WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling multispectral image

  1. Modeling space-based multispectral imaging systems with DIRSIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott D.; Sanders, Niek J.; Goodenough, Adam A.; Gartley, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) focuses on a next generation global coverage, imaging system to replace the aging Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems. The major difference in the new system is the migration from the multi-spectral whiskbroom design employed by the previous generation of sensors to modular focal plane, multi-spectral pushbroom architecture. Further complicating the design shift is that the reflective and thermal acquisition capability is split across two instruments spatially separated on the satellite bus. One of the focuses of the science and engineering teams prior to launch is the ability to provide seamless data continuity with the historic Landsat data archive. Specifically, the challenges of registering and calibrating data from the new system so that long-term science studies are minimally impacted by the change in the system design. In order to provide the science and engineering teams with simulated pre-launch data, an effort was undertaken to create a robust end-to-end model of the LDCM system. The modeling environment is intended to be flexible and incorporate measured data from the actual system components as they were completed and integrated. The output of the modeling environment needs to include not only radiometrically robust imagery, but also the meta-data necessary to exercise the processing pipeline. This paper describes how the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model has been utilized to model space-based, multi-spectral imaging (MSI) systems in support of systems engineering trade studies. A mechanism to incorporate measured focal plane projections through the forward optics is described. A hierarchal description of the satellite system is presented including the details of how a multiple instrument platform is described and modeled, including the hierarchical management of temporally correlated jitter that allows engineers to explore impacts of different jitter sources on instrument

  2. Fourier multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Ni, Chuan; Sarangan, Andrew; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2015-08-24

    Current multispectral imaging systems use narrowband filters to capture the spectral content of a scene, which necessitates different filters to be designed for each application. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Fourier multispectral imaging which uses filters with sinusoidally varying transmittance. We designed and built these filters employing a single-cavity resonance, and made spectral measurements with a multispectral LED array. The measurements show that spectral features such as transmission and absorption peaks are preserved with this technique, which makes it a versatile technique than narrowband filters for a wide range of multispectral imaging applications.

  3. Diagnosing hypoxia in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis from reflectance multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinton, Sophie; Naylor, Amy J.; Claridge, Ela

    2017-07-01

    Spectra computed from multispectral images of murine models of Rheumatoid Arthritis show a characteristic decrease in reflectance within the 600-800nm region which is indicative of the reduction in blood oxygenation and is consistent with hypoxia.

  4. Multispectral thermal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Remote Sensing Sciences Group; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Corp., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Kay, R.R. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Monitoring Systems and Technology Center

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  5. Illuminant estimation in multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haris Ahmad; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve; Laligant, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    With the advancement in sensor technology, the use of multispectral imaging is gaining wide popularity for computer vision applications. Multispectral imaging is used to achieve better discrimination between the radiance spectra, as compared to the color images. However, it is still sensitive to illumination changes. This study evaluates the potential evolution of illuminant estimation models from color to multispectral imaging. We first present a state of the art on computational color constancy and then extend a set of algorithms to use them in multispectral imaging. We investigate the influence of camera spectral sensitivities and the number of channels. Experiments are performed on simulations over hyperspectral data. The outcomes indicate that extension of computational color constancy algorithms from color to spectral gives promising results and may have the potential to lead towards efficient and stable representation across illuminants. However, this is highly dependent on spectral sensitivities and noise. We believe that the development of illuminant invariant multispectral imaging systems will be a key enabler for further use of this technology.

  6. Multispectral imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  7. Validation of a Simplified Model to Generate Multispectral Synthetic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Sola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure to assess the quality of topographic correction (TOC algorithms applied to remote sensing imagery was previously proposed by the authors. This procedure was based on a model that simulated synthetic scenes, representing the radiance an optical sensor would receive from an area under some specific conditions. TOC algorithms were then applied to synthetic scenes and the resulting corrected scenes were compared with a horizontal synthetic scene free of topographic effect. This comparison enabled an objective and quantitative evaluation of TOC algorithms. This approach showed promising results but had some shortcomings that are addressed herein. First, the model, originally built to simulate only broadband panchromatic scenes, is extended to multispectral scenes in the visible, near infrared (NIR, and short wave infrared (SWIR bands. Next, the model is validated by comparing synthetic scenes with four Satellite pour l'Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 real scenes acquired on different dates and different test areas along the Pyrenees mountain range (Spain. The results obtained show a successful simulation of all the spectral bands. Therefore, the model is deemed accurate enough for its purpose of evaluating TOC algorithms.

  8. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  9. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  10. Polarimetric Multispectral Imaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.-J.; Chao, T.-H.; Dowdy, M.; Mahoney, C.; Reyes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a remote sensing technology on which a new generation of compact, lightweight, high-resolution, low-power, reliable, versatile, programmable scientific polarimetric multispectral imaging instruments can be built to meet the challenge of future planetary exploration missions. The instrument is based on the fast programmable acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) that operates in the wavelength range of 0.4-5 microns. Basically, the AOTF multispectral imaging instrument measures incoming light intensity as a function of spatial coordinates, wavelength, and polarization. Its operation can be in either sequential, random access, or multiwavelength mode as required. This provides observation flexibility, allowing real-time alternation among desired observations, collecting needed data only, minimizing data transmission, and permitting implementation of new experiments. These will result in optimization of the mission performance with minimal resources. Recently we completed a polarimetric multispectral imaging prototype instrument and performed outdoor field experiments for evaluating application potentials of the technology. We also investigated potential improvements on AOTF performance to strengthen technology readiness for applications. This paper will give a status report on the technology and a prospect toward future planetary exploration.

  11. Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging Artifact Removal and Denoising Using Time Series Model-Based Spectral Noise Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakeviciute, Agne; Ho, Chris Jun Hui; Olivo, Malini

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to solve a problem of denoising and artifact removal from in vivo multispectral photoacoustic imaging when the level of noise is not known a priori. The study analyzes Wiener filtering in Fourier domain when a family of anisotropic shape filters is considered. The unknown noise and signal power spectral densities are estimated using spectral information of images and the autoregressive of the power 1 ( AR(1)) model. Edge preservation is achieved by detecting image edges in the original and the denoised image and superimposing a weighted contribution of the two edge images to the resulting denoised image. The method is tested on multispectral photoacoustic images from simulations, a tissue-mimicking phantom, as well as in vivo imaging of the mouse, with its performance compared against that of the standard Wiener filtering in Fourier domain. The results reveal better denoising and fine details preservation capabilities of the proposed method when compared to that of the standard Wiener filtering in Fourier domain, suggesting that this could be a useful denoising technique for other multispectral photoacoustic studies.

  12. Multispectral optoacoustic and MRI coregistration for molecular imaging of orthotopic model of human glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Amalina Binte Ebrahim; Ho, Chris Jun Hui; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Tay, Hui Chien; Burton, Neal C; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2016-07-01

    Multi-modality imaging methods are of great importance in oncologic studies for acquiring complementary information, enhancing the efficacy in tumor detection and characterization. We hereby demonstrate a hybrid non-invasive in vivo imaging approach of utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for molecular imaging of glucose uptake in an orthotopic glioblastoma in mouse. The molecular and functional information from MSOT can be overlaid on MRI anatomy via image coregistration to provide insights into probe uptake in the brain, which is verified by ex vivo fluorescence imaging and histological validation. In vivo MSOT and MRI imaging of an orthotopic glioma mouse model injected with IRDye800-2DG. Image coregistration between MSOT and MRI enables multifaceted (anatomical, functional, molecular) information from MSOT to be overlaid on MRI anatomy images to derive tumor physiological parameters such as perfusion, haemoglobin and oxygenation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Multispectral imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  14. AMARSI: Aerosol modeling and retrieval from multi-spectral imagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Curier, R.L.; Staroverova, A.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Hoyningen-Huene, W. van; Rozanov, V.V.; Burrows, J.P.; Hesselmans, G.; Gale, L.; Bouvet, M.

    2008-01-01

    The AMARSI project aims at the development and validation of aerosol retrieval algorithms over ocean. One algorithm will be developed for application with data from the Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) on EarthCARE. A second algorithm will be developed using the combined information from AATSR and MERIS,

  15. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  16. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Vargo, Timothy D.; Lockhart, Randal R.; Descour, Michael R.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

  17. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  18. Surgical wound debridement sequentially characterized in a porcine burn model with multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Darlene R; Li, Weizhi; Squiers, John J; Mohan, Rachit; Sellke, Eric; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E

    2015-11-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) is an optical technique that measures specific wavelengths of light reflected from wound site tissue to determine the severity of burn wounds. A rapid MSI device to measure burn depth and guide debridement will improve clinical decision making and diagnoses. We used a porcine burn model to study partial thickness burns of varying severity. We made eight 4 × 4 cm burns on the dorsum of one minipig. Four burns were studied intact, and four burns underwent serial tangential excision. We imaged the burn sites with 400-1000 nm wavelengths. Histology confirmed that we achieved various partial thickness burns. Analysis of spectral images show that MSI detects significant variations in the spectral profiles of healthy tissue, superficial partial thickness burns, and deep partial thickness burns. The absorbance spectra of 515, 542, 629, and 669 nm were the most accurate in distinguishing superficial from deep partial thickness burns, while the absorbance spectra of 972 nm was the most accurate in guiding the debridement process. The ability to distinguish between partial thickness burns of varying severity to assess whether a patient requires surgery could be improved with an MSI device in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational multispectral video imaging [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Menon, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Multi-spectral imagers reveal information unperceivable to humans and conventional cameras. Here, we demonstrate a compact single-shot multi-spectral video-imaging camera by placing a micro-structured diffractive filter in close proximity to the image sensor. The diffractive filter converts spectral information to a spatial code on the sensor pixels. Following a calibration step, this code can be inverted via regularization-based linear algebra, to compute the multi-spectral image. We experimentally demonstrated spectral resolution of 9.6nm within the visible band (430nm to 718nm). We further show that the spatial resolution is enhanced by over 30% compared to the case without the diffractive filter. We also demonstrate Vis-IR imaging with the same sensor. Furthermore, our camera is able to computationally trade-off spectral resolution against the field of view in software without any change in hardware as long as sufficient sensor pixels are utilized for information encoding. Since no absorptive color filters are utilized, sensitivity is preserved as well. Finally, the diffractive filters can be easily manufactured using optical lithography and replication techniques.

  20. Multispectral Image Enhancement Through Adaptive Wavelet Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0005 Multispectral image enhancement through adaptive wavelet fusion Alexander Toet Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast...image enhancement through adaptive wavelet fusion 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0433 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...efficient. 15. SUBJECT TERMS adaptive wavelet fusion, Multispectral image enhancement, Multispectral image fusion, multiband image interpolation

  1. Using multispectral imaging flow cytometry to assess an in vitro intracellular Burkholderia thailandensis infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Dominic; Ducker, Catherine; Clark, Graeme; Prior, Jo; Rowland, Caroline A

    2016-04-01

    The use of in vitro models to understand the interaction of bacteria with host cells is well established. In vitro bacterial infection models are often used to quantify intracellular bacterial load by lysing cell populations and subsequently enumerating the bacteria. Modern established techniques employ the use of fluorescence technologies such as flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy, and/or confocal microscopy. However, these techniques often lack either the quantification of large data sets (microscopy) or use of gross fluorescence signal which lacks the visual confirmation that can provide additional confidence in data sets. Multispectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC) is a novel emerging field of technology. This technology captures a bright field and fluorescence image of cells in a flow using a charged coupled device camera. It allows the analysis of tens of thousands of single cell images, making it an extremely powerful technology. Here MIFC was used as an alternative method of analyzing intracellular bacterial infection using Burkholderia thailandensis E555 as a model organism. It has been demonstrated that the data produced using traditional enumeration is comparable to data analyzed using MIFC. It has also been shown that by using MIFC it is possible to generate other data on the dynamics of the infection model rather than viable counts alone. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to inhibit the uptake of bacteria into mammalian cells and identify differences between treated and untreated cell populations. The authors believe this to be the first use of MIFC to analyze a Burkholderia bacterial species during intracellular infection. © 2016 Crown copyright. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of ISAC. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Multispectral infrared imaging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Device permitting simultaneous viewing of infrared images at different wavelengths consists of imaging lens, Michelson interferometer, array of infrared detectors, data processing equipment for Fourier transformation of detector signal, and image display unit. Invention is useful in earth resources applications, nondestructive testing, and medical diagnoses.

  3. Multi-spectral imager

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster highlights the design and development of a camera which combines ultraviolet, infrared and visual imaging techniques for advanced diagnostic inspections, and also shows some evaluations carried out to demonstrate the operability...

  4. Gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kevin H.; Crollett, Seferino; Henson, Tammy D.; Napier, Matthew; Stromberg, Peter G.

    2016-01-26

    A gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method is described herein. In an general embodiment, the gimbaled multispectral imaging system has a cross support that defines a first gimbal axis and a second gimbal axis, wherein the cross support is rotatable about the first gimbal axis. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system comprises a telescope that fixed to an upper end of the cross support, such that rotation of the cross support about the first gimbal axis causes the tilt of the telescope to alter. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system includes optics that facilitate on-gimbal detection of visible light and off-gimbal detection of infrared light.

  5. Multispectral Imaging for Determination of Astaxanthin Concentration in Salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral imaging has been evaluated for characterization of the concentration of a specific cartenoid pigment; astaxanthin. 59 fillets of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were filleted and imaged using a rapid multispectral imaging device for quantitative analysis. The multispectral imaging...... device captures reflection properties in 19 distinct wavelength bands, prior to determination of the true concentration of astaxanthin. The samples ranged from 0.20 to 4.34 mu g per g fish. A PLSR model was calibrated to predict astaxanthin concentration from novel images, and showed good results...... concentration in rainbow trout fillets....

  6. Multispectral Imaging for Determination of Astaxanthin Concentration in Salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissing, Bjørn S.; Nielsen, Michael E.; Ersbøll, Bjarne K.; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral imaging has been evaluated for characterization of the concentration of a specific cartenoid pigment; astaxanthin. 59 fillets of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were filleted and imaged using a rapid multispectral imaging device for quantitative analysis. The multispectral imaging device captures reflection properties in 19 distinct wavelength bands, prior to determination of the true concentration of astaxanthin. The samples ranged from 0.20 to 4.34 g per g fish. A PLSR model was calibrated to predict astaxanthin concentration from novel images, and showed good results with a RMSEP of 0.27. For comparison a similar model were built for normal color images, which yielded a RMSEP of 0.45. The acquisition speed of the multispectral imaging system and the accuracy of the PLSR model obtained suggest this method as a promising technique for rapid in-line estimation of astaxanthin concentration in rainbow trout fillets. PMID:21573000

  7. Empirical model for matching spectrophotometric reflectance of yarn windings and multispectral imaging reflectance of single strands of yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Shen, Hui-Liang; Shao, Si-Jie; Xin, John

    2015-08-01

    The state-of-the-art multispectral imaging system can directly acquire the reflectance of a single strand of yarn that is impossible for traditional spectrophotometers. Instead, the spectrophotometric reflectance of a yarn winding, which is constituted by yarns wound on a background card, is regarded as the yarn reflectance in textile. While multispectral imaging systems and spectrophotometers can be separately used to acquire the reflectance of a single strand of yarn and corresponding yarn winding, the quantitative relationship between them is not yet known. In this paper, the relationship is established based on models that describe the spectral response of a spectrophotometer to a yarn winding and that of a multispectral imaging system to a single strand of yarn. The reflectance matching function from a single strand of yarn to corresponding yarn winding is derived to be a second degree polynomial function, which coefficients are the solutions of a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Experiments on 100 pairs of samples show that the proposed approach can reduce the color difference between yarn windings and single strands of yarns from 2.449 to 1.082 CIEDE2000 units. The coefficients of the optimal reflection matching function imply that the reflectance of a yarn winding measured by a spectrophotometer consists of not only the intrinsic reflectance of yarn but also the nonignorable interreflection component between yarns.

  8. Multispectral imaging of wok fried vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how multispectral images can be used to assess color change over time in wok fried vegetables. We present results where feature selection was performed with sparse methods from the multispectral images to detect the color changes of wok fried carrots and celeriac stored at +5°C...

  9. Monitoring the influence of compression therapy on pathophysiology and structure of a swine scar model using multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E.; Shuppa, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Romana, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Scar contractures can lead to significant reduction in function and inhibit patients from returning to work, participating in leisure activities and even render them unable to provide care for themselves. Compression therapy has long been a standard treatment for scar prevention but due to the lack of quantifiable metrics of scar formation scant evidence exists of its efficacy. We have recently introduced a multispectral imaging system to quantify pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, melanin, etc) and structural features (roughness and collagen matrix) of scar. In this study, hypertrophic scars are monitored in-vivo in a porcine model using the imaging system to investigate influence of compression therapy on its quality.

  10. Multispectral analysis of multimodal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvinnsland, Yngve; Brekke, Njaal; Taxt, Torfinn M.; Gruener, Renate

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of multimodal images represent a valuable increase in available image information, but at the same time it complicates the extraction of diagnostic information across the images. Multispectral analysis (MSA) has the potential to simplify this problem substantially as unlimited number of images can be combined, and tissue properties across the images can be extracted automatically. Materials and methods. We have developed a software solution for MSA containing two algorithms for unsupervised classification, an EM-algorithm finding multinormal class descriptions and the k-means clustering algorithm, and two for supervised classification, a Bayesian classifier using multinormal class descriptions and a kNN-algorithm. The software has an efficient user interface for the creation and manipulation of class descriptions, and it has proper tools for displaying the results. Results. The software has been tested on different sets of images. One application is to segment cross-sectional images of brain tissue (T1- and T2-weighted MR images) into its main normal tissues and brain tumors. Another interesting set of images are the perfusion maps and diffusion maps, derived images from raw MR images. The software returns segmentation that seem to be sensible. Discussion. The MSA software appears to be a valuable tool for image analysis with multimodal images at hand. It readily gives a segmentation of image volumes that visually seems to be sensible. However, to really learn how to use MSA, it will be necessary to gain more insight into what tissues the different segments contain, and the upcoming work will therefore be focused on examining the tissues through for example histological sections

  11. CLASSROOM MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING USING INEXPENSIVE DIGITAL CAMERAS

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Andrew Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Poster presented at the 2007 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union. Describes various ways in which multispectral imaging methods can be taught/demonstrated using low-cost digital imaging devices and filter.

  12. Multispectral open-air intraoperative fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Ali; Waterman, Peter; Vasquez, Kristine O; Meganck, Jeff; Peterson, Jeffrey D; Faqir, Ilias; Kempner, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence imaging informs decisions regarding surgical margins by detecting and localizing signals from fluorescent reporters, labeling targets such as malignant tissues. This guidance reduces the likelihood of undetected malignant tissue remaining after resection, eliminating the need for additional treatment or surgery. The primary challenges in performing open-air intraoperative fluorescence imaging come from the weak intensity of the fluorescence signal in the presence of strong surgical and ambient illumination, and the auto-fluorescence of non-target components, such as tissue, especially in the visible spectral window (400-650 nm). In this work, a multispectral open-air fluorescence imaging system is presented for translational image-guided intraoperative applications, which overcomes these challenges. The system is capable of imaging weak fluorescence signals with nanomolar sensitivity in the presence of surgical illumination. This is done using synchronized fluorescence excitation and image acquisition with real-time background subtraction. Additionally, the system uses a liquid crystal tunable filter for acquisition of multispectral images that are used to spectrally unmix target fluorescence from non-target auto-fluorescence. Results are validated by preclinical studies on murine models and translational canine oncology models.

  13. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye.

  14. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  15. Multispectral Imaging for Biometrics – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral imaging has been used in many biometrics modalities including fingerprint, whole hand, iris and vein recognition. It not only increases the effectiveness of the biometrics recognition but facilitates detection of breaching and spoofing. There are already many commercial biometrics systems based on multispectral imaging available in the industry. However, one type of biometrics is still not 100% strong enough for full proof biometrics system. Multimodal biometrics have been propo...

  16. Multispectral Imaging of Wok-Fried Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Hyldig, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds in the food involved. The authors propose an imaging concept for acquiring high-quality multispectral images to evaluate optical reflection changes in carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days....... For comparison, sensory analysis was performed on the same samples. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30 °C for 4 months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5 °C. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties...... were able to detect minor changes using multispectral imaging. From our findings, it seems probable that oxidation caused the changes over time....

  17. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  18. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis...

  19. Multispectral dual isotope and NMR image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannier, M.W.; Beihn, R.M.; Butterfield, R.L.; De Land, F.H.

    1985-05-01

    Dual isotope scintigraphy and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging produce image data that is intrinsically multispectral. That is multiple images of the same anatomic region are generated with different gray scale distribution and morphologic content that is largely redundant. Image processing technology, originally developed by NASA for satellite imaging, is available for multispectral analysis. These methods have been applied to provide tissue characterization. Tissue specific information encoded in the grapy scale data from dual isotope and NMR studies may be extracted using multispectral pattern recognition methods. The authors used table lookup minimum distance, maximum likelihood and cluster analysis techniques with data sets from Ga-67 / Tc-99m, 1-131 labeled antibodies / Tc-99m, Tc-99m perfusion / Xe-133 ventilation, and NMR studies. The results show; tissue characteristic signatures exist in dual isotope and NMR imaging, and these spectral signatures are identifiable using multispectral image analysis and provide tissue classification maps with scatter diagrams that facilitate interpretation and assist in elucidating subtle changes.

  20. Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Li, Ziwei; Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-04-22

    Existing multispectral imagers mostly use available array sensors to separately measure 2D data slices in a 3D spatial-spectral data cube. Thus they suffer from low photon efficiency, limited spectrum range and high cost. To address these issues, we propose to conduct multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector, to take full advantage of its high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost, small size and light weight. Technically, utilizing the detector's fast response, a scene's 3D spatial-spectral information is multiplexed into a dense 1D measurement sequence and then demultiplexed computationally under the single pixel imaging scheme. A proof-of-concept setup is built to capture multispectral data of 64 pixels × 64 pixels × 10 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 650 nm, with the acquisition time being 1 minute. The imaging scheme holds great potentials for various low light and airborne applications, and can be easily manufactured as production-volume portable multispectral imagers.

  1. Precise Multi-Spectral Dermatological Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2004-01-01

    In this work, an integrated imaging system to obtain accurate and reproducible multi-spectral dermatological images is proposed. The system is made up of an integrating sphere, light emitting diodes and a generic monochromatic camera. The system can collect up to 10 different spectral bands....... These spectral bands vary from ultraviolet to near infrared. The welldefined and diffuse illumination of the optically closed scene aims to avoid shadows and specular reflections. Furthermore, the system has been developed to guarantee the reproducibility of the collected images. This allows for comparative...... studies of time series of images. Two experiments are conducted to show the ability of the system to acquire highly precise and standardized multi-spectral images. The first experiment aims to show the capacity of the system to collect reproducible images. The second experiment demonstrates that the multi...

  2. Short summary of multispectral imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P. N.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes a survey of over 40 multispectral imaging systems that have been used during the past decade for earth resources studies from aircraft or spacecraft, or are presently in the proposal or design and development stage. In addition, some short wave infrared systems are described including a recent NASA suggestion for a research remote sensing system for the 1990's.

  3. Comparison of multispectral images across the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Polder, G.; Gevers, Th.

    2000-01-01

    Comparison in the RGB domain is not suitable for precise color matching, due to the strong dependency of this domain on factors like spectral power distribution of the light source and object geometry. We have studied the use of multispectral or hyperspectral images for color matching, since it can

  4. Toward Multispectral Imaging with Colloidal Metasurface Pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jon W; Akselrod, Gleb M; Smith, David R; Mikkelsen, Maiken H

    2017-02-01

    Multispectral colloidal metasurfaces are fabricated that exhibit greater than 85% absorption and ≈100 nm linewidths by patterning film-coupled nanocubes in pixels using a fusion of bottom-up and top-down fabrication techniques over wafer-scale areas. With this technique, the authors realize a multispectral pixel array consisting of six resonances between 580 and 1125 nm and reconstruct an RGB image with 9261 color combinations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Intelligent multi-spectral IR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Luong, Andrew; Heim, Stephen; Patel, Maharshi; Chen, Kang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Chow, Edward; Torres, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a neural network based multi-spectral image segmentation method. A neural network is trained on the selected features of both the objects and background in the longwave (LW) Infrared (IR) images. Multiple iterations of training are performed until the accuracy of the segmentation reaches satisfactory level. The segmentation boundary of the LW image is used to segment the midwave (MW) and shortwave (SW) IR images. A second neural network detects the local discontinuities and refines the accuracy of the local boundaries. This article compares the neural network based segmentation method to the Wavelet-threshold and Grab-Cut methods. Test results have shown increased accuracy and robustness of this segmentation scheme for multi-spectral IR images.

  6. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon at Regional Scale by Combining Multi-Spectral Images with Laboratory Spectra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available There is a great challenge in combining soil proximal spectra and remote sensing spectra to improve the accuracy of soil organic carbon (SOC models. This is primarily because mixing of spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The first objective of this study was to integrate information of SOC derived from visible near-infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR spectra in the laboratory with remote sensing (RS images to improve predictions of topsoil SOC in the Skjern river catchment, Denmark. The second objective was to improve SOC prediction results by separately modeling uplands and wetlands. A total of 328 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed for SOC. Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT5, Landsat Data Continuity Mission (Landsat 8 images, laboratory Vis-NIR and other ancillary environmental data including terrain parameters and soil maps were compiled to predict topsoil SOC using Cubist regression and Bayesian kriging. The results showed that the model developed from RS data, ancillary environmental data and laboratory spectral data yielded a lower root mean square error (RMSE (2.8% and higher R2 (0.59 than the model developed from only RS data and ancillary environmental data (RMSE: 3.6%, R2: 0.46. Plant-available water (PAW was the most important predictor for all the models because of its close relationship with soil organic matter content. Moreover, vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, were very important predictors in SOC spatial models. Furthermore, the 'upland model' was able to more accurately predict SOC compared with the 'upland & wetland model'. However, the separately calibrated 'upland and wetland model' did not improve the prediction accuracy for wetland sites, since it was not possible to adequately discriminate the vegetation in the RS summer images. We conclude that laboratory Vis

  7. Multispectral Imaging in Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, S.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Sánchez-Aparicio, L. J.; Muñoz-Nieto, A.; Hernández-López, D.; Felipe-García, B.; González-Aguilera, D.

    2017-08-01

    This paper sums up the main contribution derived from the thesis entitled "Multispectral imaging for the analysis of materials and pathologies in civil engineering, constructions and natural spaces" awarded by CIPA-ICOMOS for its connection with the preservation of Cultural Heritage. This thesis is framed within close-range remote sensing approaches by the fusion of sensors operating in the optical domain (visible to shortwave infrared spectrum). In the field of heritage preservation, multispectral imaging is a suitable technique due to its non-destructive nature and its versatility. It combines imaging and spectroscopy to analyse materials and land covers and enables the use of a variety of different geomatic sensors for this purpose. These sensors collect both spatial and spectral information for a given scenario and a specific spectral range, so that, their smaller storage units save the spectral properties of the radiation reflected by the surface of interest. The main goal of this research work is to characterise different construction materials as well as the main pathologies of Cultural Heritage elements by combining active and passive sensors recording data in different ranges. Conclusions about the suitability of each type of sensor and spectral range are drawn in relation to each particular case study and damage. It should be emphasised that results are not limited to images, since 3D intensity data from laser scanners can be integrated with 2D data from passive sensors obtaining high quality products due to the added value that metric brings to multispectral images.

  8. Radiometric sensitivity comparisons of multispectral imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nadine C.; Slater, Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    Multispectral imaging systems provide much of the basic data used by the land and ocean civilian remote-sensing community. There are numerous multispectral imaging systems which have been and are being developed. A common way to compare the radiometric performance of these systems is to examine their noise-equivalent change in reflectance, NE Delta-rho. The NE Delta-rho of a system is the reflectance difference that is equal to the noise in the recorded signal. A comparison is made of the noise equivalent change in reflectance of seven different multispectral imaging systems (AVHRR, AVIRIS, ETM, HIRIS, MODIS-N, SPOT-1, HRV, and TM) for a set of three atmospheric conditions (continental aerosol with 23-km visibility, continental aerosol with 5-km visibility, and a Rayleigh atmosphere), five values of ground reflectance (0.01, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00), a nadir viewing angle, and a solar zenith angle of 45 deg.

  9. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  10. The Effect of Multispectral Image Fusion Enhancement on Human Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House The effect of multispectral image fusion enhancement on human efficiency 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...fusion across its associated problem space of application. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ideal observer analysis, Efficiency, Image fusion, Multispectral imagery...Implications (2017) 2:19 DOI 10.1186/s41235-016-0045-0 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Open Access The effect of multispectral image fusion enhancement on human

  11. Multispectral imaging for medical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.

    1977-01-01

    Photography technique determines amount of morbidity present in tissue. Imaging apparatus incorporates numerical filtering. Overall system operates in near-real time. Information gained from this system enables physician to understand extent of injury and leads to accelerated treatment.

