; Gehring, Chris; Haynes, Paul A; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn will pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unraveling the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regard to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  20. Somatic embryogenesis in guava (Psidium guajava L.): current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly perishable fruit crop comparable to mango owing to its high medicinal value and intense aroma. The presence of high genetic variability limits the chances of further expansion of guava improvement using biotechnological interventions. Conventional methods of guava improvement encountered with restricted achievement in progress of disease resistant varieties because of existing high genetic variability in the germplasm. There is a considerable demand for the establishment of successful and efficient regeneration protocols via somatic embryogenesis. Plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis could be more useful than plants obtained through organogenesis because, in most cases, somatic embryos are of single-cell origin, and have a low frequency of chimeras and a high number of regenerations. This review is a snapshot of the recent status of somatic embryogenesis as a basis for expanding genetic improvement in guava for quality traits and future perspectives using advanced technologies.

  1. Bioactive C₁₇-Polyacetylenes in Carrots (Daucus carota L.): Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Dunemann, Frank; Schwab, Wilfried; Nothnagel, Thomas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    C17-polyacetylenes (PAs) are a prominent group of oxylipins and are primarily produced by plants of the families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, and Asteraceae, respectively. Recent studies on the biological activity of polyacetylenes have indicated their potential to improve human health due to anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and serotogenic effects. These findings suggest targeting vegetables with elevated levels of bisacetylenic oxylipins, such as falcarinol, by breeding studies. Due to the abundant availability, high diversity of cultivars, worldwide experience, and high agricultural yields, in particular, carrot (Daucus carota L.) genotypes are a very promising target vegetable. This paper provides a review on falcarinol-type C17-polyacetylenes in carrots and a perspective on their potential as a future contributor to improving human health and well-being.

  2. The role of the gut microbiota in schizophrenia: Current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Amorim, Daniela; Rivera-Baltanás, Tania; Regueiro, Benito; Spuch, Carlos; de Las Heras, María Elena; Vázquez-Noguerol Méndez, Raul; Nieto-Araujo, Maria; Barreiro-Villar, Carolina; Olivares, Jose Manuel; Agís-Balboa, Roberto Carlos

    2018-02-21

    Schizophrenia is a poorly understood chronic disease. Its pathophysiology is complex, dynamic, and linked to epigenetic mechanisms and microbiota involvement. Nowadays, correlating schizophrenia with the environment makes sense owing to its multidimensional implications: temporal and spatial variability. Microbiota involvement and epigenetic mechanisms are factors that are currently being considered to better understand another dimension of schizophrenia. This review summarises and discusses currently available information, focussing on the microbiota, epigenetic mechanisms, technological approaches aimed at performing exhaustive analyses of the microbiota, and psychotherapies, to establish future perspectives. The connection between the microbiota, epigenetic mechanisms and technological developments allows for formulating new approaches objectively oriented towards the development of alternative psychotherapies that may help treat schizophrenia. In this review, the gut microbiota and epigenetic mechanisms were considered as key regulators, revealing a potential new aetiology of schizophrenia. Likewise, continuous technological advances (e.g. culturomics), aimed at the microbiota-gut-brain axis generate new evidence on this concept.

  3. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-06-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  4. Dictionnaires de traduction pour traducteurs: état actuel et perspectives futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    a brief overview of the most influential theoretical positions in lexicography and their consequences for dictionary making in the field of translation at present, the paper will discuss last-generation translation dictionaries and perspectives for the future. References: Fuertes-Olivera, P. (2012) Online...... Dictionaries for Assisting Translators of Lsp Texts: The Accounting Dictionaries. International Journal of Lexicography 25 (2), 191-215. Fuertes-Olivera, P. and S. Tarp (2014) The theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries. Lexicographica Series Maior. De Gruyter. Leroyer, P., M.-C. L'Homme and B...... of Lexicography, 8-2010, 307-354. Tarp, S. (2013) How Can Dictionaries Assist Translators? In C. Sin-wai (ed.) Translation and Bilingual Dictionaries. Lexicographica Series Maior. De Gruyter. Keywords: Function Theory, Specialised Translation, Bilingual Dictionaires, Specialised Dictionaries, Online Dictionnaires...

  5. PET/MRI of central nervous system: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen Lu; Zhang, Long Jiang [Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-10-15

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in the early diagnosis, prognosis prediction and therapy response evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The newly emerging hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) can perform ''one-stop-shop'' evaluation, including anatomic, functional, biochemical and metabolic information, even at the molecular level, for personalised diagnoses and treatments of CNS diseases. However, there are still several problems to be resolved, such as appropriate PET detectors, attenuation correction and so on. This review will introduce the basic physical principles of PET/MRI and its potential clinical applications in the CNS. We also provide the future perspectives for this field. (orig.)

  6. Metabolomics of Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Overview and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are the most common mood disorders. They are etiologically related, but clinically distinct psychiatric illnesses. Their shared clinical features result in high rates of misdiagnosis due to a lack of biomarkers that allow their differentiation. BD is more frequently misdiagnosed as MDD because of overlapping symptomology, often later onset of mania, and frequent occurrence of depressive episodes in patients with BD. Misdiagnosis is also increased when patients with BD present symptoms indicative of a clinically significant depressive episode, but are premorbid for manic symptoms, or previous manic states not recognized. Therefore, the development of specific biomarkers for these disorders would be invaluable for establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment of MDD and BD. This chapter presents an overview and future perspective of the identification of biomarkers for mood disorders using metabolomics. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  9. Bioengineering the Uterus: An Overview of Recent Advances and Future Perspectives in Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Hannes; Cervelló, Irene; Simón, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Since the initial in vitro attempts to more complex models, research on uterine regeneration is moving towards the creation of a functional bioengineered uterus with possible clinical applications. We describe here the most relevant advances in bioengineering of the uterus published in the last decades considering the use of stem cells and biomaterials as well as future developing techniques in Regenerative Medicine.

  10. A population ecology perspective on the functioning and future of health information organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R; Menachemi, Nir

    2017-11-01

    Increasingly, health care providers need to exchange information to meet policy expectations and business needs. A variety of health information organizations (HIOs) provide services to facilitate health information exchange (HIE). However, the future of these organizations is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the environmental context, potential futures, and survivability of community HIOs, enterprise HIEs, and electronic health record vendor-mediated exchange using the population ecology theory. Qualitative interviews with 33 key informants representing each type of HIE organization were analyzed using template analysis. Community HIOs, enterprise HIEs, and electronic health record vendors exhibited a high degree of competition for resources, especially in the area of exchange infrastructure services. Competition resulted in closures in some areas. In response to environmental pressures, each organizational type was endeavoring to differentiate its services and unique use case, as well as pursing symbiotic relationships or attempting resource partitioning. HIOs compete for similar resources and are reacting to environmental pressures to better position themselves for continued survival and success. Our ecological research perspective helps move the discourse away from situation of a single exchange organization type toward a view of the broader dynamics and relationships of all organizations involved in facilitating HIE activities. HIOs are attempting to partition the environment and differentiate services. HIE options should not be construed as an "either/or" decision, but one where multiple and complementary participation may be required.

  11. Corneal stem cells and tissue engineering: Current advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Aline Lütz; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2015-06-26

    Major advances are currently being made in regenerative medicine for cornea. Stem cell-based therapies represent a novel strategy that may substitute conventional corneal transplantation, albeit there are many challenges ahead given the singularities of each cellular layer of the cornea. This review recapitulates the current data on corneal epithelial stem cells, corneal stromal stem cells and corneal endothelial cell progenitors. Corneal limbal autografts containing epithelial stem cells have been transplanted in humans for more than 20 years with great successful rates, and researchers now focus on ex vivo cultures and other cell lineages to transplant to the ocular surface. A small population of cells in the corneal endothelium was recently reported to have self-renewal capacity, although they do not proliferate in vivo. Two main obstacles have hindered endothelial cell transplantation to date: culture protocols and cell delivery methods to the posterior cornea in vivo. Human corneal stromal stem cells have been identified shortly after the recognition of precursors of endothelial cells. Stromal stem cells may have the potential to provide a direct cell-based therapeutic approach when injected to corneal scars. Furthermore, they exhibit the ability to deposit organized connective tissue in vitro and may be useful in corneal stroma engineering in the future. Recent advances and future perspectives in the field are discussed.

  12. A Perspective of Energy Codes and Regulations for the Buildings of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,2032 Todd Street,Eugene, OR 97405e-mail: michael.rosenberg@pnnl.gov; Jonlin, Duane [Seattle Department ofConstruction and Inspections,P.O. Box 34019,Seattle, WA 98124e-mail: duane.jonlin@seattle.gov; Nadel, Steven [American Council for anEnergy-Efficient Economy,529 14th Street NW #600,Washington, DC 20045e-mail: snadel@aceee.org

    2016-10-13

    Today’s building energy codes focus on prescriptive requirements for features of buildings that are directly controlled by the design and construction teams and verifiable by municipal inspectors. Although these code requirements have had a significant impact, they fail to influence a large slice of the building energy use pie – including not only miscellaneous plug loads, cooking equipment and commercial/industrial processes, but the maintenance and optimization of the code-mandated systems as well. Currently, code compliance is verified only through the end of construction, and there are no limits or consequences for the actual energy use in an occupied building. In the future, our suite of energy regulations will likely expand to include building efficiency, energy use or carbon emission budgets over their full life cycle. Intelligent building systems, extensive renewable energy, and a transition from fossil fuel to electric heating systems will likely be required to meet ultra-low-energy targets. This paper lays out the authors’ perspectives on how buildings may evolve over the course of the 21st century and the roles that codes and regulations will play in shaping those buildings of the future.

  13. Technological developments and future perspectives on graphene-based metamaterials: a primer for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rehman, Azeem A

    2014-05-01

    Graphene, a monolayer atomic-scale honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms, has been considered the greatest revolution in metamaterials research in the past 5 years. Its developers were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010, and massive funding has been directed to graphene-based experimental research in the last years. For instance, an international scientific collaboration has recently received a €1 billion grant from the European Flagship Initiative, the largest amount of financial resources ever granted for a single research project in the history of modern science. Because of graphene's unique optical, thermal, mechanical, electronic, and quantum properties, the incorporation of graphene-based metamaterials to biomedical applications is expected to lead to major technological breakthroughs in the next few decades. Current frontline research in graphene technology includes the development of high-performance, lightweight, and malleable electronic devices, new optical modulators, ultracapacitors, molecular biodevices, organic photovoltaic cells, lithium-ion microbatteries, frequency multipliers, quantum dots, and integrated circuits, just to mention a few. With such advances, graphene technology is expected to significantly impact several areas of neurosurgery, including neuro-oncology, neurointensive care, neuroregeneration research, peripheral nerve surgery, functional neurosurgery, and spine surgery. In this topic review, the authors provide a basic introduction to the main electrophysical properties of graphene. Additionally, future perspectives of ongoing frontline investigations on this new metamaterial are discussed, with special emphasis on those research fields that are expected to most substantially impact experimental and clinical neurosurgery in the near future.

  14. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - State of the art management and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Winkelmann, Ria; Rödel, Franz; Rödel, Claus; Fokas, Emmanouil

    2018-02-22

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is associated with infection with high-risk strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 70-90% of cases and a rise in incidence has been observed in the last decades. Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C constitutes the standard treatment for localized disease, but about 30% of patients do not respond or relapse locally. Phase I/II trials testing targeted agents, such as epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, have failed to improve clinical outcome and resulted in increased toxicities. Modern imaging methods and biomarkers, also in the context of HPV status, should be further explored to improve patient stratification. In the present review, we will discuss the current clinical evidence and future perspectives in the management of ASCC. HPV-positive ASCC is more immunogenic with a higher density of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes that correlate with better response to CRT and more favorable prognosis compared to HPV-negative tumors. Immunotherapies including immune checkpoint inhibitors have brought new hope and promising results were recently demonstrated in metastatic ASCC. The addition of immunotherapies to CRT for localized disease is tested in early phase trials, and these results could have a profound impact on the way we treat ASCC in near future. Further research and novel approaches are expected to enhance our understanding of tumor biology and immunology, and improve patient stratification and treatment adaptation in the context of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  16. Soil Degradation and Soil Quality in Western Europe: Current Situation and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Virto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The extent and causes of chemical, physical and biological degradation of soil, and of soil loss, vary greatly in different countries in Western Europe. The objective of this review paper is to examine these issues and also strategies for soil protection and future perspectives for soil quality evaluation, in light of present legislation aimed at soil protection. Agriculture and forestry are the main causes of many of the above problems, especially physical degradation, erosion and organic matter loss. Land take and soil sealing have increased in recent decades, further enhancing the problems. In agricultural land, conservation farming, organic farming and other soil-friendly practices have been seen to have site-specific effects, depending on the soil characteristics and the particular types of land use and land users. No single soil management strategy is suitable for all regions, soil types and soil uses. Except for soil contamination, specific legislation for soil protection is lacking in Western Europe. The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in the European Union has produced valuable information and has encouraged the development of networks and databases. However, soil degradation is addressed only indirectly in environmental policies and through the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union, which promotes farming practices that support soil conservation. Despite these efforts, there remains a need for soil monitoring networks and decision-support systems aimed at optimization of soil quality in the region. The pressure on European soils will continue in the future, and a clearly defined regulatory framework is needed.

  17. The future of qualitative research in psychology--a students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms.

  18. Wagering the future: Cognitive distortions, impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective in adolescent gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Marina; Nigro, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship of cognitive distortions, self-reported impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective to gambling severity in Italian adolescents. One thousand and thirty high school students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14). A factor analysis, used to evaluate common factors assessed by the different measures, revealed a three-factor structure of Cognitive distortions, Impulsive present orientation, and Delay discounting. The results of regression analysis using factor scores showed that males scored higher than females on the SOGS-RA and that gambling severity correlated positively with high scores on the three factors. These results indicate that cognitive distortions associated with gambling are a powerful predictor of gambling severity, and that adolescent gamblers are impaired in their abilities to think about the future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Urban Planning for a Renewable Energy Future: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities from a Design Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Vandevyvere

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning for a renewable energy future requires the collaboration of different disciplines both in research and practice. In the present article, the planning of a renewable energy future is approached from a designer’s perspective. A framework for analysis of the planning questions at hand is first proposed. The framework considers two levels of inquiry: the technical environmental aspect, and its wider embedding in sustainable development. Furthermore, life cycle analysis and exergy studies are discussed for their application potential in design. An altered trias energetica as proposed in earlier publications appears to remain a robust concept for low exergy, renewable energy based urban design. When considering sustainable development, environmental assessments shall be completed by an inquiry of the socio-cultural, economical, juridical, aesthetical and ethical aspects characterizing the planning or decision process. The article then presents a number of practical design principles that can help envisioning a built environment that can be sustained on the basis of renewable energy sources. In accordance with the altered trias energetica concept, elements of passive urban energy design, exergetic optimization of energy provision systems and the sourcing of renewable energy are identified, and their respective potentials assessed.

  20. Building models for marketing decisions : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, PSH; Wittink, DR

    We review five eras of model building in marketing, with special emphasis on the fourth and the fifth eras, the present and the future. At many firms managers now routinely use model-based results for marketing decisions. Given an increasing number of successful applications, the demand for models

  1. Building models for marketing decisions : past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, Dick R.

    2000-01-01

    We review five eras of model building in marketing, with special emphasis on the fourth and the fifth eras, the present and the future. At many firms managers now routinely use model-based results for marketing decisions. Given an increasing number of successful applications, the demand for models

  2. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  3. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  4. Strengthening of the hydrological cycle in future scenarios: atmospheric energy and water balance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alessandri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios experiencing global warming are expected to strengthen the hydrological cycle during the 21st century (21C. We analyze the strengthening of the global-scale increase in precipitation from the perspective of changes in whole atmospheric water and energy balances. By combining energy and water equations for the whole atmosphere, we obtain constraints for the changes in surface fluxes and partitioning at the surface between sensible and latent components. We investigate the differences in the strengthening of the hydrological cycle in two centennial simulations performed with an Earth system model forced with specified atmospheric concentration pathways. Alongside the Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES A1B, which is a medium-high non-mitigation scenario, we consider a new aggressive-mitigation scenario (E1 with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2 K.

    Our results show that the mitigation scenario effectively constrains the global warming with a stabilization below 2 K with respect to the 1950–2000 historical period. On the other hand, the E1 precipitation does not follow the temperature field toward a stabilization path but continues to increase over the mitigation period. Quite unexpectedly, the mitigation scenario is shown to strengthen the hydrological cycle even more than SRES A1B till around 2070. We show that this is mostly a consequence of the larger increase in the negative radiative imbalance of atmosphere in E1 compared to A1B. This appears to be primarily related to decreased sulfate aerosol concentration in E1, which considerably reduces atmospheric absorption of solar radiation compared to A1B.