  12. Multispectral Imaging Broadens Cellular Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Amnis Corporation, a Seattle-based biotechnology company, developed ImageStream to produce sensitive fluorescence images of cells in flow. The company responded to an SBIR solicitation from Ames Research Center, and proposed to evaluate several methods of extending the depth of field for its ImageStream system and implement the best as an upgrade to its commercial products. This would allow users to view whole cells at the same time, rather than just one section of each cell. Through Phase I and II SBIR contracts, Ames provided Amnis the funding the company needed to develop this extended functionality. For NASA, the resulting high-speed image flow cytometry process made its way into Medusa, a life-detection instrument built to collect, store, and analyze sample organisms from erupting hydrothermal vents, and has the potential to benefit space flight health monitoring. On the commercial end, Amnis has implemented the process in ImageStream, combining high-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry in a single instrument, giving researchers the power to conduct quantitative analyses of individual cells and cell populations at the same time, in the same experiment. ImageStream is also built for many other applications, including cell signaling and pathway analysis; classification and characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations; quantitative morphology; apoptosis (cell death) assays; gene expression analysis; analysis of cell conjugates; molecular distribution; and receptor mapping and distribution.

  13. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  14. Blind Source Separation of Multispectral Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijaoui, Albert; Nuzillard, Danielle

    Multispectral images lead to classify pixels, but often with the drawback that each pixel value is the result of a combination of different sources. We examined the ability of Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods to restore the independent sources. We tested different tools on HST images of the Seyfert galaxy 3C120: the Karhunen-Loéve expansion based on the diagonalization of the cross correlation matrix, algorithms which maximize contrast functions and programs which take into account the cross correlation between shift sources. With the last tools we obtained similar decompositions corresponding mainly to real phenomena. BSS can be considered as an interesting exploratory tool for astronomical data mining.

  15. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-07-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4-16 min and 160-200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400-700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center.

  16. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 3: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The status and technology requirements for using multispectral sensor imagery in geographic, hydrologic, and geologic applications are examined. Critical issues in image and information science are identified.

  17. Multispectral image fusion based on fractal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    Imagery sensors have been one indispensable part of the detection and recognition systems. They are widely used to the field of surveillance, navigation, control and guide, et. However, different imagery sensors depend on diverse imaging mechanisms, and work within diverse range of spectrum. They also perform diverse functions and have diverse circumstance requires. So it is unpractical to accomplish the task of detection or recognition with a single imagery sensor under the conditions of different circumstances, different backgrounds and different targets. Fortunately, the multi-sensor image fusion technique emerged as important route to solve this problem. So image fusion has been one of the main technical routines used to detect and recognize objects from images. While, loss of information is unavoidable during fusion process, so it is always a very important content of image fusion how to preserve the useful information to the utmost. That is to say, it should be taken into account before designing the fusion schemes how to avoid the loss of useful information or how to preserve the features helpful to the detection. In consideration of these issues and the fact that most detection problems are actually to distinguish man-made objects from natural background, a fractal-based multi-spectral fusion algorithm has been proposed in this paper aiming at the recognition of battlefield targets in the complicated backgrounds. According to this algorithm, source images are firstly orthogonally decomposed according to wavelet transform theories, and then fractal-based detection is held to each decomposed image. At this step, natural background and man-made targets are distinguished by use of fractal models that can well imitate natural objects. Special fusion operators are employed during the fusion of area that contains man-made targets so that useful information could be preserved and features of targets could be extruded. The final fused image is reconstructed from the

  18. PROBA V multispectral imager: status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Versluys, Jorg; Torralba, Ignacio; Beguin, Didier; Stockman, Yvan; Kassel, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    PROBA V is an ESA mission devoted to the observation of the Earth's vegetation, providing data continuity with the Spot 4 and 5 vegetation payloads. Thanks to the heritage of the Proba series, the satellite's platform is smaller than a cubic metre, accommodating the main payload, i.e. the Vegetation Instrument (VI), and some technology demonstrators. The VI extremely wide viewing swath, together with a polar low Earth orbit, enables daily revisits during 2.5 years, with a possible extension to 5 years. The mission, whose satellite is developed by Belgian QuinetiQ Space, is actually in Phase D and the targeted launch is early 2013 with the VEGA launcher. The Vegetation Instrument is a high spatial resolution pushbroom 4 spectral bands imager composed of three distinct Spectral Imagers (SI). Each SI has 34° Field Of View (FOV) across track, and the total FOV of the VI is 102°, covering an Earth swath of 2260 Km with ground sampling distance down to 96 m at Nadir for VNIR bands. The spectral bands are centred around 460 nm for the blue, 655 nm for the red, 845nm for the NIR and 1600 nm for the SWIR. The imaging telescope is built from a Three-Mirrors Anastigmat (TMA) configuration, including two highly aspheric mirrors. The optics is manufactured from special grade aluminium by diamond turning. The material being identical to the whole structure, no defocus or stresses build up with temperature variations in flight. This paper gives an overview of the VI performances, and focuses on the results of the optical tests and on-ground calibrations.

  19. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  20. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon at Regional Scale by Combining Multi-Spectral Images with Laboratory Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Adhikari, Kabindra

    2015-01-01

    the model developed from only RS data and ancillary environmental data (RMSE: 3.6%, R2: 0.46). Plant-available water (PAW) was the most important predictor for all the models because of its close relationship with soil organic matter content. Moreover, vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference......There is a great challenge in combining soil proximal spectra and remote sensing spectra to improve the accuracy of soil organic carbon (SOC) models. This is primarily because mixing of spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The first...... parameters and soil maps were compiled to predict topsoil SOC using Cubist regression and Bayesian kriging. The results showed that the model developed from RS data, ancillary environmental data and laboratory spectral data yielded a lower root mean square error (RMSE) (2.8%) and higher R2 (0.59) than...

  1. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  2. Classroom multispectral imaging using inexpensive digital cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, A. D.

    2007-12-01

    The proliferation of increasingly cheap digital cameras in recent years means that it has become easier to exploit the broad wavelength sensitivity of their CCDs (360 - 1100 nm) for classroom-based teaching. With the right tools, it is possible to open children's eyes to the invisible world of UVA and near-IR radiation either side of our narrow visual band. The camera-filter combinations I describe can be used to explore the world of animal vision, looking for invisible markings on flowers, or in bird plumage, for example. In combination with a basic spectroscope (such as the Project-STAR handheld plastic spectrometer, 25), it is possible to investigate the range of human vision and camera sensitivity, and to explore the atomic and molecular absorption lines from the solar and terrestrial atmospheres. My principal use of the cameras has been to teach multispectral imaging of the kind used to determine remotely the composition of planetary surfaces. A range of camera options, from 50 circuit-board mounted CCDs up to $900 semi-pro infrared camera kits (including mobile phones along the way), and various UV-vis-IR filter options will be presented. Examples of multispectral images taken with these systems are used to illustrate the range of classroom topics that can be covered. Particular attention is given to learning about spectral reflectance curves and comparing images from Earth and Mars taken using the same filter combination that it used on the Mars Rovers.

  3. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  4. An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xuguo

    2015-08-01

    An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer based control system was developed for small aircraft multispectral imaging application. The multispectral imaging system integrates CMOS camera, filter wheel with eight filters, two-axis stabilized platform, miniature POS (position and orientation system) and embedded computer. The embedded computer has excellent universality and expansibility, and has advantages in volume and weight for airborne platform, so it can meet the requirements of control system of the integrated airborne multispectral imaging system. The embedded computer controls the camera parameters setting, filter wheel and stabilized platform working, image and POS data acquisition, and stores the image and data. The airborne multispectral imaging system can connect peripheral device use the ports of the embedded computer, so the system operation and the stored image data management are easy. This airborne multispectral imaging system has advantages of small volume, multi-function, and good expansibility. The imaging experiment results show that this system has potential for multispectral remote sensing in applications such as resource investigation and environmental monitoring.

  5. Multispectral filter array design without training images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Yanagi, Yudai; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Madoka

    2017-08-01

    Multispectral images (MSIs) have been studied for many applications; however, limitations persist in techniques to capture them due to the complexity of assembling one or more prisms and multiple sensor arrays in order to detect signals. Inspired by the application of color filter arrays to commercial digital RGB cameras, a number of researchers have studied multispectral filter arrays (MSFAs) to solve this problem. Determining the measurement wavelength and pattern of an MSFA is important for improving the quality of the demosaicked image. Some conventional studies for designing MSFAs have used training data and have optimized the measurement wavelengths and the pattern by iteratively minimizing the error between the training data and the demosaicked images. We propose a metric to evaluate an MSFA without MSIs, and optimize the measurement wavelengths and the pattern of the MSFA by minimizing the metric. The proposed metric measures the sampling distance between filters in a spatial-spectral domain and quantifies the dispersion of the sampling points by average nearest-neighbor distance (ANND) under a given arbitrary MSFA. Since the quality of the demosaicked image is assumed to be proportional to the degree of dispersion of the sampling points in the spatial-spectral domain, we optimize the MSFA by minimizing the ANND in a nested simulated annealing process. Experimental results show that the optimized MSFA obtained using our method attained a higher peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) than conventional untrained MSFAs in many cases. In addition, the performance difference between some trained MSFAs and the proposed MSFA was small. We also confirmed the validity of the proposed ANND by a comparison with the mean square error obtained from MSI datasets.

  6. Novel multispectral imaging microscope with applications to biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Libo; Wu, Qiongshui; Ke, Hengyu; Zheng, Hong; Hu, Yaojun; Ding, Yi

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes a novel multispectral imaging microscope that can simultaneously record both spectral and spatial information of a sample, which can take advantage of spatial image processing and spectroscopic analysis techniques. A Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter device is used for fast wavelength selection and a cooled two-dimensional monochrome CCD for image detection. In order to acquire images that are not so dependent on imaging devices, a clever CCD exposure time control and a software based spectral and spatial calibration process is performed to diminish the influence of illumination, optic ununiformity, CCD"s spectral response curve and optic throughput property. A set of multispectral image processing and analysis software package is developed, which covers not only general image processing and analysis functions, and also provides powerful analysis tools for multispectral image data, including multispectral image acquisition, illumination and system response calibration, spectral analysis and etc. The combination of spatial and spectral analysis makes it an ideal tool for the applications to biomedicine. In this paper, two applications in biomedicine are also presented. One is medical image segmentation. Using multispectral imaging techniques, a mass of experiments on both marrow bone and cervical cell images showed that our segmentation results are highly satisfactory while with low computational cost. Another is biological imaging spectroscopic analysis in the study of pollen grains in rice. The results showed that the transmittance analysis of multispectral pollen images can accurately identify the pollen abortion stage of male-sterile rice, and can easily distinguish a variety of male sterile cytoplasm.

  7. Online quantitative analysis of multispectral images of human body tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-08-31

    A method is developed for online monitoring of structural and morphological parameters of biological tissues (haemoglobin concentration, degree of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries and the parameter characterising the average size of tissue scatterers), which involves multispectral tissue imaging, image normalisation to one of its spectral layers and determination of unknown parameters based on their stable regression relation with the spectral characteristics of the normalised image. Regression is obtained by simulating numerically the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the tissue by the Monte Carlo method at a wide variation of model parameters. The correctness of the model calculations is confirmed by the good agreement with the experimental data. The error of the method is estimated under conditions of general variability of structural and morphological parameters of the tissue. The method developed is compared with the traditional methods of interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues, based on the solution of the inverse problem for each pixel of the image in the approximation of different analytical models. (biomedical optics)

  8. Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

  9. Utilization of Multispectral Images for Meat Color Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2013-01-01

    This short paper describes how the use of multispectral imaging for color measurement can be utilized in an efficient and descriptive way for meat scientists. The basis of the study is meat color measurements performed with a multispectral imaging system as well as with a standard colorimeter....... It is described how different color spaces can enhance the purpose of the analysis - whether that is investigation of a single sample or a comparison between samples. Moreover the study describes how a simple segmentation can be applied to the multispectral images in order to reach a more descriptive measure...... of color and color variance than what is obtained by the standard colorimeter....

  10. Vicarious Calibration of Beijing-1 Multispectral Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For on-orbit calibration of the Beijing-1 multispectral imagers (Beijing-1/MS, a field calibration campaign was performed at the Dunhuang calibration site during September and October of 2008. Based on the in situ data and images from Beijing-1 and Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, three vicarious calibration methods (i.e., reflectance-based, irradiance-based, and cross-calibration were used to calculate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance of Beijing-1. An analysis was then performed to determine or identify systematic and accidental errors, and the overall uncertainty was assessed for each individual method. The findings show that the reflectance-based method has an uncertainty of more than 10% if the aerosol optical depth (AOD exceeds 0.2. The cross-calibration method is able to reach an error level within 7% if the images are selected carefully. The final calibration coefficients were derived from the irradiance-based data for 6 September 2008, with an uncertainty estimated to be less than 5%.

  11. Normalized Total Gradient: A New Measure for Multispectral Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Jie; Shen, Hui-Liang; Li, Chunguang; Xin, John H.

    2018-03-01

    Image registration is a fundamental issue in multispectral image processing. In filter wheel based multispectral imaging systems, the non-coplanar placement of the filters always causes the misalignment of multiple channel images. The selective characteristic of spectral response in multispectral imaging raises two challenges to image registration. First, the intensity levels of a local region may be different in individual channel images. Second, the local intensity may vary rapidly in some channel images while keeps stationary in others. Conventional multimodal measures, such as mutual information, correlation coefficient, and correlation ratio, can register images with different regional intensity levels, but will fail in the circumstance of severe local intensity variation. In this paper, a new measure, namely normalized total gradient (NTG), is proposed for multispectral image registration. The NTG is applied on the difference between two channel images. This measure is based on the key assumption (observation) that the gradient of difference image between two aligned channel images is sparser than that between two misaligned ones. A registration framework, which incorporates image pyramid and global/local optimization, is further introduced for rigid transform. Experimental results validate that the proposed method is effective for multispectral image registration and performs better than conventional methods.

  12. Automatic Hotspot and Sun Glint Detection in UAV Multispectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Terol, Damian; Hernandez-Lopez, David; Ballesteros, Rocio; Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego

    2017-10-15

    Last advances in sensors, photogrammetry and computer vision have led to high-automation levels of 3D reconstruction processes for generating dense models and multispectral orthoimages from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images. However, these cartographic products are sometimes blurred and degraded due to sun reflection effects which reduce the image contrast and colour fidelity in photogrammetry and the quality of radiometric values in remote sensing applications. This paper proposes an automatic approach for detecting sun reflections problems (hotspot and sun glint) in multispectral images acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), based on a photogrammetric strategy included in a flight planning and control software developed by the authors. In particular, two main consequences are derived from the approach developed: (i) different areas of the images can be excluded since they contain sun reflection problems; (ii) the cartographic products obtained (e.g., digital terrain model, orthoimages) and the agronomical parameters computed (e.g., normalized vegetation index-NVDI) are improved since radiometric defects in pixels are not considered. Finally, an accuracy assessment was performed in order to analyse the error in the detection process, getting errors around 10 pixels for a ground sample distance (GSD) of 5 cm which is perfectly valid for agricultural applications. This error confirms that the precision in the detection of sun reflections can be guaranteed using this approach and the current low-cost UAV technology.

  13. Imaging spectrometer - An advanced multispectral imaging concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kupferman, P. N.; Salazar, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of an imaging spectrometer, which is being studied as a potential Space Shuttle experiment, is evaluated as a 'push-broom' imager that includes a spectrometer to disperse each line of imaging information into its spectral components. Using this instrument, the dispersed energy falls upon a two-dimensional focal plane array that detects both spatial and spectral information. As the line field of view is advanced over the earth by the motion of the spacecraft, the focal plane is read out constantly, which produces 'push-broom' images at multiple wavelengths. Ground instantaneous fields of view of 10 m in the visual and 20 m in the infrared are provided by the system, at a spectral resolution of 20 nm over the range from 0.4-2.5 microns. The system utilizes a triple-pass Schmidt optical system with a mosaic focal plane. A subset of the data stream is selected and encoded for transmission by the use of onboard processing.

  14. Classification of white maize defects with multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendin, Kate; Manley, Marena; Williams, Paul J

    2018-03-15

    Multispectral imaging with object-wise multivariate image analysis was evaluated for its potential to grade whole white maize kernels. The types of defective materials regarded in grading legislation were divided into 13 classes, and were imaged with a multispectral imaging instrument spanning the UV, visible and NIR regions (19 wavelengths ranging from 375 to 970nm). Object-wise partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed and validated with an independent data set. Results demonstrated good performance in distinguishing between sound maize and undesirable materials, with cross-validated coefficients of determination (Q 2 ) and classification accuracies ranging from 0.35 to 0.99 and 83 to 100%, respectively. Wavelengths related to absorbance of green, yellow and orange colour indicated the presence of lycopene and anthocyanin (505, 525, 570 and 590 nm). NIR wavelengths 890, 940 nm (associated with fat) and 970 nm (associated with water) were generally identified as important features throughout the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Color enhancement in multispectral image of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Masanori; Murakami, Yuri; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-07-01

    Multispectral imaging is receiving attention in medical color imaging, as high-fidelity color information can be acquired by the multispectral image capturing. On the other hand, as color enhancement in medical color image is effective for distinguishing lesion from normal part, we apply a new technique for color enhancement using multispectral image to enhance the features contained in a certain spectral band, without changing the average color distribution of original image. In this method, to keep the average color distribution, KL transform is applied to spectral data, and only high-order KL coefficients are amplified in the enhancement. Multispectral images of human skin of bruised arm are captured by 16-band multispectral camera, and the proposed color enhancement is applied. The resultant images are compared with the color images reproduced assuming CIE D65 illuminant (obtained by natural color reproduction technique). As a result, the proposed technique successfully visualizes unclear bruised lesions, which are almost invisible in natural color images. The proposed technique will provide support tool for the diagnosis in dermatology, visual examination in internal medicine, nursing care for preventing bedsore, and so on.

  16. Mixture Segmentation of Multispectral MR Brain Images for Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Li

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a fully automatic mixture model-based tissue classification of multispectral (T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR brain images. Unlike the conventional hard classification with a unique label for each voxel, our method models a mixture to estimate the partial volumes (PV of multiple tissue types within a voxel. A new Markov random field (MRF model is proposed to reflect the spatial information of tissue mixtures. A mixture classification algorithm is performed by the maximum a posterior (MAP criterion, where the expectation maximization (EM algorithm is utilized to estimate model parameters. The algorithm interleaves segmentation with parameter estimation and improves classification in an iterative manner. The presented method is evaluated by clinical MR image datasets for quantification of brain volumes and multiple sclerosis (MS.

  17. Multispectral Stokes polarimetry for dermatoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejos, Y.; Martínez-Ponce, Geminiano; Mora-Nuñez, Azael; Castro-Sanchez, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most of skin pathologies, including melanoma and basal/squamous cell carcinoma, are related to alterations in external and internal order. Usually, physicians rely on their empirical expertise to diagnose these ills normally assisted with dermatoscopes. When there exists skin cancer suspicion, a cytology or biopsy is made, but both laboratory tests imply an invasive procedure. In this regard, a number of non-invasive optical techniques have been proposed recently to improve the diagnostic certainty and assist in the early detection of cutaneous cancer. Herein, skin optical properties are derived with a multispectral polarimetric dermatoscope using three different illumination wavelength intervals centered at 470, 530 and 635nm. The optical device consist of two polarizing elements, a quarter-wave plate and a linear polarizer, rotating at a different angular velocity and a CCD array as the photoreceiver. The modulated signal provided by a single pixel in the acquired image sequence is analyzed with the aim of computing the Stokes parameters. Changes in polarization state of selected wavelengths provide information about the presence of skin pigments such as melanin and hemoglobin species as well as collagen structure, among other components. These skin attributes determine the local physiology or pathology. From the results, it is concluded that optical polarimetry will provide additional elements to dermatologists in their diagnostic task.

  18. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  19. [Detecting fire smoke based on the multispectral image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying-Zhuo; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Liu, Yan-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Smoke detection is very important for preventing forest-fire in the fire early process. Because the traditional technologies based on video and image processing are easily affected by the background dynamic information, three limitations exist in these technologies, i. e. lower anti-interference ability, higher false detection rate and the fire smoke and water fog being not easily distinguished. A novel detection method for detecting smoke based on the multispectral image was proposed in the present paper. Using the multispectral digital imaging technique, the multispectral image series of fire smoke and water fog were obtained in the band scope of 400 to 720 nm, and the images were divided into bins. The Euclidian distance among the bins was taken as a measurement for showing the difference of spectrogram. After obtaining the spectral feature vectors of dynamic region, the regions of fire smoke and water fog were extracted according to the spectrogram feature difference between target and background. The indoor and outdoor experiments show that the smoke detection method based on multispectral image can be applied to the smoke detection, which can effectively distinguish the fire smoke and water fog. Combined with video image processing method, the multispectral image detection method can also be applied to the forest fire surveillance, reducing the false alarm rate in forest fire detection.

  20. Precise acquisition and unsupervised segmentation of multi-spectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an integrated imaging system to obtain accurate and reproducible multi-spectral images and a novel multi-spectral image segmentation algorithm are proposed. The system collects up to 20 different spectral bands within a range that vary from 395 nm to 970 nm. The system is designed...... to acquire geometrically and chromatically corrected images in homogeneous and diffuse illumination, so images can be compared over time. The proposed segmentation algorithm combines the information provided by all the spectral bands to segment the different regions of interest. Three experiments...... are conducted to show the ability of the system to acquire highly precise, reproducible and standardized multi-spectral images and to show its applicabilities in different situations....

  1. Multispectral image pansharpening based on the contourlet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, Israa; Mateos, Javier, E-mail: iamro@correo.ugr.e, E-mail: jmd@decsai.ugr.e [Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e I.A., Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    Pansharpening is a technique that fuses the information of a low resolution multispectral image (MS) and a high resolution panchromatic image (PAN), usually remote sensing images, to provide a high resolution multispectral image. In the literature, this task has been addressed from different points of view being one of the most popular the wavelets based algorithms. Recently, the contourlet transform has been proposed. This transform combines the advantages of the wavelets transform with a more efficient directional information representation. In this paper we propose a new pansharpening method based on contourlets, compare with its wavelet counterpart and assess its performance numerically and visually.

  2. Multispectral microwave imaging radar for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.

    1974-01-01

    A multispectral airborne microwave radar imaging system, capable of obtaining four images simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an image digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.

  3. Fast Multispectral Imaging by Spatial Pixel-Binning and Spectral Unmixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi-Wei; Shen, Hui-Liang; Li, Chunguang; Chen, Shu-Jie; Xin, John H

    2016-08-01

    Multispectral imaging system is of wide application in relevant fields for its capability in acquiring spectral information of scenes. Its limitation is that, due to the large number of spectral channels, the imaging process can be quite time-consuming when capturing high-resolution (HR) multispectral images. To resolve this limitation, this paper proposes a fast multispectral imaging framework based on the image sensor pixel-binning and spectral unmixing techniques. The framework comprises a fast imaging stage and a computational reconstruction stage. In the imaging stage, only a few spectral images are acquired in HR, while most spectral images are acquired in low resolution (LR). The LR images are captured by applying pixel binning on the image sensor, such that the exposure time can be greatly reduced. In the reconstruction stage, an optimal number of basis spectra are computed and the signal-dependent noise statistics are estimated. Then the unknown HR images are efficiently reconstructed by solving a closed-form cost function that models the spatial and spectral degradations. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is evaluated using real-scene multispectral images. Experimental results validate that, in general, the method outperforms the state of the arts in terms of reconstruction accuracy, with additional 20× or more improvement in computational efficiency.

  4. Calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecherikunnel, Ann

    1991-01-01

    Earth Observation System (EOS) optical multispectral imaging sensors provide images of the earth at various spectral and spatial resolutions, in the visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) regions of the solar spectrum. Accurate knowledge of extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance and its variations with time, are needed to trace sensor calibration in space, and for the development of terrestrial atmospheric models needed in data validation. A brief review of the extraterrestrial solar VIS/IR spectral irradiance available in the literature will be reviewed, and the need to develop an extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance for the EOS studies will be pointed out. The solar calibration of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiments (ERBE), earth-viewing sensors will be discussed. Observed variations in the solar constant (solar irradiance, at the mean sun-earth distance of one astronomical unit, integrated over all wavelengths), and solar spectral irradiance with solar activity and its implications for EOS studies also will be discussed.

  5. Multispectral image enhancement processing for microsat-borne imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianying; Tan, Zheng; Lv, Qunbo; Pei, Linlin

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of remote sensing imaging technology, the micro satellite, one kind of tiny spacecraft, appears during the past few years. A good many studies contribute to dwarfing satellites for imaging purpose. Generally speaking, micro satellites weigh less than 100 kilograms, even less than 50 kilograms, which are slightly larger or smaller than the common miniature refrigerators. However, the optical system design is hard to be perfect due to the satellite room and weight limitation. In most cases, the unprocessed data captured by the imager on the microsatellite cannot meet the application need. Spatial resolution is the key problem. As for remote sensing applications, the higher spatial resolution of images we gain, the wider fields we can apply them. Consequently, how to utilize super resolution (SR) and image fusion to enhance the quality of imagery deserves studying. Our team, the Key Laboratory of Computational Optical Imaging Technology, Academy Opto-Electronics, is devoted to designing high-performance microsat-borne imagers and high-efficiency image processing algorithms. This paper addresses a multispectral image enhancement framework for space-borne imagery, jointing the pan-sharpening and super resolution techniques to deal with the spatial resolution shortcoming of microsatellites. We test the remote sensing images acquired by CX6-02 satellite and give the SR performance. The experiments illustrate the proposed approach provides high-quality images.

  6. Skin condition measurement by using multispectral imaging system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Geunho; Kim, Sungchul; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2017-02-01

    There are a number of commercially available low level light therapy (LLLT) devices in a market, and face whitening or wrinkle reduction is one of targets in LLLT. The facial improvement could be known simply by visual observation of face, but it cannot provide either quantitative data or recognize a subtle change. Clinical diagnostic instruments such as mexameter can provide a quantitative data, but it costs too high for home users. Therefore, we designed a low cost multi-spectral imaging device by adding additional LEDs (470nm, 640nm, white LED, 905nm) to a commercial USB microscope which has two LEDs (395nm, 940nm) as light sources. Among various LLLT skin treatments, we focused on getting melanin and wrinkle information. For melanin index measurements, multi-spectral images of nevus were acquired and melanin index values from color image (conventional method) and from multi-spectral images were compared. The results showed that multi-spectral analysis of melanin index can visualize nevus with a different depth and concentration. A cross section of wrinkle on skin resembles a wedge which can be a source of high frequency components when the skin image is Fourier transformed into a spatial frequency domain map. In that case, the entropy value of the spatial frequency map can represent the frequency distribution which is related with the amount and thickness of wrinkle. Entropy values from multi-spectral images can potentially separate the percentage of thin and shallow wrinkle from thick and deep wrinkle. From the results, we found that this low cost multi-spectral imaging system could be beneficial for home users of LLLT by providing the treatment efficacy in a quantitative way.

  7. Determining quality and maturity of pomegranates using multispectral imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Khodabakhshian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the use of multispectral imaging technique to quantify pomegranate fruit quality. Three quality factors including total soluble solids (TSS, pH and firmness were studied at four different maturity stages of 88, 109, 124 and 143 days after full bloom (DAFB and were correlated with the spectral information extracted from images taken at four wavelength spectra. TSS, pH and firmness of the same samples were recorded using nondestructive methods and then modeled with their corresponding spectral data using partial least squire regression (PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r, RMSEC and RPD for the calibration models was found to be: r = 0.97, RMSEC = 0.21 °Brix and RPD = 6.7 °Brix for TSS; r = 0.93, RMSEC = 0.035 and RPD = 5.01 for pH; r = 0.95, RMSEC = 0.65 N and RPD = 5.65 N for firmness. Also these parameters for the validation models were as follows: r = 0.97, RMSEP = 0.22 °Brix and RPD = 5.77 °Brix for TSS; r = 0.94, RMSEP = 0.038 and RPD = 4.98 for pH; r = 0.94, RMSEP = 0.68 N and RPD = 5.33 N for firmness. The results demonstrated the capability of multispectral imaging and chemometrics as useful techniques to nondestructively monitoring pomegranate main quality attributes.

  8. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group for Hydrologic Science: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The following working objectives were adopted: (1) define the current state of knowledge concerning the role of multispectral imaging science in hydrology; (2) identify critical areas where gaps in our knowledge limit opportunities for significant improvements in our understanding of the hydrologic processes; (3) evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging sciences as tools to close these gaps in knowledge; and (4) develop guidelines for a series of remote-sensing-based experiments that would help close these gaps in knowledge and, thereby, provide man with the improved scientific base necessary for better utilization of the world's water resource. The resulting documentation is intended to provide guidance for multispectral imaging programs in the hydrologic sciences with special emphasis on the visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths.

  9. Transmittance spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging to map covered paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmitted spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging in the 400-900 nm range have been applied for the mapping and tentative identification of paints covered by a white preparation as in the case of a ground laid for reusing a canvas for another painting. These methods can be applied to polychrome works of art, as long as their support and new preparation are sufficiently translucent. This work presents the transmittance spectra acquired from a test board consisting of a prepared canvas with swatches of 54 pigments covered with titanium white and the multispectral images realized with transmitted light to map covered paints on a mock-up painting. It was observed that 18 out of 54 historical pigments provide characteristic transmittance spectra even underneath a titanium white preparation layer and that transmitted light multispectral imaging can map hidden paint layers.

  10. Leica ADS40 Sensor for Coastal Multispectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The Leica ADS40 Sensor as it is used for coastal multispectral imaging is presented. The contents include: 1) Project Area Overview; 2) Leica ADS40 Sensor; 3) Focal Plate Arrangements; 4) Trichroid Filter; 5) Gradient Correction; 6) Image Acquisition; 7) Remote Sensing and ADS40; 8) Band comparisons of Satellite and Airborne Sensors; 9) Impervious Surface Extraction; and 10) Impervious Surface Details.

  11. Chemometrics in multispectral imaging for quality inspection of postharvest products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Jan Corstiaan

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes different novel chemometric techniques applied to multispectral images for quality inspection on agricultural food products. These images do not only have a huge number of spectral bands which makes training set selection a challenging task, they also contain classes with small

  12. Multi-spectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. In this study multi-spectral image analysis of pellets was performed using LDA, QDA, SNV and PCA on pixel level and mean value of pixels...

  13. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375–970 nm were captured of all the s...

  14. Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI): Multispectral Imaging of Geological Materials at a Handlens Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J. D.; Nunez, J. I.; Sellar, R. G.; Gardner, P. B.; Manatt, K. S.; Dingizian, A.; Dudik, M. J.; McDonnell, G.; Le, T.; Thomas, J. A.; Chu, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) is a prototype instrument presently under development for future astrobiological missions to Mars. The MMI is designed to be a arm-mounted rover instrument for use in characterizing the microtexture and mineralogy of materials along geological traverses [1,2,3]. Such geological information is regarded as essential for interpreting petrogenesis and geological history, and when acquired in near real-time, can support hypothesis-driven exploration and optimize science return. Correlated microtexure and mineralogy also provides essential data for selecting samples for analysis with onboard lab instruments, and for prioritizing samples for potential Earth return. The MMI design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and an uncooled focal plane array to achieve the low-mass (Robotic Arm Camera (RAC; 5) and the Mars Science Laboratory's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI; 6). In this report we will review the capabilities of the MMI by highlighting recent lab and field applications, including: 1) glove box deployments in the Astromaterials lab at Johnson Space Center to analyze Apollo lunar samples; 2) GeoLab glove box deployments during the 2011 Desert RATS field trials in northern AZ to characterize analog materials collected by astronauts during simulated EVAs; 3) field deployments on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, during NASA's 2010 ISRU field trials, to analyze materials at the primary feedstock mining site; 4) lab characterization of geological samples from a complex, volcanic-hydrothermal terrain in the Cady Mts., SE Mojave Desert, California. We will show how field and laboratory applications have helped drive the development and refinement of MMI capabilities, while identifying synergies with other potential payload instruments (e.g. X-ray Diffraction) for solving real geological problems.

  15. An Algorithm for Pedestrian Detection in Multispectral Image Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Fedorenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The growing interest for self-driving cars provides a demand for scene understanding and obstacle detection algorithms. One of the most challenging problems in this field is the problem of pedestrian detection. Main difficulties arise from a diverse appearances of pedestrians. Poor visibility conditions such as fog and low light conditions also significantly decrease the quality of pedestrian detection. This paper presents a new optical flow based algorithm BipedDetet that provides robust pedestrian detection on a single-borad computer. The algorithm is based on the idea of simplified Kalman filtering suitable for realization on modern single-board computers. To detect a pedestrian a synthetic optical flow of the scene without pedestrians is generated using slanted-plane model. The estimate of a real optical flow is generated using a multispectral image sequence. The difference of the synthetic optical flow and the real optical flow provides the optical flow induced by pedestrians. The final detection of pedestrians is done by the segmentation of the difference of optical flows. To evaluate the BipedDetect algorithm a multispectral dataset was collected using a mobile robot.

  16. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 2: Working group reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of the various multispectral imaging science working groups are presented. Current knowledge of the spectral and spatial characteristics of the Earth's surface is outlined and the present and future capabilities of multispectral imaging systems are discussed.

  17. Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Q. Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO. These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.

  18. Investigation related to multispectral imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Erickson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of technical progress made during a five year research program directed toward the development of operational information systems based on multispectral sensing and the use of these systems in earth-resource survey applications is presented. Efforts were undertaken during this program to: (1) improve the basic understanding of the many facets of multispectral remote sensing, (2) develop methods for improving the accuracy of information generated by remote sensing systems, (3) improve the efficiency of data processing and information extraction techniques to enhance the cost-effectiveness of remote sensing systems, (4) investigate additional problems having potential remote sensing solutions, and (5) apply the existing and developing technology for specific users and document and transfer that technology to the remote sensing community.

  19. Fluorescence- and multispectral optoacoustic imaging for an optimized detection of deeply located tumors in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Joanna; Stammes, Marieke A; Claussen, Jing; Prevoo, Hendrica A J M; Sier, Cornelis F M; Hoeben, Freek J M; Robillard, Marc S; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Devling, Tim; Chan, Alan B; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Alves, Frauke

    2017-12-26

    A crucial point for the management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the decrease of R1 resections. Our aim was to evaluate the combination of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) with fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) for diagnosis and perioperative detection of tumor nodules and resection margins in a xenotransplant mouse model of human pancreatic cancer. The peptide cRGD, conjugated with the near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye IRDye800CW and with a trans-cyclooctene (TCO) tag for future click chemistry (cRGD-800CW-TCO), was applied to PDAC bearing immunodeficient nude mice; 27 days after orthotopic transplantation of human AsPC-1 cells into the head of the pancreas, mice were injected with cRGD-800CW-TCO and imaged with fluorescence- and optoacoustic devices before and 2, 6 and 24 hr after injection, before they were sacrificed and dissected with a guidance of FGS imaging system. Fluorescence imaging of cRGD-800CW-TCO allowed detection of the tumor area but without information about the depth, whereas MSOT allowed high resolution 3 D identification of the tumor area, in particular of small tumor nodules. Highly sensitive delineation of tumor burden was achieved during FGS in all mice. Imaging of whole-mouse cryosections, histopathological analysis and NIRF microscopy confirmed the localization of cRGD-800CW-TCO within the tumor tissue. In principle, all imaging modalities applied here were able to detect PDAC in vivo. However, the combination of MSOT and FGS provided detailed spatial information of the signal and achieved a complete overview of the distribution and localization of cRGD-800CW-TCO within the tumor before and during surgical intervention. © 2017 UICC.

  20. A Novel Perceptual Hash Algorithm for Multispectral Image Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimeng Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual hash algorithm is a technique to authenticate the integrity of images. While a few scholars have worked on mono-spectral image perceptual hashing, there is limited research on multispectral image perceptual hashing. In this paper, we propose a perceptual hash algorithm for the content authentication of a multispectral remote sensing image based on the synthetic characteristics of each band: firstly, the multispectral remote sensing image is preprocessed with band clustering and grid partition; secondly, the edge feature of the band subsets is extracted by band fusion-based edge feature extraction; thirdly, the perceptual feature of the same region of the band subsets is compressed and normalized to generate the perceptual hash value. The authentication procedure is achieved via the normalized Hamming distance between the perceptual hash value of the recomputed perceptual hash value and the original hash value. The experiments indicated that our proposed algorithm is robust compared to content-preserved operations and it efficiently authenticates the integrity of multispectral remote sensing images.

  1. Multispectral image fusion for illumination-invariant palmprint recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinman; Xu, Xuebin; Shang, Dongpeng

    2017-01-01

    Multispectral palmprint recognition has shown broad prospects for personal identification due to its high accuracy and great stability. In this paper, we develop a novel illumination-invariant multispectral palmprint recognition method. To combine the information from multiple spectral bands, an image-level fusion framework is completed based on a fast and adaptive bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (FABEMD) and a weighted Fisher criterion. The FABEMD technique decomposes the multispectral images into their bidimensional intrinsic mode functions (BIMFs), on which an illumination compensation operation is performed. The weighted Fisher criterion is to construct the fusion coefficients at the decomposition level, making the images be separated correctly in the fusion space. The image fusion framework has shown strong robustness against illumination variation. In addition, a tensor-based extreme learning machine (TELM) mechanism is presented for feature extraction and classification of two-dimensional (2D) images. In general, this method has fast learning speed and satisfying recognition accuracy. Comprehensive experiments conducted on the PolyU multispectral palmprint database illustrate that the proposed method can achieve favorable results. For the testing under ideal illumination, the recognition accuracy is as high as 99.93%, and the result is 99.50% when the lighting condition is unsatisfied. PMID:28558064

  2. COMPARISON OF RETINAL PATHOLOGY VISUALIZATION IN MULTISPECTRAL SCANNING LASER IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Amit; Lin, Tiezhu; Dans, Kunny; Chen, Kevin C; Amador, Manuel; Hasenstab, Kyle; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Nudleman, Eric; Chao, Daniel; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Freeman, William R

    2018-03-16

    To compare retinal pathology visualization in multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging between the Spectralis and Optos devices. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 42 eyes from 30 patients with age-related macular degeneration (19 eyes), diabetic retinopathy (10 eyes), and epiretinal membrane (13 eyes). All patients underwent retinal imaging with a color fundus camera (broad-spectrum white light), the Spectralis HRA-2 system (3-color monochromatic lasers), and the Optos P200 system (2-color monochromatic lasers). The Optos image was cropped to a similar size as the Spectralis image. Seven masked graders marked retinal pathologies in each image within a 5 × 5 grid that included the macula. The average area with detected retinal pathology in all eyes was larger in the Spectralis images compared with Optos images (32.4% larger, P images. Spectralis tricolor multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging had higher rate of pathology detection primarily because of better epiretinal membrane and retinal hemorrhage visualization compared with Optos bicolor multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging.

  3. Survey of multispectral imaging systems for earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-six multispectral imaging systems are described in terms of their instantaneous fields of view, spectral bands, fields of view, and number of quantization levels. These systems have been used during the past decade for earth resources studies from aircraft or spacecraft, or are currently in the proposal or design and development stage.

  4. Multi-spectral lifetime imaging: methods and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fereidouni, F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project is to further develop multispectral life time imaging hardware and analyses methods. The hardware system, Lambda-Tau, generates a considerable amount of data at high speed. To fully exploit the power of this new hardware, fast and reliable data analyses methods are

  5. Using Multispectral Imaging for Spoilage Detection of Pork Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Papadopoulou, Olga S.; Tassou, Chrysoula

    2013-01-01

    different storage conditions: aerobic and modified atmosphere packages as well as under different temperatures. Besides bacterial counts, a sensory panel has judged the spoilage degree of all meat samples into one of three classes. Results showed that the multispectral imaging device was able to classify 76...

  6. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  7. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsakanikas

    Full Text Available Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  8. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Ma, Fei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS), support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN), were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  9. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Liu

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS, support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BPNN, were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  10. Transferring results from NIR-hyperspectral to NIR-multispectral imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvini, Rosalba; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to the differences in terms of both price and quality, the availability of effective instrumentation to discriminate between Arabica and Robusta coffee is extremely important. To this aim, the use of multispectral imaging systems could provide reliable and accurate real-time monitoring...... at relatively low costs. However, in practice the implementation of multispectral imaging systems is not straightforward: the present work investigates this issue, starting from the outcome of variable selection performed using a hyperspectral system. Multispectral data were simulated considering four...... commercially available filters matching the selected spectral regions, and used to calculate multivariate classification models with Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and sparse PLS-DA. Proper strategies for the definition of the training set and the selection of the most effective...

  11. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of the deliberations of the six multispectral imaging science working groups (Botany, Geography, Geology, Hydrology, Imaging Science and Information Science) are summarized. Consideration was given to documenting the current state of knowledge in terrestrial remote sensing without the constraints of preconceived concepts such as possible band widths, number of bands, and radiometric or spatial resolutions of present or future systems. The findings of each working group included a discussion of desired capabilities and critical developmental issues.

  12. A Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition Method for Fusion of Multispectral and Panchromatic Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the image fusion of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images. We propose a new image fusion method based on a Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV color space model and bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD, by integrating high-frequency component of panchromatic image into multispectral image and optimizing the BEMD in decreasing sifting time, simplifying extrema point locating and more efficient interpolation. This new method has been tested with a panchromatic image (SPOT, 10-m resolution and a multispectral image (TM, 28-m resolution. Visual and quantitative assessment methods are applied to evaluate the quality of the fused images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided superior performance over conventional fusion algorithms in improving the quality of the fused images in terms of visual effectiveness, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, bias index and degree of distortion. Both five different land cover types WorldView-II images and three different sensor combinations (TM/SPOT, WorldView-II, 0.5 m/1 m resolution and IKONOS, 1 m/4 m resolution validated the robustness of BEMD fusion performance. Both of these results prove the capability of the proposed BEMD method as a robust image fusion method to prevent color distortion and enhance image detail.

  13. A Multispectral Image Creating Method for a New Airborne Four-Camera System with Different Bandpass Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanlun; Zhang, Aiwu; Hu, Shaoxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an airborne high resolution four-camera multispectral system which mainly consists of four identical monochrome cameras equipped with four interchangeable bandpass filters. For this multispectral system, an automatic multispectral data composing method was proposed. The homography registration model was chosen, and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) were used to generate matching points. For the difficult registration problem between visible band images and near-infrared band images in cases lacking manmade objects, we presented an effective method based on the structural characteristics of the system. Experiments show that our method can acquire high quality multispectral images and the band-to-band alignment error of the composed multiple spectral images is less than 2.5 pixels. PMID:26205264

  14. Acousto-optic tunable filter multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses recent activities of Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the development of a new type of remote sensing multispectral imaging instruments using acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as programmable bandpass filter. This remote sensor provides real-time operation; observational flexibility; measurements of spectral, spatial, and polarization information using a single instrument; and compact, solid state structure without moving parts. Two microcomputer-controlled AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard systems were designed and built. One operates in the wavelength range of 0.48-0.76 micron and the other in the range of 1.2-2.5 micron. Experiments were performed using these two systems to observe geological and botanical objects in laboratory and outdoor environment. Results have demonstrated the feasibility of using the AOTF multispectral imaging system as a real-time versatile remote sensor with operational flexibility for future Army tactical applications.

  15. Multispectral imaging using a stereo camera: concept, design and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri Alamin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a one-shot six-channel multispectral color image acquisition system using a stereo camera and a pair of optical filters. The two filters from the best pair, selected from among readily available filters such that they modify the sensitivities of the two cameras in such a way that they produce optimal estimation of spectral reflectance and/or color, are placed in front of the two lenses of the stereo camera. The two images acquired from the stereo camera are then registered for pixel-to-pixel correspondence. The spectral reflectance and/or color at each pixel on the scene are estimated from the corresponding camera outputs in the two images. Both simulations and experiments have shown that the proposed system performs well both spectrally and colorimetrically. Since it acquires the multispectral images in one shot, the proposed system can solve the limitations of slow and complex acquisition process, and costliness of the state of the art multispectral imaging systems, leading to its possible uses in widespread applications.

  16. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja; Bao, Le Nguyen; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Le, Dac-Nhuong

    2016-01-01

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics).

  17. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja; Bao, Le Nguyen; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Le, Dac-Nhuong

    2016-07-01

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics).

  18. Multispectral medical image fusion in Contourlet domain for computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhateja, Vikrant, E-mail: bhateja.vikrant@gmail.com, E-mail: nhuongld@hus.edu.vn; Moin, Aisha; Srivastava, Anuja [Shri Ramswaroop Memorial Group of Professional Colleges (SRMGPC), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226028 (India); Bao, Le Nguyen [Duytan University, Danang 550000 (Viet Nam); Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce 73100 (Italy); Le, Dac-Nhuong, E-mail: bhateja.vikrant@gmail.com, E-mail: nhuongld@hus.edu.vn [Duytan University, Danang 550000 (Viet Nam); Haiphong University, Haiphong 180000 (Viet Nam)

    2016-07-15

    Computer based diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can be performed by dint of the analysis of the functional and structural changes in the brain. Multispectral image fusion deliberates upon fusion of the complementary information while discarding the surplus information to achieve a solitary image which encloses both spatial and spectral details. This paper presents a Non-Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) based multispectral image fusion model for computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. The proposed fusion methodology involves color transformation of the input multispectral image. The multispectral image in YIQ color space is decomposed using NSCT followed by dimensionality reduction using modified Principal Component Analysis algorithm on the low frequency coefficients. Further, the high frequency coefficients are enhanced using non-linear enhancement function. Two different fusion rules are then applied to the low-pass and high-pass sub-bands: Phase congruency is applied to low frequency coefficients and a combination of directive contrast and normalized Shannon entropy is applied to high frequency coefficients. The superiority of the fusion response is depicted by the comparisons made with the other state-of-the-art fusion approaches (in terms of various fusion metrics).

  19. Lymph Node Micrometastases and In-Transit Metastases from Melanoma: In Vivo Detection with Multispectral Optoacoustic Imaging in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschmelting, Volker; Lockau, Hannah; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Grimm, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study whether multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can serve as a label-free imaging modality for the detection of lymph node micrometastases and in-transit metastases from melanoma on the basis of the intrinsic contrast of melanin in comparison to fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Sequential MSOT was performed in a mouse B16F10 melanoma limb lymph node metastasis model (n = 13) to survey the development of macro-, micro- and in-transit metastases (metastases that are in transit from the primary tumor site to the local nodal basin) in vivo. The in vitro limit of detection was assessed in a B16F10 cell phantom. Signal specificity was determined on the basis of a simultaneous lymphadenitis (n = 4) and 4T1 breast cancer lymph metastasis (n = 2) model. MSOT was compared with intravenous FDG PET/CT. The diagnosis was assessed with histologic examination. Differences in the signal ratio (metastatic node to contralateral limb) between the two modalities were determined with the two-tailed paired t test. Results The mean signal ratios acquired with MSOT in micrometastases (2.5 ± 0.3, n = 6) and in-transit metastases (8.3 ± 5.8, n = 4) were higher than those obtained with FDG PET/CT (1.1 ± 0.5 [P .1 for both). In vitro, the limit of detection was at an approximate cell density of five cells per microliter (P < .01). Conclusion MSOT enabled detection of melanoma lymph node micrometastases and in-transit metastases undetectable with FDG PET/CT and helped differentiate melanoma metastasis from other lymphadenopathies. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27144537

  20. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J L

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems.

  1. Iris biometric system design using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhianto, Benedictus Yohanes Bagus Y. B.; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    An identity recognition system is a vital component that cannot be separated from life, iris biometric is one of the biometric that has the best accuracy reaching 99%. Usually, iris biometric systems use infrared spectrum lighting to reduce discomfort caused by radiation when the eye is given direct light, while the eumelamin that is forming the iris has the most flourescent radiation when given a spectrum of visible light. This research will be conducted by detecting iris wavelengths of 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm, where the detection algorithm will be using Daugman algorithm by using a Gabor wavelet extraction feature, and matching feature using a Hamming distance. Results generated will be analyzed to identify how much differences there are, and to improve the accuracy of the multispectral biometric system and as a detector of the authenticity of the iris. The results obtained from the analysis of wavelengths 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm respectively has an accuracy of 99,35 , 97,5 , 64,5 with a matching score of 0,26 , 0,23 , 0,37.

  2. Multispectral diffusion-weighted imaging near metal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kevin M; Bhave, Sampada; Gaddipati, Ajeet; Hargreaves, Brian A; Gui, Dawei; Peters, Robert; Bedi, Meena; Mannem, Rajeev; Kaushik, S Sivaram

    2018-02-01

    The need for diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) near metallic implants is becoming increasingly relevant for a variety of clinical diagnostic applications. Conventional DWI methods are significantly hindered by metal-induced image artifacts. A novel approach relying on multispectral susceptibility artifact reduction techniques is presented to address this unmet need. DWI near metal implants is achieved through a combination of several advanced MRI acquisition technologies. Previously described approaches to Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo train DWI sequences using the periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction are combined with multispectral-imaging metal artifact reduction principles to provide DWI with substantially reduced artifact levels. The presented methods are applied to limited sets of slices over areas of sarcoma risk near six implanted devices. Using the presented methods, DWI assessment without bulk image distortions is demonstrated in the immediate vicinity of metallic interfaces. In one subject, the apparent diffusion coefficient was reduced in a region of suspected sarcoma directly adjacent to fixation hardware. An initial demonstration of minimal-artifact multispectral DWI in the near vicinity of metallic hardware is described and successfully demonstrated on clinical subjects. Magn Reson Med 79:987-993, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Automated segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in multispectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, Mauro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Moglia, Daniele; Lualdi, Manuela; Colombo, Ambrogio; Santinami, Mario; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of multispectral images of pigmented skin lesions. The study involved 1700 patients with 1856 cutaneous pigmented lesions, which were analysed in vivo by a novel spectrophotometric system, before excision. The system is able to acquire a set of 15 different multispectral images at equally spaced wavelengths between 483 and 951 nm. An original segmentation algorithm was developed and applied to the whole set of lesions and was able to automatically contour them all. The obtained lesion boundaries were shown to two expert clinicians, who, independently, rejected 54 of them. The 97.1% contour accuracy indicates that the developed algorithm could be a helpful and effective instrument for the automatic segmentation of skin pigmented lesions. (note)

  4. Transmittance spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging to map covered paints

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-01-01

    Transmitted spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging in the 400-900 nm range have been applied for the mapping and tentative identification of paints covered by a white preparation as in the case of a ground laid for reusing a canvas for another painting. These methods can be applied to polychrome works of art, as long as their support and new preparation are sufficiently translucent. This work presents the transmittance spectra acquired from a test board consisting of a prepared ca...

  5. Fluorescence multispectral imaging-based diagnostic system for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cassandra Su Lyn; Horiuchi, Toshikatsu; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Araya; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Iwaya, Keiichi; Nakai, Kanji; Azmi, Amalina; Zulaziz, Natasha; Azhim, Azran; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Morimoto, Yuji

    2016-08-20

    Composition of atherosclerotic arterial walls is rich in lipids such as cholesterol, unlike normal arterial walls. In this study, we aimed to utilize this difference to diagnose atherosclerosis via multispectral fluorescence imaging, which allows for identification of fluorescence originating from the substance in the arterial wall. The inner surface of extracted arteries (rabbit abdominal aorta, human coronary artery) was illuminated by 405 nm excitation light and multispectral fluorescence images were obtained. Pathological examination of human coronary artery samples were carried out and thickness of arteries were calculated by measuring combined media and intima thickness. The fluorescence spectra in atherosclerotic sites were different from those in normal sites. Multiple regions of interest (ROI) were selected within each sample and a ratio between two fluorescence intensity differences (where each intensity difference is calculated between an identifier wavelength and a base wavelength) from each ROI was determined, allowing for discrimination of atherosclerotic sites. Fluorescence intensity and thickness of artery were found to be significantly correlated. These results indicate that multispectral fluorescence imaging provides qualitative and quantitative evaluations of atherosclerosis and is therefore a viable method of diagnosing the disease.

  6. Ultraminiature optical design for multispectral fluorescence imaging endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler H; Keenan, Molly; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer K

    2017-03-01

    A miniature wide-field multispectral endoscopic imaging system was developed enabling reflectance and fluorescence imaging over a broad wavelength range. At 0.8-mm diameter, the endoscope can be utilized for natural orifice imaging in small lumens such as the fallopian tubes. Five lasers from 250 to 642 nm are coupled into a 125 - ? m diameter multimode fiber and transmitted to the endoscope distal tip for illumination. Ultraviolet and blue wavelengths excite endogenous fluorophores, which can provide differential fluorescence emission images for health and disease. Visible wavelengths provide reflectance images that can be combined for pseudo-white-light imaging and navigation. Imaging is performed by a 300 - ? m diameter three-element lens system connected to a 3000-element fiber. The lens system was designed for a 70-deg full field of view, working distance from 3 mm to infinity, and 40% contrast at the Nyquist cutoff of the fiber bundle. Measured performance characteristics are near design goals. The endoscope was utilized to obtain example monochromatic, pseudo-white-light, and composite fluorescence images of phantoms and porcine reproductive tract. This work shows the feasibility of packaging a highly capable multispectral fluorescence imaging system into a miniature endoscopic system that may have applications in early detection of cancer.

  7. Use of multispectral images and chemometrics in tomato seed studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral......, respectively. Similarly, dead seeds were predicted with 98% of accuracy. Results also showed that 23 and 14 seeds from green tomatoes in the training and test sets respectively were viable, while only one viable seed in the test set was misclassified. The results indicate that green tomatoes might be mature...

  8. Pulsed Raman fiber laser and multispectral imaging in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joachim F.; Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2006-01-01

    are then constructed with submillimeter accuracy for all visible colors. The generation of a series of Stokes peaks by Raman scattering in a Si fiber is discussed in detail and the laser radar technique is demonstrated. The data recording takes only a few seconds, and the high accuracy 3D color imaging works at ranges......Raman scattering in single-mode optical fibers is exploited to generate multispectral light from a green nanolaser with high pulse repetition rate. Each pulse triggers a picosecond camera and measures the distance by time-of-flight in each of the 0.5 Mpixels. Three-dimensional images...

  9. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coate...... products with optimal use of pigment and minimum amount of waste.......Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coated...

  10. Improved field-mapping and artifact correction in multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Brady; Shi, Xinwei; Weber, Hans; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2017-11-01

    To develop a method for improved B 0 field-map estimation, deblurring, and image combination for multispectral imaging near metal. A goodness-of-fit field-map estimation technique is proposed that uses only the multispectral imaging (MSI) data to estimate the field map. Using the improved field map, a novel deblurring technique is proposed that also employs a new image combination scheme to reduce the effects of noise and other residual MSI artifacts. The proposed field-map estimation and deblurring techniques are compared to the current methods in phantoms and/or in vivo from subjects with knee, hip, and spinal metallic implants. Phantom experiments validate that the goodness-of-fit field-map estimation is less sensitive to noise and bias than the conventional center-of-mass technique, which reduces distortion in the deblurring methods. The new deblurring approach also is substantially less sensitive to noise and distortion than the current deblurring method, as demonstrated in phantoms and in vivo, and is able to find a good tradeoff between deblurring and distortion. The proposed methods not only enable field-mapping with reduced noise sensitivity but are able to create deblurred images with less distortion and better signal-to-noise ratio with no additional scan time, thereby enabling improved visualization of underlying anatomy near metallic implants. Magn Reson Med 78:2022-2034, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Morphological Feature Extraction for Automatic Registration of Multispectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Antonio; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Netanyahu, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The task of image registration can be divided into two major components, i.e., the extraction of control points or features from images, and the search among the extracted features for the matching pairs that represent the same feature in the images to be matched. Manual extraction of control features can be subjective and extremely time consuming, and often results in few usable points. On the other hand, automated feature extraction allows using invariant target features such as edges, corners, and line intersections as relevant landmarks for registration purposes. In this paper, we present an extension of a recently developed morphological approach for automatic extraction of landmark chips and corresponding windows in a fully unsupervised manner for the registration of multispectral images. Once a set of chip-window pairs is obtained, a (hierarchical) robust feature matching procedure, based on a multiresolution overcomplete wavelet decomposition scheme, is used for registration purposes. The proposed method is validated on a pair of remotely sensed scenes acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral instrument and the Hyperion hyperspectral instrument aboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 satellite.

  12. Perspective of inline control of latent defects and diseases on french fries with multispectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, J.C.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility is investigated to improve discrimination between different defect and diseases on raw French fries with multispectral imaging. Four different potato cultivars are selected from which French Fries are cut. Both multispectral images and RGB color images are classified

  13. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2013-01-01

    parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled......It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version......: Infrared imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion, diode lasers, upconversion ] of the nonlinear material. Unfortunately, temperature tuning is slow, and angle tuning typically results in alignment issues. Here we present a novel approach where the wavelength of the mixing field is used as a tuning...

  14. Multispectral Imaging of Meat Quality - Color and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup

    of meat quality parameters, especially with regards to meat color and texture. Several image modalities have been applied, all considering multi- or hyper spectral imaging. The work demonstrates the use of computer vision systems for meat color measurements. The color is assessed by suitable...... transformations to the CIELAB color space, the common color space within food science. The results show that meat color assessment with a multispectral imaging is a great alternative to the traditional colorimeter, i.e. the vision system meets some of the limitations that the colorimeter possesses. To mention one......, it is possible to assess color of very complicated structures, such as salamis, with a vision system. More importantly though, the vision system embraces the complicated scattering properties of meat. The images can also lead to other analyses, e.g. image texture analysis relating to the structure of the meat...

  15. Multispectral UV imaging for determination of the tablet coating thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of off-line multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain...... measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, two of which contained UV active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly...... translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and non-destructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated...

  16. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  17. Online Variety Discrimination of Rice Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging and Chemometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Liu, Ch.; Ma, F.; Lu, X.; Yang, J.; Zheng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Variety identification plays an important role in ensuring the quality and quantity of yield in rice production. The feasibility of a rapid and nondestructive determination of varieties of rice seeds was examined by using a multispectral imaging system combined with chemometric data analysis. Methods of the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN), and least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) were applied to classify varieties of rice seeds. The results demonstrate that clear differences among varieties of rice seeds could be easily visualized using the multispectral imaging technique and an excellent classification could be achieved combining data of the spectral and morphological features. The classification accuracy was up to 94% in a validation set with the LS-SVM model, which was better than the PLSDA (62%) and PCA-BPNN (84%) models.

  18. Multispectral therapeutic endoscopy imaging and intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, John L.; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.