    The last decades of the 21C show a marked increase in global precipitation in A1B compared to E1, despite the fact that the two scenarios display almost the same overall increase of radiative imbalance with respect to the 20th century. Our

  5. Norwegian gas sale in an international perspective - future-directed organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with future organization of the Norwegian gas sale. The author gives at first a brief review of the Norwegian gas sale, and then a discussion on which type of criteria being based on by evaluation of models for the Norwegian gas sale. A comparison on which type of criteria used in other gas supplying countries is discussed. The author discusses tendencies of development in the international market including Europe, and is questioning if the existing system of gas sale is prepared to meet future challenges. Several types of proposals are presented to solve these challenges. 5 figs

  6. Historical and future perspectives of global soil carbon response to climate and land-use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglin, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S. L.; Barre, P.; Bellassen, V.; Cadule, P.; Chenu, C.; Gasser, T.; Koven, C.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, P.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we attempt to analyse the respective influences of land-use and climate changes on the global and regional balances of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Two time periods are analysed: the historical period 1901-2000 and the period 2000-2100. The historical period is analysed using a synthesis of published data as well as new global and regional model simulations, and the future is analysed using models only. Historical land cover changes have resulted globally in SOC release into the atmosphere. This human induced SOC decrease was nearly balanced by the net SOC increase due to higher CO2 and rainfall. Mechanization of agriculture after the 1950s has accelerated SOC losses in croplands, whereas development of carbon-sequestering practices over the past decades may have limited SOC loss from arable soils. In some regions (Europe, China and USA), croplands are currently estimated to be either a small C sink or a small source, but not a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In the future, according to terrestrial biosphere and climate models projections, both climate and land cover changes might cause a net SOC loss, particularly in tropical regions. The timing, magnitude, and regional distribution of future SOC changes are all highly uncertain. Reducing this uncertainty requires improving future anthropogenic CO2 emissions and land-use scenarios and better understanding of biogeochemical processes that control SOC turnover, for both managed and un-managed ecosystems.

  7. CSR Model Implementation from School Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Suzannah

    2006-01-01

    Despite comprehensive school reform (CSR) model developers' best intentions to make school stakeholders adhere strictly to the implementation of model components, school stakeholders implementing CSR models inevitably make adaptations to the CSR model. Adaptations are made to CSR models because school stakeholders internalize CSR model practices…

  8. The financial accounting model from a system dynamics' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the foundation of the financial accounting model. We examine the properties of the accounting equation as the principal algorithm for the design and the development of a System Dynamics model. Key to the perspective is the foundational requirement that resolves the temporal

  9. Viewing the Changing World of Educational Technology from a Different Perspective: Present Realities, Past Lessons, and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Martie; George, Ann

    2017-01-01

    This review paper focuses on likely reasons for the rhetoric-reality gap in the use of educational information and communication technology. It is based on the assumption that the present challenges being experienced with educational ICT might be avoided in the future if we look at the current challenges from a different perspective, by revisiting…

  10. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  11. Searching for better animal models of BPD: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Morty, Rory E

    2016-11-01

    There have been many efforts to develop good animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to better understand the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying development of BPD as well as to test potential strategies for its prevention and treatment. This Perspectives summarizes the features of common animal models of BPD and the strengths and limitations of such models. Potential optimal approaches to development of animal models are indicated, with the underlying concepts that require emphasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...

  13. Correlation Between Blended Learning Model With The Perspective Of Learning Effectiveness For Nursing Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Sumartiningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The learning model is one of the enabling factors that influence the achievement of students. That students have a good learning outcomes the lecturer must choose appropriate learning models. But in fact not all lecturers choose the most appropriate learning model with the demands of learning outcomes and student characteristics.The study design was descriptive quantitative correlation. Total population of 785 the number of samples are 202 were taken by purposive sampling. Techniques of data collection is done by cross-sectional and then processed through the Spearman test. The results showed no significant relationship between classroom lecture method in the context of blended learning models to study the effectiveness perspective the p value of 0.001. There is a significant relationship between e-learning methods in the context of blended learning models with perspective of activities study of nursing students the p value of 0.028. There is a significant relationship between learning model of blended learning with the perspective of nursing students learning effectiveness p value 0.167. Researchers recommend to future researchers conduct more research on the comparison between the effectiveness of the learning model based on student learning centers with the e-learning models and its impact on student achievement of learning competencies as well as to the implications for other dimensions of learning outcomes and others.

  14. Teacher-Scientist Partnerships: Past, Present, and Future Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Past and present models of teacher-scientist partnerships will be illustrated with examples cultivated from direct experience. Future models will be proposed, informed by this experience, as well as current STEM reform and policy iniitiatives and evidence-based education research.

  15. The Standard Model from LHC to future colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, S., E-mail: forte@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133, Milan (Italy); Nisati, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Passarino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Turin (Italy); Tenchini, R. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy); Calame, C. M. Carloni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Chiesa, M. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Cobal, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze, 206, 33100, Udine (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Udine, Via delle Scienze, 206, 33100, Udine (Italy); Corcella, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Degrassi, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università’ Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146, Rome (Italy); Ferrera, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133, Milan (Italy); Magnea, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Turin (Italy); Maltoni, F. [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, 1348, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Montagna, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milan (Italy); Nicrosini, O. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Oleari, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milan (Italy); Piccinini, F. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Riva, F. [Institut de Théorie des Phénoménes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vicini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133, Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-25

    This review summarizes the results of the activities which have taken place in 2014 within the Standard Model Working Group of the “What Next” Workshop organized by INFN, Italy. We present a framework, general questions, and some indications of possible answers on the main issue for Standard Model physics in the LHC era and in view of possible future accelerators.

  16. Population balance models: a useful complementary modelling framework for future WWTP modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nopens, Ingmar; Torfs, Elena; Ducoste, Joel

    2015-01-01

    efforts of several current and future unit processes in wastewater treatment plants could potentially benefit from this framework, especially when distributed dynamics have a significant impact on the overall unit process performance. In these cases, current models that rely on average properties cannot...... capability. Hence, PBMs should be regarded as a complementary modelling framework to biokinetic models. This paper provides an overview of current applications, future potential and limitations of PBMs in the field of wastewater treatment modelling, thereby looking over the fence to other scientific...

  17. Systematic review and technological overview of the antimicrobial activity of Tagetes minuta and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela Coelho Dos; Schneider, Lara Rodrigues; da Silva Barboza, Andressa; Diniz Campos, Ângela; Lund, Rafael Guerra

    2017-08-17

    The antimicrobial potential of Tagetes minuta was correlated with its traditional use as antibacterial, insecticidal, biocide, disinfectant, anthelminthic, antifungal, and antiseptic agent as well as its use in urinary tract infections. This study aimed to systematically review articles and patents regarding the antimicrobial activity of T. minuta and give rise to perspectives on this plant as a potential antimicrobial agent. A literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2015 was conducted over five databases: MedLine (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Portal de Periódicos Capes and SciFinder, grey literature was explored using the System for Information on Dissertations database, and theses were searched using the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Full text database and the Periódicos Capes Theses database. Additionally, the following databases for patents were analysed: United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), Google Patents, National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and Espacenet patent search (EPO). The data were tabulated and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. After title screening, 51 studies remained and this number decreased to 26 after careful examinations of the abstracts. The full texts of these 26 studies were assessed to check if they were eligible. Among them, 3 were excluded for not having full text access, and 11 were excluded because they did not fit the inclusion criteria, which left 10 articles for this systematic review. The same process was conducted for the patent search, resulting in 4 patents being included in this study. Recent advances highlighted by this review may shed light on future directions of studies concerning T. minuta as a novel antimicrobial agent, which should be repeatedly proven in future animal and clinical studies. Although more evidence on its specificity and clinical efficacy are necessary to support its clinical use, T. minuta is expected to be a highly effective

  18. Smart manufacturing systems for Industry 4.0: Conceptual framework, scenarios, and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pai; wang, Honghui; Sang, Zhiqian; Zhong, Ray Y.; Liu, Yongkui; Liu, Chao; Mubarok, Khamdi; Yu, Shiqiang; Xu, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Information and communication technology is undergoing rapid development, and many disruptive technologies, such as cloud computing, Internet of Things, big data, and artificial intelligence, have emerged. These technologies are permeating the manufacturing industry and enable the fusion of physical and virtual worlds through cyber-physical systems (CPS), which mark the advent of the fourth stage of industrial production (i.e., Industry 4.0). The widespread application of CPS in manufacturing environments renders manufacturing systems increasingly smart. To advance research on the implementation of Industry 4.0, this study examines smart manufacturing systems for Industry 4.0. First, a conceptual framework of smart manufacturing systems for Industry 4.0 is presented. Second, demonstrative scenarios that pertain to smart design, smart machining, smart control, smart monitoring, and smart scheduling, are presented. Key technologies and their possible applications to Industry 4.0 smart manufacturing systems are reviewed based on these demonstrative scenarios. Finally, challenges and future perspectives are identified and discussed.

  19. The bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators: future perspectives based on omics analysis and advanced microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are plants that can extract heavy metal ions from the soil and translocate those ions to the shoots, where they are sequestered and detoxified. Hyperaccumulation depends not only on the availability of mobilized metal ions in the soil, but also on the enhanced activity of metal transporters and metal chelators which may be provided by the plant or its associated microbes. The rhizobiome is captured by plant root exudates from the complex microbial community in the soil, and may colonize the root surface or infiltrate the root cortex. This community can increase the root surface area by inducing hairy root proliferation. It may also increase the solubility of metals in the rhizosphere and promote the uptake of soluble metals by the plant. The bacterial rhizobiome, a subset of specialized microorganisms that colonize the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, makes an important contribution to the hyperaccumulator phenotype. In this review, we discuss classic and more recent tools that are used to study the interactions between hyperaccumulators and the bacterial rhizobiome, and consider future perspectives based on the use of omics analysis and microscopy to study plant metabolism in the context of metal accumulation. Recent data suggest that metal-resistant bacteria isolated from the hyperaccumulator rhizosphere and endosphere could be useful in applications such as phytoextraction and phytoremediation, although more research is required to determine whether such properties can be transferred successfully to non-accumulator species.

  20. Titanium in dentistry: historical development, state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juliana Ribeiro Pala; Barão, Valentim Adelino; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Titanium is a metallic element known by several attractive characteristics, such as biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and high mechanical resistance. It is widely used in Dentistry, with high success rates, providing a favorable biological response when in contact with live tissues. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the different uses of titanium in Dentistry, reviewing its historical development and discoursing about its state of art and future perspective of its utilization. A search in the MEDLINE/PubMed database was performed using the terms 'titanium', 'dentistry' and 'implants'. The title and abstract of articles were read, and after this first screening 20 articles were selected and their full-texts were downloaded. Additional text books and manual search of reference lists within selected articles were included. Correlated literature showed that titanium is the most used metal in Implantology for manufacturing osseointegrated implants and their systems, with a totally consolidated utilization. Moreover, titanium can be also employed in prosthodontics to obtain frameworks. However, problems related to its machining, casting, welding and ceramic application for dental prosthesis are still limiting its use. In Endodontics, titanium has been used in association to nickel for manufacturing rotatory instruments, providing a higher resistance to deformation. However, although the different possibilities of using titanium in modern Dentistry, its use for prostheses frameworks still needs technological improvements in order to surpass its limitations.

  1. Current scenario of the wind energy in Pakistan challenges and future perspectives: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar H. Baloch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity plays an important role in the socioeconomic growth and social prosperity of any country. It is to be considered as the basic need for human development. Nowadays, low production of electricity is a serious problem in Pakistan, which directly restricts the development of the state. One-third of Pakistan’s population does not have any electricity in the rural areas and about 10–12 hours load shedding in urban areas and is quite common. Although, the state of Pakistan always shows a deficit in the conventional resources, but no progress was also being made in the renewable resources such as the wind and solar energy. Therefore, it is better to utilize these natural assets in order to fulfill the electricity supply the country. In this manuscript, our main objective is to study and outlooks the country energy profile situation vis-à-vis wind energy potential characteristics of the most important wind corridor in the southern part of the country. Pakistan has around 1100 kilometers (km coastal line for the wind energy potential, but in this manuscript, we have chosen one of the most suitable wind corridors of the southern part of the country. We also tried to prove theoretically that this wind zone is more favorable for country consumer demand. Moreover, future perspective and the major challenges during windmill implementation is also being discussed herein.

  2. The use of albumin in the complications of cirrhosis: evidence and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tovoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic use of albumin in cirrhosis dates back to the 50s, when hypoalbuminemia was thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ascites. Today, while its efficacy in the treatment of ascites is still under investigation, it has been proved that albumin is able to improve patient outcome and survival in some specific complications of cirrhosis, such as the prevention of post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction and the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome. Beside its oncotic power, albumin carries other biological properties, the so called non-oncotic properties, including transportation and detoxification of several molecules, free radical scavenging, modulation of vascular permeability, activity on the immune system and on the haemostatic balance. Some experimental evidences indicate that not only albumin concentration but also its function is reduced in patients with cirrhosis. However, the clinical implications of such functional abnormalities is still unclear. We here present the available evidence on the use of albumin in cirrhosis and future perspectives.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i3.659

  3. Acetylcholinesterase as a biomarker in environmental and occupational medicine: new insights and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Caricato, Roberto; Calisi, Antonio; Giordano, Maria Elena; Schettino, Trifone

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a key enzyme in the nervous system. It terminates nerve impulses by catalysing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As a specific molecular target of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, acetylcholinesterase activity and its inhibition has been early recognized to be a human biological marker of pesticide poisoning. Measurement of AChE inhibition has been increasingly used in the last two decades as a biomarker of effect on nervous system following exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in occupational and environmental medicine. The success of this biomarker arises from the fact that it meets a number of characteristics necessary for the successful application of a biological response as biomarker in human biomonitoring: the response is easy to measure, it shows a dose-dependent behavior to pollutant exposure, it is sensitive, and it exhibits a link to health adverse effects. The aim of this work is to review and discuss the recent findings about acetylcholinesterase, including its sensitivity to other pollutants and the expression of different splice variants. These insights open new perspective for the future use of this biomarker in environmental and occupational human health monitoring.

  4. Assessment of lung ventilation by MR imaging: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hanke, Alexander; Beek, Edwin J.R. van

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the present status of novel MRI techniques as a new important instrument for functional ventilation imaging. The current status and future perspectives in research and clinical applications are summarized. Morphological lung imaging is based on chest radiography and computed tomography, whereas scintigraphy is used for ventilation imaging. During recent years, MRI has emerged as a new means for functional imaging of ventilation. Aerosolized contrast agents and oxygen are used in proton imaging, whereas non-proton imaging relies on fluorine compounds, such as sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorcarbons, or on hyperpolarized noble gases, such as helium-3 or xenon-129. All the gases are administered as inhaled ''contrast agents'' for imaging of the airways and airspaces. In general, straightforward images demonstrate the homogeneity of ventilation in a breath-hold and allow for determination of ventilated lung. The different properties of the different compounds enable the measurement of additional functional parameters. They comprise airspace size, regional oxygen partial pressure, and analysis of ventilation distribution, ventilation/perfusion ratios, and gas exchange, including oxygen uptake. Novel MRI techniques provide the potential for functional imaging of ventilation. The next steps include definition of the value and the potential of the different contrast mechanisms as well as determination of the significance of the functional information with regard to physiological research and patient management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and others. (orig.)

  5. Corrosion Protection Systems and Fatigue Corrosion in Offshore Wind Structures: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth J. Price

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over reducing CO2 emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels in combination with an increase in worldwide energy demands is leading to increased development of renewable energies such as wind. The installation of offshore wind power structures (OWS is one of the most promising approaches for the production of renewable energy. However, corrosion and fatigue damage in marine and offshore environments are major causes of primary steel strength degradation in OWS. Corrosion can reduce the thickness of structural components which may lead towards fatigue crack initiation and buckling. These failure mechanisms affect tower service life and may result in catastrophic structural failure. Additionally, environmental pollution stemming from corrosion’s by-products is possible. As a result, large financial investments are made yearly for both the prevention and recovery of these drawbacks. The corrosion rate of an OWS is dependent on different characteristics of attack which are influenced by access to oxygen and humidity. Structural degradation can occur due to chemical attack, abrasive action of waves, and microorganism attacks. Inspired by technological and scientific advances in recent years, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the current protective coating system technologies used to protect OWS as well as future perspectives.