    2007-02-01

    With the debut of antibiotic drug therapy, and as a result of its ease of use and general success in treating infection, drugs have become the treatment of choice for most bacterial infections. However, the advent of multiple, very aggressive drug-resistant bacteria, an increasing population which cannot tolerate drugs, and the high cost of drug therapy suggest that a new modality for treating infections is needed. The complex interplay of clonal spread, persistence, transfer of resistance elements and cell-to-cell interaction all contribute to the difficulty in developing drugs to treat new antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. A dynamic non-drug system, using extant pulsed ultraviolet lightwave technology to kill infection, is being developed to destroy pathogens. This paper theorizes that the shock effect of pulsed xenon's high energy ultraviolet pulses at wavelengths between 250-270nm separates the bacteria's DNA bands, and, subsequently, destroys them. Preliminary laboratory tests have demonstrated the ability of the technology to destroy Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella punemonia, Bacillus subtillis, and Aspergillus fumigates at penetration depths of greater than 3mm in fluids with 100% effectiveness in less than five seconds of exposure to pulsed xenon lightwaves. Micro Invasive Technology, Inc is developing .pulsed xenon therapeutic catheters and endoscopic instruments for internal antimicrobial eradication and topographical devices for prophylactic wound, burn and surgical entrance/exit site sterilization. Pulsed Xenon light sources have a broad optical spectrum (190-1200nm), and can generate light pulses with sufficient energy for combined imaging and therapeutic intervention by multiplexing a fiber optic pathway into the body. In addition, Pulsed Xenon has proven ability to activate photo reactive dyes; share endoscopic lightguides with lasers while, simultaneously

  19. Application of multispectral imaging detects areas with neuronal myelin loss, without tissue labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazgiouraki, Eleftheria; Papadakis, Vassilis M; Efstathopoulos, Paschalis; Lazaridis, Iakovos; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Fotakis, Costas; Gravanis, Achille

    2016-04-01

    The application of multispectral imaging to discriminate myelinated and demyelinated areas of neural tissue is herein presented. The method is applied through a custom-made, multispectral imaging monochromator, coupled to a commercially available microscope. In the present work, a series of spinal cord sections were analysed derived from mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model widely used to study multiple sclerosis (MS). The multispectral microscope allows imaging of local areas with loss of myelin without the need of tissue labelling. Imaging with the aforementioned method and system is compared in a parallel way with conventional methods (wide-field and confocal fluorescence microscopies). The diagnostic sensitivity of our method is 90.4% relative to the 'gold standard' method of immunofluorescence microscopy. The presented method offers a new platform for the possible future development of an in vivo, real-time, non-invasive, rapid imaging diagnostic tool of spinal cord myelin loss-derived pathologies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A real-time multispectral imaging system for low- or mid-altitude remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool in remote sensing applications. Recently a micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the requirements for low- or mid- altitude remote sensing. Such a filter with four narrow bands is integrated with an off-shelf CCD camera, resulting in an economic and light-weight multispectral imaging camera with the capacity of producing multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot. The multispectral imaging camera is then integrated with a wireless transmitter and battery to produce a remote sensing multispectral imaging system. The design and some preliminary results of a prototyped multispectral imaging system with the potential for remote sensing applications with a weight of only 200 grams are reported. The prototyped multispectral imaging system eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies. In addition, it has other advantages such as low cost, being light weight and compact in design.

  1. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Jovian Chromophore Characteristics from Multispectral HST Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The chromophores responsible for coloring the jovian atmosphere are embedded within Jupiter's vertical aerosol structure. Sunlight propagates through this vertical distribution of aerosol particles, whose colors are defined by omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda), and we remotely observe the culmination of the radiative transfer as I/F(lambda). In this study, we employed a radiative transfer code to retrieve omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) for particles in Jupiter's tropospheric haze at seven wavelengths in the near-UV and visible regimes. The data consisted of images of the 2008 passage of Oval BA to the south of the Great Red Spot obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present derived particle colors for locations that were selected from 14 weather regions, which spanned a large range of observed colors. All omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves were absorbing in the blue, and omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) increased monotonically to approximately unity as wavelength increased. We found accurate fits to all omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves using an empirically derived functional form: omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) = 1 A exp(-B lambda). The best-fit parameters for the mean omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curve were A = 25.4 and B = 0.0149 for lambda in units of nm. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on our omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) results and found that one or two independent chromophores were sufficient to produce the variations in omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda). A PCA of I/F(lambda) for the same jovian locations resulted in principal components (PCs) with roughly the same variances as the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA, but they did not result in a one-to-one mapping of PC amplitudes between the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA and I/F(lambda) PCA. We suggest that statistical analyses performed on I/ F(lambda) image cubes have limited applicability to the characterization of chromophores in the jovian atmosphere due to the sensitivity of 1/ F

  3. An automated ranking platform for machine learning regression models for meat spoilage prediction using multi-spectral imaging and metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles-Lopez, Lucia; Ropodi, Athina; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Fotopoulou, Jenny; Gkousari, Christina; Peyrodie, Audrey; Panagou, Efstathios; Nychas, George-John; Mohareb, Fady

    2017-09-01

    Over the past decade, analytical approaches based on vibrational spectroscopy, hyperspectral/multispectral imagining and biomimetic sensors started gaining popularity as rapid and efficient methods for assessing food quality, safety and authentication; as a sensible alternative to the expensive and time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of the data generated from such analyses, the output needs to be coupled with a suitable statistical approach or machine-learning algorithms before the results can be interpreted. Choosing the optimum pattern recognition or machine learning approach for a given analytical platform is often challenging and involves a comparative analysis between various algorithms in order to achieve the best possible prediction accuracy. In this work, "MeatReg", a web-based application is presented, able to automate the procedure of identifying the best machine learning method for comparing data from several analytical techniques, to predict the counts of microorganisms responsible of meat spoilage regardless of the packaging system applied. In particularly up to 7 regression methods were applied and these are ordinary least squares regression, stepwise linear regression, partial least square regression, principal component regression, support vector regression, random forest and k-nearest neighbours. MeatReg" was tested with minced beef samples stored under aerobic and modified atmosphere packaging and analysed with electronic nose, HPLC, FT-IR, GC-MS and Multispectral imaging instrument. Population of total viable count, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and B. thermosphacta, were predicted. As a result, recommendations of which analytical platforms are suitable to predict each type of bacteria and which machine learning methods to use in each case were obtained. The developed system is accessible via the link: www.sorfml.com. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Multispectral, Fluorescent and Photoplethysmographic Imaging for Remote Skin Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis

    2017-05-19

    Optical tissue imaging has several advantages over the routine clinical imaging methods, including non-invasiveness (it does not change the structure of tissues), remote operation (it avoids infections) and the ability to quantify the tissue condition by means of specific image parameters. Dermatologists and other skin experts need compact (preferably pocket-size), self-sustaining and easy-to-use imaging devices. The operational principles and designs of ten portable in-vivo skin imaging prototypes developed at the Biophotonics Laboratory of Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia during the recent five years are presented in this paper. Four groups of imaging devices are considered. Multi-spectral imagers offer possibilities for distant mapping of specific skin parameters, thus facilitating better diagnostics of skin malformations. Autofluorescence intensity and photobleaching rate imagers show a promising potential for skin tumor identification and margin delineation. Photoplethysmography video-imagers ensure remote detection of cutaneous blood pulsations and can provide real-time information on cardiovascular parameters and anesthesia efficiency. Multimodal skin imagers perform several of the abovementioned functions by taking a number of spectral and video images with the same image sensor. Design details of the developed prototypes and results of clinical tests illustrating their functionality are presented and discussed.

  5. A Multispectral Micro-Imager for Lunar Field Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jorge; Farmer, Jack; Sellar, Glenn; Allen, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Field geologists routinely assign rocks to one of three basic petrogenetic categories (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) based on microtextural and mineralogical information acquired with a simple magnifying lens. Indeed, such observations often comprise the core of interpretations of geological processes and history. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) uses multi-wavelength, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a substrate-removed InGaAs focal-plane array to create multispectral, microscale reflectance images of geological samples (FOV 32 X 40 mm). Each pixel (62.5 microns) of an image is comprised of 21 spectral bands that extend from 470 to 1750 nm, enabling the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases. MMI images provide crucial context information for in situ robotic analyses using other onboard analytical instruments (e.g. XRD), or for the selection of return samples for analysis in terrestrial labs. To further assess the value of the MMI as a tool for lunar exploration, we used a field-portable, tripod-mounted version of the MMI to image a variety of Apollo samples housed at the Lunar Experiment Laboratory, NASA s Johnson Space Center. MMI images faithfully resolved the microtextural features of samples, while the application of ENVI-based spectral end member mapping methods revealed the distribution of Fe-bearing mineral phases (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite), along with plagioclase feldspars within samples. Samples included a broad range of lithologies and grain sizes. Our MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compared favorably with thin section-based descriptions published in the Lunar Sample Compendium, revealing the value of MMI images for astronaut and rover-mediated lunar exploration.

  6. Multispectral magnetic resonance image analysis using principal component and linear discriminant analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, H.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Graaf, M. van der; Melssen, W.J.; Heerschap, A.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the possibilities of combining multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) images of different patients within one data matrix. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Principal component and linear discriminant analysis was applied to multispectral MR images of 12 patients with different brain tumors.

  7. Statistical Quality Assessment of Pre-fried Carrots Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is increasingly being used for quality assessment of food items due to its non-invasive benefits. In this paper, we investigate the use of multispectral images of pre-fried carrots, to detect changes over a period of 14 days. The idea is to distinguish changes in quality from...

  8. A practical one-shot multispectral imaging system using a single image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monno, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Sunao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2015-10-01

    Single-sensor imaging using the Bayer color filter array (CFA) and demosaicking is well established for current compact and low-cost color digital cameras. An extension from the CFA to a multispectral filter array (MSFA) enables us to acquire a multispectral image in one shot without increased size or cost. However, multispectral demosaicking for the MSFA has been a challenging problem because of very sparse sampling of each spectral band in the MSFA. In this paper, we propose a high-performance multispectral demosaicking algorithm, and at the same time, a novel MSFA pattern that is suitable for our proposed algorithm. Our key idea is the use of the guided filter to interpolate each spectral band. To generate an effective guide image, in our proposed MSFA pattern, we maintain the sampling density of the G -band as high as the Bayer CFA, and we array each spectral band so that an adaptive kernel can be estimated directly from raw MSFA data. Given these two advantages, we effectively generate the guide image from the most densely sampled G -band using the adaptive kernel. In the experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed algorithm with our proposed MSFA pattern outperforms existing algorithms and provides better color fidelity compared with a conventional color imaging system with the Bayer CFA. We also show some real applications using a multispectral camera prototype we built.

  9. Spatiospectral denoising framework for multispectral optoacoustic imaging based on sparse signal representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Rosenthal, Amir; Lutzweiler, Christian; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-11-01

    One of the major challenges in dynamic multispectral optoacoustic imaging is its relatively low signal-to-noise ratio which often requires repetitive signal acquisition and averaging, thus limiting imaging rate. The development of denoising methods which prevent the need for signal averaging in time presents an important goal for advancing the dynamic capabilities of the technology. In this paper, a denoising method is developed for multispectral optoacoustic imaging which exploits the implicit sparsity of multispectral optoacoustic signals both in space and in spectrum. Noise suppression is achieved by applying thresholding on a combined wavelet-Karhunen-Loève representation in which multispectral optoacoustic signals appear particularly sparse. The method is based on inherent characteristics of multispectral optoacoustic signals of tissues, offering promise for general application in different incarnations of multispectral optoacoustic systems. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated on mouse images acquired in vivo for two common additive noise sources: time-varying parasitic signals and white noise. In both cases, the proposed method shows considerable improvement in image quality in comparison to previously published denoising strategies that do not consider multispectral information. The suggested denoising methodology can achieve noise suppression with minimal signal loss and considerably outperforms previously proposed denoising strategies, holding promise for advancing the dynamic capabilities of multispectral optoacoustic imaging while retaining image quality.

  10. Multispectral imaging contributions to global land ice measurements from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J.S.; Abrams, M.J.; Bishop, M.P.; Bush, A.; Hamilton, G.; Jiskoot, H.; Kääb, Andreas; Kieffer, H.H.; Lee, E.M.; Paul, F.; Rau, F.; Raup, B.; Shroder, J.F.; Soltesz, D.; Stainforth, D.; Stearns, L.; Wessels, R.

    2005-01-01

    Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is an international consortium established to acquire satellite images of the world's glaciers, analyse them for glacier extent and changes, and assess change data for causes and implications for people and the environment. Although GLIMS is making use of multiple remote-sensing systems, ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) is optimized for many needed observations, including mapping of glacier boundaries and material facies, and tracking of surface dynamics, such as flow vector fields and supraglacial lake development. Software development by GLIMS is geared toward mapping clean-ice and debris-covered glaciers; terrain classification emphasizing snow, ice, water, and admixtures of ice with rock debris; multitemporal change analysis; visualization of images and derived data; and interpretation and archiving of derived data. A global glacier database has been designed at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC, Boulder, Colorado); parameters are compatible with and expanded from those of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). These technology efforts are summarized here, but will be presented in detail elsewhere. Our presentation here pertains to one broad question: How can ASTER and other satellite multispectral data be used to map, monitor, and characterize the state and dynamics of glaciers and to understand their responses to 20th and 21st century climate change? Our sampled results are not yet glaciologically or climatically representative. Our early results, while indicating complexity, are generally consistent with the glaciology community's conclusion that climate change is spurring glacier responses around the world (mainly retreat). Whether individual glaciers are advancing or retreating, the aggregate average of glacier change must be climatic in origin, as nonclimatic variations average out. We have discerned regional spatial patterns in glaciological response behavior

  11. Determination of astaxanthin concentration in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by multispectral image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Stina; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    to a larger degree than in a trichromatic image. In this study multispectral imaging has been evaluated for characterization of the concentration of astaxanthin in rainbow trout fillets. Rainbow trout’s (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were filleted and imaged using a rapid multispectral imaging device......, showing that the upper part of the fillet contains the highest concentration of astaxanthin. This study has shown that multispectral imaging is a promising method for rapid and non-destructive analysis of astaxanthin concentration of rainbow trout, and thereby a qualified candidate for replacement...

  12. Multispectral Image classification using the theories of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M.S.; Subki, M.I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Image classification is the one of the important part of digital image analysis. the objective of image classification is to identify and regroup the features occurring in an image into one or several classes in terms of the object. basic to the understanding of multispectral classification is the concept of the spectral response of an object as a function of the electromagnetic radiation and the wavelength of the spectrum. new approaches to classification has been developed to improve the result of analysis, these state-of-the-art classifiers are based upon the theories of neural networks. Neural network classifiers are algorithmes which mimic the computational abilities of the human brain. Artificial neurons are simple emulation's of biological neurons; they take in information from sensors or other artificial neurons, perform very simple operations on this data, and pass the result to other recognize the spectral signature of each image pixel. Neural network image classification has been divided into supervised and unsupervised training procedures. In the supervised approach, examples of each cover type can be located and the computer can compute spectral signatures to categorize all pixels in a digital image into several land cover classes. In supervised classification, spectral signatures are generated by mathematically grouping and it does not require analyst-specified training data. Thus, in the supervised approach we define useful information categories and then examine their spectral reparability; in the unsupervised approach the computer determines spectrally sapable classes and then we define thei information value

  13. High Resolution Multispectral Flow Imaging of Cells with Extended Depth of Field, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is the development the extended depth of field (EDF) or confocal like imaging capabilities of a breakthrough multispectral high resolution imaging flow...

  14. High Resolution Multispectral Flow Imaging of Cells with Extended Depth of Field, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is the development the extended depth of field (EDF) or confocal like imaging capabilities of a breakthrough multispectral high resolution imaging flow...

  15. Cloud-based processing of multi-spectral imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Bolton, Frank J.; Weiser, Reuven; Levitz, David

    2017-03-01

    Multispectral imaging holds great promise as a non-contact tool for the assessment of tissue composition. Performing multi - spectral imaging on a hand held mobile device would allow to bring this technology and with it knowledge to low resource settings to provide a state of the art classification of tissue health. This modality however produces considerably larger data sets than white light imaging and requires preliminary image analysis for it to be used. The data then needs to be analyzed and logged, while not requiring too much of the system resource or a long computation time and battery use by the end point device. Cloud environments were designed to allow offloading of those problems by allowing end point devices (smartphones) to offload computationally hard tasks. For this end we present a method where the a hand held device based around a smartphone captures a multi - spectral dataset in a movie file format (mp4) and compare it to other image format in size, noise and correctness. We present the cloud configuration used for segmenting images to frames where they can later be used for further analysis.

  16. Multispectral UV Imaging for Determination of the Tablet Coating Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens M; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2017-06-01

    The applicability of off-line multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab-scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, 2 of which contained UV-active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and nondestructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated to the results of the TPI measurements. UV imaging appears to hold a significant potential as a process analytical technology tool for determination of the tablet coating thickness and its distribution resulting from its high measurement speed, high molar absorptivity, and a high scattering coefficient, in addition to relatively low costs. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a Portable 3CCD Camera System for Multispectral Imaging of Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Soo Hyun; Noh, Sang Ha; Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Moon S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the need for imaging devices capable of multispectral imaging beyond the visible region, to allow for quality and safety evaluations of agricultural commodities. Conventional multispectral imaging devices lack flexibility in spectral waveband selectivity for such applications. In this paper, a recently developed portable 3CCD camera with significant improvements over existing imaging devices is presented. A beam-splitter prism assembly for 3CCD was designed to ac...

  18. Rapid Assessment of Tablet Film Coating Quality by Multispectral UV Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X.; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Chemical imaging techniques are beneficial for control of tablet coating layer quality as they provide spectral and spatial information and allow characterization of various types of coating defects. The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of multispectral UV imaging for assessm......Chemical imaging techniques are beneficial for control of tablet coating layer quality as they provide spectral and spatial information and allow characterization of various types of coating defects. The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of multispectral UV imaging...... for assessment of the coating layer quality of tablets. UV images were used to detect, characterize, and localize coating layer defects such as chipped parts, inhomogeneities, and cracks, as well as to evaluate the coating surface texture. Acetylsalicylic acid tablets were prepared on a rotary tablet press...... and Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy applied to the UV images. Tablets with inhomogeneous texture of the coating could be identified and distinguished from those with a homogeneous surface texture. Consequently, UV imaging was shown to be well-suited for monitoring of the tablet coating layer...

  19. Spatial clustering of pixels of a multispectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-08-19

    A method and system for clustering the pixels of a multispectral image is provided. A clustering system computes a maximum spectral similarity score for each pixel that indicates the similarity between that pixel and the most similar neighboring. To determine the maximum similarity score for a pixel, the clustering system generates a similarity score between that pixel and each of its neighboring pixels and then selects the similarity score that represents the highest similarity as the maximum similarity score. The clustering system may apply a filtering criterion based on the maximum similarity score so that pixels with similarity scores below a minimum threshold are not clustered. The clustering system changes the current pixel values of the pixels in a cluster based on an averaging of the original pixel values of the pixels in the cluster.

  20. Multispectral Image Analysis for Robust Prediction of Astaxanthin Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Frosch, Stina; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of predicting the type and concentration level of astaxanthin coating of aquaculture feed pellets using multispectral image analysis. We used both natural and synthetic astaxanthin, and we used several different concentration levels...... regression (PLSR) for prediction of the concentration level. The results show that it is possible to predict the level of synthetic astaxanthin coating using PLSR on either the same recipe, or when calibrating on all recipes. The concentration prediction is adequate for screening for all recipes. Moreover......, it shows that it is possible to predict the type of astaxanthin used in the coating using only ten spectral bands. Finally, the most selected spectral bands for astaxanthin prediction are in the visible range of the spectrum....

  1. High-speed multispectral infrared imaging and data processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung T.

    1995-05-01

    The new imaging system developed in our laboratory facilitates the solutions of problems otherwise difficult to remedy. In this lecture, the progressive steps taken for building our new diagnostic tool are explained, followed by a description of the system and our data processing methods. Some of the results obtained by using the device are presented. The system design was directed to incorporation of off-the- shelf components with several newly fabricated units in order to overcome limitations in existing infrared (IR) imaging systems. In the new IR imaging system which recently became operational, four high-speed IR camera units are lined up to a single (reflective) optical unit having three spectral beam splitters. This permits simultaneous framing of four geometrically (pixel-to-pixel) identical images of the same object in respective spectral bands. The multispectral imaging by the camera is activated either by the internal clock (at a rate over 1,800 frames/sec) or an external signal such as pulses generated by an encoder. Unique features incorporated in the system include: independent variation of the framing rate and the exposure period in terms of time period (as short as 30 microsecond(s) ec) or the number of external pulses; control of the total number of images to be obtained per event from successive cyclic processes. The new device is applied to 'quantitative imaging' of rapidly reacting events/objects, e.g. determination of temporal and spatial variations of the thermochemical characteristics. Thermal objects, which typically involve a reactor wall and a gaseous mixture in front, are studied by obtaining the high-speed digital readout from the corresponding pixels of: two wall images in separate wavebands and two mixture images in other bands, i.e., total of four matrices of digital output at a time. The results are processed by the conventional two-color method and a new dual-band spectrometric algorithm.

  2. Quantitative functional optical imaging of the human skin using multi-spectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainerstorfer, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Light tissue interactions can be described by the physical principles of absorption and scattering. Based on those parameters, different tissue types and analytes can be distinguished. Extracting blood volume and oxygenation is of particular interest in clinical routines for tumor diagnostics and treatment follow up, since they are parameters of angiogenic processes. The quantification of those analytes in tissue can be done by physical modeling of light tissue interaction. The physical model used here is the random walk theory. However, for quantification and clinical usefulness, one has to account for multiple challenges. First, one must consider the effect of topology of the sample on measured physical parameters. Second, diffusion of light inside the tissue is dependent on the structure of the sample imaged. Thus, the structural conformation has to be taken into account. Third, clinical translation of imaging modalities is often hindered due to the complicated post-processing of data, not providing results in real-time. In this thesis, two imaging modalities are being utilized, where the first one, diffuse multi-spectral imaging, is based on absorption contrast and spectral characteristics and the second one, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is based on scattering changes within the tissue. Multi-spectral imaging can provide spatial distributions of blood volume and blood oxygenation and OCT yields 3D structural images with micrometer resolution. In order to address the challenges mentioned above, a curvature correction algorithm for taking the topology into account was developed. Without taking curvature of the object into account, reconstruction of optical properties is not accurate. The method developed removes this artifact and recovers the underlying data, without the necessity of measuring the object's shape. The next step was to recover blood volume and oxygenation values in real time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on multi spectral images is

  3. Assigning Main Orientation to an EOH Descriptor on Multispectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to compute an EOH (edge-oriented histogram descriptor with main orientation. EOH has a better matching ability than SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform on multispectral images, but does not assign a main orientation to keypoints. Alternatively, it tends to assign the same main orientation to every keypoint, e.g., zero degrees. This limits EOH to matching keypoints between images of translation misalignment only. Observing this limitation, we propose assigning to keypoints the main orientation that is computed with PIIFD (partial intensity invariant feature descriptor. In the proposed method, SIFT keypoints are detected from images as the extrema of difference of Gaussians, and every keypoint is assigned to the main orientation computed with PIIFD. Then, EOH is computed for every keypoint with respect to its main orientation. In addition, an implementation variant is proposed for fast computation of the EOH descriptor. Experimental results show that the proposed approach performs more robustly than the original EOH on image pairs that have a rotation misalignment.

  4. Imaging Science Panel. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group joint meeting with Information Science Panel: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multispectral sensing is reviewed and recommendations for future research and development are proposed. specifically, two generic sensor concepts were discussed. One is the multispectral pushbroom sensor utilizing linear array technology which operates in six spectral bands including two in the SWIR region and incorporates capabilities for stereo and crosstrack pointing. The second concept is the imaging spectrometer (IS) which incorporates a dispersive element and area arrays to provide both spectral and spatial information simultaneously. Other key technology areas included very large scale integration and the computer aided design of these devices.

  5. Edge-based correlation image registration for multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Prabal [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-17

    Registration information for images of a common target obtained from a plurality of different spectral bands can be obtained by combining edge detection and phase correlation. The images are edge-filtered, and pairs of the edge-filtered images are then phase correlated to produce phase correlation images. The registration information can be determined based on these phase correlation images.

  6. Smartphone-based multispectral imaging: system development and potential for mobile skin diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sewoong; Cho, Dongrae; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Manjae; Youn, Sangyeon; Jang, Jae Eun; Je, Minkyu; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Boreom; Farkas, Daniel L; Hwang, Jae Youn

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the potential of mobile smartphone-based multispectral imaging for the quantitative diagnosis and management of skin lesions. Recently, various mobile devices such as a smartphone have emerged as healthcare tools. They have been applied for the early diagnosis of nonmalignant and malignant skin diseases. Particularly, when they are combined with an advanced optical imaging technique such as multispectral imaging and analysis, it would be beneficial for the early diagnosis of such skin diseases and for further quantitative prognosis monitoring after treatment at home. Thus, we demonstrate here the development of a smartphone-based multispectral imaging system with high portability and its potential for mobile skin diagnosis. The results suggest that smartphone-based multispectral imaging and analysis has great potential as a healthcare tool for quantitative mobile skin diagnosis.

  7. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugarte, M. F., E-mail: marta.ugarte@uem.es, E-mail: sbriz@fis.uc3m.es; Chávarri, L.; Padrón, V. M. [Industrial Engineering Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid, C/ Tajo, s/n 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain); Briz, S., E-mail: marta.ugarte@uem.es, E-mail: sbriz@fis.uc3m.es [Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30,28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); García-Cuesta, E. [Computer Science and Telecommunications Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid, C/ Tajo, s/n 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This “in situ” absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi.

  8. Noninvasive Imaging of Colitis Using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiani, Neal; Grizzle, William E; Galandiuk, Susan; Otali, Denis; Dryden, Gerald W; Egilmez, Nejat K; McNally, Lacey R

    2017-06-01

    Currently, several noninvasive modalities, including MRI and PET, are being investigated to identify early intestinal inflammation, longitudinally monitor disease status, or detect dysplastic changes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we assess the applicability and utility of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in evaluating the presence and severity of colitis. Methods: C57B/6 mice were untreated or treated with Bacteroides fragilis and antibiotic-mediated depletion of intestinal flora to initiate colitis. Mice were imaged using MSOT to detect intestinal inflammation. Intestinal inflammation identified with MSOT was also confirmed using both colonoscopy and histology. Results: Mice with bacterial colitis demonstrated a temporally associated increase in mesenteric and colonic vascularity with an increase in mean signal intensity of oxygenated hemoglobin ( P = 0.004) by MSOT 2 d after inoculation. These findings were significantly more prominent 7 d after inoculation, with increased mean signal intensity of oxygenated hemoglobin ( P = 0.0002) and the development of punctate vascular lesions on the colonic surface, which corresponded to changes observed on colonoscopy as well as histology. Conclusion: With improvements in depth of tissue penetration, MSOT may hold potential as a sensitive, accurate, noninvasive imaging tool in the evaluation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  10. The Study of Non-Destructive Measurement Apple's Firmness and Soluble Solid Content Using Multispectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Muhua; Wumao, Duan; Lin, Huaiwei

    Firmness and soluble solid content (SSC) are two important quality attributes. This researches investigated the feasibility of using multi-spectral imaging to non-destructive measuring the apple's firmness and SSC. The spectral imaging in wavelength of 632nm, 650nm, 670nm, 780nm, 850nm and 900nm were captured. The Lorentzian distribution (LD), Gaussian distribution (GD) and Exponential distribution (ED) with three parameters were used to fit scattering profiles for all wavelengths. LD was found to be the best function for fitting gray distribution of the image. The multi-linear regression model using Lorentzian parameters for predicting apple firmness and soluble solids content were built using best single wavelength, double wavelengths, three wavelengths and four wavelengths. The best model with three wavelengths was able to predict apple soluble solid content with r=0.831, SEC=0.55 °Brix and predict apple firmness with r=0.880, SEC=0.52 N with four wavelengths. Experimental results show that the multi-spectral scattering imaging has high potential as a nondestructive and rapid method to assess fruit internal quality.

  11. Development of a Mobile Multispectral Imaging Platform for Precise Field Phenotyping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svensgaard, J.; Roitsch, Thomas; Christensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2014), s. 322-336 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : field phenotyping * multispectral imaging * supervised classification * canonical discriminant analysis * vegetation coverage * NDVI Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket measured by multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Skov, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Green color and texture are important attributes for the perception of freshness of wild rocket. Packaging of green leafy vegetables can postpone senescence and yellowing, but a drawback is the risk of anaerobic respiration leading to loss of tissue integrity and development of an olive-brown color....... The hypothesis underlying this paper is that color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket leaves can be predicted by multispectral imaging for faster evaluation of visual quality of leafy green vegetables in scientific experiments. Multispectral imaging was correlated to sensory evaluation of packaged wild...... rocket quality. CIELAB values derived from the multispectral images and from a spectrophotometer changed during storage, but the data were insufficient to describe variation in sensory perceived color and texture. CIELAB values from the multispectral images allowed for a more detailed determination...

  13. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-03-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version of the infrared object field, with a bandwidth corresponding given by the acceptance parameter of the conversion process, and a center frequency given by the phase-match condition. Tuning of the phase-matched wavelengths has previously been demonstrated by changing the temperature [2] or angle [3 Keywords: Infrared imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion, diode lasers, upconversion ] of the nonlinear material. Unfortunately, temperature tuning is slow, and angle tuning typically results in alignment issues. Here we present a novel approach where the wavelength of the mixing field is used as a tuning parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled feedback grating. The output from a tunable laser is used as seed for a fiber amplifier system, boosting the power to approx. 3 W over the tuning range from 1025 to 1085 nm. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, the infrared wavelength that can be phase-matched is tunable over more than 200 nm. Using a crystal with multiple poling periods allows for upconversion within the entire transparency range of the nonlinear material.

  14. Feasibility study and quality assessment of unmanned aircraft system-derived multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of study is to explore the precision and the applicability of UAS-derived multispectral images. In this study, the Micro-MCA6 multispectral camera was mounted on quadcopter. The Micro-MCA6 shoot images synchronized of each single band. By means of geotagged images and control points, the orthomosaic images of each single band generated firstly by 14cm resolution. The multispectral image was merged complete with 6 bands. In order to improve the spatial resolution, the 6 band image fused with 9cm resolution image taken from RGB camera. Quality evaluation of the image is verified of the each single band by using control points and check points. The standard deviations of errors are within 1 to 2 pixel resolution of each band. The quality of the multispectral image is compared with 3 cm resolution orthomosaic RGB image gathered from UAV in the same mission, as well. The standard deviations of errors are within 2 to 3 pixel resolution. The result shows that the errors resulting from the blurry and the band dislocation of the objects edge identification. To the end, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the image to explore the condition of vegetation and the nature of the environment. This study demonstrates the feasibility and the capability of the high resolution multispectral images.

  15. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a handheld multispectral imaging device to non-invasively inspect stage I pressure ulcers in dark pigmented skins without the need of touching the patient's skin. This paper reports some preliminary test results of using a proof-of-concept prototype. It also talks about the innovation's impact to traditional multispectral imaging technologies and the fields that will potentially benefit from it.

  16. Intelligent image processing for vegetation classification using multispectral LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stewart R.; Flores, Jorge L.; Garcia-Torales, G.

    2015-09-01

    We propose an intelligent computational technique for analysis of vegetation imaging, which are acquired with multispectral scanner (MSS) sensor. This work focuses on intelligent and adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) methodologies that allow segmentation and classification of spectral remote sensing (RS) signatures, in order to obtain a high resolution map, in which we can delimit the wooded areas and quantify the amount of combustible materials present into these areas. This could provide important information to prevent fires and deforestation of wooded areas. The spectral RS input data, acquired by the MSS sensor, are considered in a random propagation remotely sensed scene with unknown statistics for each Thematic Mapper (TM) band. Performing high-resolution reconstruction and adding these spectral values with neighbor pixels information from each TM band, we can include contextual information into an ANN. The biggest challenge in conventional classifiers is how to reduce the number of components in the feature vector, while preserving the major information contained in the data, especially when the dimensionality of the feature space is high. Preliminary results show that the Adaptive Modified Neural Network method is a promising and effective spectral method for segmentation and classification in RS images acquired with MSS sensor.

  17. Multispectral image fusion for vehicle identification and threat analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Unauthorized vehicles become an increasing threat to US facilities and locations especially overseas. Vehicle detection is a well-studied area. However, vehicle identification and intension analysis have not been sufficiently investigated. We propose to use multispectral (visible, thermal) images (1) to match the vehicle types with the registered (or authorized) vehicle types; (2) to analyze the vehicle moving patterns, (3) and study methods to utilize open information such as GPS and traffic information. When a vehicle is either permitted to access to the facility, or subjected to further manual inspection (scrutiny), the additional information (e.g., text) can be compared against the imagery features. We use information fusion (at image, feature, and score level) and neural network to increase vehicle matching accuracy. For the vehicle moving patterns, we will classify them as "normal" and "abnormal" by using driving speed, acceleration, stop, zig-zag, etc. The methods would support directions in physical and human-based sensor fusion, patterns of life (POL) analysis, and contextual-enhanced information fusion.

  18. VIS-NIR multispectral synchronous imaging pyrometer for high-temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Tian, Jibin

    2017-06-01

    A visible-infrared multispectral synchronous imaging pyrometer was developed for simultaneous, multispectral, two-dimensional high temperature measurements. The multispectral image pyrometer uses prism separation construction in the spectrum range of 650-950 nm and multi-sensor fusion of three CCD sensors for high-temperature measurements. The pyrometer had 650-750 nm, 750-850 nm, and 850-950 nm channels all with the same optical path. The wavelength choice for each channel is flexible with three center wavelengths (700 nm, 810 nm, and 920 nm) with a full width at half maximum of the spectrum of 3 nm used here. The three image sensors were precisely aligned to avoid spectrum artifacts by micro-mechanical adjustments of the sensors relative to each other to position them within a quarter pixel of each other. The pyrometer was calibrated with the standard blackbody source, and the temperature measurement uncertainty was within 0.21 °C-0.99 °C in the temperatures of 600 °C-1800 °C for the blackbody measurements. The pyrometer was then used to measure the leading edge temperatures of a ceramics model exposed to high-enthalpy plasma aerodynamic heating environment to verify the system applicability. The measured temperature ranges are 701-991 °C, 701-1134 °C, and 701-834 °C at the heating transient, steady state, and cooling transient times. A significant temperature gradient (170 °C/mm) was observed away from the leading edge facing the plasma jet during the steady state heating time. The temperature non-uniformity on the surface occurs during the entire aerodynamic heating process. However, the temperature distribution becomes more uniform after the heater is shut down and the experimental model is naturally cooled. This result shows that the multispectral simultaneous image measurement mode provides a wider temperature range for one imaging measurement of high spatial temperature gradients in transient applications.

  19. VIS-NIR multispectral synchronous imaging pyrometer for high-temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Tian, Jibin

    2017-06-01

    A visible-infrared multispectral synchronous imaging pyrometer was developed for simultaneous, multispectral, two-dimensional high temperature measurements. The multispectral image pyrometer uses prism separation construction in the spectrum range of 650-950 nm and multi-sensor fusion of three CCD sensors for high-temperature measurements. The pyrometer had 650-750 nm, 750-850 nm, and 850-950 nm channels all with the same optical path. The wavelength choice for each channel is flexible with three center wavelengths (700 nm, 810 nm, and 920 nm) with a full width at half maximum of the spectrum of 3 nm used here. The three image sensors were precisely aligned to avoid spectrum artifacts by micro-mechanical adjustments of the sensors relative to each other to position them within a quarter pixel of each other. The pyrometer was calibrated with the standard blackbody source, and the temperature measurement uncertainty was within 0.21 °C-0.99 °C in the temperatures of 600 °C-1800 °C for the blackbody measurements. The pyrometer was then used to measure the leading edge temperatures of a ceramics model exposed to high-enthalpy plasma aerodynamic heating environment to verify the system applicability. The measured temperature ranges are 701-991 °C, 701-1134 °C, and 701-834 °C at the heating transient, steady state, and cooling transient times. A significant temperature gradient (170 °C/mm) was observed away from the leading edge facing the plasma jet during the steady state heating time. The temperature non-uniformity on the surface occurs during the entire aerodynamic heating process. However, the temperature distribution becomes more uniform after the heater is shut down and the experimental model is naturally cooled. This result shows that the multispectral simultaneous image measurement mode provides a wider temperature range for one imaging measurement of high spatial temperature gradients in transient applications.

  20. A polarized multispectral imaging system for quantitative assessment of hypertrophic scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C

    2014-10-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are a pathologic reaction of the skin and soft tissue to burn or other traumatic injury. Scar tissue can cause patients serious functional and cosmetic issues. Scar management strategies, specifically scar assessment techniques, are vital to improve clinical outcome. To date, no entirely objective method for scar assessment has been embraced by the medical community. In this study, we introduce for the first time, a novel polarized multispectral imaging system combining out-of-plane Stokes polarimetry and Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI). This imaging system enables us to assess the pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, water, and melanin) and structural features (cellularity and roughness) of HTS. To apply the proposed technique in an in vivo experiment, dermal wounds were created in a porcine model and allowed to form into scars. The developed scars were then measured at various time points using the imaging system. Results showed a good agreement with clinical Vancouver Scar Scale assessment and histological examinations.

  1. Self-training-based spectral image reconstruction for art paintings with multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Haisong; Diao, Changyu; Ye, Zhengnan

    2017-10-20

    A self-training-based spectral reflectance recovery method was developed to accurately reconstruct the spectral images of art paintings with multispectral imaging. By partitioning the multispectral images with the k-means clustering algorithm, the training samples are directly extracted from the art painting itself to restrain the deterioration of spectral estimation caused by the material inconsistency between the training samples and the art painting. Coordinate paper is used to locate the extracted training samples. The spectral reflectances of the extracted training samples are acquired indirectly with a spectroradiometer, and the circle Hough transform is adopted to detect the circle measuring area of the spectroradiometer. Through simulation and a practical experiment, the implementation of the proposed method is explained in detail, and it is verified to have better reflectance recovery performance than that using the commercial target and is comparable to the approach using a painted color target.

  2. Utility of multispectral imaging for nuclear classification of routine clinical histopathology imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Neal R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present an analysis of the utility of multispectral versus standard RGB imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology images, in particular for pixel-level classification of nuclei. Our multispectral imagery has 29 spectral bands, spaced 10 nm within the visual range of 420–700 nm. It has been hypothesized that the additional spectral bands contain further information useful for classification as compared to the 3 standard bands of RGB imagery. We present analyses of our data designed to test this hypothesis. Results For classification using all available image bands, we find the best performance (equal tradeoff between detection rate and false alarm rate is obtained from either the multispectral or our "ccd" RGB imagery, with an overall increase in performance of 0.79% compared to the next best performing image type. For classification using single image bands, the single best multispectral band (in the red portion of the spectrum gave a performance increase of 0.57%, compared to performance of the single best RGB band (red. Additionally, red bands had the highest coefficients/preference in our classifiers. Principal components analysis of the multispectral imagery indicates only two significant image bands, which is not surprising given the presence of two stains. Conclusion Our results indicate that multispectral imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology provides minimal additional spectral information for a pixel-level nuclear classification task than would standard RGB imagery.

  3. Multispectral Imager With Improved Filter Wheel and Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Figure 1 schematically depicts an improved multispectral imaging system of the type that utilizes a filter wheel that contains multiple discrete narrow-band-pass filters and that is rotated at a constant high speed to acquire images in rapid succession in the corresponding spectral bands. The improvement, relative to prior systems of this type, consists of the measures taken to prevent the exposure of a focal-plane array (FPA) of photodetectors to light in more than one spectral band at any given time and to prevent exposure of the array to any light during readout. In prior systems, these measures have included, variously the use of mechanical shutters or the incorporation of wide opaque sectors (equivalent to mechanical shutters) into filter wheels. These measures introduce substantial dead times into each operating cycle intervals during which image information cannot be collected and thus incoming light is wasted. In contrast, the present improved design does not involve shutters or wide opaque sectors, and it reduces dead times substantially. The improved multispectral imaging system is preceded by an afocal telescope and includes a filter wheel positioned so that its rotation brings each filter, in its turn, into the exit pupil of the telescope. The filter wheel contains an even number of narrow-band-pass filters separated by narrow, spoke-like opaque sectors. The geometric width of each filter exceeds the cross-sectional width of the light beam coming out of the telescope. The light transmitted by the sequence of narrow-band filters is incident on a dichroic beam splitter that reflects in a broad shorter-wavelength spectral band that contains half of the narrow bands and transmits in a broad longer-wavelength spectral band that contains the other half of the narrow spectral bands. The filters are arranged on the wheel so that if the pass band of a given filter is in the reflection band of the dichroic beam splitter, then the pass band of the adjacent filter

  4. Objective identification of dental abnormalities with multispectral fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya Pratap; Fält, Pauli; Barman, Ishan; Koistinen, Arto; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Kullaa, Arja M

    2017-10-01

    Sensitive methods that can enable early detection of dental diseases (caries and calculus) are desirable in clinical practice. Optical spectroscopic approaches have emerged as promising alternatives owing to their wealth of molecular information and lack of sample preparation requirements. In the present study, using multispectral fluorescence imaging, we have demonstrated that dental caries and calculus can be objectively identified on extracted tooth. Spectral differences among control, carious and calculus conditions were attributed to the porphyrin pigment content, which is a byproduct of bacterial metabolism. Spectral maps generated using different porphyrin bands offer important clues to the spread of bacterial infection. Statistically significant differences utilizing fluorescence intensity ratios were observed among three groups. In contrast to laser induced fluorescence, these methods can provide information about exact spread of the infection and may aid in long term dental monitoring. Successful adoption of this approach for routine clinical usage can assist dentists in implementing timely remedial measures. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. MR Thermometry Near Metallic Devices Using Multi-Spectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hans; Taviani, Valentina; Yoon, Daehyun; Ghanouni, Pejman; Pauly, Kim Butts; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The lack of a technique for MR thermometry near metal excludes a growing patient population from promising treatments such as MR-guided focused ultrasound therapy. Here, we explore the feasibility of multi-spectral imaging (MSI) for non-invasive temperature measurement in the presence of strong field inhomogeneities by exploiting the temperature dependency of the T1 relaxation time. Methods A 2D inversion-recovery-prepared MSI pulse sequence (2DMSI) was implemented for artifact-reduced T1 mapping near metal. A series of T1 maps was acquired in a metallic implant phantom while increasing the phantom temperature. The measured change in T1 was analyzed with respect to the phantom temperature. For comparison, proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermometry was performed. Results 2DMSI achieved artifact-reduced, single-slice T1 mapping in the presence of strong off-resonance with a spatial resolution of 1.9 mm in-plane and a temporal resolution of 5 min. The maps enabled temperature measurements over a range of 30 °C with an uncertainty below 1.4 °C. The quality of the resulting temperature maps was independent of the distance from the metal, whereas the PRFS-based temperature measurements were increasingly impaired with increasing off-resonance. Conclusion We demonstrated the ability to noninvasively measure temperature near metal using MSI and the T1 temperature sensitivity. PMID:26991803

  6. Multispectral recordings and analysis of psoriasis lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising for furt......An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising...

  7. Multispectral analysis tools can increase utility of RGB color images in histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Griffin, Croix; Todd, Austin; Levenson, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) is increasingly finding application in the study and characterization of biological specimens. However, the methods typically used come with challenges on both the acquisition and the analysis front. MSI can be slow and photon-inefficient, leading to long imaging times and possible phototoxicity and photobleaching. The resulting datasets can be large and complex, prompting the development of a number of mathematical approaches for segmentation and signal unmixing. We show that under certain circumstances, just three spectral channels provided by standard color cameras, coupled with multispectral analysis tools, including a more recent spectral phasor approach, can efficiently provide useful insights. These findings are supported with a mathematical model relating spectral bandwidth and spectral channel number to achievable spectral accuracy. The utility of 3-band RGB and MSI analysis tools are demonstrated on images acquired using brightfield and fluorescence techniques, as well as a novel microscopy approach employing UV-surface excitation. Supervised linear unmixing, automated non-negative matrix factorization and phasor analysis tools all provide useful results, with phasors generating particularly helpful spectral display plots for sample exploration.

  8. Feasibility in multispectral imaging for predicting the content of bioactive compounds in intact tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-04-15

    Tomato is an important health-stimulating fruit because of the antioxidant properties of its main bioactive compounds, dominantly lycopene and phenolic compounds. Nowadays, product differentiation in the fruit market requires an accurate evaluation of these value-added compounds. An experiment was conducted to simultaneously and non-destructively measure lycopene and phenolic compounds content in intact tomatoes using multispectral imaging combined with chemometric methods. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN model considerably improved the performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.938 and 0.965, residual predictive deviation (RPD)=4.590 and 9.335 for lycopene and total phenolics content prediction, respectively. It is concluded that multispectral imaging is an attractive alternative to the standard methods for determination of bioactive compounds content in intact tomatoes, providing a useful platform for infield fruit sorting/grading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Software defined multi-spectral imaging for Arctic sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Sam; Angoth, Vivek; Krishnamurthy, Ramnarayan; Mani, Karthikeyan; Mock, Kenrick; Singh, Surjith B.; Srivistava, Saurav; Wagner, Chris; Claus, Ryan; Vis, Matthew Demi

    2016-05-01

    Availability of off-the-shelf infrared sensors combined with high definition visible cameras has made possible the construction of a Software Defined Multi-Spectral Imager (SDMSI) combining long-wave, near-infrared and visible imaging. The SDMSI requires a real-time embedded processor to fuse images and to create real-time depth maps for opportunistic uplink in sensor networks. Researchers at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University working with University of Alaska Anchorage at the Arctic Domain Awareness Center and the University of Colorado Boulder have built several versions of a low-cost drop-in-place SDMSI to test alternatives for power efficient image fusion. The SDMSI is intended for use in field applications including marine security, search and rescue operations and environmental surveys in the Arctic region. Based on Arctic marine sensor network mission goals, the team has designed the SDMSI to include features to rank images based on saliency and to provide on camera fusion and depth mapping. A major challenge has been the design of the camera computing system to operate within a 10 to 20 Watt power budget. This paper presents a power analysis of three options: 1) multi-core, 2) field programmable gate array with multi-core, and 3) graphics processing units with multi-core. For each test, power consumed for common fusion workloads has been measured at a range of frame rates and resolutions. Detailed analyses from our power efficiency comparison for workloads specific to stereo depth mapping and sensor fusion are summarized. Preliminary mission feasibility results from testing with off-the-shelf long-wave infrared and visible cameras in Alaska and Arizona are also summarized to demonstrate the value of the SDMSI for applications such as ice tracking, ocean color, soil moisture, animal and marine vessel detection and tracking. The goal is to select the most power efficient solution for the SDMSI for use on UAVs (Unoccupied Aerial Vehicles) and other drop

  10. Implementation of a multiplexed structured illumination method to achieve snapshot multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozynska, Karolina; Kristensson, Elias

    2017-07-24

    An instantaneous multispectral imaging setup based on frequency recognition algorithm for multiple exposures (FRAME) is presented and demonstrated experimentally. With this implementation of FRAME, each light source is uniquely encoded with a spatial modulation and the corresponding fluorescent responses pertaining to each maintain the same unique encoding. This allows the extraction of each source response from a single captured image by filtering in the Fourier domain. As a result, a multispectral imaging system based on FRAME can perform all the illumination and corresponding fluorescence detection simultaneously, where the latter is recorded in a single exposure and on a single detector and is thus capable of recording true 'snapshot' multispectral images. The results presented here demonstrate that the technique is capable of distinguishing source responses for well separated and co-localized fluorophores as well as providing z-sectioning capabilities. This implementation of FRAME demonstrates its viability as a tool for multispectral imaging of dynamic samples. Additionally, since all the spectral images are captured simultaneously, the method has potential for studying samples prone to photobleaching. Finally, this application of FRAME makes it possible to discriminate between signals due to infinitely spectrally close sources which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has not been possible in snapshot multispectral imaging schemes before.

  11. From multispectral imaging of autofluorescence to chemical and sensory images of lipid oxidation in cod caviar paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Høy, Martin; Skaret, Josefine; Wold, Jens Petter

    2014-05-01

    The potential of multispectral imaging of autofluorescence to map sensory flavour properties and fluorophore concentrations in cod caviar paste has been investigated. Cod caviar paste was used as a case product and it was stored over time, under different headspace gas composition and light exposure conditions, to obtain a relevant span in lipid oxidation and sensory properties. Samples were divided in two sets, calibration and test sets, with 16 and 7 samples, respectively. A third set of samples was prepared with induced gradients in lipid oxidation and sensory properties by light exposure of certain parts of the sample surface. Front-face fluorescence emission images were obtained for excitation wavelength 382 nm at 11 different channels ranging from 400 to 700 nm. The analysis of the obtained sets of images was divided in two parts: First, in an effort to compress and extract relevant information, multivariate curve resolution was applied on the calibration set and three spectral components and their relative concentrations in each sample were obtained. The obtained profiles were employed to estimate the concentrations of each component in the images of the heterogeneous samples, giving chemical images of the distribution of fluorescent oxidation products, protoporphyrin IX and photoprotoporphyrin. Second, regression models for sensory attributes related to lipid oxidation were constructed based on the spectra of homogeneous samples from the calibration set. These models were successfully validated with the test set. The models were then applied for pixel-wise estimation of sensory flavours in the heterogeneous images, giving rise to sensory images. As far as we know this is the first time that sensory images of odour and flavour are obtained based on multispectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multispectral image alignment using a three channel endoscope in vivo during minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Stoyanov, Danail; James, David R. C.; Di Marco, Aimee; Sauvage, Vincent; Clark, James; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Elson, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Sequential multispectral imaging is an acquisition technique that involves collecting images of a target at different wavelengths, to compile a spectrum for each pixel. In surgical applications it suffers from low illumination levels and motion artefacts. A three-channel rigid endoscope system has been developed that allows simultaneous recording of stereoscopic and multispectral images. Salient features on the tissue surface may be tracked during the acquisition in the stereo cameras and, using multiple camera triangulation techniques, this information used to align the multispectral images automatically even though the tissue or camera is moving. This paper describes a detailed validation of the set-up in a controlled experiment before presenting the first in vivo use of the device in a porcine minimally invasive surgical procedure. Multispectral images of the large bowel were acquired and used to extract the relative concentration of haemoglobin in the tissue despite motion due to breathing during the acquisition. Using the stereoscopic information it was also possible to overlay the multispectral information on the reconstructed 3D surface. This experiment demonstrates the ability of this system for measuring blood perfusion changes in the tissue during surgery and its potential use as a platform for other sequential imaging modalities. PMID:23082296

  13. Detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes by noninvasive multispectral photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Gerrit Cornelis; Grootendorst, Diederik Johannes; Nieweg, Omgo Edo; Wouters, Michel Wilhelmus Jacobus Maria; van der Hage, Jos Alexander; Jose, Jithin; van Boven, Hester; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theodoor Jacques Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR(©) multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes.

  14. Detection of Melanoma Metastases in Resected Human Lymph Nodes by Noninvasive Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Cornelis Langhout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR© multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes.

  15. Compression of multispectral fluorescence microscopic images based on a modified set partitioning in hierarchal trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Robinson, J. Paul; Rajwa, Bartek

    2009-02-01

    Modern automated microscopic imaging techniques such as high-content screening (HCS), high-throughput screening, 4D imaging, and multispectral imaging are capable of producing hundreds to thousands of images per experiment. For quick retrieval, fast transmission, and storage economy, these images should be saved in a compressed format. A considerable number of techniques based on interband and intraband redundancies of multispectral images have been proposed in the literature for the compression of multispectral and 3D temporal data. However, these works have been carried out mostly in the elds of remote sensing and video processing. Compression for multispectral optical microscopy imaging, with its own set of specialized requirements, has remained under-investigated. Digital photography{oriented 2D compression techniques like JPEG (ISO/IEC IS 10918-1) and JPEG2000 (ISO/IEC 15444-1) are generally adopted for multispectral images which optimize visual quality but do not necessarily preserve the integrity of scientic data, not to mention the suboptimal performance of 2D compression techniques in compressing 3D images. Herein we report our work on a new low bit-rate wavelet-based compression scheme for multispectral fluorescence biological imaging. The sparsity of signicant coefficients in high-frequency subbands of multispectral microscopic images is found to be much greater than in natural images; therefore a quad-tree concept such as Said et al.'s SPIHT1 along with correlation of insignicant wavelet coefficients has been proposed to further exploit redundancy at high-frequency subbands. Our work propose a 3D extension to SPIHT, incorporating a new hierarchal inter- and intra-spectral relationship amongst the coefficients of 3D wavelet-decomposed image. The new relationship, apart from adopting the parent-child relationship of classical SPIHT, also brought forth the conditional "sibling" relationship by relating only the insignicant wavelet coefficients of subbands

  16. Skin Parameter Map Retrieval from a Dedicated Multispectral Imaging System Applied to Dermatology/Cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In vivo quantitative assessment of skin lesions is an important step in the evaluation of skin condition. An objective measurement device can help as a valuable tool for skin analysis. We propose an explorative new multispectral camera specifically developed for dermatology/cosmetology applications. The multispectral imaging system provides images of skin reflectance at different wavebands covering visible and near-infrared domain. It is coupled with a neural network-based algorithm for the reconstruction of reflectance cube of cutaneous data. This cube contains only skin optical reflectance spectrum in each pixel of the bidimensional spatial information. The reflectance cube is analyzed by an algorithm based on a Kubelka-Munk model combined with evolutionary algorithm. The technique allows quantitative measure of cutaneous tissue and retrieves five skin parameter maps: melanin concentration, epidermis/dermis thickness, haemoglobin concentration, and the oxygenated hemoglobin. The results retrieved on healthy participants by the algorithm are in good accordance with the data from the literature. The usefulness of the developed technique was proved during two experiments: a clinical study based on vitiligo and melasma skin lesions and a skin oxygenation experiment (induced ischemia) with healthy participant where normal tissues are recorded at normal state and when temporary ischemia is induced. PMID:24159326

  17. Skin parameter map retrieval from a dedicated multispectral imaging system applied to dermatology/cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivot, Romuald; Benezeth, Yannick; Marzani, Franck

    2013-01-01

    In vivo quantitative assessment of skin lesions is an important step in the evaluation of skin condition. An objective measurement device can help as a valuable tool for skin analysis. We propose an explorative new multispectral camera specifically developed for dermatology/cosmetology applications. The multispectral imaging system provides images of skin reflectance at different wavebands covering visible and near-infrared domain. It is coupled with a neural network-based algorithm for the reconstruction of reflectance cube of cutaneous data. This cube contains only skin optical reflectance spectrum in each pixel of the bidimensional spatial information. The reflectance cube is analyzed by an algorithm based on a Kubelka-Munk model combined with evolutionary algorithm. The technique allows quantitative measure of cutaneous tissue and retrieves five skin parameter maps: melanin concentration, epidermis/dermis thickness, haemoglobin concentration, and the oxygenated hemoglobin. The results retrieved on healthy participants by the algorithm are in good accordance with the data from the literature. The usefulness of the developed technique was proved during two experiments: a clinical study based on vitiligo and melasma skin lesions and a skin oxygenation experiment (induced ischemia) with healthy participant where normal tissues are recorded at normal state and when temporary ischemia is induced.

  18. MR thermometry near metallic devices using multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hans; Taviani, Valentina; Yoon, Daehyun; Ghanouni, Pejman; Pauly, Kim Butts; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2017-03-01

    The lack of a technique for MR thermometry near metal excludes a growing patient population from promising treatments such as MR-guided focused ultrasound therapy. Here we explore the feasibility of multispectral imaging (MSI) for noninvasive temperature measurement in the presence of strong field inhomogeneities by exploiting the temperature dependency of the T 1 relaxation time. A two-dimensional inversion-recovery-prepared MSI pulse sequence (2DMSI) was implemented for artifact-reduced T 1 mapping near metal. A series of T 1 maps was acquired in a metallic implant phantom while increasing the phantom temperature. The measured change in T 1 was analyzed with respect to the phantom temperature. For comparison, proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermometry was performed. 2DMSI achieved artifact-reduced, single-slice T 1 mapping in the presence of strong off-resonance with a spatial resolution of 1.9 mm in-plane and a temporal resolution of 5 min. The maps enabled temperature measurements over a range of 30°C with an uncertainty below 1.4°C. The quality of the resulting temperature maps was independent of the distance from the metal, whereas the PRFS-based temperature measurements were increasingly impaired with increasing off-resonance. We demonstrated the ability to noninvasively measure temperature near metal using MSI and the T 1 temperature sensitivity. Magn Reson Med 77:1162-1169, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Ultra-fast multispectral optical imaging of cortical oxygenation, blood flow, and intracellular calcium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Matthew B.; Chen, Brenda R.; Burgess, Sean A.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Camera-based optical imaging of the exposed brain allows cortical hemodynamic responses to stimulation to be examined. Typical multispectral imaging systems utilize a camera and illumination at several wavelengths, allowing discrimination between changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration. However, most multispectral imaging systems utilize white light sources and mechanical filter wheels to multiplex illumination wavelengths, which are slow and difficult to synchronize at high frame rates. We present a new LED-based system capable of high-resolution multispectral imaging at frame rates exceeding 220 Hz. This improved performance enables simultaneous visualization of hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics within single vessels, changes in vessel diameters, blood flow dynamics from the motion of erythrocytes, and dynamically changing fluorescence. PMID:19724566

  20. Rapid Assessment of Tablet Film Coating Quality by Multispectral UV Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X; Rantanen, Jukka; Rehder, Soenke; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-08-01

    Chemical imaging techniques are beneficial for control of tablet coating layer quality as they provide spectral and spatial information and allow characterization of various types of coating defects. The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of multispectral UV imaging for assessment of the coating layer quality of tablets. UV images were used to detect, characterize, and localize coating layer defects such as chipped parts, inhomogeneities, and cracks, as well as to evaluate the coating surface texture. Acetylsalicylic acid tablets were prepared on a rotary tablet press and coated with a polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer using a pan coater. It was demonstrated that the coating intactness can be assessed accurately and fast by UV imaging. The different types of coating defects could be differentiated and localized based on multivariate image analysis and Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy applied to the UV images. Tablets with inhomogeneous texture of the coating could be identified and distinguished from those with a homogeneous surface texture. Consequently, UV imaging was shown to be well-suited for monitoring of the tablet coating layer quality. UV imaging is a promising technique for fast quality control of the tablet coating because of the high data acquisition speed and its nondestructive analytical nature.

  1. Multispectral filters assemblies for earth remote sensing imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, R.; Krol, H.; Grèzes-Besset, C.; Lequime, M.; Bégou, T.; Hecquet, C.; Zerrad, M.; Badoil, B.; Montay, G.; Gasc, K.

    2017-11-01

    With the aim to expand its capability to offer state-of-the-art space qualified multispectral optical filters assemblies, Sodern continues its effort to evaluate and incorporate new technologies in its designs. For many years, Sodern has been developing complex optical devices incorporating spectral filters.