  6. Current state and future perspectives of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condino-Neto, A; Sorensen, R U; Gómez Raccio, A C; King, A; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic diseases that affect the immune system and for the last 20 years, the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) has been promoting initiatives in awareness, research, diagnosis, and treatment for the affected patients in Latin America. These initiatives have resulted in the development of programmes such as the LASID Registry (with 4900 patients registered as of January 2014), fellowships in basic and clinical research, PID summer schools, biannual meetings, and scientific reports, amongst others. These achievements highlight the critical role that LASID plays as a scientific organisation in promoting science, research and education in this field in Latin America. However, challenges remain in some of these areas and the Society must envision additional strategies to tackle them for the benefit of the patients. In June 2013, a group of experts in the field met to discuss the contributions of LASID to the initiatives of PID in Latin America, and this article summarises the current state and future perspectives of this society and its role in the advance of PIDs in Latin America. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected non-small-cell lung cancer: future perspectives for clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonomi Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a debated issue in clinical oncology. Although it is considered a standard for resected stage II-IIIA patients according to the available guidelines, many questions are still open. Among them, it should be acknowledged that the treatment for stage IB disease has shown so far a limited (if sizable efficacy, the role of modern radiotherapies requires to be evaluated in large prospective randomized trials and the relative impact of age and comorbidities should be weighted to assess the reliability of the trials' evidences in the context of the everyday-practice. In addition, a conclusive evidence of the best partner for cisplatin is currently awaited as well as a deeper investigation of the fading effect of chemotherapy over time. The limited survival benefit since first studies were published and the lack of reliable prognostic and predictive factors beyond pathological stage, strongly call for the identification of bio-molecular markers and classifiers to identify which patients should be treated and which drugs should be used. Given the disappointing results of targeted therapy in this setting have obscured the initial promising perspectives, a biomarker-selection approach may represent the basis of future trials exploring adjuvant treatment for resected NSCLC.

  8. In vivo microrobots for natural orifice transluminal surgery. Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, A

    2009-06-01

    The possibility to operate inside the peritoneal cavity through small holes performed in hollow organs that is presented by Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) represents a major paradigm shift in general surgery. While this new approach seems very appealing from patients' perspectives because it eliminates completely abdominal wall aggression and promises to reduce postoperative pain, it is very challenging for surgeons because of the major constraints imposed by both the mode of access and the limited technology currently available. For this reason NOTES applications at the present time are performed by only a few surgeons and mainly to perform non-complex procedures. While new devices are under development, many of them are trying mainly to simply improve current endoscopic platforms and seem not to offer breakthrough solutions. The numerous challenges introduced by natural orifice approaches require a radical shift in the conception of new technologies in order to make this emerging operative access safe and reproducible. The convergence of several enabling technologies in the field of miniaturization, communication and micro-mechatronics brings the possibility to realize on a large scale the revolutionary concept of miniature in vivo co-operative robots. These robots provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision and have been shown in experimental settings to possess many qualities that could be ideal to partner with Natural Orifice Surgery. This article explores the current status of microrobotics as well as presents potential future scenarios of their applications in NOTES.

  9. Acetylcholinesterase as a Biomarker in Environmental and Occupational Medicine: New Insights and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Lionetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a key enzyme in the nervous system. It terminates nerve impulses by catalysing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As a specific molecular target of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, acetylcholinesterase activity and its inhibition has been early recognized to be a human biological marker of pesticide poisoning. Measurement of AChE inhibition has been increasingly used in the last two decades as a biomarker of effect on nervous system following exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in occupational and environmental medicine. The success of this biomarker arises from the fact that it meets a number of characteristics necessary for the successful application of a biological response as biomarker in human biomonitoring: the response is easy to measure, it shows a dose-dependent behavior to pollutant exposure, it is sensitive, and it exhibits a link to health adverse effects. The aim of this work is to review and discuss the recent findings about acetylcholinesterase, including its sensitivity to other pollutants and the expression of different splice variants. These insights open new perspective for the future use of this biomarker in environmental and occupational human health monitoring.

  10. Salt Tolerance Research in Date Palm Tree (Phoenix dactylifera L., Past, Present and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud W Yaish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. However, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. It is imperative that the nature of the existing salt adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. In this perspective article, several research strategies, obstacles, and precautions are discussed in light of recent advancements accomplished in this field and the properties of this species. In addition to a physiological characterization, we propose the use of a full range of OMICS technologies, coupled with reverse genetics approaches, aimed towards understanding the salt-adaption mechanism in the date palm. Information generated by these analyses should highlight transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications controlling the salt-adaptation mechanisms. As an extremophile with a natural tolerance for a wide range of abiotic stresses, the date palm may represent a treasure trove of novel genetic resources for salinity tolerance.

  11. Current and Future Perspectives on the Structural Identification of Small Molecules in Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Dias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although significant advances have been made in recent years, the structural elucidation of small molecules continues to remain a challenging issue for metabolite profiling. Many metabolomic studies feature unknown compounds; sometimes even in the list of features identified as “statistically significant” in the study. Such metabolic “dark matter” means that much of the potential information collected by metabolomics studies is lost. Accurate structure elucidation allows researchers to identify these compounds. This in turn, facilitates downstream metabolite pathway analysis, and a better understanding of the underlying biology of the system under investigation. This review covers a range of methods for the structural elucidation of individual compounds, including those based on gas and liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry, single and multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry and includes discussion of data standardization. Future perspectives in structure elucidation are also discussed; with a focus on the potential development of instruments and techniques, in both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that, may help solve some of the current issues that are hampering the complete identification of metabolite structure and function.

  12. Helium Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Heliosphere: Perspectives for Future Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Grzedzielski, Stan; Bzowski, Maciej, E-mail: pswaczyna@cbk.waw.pl [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-05-10

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) allow for remote sensing of plasma properties in distant regions of the heliosphere. So far, most of the observations have concerned only hydrogen atoms. In this paper, we present perspectives for observations of helium energetic neutral atoms (He ENAs). We calculated the expected intensities of He ENAs created by the neutralization of helium ions in the inner heliosheath and through the secondary ENA mechanism in the outer heliosheath. We found that the dominant source region for He ENAs is the inner heliosheath. The obtained magnitudes of intensity spectra suggest that He ENAs can be observed with future ENA detectors, as those planned on Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe . Observing He ENAs is most likely for energies from a few to a few tens of keV/nuc. Estimates of the expected count rates show that the ratio of helium to hydrogen atoms registered in the detectors can be as low as 1:10{sup 4}. Consequently, the detectors need to be equipped with an appropriate mass spectrometer capability, allowing for recognition of chemical elements. Due to the long mean free paths of helium ions in the inner heliosheath, He ENAs are produced also in the distant heliospheric tail. This implies that observations of He ENAs can resolve its structure, which seems challenging from observations of hydrogen ENAs since energetic protons are neutralized before they progress deeper in the heliospheric tail.

  13. Role of gamma knife radiosurgery in neurosurgery. Past and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Tomoyuki; Shin, Masahiro; Saito, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    The gamma knife was the first radiosurgical device developed at the Karolinska Institute in 1967. Stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife has been widely accepted in clinical practice and has contributed to the development of neurosurgery. More than 500,000 patients have been treated by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery so far, and the method is now an indispensable neurosurgical tool. Here we review long-term outcomes and development of stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife and discuss its future perspectives. The primary role of stereotactic radiosurgery is to control small well-demarcated lesions such as metastatic brain tumors, meningiomas, schwannomas, and pituitary adenomas while preserving the function of surrounding brain tissue. The gamma knife has been used as a primary treatment or in combination with surgery, and some applications have been accepted as standard treatment in the field of neurosurgery. Treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations has also been drastically changed after emergence of this technology. Controlling functional disorders is another role of stereotactic radiosurgery. There is a risk of radiation-induced adverse events, which are usually mild and less frequent. However, especially in large or invasive lesions, those risks are not negligible and pose limitations. Advancement of irradiation technology and dose planning software have enabled more sophisticated and safer treatment, and further progress will contribute to better treatment outcomes not only for brain lesions but also for cervical lesions with less invasive treatment. (author)

  14. Salt tolerance research in date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.), past, present, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Kumar, Prakash P

    2015-01-01

    The date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. However, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. It is imperative that the nature of the existing salt-adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. In this perspective article, several research strategies, obstacles, and precautions are discussed in light of recent advancements accomplished in this field and the properties of this species. In addition to a physiological characterization, we propose the use of a full range of OMICS technologies, coupled with reverse genetics approaches, aimed toward understanding the salt-adaption mechanism in the date palm. Information generated by these analyses should highlight transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications controlling the salt-adaptation mechanisms. As an extremophile with a natural tolerance for a wide range of abiotic stresses, the date palm may represent a treasure trove of novel genetic resources for salinity tolerance.

  15. Nanoscale bio-platforms for living cell interrogation: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian; Hu, Jiaming; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Shi, Junfeng; Yang, Zhaogang; Li, Yiwen; Lee, Ly James

    2016-02-01

    The living cell is a complex entity that dynamically responds to both intracellular and extracellular environments. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the understanding intracellular functions orchestrated with mRNAs and proteins in investigation of the fate of a single-cell, including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, differentiation and mutations. The rapid development of modern cellular analysis techniques (e.g. PCR, western blotting, immunochemistry, etc.) offers new opportunities in quantitative analysis of RNA/protein expression up to a single cell level. The recent entries of nanoscale platforms that include kinds of methodologies with high spatial and temporal resolution have been widely employed to probe the living cells. In this tutorial review paper, we give insight into background introduction and technical innovation of currently reported nanoscale platforms for living cell interrogation. These highlighted technologies are documented in details within four categories, including nano-biosensors for label-free detection of living cells, nanodevices for living cell probing by intracellular marker delivery, high-throughput platforms towards clinical current, and the progress of microscopic imaging platforms for cell/tissue tracking in vitro and in vivo. Perspectives for system improvement were also discussed to solve the limitations remains in current techniques, for the purpose of clinical use in future.

  16. Involvement of Programmed Cell Death in Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Jia; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-11-01

    The widespread application of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP-based products has increased the risk of exposure to NPs in humans. The brain is an important organ that is more susceptible to exogenous stimuli. Moreover, any impairment to the brain is irreversible. Recently, several in vivo studies have found that metallic NPs can be absorbed into the animal body and then translocated into the brain, mainly through the blood-brain barrier and olfactory pathway after systemic administration. Furthermore, metallic NPs can cross the placental barrier to accumulate in the fetal brain, causing developmental neurotoxicity on exposure during pregnancy. Therefore, metallic NPs become a big threat to the brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs remain unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), which is different from necrosis, is defined as active cell death and is regulated by certain genes. PCD can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. It is involved in brain development, neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders, and brain injury. Given the pivotal role of PCD in neurological functions, we reviewed relevant articles and tried to summarize the recent advances and future perspectives of PCD involvement in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, with the purpose of comprehensively understanding the neurotoxic mechanisms of NPs.

  17. Grid architecture for future distribution system — A cyber-physical system perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Leonardo Diaz Aldana, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    system need more insight into the system architecture of the grid. In this paper, in light of the start-of-the-art control strategies for microgrids which rely on power electronics systems, a grid architecture model for future distribution system is proposed based on microgrid clusters. Both the physical...... and cyber structures for this architecture are described. Two illustrative examples are presented to explain different control methods that can be adopted in this model to harmonize different devices. This architecture can be used to guide the system design for the smart distribution system....

  18. Modelling in life insurance a management perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...

  19. Vegetation Fires in the Coupled Human-Earth System Under Future Environmental and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    le page, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Fires play a major role in terrestrial ecosystems dynamics and the carbon cycle. Potential changes in fire regimes due to climate change, land use change, or human management could have substantial ecological, climatic and socio-economic impacts, and have recently been emphasized as a source of uncertainty for policy-makers and climate mitigation cost estimates. Anticipating these interactions thus entails interdisciplinary models. Here we describe the development of a new fire modeling framework, which features the essential integration of climatic, vegetation and anthropogenic drivers. The model is an attempt to realistically account for ignition, spread and termination processes, on a 12-hour time step and at 1 degree spatial resolution globally. Because the quantitative influence of fire drivers on these processes are often poorly constrained, the framework includes an optimization procedure whereby key parameters (e.g. influence of moisture on fire spread, probability of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes to actually ignite a fire, human ignition frequency as a function of land use density) are determined to maximize the agreement between modeled and observed burned area over the past decade. The model performs surprisingly well across all biomes, and shows good agreement on non-optimized features, such as seasonality and fire size, which suggests some potential for robust projections. We couple the model to an integrated assessment model and explore the consequences of mitigation policies, land use decisions and climate change on future fire regimes with a focus on the Amazon basin. The coupled model future projections show that business-as-usual land use expansion would increase the frequency of escaped fires in the remaining forest, especially when combined with models projecting a drier climate. Inversely, climate mitigation policies as projected in the IPCC RCP4.5 scenario achieve synergistic benefits, with increased forest extent, less fire ignitions, and

  20. The regional impact of urban emissions on climate over central Europe: present and future emission perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszár, Peter; Belda, Michal; Karlický, Jan; Pišoft, Petr; Halenka, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    The regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled to the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions, to evaluate the regional impact of urban emission from central European cities on climate for present-day (2001-2010) and future (2046-2055) periods, and for the future one only emission changes are considered. Short-lived non-CO2 emissions are considered and, for the future impact, only the emission changes are accounted for (the climate is kept "fixed"). The urban impact on climate is calculated with the annihilation approach in which two experiments are performed: one with all emissions included and one without urban emissions. The radiative impacts of non-CO2 primary and secondary formed pollutants are considered, namely ozone (O3), sulfates (PSO4), nitrates (PNO3), primary organic aerosol and primary elementary carbon (POA and PEC).The validation of the modelling system is limited to key climate parameters, near-surface temperature and precipitation. It shows that the model, in general, underestimates temperature and overestimates precipitation. We attribute this behaviour to an excess of cloudiness/water vapour present in the model atmosphere as a consequence of overpredicted evaporation from the surface.The impact on climate is characterised by statistically significant cooling of up to -0.02 and -0.04 K in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA), mainly over cities. We found that the main contributors to the cooling are the direct and indirect effects of the aerosols, while the ozone titration, calculated especially for DJF, plays rather a minor role. In accordance with the vertical extent of the urban-emission-induced aerosol perturbation, cooling dominates the first few model layers up to about 150 m in DJF and 1000 m in JJA. We found a clear diurnal cycle of the radiative impacts with maximum cooling just after noon (JJA) or later in afternoon (DJF). Furthermore, statistically significant decreases of surface radiation are modelled in accordance

  1. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    driving milestone events that helped shape the Clip-On weapon sight industry. Then, this paper systematically reviews current attributes of integrated multispectral wavelength electro-optical imaging systems that successfully (and sometimes unsuccessfully) shape today's Warrior, Soldier and User's net-capabilities. Finally, this paper explores the evolution, pros and cons, of future Clip-On weapon sights, from a manufacturing and real world applications perspective for tomorrow's military soldier and paramilitary first responder.

  2. A new role-model for the future humanities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Pedersen, Alex Young

    of citizens” who work together to design solutions for living better together, which the authors suggest being an equally productive role-model as the idea of a “scientific research groups and industrial design teams”, which is the standard role-model for KB prac-tice. The authors sees this alternative model...... as an important contribution and supplement for the future Humanities in the university....

  3. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  4. Winkler's single-parameter subgrade model from the perspective of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tensor are taken into consideration, whereas the shear stresses are intentionally dropped with the purpose of providing a useful perspective, with which Winkler's model and its associated coefficient of subgrade reaction can be viewed. The formulation takes into account the variation of the elasticity modulus with depth.