  2. Implementation of a neural network for multispectral luminescence imaging of lake pigment paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chane, Camille Simon; Thoury, Mathieu; Tournié, Aurélie; Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Luminescence multispectral imaging is a developing and promising technique in the fields of conservation science and cultural heritage studies. In this article, we present a new methodology for recording the spatially resolved luminescence properties of objects. This methodology relies on the development of a lab-made multispectral camera setup optimized to collect low-yield luminescence images. In addition to a classic data preprocessing procedure to reduce noise on the data, we present an innovative method, based on a neural network algorithm, that allows us to obtain radiometrically calibrated luminescence spectra with increased spectral resolution from the low-spectral resolution acquisitions. After preliminary corrections, a neural network is trained using the 15-band multispectral luminescence acquisitions and corresponding spot spectroscopy luminescence data. This neural network is then used to retrieve a megapixel multispectral cube between 460 and 710 nm with a 5 nm resolution from a low-spectral-resolution multispectral acquisition. The resulting data are independent from the detection chain of the imaging system (filter transmittance, spectral sensitivity of the lens and optics, etc.). As a result, the image cube provides radiometrically calibrated emission spectra with increased spectral resolution. For each pixel, we can thus retrieve a spectrum comparable to those obtained with conventional luminescence spectroscopy. We apply this method to a panel of lake pigment paints and discuss the pertinence and perspectives of this new approach.

  3. Identification Of Barley Grain Mycoflora By Next Generation Sequencing And Videometer Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Søren, Knudsen

    , Pyrenophora, Epicoccum, Didymella, Alternaria, Bipolaris and Microdochium. The fungal composition and quantities on each seed varied significantly. Some were infected mainly by a single fungus and some were infected by multiple fungi. All seeds were prior to this evaluated by multispectral imaging...... on the dorsal and ventral sides by the VideometerLab multispectral imaging system (Videometer A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark). This system is an instrument equipped with 19 different light emitting diodes at wavelengths ranging from 375 to 970nm (ultraviolet, visual and lower wavelength of the near-infrared region...... for fungal contamination of barley on the fungal species level was investigated by comparing results from the next generation sequencing and multispectral imaging....

  4. Detection and classification of latent defects and diseases on raw French fries with multispectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, J.C.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an application of both multispectral imaging and red/green/blue (RGB) colour imaging for the discrimination between different defect and diseases on raw French fries. Four different potato cultivars generally used for French fries production are selected from which fries are

  5. Exploration of Data Fusion between Polarimetric Radar and Multispectral Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    specific problem areas exist in this image. The water classification shows errors of commission on four football fields throughout the image. The urban...discriminate forest cover types in brazil . Multispectral and Microwave Sensing of Forestry Hydrology, and Natural Resources, Mougin, Ranson, and Smith

  6. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction from Single Image Base on Combination of CNN and Multi-Spectral Photometric Stereo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spectral photometric stereo can recover pixel-wise surface normal from a single RGB image. The difficulty lies in that the intensity in each channel is the tangle of illumination, albedo and camera response; thus, an initial estimate of the normal is required in optimization-based solutions. In this paper, we propose to make a rough depth estimation using the deep convolutional neural network (CNN instead of using depth sensors or binocular stereo devices. Since high-resolution ground-truth data is expensive to obtain, we designed a network and trained it with rendered images of synthetic 3D objects. We use the model to predict initial normal of real-world objects and iteratively optimize the fine-scale geometry in the multi-spectral photometric stereo framework. The experimental results illustrate the improvement of the proposed method compared with existing methods.

  7. Fabrication of a high-integration multi-spectral imaging lens and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Di, Si; Chen, Xianshuai

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a high-integration multi-spectral imaging lens was developed by micro-fabrication technology. By using multiple photo-etching and thermal reflow process, a microlens array and a multi-channels filter were integrated together without position mismatch. Besides, light block layer and isolation layer were brought in the structure to improve the imaging quality. Its fabrication process is described in detail and the optical property was tested by imaging experiments. The multi-spectral imaging lens has 9 optical channels, each channel capable of filtering and imaging independently. The imaging results indicate that the lens can capture pictures of visible bands and near-infrared band at the same time. Because of its high level of integration and image parallel capture capability, the novel lens is suitable to be applied in extracting conceal information and biomedical imaging.

  8. Non-destructive detection of dicyandiamide in infant formula powder using multi-spectral imaging coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Dicyandiamide (DCD) contamination of milk and milk products has become an urgent and broadly recognised topic as a result of several food safety scares. This study investigated the potential of using multi-spectral imaging (405-970 nm) coupled with chemometrics for detection of DCD in infant formula powder. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN considerably improved the prediction performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP2) = 0.935 and 0.873, residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 3.777 and 3.060 for brand 1 and brand 2 of infant formula powders, respectively. Besides, multi-spectral imaging was able to differentiate unadulterated infant formula powder from samples containing 0.01% DCD with no misclassification using BPNN model. The study demonstrated that multi-spectral imaging combined with chemometrics enables rapid and non-destructive detection of DCD in infant formula powder. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Pseudo colour visualization of fused multispectral laser scattering images for optical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on the application of optical procedures for the diagnosis of rheumatism using scattered light images are only at the beginning both in terms of new image-processing methods and subsequent clinical application. For semi-automatic diagnosis using laser light, the multispectral scattered light images are registered and overlapped to pseudo-coloured images, which depict diagnostically essential contents by visually highlighting pathological changes.

  10. Efficient single-pixel multispectral imaging via non-mechanical spatio-spectral modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Suo, Jinli; Hu, Xuemei; Deng, Chao; Fan, Jingtao; Dai, Qionghai

    2017-01-27

    Combining spectral imaging with compressive sensing (CS) enables efficient data acquisition by fully utilizing the intrinsic redundancies in natural images. Current compressive multispectral imagers, which are mostly based on array sensors (e.g, CCD or CMOS), suffer from limited spectral range and relatively low photon efficiency. To address these issues, this paper reports a multispectral imaging scheme with a single-pixel detector. Inspired by the spatial resolution redundancy of current spatial light modulators (SLMs) relative to the target reconstruction, we design an all-optical spectral splitting device to spatially split the light emitted from the object into several counterparts with different spectrums. Separated spectral channels are spatially modulated simultaneously with individual codes by an SLM. This no-moving-part modulation ensures a stable and fast system, and the spatial multiplexing ensures an efficient acquisition. A proof-of-concept setup is built and validated for 8-channel multispectral imaging within 420~720 nm wavelength range on both macro and micro objects, showing a potential for efficient multispectral imager in macroscopic and biomedical applications.

  11. Multispectral imaging reveals biblical-period inscription unnoticed for half a century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum-Golovin, Shira; Mendel-Geberovich, Anat; Shaus, Arie; Sober, Barak; Cordonsky, Michael; Levin, David; Moinester, Murray; Sass, Benjamin; Turkel, Eli; Piasetzky, Eli; Finkelstein, Israel

    2017-01-01

    Most surviving biblical period Hebrew inscriptions are ostraca-ink-on-clay texts. They are poorly preserved and once unearthed, fade rapidly. Therefore, proper and timely documentation of ostraca is essential. Here we show a striking example of a hitherto invisible text on the back side of an ostracon revealed via multispectral imaging. This ostracon, found at the desert fortress of Arad and dated to ca. 600 BCE (the eve of Judah's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar), has been on display for half a century. Its front side has been thoroughly studied, while its back side was considered blank. Our research revealed three lines of text on the supposedly blank side and four "new" lines on the front side. Our results demonstrate the need for multispectral image acquisition for both sides of all ancient ink ostraca. Moreover, in certain cases we recommend employing multispectral techniques for screening newly unearthed ceramic potsherds prior to disposal.

  12. Multispectral imaging reveals biblical-period inscription unnoticed for half a century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Faigenbaum-Golovin

    Full Text Available Most surviving biblical period Hebrew inscriptions are ostraca-ink-on-clay texts. They are poorly preserved and once unearthed, fade rapidly. Therefore, proper and timely documentation of ostraca is essential. Here we show a striking example of a hitherto invisible text on the back side of an ostracon revealed via multispectral imaging. This ostracon, found at the desert fortress of Arad and dated to ca. 600 BCE (the eve of Judah's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar, has been on display for half a century. Its front side has been thoroughly studied, while its back side was considered blank. Our research revealed three lines of text on the supposedly blank side and four "new" lines on the front side. Our results demonstrate the need for multispectral image acquisition for both sides of all ancient ink ostraca. Moreover, in certain cases we recommend employing multispectral techniques for screening newly unearthed ceramic potsherds prior to disposal.

  13. Sensor Correction and Radiometric Calibration of a 6-BAND Multispectral Imaging Sensor for Uav Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, J.; Lucieer, A.

    2012-07-01

    The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-band multispectral imaging sensor was corrected and calibrated using practical image-based data post-processing techniques. Data correction techniques included dark offset subtraction to reduce sensor noise, flat-field derived per-pixel look-up-tables to correct vignetting, and implementation of the Brown- Conrady model to correct lens distortion. Radiometric calibration was conducted with an image-based empirical line model using pseudo-invariant features (PIFs). Sensor corrections and radiometric calibration improve the quality of the data, aiding quantitative analysis and generating consistency with other calibrated datasets.

  14. SENSOR CORRECTION AND RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF A 6-BAND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING SENSOR FOR UAV REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelcey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-band multispectral imaging sensor was corrected and calibrated using practical image-based data post-processing techniques. Data correction techniques included dark offset subtraction to reduce sensor noise, flat-field derived per-pixel look-up-tables to correct vignetting, and implementation of the Brown- Conrady model to correct lens distortion. Radiometric calibration was conducted with an image-based empirical line model using pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. Sensor corrections and radiometric calibration improve the quality of the data, aiding quantitative analysis and generating consistency with other calibrated datasets.

  15. Mitigating the effect of optical back-scatter in multispectral underwater imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Halleh; Oakley, John P; Barkat, Braham

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a very useful technique for extracting information from the underwater world. However, optical back-scatter changes the intensity value in each spectral band and this distorts the estimated spectrum. In this work, a filter is used to detect the level of optical back-scatter in each spectral band from a set of multispectral images. Extraction of underwater object spectra can be done by subtracting the estimated level of optical back-scatter and scaling the remainder in each spectral band from the captured image in the corresponding band. An experiment has been designed to show the performance of the proposed filter for correcting the set of multispectral underwater images and recovering the pixel spectra. The multispectral images are captured by a B/W CCD digital camera with a fast tunable liquid-crystal filter in 33 narrow spectral bands in clear and different levels of turbid water. Reference estimates for the optical back-scatter spectra are found by comparing a clear and a degraded set of multispectral images. The accuracy and consistency of the proposed method, the extended Oakley–Bu cost function, is examined by comparing the estimated values with the reference level of an optical back-scatter spectrum. The same comparison is made for the simple estimation approach. The results show that the simple method is not reliable and fail to estimate the level of optical back-scatter spectrum accurately. The results from processing experimental images in turbid water show that the effect of optical back-scatter can be mitigated in the image of each spectral band and, as a result, the spectra of the object can be recovered. However, for a very high level of turbid water the recovery is limited because of the effect of extinction. (paper)

  16. Multispectral UV imaging for surface analysis of MUPS tablets with special focus on the pellet distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Prof Dr Claudia S

    2016-12-30

    In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well as pellet distribution, and influence of the coating material and tablet thickness on the predictive model. Different formulations consisting of coated drug pellets with two coating polymers (Aquacoat ® ECD and Eudragit ® NE 30 D) at three coating levels each were compressed to MUPS tablets with various amounts of coated pellets and different tablet thicknesses. The coated drug pellets were clearly distinguishable from the excipients matrix using a partial least squares approach regardless of the coating layer thickness and coating material used. Furthermore, the number of the detected drug pellets on the tablet surface allowed an estimation of the true drug content in the respective MUPS tablet. In addition, the pellet distribution in the MUPS formulations could be estimated by UV image analysis of the tablet surface. In conclusion, this study revealed that UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis is a promising approach for the automatic quality control of MUPS tablets during the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Ex-vivo Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Vikram S; Chinni, Bhargava K; Valluru, Keerthi S; Joseph, Jean V; Ghazi, Ahmed; Yao, Jorge L; Evans, Katie; Messing, Edward M; Rao, Navalgund A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to validate if ex-vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal human prostate tissue. Institutional Review Board's approval was obtained for this study. A total of 30 patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer were included in this study with informed consent. Multispectral PA imaging was performed on surgically excised prostate tissue and chromophore images that represent optical absorption of deoxyhemoglobin (dHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), lipid, and water were reconstructed. After the imaging procedure is completed, malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate regions were marked by the genitourinary pathologist on histopathology slides and digital images of marked histopathology slides were obtained. The histopathology images were co-registered with chromophore images. Region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate were defined on the chromophore images. Pixel values within each ROI were then averaged to determine mean intensities of dHb, HbO2, lipid, and water. Our preliminary results show that there is statistically significant difference in mean intensity of dHb (P imaging system were found to be 81.3%, 96.2%, 92.9% and 89.3% respectively. Our preliminary results of ex-vivo human prostate study suggest that multispectral PA imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate tissue.

  18. A Multispectral Photon-Counting Double Random Phase Encoding Scheme for Image Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faliu Yi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method for color image-based authentication that combines multispectral photon-counting imaging (MPCI and double random phase encoding (DRPE schemes. The sparsely distributed information from MPCI and the stationary white noise signal from DRPE make intruder attacks difficult. In this authentication method, the original multispectral RGB color image is down-sampled into a Bayer image. The three types of color samples (red, green and blue color in the Bayer image are encrypted with DRPE and the amplitude part of the resulting image is photon counted. The corresponding phase information that has nonzero amplitude after photon counting is then kept for decryption. Experimental results show that the retrieved images from the proposed method do not visually resemble their original counterparts. Nevertheless, the original color image can be efficiently verified with statistical nonlinear correlations. Our experimental results also show that different interpolation algorithms applied to Bayer images result in different verification effects for multispectral RGB color images.

  19. Predicting Electron Population Characteristics in 2-D Using Multispectral Ground-Based Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Guy; Michell, Robert; Samara, Marilia; Hampton, Donald; Jahn, Jorg-Micha

    2018-01-01

    Ground-based imaging and in situ sounding rocket data are compared to electron transport modeling for an active inverted-V type auroral event. The Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) mission successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, on 3 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT and reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the aurora. Multiple ground-based electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) imagers were positioned at Venetie, Alaska, and aimed toward magnetic zenith. The imagers observed the intensity of different auroral emission lines (427.8, 557.7, and 844.6 nm) at the magnetic foot point of the rocket payload. Emission line intensity data are correlated with electron characteristics measured by the GREECE onboard electron spectrometer. A modified version of the GLobal airglOW (GLOW) model is used to estimate precipitating electron characteristics based on optical emissions. GLOW predicted the electron population characteristics with 20% error given the observed spectral intensities within 10° of magnetic zenith. Predictions are within 30% of the actual values within 20° of magnetic zenith for inverted-V-type aurora. Therefore, it is argued that this technique can be used, at least in certain types of aurora, such as the inverted-V type presented here, to derive 2-D maps of electron characteristics. These can then be used to further derive 2-D maps of ionospheric parameters as a function of time, based solely on multispectral optical imaging data.

  20. The method of multispectral image processing of phytoplankton processing for environmental control of water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Yasynska, Victoria; Kozachuk, Anastasia; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Askarova, Nursanat

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents improvement of the method of environmental monitoring of water bodies based on bioindication by phytoplankton, which identify phytoplankton particles carried out on the basis of comparison array multispectral images using Bayesian classifier of solving function based on Mahalanobis distance. It allows to evaluate objectively complex anthropogenic and technological impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Multispectral remote sensing from unmanned aircraft: image processing workflows and applications for rangeland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as remote sensing platforms offers the unique ability for repeated deployment for acquisition of high temporal resolution data at very high spatial resolution. Most image acquisitions from UAS have been in the visible bands, while multispectral remote sensing ap...

  2. Foreign object detection in multispectral X-ray images of food items using sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsson, Gudmundur; Jensen, Janus Nørtoft; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive food inspection and quality assurance are becoming viable techniques in food production due to the introduction of fast and accessible multispectral X-ray scanners. However, the novel devices produce massive amount of data and there is a need for fast and accurate algorithms...... computational properties, which allows for fast classification of items in new images....

  3. Concept and technology development for the multispectral imager of the Canadian Polar Communications and Weather mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Louis; Dubois, Patrick; Girard, Frédéric; Tanguay, François; Giroux, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    The Polar Communications and Weather (PCW) mission is proposed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), in partnership with Environment Canada, the Department of National Defence, and several other Canadian government departments. The objectives of the PCW mission are to offer meteorological observations and telecommunication services for the Canadian North. These capabilities are particularly important because of increasing interest in the Arctic and the desire to maintain Canadian sovereignty in this region. The PCW mission has completed its Phase A in 2011. The PCW Meteorological Payload is a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) that will provide near-real time weather imagery for the entire circumpolar region with a refresh period of 15 to 30 minutes. Two satellites on a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) will carry the instrument so as to observe the high latitudes 24 hours per day from a point of view that is almost geostationary. The data from the imagers are expected to greatly enhance accuracy of numerical weather prediction models for North America and globally. The mission will also produce useful information on environment and climate in the North. During Phase A, a certain number of critical technologies were identified. The CSA has initiated an effort to develop some of these so that their Technology Readiness Level (TRL) will be suitable for the follow-on phases of the program. An industrial team lead by ABB has been selected to perform technology development activities for the Meteorological Payload. The goal of the project is to enhance the TRL of the telescope, the spectral separation optics, and the infrared multispectral cameras of the PCW Meteorological Payload by fabricating and testing breadboards for these items. We will describe the Meteorological Payload concept and report on the status of the development activities.

  4. Preliminary results of ex vivo multispectral photoacoustic imaging in the management of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Vikram S; Chinni, Bhargava K; Valluru, Keerthi S; Moalem, Jacob; Giampoli, Ellen J; Evans, Katie; Rao, Navalgund A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate whether ex vivo multispectral photoacoustic imaging can be used to differentiate malignant tissue, benign nodules, and normal human thyroid tissue. Fifty patients undergoing thyroidectomy because of thyroid lesions participated in this study. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging was performed on surgically excised thyroid tissue, and chromophore images that represented optical absorption of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, lipid, and water were reconstructed. After the imaging procedure, the pathologist marked malignant tissue, benign nodules, and normal regions on histopathologic slides, and digital images of the marked histopathologic slides were obtained. The histopathologic images were coregistered with chromophore images. Areas corresponding to malignant tissue, benign nodules, and normal tissue were defined on the chromophore images. Pixel values within each area were averaged to determine the mean intensities of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, lipid, and water. There was a statistically significant difference between malignant and benign nodules with respect to mean intensity of deoxyhemoglobin (p = 0.014). There was a difference between malignant and normal tissue in mean intensity of deoxyhemoglobin (p = 0.003), lipid (p = 0.001), and water (p multispectral photoacoustic imaging can be used to differentiate malignant and benign nodules and normal human thyroid tissue.

  5. Label-free in vivo imaging of peripheral nerve by multispectral photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Phillips, Evan; Wang, Pu; Goergen, Craig J; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional surgical damage to nerves is mainly due to poor visualization of nerve tissue relative to adjacent structures. Multispectral photoacoustic tomography can provide chemical information with specificity and ultrasonic spatial resolution with centimeter imaging depth, making it a potential tool for noninvasive neural imaging. To implement this label-free imaging approach, a multispectral photoacoustic tomography platform was built. Imaging depth and spatial resolution were characterized. In vivo imaging of the femoral nerve that is 2 mm deep in a nude mouse was performed. Through multivariate curve resolution analysis, the femoral nerve was discriminated from the femoral artery and chemical maps of their spatial distributions were generated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Improved image classification with neural networks by fusing multispectral signatures with topological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harston, Craig; Schumacher, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Automated schemes are needed to classify multispectral remotely sensed data. Human intelligence is often required to correctly interpret images from satellites and aircraft. Humans suceed because they use various types of cues about a scene to accurately define the contents of the image. Consequently, it follows that computer techniques that integrate and use different types of information would perform better than single source approaches. This research illustrated that multispectral signatures and topographical information could be used in concert. Significantly, this dual source tactic classified a remotely sensed image better than the multispectral classification alone. These classifications were accomplished by fusing spectral signatures with topographical information using neural network technology. A neural network was trained to classify Landsat mulitspectral signatures. A file of georeferenced ground truth classifications were used as the training criterion. The network was trained to classify urban, agriculture, range, and forest with an accuracy of 65.7 percent. Another neural network was programmed and trained to fuse these multispectral signature results with a file of georeferenced altitude data. This topological file contained 10 levels of elevations. When this nonspectral elevation information was fused with the spectral signatures, the classifications were improved to 73.7 and 75.7 percent.

  7. Transferring results from NIR-hyperspectral to NIR-multispectral imaging systems: A filter-based simulation applied to the classification of Arabica and Robusta green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvini, Rosalba; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2017-05-15

    Due to the differences in terms of both price and quality, the availability of effective instrumentation to discriminate between Arabica and Robusta coffee is extremely important. To this aim, the use of multispectral imaging systems could provide reliable and accurate real-time monitoring at relatively low costs. However, in practice the implementation of multispectral imaging systems is not straightforward: the present work investigates this issue, starting from the outcome of variable selection performed using a hyperspectral system. Multispectral data were simulated considering four commercially available filters matching the selected spectral regions, and used to calculate multivariate classification models with Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and sparse PLS-DA. Proper strategies for the definition of the training set and the selection of the most effective combinations of spectral channels led to satisfactory classification performances (100% classification efficiency in prediction of the test set). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing a NIR multispectral imaging for prediction and visualization of peanut protein content using variable selection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Hu; Jin, Huali; Liu, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a multispectral imaging method using important wavelengths from hyperspectral images selected by genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA) and regression coefficient (RC) methods for modeling and predicting protein content in peanut kernel was investigated for the first time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration model was established between the spectral data from the selected optimal wavelengths and the reference measured protein content ranged from 23.46% to 28.43%. The RC-PLSR model established using eight key wavelengths (1153, 1567, 1972, 2143, 2288, 2339, 2389 and 2446 nm) showed the best predictive results with the coefficient of determination of prediction (R2P) of 0.901, and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.108 and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 2.32. Based on the obtained best model and image processing algorithms, the distribution maps of protein content were generated. The overall results of this study indicated that developing a rapid and online multispectral imaging system using the feature wavelengths and PLSR analysis is potential and feasible for determination of the protein content in peanut kernels.

  9. Combining transverse field detectors and color filter arrays to improve multispectral imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Miguel A; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Romero, Javier; Langfelder, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    This work focuses on the improvement of a multispectral imaging sensor based on transverse field detectors (TFDs). We aimed to achieve a higher color and spectral accuracy in the estimation of spectral reflectances from sensor responses. Such an improvement was done by combining these recently developed silicon-based sensors with color filter arrays (CFAs). Consequently, we sacrificed the filter-less full spatial resolution property of TFDs to narrow down the spectrally broad sensitivities of these sensors. We designed and performed several experiments to test the influence of different design features on the estimation quality (type of sensor, tunability, interleaved polarization, use of CFAs, type of CFAs, number of shots), some of which are exclusive to TFDs. We compared systems that use a TFD with systems that use normal monochrome sensors, both combined with multispectral CFAs as well as common RGB filters present in commercial digital color cameras. Results showed that a system that combines TFDs and CFAs performs better than systems with the same type of multispectral CFA and other sensors, or even the same TFDs combined with different kinds of filters used in common imaging systems. We propose CFA+TFD-based systems with one or two shots, depending on the possibility of using longer capturing times or not. Improved TFD systems thus emerge as an interesting possibility for multispectral acquisition, which overcomes the limited accuracy found in previous studies.

  10. An Approach for Unsupervised Change Detection in Multitemporal VHR Images Acquired by Different Multispectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yady Tatiana Solano-Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the detection of changes in multitemporal Very High Resolution (VHR optical images acquired by different multispectral sensors. The proposed approach, which is inspired by a recent framework developed to support the design of change-detection systems for single-sensor VHR remote sensing images, addresses and integrates in the general approach a strategy to effectively deal with multisensor information, i.e., to perform change detection between VHR images acquired by different multispectral sensors on two dates. This is achieved by the definition of procedures for the homogenization of radiometric, spectral and geometric image properties. These procedures map images into a common feature space where the information acquired by different multispectral sensors becomes comparable across time. Although the approach is general, here we optimize it for the detection of changes in vegetation and urban areas by employing features based on linear transformations (Tasseled Caps and Orthogonal Equations, which are shown to be effective for representing the multisensor information in a homogeneous physical way irrespectively of the considered sensor. Experiments on multitemporal images acquired by different VHR satellite systems (i.e., QuickBird, WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Multispectral UV imaging for surface analysis of MUPS tablets with special focus on the pellet distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well...... on the tablet surface allowed an estimation of the true drug content in the respective MUPS tablet. In addition, the pellet distribution in the MUPS formulations could be estimated by UV image analysis of the tablet surface. In conclusion, this study revealed that UV imaging in combination with multivariate...... image analysis is a promising approach for the automatic quality control of MUPS tablets during the manufacturing process....

  12. Workshop on the Use of Future Multispectral Imaging Capabilities for Lithologic Mapping: Workshop summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, M.; Adams, J.

    1982-01-01

    Improved orbital imaging capabilities from the standpoint of different scientific disciplines, such as geology, botany, hydrology, and geography were evaluated. A discussion on how geologists might exploit the anticipated measurement capabilities of future orbital imaging systems to discriminate and characterize different types of geologic materials exposed at the Earth's surface is presented. Principle objectives are to summarize past accomplishments in the use of multispectral imaging techniques for lithologic mapping; to identify critical gaps in earlier research efforts that currently limit the ability to extract useful information about the physical and chemical characteristics of geological materials from orbital multispectral surveys; and to define major thresholds, resolution and sensitivity within the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum which, if achieved would result in significant improvement in our ability to discriminate and characterize different geological materials exposed at the Earth's surface.

  13. Digital staining for histopathology multispectral images by the combined application of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduced a digital staining method for histopathology images captured with an n-band multispectral camera. The method consisted of two major processes: enhancement of the original spectral transmittance and the transformation of the enhanced transmittance to its target spectral configuration. Enhancement is accomplished by shifting the original transmittance with the scaled difference between the original transmittance and the transmittance estimated with m dominant principal component (PC) vectors;the m-PC vectors were determined from the transmittance samples of the background image. Transformation of the enhanced transmittance to the target spectral configuration was done using an nxn transformation matrix, which was derived by applying a least square method to the enhanced and target spectral training data samples of the different tissue components. Experimental results on the digital conversion of a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained (MT) equivalent shows the viability of the method.

  14. Panoramic, Macro and Micro Multispectral Imaging: An Affordable System for Mapping Pigments on Artworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging systems are used in art examinations to map and identify pigments, binders and areas of retouching. A monochromatic camera is combined with an appropriate wavelength selection system and acquires a variable number of spectral images of a scene. These images are then stacked into a reflectance imaging cube to reconstruct reflectance spectra from each of the images’ pixels. This paper presents an affordable multispectral imaging system composed of a monochromatic CCD camera and a set of only 12 interference filters for mapping pigments on works of art and for the tentative identification of such pigments. This work demonstrates the versatility of this set-up, a versatility enabling it to be applied to different tasks, involving examination and documentation of objects of varying size. Use of this multispectral camera for both panoramic and macro photography is discussed, together with the possibilities facilitated from the coupling of the system to a stereomicroscope and a compound microscope. This system is of particular interest for the cultural heritage sector because of its hardware simplicity and acquisition speed, as well as its lightness and small dimensions.

  15. Development of a portable 3CCD camera system for multispectral imaging of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Soo Hyun; Noh, Sang Ha; Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Moon S

    2014-10-27

    Recent studies have suggested the need for imaging devices capable of multispectral imaging beyond the visible region, to allow for quality and safety evaluations of agricultural commodities. Conventional multispectral imaging devices lack flexibility in spectral waveband selectivity for such applications. In this paper, a recently developed portable 3CCD camera with significant improvements over existing imaging devices is presented. A beam-splitter prism assembly for 3CCD was designed to accommodate three interference filters that can be easily changed for application-specific multispectral waveband selection in the 400 to 1000 nm region. We also designed and integrated electronic components on printed circuit boards with firmware programming, enabling parallel processing, synchronization, and independent control of the three CCD sensors, to ensure the transfer of data without significant delay or data loss due to buffering. The system can stream 30 frames (3-waveband images in each frame) per second. The potential utility of the 3CCD camera system was demonstrated in the laboratory for detecting defect spots on apples.

  16. Development of a Portable 3CCD Camera System for Multispectral Imaging of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the need for imaging devices capable of multispectral imaging beyond the visible region, to allow for quality and safety evaluations of agricultural commodities. Conventional multispectral imaging devices lack flexibility in spectral waveband selectivity for such applications. In this paper, a recently developed portable 3CCD camera with significant improvements over existing imaging devices is presented. A beam-splitter prism assembly for 3CCD was designed to accommodate three interference filters that can be easily changed for application-specific multispectral waveband selection in the 400 to 1000 nm region. We also designed and integrated electronic components on printed circuit boards with firmware programming, enabling parallel processing, synchronization, and independent control of the three CCD sensors, to ensure the transfer of data without significant delay or data loss due to buffering. The system can stream 30 frames (3-waveband images in each frame per second. The potential utility of the 3CCD camera system was demonstrated in the laboratory for detecting defect spots on apples.

  17. Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Jorge I; Farmer, Jack D; Sellar, R Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A; Blaney, Diana L

    2014-02-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Mars-Microscopic imager-Multispectral imaging-Spectroscopy-Habitability-Arm instrument.