  5. Siloe, Osiris, and the future perspective of swimming-pool reactors; Siloe et Osiris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Lerouge, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Kervenoael, O. de [Societe INDATOM (France)

    1964-07-01

    Siloe and Osiris are two new general purpose research reactors of the 'Commissariat a l'energie Atomique'. Siloe, located within the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' of Grenoble is a swimming pool reactor of the same type as Melusine and Triton. It operates, at a nominal power of 15 MW thermal and has reached the peak power of 20 MW thermal with two thirds of its cooling system working. The fast flux above 1 MeV, which is maximum at the center of the core at 15 MW thermal is 1,2. 10{sup 14}. The core, quite open, is downward cooled. Average specific power is 159 kW/l. Osiris is under construction at Saclay. Designed for 50 MW thermal, this reactor is upward cooled. The fast flux at the center of the core above 1 MeV is calculated to be 2, 5.10{sup 14}. The average designed specific power is 280 kW/l. A fixed zircaloy gamma shield makes a box round the core. Future perspectives open to non-pressurised swimming-pool reactors are examined. Ways are suggested for neutronic; thermal and shielding modifications which make possible further improvements in the performances and economy of these devices. (authors) [French] SILOE et OSIRIS sont deux nouvelles piles de recherche non specialisees du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Installee au Centre de GRENOBLE, SILOE est une pile piscine derivee de MELUSINE et TRITON. Elle fonctionne a 15 MWt en regime nominal et a ete poussee a 20 MWt avec les 2/3 de sa refrigeration en route. Le flux rapide au dessus de 1 MeV maximum au centre du coeur a 15 MWt est de 1,2 10{sup 14}. Le coeur, entierement ouvert, est refroidi en sens descendant et la puissance specifique moyenne est 150 KW/l. OSIRIS est en construction a SACLAY. Prevue pour 50 MWt thermique, cette pile est au contraire refrigeree en sens ascendant. Le flux rapide au centre du coeur au dessus de 1 MeV est de 2,5 10{sup 14} calcules. La puissance specifique moyenne prevue est de 280 KW/l de coeur. Une protection gamma fixe en zircalloy forme

  6. In Situ Intestinal Perfusion in Rodents: Future Perspectives for Application on Absorption Studies and Classification of Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezani, Thaisa Marinho; Dezani, Andre Bersani; de Silva, Monica Maria Coquemala; Dos Reis Serra, Cristina Helena

    2017-01-01

    In 1995, the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was proposed by Amidon and colleagues as a tool that considers two important parameters regarding drugs: solubility and permeability. Since then, several methods for solubility and permeability studies have been developed for drug delivery and absorption prediction. In recent years, permeability has gained a great highlight and the interaction between a molecule and a biological membrane is not enough to predict the in vivo behavior of a compound. Thus, different methods for permeability assessment are currently used for mechanistic studies including involvement of carriers and several transport pathways. Furthermore, the investigation regarding metabolism has been a focus in recent researches. Based on this idea, Wu and Benet proposed a new tool called Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS), where drugs are classified into four classes considering their solubility and metabolism. Among several methods for permeability studies, the in situ intestinal perfusion is considered the closest to in vivo conditions due advantages as intact blood supply and innervation. This review presents the in situ intestinal perfusion model and its application for permeability/ transport studies of drugs and intestinal metabolism. Also, this paper discusses about how the in situ perfusion studies can be used for classification of drugs and the future perspectives for in vivo absorption prediction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Social network, autonomy, and adherence correlates of future time perspective in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldensperger, Linda; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Wessel, Lauri; Keilholz, Ulrich; Knoll, Nina

    2018-02-28

    Socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that, with more limited future time perspective (FTP), the meaning of individual life goals shifts from instrumental and long-term goals, such as autonomy, to emotionally meaningful and short-term life goals, especially concerning meaningful social relationships. Adverse side effects of cancer therapy may conflict with the realization of emotionally meaningful goals leading to nonadherence. In line with the theoretical assumptions, this study aimed to investigate (a) associations among disease symptoms, physical and cognitive limitations, and FTP and (b) among FTP, family network size, striving for autonomy, and treatment adherence. One hundred fifty-seven patients (43-90 years; 75% male) with head and/or neck cancer of a German University Medical Centre completed a questionnaire measuring FTP, age, disease symptoms, physical and cognitive functioning, family network size, and treatment adherence. Autonomy was assessed with a card sort task. A structural equation model yielded an acceptable fit χ 2 (28) = 44.41, P = .025, χ 2 /df = 1.59, root mean square error of approximation = 0.06 (90% CI = 0.02, 0.09), Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.92, and Comparative Fit Index = 0.96. An increased level of disease symptoms and physical and cognitive limitations was related to a shorter subjective FTP. Furthermore, individuals with a limited FTP reported a smaller family network, a lowered quest for autonomy, and lower treatment adherence. Hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory were supported by the data. Longitudinal investigations should follow to corroborate findings and to focus on underlying mechanisms as improving patients FTP may play a crucial role in future disease management programs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE; Octavian MOLDOVAN

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration), the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, u...

  9. When Future Change Matters: Modeling Future Price and Diffusion in Health Technology Assessments of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine E; Dixon, Simon; Stevens, John W

    Health technology assessments (HTAs) that take account of future price changes have been examined in the literature, but the important issue of price reductions that are generated by the reimbursement decision has been ignored. To explore the impact of future price reductions caused by increasing uptake on HTAs and decision making for medical devices. We demonstrate the use of a two-stage modeling approach to derive estimates of technology price as a consequence of changes in technology uptake over future periods on the basis of existing theory and supported by empirical studies. We explore the impact on cost-effectiveness and expected value of information analysis in an illustrative example on the basis of a technology in development for preterm birth screening. The application of our approach to the case study technology generates smaller incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared with the commonly used single cohort approach. The extent of this reduction in the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio depends on the magnitude of the modeled price reduction, the speed of diffusion, and the length of the assumed technology life horizon. Results of value of information analysis are affected through changes in the expected net benefit calculation, the addition of uncertain parameters, and the diffusion-adjusted estimate of the affected patient population. Because modeling future changes in price and uptake has the potential to affect HTA outcomes, modeling techniques that can address such changes should be considered for medical devices that may otherwise be rejected. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Biochemical Markers: Gaps and Challenges, Recent National Initiatives and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Houman; Higgins, Victoria; Fung, Angela W S; Truong, Dorothy; White-Al Habeeb, Nicole M A; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-03-01

    pediatric disease. CALIPER has also begun knowledge translation initiatives to disseminate its data via peer-reviewed publication, an online database, and a smartphone application to allow greater access to CALIPER pediatric reference interval data. Finally, limitations, future perspectives and harmonization of pediatric reference intervals to improve pediatric diagnostics in Canada and worldwide will be discussed.

  11. Future Time Perspective in Occupational Teams: Do Older Workers Prefer More Familiar Teams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Laura U A; Hertel, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Working in teams is quite popular across different industries and cultures. While some of these teams exist for longer time periods, other teams collaborate only for short periods and members switch into new teams after goals are accomplished. However, workers' preferences for joining a new team might vary in different ways. Based on Carstensen's socioemotional selectivity theory, we predict that emotionally meaningful teams are prioritized when occupational future time perspective (OFTP) is perceived as limited. Building and expanding on studies outside of the work context, we expected that older as compared to younger workers prefer more familiar teams, and that this effect is mediated by workers' OFTP. Moreover, we assumed that experimentally manipulated OFTP can change such team preferences. The hypotheses were tested in an online scenario study using three experimental conditions (within-person design). Four hundred and fifty-four workers (57% female, age M = 45.98, SD = 11.46) were asked to choose between a familiar and a new team in three consecutive trials: under an unspecified OFTP (baseline), under an expanded OFTP (amendment of retirement age), and under a restricted OFTP (insolvency of the current company). Whereas the baseline condition was always first, the order of the second and third conditions was randomized among participants. In the baseline condition, results showed the expected mediation effect of workers' OFTP on the relation between workers' age and preference for a familiar over a new team. Higher age was associated with more limited OFTP, which in turn was associated with higher preference for a familiar over a new team. Moreover, experimentally restricting OFTP increased preference for a familiar team over a new team regardless of workers' age, providing further evidence for the assumed causal processes and showing interesting avenues for practical interventions in occupational teams.

  12. Future Time Perspective in Occupational Teams: Do Older Workers Prefer More Familiar Teams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura U. A. Gärtner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Working in teams is quite popular across different industries and cultures. While some of these teams exist for longer time periods, other teams collaborate only for short periods and members switch into new teams after goals are accomplished. However, workers’ preferences for joining a new team might vary in different ways. Based on Carstensen’s socioemotional selectivity theory, we predict that emotionally meaningful teams are prioritized when occupational future time perspective (OFTP is perceived as limited. Building and expanding on studies outside of the work context, we expected that older as compared to younger workers prefer more familiar teams, and that this effect is mediated by workers’ OFTP. Moreover, we assumed that experimentally manipulated OFTP can change such team preferences. The hypotheses were tested in an online scenario study using three experimental conditions (within-person design. Four hundred and fifty-four workers (57% female, age M = 45.98, SD = 11.46 were asked to choose between a familiar and a new team in three consecutive trials: under an unspecified OFTP (baseline, under an expanded OFTP (amendment of retirement age, and under a restricted OFTP (insolvency of the current company. Whereas the baseline condition was always first, the order of the second and third conditions was randomized among participants. In the baseline condition, results showed the expected mediation effect of workers’ OFTP on the relation between workers’ age and preference for a familiar over a new team. Higher age was associated with more limited OFTP, which in turn was associated with higher preference for a familiar over a new team. Moreover, experimentally restricting OFTP increased preference for a familiar team over a new team regardless of workers’ age, providing further evidence for the assumed causal processes and showing interesting avenues for practical interventions in occupational teams.

  13. RELIGION AND BANKING SYSTEM: THE FUTURE OF SYARIAH BANKING PRACTICES Historical and Contemporary Fiqh Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamka Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum of the development of Sharia banking has been noticed since the 1970s, which generally had two patterns: first, establishing the Islamic bank side by side with conventional one (dual-banking system as practiced in Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Bangladesh; and second, restructuring the banking system as a whole in accordance with Islamic Sharia (full-fledged Islamic financial system as applied in Sudan, Iran and Pakistan. The development of the Sharia-based banks which have been established across the world since the 1970s, became the motivation of the Indonesian ulemas to draft law on Sharia banking, so that Sharia banking could also be developed. As a result, these last few years, the banking world in Indonesia has witnessed the establishment of the public Sharia banks and Sharia business units, like Bank Muamalat and Bank Syariah Mandiri to mention a few. Using historical and contemporary jurisprudence perspective, this paper provides discussion on the future of Sharia banking.

  14. Microdialysis sampling for investigations of bioavailability and bioequivalence of topically administered drugs: current state and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Nielsen, J B; Benfeldt, E

    2010-01-01

    of instrumentation, calibration and experimental procedures are discussed along with the analytical considerations necessary for successful sampling. Clinical MD studies in the skin are reviewed with emphasis on pharmacokinetic studies of topically applied drugs with or without impairment of skin barrier function...... development, improvement and validation during the last decade and has proved to be a versatile, safe and valuable tool for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. This review gives an overview of the current state and future perspectives of dermal MD sampling. Methodological issues such as choice...... is concluded by the current regulatory point of view. The future perspective includes further expansion and validation of the use of MD in the experimental and clinical setting as well as in the optimization of the method for regulatory purposes, i.e. the commercialization of bioequivalent, generic drug...

  15. The investor perspective on business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Disclosure of information on strategies, business models, critical success factors, risk factors and value drivers in general has gained importance in recent years. Both policy makers and academics have argued that the demand for external communication of new types of value drivers is rising...... as companies increasingly base their competitive strengths and thus the value of the company on know-how, patents, skilled employees and other intangibles. In parallel with the focus on disclosure of value drivers, the concept of business models has gained popularity. However, business models in terms of “ways...... of doing business” have always existed. The business model reflects the way of competing of the specific company, whether it concerns being unique or being the most cost-efficient company in the industry....

  16. Psychiatric Brain Banking: Three Perspectives on Current Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Benes, Francine M.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ellis, Justin K.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Hyde, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The study of postmortem human brain tissue is central to the advancement of the neurobiological studies of psychiatric illness, particularly for the study of brain-specific isoforms and molecules. Methods The state-of-the-art methods and recommendations for maintaining a successful brain bank for psychiatric disorders are discussed, using the convergence of viewpoints from three brain collections, the National Institute of Mental Health Brain Collection (NIMH), the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center (HBTRC), and the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine Brain Bank (MSSM-BB), with diverse research interests and divergent approaches to tissue acquisition. Results While the NIMH obtains donations from medical examiners for its collection, and places particular emphasis on clinical diagnosis, toxicology, and building lifespan control cohorts, the HBTRC is uniquely designed as a repository whose sole purpose is to collect large-volume, high quality brain tissue from community-based donors based on relationships across an expansive nationwide network, and places emphasis on the accessibility of its bank in disseminating tissue and related data to research groups worldwide. The MSSM-BB collection has shown that, with dedication, prospective recruitment is a successful approach to tissue donation, and places particular emphasis on rigorous clinical diagnosis through antemortem contact with donors. The MSSM-BB places great importance on stereological tissue sampling methods for neuroanatomical studies, and frozen tissue sampling approaches that enable multiple assessments (RNA, DNA, protein, enzyme activity, binding, etc.) of the same tissue block. Promising scientific approaches for elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways in brain that may contribute to schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder, such as cell culture techniques and microarray-based gene expression and genotyping studies are briefly discussed. Conclusions Despite unique perspectives from three

  17. Predicting future glacial lakes in Austria using different modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jan-Christoph; Helfricht, Kay; Prasicek, Günther; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Glacier retreat is one of the most apparent consequences of temperature rise in the 20th and 21th centuries in the European Alps. In Austria, more than 240 new lakes have formed in glacier forefields since the Little Ice Age. A similar signal is reported from many mountain areas worldwide. Glacial lakes can constitute important environmental and socio-economic impacts on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. Their development significantly modifies the landscape configuration and visual appearance of high mountain areas. Knowledge on the location, number and extent of these future lakes can be used to assess potential impacts on high mountain geo-ecosystems and upland-lowland interactions. Information on new lakes is critical to appraise emerging threads and potentials for society. The recent development of regional ice thickness models and their combination with high resolution glacier surface data allows predicting the topography below current glaciers by subtracting ice thickness from glacier surface. Analyzing these modelled glacier bed surfaces reveals overdeepenings that represent potential locations for future lakes. In order to predict the location of future glacial lakes below recent glaciers in the Austrian Alps we apply different ice thickness models using high resolution terrain data and glacier outlines. The results are compared and validated with ice thickness data from geophysical surveys. Additionally, we run the models on three different glacier extents provided by the Austrian Glacier Inventories from 1969, 1998 and 2006. Results of this historical glacier extent modelling are compared to existing glacier lakes and discussed focusing on geomorphological impacts on lake evolution. We discuss model performance and observed differences in the results in order to assess the approach for a realistic prediction of future lake locations. The presentation delivers

  18. Detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious pathogen that is commonly found in oysters growing in fecally contaminated waters. Norovirus outbreaks can cause the closure of oyster harvesting waters and acute gastroenteritis in humans associated with consumption of contaminated raw oysters. Extensive efforts and progresses have been made in detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks over the past decades. The main objective of this paper is to provide a literature review of methods and techniques for detecting and forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks and thereby to identify the future directions for improving the detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks. It is found that (1) norovirus outbreaks display strong seasonality with the outbreak peak occurring commonly in December-March in the U.S. and April-May in the Europe; (2) norovirus outbreaks are affected by multiple environmental factors, including but not limited to precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind, and salinity; (3) various modeling approaches may be employed to forecast norovirus outbreaks, including Bayesian models, regression models, Artificial Neural Networks, and process-based models; and (4) diverse techniques are available for near real-time detection of norovirus outbreaks, including multiplex PCR, seminested PCR, real-time PCR, quantitative PCR, and satellite remote sensing. The findings are important to the management of oyster growing waters and to future investigations into norovirus outbreaks. It is recommended that a combined approach of sensor-assisted real time monitoring and modeling-based forecasting should be utilized for an efficient and effective detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks caused by consumption of contaminated oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Future projections of active-break spells of Indian summer monsoon in a climate change perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeepkumar, B. L.; Babu, C. A.; Varikoden, Hamza

    2018-02-01

    The effect of global climate change on Indian summer monsoon has been analysed with special emphasis on active-break cycle. The changes in intensity and duration of active and break monsoon conditions towards the end of the century are studied by using 850 hPa zonal circulations. The analysis is carried out using twenty year climatology of historical period (1986-2005) and future projections (2080-2099) simulated as part of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Models are compared with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The models that effectively capture the circulation pattern of monsoon (JJAS) are considered for assessing the future climate in RCP 4.5 scenario. They are CanESM2, CNRM-CM5, GFDL-ESM2M, MIROC5 and MPI-ESM-LR. During the southwest monsoon period, the ensemble mean of models projects a strengthening of the wind speed towards north (north of 15°N) and weakening to the southern region (especially south of 12°N) which facilitates wetting of northern Indian regions and drying of southern peninsular regions. In the case of active-break conditions, the active spells are found to be strengthening over northern India and weakening over the peninsular India, the break spells intensify over southern tip of peninsular India indicating intense breaks. Increased propensity of short intense active days and decreased propensity of long active days are also projected by the models. The number of break spells does not show any significant changes.

  20. Faculty Unions, Business Models, and the Academy's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses questions about the future of faculty unions, business models, and the academy by providing some current and historical context regarding the causes of and conflicts about faculty unions. He also reviews trends in college and university management over the past three decades, using California, Ohio, and…

  1. Hydrological engineering in the 21st century - current situation and future perspectives; Wasserkraft im 21. Jahrhundert - Bestandsaufnahme und Zukunftsperspektiven. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Content with following topics: Hydropower in Europe, general conditions and licensing, hydropower use in case of deregulation, Chance and market from the point of view of manufacturers, as futural perspectives of ''Green Power Generation''.(GL) [German] Inhalt mit folgenden Schwerpunkten: Wasserkraft in Europa, Rahmenbedingungen und Genehmigungen, Wasserkraftnutzung im liberalisierten Strommarkt, Chance und Markt aus Herstellersicht, sowie Zukunftsperspektiven der Erzeugung des ''Gruenen Stroms''.(GL)

  2. The Standard Model from LHC to future colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, S.; Ferrera, G.; Vicini, A. [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Nisati, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Passarino, G.; Magnea, L. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Tenchini, R. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Calame, C.M.C. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pavia (Italy); Chiesa, M.; Nicrosini, O.; Piccinini, F. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cobal, M. [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Udine (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Udine, Udine (Italy); Corcella, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Degrassi, G. [Universita' Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Maltoni, F. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Montagna, G. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Oleari, C. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Riva, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institut de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    This review summarizes the results of the activities which have taken place in 2014 within the Standard Model Working Group of the ''What Next'' Workshop organized by INFN, Italy. We present a framework, general questions, and some indications of possible answers on the main issue for Standard Model physics in the LHC era and in view of possible future accelerators. (orig.)

  3. Modeling Concept Evolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Flavio; Velegrakis, Yannis; Mylopoulos, John; Bykau, Siarhei

    The world is changing, and so must the data that describes its history. Not surprisingly, considerable research effort has been spent in Databases along this direction, covering topics such as temporal models and schema evolution. A topic that has not received much attention, however, is that of concept evolution. For example, Germany (instance-level concept) has evolved several times in the last century as it went through different governance structures, then split into two national entities that eventually joined again. Likewise, a caterpillar is transformed into a butterfly, while a mother becomes two (maternally-related) entities. As well, the concept of Whale (a class-level concept) changed over the past two centuries thanks to scientific discoveries that led to a better understanding of what the concept entails. In this work, we present a formal framework for modeling, querying and managing such evolution. In particular, we describe how to model the evolution of a concept, and how this modeling can be used to answer historical queries of the form "How has concept X evolved over period Y". Our proposal extends an RDF-like model with temporal features and evolution operators. Then we provide a query language that exploits these extensions and supports historical queries.

  4. SLS Model Based Design: A Navigation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Anzalone, Evan; Park, Thomas; Geohagan, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    The SLS Program has implemented a Model-based Design (MBD) and Model-based Requirements approach for managing component design information and system requirements. This approach differs from previous large-scale design efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center where design documentation alone conveyed information required for vehicle design and analysis and where extensive requirements sets were used to scope and constrain the design. The SLS Navigation Team is responsible for the Program-controlled Design Math Models (DMMs) which describe and represent the performance of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGAs) used by Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C). The SLS Navigation Team is also responsible for navigation algorithms. The navigation algorithms are delivered for implementation on the flight hardware as a DMM. For the SLS Block 1B design, the additional GPS Receiver hardware model is managed as a DMM at the vehicle design level. This paper describes the models, and discusses the processes and methods used to engineer, design, and coordinate engineering trades and performance assessments using SLS practices as applied to the GN&C system, with a particular focus on the navigation components.

  5. A modeling perspective on cloud radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Corsetti, L.; Slingo, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    Radiation fields from a perpetual July integration of a T106 version of the ECM-WF operational model are used to identify the most appropriate way to diagnose cloud radiative forcing in a general circulation model, for the purposes of intercomparison between models. Differences between the Methods I and II of Cess and Potter (1987) and a variant method are addressed. Method I is shown to be the least robust of all methods, due to the potential uncertainties related to persistent cloudiness, length of the sampling period and biases in retrieved clear-sky quantities due to insufficient sampling of the diurnal cycle. Method II is proposed as an unambiguous way to produce consistent radiative diagnostics for intercomparing model results. The impact of the three methods on the derived sensitivities and cloud feedbacks following an imposed change in sea surface temperature is discussed. The sensitivity of the results to horizontal resolution is considered by using the diagnostics from parallel integrations with T21 version of the model

  6. Model-specification uncertainty in future forest pest outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Yan; Gray, David R; Cooke, Barry J; De Grandpré, Louis

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will modify forest pest outbreak characteristics, although there are disagreements regarding the specifics of these changes. A large part of this variability may be attributed to model specifications. As a case study, we developed a consensus model predicting spruce budworm (SBW, Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) outbreak duration using two different predictor data sets and six different correlative methods. The model was used to project outbreak duration and the uncertainty associated with using different data sets and correlative methods (=model-specification uncertainty) for 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, according to three forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The consensus model showed very high explanatory power and low bias. The model projected a more important northward shift and decrease in outbreak duration under the RCP 8.5 scenario. However, variation in single-model projections increases with time, making future projections highly uncertain. Notably, the magnitude of the shifts in northward expansion, overall outbreak duration and the patterns of outbreaks duration at the southern edge were highly variable according to the predictor data set and correlative method used. We also demonstrated that variation in forcing scenarios contributed only slightly to the uncertainty of model projections compared with the two sources of model-specification uncertainty. Our approach helped to quantify model-specification uncertainty in future forest pest outbreak characteristics. It may contribute to sounder decision-making by acknowledging the limits of the projections and help to identify areas where model-specification uncertainty is high. As such, we further stress that this uncertainty should be strongly considered when making forest management plans, notably by adopting adaptive management strategies so as to reduce future risks. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Global Change Biology © 2015 Published by John

  7. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  8. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  9. Future intensification of hydro-meteorological extremes: downscaling using the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samra, R.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Bangalath, H. K.; Stenchikov, G.; El-Fadel, M.

    2017-12-01

    A set of ten downscaling simulations at high spatial resolution (3 km horizontally) were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to generate future climate projections of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation changes over the Eastern Mediterranean (with a focus on Lebanon). The model was driven with the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), running over the whole globe at a resolution of 25 km, under the conditions of two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) (4.5 and 8.5). Each downscaling simulation spanned one year. Two past years (2003 and 2008), also forced by HiRAM without data assimilation, were simulated to evaluate the model's ability to capture the cold and wet (2003) and hot and dry (2008) extremes. The downscaled data were in the range of recent observed climatic variability, and therefore corrected for the cold bias of HiRAM. Eight future years were then selected based on an anomaly score that relies on the mean annual temperature and accumulated precipitation to identify the worst year per decade from a water resources perspective. One hot and dry year per decade, from 2011 to 2050, and per scenario was simulated and compared to the historic 2008 reference. The results indicate that hot and dry future extreme years will be exacerbated and the study area might be exposed to a significant decrease in annual precipitation (rain and snow), reaching up to 30% relative to the current extreme conditions.

  10. Ontological perspective in metamodeling for model transformations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göknil, Arda; Topaloglu, N.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) aims to facilitate building larger and more complex, reliable software systems by introducing a higher abstraction level than the code level. The technical space concept discusses how the basic MDE principles may be mapped onto modern platform support and several

  11. Bacterial pathogenesis of plants: future challenges from a microbial perspective: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilmeier, Sebastian; Caly, Delphine L; Malone, Jacob G

    2016-10-01

    secretion systems (T3SSs) are important and well-studied contributors to bacterial disease. Several key unanswered questions will shape future investigations of these systems. We need to define the mechanism of hierarchical and temporal control of effector secretion. For successful infection, effectors need to interact with host components to exert their function. Advanced biochemical, proteomic and cell biological techniques will enable us to study the function of effectors inside the host cell in more detail and on a broader scale. Population genomics analyses provide insight into evolutionary adaptation processes of phytopathogens. The determination of the diversity and distribution of type III effectors (T3Es) and other virulence genes within and across pathogenic species, pathovars and strains will allow us to understand how pathogens adapt to specific hosts, the evolutionary pathways available to them, and the possible future directions of the evolutionary arms race between effectors and molecular plant targets. Although pathogenic bacteria employ a host of different virulence and proliferation strategies, as a result of the space constraints, this review focuses mainly on the hemibiotrophic pathogens. We discuss the process of plant infection from the perspective of these important phytopathogens, and highlight new approaches to address the outstanding challenges in this important and fast-moving field. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology Published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Heterotic particle models from various perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, Michael I.

    2012-10-15

    We consider the compactification of heterotic string theory on toroidal orbifolds and their resolutions. In the framework of gauged linear sigma models we develop realizations of such spaces, allowing to continously vary the moduli and thus smoothly interpolate between different corners of the theory. This way all factorizable orbifold resolutions as well as some non-factorizable ones can be obtained. We find that for a given geometry there are many model which realize it as a target space, differing in their complexity. We explore regions of moduli space which otherwise would not be accessible. In particular we are interested in the orbifold regime, where exact string calculations are possible, and the large volume regime, where techniques of supergravity compactification can be applied. By comparing these two theories and matching the spectra we find evidence for non-perturbative effects which interpolate between these regimes.

  13. Ion transport in the zebrafish kidney from a human disease angle: possibilities, considerations, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Simone; Arjona, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Unique experimental advantages, such as its embryonic/larval transparency, high-throughput nature, and ease of genetic modification, underpin the rapid emergence of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent model in biomedical research. Particularly in the field of nephrology, the zebrafish provides a promising model for studying the physiological implications of human solute transport processes along consecutive nephron segments. However, although the zebrafish might be considered a valuable model for numerous renal ion transport diseases and functional studies of many channels and transporters, not all human renal electrolyte transport mechanisms and human diseases can be modeled in the zebrafish. With this review, we explore the ontogeny of zebrafish renal ion transport, its nephron structure and function, and thereby demonstrate the clinical translational value of this model. By critical assessment of genomic and amino acid conservation of human proteins involved in renal ion handling (channels, transporters, and claudins), kidney and nephron segment conservation, and renal electrolyte transport physiology in the zebrafish, we provide researchers and nephrologists with an indication of the possibilities and considerations of the zebrafish as a model for human renal ion transport. Combined with advanced techniques envisioned for the future, implementation of the zebrafish might expand beyond unraveling pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie distinct genetic or environmentally, i.e., pharmacological and lifestyle, induced renal transport deficits. Specifically, the ease of drug administration and the exploitation of improved genetic approaches might argue for the adoption of the zebrafish as a model for preclinical personalized medicine for distinct renal diseases and renal electrolyte transport proteins. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. The possibilities of a modelling perspective for school mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Wessels

    2009-09-01

    complex teaching methodology requires in-depth thinking about the role of the teacher, the role of the learner, the nature of the classroom culture, the nature of the negotiation of meaning between the teacher and individuals or groups, the nature of selected problems and material, as well as the kind of integrative assessment used in the mathematics classroom. Modelling is closely related to the problem-centred teaching approach, but it also smoothly relates to bigger and longer mathematical tasks. This article gives a theoretical exposition of the scope and depth of mathematical modelling. It is possible to introduce modelling at every school phase in our educational sytem. Modelling in school mathematics seems to make the learning of mathematics more effective. The mastering of problem solving and modelling strategies has definitely changed the orientation, the competencies and performances of learners at each school level. It would appear from research that learners like the application side of mathematics and that they want to see it in action. Genuine real life problems should be selected, which is why a modelling perspective is so important for the teaching and mastering of mathematics. Modelling should be integrated into the present curriculum because learners will then get full access to involvement in the classroom, to mathematisation, to doing problems, to criticising arguments, to finding proofs, to recognising concepts and to obtaining the ability to abstract these from the realistic situation. Modelling should be given a full opportunity in mathematics teacher education so that our learners can get the full benefit of it. This will put the mathematical performances of learners in our country on a more solid base, which will make our learners more competitive at all levels in the future

  15. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    A calculational program utilizing data from radiation dosimetry measurements aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite to reduce the uncertainties in current models defining the ionizing radiation environment is in progress. Most of the effort to date has been on using LDEF radiation dose measurements to evaluate models defining the geomagnetically trapped radiation, which has provided results applicable to radiation design assessments being performed for Space Station Freedom. Plans for future data comparisons, model evaluations, and assessments using additional LDEF data sets (LET spectra, induced radioactivity, and particle spectra) are discussed.

  16. Modeling electricity spot and futures price dependence: A multifrequency approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Pekka

    2009-11-01

    Electricity prices are known to exhibit multifractal properties. We accommodate this finding by investigating multifractal models for electricity prices. In this paper we propose a flexible Copula-MSM (Markov Switching Multifractal) approach for modeling spot and weekly futures price dynamics. By using a conditional copula function, the framework allows us to separately model the dependence structure, while enabling use of multifractal stochastic volatility models to characterize fluctuations in marginal returns. An empirical experiment is carried out using data from Nord Pool. A study of volatility forecasting performance for electricity spot prices reveals that multifractal techniques are a competitive alternative to GARCH models. We also demonstrate how the Copula-MSM model can be employed for finding optimal portfolios, which minimizes the Conditional Value-at-Risk.

  17. Perspectives on managing nuclear safety at Cernavoda NPP past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, M.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation considers the following issues: background of Romanian nuclear programme; 1990 management issues involved in Cernavoda project, nuclear safety perspectives; Cernavoda U1 operating organization today (safety related issues); good practices at Cernavoda NPP

  18. Future intensification of hydro-meteorological extremes: downscaling using the weather research and forecasting model

    KAUST Repository

    El-Samra, R.

    2017-02-15

    A set of ten downscaling simulations at high spatial resolution (3 km horizontally) were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to generate future climate projections of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation changes over the Eastern Mediterranean (with a focus on Lebanon). The model was driven with the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), running over the whole globe at a resolution of 25 km, under the conditions of two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) (4.5 and 8.5). Each downscaling simulation spanned one year. Two past years (2003 and 2008), also forced by HiRAM without data assimilation, were simulated to evaluate the model’s ability to capture the cold and wet (2003) and hot and dry (2008) extremes. The downscaled data were in the range of recent observed climatic variability, and therefore corrected for the cold bias of HiRAM. Eight future years were then selected based on an anomaly score that relies on the mean annual temperature and accumulated precipitation to identify the worst year per decade from a water resources perspective. One hot and dry year per decade, from 2011 to 2050, and per scenario was simulated and compared to the historic 2008 reference. The results indicate that hot and dry future extreme years will be exacerbated and the study area might be exposed to a significant decrease in annual precipitation (rain and snow), reaching up to 30% relative to the current extreme conditions.

  19. Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

    2014-05-01

    scales and the future perspectives. References Finley, C.D., Glenn, N.F. (2010) Fire and vegetation type effects on soil hydrophobicity and infiltration in the sagebrussh-steppe: II. Hyperspectral analysis. Journal of Arid Environments, 74: 660-666. Fox, D.A., Maselli, F., Carrega, P. (2008) Using SPOT images and field sampling to map burn severity and vegetation factors affecting post-fire erosion risk. Catena, 75: 326-335. Gimeno-Garcia. E., Andreu., V., Rubio, J.L. (2004) Spatial patterns of soil temperatures during experiemntal fires. Geoderma, 118: 17-34. Hirobe, M., Tokushi, N., Wachrinrat, C., Takeda, H. (2003) Fire history influences on the spatial heterogeneity of soil nitrogen transformations in three adjacent stands in a dry tropical forest in Thailand. Plant and Soil, 249: 309-318. Kokaly, R.F., Rockwell, B.W., Haire, S.L., King, T.V.V. (2007) Characterization of post fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 106: 305-325. Lewis, S.A., Hudak, A.T., Ottmar, R.D., Robichaud, P.R., Lentile, L.B., Hood, S.M., Cronan, J.B., Morgan, P. (2012) Using hyperspectral imagery to estimate forest floor consumption from wildfire in boreal forests of Alaska. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 20: 255-271. Lewis, S.A., Robichaud, P.R., Frazier, B.E., Wu, J.Q., Laes, D.Y.M. (2008) Using hyperspectral imagery to predict post-wildfire soil repellency. Geomorphology, 98, 192-205. Miller, J.D., Yool, S. (2002) Mapping forest post-fire canopy consumption in several overstory types using multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM data. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 82: 481-496. Outeiro, L., Aspero, F., Ubeda, X. (2008) Geostatistical methods to study spatial variability of soil cation after a prescribed fire and rainfall. Catena, 74: 310-320. Parsons, A., Robichaud, P.R., Lewis, S.A., Napper, C., Clark, J.T. (2010) Field guide for mapping post-fire soil

  20. Ten years of METEOR (an international rheumatoid arthritis registry): development, research opportunities and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstra, Sytske Anne; Machado, Pedro M M C; van den Berg, Rosaline; Landewé, Robert B M; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2016-01-01

    Ten years ago, the METEOR tool was developed to simulate treatment-to-target and create an international research database. The development of the METEOR tool and database, research opportunities and future perspectives are described. The METEOR tool is a free, online, internationally available tool in which daily practice visits of all rheumatoid arthritis patients visiting a rheumatologist can be registered. In the tool, disease characteristics, patient- and physician-reported outcomes and prescribed treatment could be entered. These can be subsequently displayed in powerful graphics, facilitating treatment decisions and patient-physician interactions. An upload facility is also available, by which data from local electronic health record systems or registries can be integrated into the METEOR database. This is currently being actively used in, among other countries, the Netherlands, Portugal and India. Since an increasing number of hospitals use electronic health record systems, the upload facility is being actively used by an increasing number of sites, enabling them to benefit from the benchmark and research opportunities of METEOR. Enabling a connection between local registries and METEOR is a well established but time-consuming process for which an IT-specialist of METEOR and the local registry are necessary. However, once this process has been finished, data can be uploaded regularly and relatively easily according to a pre-specified format. The METEOR database currently contains data from >39,000 patients and >200,000 visits, from 32 different countries and is ever increasing. Continuous efforts are being undertaken to increase the quality of data in the database. Since METEOR was founded 10 years ago, many rheumatologists worldwide have used the METEOR tool to follow-up their patients and improve the quality of care they provide to their patients. Combined with uploaded data, this has led to an extensive growth of the database. It now offers a unique