  18. Multispectral confocal microscopy images and artificial neural nets to monitor the photosensitizer uptake and degradation in Candida albicans cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    This study clearly demonstrates that multispectral confocal microscopy images analyzed by artificial neural networks provides a powerful tool to real-time monitoring photosensitizer uptake, as well as photochemical transformations occurred.

  19. A Lightweight Compact Multi-Spectral Imager Using Novel Computer-Generated Micro-Optics and Spectral-Extraction Algorithms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA Early-stage research proposal is to demonstrate an ultra-compact, lightweight broadband hyper- and multi-spectral imaging system that is...

  20. Spectral Behavior of White Pigment Mixtures Using Reflectance, Ultraviolet-Fluorescence Spectroscopy, and Multispectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronti, Lucilla; Felici, Anna Candida; Ménager, Matthieu; Vieillescazes, Cathy; Piacentini, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-fluorescence spectroscopy, and multispectral imaging have been widely employed for pigment identification on paintings. From ancient times to the present, lead white, zinc white, and titanium white have been the most important white pigments used for paintings and they are used as pigment markers for dating a work of art. The spectral behavior of these pigments is reported in several scientific papers and websites, but those of their mixtures are quite unknown. We present a combined nondestructive approach for identifying mixtures of lead white, zinc white, and titanium white as powder and dispersed in two different binder media (egg yolk and linseed oil) by using reflectance spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, multispectral reflectance and UV-fluorescence imaging. We propose a novel approach for mapping the presence of white pigments in paintings by false color images obtained from multispectral reflectance and UV-fluorescence images. We found that the presence of lead white mixed with either zinc white or titanium white is highly detectable. Zinc white mixed with lead white or titanium white can be identified due to its UV-fluorescence emission, whereas titanium white in association with lead white or zinc white is distinguishable by its reflectance spectral features. In most cases, the UV-fluorescence analyses also permit the recognition of the binder media in which the pigments are dispersed.

  1. Quantifying autophagy: Measuring LC3 puncta and autolysosome formation in cells using multispectral imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Haley R

    2017-01-01

    The use of multispectral imaging flow cytometry has been gaining popularity due to its quantitative power, high throughput capabilities, multiplexing potential and its ability to acquire images of every cell. Autophagy is a process in which dysfunctional organelles and cellular components that accumulate during growth and differentiation are degraded via the lysosome and recycled. During autophagy, cytoplasmic LC3 is processed and recruited to the autophagosomal membranes; the autophagosome then fuses with the lysosome to form the autolysosome. Therefore, cells undergoing autophagy can be identified by visualizing fluorescently labeled LC3 puncta and/or the co-localization of fluorescently labeled LC3 and lysosomal markers. Multispectral imaging flow cytometry is able to collect imagery of large numbers of cells and assess autophagy in an objective, quantitative, and statistically robust manner. This review will examine the four predominant methods that have been used to measure autophagy via multispectral imaging flow cytometry. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital simulation of staining in histopathology multispectral images: enhancement and linear transformation of spectral transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-05-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is currently the most popular for routine histopathology staining. Special and/or immuno-histochemical (IHC) staining is often requested to further corroborate the initial diagnosis on H&E stained tissue sections. Digital simulation of staining (or digital staining) can be a very valuable tool to produce the desired stained images from the H&E stained tissue sections instantaneously. We present an approach to digital staining of histopathology multispectral images by combining the effects of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation. Spectral enhancement is accomplished by shifting the N-band original spectrum of the multispectral pixel with the weighted difference between the pixel's original and estimated spectrum; the spectrum is estimated using M transformed to the spectral configuration associated to its reaction to a specific stain by utilizing an N × N transformation matrix, which is derived through application of least mean squares method to the enhanced and target spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components found in the image. Results of our experiments on the digital conversion of an H&E stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained equivalent show the viability of the method.

  3. Artifact-reduced imaging of biopsy needles with 2D multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hans; Hargreaves, Brian A; Daniel, Bruce L

    2017-12-29

    Magnetic resonance (MR) guidance for biopsy procedures requires high intrinsic soft-tissue contrast. However, artifacts induced by the metallic needle can reduce its localization and require low-susceptibility needle materials with poorer cutting performance. In a proof of concept, we demonstrate the feasibility of 2D multispectral imaging (2DMSI) for both needle tracking and for needle artifact reduction for more precise needle localization and to enable the usage of needle materials with higher susceptibility. We applied 2DMSI for imaging of MR-compatible biopsy needles, conventional stainless-steel needles, and mixed-material needles and compared it to conventional techniques. In addition, we exploited intrinsic off-resonance information for passive needle tracking. 2DMSI achieved a stronger reduction of the needle artifact compared to conventional techniques. For the mixed-material needles, the artifact was reduced to a level below that for MR-compatible needles with conventional imaging. The passive tracking also improved the ability to pinpoint the needle. 2DMSI is promising for both needle tracking and artifact-reduced imaging of biopsy needles for a more precise needle localization. 2DMSI may be particularly promising for needles inducing large distortions or for targeting of small lesions. In addition, it may enable the use of needle materials with higher susceptibility and potentially better sampling performance. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Spectral and multispectral imaging studies of lunar mantled mare deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Jaumann, R.; Hiesinger, H.; Neukum, G.; Spudis, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    Near-IR reflectance spectra (0.6-2.5 microns) and CCD images in the extended visible range (0.4-1.0 microns) obtained with Earth-based telescopes have been used to investigate the composition and origin of formations in the Schiller-Schickard region of the Moon. Of particular interest are the Schickard light plains, which represent an area of mantled mare basalt, or cryptomare. Here local pre-existing mare basalts were eroded and incorporated into a highlands-rich deposit by eject a from the Orientale Basin. Spectra observations of mature and immature highland and mare surfaces, as well as dark-halo crater materials provide information on the mafic mineralogy of features in the area. Analyses of the '1 micron' absorption band and spectral mixing models indicate that selected spots in the light plains contain on the order of 50 percent mare basalt. CCD image cubes can be used to map the amount of basalt in the light plains and evaluate changes with radial distance from Orientale.

  5. Imaging Techniques for Clinical Burn Assessment with a Focus on Multispectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Squiers, John J; Kanick, Stephen C; King, Darlene R; Lu, Yang; Wang, Yulin; Mohan, Rachit; Sellke, Eric W; DiMaio, J Michael

    2016-08-01

    Significance: Burn assessments, including extent and severity, are some of the most critical diagnoses in burn care, and many recently developed imaging techniques may have the potential to improve the accuracy of these evaluations. Recent Advances: Optical devices, telemedicine, and high-frequency ultrasound are among the highlights in recent burn imaging advancements. We present another promising technology, multispectral imaging (MSI), which also has the potential to impact current medical practice in burn care, among a variety of other specialties. Critical Issues: At this time, it is still a matter of debate as to why there is no consensus on the use of technology to assist burn assessments in the United States. Fortunately, the availability of techniques does not appear to be a limitation. However, the selection of appropriate imaging technology to augment the provision of burn care can be difficult for clinicians to navigate. There are many technologies available, but a comprehensive review summarizing the tissue characteristics measured by each technology in light of aiding clinicians in selecting the proper device is missing. This would be especially valuable for the nonburn specialists who encounter burn injuries. Future Directions: The questions of when burn assessment devices are useful to the burn team, how the various imaging devices work, and where the various burn imaging technologies fit into the spectrum of burn care will continue to be addressed. Technologies that can image a large surface area quickly, such as thermography or laser speckle imaging, may be suitable for initial burn assessment and triage. In the setting of presurgical planning, ultrasound or optical microscopy techniques, including optical coherence tomography, may prove useful. MSI, which actually has origins in burn care, may ultimately meet a high number of requirements for burn assessment in routine clinical use.

  6. Cloud Remote Sensing with Sideways-Looks : Theory and First Results Using Multispectral Thermal Imager Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.)

    2002-01-01

    In operational remote sensing, the implicit model for cloud geometry is a homogeneous plane-parallel slab of infinite horizontal extent. Each pixel is indeed processed as if it exchanged no radiant energy whatsoever with its neighbors. The shortcomings of this conceptual model have been well documented in the specialized literature but rarely mitigated. The worst-case scenario is probably high-resolution imagery where dense isolated clouds are visible, often both bright (reflective) and dark (transmissive) sides being apparent from the same satellite viewing angle: the low transmitted radiance could conceivably be interpreted in plane-parallel theory as no cloud at all. An alternative to the plane-parallel cloud model is introduced here that has the same appeal of being analytically tractable, at least in the diffusion limit: the spherical cloud. This new geometrical paradigm is applied to radiances from cumulus clouds captured by DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI). Estimates of isolated cloud opacities are a necessary first step in correcting radiances from surface targets that are visible in the midst of a broken-cloud field. This type of advanced atmospheric correction is badly needed in remote sensing applications such as nonproliferation detection were waiting for a cloud-free look in the indefinite future is not a viable option.

  7. Science Applications of a Multispectral Microscopic Imager for the Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Key Words: Mars—Microscopic imager—Multispectral imaging

  8. Hemodynamic and morphologic responses in mouse brain during acute head injury imaged by multispectral structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Boris; Mathews, Marlon S.; Abookasis, David

    2015-03-01

    Multispectral imaging has received significant attention over the last decade as it integrates spectroscopy, imaging, tomography analysis concurrently to acquire both spatial and spectral information from biological tissue. In the present study, a multispectral setup based on projection of structured illumination at several near-infrared wavelengths and at different spatial frequencies is applied to quantitatively assess brain function before, during, and after the onset of traumatic brain injury in an intact mouse brain (n=5). For the production of head injury, we used the weight drop method where weight of a cylindrical metallic rod falling along a metal tube strikes the mouse's head. Structured light was projected onto the scalp surface and diffuse reflected light was recorded by a CCD camera positioned perpendicular to the mouse head. Following data analysis, we were able to concurrently show a series of hemodynamic and morphologic changes over time including higher deoxyhemoglobin, reduction in oxygen saturation, cell swelling, etc., in comparison with baseline measurements. Overall, results demonstrates the capability of multispectral imaging based structured illumination to detect and map of brain tissue optical and physiological properties following brain injury in a simple noninvasive and noncontact manner.

  9. Multispectral imaging of the lunar regolith core samples - Preliminary results for 74002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Hawke, B. R.; Butler, P.; Waltz, S.; Nagle, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Multispectral images of a lunar core segment are a new form of continuous data along the length of the core. A new laboratory arrangement was developed to obtain these images. Data processing and initial data analysis for core section 74002 were performed. The images are sensitive to variations in mineralogy and/or maturity of the soil and are easily used (1) in stratigraphic studies of the lunar regolith, (2) for sample selection of representative material, and (3) as ground truth for remote sensing studies.

  10. Spatial and temporal skin blood volume and saturation estimation using a multispectral snapshot imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Larsson, Marcus; Salerud, E. Göran

    2017-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can estimate the spatial distribution of skin blood oxygenation, using visible to near-infrared light. HSI oximeters often use a liquid-crystal tunable filter, an acousto-optic tunable filter or mechanically adjustable filter wheels, which has too long response/switching times to monitor tissue hemodynamics. This work aims to evaluate a multispectral snapshot imaging system to estimate skin blood volume and oxygen saturation with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a snapshot imager, the xiSpec camera (MQ022HG-IM-SM4X4-VIS, XIMEA), having 16 wavelength-specific Fabry-Perot filters overlaid on the custom CMOS-chip. The spectral distribution of the bands is however substantially overlapping, which needs to be taken into account for an accurate analysis. An inverse Monte Carlo analysis is performed using a two-layered skin tissue model, defined by epidermal thickness, haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation, melanin concentration and spectrally dependent reduced-scattering coefficient, all parameters relevant for human skin. The analysis takes into account the spectral detector response of the xiSpec camera. At each spatial location in the field-of-view, we compare the simulated output to the detected diffusively backscattered spectra to find the best fit. The imager is evaluated for spatial and temporal variations during arterial and venous occlusion protocols applied to the forearm. Estimated blood volume changes and oxygenation maps at 512x272 pixels show values that are comparable to reference measurements performed in contact with the skin tissue. We conclude that the snapshot xiSpec camera, paired with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, permits us to use this sensor for spatial and temporal measurement of varying physiological parameters, such as skin tissue blood volume and oxygenation.

  11. AOTF-based optical system of a microscope module for multispectral imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polschikova, Olga; Machikhin, Alexander; Batshev, Vladislav; Ramazanova, Alina; Belov, Artyom; Pozhar, Vitold

    2017-12-01

    Multi-spectral imaging techniques are widely used in microscopy for many applications. One of the most widespread spectral elements for this purpose is an imaging acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). AOTF-based contrast visualization is especially effective when used together with other imaging techniques. Simultaneous utilization of two or more imagers requires optical coupling to provide point-to-point matching of the obtained images. Small linear and angular aperture of AOTF additionally hampers the development of multi-sensor imaging systems for microscopy. In this paper, we present a compact optical system which allows to integrate AOTF-based spectral imager into the schemes of conventional microscopes and provide high-quality spectral image of the same scale as in another, for example, wideband channel. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally.

  12. Unsupervised Band Selection and Segmentation in Hyper/Multispectral Images

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Usó, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    The title of the thesis focuses the attention on hyperspectral image segmentation, that is, we want to detect salient regions in a hyperspectral image and isolate them as accurate as possible. This purpose presents two main problems: Firstly, the fact of using hyperspectral imaging not only give us a huge amount of information, but we also have to face the problem of selecting somehow the information avoiding redundancies.Secondly, the problem of segmentation strictly speaking is still a chal...

  13. An operative quantitative analysis of multispectral images of the eyeground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.; Firago, V. A.; Kubarko, A. I.

    2014-09-01

    In the approximation of a four-layer model of the eyeground, we have studied the information content of photographs of the eyeground obtained in different spectral intervals from the visible range of the spectrum. We have shown that, under conditions of a priori uncertainty of all parameters of the eyeground that affect spectral fluxes of light multiply scattered by the eyeground, the two-dimensional distributions of the following parameters can be determined: (i) the contents of hemoglobin and macular pigment in the retina; (ii) the contents of melanin in the pigment epithelium and choroid; (iii) the degree of blood oxygenation; and (iv) the structural parameter of the retina, which characterizes the volume concentration of its effective scatterers. Based on results of a numerical simulation of the light-transfer process in the medium under study, we have determined regression relationships between parameters of the eyeground and spectral characteristics of its image and have proposed a method for the operative retrieval of parameter maps of the eyeground, which uses the determined regressions.

  14. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  15. Novelty Detection Classifiers in Weed Mapping: Silybum marianum Detection on UAV Multispectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas K; Tamouridou, Afroditi Alexandra; Pantazi, Xanthoula Eirini; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Kashefi, Javid; Ovakoglou, Georgios; Polychronos, Vassilios; Moshou, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the detection and mapping of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. weed using novelty detection classifiers is reported. A multispectral camera (green-red-NIR) on board a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was employed for obtaining high-resolution images. Four novelty detection classifiers were used to identify S. marianum between other vegetation in a field. The classifiers were One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM), One Class Self-Organizing Maps (OC-SOM), Autoencoders and One Class Principal Component Analysis (OC-PCA). As input features to the novelty detection classifiers, the three spectral bands and texture were used. The S. marianum identification accuracy using OC-SVM reached an overall accuracy of 96%. The results show the feasibility of effective S. marianum mapping by means of novelty detection classifiers acting on multispectral UAV imagery.

  16. Rapid and non-destructive determination of rancidity levels in butter cookies by multi-spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Liu, Changhong; Liu, Jinxia; Pan, Wenjuan; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Lei

    2016-03-30

    Rancidity is an important attribute for quality assessment of butter cookies, while traditional methods for rancidity measurement are usually laborious, destructive and prone to operational error. In the present paper, the potential of applying multi-spectral imaging (MSI) technology with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm to evaluate the rancidity in butter cookies was investigated. Moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The optimal models for predicting moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were obtained by PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained by PLSR models revealed that MSI had a perfect ability to predict moisture content (r = 0.909), acid value (r = 0.944) and peroxide value (r = 0.971). The study demonstrated that the rancidity level of butter cookies can be continuously monitored and evaluated in real-time by the multi-spectral imaging, which is of great significance for developing online food safety monitoring solutions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  18. Lunar multispectral imaging at 2.26 microns - First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.; Johnson, T. V.; Matson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The first results of line-scan imaging of the moon at 2.26 microns and 0.56 micron are presented. Among the many features observed in the 2.26 micron/0.56 micron ratio image, fresh rock and immature soils stand out as dark (i.e., low ratio) due to their infrared absorption bands. Also notable in this image are several strikingly bright (high 2.26 micron/0.56 micron ratio) areas which are likely to contain pyroclastic, glass-related materials. Some of these bright areas correspond to dark mantling material. Others (e.g., Sulpicius Gallus, Aristarchus Plateau) are distinctly different in their overall spectral reflectance and it is suggested that these localities contain varieties of pyroclastic glass-related materials which were not sampled by Apollo 17 but which are relatively abundant elsewhere on the moon.

  19. Multispectral image feature fusion for detecting land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Fields, D.J.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Our system fuses information contained in registered images from multiple sensors to reduce the effect of clutter and improve the the ability to detect surface and buried land mines. The sensor suite currently consists if a camera that acquires images in sixible wavelength bands, du, dual-band infrared (5 micron and 10 micron) and ground penetrating radar. Past research has shown that it is extremely difficult to distinguish land mines from background clutter in images obtained from a single sensor. It is hypothesized, however, that information fused from a suite of various sensors is likely to provide better detection reliability, because the suite of sensors detects a variety of physical properties that are more separate in feature space. The materials surrounding the mines can include natural materials (soil, rocks, foliage, water, holes made by animals and natural processes, etc.) and some artifacts.

  20. Externally calibrated parallel imaging for 3D multispectral imaging near metallic implants using broadband ultrashort echo time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Curtis N; Artz, Nathan S; Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B; Reeder, Scott B

    2017-06-01

    To develop an externally calibrated parallel imaging technique for three-dimensional multispectral imaging (3D-MSI) in the presence of metallic implants. A fast, ultrashort echo time (UTE) calibration acquisition is proposed to enable externally calibrated parallel imaging techniques near metallic implants. The proposed calibration acquisition uses a broadband radiofrequency (RF) pulse to excite the off-resonance induced by the metallic implant, fully phase-encoded imaging to prevent in-plane distortions, and UTE to capture rapidly decaying signal. The performance of the externally calibrated parallel imaging reconstructions was assessed using phantoms and in vivo examples. Phantom and in vivo comparisons to self-calibrated parallel imaging acquisitions show that significant reductions in acquisition times can be achieved using externally calibrated parallel imaging with comparable image quality. Acquisition time reductions are particularly large for fully phase-encoded methods such as spectrally resolved fully phase-encoded three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo (SR-FPE), in which scan time reductions of up to 8 min were obtained. A fully phase-encoded acquisition with broadband excitation and UTE enabled externally calibrated parallel imaging for 3D-MSI, eliminating the need for repeated calibration regions at each frequency offset. Significant reductions in acquisition time can be achieved, particularly for fully phase-encoded methods like SR-FPE. Magn Reson Med 77:2303-2309, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. A comparison of dimension reduction methods with application to multi-spectral images of sand used in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hansen, M. E.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2010-01-01

    -quality concrete. In order to achieve a continuous in-line approach for the concrete mixing, digital image analysis is used. Multi-spectral images, consisting of nine spectral bands in the visible and near infrared (NIR) range, were acquired. Each image consists of approximately 9 million pixels. Five different...

  2. Correction of motion artefacts and pseudo colour visualization of multispectral light scattering images for optical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Olaf; Scheibe, Patrick; Beuthan, Jürgen; Zabarylo, Urszula

    2010-02-01

    State-of-the-art image processing methods offer new possibilities for diagnosing diseases using scattered light. The optical diagnosis of rheumatism is taken as an example to show that the diagnostic sensitivity can be improved using overlapped pseudo-coloured images of different wavelengths, provided that multispectral images are recorded to compensate for any motion related artefacts which occur during examination.

  3. Compression of Multispectral Images with Comparatively Few Bands Using Posttransform Tucker Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, data compression for the multispectral charge-coupled device (CCD images with comparatively few bands (MSCFBs is done independently on each multispectral channel. This compression codec is called a “monospectral compressor.” The monospectral compressor does not have a removing spectral redundancy stage. To fill this gap, we propose an efficient compression approach for MSCFBs. In our approach, the one dimensional discrete cosine transform (1D-DCT is performed on spectral dimension to exploit the spectral information, and the posttransform (PT in 2D-DWT domain is performed on each spectral band to exploit the spatial information. A deep coupling approach between the PT and Tucker decomposition (TD is proposed to remove residual spectral redundancy between bands and residual spatial redundancy of each band. Experimental results on multispectral CCD camera data set show that the proposed compression algorithm can obtain a better compression performance and significantly outperforms the traditional compression algorithm-based TD in 2D-DWT and 3D-DCT domain.

  4. Imaging high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced tissue denaturation by multispectral photoacoustic method: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; O'Neill, Brian

    2013-03-10

    We present an ex vivo study for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in multispectral photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of tissue denaturation induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in this paper. Tissue of bovine muscle was thermally treated in a heated water bath and by HIFU, and then was imaged using a multispectral photoacoustic approach. Light at multiple optical wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm was delivered to the treated bovine muscle tissue to excite the photoacoustic signal. Apparent tissue denaturation has been observed in multispectral photoacoustic images after being treated in a water bath and by HIFU. It is interesting that the denaturation is more striking at shorter optical wavelength photoacoustic images than at longer optical wavelength photoacoustic images. Multispectral photoacoustic images of the tissue denaturation were further analyzed and the photoacoustic spectrums of the denaturized tissue were calculated in this paper. This study suggests that a multispectral PAI approach might be a promising tool to evaluate tissue denaturation induced by HIFU treatment.

  5. Nondestructive determination of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) using multispectral imaging and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2014-06-15

    Crop-to-crop transgene flow may affect the seed purity of non-transgenic rice varieties, resulting in unwanted biosafety consequences. The feasibility of a rapid and nondestructive determination of transgenic rice seeds from its non-transgenic counterparts was examined by using multispectral imaging system combined with chemometric data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) methods were applied to classify rice seeds according to their genetic origins. The results demonstrated that clear differences between non-transgenic and transgenic rice seeds could be easily visualized with the nondestructive determination method developed through this study and an excellent classification (up to 100% with LS-SVM model) can be achieved. It is concluded that multispectral imaging together with chemometric data analysis is a promising technique to identify transgenic rice seeds with high efficiency, providing bright prospects for future applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gel wax-based tissue-mimicking phantoms for multispectral photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneas, Efthymios; Xia, Wenfeng; Ogunlade, Olumide; Fonseca, Martina; Nikitichev, Daniil I; David, Anna L; West, Simeon J; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hebden, Jeremy C; Vercauteren, Tom; Desjardins, Adrien E

    2018-03-01

    Tissue-mimicking phantoms are widely used for the calibration, evaluation and standardisation of medical imaging systems, and for clinical training. For photoacoustic imaging, tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) that have tuneable optical and acoustic properties, high stability, and mechanical robustness are highly desired. In this study, gel wax is introduced as a TMM that satisfies these criteria for developing photoacoustic imaging phantoms. The reduced scattering and optical absorption coefficients were independently tuned with the addition of TiO 2 and oil-based inks. The frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation obeyed a power law; for native gel wax, it varied from 0.71 dB/cm at 3 MHz to 9.93 dB/cm at 12 MHz. The chosen oil-based inks, which have different optical absorption spectra in the range of 400 to 900 nm, were found to have good photostability under pulsed illumination with photoacoustic excitation light. Optically heterogeneous phantoms that comprised of inclusions with different concentrations of carbon black and coloured inks were fabricated, and multispectral photoacoustic imaging was performed with an optical parametric oscillator and a planar Fabry-Pérot sensor. We conclude that gel wax is well suited as a TMM for multispectral photoacoustic imaging.

  7. Fast Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for Dynamic Imaging of Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution in Multiple Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruttis, Adrian; Morscher, Stefan; Burton, Neal C.; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles is an essential step in the development process of new candidate drugs or imaging agents. Simultaneously, the assessment of organ function related to the uptake and clearance of drugs is of great importance. To this end, we demonstrate an imaging platform capable of high-rate characterization of the dynamics of fluorescent agents in multiple organs using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). A spatial resolution of approximately 150 µm through mouse cross-sections allowed us to image blood vessels, the kidneys, the liver and the gall bladder. In particular, MSOT was employed to characterize the removal of indocyanine green from the systemic circulation and its time-resolved uptake in the liver and gallbladder. Furthermore, it was possible to track the uptake of a carboxylate dye in separate regions of the kidneys. The results demonstrate the acquisition of agent concentration metrics at rates of 10 samples per second at a single wavelength and 17 s per multispectral sample with 10 signal averages at each of 5 wavelengths. Overall, such imaging performance introduces previously undocumented capabilities of fast, high resolution in vivo imaging of the fate of optical agents for drug discovery and basic biological research. PMID:22295087

  8. Gel wax-based tissue-mimicking phantoms for multispectral photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneas, Efthymios; Xia, Wenfeng; Ogunlade, Olumide; Fonseca, Martina; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; David, Anna L.; West, Simeon J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Vercauteren, Tom; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2018-01-01

    Tissue-mimicking phantoms are widely used for the calibration, evaluation and standardisation of medical imaging systems, and for clinical training. For photoacoustic imaging, tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) that have tuneable optical and acoustic properties, high stability, and mechanical robustness are highly desired. In this study, gel wax is introduced as a TMM that satisfies these criteria for developing photoacoustic imaging phantoms. The reduced scattering and optical absorption coefficients were independently tuned with the addition of TiO2 and oil-based inks. The frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation obeyed a power law; for native gel wax, it varied from 0.71 dB/cm at 3 MHz to 9.93 dB/cm at 12 MHz. The chosen oil-based inks, which have different optical absorption spectra in the range of 400 to 900 nm, were found to have good photostability under pulsed illumination with photoacoustic excitation light. Optically heterogeneous phantoms that comprised of inclusions with different concentrations of carbon black and coloured inks were fabricated, and multispectral photoacoustic imaging was performed with an optical parametric oscillator and a planar Fabry-Pérot sensor. We conclude that gel wax is well suited as a TMM for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. PMID:29541509

  9. Enhancement of Multispectral Chromosome Image Classification Using Vector Median Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvelis, Petros S.; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I.

    Multiplex in-situ hybridization (M-FISH) is a combinatorial labeling technique in which each chromosome is labeled with 5 fluors and a DNA stain and is used for chromosome analysis. Although M-FISH facilitates the visual detection of gross anomalies, misclassified pixels and cross-hybridization often makes manual examination difficult and introduces operator bias. The success of the technique largely depends on the accuracy of pixel classification. In this work we study the use of nonlinear Vector Median Filtering (VMF) methods to induce the accuracy of pixel classification. We have evaluated our methodology using a subset of images publicly available and the classifier was trained and tested on non-overlapping chromosome images. An overall accuracy of 74.13% is reported when introducing VMF.

  10. A mixture neural net for multispectral imaging spectrometer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Slagle, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Each spatial region viewed by an imaging spectrometer contains various elements in a mixture. The elements present and the amount of each are to be determined. A neural net solution is considered. Initial optical neural net hardware is described. The first simulations on the component requirements of a neural net are considered. The pseudoinverse solution is shown to not suffice, i.e. a neural net solution is required.

  11. Diagnosis of cutaneous thermal burn injuries by multispectral imaging analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Zawacki, B. E.

    1978-01-01

    Special photographic or television image analysis is shown to be a potentially useful technique to assist the physician in the early diagnosis of thermal burn injury. A background on the medical and physiological problems of burns is presented. The proposed methodology for burns diagnosis from both the theoretical and clinical points of view is discussed. The television/computer system constructed to accomplish this analysis is described, and the clinical results are discussed.

  12. The Effect of Multispectral Image Fusion Enhancement on Human Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    of a scene at night may be extremely difficult. But, during the day , one may see so many fea- tures of the same scene that simple tasks become hard to...tions (e.g., night or day use, capture capabilities) of single- band sensor cameras, image capture condition variables such as lighting, zoom, and...proceedings paper presented at SPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing 2017; to be published in proceedings in summer 2017. 14. ABSTRACT In this work, we

  13. Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jorge; Farmer, Jack; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars.

  14. Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarnik, S.; Taccola, M.; Maresi, L.; Moreau, V.; de Vos, L.; Versluys, J.; Gubbels, G.

    2017-11-01

    Three mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescope designs [1] had been implemented in different projects ranging from the narrow Field-Of-View large instruments as Quickbird (2° FOV) [2] to smaller telescopes as JSS 12° FOV developed for RapidEye mission [3]. This telescope configuration had been also selected for the PROBA-V payload, the successor of Vegetation, a multispectral imager flown on Spot-4 and subsequently on Spot-5 French satellites for Earth Observation and defence. PROBA-V, small PROBA-type satellite, will continue acquisition of vegetation data after the lifetime of Spot-5 expires in 2012. The PROBA-V TMA optical design achieves a 34° FOV across track and makes use of highly aspherical mirrors. Such a telescope had become feasible due to the recently developed Single Point Diamond Turning fabrication technology. The telescope mirrors and structure are fabricated in aluminium and form an athermal optical system. This paper presents the development of the compact wide FOV TMA, its implementation in PROBA-V multispectral imager and reviews optics fabrication technology that made this development possible. Furthermore, this TMA is being used in combination with a linear variable filter in a breadboard of a compact hyperspectral imager. Moreover, current technology allows miniaturization of TMA, so it is possible to use a TMA-based hyperspectral imager on a cubesat platform.