  1. Monitoring issues from a modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlman, Jerry D.

    1993-01-01

    Recognition that earth's climate and biogeophysical conditions are likely changing due to human activities has led to a heightened awareness of the need for improved long-term global monitoring. The present long-term measurement efforts tend to be spotty in space, inadequately calibrated in time, and internally inconsistent with respect to other instruments and measured quantities. In some cases, such as most of the biosphere, most chemicals, and much of the ocean, even a minimal monitoring program is not available. Recently, it has become painfully evident that emerging global change issues demand information and insights that the present global monitoring system simply cannot supply. This is because a monitoring system must provide much more than a statement of change at a given level of statistical confidence. It must describe changes in diverse parts of the entire earth system on regional to global scales. It must be able to provide enough input to allow an integrated physical characterization of the changes that have occurred. Finally, it must allow a separation of the observed changes into their natural and anthropogenic parts. The enormous policy significance of global change virtually guarantees an unprecedented level of scrutiny of the changes in the earth system and why they are happening. These pressures create a number of emerging challenges and opportunities. For example, they will require a growing partnership between the observational programs and the theory/modeling community. Without this partnership, the scientific community will likely fall short in the monitoring effort. The monitoring challenge before us is not to solve the problem now, but rather to set appropriate actions in motion so as to create the required framework for solution. Each individual piece needs to establish its role in the large problem and how the required interactions are to take place. Below, we emphasize some of the needs and opportunities that could and should be

  2. In vivo models in breast cancer research: progress, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Holen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research using animal model systems has been instrumental in delivering improved therapies for breast cancer, as well as in generating new insights into the mechanisms that underpin development of the disease. A large number of different models are now available, reflecting different types and stages of the disease; choosing which one to use depends on the specific research question(s to be investigated. Based on presentations and discussions from leading experts who attended a recent workshop focused on in vivo models of breast cancer, this article provides a perspective on the many varied uses of these models in breast cancer research, their strengths, associated challenges and future directions. Among the questions discussed were: how well do models represent the different stages of human disease; how can we model the involvement of the human immune system and microenvironment in breast cancer; what are the appropriate models of metastatic disease; can we use models to carry out preclinical drug trials and identify pathways responsible for drug resistance; and what are the limitations of patient-derived xenograft models? We briefly outline the areas where the existing breast cancer models require improvement in light of the increased understanding of the disease process, reflecting the drive towards more personalised therapies and identification of mechanisms of drug resistance.

  3. Meditation research, past, present, and future: perspectives from the Nalanda contemplative science tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article offers an overview of meditation research: its history, recent developments, and future directions. As the number and scope of studies grow, the field has converged with cognitive and affective neuroscience, and spawned many clinical applications. Recent work has shed light on the mechanisms and effects of diverse practices, and is entering a new phase where consensus and coherent paradigms are within reach. This article suggests an unusual path for future advancement: complementing conventional research with rigorous dialogue with the contemplative traditions that train expert meditators and best know the techniques. It explores the Nalanda tradition developed in India and preserved in Tibet, because its cumulative approach to contemplative methods produced a comprehensive framework that may help interpret data and guide research, and because its naturalistic theories and empirical methods may help bridge the gulf between science and other contemplative traditions. Examining recent findings and models in light of this framework, the article introduces the Indic map of the central nervous system and presents three testable predictions based on it. Finally, it reviews two studies that suggest that the multimodal Nalanda approach to contemplative learning is as well received as more familiar approaches, while showing promise of being more effective. © 2013 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or 'ecstasy': Current perspective and future research prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Downey, Luke A; Roberts, Carl A; Montgomery, Cathy; Bruno, Raimondo; Fox, Helen C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to debate current understandings about the psychobiological effects of recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'), and recommend theoretically-driven topics for future research. Recent empirical findings, especially those from novel topic areas were reviewed. Potential causes for the high variance often found in group findings were also examined. The first empirical reports into psychobiological and psychiatric aspects from the early 1990s concluded that regular users demonstrated some selective psychobiological deficits, for instance worse declarative memory, or heightened depression. More recent research has covered a far wider range of psychobiological functions, and deficits have emerged in aspects of vision, higher cognitive skill, neurohormonal functioning, and foetal developmental outcomes. However, variance levels are often high, indicating that while some recreational users develop problems, others are less affected. Potential reasons for this high variance are debated. An explanatory model based on multi-factorial causation is then proposed. A number of theoretically driven research topics are suggested, in order to empirically investigate the potential causes for these diverse psychobiological deficits. Future neuroimaging studies should study the practical implications of any serotonergic and/or neurohormonal changes, using a wide range of functional measures.

  5. A dynamic perspective in Freeman’s stakeholder model

    OpenAIRE

    Y. FASSIN

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder literature has acknowledged the need to complement the extant theory on stakeholder management by more dynamic perspectives. This article makes use of the recent terminology of stakewatcher and stakeseeker to illustrate the dynamic aspect of stakeholder theory transposed in the graphical representation of Freeman’s stakeholder model. Presenting a few selected case studies, it applies the scheme on the concept of value responsibility chain; it exemplifies the role of stakeseekers i...

  6. Library of Congress Model, Perspective View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) has produced the first high-resolution, near-global elevation dataset of Earth. In recognition of this achievement, and as an illustration of the data, the United States Library of Congress now displays a 'solid terrain model' of Los Angeles and adjacent mountainous terrain. The model was created by carving a high-density foam block using computer-guided drills that referenced the SRTM dataset. The block was then covered with a Landsat satellite image using computer-guided paint guns that referenced both the Landsat image and the SRTM dataset. The view shown here mimics the actual model on display at the Library of Congress and was generated from the same satellite image and elevation data sets. The model shows the Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica Mountains along the Malibu Coast (lower left), San Fernando Valley (left center), downtown Los Angeles (bottom center), San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys (lower right), San Gabriel Mountains (right center to far right), and part of the Mojave Desert (upper right). Colors are enhanced true color with added topographic shading, and elevation differences are exaggerated 1.5 times. The view is toward the north-northwest. The Los Angeles region was chosen for the Library of Congress model because it illustrates so many ways that topography affects the daily lives of people. The region consists of a coastal plain, inland valleys, mountains up to 3068 meters (10,064 feet), and a desert interior. Topography blocks the landward influence of marine airmasses here such that summer temperatures often differ by 40 degrees Fahrenheit (22 C) across this region at a given moment even at similar elevations. Temperatures also typically cool with rising elevation, and winter storms drop most of their moisture in the mountains, leaving little rainfall for areas further inland, thus creating the deserts. Topography also controls the land use pattern. The mountains are mostly very rugged, which greatly

  7. Cluster Analysis in Nursing Research: An Introduction, Historical Perspective, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Heather; Quinn, Laurie; Corbridge, Susan J; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Kapella, Mary; Collins, Eileen G

    2017-05-01

    The use of cluster analysis in the nursing literature is limited to the creation of classifications of homogeneous groups and the discovery of new relationships. As such, it is important to provide clarity regarding its use and potential. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to distance-based, partitioning-based, and model-based cluster analysis methods commonly utilized in the nursing literature, provide a brief historical overview on the use of cluster analysis in nursing literature, and provide suggestions for future research. An electronic search included three bibliographic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Key terms were cluster analysis and nursing. The use of cluster analysis in the nursing literature is increasing and expanding. The increased use of cluster analysis in the nursing literature is positioning this statistical method to result in insights that have the potential to change clinical practice.

  8. Organizational Communication: An Analysis of the Main Perspectives, Main Concepts and Future Directions of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yüksel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a scholarly debate since the 1980s regarding the content, theory, methodology and applications that define the scope of organizational communication and separate it from other related disciplines. This debate is critical in the sense that it enables to identity organizational communication in a rich manner and helps us define the scope of the field and its unique characteristics. Based on this main assumption, this study addressed the major theoretical/methodological dimensions of the field (functional, interpretive, and critical, conceptualization of the most critical concepts (organization, communication, culture, voice/control in these dimensions, and current gaps and future directions of the field. This study revealed that the field of organizational communication has made great improvements since the field emerged in the last three decade with its own content, methodology, and applications and generated an adequate body of research within these different perspectives. It is shown that representation of the field by different perspectives provides richness to the field compared with the time when organizational communication was solely dominated by functional, positivist research. Key words: Functional/interpretive/critical perspectives, communication, organization, culture, control, effectiveness. Örgütsel İletişim: Alanın Ana Yaklaşımları, Ana Kavramları ve Gelecek Yönelimlerinin AnaliziÖzÖrgütsel iletişim alanının kapsamı ve bu alanı ilgili displinlerden ayıracak içerik, teori, yöntem, ve uygulamalar üzerine akademik tartışmalar 1980’li yıllardan beri devam etmektedir. Bu tartışmalar, örgütsel iletişim alanının derinlemesine anlaşılması, sınırlarının belirlenmesi ve diğer disiplinlerden ayrılan özelliklerinin anlaşılması noktasında hayati öneme sahiptir. Bu temel varsayımdan hareketle, bu çalışma alandaki temel teorik/yöntemsel yaklaşımları (işlevsel, yorumlayıcı, ele

  9. Predicting the future completing models of observed complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the Future: Completing Models of Observed Complex Systems provides a general framework for the discussion of model building and validation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This is accomplished through the development of an exact path integral for use in transferring information from observations to a model of the observed system. Through many illustrative examples drawn from models in neuroscience, fluid dynamics, geosciences, and nonlinear electrical circuits, the concepts are exemplified in detail. Practical numerical methods for approximate evaluations of the path integral are explored, and their use in designing experiments and determining a model's consistency with observations is investigated. Using highly instructive examples, the problems of data assimilation and the means to treat them are clearly illustrated. This book will be useful for students and practitioners of physics, neuroscience, regulatory networks, meteorology and climate science, network dynamics, fluid dynamics, and o...

  10. Modeling future power plant location patterns. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagles, T.W.; Cohon, J.L.; ReVelle, C.

    1979-04-01

    The locations of future energy facilities must be specified to assess the potential environmental impact of those facilities. A computer model was developed to generate probable locations for the energy facilities needed to meet postulated future energy requirements. The model is designed to cover a very large geographical region. The regional demand for baseload electric generating capacity associated with a postulated demand growth rate over any desired time horizon is specified by the user as an input to the model. The model uses linear programming to select the most probable locations within the region, based on physical and political factors. The linear program is multi-objective, with four objective functions based on transmission, coal supply, population proximity, and water supply considerations. Minimizing each objective function leads to a distinct set of locations. The user can select the objective function or weighted combination of objective functions most appropriate to his interest. Users with disparate interests can use the model to see the locational changes which result from varying weighting of the objective functions. The model has been implemented in a six-state mid-Atlantic region. The year 2000 was chosen as the study year, and a test scenario postulating 2.25% growth in baseload generating capacity between 1977 and 2000 was chosen. The scenario stipulatedthat this capacity be 50% nuclear and 50% coal-fired. Initial utility reaction indicates the objective based on transmission costs is most important for such a large-scale analysis

  11. A dark past, a restrained present, and an apocalyptic future: time perspective, personality, and life satisfaction among anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite reporting low levels of well-being, anorexia nervosa patients express temperament traits (e.g., extraversion and persistence necessary for high levels of life satisfaction. Nevertheless, among individuals without eating disorders, a balanced organization of the flow of time, influences life satisfaction beyond temperamental dispositions. A balanced time perspective is defined as: high past positive, low past negative, high present hedonistic, low present fatalistic, and high future. We investigated differences in time perspective dimensions, personality traits, and life satisfaction between anorexia nervosa patients and matched controls. We also investigated if the personality traits and the outlook on time associated to positive levels of life satisfaction among controls also predicted anorexia patients’ life satisfaction. Additionally, we investigated if time perspective dimensions predicted life satisfaction beyond personality traits among both patients and controls. Method A total of 88 anorexia nervosa patients from a clinic in the West of Sweden and 111 gender-age matched controls from a university in the West of Sweden participated in the Study. All participants responded to the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Ten Item Personality Inventory, and the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results A t-test showed that patients scored higher in the past negative, the present fatalistic, and the future dimensions, lower in the past positive and the present hedonistic dimensions, higher in conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness, and lower in life satisfaction. Regression analyses showed that life satisfaction was predicted by openness to experience and emotional stability for controls and by emotional stability among patients. When time dimensions were entered in the regression, emotional stability and the past negative and past positive time dimensions predicted life satisfaction among controls, but

  12. Future Changes in Major Stratospheric Warmings in CCMI Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarzaguena, B.; Langematz, U.; Polvani, L. M; Abalichin, J.; Akiyoshi, H.; Klekociuk, A.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Oman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Major stratospheric warmings (MSWs) are one of the most important phenomena of wintertime Arctic stratospheric variability. They consist of a warming of the Arctic stratosphere and a deceleration of the polar night jet, triggered by an anomalously high injection of tropospheric wave activity into the stratosphere. Due to the relevance and the impact of MSWs on the tropospheric circulation, several model studies have investigated their potential responses to climate change. However, a wide range of results has been obtained, extending from a future increase in the frequency of MSWs to a decrease. These discrepancies might be explained by different factors such as a competition of radiative and dynamical contributors with opposite effects on the Arctic polar vortex, biases of models to reproduce the related processes, or the metric chosen for the identification of MSWs. In this study, future changes in wintertime Arctic stratospheric variability are examined in order to obtaina more precise picture of future changes in the occurrence of MSWs. In particular, transient REFC2 simulations of different CCMs involved in the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) are used. These simulations extend from 1960 to 2100 and include forcings by halogens and greenhouse gases following the specifications of the CCMI-REF-C2 scenario. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea-ice distributions are either prescribed from coupled climate model integrations or calculated internally in the case of fully coupled atmosphere-ocean CCMs. Potential changes in the frequency and main characteristics of MSWs in the future are investigated with special focus on the dependence of the results on the criterion for the identification of MSWs and the tropospheric forcing of these phenomena.

  13. Interwar Period Officer Education: A Model for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    the encirclement from the southwest of the Allied forces in Tunisia . However, officer education prepared the inexperienced American combat leaders to...campaign in Tunisia indicate that officer education must have an aspect of doctrinal and tactical mastery, strong logistical understanding, an emphasis on...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Interwar Period Officer Education : A Model For The Future A Monograph by MAJ Jason S

  14. Population balance models: a useful complementary modelling framework for future WWTP modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopens, Ingmar; Torfs, Elena; Ducoste, Joel; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Gernaey, Krist V

    2015-01-01

    Population balance models (PBMs) represent a powerful modelling framework for the description of the dynamics of properties that are characterised by distributions. This distribution of properties under transient conditions has been demonstrated in many chemical engineering applications. Modelling efforts of several current and future unit processes in wastewater treatment plants could potentially benefit from this framework, especially when distributed dynamics have a significant impact on the overall unit process performance. In these cases, current models that rely on average properties cannot sufficiently capture the true behaviour and even lead to completely wrong conclusions. Examples of distributed properties are bubble size, floc size, crystal size or granule size. In these cases, PBMs can be used to develop new knowledge that can be embedded in our current models to improve their predictive capability. Hence, PBMs should be regarded as a complementary modelling framework to biokinetic models. This paper provides an overview of current applications, future potential and limitations of PBMs in the field of wastewater treatment modelling, thereby looking over the fence to other scientific disciplines.

  15. Pharmacovigilance and Biomedical Informatics: A Model for Future Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninger, Paul; Ibara, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    The discipline of pharmacovigilance is rooted in the aftermath of the thalidomide tragedy of 1961. It has evolved as a result of collaborative efforts by many individuals and organizations, including physicians, patients, Health Authorities, universities, industry, the World Health Organization, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, and the International Conference on Harmonisation. Biomedical informatics is rooted in technologically based methodologies and has evolved at the speed of computer technology. The purpose of this review is to bring a novel lens to pharmacovigilance, looking at the evolution and development of the field of pharmacovigilance from the perspective of biomedical informatics, with the explicit goal of providing a foundation for discussion of the future direction of pharmacovigilance as a discipline. For this review, we searched [publication trend for the log 10 value of the numbers of publications identified in PubMed] using the key words [informatics (INF), pharmacovigilance (PV), phar-macovigilance þ informatics (PV þ INF)], for [study types] articles published between [1994-2015]. We manually searched the reference lists of identified articles for additional information. Biomedical informatics has made significant contributions to the infrastructural development of pharmacovigilance. However, there has not otherwise been a systematic assessment of the role of biomedical informatics in enhancing the field of pharmacovigilance, and there has been little cross-discipline scholarship. Rapidly developing innovations in biomedical informatics pose a challenge to pharmacovigilance in finding ways to include new sources of safety information, including social media, massively linked databases, and mobile and wearable wellness applications and sensors. With biomedical informatics as a lens, it is evident that certain aspects of pharmacovigilance are evolving more slowly. However, the high levels of mutual interest in

  16. Model of future officers' availability to the management physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkhovy O.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of work is creation of model of readiness of graduating student to implementation of official questions of guidance, organization and leadthrough of physical preparation in the process of military-professional activity. An analysis is conducted more than 40 sources and questionnaire questioning of a 21 expert. For introduction of model to the system of physical preparation of students the list of its basic constituents is certain: theoretical methodical readiness; functionally-physical readiness; organizationally-administrative readiness. It is certain that readiness of future officers to military-professional activity foresees determination of level of forming of motive capabilities, development of general physical qualities.

  17. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton electromagnetic form factors: present status and future perspectives at PANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data and models on electromagnetic proton form factors are reviewed, highlighting the contribution foreseen by the PANDA collaboration. Electromagnetic hadron form factors contain essential information on the internal structure of hadrons. Precise and surprising data have been obtained at electron accelerators, applying the polarization method in electron-proton elastic scattering. At electron-positron colliders, using initial state radiation, BABAR measured proton time-like form factors in a wide time-like kinematical region and the BESIII collaboration will measure very precisely proton and neutron form factors in the threshold region. In the next future an antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will be available at FAIR (Darmstadt. Measurements of the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− by the PANDA collaboration will contribute to the individual determination of electric and magnetic form factors in the time-like region of momentum transfer squared, as well as to their first determination in the unphysical region (below the kinematical threshold, through the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− + π0. From the discussion on feasibility studies at PANDA, we focus on the consequences of such measurements in view of an unified description of form factors in the full kinematical region. We present models which have the necessary analytical requirements and apply to the data in the whole kinematical region.

  19. Modeling, simulation and visual analysis of crowds a multidisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Saad; Manocha, Dinesh; Shah, Mubarak

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a growing interest in developing computational methodologies for modeling and analyzing movements and behaviors of 'crowds' of people. This interest spans several scientific areas that includes Computer Vision, Computer Graphics, and Pedestrian Evacuation Dynamics. Despite the fact that these different scientific fields are trying to model the same physical entity (i.e. a crowd of people), research ideas have evolved independently. As a result each discipline has developed techniques and perspectives that are characteristically their own.

  20. The relationship between future time perspective, self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour in the Black youth of central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2016-01-01

    An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.

  1. Perspective Insight into Future Potential Fusion Gene Transcript Biomarker Candidates in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryong Nam Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of a variety of new fusion gene types in clinical breast cancer samples by analyzing cancer genomes and transcriptomes. Although previous studies have focused on a few clinically validated oncogenic fusion genes as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in breast cancer, a perspective consideration has not been given thus far for a plethora of breast cancer fusion genes, which are being newly identified at an overwhelmingly increasing pace. In this perspective review, we discuss diverse fusion gene types recently identified in a variety of breast cancer subtypes, including breast clinical cancer samples in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas database. This perspective review will confer fresh and promising guidance onto breast cancer surgeons, clinical oncologists, and tumor biologists in determining research directions for seeking and developing novel fusion gene biomarkers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutic treatment in upcoming years.

  2. Perspective Insight into Future Potential Fusion Gene Transcript Biomarker Candidates in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryong Nam; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young

    2018-02-07

    Next generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of a variety of new fusion gene types in clinical breast cancer samples by analyzing cancer genomes and transcriptomes. Although previous studies have focused on a few clinically validated oncogenic fusion genes as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in breast cancer, a perspective consideration has not been given thus far for a plethora of breast cancer fusion genes, which are being newly identified at an overwhelmingly increasing pace. In this perspective review, we discuss diverse fusion gene types recently identified in a variety of breast cancer subtypes, including breast clinical cancer samples in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database. This perspective review will confer fresh and promising guidance onto breast cancer surgeons, clinical oncologists, and tumor biologists in determining research directions for seeking and developing novel fusion gene biomarkers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutic treatment in upcoming years.

  3. Predicting Future Seed Sourcing of Platycladus orientalis (L. for Future Climates Using Climate Niche Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ge Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate niche modeling has been widely used to assess the impact of climate change on forest trees at the species level. However, geographically divergent tree populations are expected to respond differently to climate change. Considering intraspecific local adaptation in modeling species responses to climate change will thus improve the credibility and usefulness of climate niche models, particularly for genetic resources management. In this study, we used five Platycladus orientalis (L. seed zones (Northwestern; Northern; Central; Southern; and Subtropical covering the entire species range in China. A climate niche model was developed and used to project the suitable climatic conditions for each of the five seed zones for current and various future climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5. Our results indicated that the Subtropical seed zone would show consistent reduction for all climate change scenarios. The remaining seed zones, however, would experience various degrees of expansion in suitable habitat relative to their current geographic distributions. Most of the seed zones would gain suitable habitats at their northern distribution margins and higher latitudes. Thus, we recommend adjusting the current forest management strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change.

  4. Long-term durum wheat monoculture: modelling and future projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Bernardoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of future climate change on grain production of a winter durum wheat cropping system were investigated. Based on future climate change projections, derived from a statistical downscaling process applied to the HadCM3 general circulation model and referred to two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B1, the response on yield and aboveground biomass (AGB and the variation in total organic carbon (TOC were explored. The software used in this work is an hybrid dynamic simulation model able to simulate, under different pedoclimatic conditions, the processes involved in cropping system such as crop growth and development, water and nitrogen balance. It implements different approaches in order to ensure accurate simulation of the mainprocess related to soil-crop-atmosphere continuum.The model was calibrated using soil data, crop yield, AGB and phenology coming from a long-term experiment, located in Apulia region. The calibration was performed using data collected in the period 1978–1990; validation was carried out on the 1991–2009 data. Phenology simulation was sufficiently accurate, showing some limitation only in predicting the physiological maturity. Yields and AGBs were predicted with an acceptable accuracy during both calibration and validation. CRM resulted always close to optimum value, EF in every case scored positive value, the value of index r2 was good, although in some cases values lower than 0.6 were calculated. Slope of the linear regression equation between measured and simulated values was always close to 1, indicating an overall good performance of the model. Both future climate scenarios led to a general increase in yields but a slightly decrease in AGB values. Data showed variations in the total production and yield among the different periods due to the climate variation. TOC evolution suggests that the combination of temperature and precipitation is the main factor affecting TOC variation under future scenarios

  5. The Job Demands–Resources model: Challenges for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Demerouti

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD–R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well-being. Moreover, the studies of the special issue were introduced. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative studies on the JD–R model were reviewed to enlighten the health and motivational processes suggested by the model. Main findings: Next to the confirmation of the two suggested processes of the JD–R model, the studies of the special issue showed that the model can be used to predict work-place bullying, incidences of upper respiratory track infection, work-based identity, and early retirement intentions. Moreover, whilst psychological safety climate could be considered as a hypothetical precursor of job demands and resources, compassion satisfaction moderated the health process of the model. Contribution/value-add: The findings of previous studies and the studies of the special issue were integrated in the JD–R model that can be used to predict well-being and performance at work. New avenues for future research were suggested. Practical/managerial implications: The JD–R model is a framework that can be used for organisations to improve employee health and motivation, whilst simultaneously improving various organisational outcomes.

  6. Perspective on the energy future of the Northeast: health and environmental impacts of alternative energy futures for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Morris, S.C.; Calef, C.E.; Kaplan, E.; Shreeve, D.F.; Reisman, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Attention was focused on five air pollutants: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Emission coefficients were based on data in the BNL Energy Model Data Base. Tables are presented to show emission factors for electricity generation, for industrial energy use, and for Transportation sector. Health effects of air pollution, health impacts of nuclear power plants, and environmental considerations are also discussed. (HLW)

  7. Modeling past and future acidification of Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldan, Filip; Cosby, Bernard J; Wright, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    Decades of acid deposition have caused acidification of lakes in Sweden. Here we use data for 3000 lakes to run the acidification model MAGIC and estimate historical and future acidification. The results indicate that beginning in about 1920 a progressively larger number of lakes in Sweden fell into the category of "not naturally acidified" (∆pH > 0.4). The peak in acidification was reached about 1985; since then many lakes have recovered in response to lower levels of acid deposition. Further recovery from acidification will occur by the year 2030 given implementation of agreed legislation for emissions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) in Europe. But the number of catchments with soils being depleted in base cations will increase slightly. MAGIC-reconstructed history of acidification of lakes in Sweden agrees well with information on fish populations. Future acidification of Swedish lakes can be influenced by climate change as well as changes in forest harvest practices.

  8. A future perspective of one-child family norm in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, L

    1983-10-01

    In 1967 zero population growth (ZPG) was 1st mentioned as a population policy goal. 12 years later in 1979, China put the 1-child mode into practice to achieve the goal of ZPG. This paper discusses: the reasons for adopting the 1-child family norm in China; differentials in carrying out 1-child family policy; estimating the controlled age specific fertility rates under 2-child family norm and its variety; identifies some implications of the 1-child after obtaining the ZPG goal in terms of the changing population size, the sex ratio at birth, the age structure, the loneliness of the child and kinship relations and some ensuing economic implications. The paper also highlights the main difficulties in adopting 1-child policy and visualizes a possible time for stopping it. It is concluded that the fertility of women must be at the replacement level after the attainment of ZPG for China's population. The introduction of the 1-child family by 1985 would produce a peak population of 1.054 billion by the year 2004 and would reduce the population to 960 million (the 1980 figure by 2028, and to 370 million by 2080. These figures suggest that the 1-child model may be an expedient model to arrest population growth in the future. If it is carried out indefinitely, however, the population will ultimately become extinct. Preference for male children is predominant in China, especially in the rural areas. There is, however, a general tendency for gender balance. The sex ratio at birth is higher for the 1-child model. The sex ratio at birth not only depends on birth order, but also on age and other characteristics of the couple. The 1-child model is a partial solution to the world resource problem. Another advantage of the 1-child model is reduction in expenditure on consumption. Nationwide surveys in the USA indicated that 76% of respondents felt that being an only child is a disadvantage as far as the child's psychological disposition.

  9. Imagining Future Forests: What Models Can Learn from Field Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Domec, J. C.; Laviner, M. A.; Fox, T. D.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; King, J.; Noormets, A.

    2014-12-01

    General circulation models predict that future forests in the U.S. Southeast will experience higher temperatures and more variable precipitation in the future, resulting in a moderate decrease in water availability (precipitation minus evapotranspiration), though considerable uncertainty in and disagreement between projections remain. The Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation Project (PINEMAP) represents an effort to understand the future of 20 million acres of planted pine forests managed by private landowners in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states. Decades of productivity research on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) has led to a widespread practice of mid-rotation fertilization of loblolly plantations, supplying additional nutrients as stands approach canopy closure. It remains an open question what the effects of fertilization of pine forests in this region will be in the face of periodic or persistent droughts, in terms of forest water use and its implications to other water uses downstream. Therefore, we will review key results from past ecophysiological research on the responses of loblolly pine to fertilization, elevated CO2 and water availability, as well as a recent PINEMAP field trial of fertilization and drought imposed through rainfall displacement over two growing seasons. Despite high rainfall in 2013 (1224 mm compared an average 1120 mm) and a lack of leaf area response, transpiration decreased in response to fertilization and through rainfall displacement. Treatment differences were greatest in the growing season of 2013, when transpiration was on average 13.6, 20.2 and 28.7% lower in the rainfall displacement, fertilization and combined treatment than the control (46 mm/month), respectively. We will conclude by reviewing the important lessons from this research for regional models of future forests in this region in terms of LAI, transpiration, growth and water use efficiency.

  10. Strategic transparency between food chain and society: cultural perspective images on the future of farmed salmon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Loorbach, D.; Notten, van P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a participatory foresight method developed and tested by the authors. The method of cultural perspective images, rooted in grid-group of cultural theory, was used in an experimental dialogue among companies and a selection of other stakeholders directly or indirectly involved in

  11. A Futures Study of Internationalization of the Carlson School of Management: Diverse Perspectives of Key Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Internationalization is a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional and complex concept described most notably as a higher educational process that integrates an international perspective into its organizational leadership, vision, and curricular goals. Success is dependent upon ongoing engagement of a multitude of internal and external stakeholders with…

  12. Educating People With Special Needs in Nigeria: Present and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, Michael; Eskay, Obidiya; Uma, Emea

    2012-01-01

    For a long time, children with special needs were educated along with other regular children in schools. The notion of special education was a western phenomenon and concept in Nigeria. How were children with special needs educated without special education programs? This paper will provide cultural perspectives on issues of disability and caring…

  13. The coal mining: perspectives and future; La mineria del Carbon perspectivas y realidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Castano Merediz, C.

    1997-04-01

    The article analyzes the situation of coal mining after the publication of Law for the regulation of Electric System in Spain, and the publication of the decision 1072/94 CECA to authorize the subsidies for Spanish coal. The production, consumption and perspectives are analyzed.

  14. Present and future perspectives on immunotherapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma: Going to the core or beating around the bush?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Kawashima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic lesions of renal cell carcinoma (RCC occasionally regress spontaneously after surgical removal of the primary tumor. Although this is an exceptionally rare occurrence, RCC has thus been postulated to be immunogenic. Immunotherapies, including cytokine therapy, peptide-based vaccines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have therefore been used to treat patients with advanced, metastatic RCC. We review the history, trends, and recent progress in immunotherapy for advanced RCC and discuss future perspectives, with consideration of our experimental work on galectin 9 and PINCH as promising specific immunotherapy targets. 

  15. Rodent models in Down syndrome research: impact and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Herault

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. To date, a multiplicity of mouse models with Down-syndrome-related features has been developed to understand this complex human chromosomal disorder. These mouse models have been important for determining genotype-phenotype relationships and identification of dosage-sensitive genes involved in the pathophysiology of the condition, and in exploring the impact of the additional chromosome on the whole genome. Mouse models of Down syndrome have also been used to test therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide an overview of research in the last 15 years dedicated to the development and application of rodent models for Down syndrome. We also speculate on possible and probable future directions of research in this fast-moving field. As our understanding of the syndrome improves and genome engineering technologies evolve, it is necessary to coordinate efforts to make all Down syndrome models available to the community, to test therapeutics in models that replicate the whole trisomy and design new animal models to promote further discovery of potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Rodent models in Down syndrome research: impact and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herault, Yann; Delabar, Jean M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Yu, Eugene; Brault, Veronique

    2017-10-01

    Down syndrome is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. To date, a multiplicity of mouse models with Down-syndrome-related features has been developed to understand this complex human chromosomal disorder. These mouse models have been important for determining genotype-phenotype relationships and identification of dosage-sensitive genes involved in the pathophysiology of the condition, and in exploring the impact of the additional chromosome on the whole genome. Mouse models of Down syndrome have also been used to test therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide an overview of research in the last 15 years dedicated to the development and application of rodent models for Down syndrome. We also speculate on possible and probable future directions of research in this fast-moving field. As our understanding of the syndrome improves and genome engineering technologies evolve, it is necessary to coordinate efforts to make all Down syndrome models available to the community, to test therapeutics in models that replicate the whole trisomy and design new animal models to promote further discovery of potential therapeutic targets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The Integrated Landscape Modeling partnership - Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Scherff, Eric J.

    2016-01-28

    The Integrated Landscape Modeling (ILM) partnership is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to identify, evaluate, and develop models to quantify services derived from ecosystems, with a focus on wetland ecosystems and conservation effects. The ILM partnership uses the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) modeling platform to facilitate regional quantifications of ecosystem services under various scenarios of land-cover change that are representative of differing conservation program and practice implementation scenarios. To date, the ILM InVEST partnership has resulted in capabilities to quantify carbon stores, amphibian habitat, plant-community diversity, and pollination services. Work to include waterfowl and grassland bird habitat quality is in progress. Initial InVEST modeling has been focused on the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States; future efforts might encompass other regions as data availability and knowledge increase as to how functions affecting ecosystem services differ among regions.The ILM partnership is also developing the capability for field-scale process-based modeling of depressional wetland ecosystems using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX) model. Progress was made towards the development of techniques to use the APEX model for closed-basin depressional wetlands of the PPR, in addition to the open systems that the model was originally designed to simulate. The ILM partnership has matured to the stage where effects of conservation programs and practices on multiple ecosystem services can now be simulated in selected areas. Future work might include the continued development of modeling capabilities, as well as development and evaluation of differing conservation program and practice scenarios of interest to partner agencies including the USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). When

  18. Predictability and Market Efficiency in Agricultural Futures Markets: a Perspective from Price-Volume Correlation Based on Wavelet Coherency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation of the aging brain: State of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Elisa; Rossi, Simone; Innocenti, Iglis; Rossi, Alessandro; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Favored by increased life expectancy and reduced birth rate, worldwide demography is rapidly shifting to older ages. The golden age of aging is not only an achievement but also a big challenge because of the load of the elderly on social and medical health care systems. Moreover, the impact of age-related decline of attention, memory, reasoning and executive functions on self-sufficiency emphasizes the need of interventions to maintain cognitive abilities at a useful degree in old age. Recently, neuroscientific research explored the chance to apply Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NiBS) techniques (as transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation) to healthy aging population to preserve or enhance physiologically-declining cognitive functions. The present review will update and address the current state of the art on NiBS in healthy aging. Feasibility of NiBS techniques will be discussed in light of recent neuroimaging (either structural or functional) and neurophysiological models proposed to explain neural substrates of the physiologically aging brain. Further, the chance to design multidisciplinary interventions to maximize the efficacy of NiBS techniques will be introduced as a necessary future direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recommendations for the future of translational radiobiology research: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of molecular medicine is now merging into clinical practice with the advent of molecular targeting agents, molecular pathology and molecular imaging for both diagnosis and treatment response. Radiation oncologists must therefore gain expertise in utilizing this information to drive new treatment protocols. Recognizing the importance of this issue, the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists (CARO) charged a Task Force in Translational Radiobiology to: (1) critically assess training programs and research infrastructure in relation to current and future translational radiobiology requirements; and (2) make specific recommendations to accelerate the implementation of translational science into day-to-day practice. Selected Task Force recommendations included the principle that universities and departmental Chairs increase the opportunities for academic promotion, funding, and tenure track positions of radiobiologists and translational radiation oncologists. The dedication of 4 to 5 national centers as translational 'hubs', can serve as an interface between clinicians, clinical specimens and radiobiological sciences within the context of correlative clinical trials. The model of the clinician-scientist was encouraged as an important adjunct to good clinical care to be associated with strong enticement, training and mentoring programs and 75%-protected research time. Finally, an integrated model of radiobiological training programs and mutual continuing education between clinicians and basic scientists can be facilitated through a new national radiobiology meeting sponsored by CARO. These recommendations have been accepted by the national radiation oncology membership. Such a framework may serve useful for national programs wishing to develop rapid conduits from the lab to the clinic as a means of integrating molecular biology and the day-to-day practice of radiation oncology

  1. Cloud service performance evaluation: status, challenges, and opportunities – a survey from the system modeling perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With rapid advancement of Cloud computing and networking technologies, a wide spectrum of Cloud services have been developed by various providers and utilized by numerous organizations as indispensable ingredients of their information systems. Cloud service performance has a significant impact on performance of the future information infrastructure. Thorough evaluation on Cloud service performance is crucial and beneficial to both service providers and consumers; thus forming an active research area. Some key technologies for Cloud computing, such as virtualization and the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA, bring in special challenges to service performance evaluation. A tremendous amount of effort has been put by the research community to address these challenges and exciting progress has been made. Among the work on Cloud performance analysis, evaluation approaches developed with a system modeling perspective play an important role. However, related works have been reported in different sections of the literature; thus lacking a big picture that shows the latest status of this area. The objectives of this article is to present a survey that reflects the state of the art of Cloud service performance evaluation from the system modeling perspective. This articles also examines open issues and challenges to the surveyed evaluation approaches and identifies possible opportunities for future research in this important field.

  2. Double beta decay - physics beyond the standard model now, and in future (Genius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear double beta decay provides an extraordinarily broad potential to search for beyond standard model physics, probing already now the TeV scale, on which new physics should manifest itself. These possibilities are reviewed here. First, the results of present generation experiments are presented. The most sensitive one of them - the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment in the Gran Sasso - probes the electron mass now in the sub eV region and will reach a limit of ∝0.1 eV in a few years. Basing to a large extent on the theoretical work of the Heidelberg double beta group in the last two years, results are obtained also for SUSY models (R-parity breaking, sneutrino mass), leptoquarks (leptoquark-Higgs coupling), compositeness, right-handed W boson mass and others. These results are comfortably competitive to corresponding results from high-energy accelerators like TEVATRON, HERA, etc. Second, future perspectives of ββ research are discussed. A new Heidelberg experimental proposal (GENIUS) is presented which would allow to increase the sensitivity for Majorana neutrino masses from the present level of at best 0.1 eV down to 0.01 or even 0.001 eV. Its physical potential would be a breakthrough into the multi-TeV range for many beyond standard models. Its sensitivity for neutrino oscillation parameters would be larger than of all present terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments and of those planned for the future. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of Balance Scorecards Model Performance and Perspective Strategy Synergized by SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluyo Minto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance assessment analysis after the economic crisis by using Balanced Scorecard (BSC method becomes a powerful and effective tool and can provide an integrated view of the performance of an organization. This strategy led to the Indonesian economy being stretched positively after the economic crisis. Taking effective decisions is not spared from combining four BSC perspectives and strategies that focus on a system with different behavior or steps. This paper combines two methods of BSC with structural equation modeling (SEM because they have the same concept, which is a causal relationship, where the research model concept SEM variables use BSC variable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of variables that synergized between balanced scorecard with SEM as a means of strategic planning in the future. This study used primary data with a large enough sample to meet the maximum likelihood estimation by assessment scale of seven semantic points. This research model is a combination of one and two step models. The next step is to test the measurement model, structural equation modeling, and modification models. The test results indicated that the model has multi colinearities. Therefore, the model is converted into one step model. The test results after being modified into a model of the goodness of fit indices showed a good score. All BSC variables have direct significant influence, including the perspective of strategic goals and sustainable competitive advantage. The implication of the simulation model of goodness of fit-modification results are DF = 227, Chi-square =276.550, P =0.058, CMIN/DF = 1.150, GFI = 0.831, AGFI = 0.791, CFI = 0.972, TLI = 0.965 and RMSEA = 0.039.

  4. Pseudo goldstones at future colliders from the extended BESS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalbuoni, R.; De Curtis, S.; Dominici, D.; Chiappetta, P.; Deandrea, A.; Gatto, R.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the production of the lightest pseudo-Goldstone bosons at future colliders through the vector resonances predicted by the extended BESS model, which consists of an effective lagrangian parametrization with dynamical symmetry breaking, describing scalar, vector and axial-vector bound states in a rather general framework. We find that the detection of pseudo-Goldstone pairs at LHC requires a careful evaluation of backgrounds. For e + e - collisions in the TeV range the backgrounds can be easily reduced and the detection of pseudo-Goldstone pairs is generally easier. (orig.)

  5. A generic hydroeconomic model to assess future water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    We developed a generic hydroeconomic model able to confront future water supply and demand on a large scale, taking into account man-made reservoirs. The assessment is done at the scale of river basins, using only globally available data; the methodology can thus be generalized. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. The available quantity of water at each site is computed using the following information: runoff is taken from the outputs of CNRM climate model (Dubois et al., 2010), reservoirs are located using Aquastat, and the sub-basin flow-accumulation area of each reservoir is determined based on a Digital Elevation Model (HYDRO1k). On the demand side, agricultural and domestic demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. For the agricultural sector, globally available data on irrigated areas and crops are combined in order to determine irrigated crops localization. Then, crops irrigation requirements are computed for the different stages of the growing season using Allen (1998) method with Hargreaves potential evapotranspiration. Irrigation water economic value is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. Potential irrigated and rainfed yields are taken from LPJmL (Blondeau et al., 2007), or from FAOSTAT by making simple assumptions on yield ratios. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The method consists in building three-blocks inverse demand functions where volume limits of the blocks evolve with the level of GDP per capita. The value of water along the demand curve is determined from price-elasticity, price and demand data from the literature, using the point-expansion method, and from water costs data. Then projected demands are confronted to future water availability. Operating rules of the reservoirs and water allocation between demands are based on

  6. FUTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  7. Cognitive Attachment Model of Voices: Evidence Base and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Varese, Filippo; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    There is a robust association between hearing voices and exposure to traumatic events. Identifying mediating mechanisms for this relationship is key to theories of voice hearing and the development of therapies for distressing voices. This paper outlines the Cognitive Attachment model of Voices (CAV), a theoretical model to understand the relationship between earlier interpersonal trauma and distressing voice hearing. The model builds on attachment theory and well-established cognitive models of voices and argues that attachment and dissociative processes are key psychological mechanisms that explain how trauma influences voice hearing. Following the presentation of the model, the paper will review the current state of evidence regarding the proposed mechanisms of vulnerability to voice hearing and maintenance of voice-related distress. This review will include evidence from studies supporting associations between dissociation and voices, followed by details of our own research supporting the role of dissociation in mediating the relationship between trauma and voices and evidence supporting the role of adult attachment in influencing beliefs and relationships that voice hearers can develop with voices. The paper concludes by outlining the key questions that future research needs to address to fully test the model and the clinical implications that arise from the work.

  8. What's next? Perspectives and future needs of cervical screening in Europe in the era of molecular testing and vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Antilla, Ahti; Arbyn, Marc

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To outline the perspectives for future control of cervical cancer in Europe. METHODS: Review of current status for major cervical cancer control tools. The review was based on PubMed searches for cervical cancer prevention, Human Papillomavirus, HPV-test, HPV-vaccination, and treatment...... not infected with vaccine HPV-types at vaccination are well protected against CIN2+ from these HPV-types, but the vaccine does not protect against CIN2+ from other HPV-types and neither does it protect already HPV infected women. There is an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes following excisional...... treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The future of cervical cancer control may become a diversified strategy, one for non-vaccinated birth cohorts and another for vaccinated cohorts. It will take another 50 years before the non-vaccinated cohorts have passed the screening age. With the current uncertainty concerning...

  9. Present trends and future perspectives for atomic and molecular physics at the new X-ray light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piancastelli, M.N., E-mail: Maria-Novella.Piancastelli@fysik.uu.s [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Simon, M. [UPMC Universite Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matiere et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matiere et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Ueda, K. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The major advances in the actual and predicted performances of new light sources (low-emittance storage rings and soft and hard X-ray free-electron lasers) in the last few years have provided a new impulse to the development of atomic and molecular physics, in particular in what concerns electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, liquids and clusters investigated with photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and ion spectroscopy. We present here a review on the present trends and future perspectives of the field, with special emphasis on the new possibilities offered by the characteristics of the new sources (high brilliance, low emittance, short pulses). Several examples will be provided concerning state-of-the-art present results and future developments.

  10. Correlation between agricultural markets in dynamic perspective-Evidence from China and the US futures markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui-Lin; Wang, Dong-Hua; Tu, Jing-Qing; Li, Sai-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Emerging as the earliest futures markets, agricultural futures markets play an important role in risk aversion and price discovery. With the integration of global economy, the linkage between domestic and international futures markets becomes closer than ever. By using the thermal optimal path (TOP) method, this paper selects soybean, corn and wheat as the representatives to study the dynamic lead-lag relationship between the Chinese and American markets in both returns and volatility. The results indicate that: (1) For the futures return, different kinds of agricultural futures lead-lag relationship between China and the US varied before 2014 both in direction and order in different time periods. However, China leads the US for all the three kinds we study after 2014. (2) Agricultural commodities subject to less import restrictions and government regulations in China such as soybean are more susceptible to the fluctuations from the international markets. On the other hand, lower foreign trade openness and more government regulation species such as wheat are less affected by fluctuations from outside. (3) The volatility transmission from the US to China wheat futures market takes longer time than soybean, which suggests that China's soybean futures market is more closely linked to the international agricultural futures market than wheat.

  11. Through the MOOCing Glass: Professors' Perspectives on the Future of MOOCs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter introduces literature that predicts the future of massive open online courses (MOOCs) in higher education and argues that it is critical to understand faculty views of the future for this instructional form; it presents the results of a qualitative study investigating the views of faculty who have taught a MOOC.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in psoriatic arthritis -- update on current status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Poggenborg, René Panduro

    2012-01-01

    and future development of MRI and other modern imaging modalities in PsA. This review, presented at the GRAPPA 2010 annual meeting, describes the current status of MRI in PsA, with a focus on its use in diagnosis, monitoring, and prediction of the disease course and treatment response. Important areas...... for future research are also outlined....

  13. Modeling of Soybean under Present and Future Climates in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel António Dina Talacuece

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to calibrate and validate the generic crop model (CROPGRO-Soybean and estimate the soybean yield, considering simulations with different sowing times for the current period (1990–2013 and future climate scenario (2014–2030. The database used came from observed data, nine climate models of CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment-Africa framework and MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis. The calibration and validation data for the model were acquired in field experiments, carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons in the experimental area of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in Angónia, Mozambique. The yield of two soybean cultivars: Tgx 1740-2F and Tgx 1908-8F was evaluated in the experiments and modeled for two distinct CO2 concentrations. Our model simulation results indicate that the fertilization effect leads to yield gains for both cultivars, ranging from 11.4% (Tgx 1908-8F to 15% (Tgx 1740-2Fm when compared to the performance of those cultivars under current CO2 atmospheric concentration. Moreover, our results show that MERRA, the RegCM4 (Regional Climatic Model version 4 and CNRM-CM5 (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques – Climatic Model version 5 models provided more accurate estimates of yield, while others models underestimate yield as compared to observations, a fact that was demonstrated to be related to the model’s capability of reproducing the precipitation and the surface radiation amount.

  14. Local Balancing System from the Business Model Canvas Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Bożena Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overall view of the business model (BM for the e-balance system for: balancing energy production and consumption in energy efficient, smart neighbourhoods (the e-balance project, FP7-SMARTCITIES-2013 along with its functionalities, based upon the Osterwalder’s canvas methodology. Additionally, this is the second, after two years of work, more incisive evaluation of the BM from the user’s and demo site’s perspective (Bronsbergen, the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to present results and assess the above mentioned BM in the face its commercialisation and applicability to Europe.

  15. Present and future of NMR for RNA-protein complexes: A perspective of integrated structural biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    Nucleic acids are gaining enormous importance as key molecules in almost all biological processes. Most nucleic acids do not act in isolation but are generally associated with proteins to form high-molecular-weight nucleoprotein complexes. In this perspective article I focus on the structural studies of supra-molecular ribonucleoprotein (RNP) assemblies in solution by a combination of state-of-the-art TROSY-based NMR experiments and other structural biology techniques. I discuss ways how to combine sparse NMR data with low-resolution structural information from small-angle scattering, fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to obtain the structure of large RNP particles by an integrated structural biology approach. In the last section I give a perspective for the study of RNP complexes by solid-state NMR.

  16. E-governmental value chain models : E-government from a business (modelling) perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Arjen

    2000-01-01

    The paper considers electronic governmental activities from a business perspective, resulting in a so-called governmental value chain model. This model aims to support practitioners for better understanding and realisation of joint organisational and information system innovations in the public

  17. The future of the Romanian rural household from the perspective of agricultural censuses

    OpenAIRE

    Bohateret, Valentin - Mihai; Bruma, Ioan Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The development of agriculture in nowadays circumstances cannot be merely assessed from the perspective of agriculture as a main branch of national economy, but further from a social point of view which is highly significant as it represents the traditional small farm households which provide the basic necessaries for the rural population as well as the usability implication of over 55% from the agricultural area of the country. On the whole, by agricultural exploitation there is the general ...

  18. The Polokwane conference and South Africa’s second political transition: tentative conclusions on future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.M. Venter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this phase of South Africa’s second political transition (manifesting characteristics of political decay it looks as if the ANC is becoming more dominant, hegemonic and ideological, with added neo-patrimonial tendencies that are becoming more overt in an oligarchic manner. This article analyses the ANC’s Polokwane conference (qualitatively and deductively as part of South Africa’s second political transition since 1994 and postulates potential outcomes (scenario perspectives.

  19. THE EVOLUTION AND FUTURE OF SOCIAL SECURITY IN AFRICA: AN ACTUARIAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Badat; Kudzai Chigiji; Johann Söhnge; Krishen Sukdev; Natalie Van Zyl

    2015-01-01

    Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently...

  20. Age replacement models: A summary with new perspectives and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa N.; Magid Hamouda, Abdel; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Age replacement models are fundamental to maintenance theory. This paper summarizes our new perspectives and hods in age replacement models: First, we optimize the expected cost rate for a required availability level and vice versa. Second, an asymptotic model with simple calculation is proposed by using the cumulative hazard function skillfully. Third, we challenge the established theory such that preventive replacement should be non-random and only corrective replacement should be made for the unit with exponential failure. Fourth, three replacement policies with random working cycles are discussed, which are called overtime replacement, replacement first, and replacement last, respectively. Fifth, the policies of replacement first and last are formulated with general models. Sixth, age replacement is modified for the situation when the economical life cycle of the unit is a random variable with probability distribution. Finally, models of a parallel system with constant and random number of units are taken into considerations. The models of expected cost rates are obtained and optimal replacement times to minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically. Further studies and potential applications are also indicated at the end of discussions of the above models. - Highlights: • Optimization of cost rate for availability level is discussed and vice versa. • Asymptotic and random replacement models are discussed. • Overtime replacement, replacement first and replacement last are surveyed. • Replacement policy with random life cycle is given. • A parallel system with random number of units is modeled.