  15. Curved-array-based multispectral photoacoustic imaging of human finger joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; He, Ming; Shi, Haosheng; Zhao, Yuan; Lu, Man; Zou, Xianbing; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2017-10-02

    In this study, we present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a curved-array-based photoacoustic imaging system designed for imaging vasculatures inside human finger joints with multispectral strategy. The transducers was fabricated with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film with a size of 30 mm×2.8 mm, and a curvature radius of 82 mm. A detailed comparison between the PVDF transducer and commercial piezoelectric ceramic (PTZ) transducers was performed. In addition, phantom and in vivo mouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the system performance. Furthermore, we recruited healthy volunteers and did multispectral photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in finger joints. The transducers have an average center frequency of 6.6 MHz, and a mean bandwidth of 95%. The lateral and axial resolutions of the system are 110 μm and 800 μm, respectively, and the diameter of the active imaging is larger than 50 mm. We successfully captured the drug-induced cerebral bleeding spots in intact mouse brains, and recovered both morphology and oxygen saturation of the blood vessels in human finger joints. The PVDF transducer has a better performance in bandwidth compared with commercial transducers. The curved design of the transducer offers a better sensitivity and a higher axial resolution compared with the flat design. Based on the phantom, animal and human experiments, the proposed system has the potential to be used in clinical diagnosis of early-stage arthritis.

  16. Hybrid imprinting process to fabricate a multi-layer compound eye for multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Lee, Hiu Hung; Wang, Dongping; Di, Si; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2017-02-20

    We present a high-precision hybrid imprinting method to fabricate multi-layer micro-optical structures on nonplanar substrates using a custom-built vacuum imprinting system; with the application of kinematic couplings that align the flexible stamps in all six degrees of freedom, a cross-layer pattern registration precision of 400 nm has been achieved on nonplanar substrates. To demonstrate the precision and feasibility of the new process and instrument, we have designed and fabricated a multi-layer artificial compound eye (ACE) for multispectral imaging. The shapes and sizes of all 12 micro-lenses on the ACE are optimized and integrated with different color filers (red, green and blue) so that the light from different channels and of different spectral contents will focus to the same plane, where the photodetector is located. Next, the multi-layer ACE is installed in a portable optical system for simultaneous multispectral imaging, i.e., to perform pattern detection by looking at specific frequency windows. Imaging experiments are devised and performed on (1) color blindness test cards, (2) space image, and (3) breast and gastric tumor samples. The results confirm the system's capabilities of frequency separation, extraction of hidden information, and tumor identification.

  17. Multi-Spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, J.H.; Shaw, J.A.; Lawrence, R.L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.

    2010-06-01

    Practical geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration will require long-term monitoring for detection of possible leakage back into the atmosphere. One potential monitoring method is multi-spectral imaging of vegetation reflectance to detect leakage through CO{sub 2}-induced plant stress. A multi-spectral imaging system was used to simultaneously record green, red, and near-infrared (NIR) images with a real-time reflectance calibration from a 3-m tall platform, viewing vegetation near shallow subsurface CO{sub 2} releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology field site in Bozeman, Montana. Regression analysis of the band reflectances and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with time shows significant correlation with distance from the CO{sub 2} well, indicating the viability of this method to monitor for CO{sub 2} leakage. The 2007 data show rapid plant vigor degradation at high CO{sub 2} levels next to the well and slight nourishment at lower, but above-background CO{sub 2} concentrations. Results from the second year also show that the stress response of vegetation is strongly linked to the CO{sub 2} sink-source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain and hail. The real-time calibrated imaging system successfully obtained data in an autonomous mode during all sky and daytime illumination conditions.

  18. Crop status sensing system by multi-spectral imaging sensor, 1: Image processing and paddy field sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Sugiura, R.; Fukagawa, T.; Noguchi, N.; Shibata, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to construct a sensing system for precision farming. A Multi-Spectral Imaging Sensor (MSIS), which can obtain three images (G. R and NIR) simultaneously, was used for detecting growth status of plants. The sensor was mounted on an unmanned helicopter. An image processing method for acquiring information of crop status with high accuracy was developed. Crop parameters that were measured include SPAD, leaf height, and stems number. Both direct seeding variety and transplant variety of paddy rice were adopted in the research. The result of a field test showed that crop status of both varieties could be detected with sufficient accuracy to apply to precision farming

  19. Semiautomated object-based classification of rain-induced landslides with VHR multispectral images on Madeira Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandra; Matias, Magda; Pina, Pedro; Sousa, António Jorge

    2016-04-01

    A method for semiautomated landslide detection and mapping, with the ability to separate source and run-out areas, is presented in this paper. It combines object-based image analysis and a support vector machine classifier and is tested using a GeoEye-1 multispectral image, sensed 3 days after a major damaging landslide event that occurred on Madeira Island (20 February 2010), and a pre-event lidar digital terrain model. The testing is developed in a 15 km2 wide study area, where 95 % of the number of landslides scars are detected by this supervised approach. The classifier presents a good performance in the delineation of the overall landslide area, with commission errors below 26 % and omission errors below 24 %. In addition, fair results are achieved in the separation of the source from the run-out landslide areas, although in less illuminated slopes this discrimination is less effective than in sunnier, east-facing slopes.

  20. Automated object-based classification of rain-induced landslides with VHR multispectral images in Madeira Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, S.; Matias, M.; Pina, P.; Sousa, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    A method for semi-automatic landslide detection, with the ability to separate source and run-out areas, is presented in this paper. It combines object-based image analysis and a Support Vector Machine classifier on a GeoEye-1 multispectral image, sensed 3 days after the major damaging landslide event that occurred in Madeira island (20 February 2010), with a pre-event LIDAR Digital Elevation Model. The testing is developed in a 15 km2-wide study area, where 95 % of the landslides scars are detected by this supervised approach. The classifier presents a good performance in the delineation of the overall landslide area. In addition, fair results are achieved in the separation of the source from the run-out landslide areas, although in less illuminated slopes this discrimination is less effective than in sunnier east facing-slopes.

  1. Optical design of an optical coherence tomography and multispectral fluorescence imaging endoscope to detect early stage ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler; Keenan, Molly; Swan, Elizabeth; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    The five year survival rate for ovarian cancer is over 90% if early detection occurs, yet no effective early screening method exists. We have designed and are constructing a dual modality Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) endoscope to optically screen the Fallopian tube and ovary for early stage cancer. The endoscope reaches the ovary via the natural pathway of the vagina, cervix, uterus and Fallopian tube. In order to navigate the Fallopian tube the endoscope must have an outer diameter of 600 μm, be highly flexible, steerable, tracking and nonperforating. The imaging systems consists of six optical subsystems, two from OCT and four from MFI. The optical subsystems have independent and interrelated design criteria. The endoscope will be tested on realistic tissue models and ex vivo tissue to prove feasibility of future human trials. Ultimately the project aims to provide women the first effective ovarian cancer screening technique.

  2. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankelevich, Diego R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, 3101 Kemper Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura, E-mail: lmarcu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Elson, Daniel S. [Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence

  3. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp....... and Stemphylium spp. needs further development before practical application....

  4. State estimation of the performance of gravity tables using multispectral image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael A. E.; Kannan, Ananda S.; Lund, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Gravity tables are important machinery that separate dense (healthy) grains from lighter (low yielding varieties) aiding in improving the overall quality of seed and grain processing. This paper aims at evaluating the operating states of such tables, which is a critical criterion required...... for the design and automation of the next generation of gravity separators. We present a method capable of detecting differences in grain densities, that as an elementary step forms the basis for a related optimization of gravity tables. The method is based on a multispectral imaging technology, capable...

  5. Multi-spectral quantitative phase imaging based on filtration of light via ultrasonic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machikhin, A. S.; Polschikova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Pozhar, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    A new digital holographic microscopy scheme for multi-spectral quantitative phase imaging is proposed and implemented. It is based on acousto-optic filtration of wide-band low-coherence light at the entrance of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, recording and digital processing of interferograms. The key requirements for the acousto-optic filter are discussed. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by calculating the phase maps of human red blood cells at multiple wavelengths in the range 770-810 nm. The scheme can be used for the measurement of dispersion of thin films and biological samples.

  6. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp...

  7. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art.

  8. Semi-quantitative Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for volumetric PK imaging of gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Stefan; Driessen, Wouter H P; Claussen, Jing; Burton, Neal C

    2014-09-01

    A common side effect of medication is gastrointestinal intolerance. Symptoms can include reduced appetite, diarrhea, constipation, GI inflammation, nausea and vomiting. Such effects often have a dramatic impact on compliance with a treatment regimen. Therefore, characterization of GI tolerance is an important step when establishing a novel therapeutic approach. In this study, Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is used to monitor gastrointestinal motility by in vivo whole body imaging in mice. MSOT combines high spatial and temporal resolution based on ultrasound detection with strong optical contrast in the near infrared. Animals were given Indocyanine Green (ICG) by oral gavage and imaged by MSOT to observe the fate of ICG in the gastrointestinal tract. Exponential decay of ICG signal was observed in the stomach in good correlation with ex vivo validation. We discuss how kinetic imaging in MSOT allows visualization of parameters unavailable to other imaging methods, both in 2D and 3D.

  9. Multispectral image classification of MRI data using an empirically-derived clustering algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, K.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Bouchard, A.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanders, J.A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[VA Hospital, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Multispectral image analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data has been performed using an empirically-derived clustering algorithm. This algorithm groups image pixels into distinct classes which exhibit similar response in the T{sub 2} 1st and 2nd-echo, and T{sub 1} (with ad without gadolinium) MRI images. The grouping is performed in an n-dimensional mathematical space; the n-dimensional volumes bounding each class define each specific tissue type. The classification results are rendered again in real-space by colored-coding each grouped class of pixels (associated with differing tissue types). This classification method is especially well suited for class volumes with complex boundary shapes, and is also expected to robustly detect abnormal tissue classes. The classification process is demonstrated using a three dimensional data set of MRI scans of a human brain tumor.

  10. A virtual seed file: the use of multispectral image analysis in the management of genebank seed accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsetts Edberg Hansen, Michael; R. Hay, Fiona; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for multispectral seed phenotyping as a fast and robust tool for managing genebank accessions. A multispectral vision system was used to take images of the seeds of 20 diverse varieties of rice (approximately 30 seeds for each variety). This was followed by extraction of featu...... accessions, identifying different seed types within a sample of seeds and/or in checking whether regenerated seeds match the original seeds.......We present a method for multispectral seed phenotyping as a fast and robust tool for managing genebank accessions. A multispectral vision system was used to take images of the seeds of 20 diverse varieties of rice (approximately 30 seeds for each variety). This was followed by extraction of feature...... information from the images. Multivariate analysis of the feature data was used to classify seed phenotypes according to accession. The proportion of correctly classified rice seeds was 93%. We conclude that the multispectral image analysis could play a role in comparing incoming seeds against existing...

  11. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghai Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control is used to trigger both cameras simultaneously. Images are stored in 14-bit RAW and 8-bit JPEG files in CompactFlash cards. The second-order transformation was used to align the color and NIR images to achieve subpixel alignment in four-band images. The imaging system was tested under various flight and land cover conditions and optimal camera settings were determined for airborne image acquisition. Images were captured at altitudes of 305–3050 m (1000–10,000 ft and pixel sizes of 0.1–1.0 m were achieved. Four practical application examples are presented to illustrate how the imaging system was used to estimate cotton canopy cover, detect cotton root rot, and map henbit and giant reed infestations. Preliminary analysis of example images has shown that this system has potential for crop condition assessment, pest detection, and other agricultural applications.

  12. Chemical Vapor Detection with a Multispectral Thermal Imager

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Althouse, Mark L. G; Chang, Chein-I

    1991-01-01

    .... Real-time autonomous detection and alarm is also required. A detection system model by Warren, based on a Gaussian vapor concentration distribution is the basis for detection algorithms. Algorithms recursive in both time and spectral frequency have been derived using Kalman filter theory. Adaptive filtering is used for preprocessing clutter rejection. Various components of the detection system have been tested individually and an integrated system is now being fabricated.

  13. Multispectral image restoration of historical documents based on LAAMs and mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga-S., Edwin; Valdiviezo-N., Juan C.; Urcid, Gonzalo

    2014-09-01

    This research introduces an automatic technique designed for the digital restoration of the damaged parts in historical documents. For this purpose an imaging spectrometer is used to acquire a set of images in the wavelength interval from 400 to 1000 nm. Assuming the presence of linearly mixed spectral pixels registered from the multispectral image, our technique uses two lattice autoassociative memories to extract the set of pure pigments conforming a given document. Through an spectral unmixing analysis, our method produces fractional abundance maps indicating the distributions of each pigment in the scene. These maps are then used to locate cracks and holes in the document under study. The restoration process is performed by the application of a region filling algorithm, based on morphological dilation, followed by a color interpolation to restore the original appearance of the filled areas. This procedure has been successfully applied to the analysis and restoration of three multispectral data sets: two corresponding to artificially superimposed scripts and a real data acquired from a Mexican pre-Hispanic codex, whose restoration results are presented.

  14. Excitation-resolved multispectral method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescent molecular tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maomao; Zhou, Yuan; Su, Han; Zhang, Dong; Luo, Jianwen

    2017-04-01

    Imaging of the pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (DFMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, owing to the ill-posed nature of the FMT inverse problem, the relatively low quality of the parametric images makes it difficult to investigate the different metabolic processes of the fluorescent targets with small distances. An excitation-resolved multispectral DFMT method is proposed; it is based on the fact that the fluorescent targets with different concentrations show different variations in the excitation spectral domain and can be considered independent signal sources. With an independent component analysis method, the spatial locations of different fluorescent targets can be decomposed, and the fluorescent yields of the targets at different time points can be recovered. Therefore, the metabolic process of each component can be independently investigated. Simulations and phantom experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed excitation-resolved multispectral method can effectively improve the reconstruction accuracy of the parametric images in DFMT.

  15. Development of a multispectral structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system and its application to bruise detection of apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) is a new, promising imaging modality for enhancing quality detection of food. A liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral SIRI system was developed and used for selecting optimal wavebands to detect bruising in apples. Immediately aft...

  16. Use of Multispectral Imaging in Varietal Identification of Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    of parents and offspring. nCDA was also used for pairwise discrimination of the eleven cultivars, which correctly discriminated upto 100% and only few pairs below 85%. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was further used to classify all the cultivars. The model displayed an overall...... cultivars to study parents and offspring relationship and varietal identification respectively. Normalized canonical discriminant analysis (nCDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze and compare the results for parents and offspring study. Both the results showed clear discrimination...

  17. Spot-5 multispectral image for 60-75 days of rice mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, Mohd Amiruddin; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Bejo, Siti Khairunniza

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential application of Spot-5 multispectral satellite data in monitoring rice cultivation areas in IADA (Integrated Agriculture Development Area) located at Kerian District, Perak Malaysia. Information of the rice cultivation areas is a global economic and environmental significance. Multi-spectral images acquired at high spatial resolution are an important tool, especially in agricultural applications. This paper addresses the relationship between normalize difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ancillary data acquired from Farmers Organization Authority (PPK) for 217 farmer's field in IADA Kerian. The results indicated that NDVI range 0.62 – 0.75 has a strong positive relationship with the ground survey area estimation with (r = 0.85; p <0.01) (r 2 = 0.722). The r 2 value of 0.722 indicated a statistically significant linear relationship between the rice area estimate using NDVI range 0.62 – 0.75 and on the ground surveyed data for 217 farmers' fields. The equation of unstandardized distribution can be described as Ŷ=0.0197+0.852x. The equation for standardized regression formula for this distribution is Ŷ= 0.850x. Thus, the results indicate that 60-75 days of rice area can be estimated from the following equation Ŷ=0.197+0.852x, where Ŷ is the predicted rice area and x is area calculated using NDVI range 0.62-0.75 in IADA Kerian Perak Malaysia. The results appear promising and rice mapping operations using SPOT-5 multispectral image data can be foreseen

  18. In vivo oximetry of human bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature using snapshot multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, L E; Choudhary, T R; McNaught, A I; Harvey, A R

    2016-08-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) is a well-established technique for non-invasive oximetry of retinal blood vessels, which has contributed to the understanding of a variety of retinal conditions, including glaucoma, diabetes, vessel occlusion, and retinal auto-regulation. We report the first study to use snapshot multi-spectral imaging (SMSI) for oximetry of the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature in the anterior segment of the eye. We report the oxygen dynamics of the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature at normoxia and at acute mild hypoxia conditions. A retinal-fundus camera fitted with a custom Image-Replicating Imaging Spectrometer was used to image the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature in ten healthy human subjects at normoxia (21% Fraction of Inspired Oxygen [FiO2]) and acute mild hypoxia (15% FiO2) conditions. Eyelid closure was used to control oxygen diffusion between ambient air and the sclera surface. Four subjects were imaged for 30 seconds immediately following eyelid opening. Vessel diameter and Optical Density Ratio (ODR: a direct proxy for oxygen saturation) of vessels was computed automatically. Oximetry capability was validated using a simple phantom that mimicked the scleral vasculature. Acute mild hypoxia resulted in a decrease in blood oxygen saturation (SO2) (i.e. an increase in ODR) when compared with normoxia in both bulbar conjunctival (p image oxygen dynamics of bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature, and consequently, the first study to directly observe the rapid reoxygenation of hypoxic bulbar conjunctival vessels when exposed to ambient air. Oximetry of bulbar conjunctival vessels could potentially provide insight into conditions where oxygen dynamics of the microvasculature are not fully understood, such as diabetes, sickle-cell diseases, and dry-eye syndrome. Oximetry in the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature could be complimentary or alternative to retinal

  19. Multispectral Snapshot Imagers Onboard Small Satellite Formations for Multi-Angular Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Hewagama, Tilak; Georgiev, Georgi; Pasquale, Bert; Aslam, Shahid; Gatebe, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    Multispectral snapshot imagers are capable of producing 2D spatial images with a single exposure at selected, numerous wavelengths using the same camera, therefore operate differently from push broom or whiskbroom imagers. They are payloads of choice in multi-angular, multi-spectral imaging missions that use small satellites flying in controlled formation, to retrieve Earth science measurements dependent on the targets Bidirectional Reflectance-Distribution Function (BRDF). Narrow fields of view are needed to capture images with moderate spatial resolution. This paper quantifies the dependencies of the imagers optical system, spectral elements and camera on the requirements of the formation mission and their impact on performance metrics such as spectral range, swath and signal to noise ratio (SNR). All variables and metrics have been generated from a comprehensive, payload design tool. The baseline optical parameters selected (diameter 7 cm, focal length 10.5 cm, pixel size 20 micron, field of view 1.15 deg) and snapshot imaging technologies are available. The spectral components shortlisted were waveguide spectrometers, acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF), electronically actuated Fabry-Perot interferometers, and integral field spectrographs. Qualitative evaluation favored AOTFs because of their low weight, small size, and flight heritage. Quantitative analysis showed that waveguide spectrometers perform better in terms of achievable swath (10-90 km) and SNR (greater than 20) for 86 wavebands, but the data volume generated will need very high bandwidth communication to downlink. AOTFs meet the external data volume caps well as the minimum spectral (wavebands) and radiometric (SNR) requirements, therefore are found to be currently feasible in spite of lower swath and SNR.

  20. Application of multispectral imaging in quantitative immunohistochemistry study of breast cancer: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Lou; Wang, Lin-Wei; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Yang, Gui-Fang; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) based on imaging and spectroscopy, as relatively novel to the field of histopathology, has been used in biomedical multidisciplinary researches. We analyzed and compared the utility of multispectral (MS) versus conventional red-green-blue (RGB) images for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining to explore the advantages of MSI in clinical-pathological diagnosis. The MS images acquired of IHC-stained membranous marker human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytoplasmic marker cytokeratin5/6 (CK5/6), and nuclear marker estrogen receptor (ER) have higher resolution, stronger contrast, and more accurate segmentation than the RGB images. The total signal optical density (OD) values for each biomarker were higher in MS images than in RGB images (all P images (AUC = 0.91, 89.1 %, 83.2 %) than RGB images (AUC = 0.87, 84.5, and 81.8 %). There was no significant difference between quantitative results of RGB images and clinico-pathological characteristics (P > 0.05). However, by quantifying MS images, the total signal OD values of HER2 positive expression were correlated with lymph node status and histological grades (P = 0.02 and 0.04). Additionally, the consistency test results indicated the inter-observer agreement was more robust in MS images for HER2 (inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.95, r s = 0.94), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.88), and ER (ICC = 0.94, r s = 0.94) (all P images for HER2 (ICC = 0.91, r s = 0.89), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.85, r s = 0.84), and ER (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.89) (all P images in quantitative IHC analysis could obtain higher accuracy, reliability, and more information of protein expression in relation to clinico-pathological characteristics versus conventional RGB images. It may become an optimal IHC digital imaging system used in quantitative pathology.

  1. Interest Point Detection for Multispectral Remote Sensing Image Using Phase Congruency in Illumination Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Min

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A robust interest point detection algorithm based on illumination space and phase congruency is proposed in this paper. Firstly, image illumination space is constructed by using a parameters adaptive method. Secondly, a phase congruency based interest point detection algorithm is adopted to compute candidate points in illumination space. Then, all interest point candidates are mapped back to the original image and a non-maximum suppression step is added to find final interest points. Finally, the feature scale values of all interest points are calculated based on the Laplacian function. The proposed algorithm combines the advantages of illumination space and phase congruency, which makes the proposed method robust to the radiation variation of multispectral images. The experimental results show that the proposed method performs better than other traditional methods in feature repeatability rate and repeated features number.

  2. An image enhancement technique using nonlinear transfer function and unsharp masking in multispectral endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejian; Wang, Huan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the realization of image processing algorithm of multispectral endoscope. The research contents include: local brightness enhancement and adaptive contrast enhancement. Firstly, this paper transforms the image from the RGB space to the HSV space, and then carries on the image enhancement processing to the V space, finally transforms to the RGB space. Local brightness enhancement algorithm divides V space image into smaller windows, and then calculates the nonlinear transfer function of each window, which enhances the pixels in the window, and finally the contrast of brightness enhanced image is restored. The adaptive contrast enhancement adopts the unsharp mask technique based on the guided filter. First of all, this paper uses guided filter to the RGB channel of the original image and gets the unsharp mask of each channel, then plus a scaled image which is the result of the original image subtracts the unsharp mask. So the enhancement of the image is achieved. This paper uses subjective evaluation criteria and enhance factor α to evaluate the effect of enhancement. And this paper compares the enhancement effect of the proposed image enhancement algorithm and the traditional algorithm. The results show that the α of histogram equalization is smallest and AINDANE method is better than histogram equalization. The proposed method has the best α. The subjective evaluation also shows that the effect of HE is not satisfactory and the proposed method enhances the detail information tremendously. The subjective and objective criteria shows that the proposed method produces better enhancement effect.

  3. High-speed color imaging and ratio temperature radiometer by multispectral optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Ohno, Yoshio; Mitsui, Kenji

    2003-07-01

    In order to analyze mechanism of melting and deformation of metal while it is being rapidly heating, or a combusion process, it is important not only to measure the time displacement of a sample and its acceleration, but to measure the change in the temperature distribution of the sample over time. For this purpose, we have developed a new Multi-Spectral Optics. By mounting combining a high-speed camera with our Multi-Spectral Optics system, we have successfully acquired a temperature distribution map and its color image simultaneously. In our system, a color image is composed with three spectrum images from wavelengths, 450 nm, 550 nm and 750 nm. A temperature distribution map can be created from two images in the near infra-red wavelengths, 750 nm and 850 nm, which were obtained by applying the ratio temperature pyrometry method. However, in order to observe and analyze rapid deformation of a sample, it is important to capture vivid images in color. This task requires additional external light. Since a high intensity of emitted light will cause an error in temperature, it is very difficult correctly to measure temperature and deformation of the sample at the same time. Temperature measured with near infra-red lights is not be influenced by the external surrounding light. In particular, for taking photos of welding phenomena, it is possible to capture clear images with excessive lighting without affecting temperature measurement. Moreover, in combustion phenomenon, it is possible to avoid the influence of chemiluminescence caused by radicals such as C2 in flame.

  4. Application of permutation to lossless compression of multispectral thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnavut, Ziya; Narumalani, Sunil

    1996-12-01

    The goal of data compression is to find shorter representations for any given data. In a data storage application, this s done in order to save storage space on an auxiliary device or, in the case of a communication scenario, to increase channel throughput. Because remotely sensed data require tremendous amounts of transmission and storage space, it is essential to find good algorithms that utilize the spatial and spectral characteristics of these data to compress them. A new technique is presented that uses a spectral and spatial correlation to create orderly data for the compression of multispectral remote sensing data, such as those acquired by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor system. The method described simply compresses one of the bands using the standard Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression, and then orders the next band's data with respect to the previous sorting permutation. Then, the move-to-front coding technique is used to lower the source entropy before actually encoding the data. Owing to the correlation between visible bands of TM images, it was observed that this method yields tremendous gain on these brands (on an average 0.3 to 0.5 bits/pixel compared with lossless JPEG) and can be successfully used for multispectral images where the spectral distances between bands are close.

  5. Building Keypoint Mappings on Multispectral Images by a Cascade of Classifiers with a Resurrection Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the boosting technique for detecting objects, this paper proposes a cascade structure with a resurrection mechanism to establish keypoint mappings on multispectral images. The cascade structure is composed of four steps by utilizing best bin first (BBF, color and intensity distribution of segment (CIDS, global information and the RANSAC process to remove outlier keypoint matchings. Initial keypoint mappings are built with the descriptors associated with keypoints; then, at each step, only a small number of keypoint mappings of a high confidence are classified to be incorrect. The unclassified keypoint mappings will be passed on to subsequent steps for determining whether they are correct. Due to the drawback of a classification rule, some correct keypoint mappings may be misclassified as incorrect at a step. Observing this, we design a resurrection mechanism, so that they will be reconsidered and evaluated by the rules utilized in subsequent steps. Experimental results show that the proposed cascade structure combined with the resurrection mechanism can effectively build more reliable keypoint mappings on multispectral images than existing methods.

  6. Classification of peacock feather reflectance using principal component analysis similarity factors from multispectral imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A; Vukusic, Pete

    2015-04-20

    Iridescent structural colors in biology exhibit sophisticated spatially-varying reflectance properties that depend on both the illumination and viewing angles. The classification of such spectral and spatial information in iridescent structurally colored surfaces is important to elucidate the functional role of irregularity and to improve understanding of color pattern formation at different length scales. In this study, we propose a non-invasive method for the spectral classification of spatial reflectance patterns at the micron scale based on the multispectral imaging technique and the principal component analysis similarity factor (PCASF). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach and its component methods by detailing its use in the study of the angle-dependent reflectance properties of Pavo cristatus (the common peacock) feathers, a species of peafowl very well known to exhibit bright and saturated iridescent colors. We show that multispectral reflectance imaging and PCASF approaches can be used as effective tools for spectral recognition of iridescent patterns in the visible spectrum and provide meaningful information for spectral classification of the irregularity of the microstructure in iridescent plumage.

  7. Aerosol optical thickness of Mt. Etna volcanic plume retrieved by means of the Airborne Multispectral Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the European MVRRS project (Mitigation of Volcanic Risk by Remote Sensing Techniques, in June 1997 an airborne campaign was organised on Mt. Etna to study different characteristics of the volcanic plume emitted by the summit craters in quiescent conditions. Digital images were collected with the Airborne Multispectral Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS, together with ground-based measurements. MIVIS images were used to calculate the aerosol optical thickness of the volcanic plume. For this purpose, an inversion algorithm was developed based on radiative transfer equations and applied to the upwelling radiance data measured by the sensor. This article presents the preliminary results from this inversion method. One image was selected following the criteria of concomitant atmospheric ground-based measurements necessary to model the atmosphere, plume centrality in the scene to analyse the largest plume area and cloudless conditions. The selected image was calibrated in radiance and geometrically corrected. The 6S (Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum radiative transfer model was used to invert the radiative transfer equation and derive the aerosol optical thickness. The inversion procedure takes into account both the spectral albedo of the surface under the plume and the topographic effects on the refl ected radiance, due to the surface orientation and elevation. The result of the inversion procedure is the spatial distribution of the plume optical depth. An average value of 0.1 in the wavelength range 454-474 nm was found for the selected measurement day.

  8. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA and discrete wavelet transform (DWT were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  9. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Integration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Dick; Byrd, Don; Christensen, Wynn; Henson, Tammy; Krumel, Les; Rappoport, William; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1999-01-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82 along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38 across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 m. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than 20 m over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA

  10. Nonlinear Fusion of Multispectral Citrus Fruit Image Data with Information Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue of vison-based automatic harvesting manipulators is the difficulty in the correct fruit identification in the images under natural lighting conditions. Mostly, the solution has been based on a linear combination of color components in the multispectral images. However, the results have not reached a satisfactory level. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes a robust nonlinear fusion method to augment the original color image with the synchronized near infrared image. The two images are fused with Daubechies wavelet transform (DWT in a multiscale decomposition approach. With DWT, the background noises are reduced and the necessary image features are enhanced by fusing the color contrast of the color components and the homogeneity of the near infrared (NIR component. The resulting fused color image is classified with a C-means algorithm for reconstruction. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated with the statistical F measure in comparison to some existing methods using linear combinations of color components. The results show that the fusion of information in different spectral components has the advantage of enhancing the image quality, therefore improving the classification accuracy in citrus fruit identification in natural lighting conditions.

  11. Potential of multispectral imaging for real-time determination of colour change and moisture distribution in carrot slices during hot air dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-03-15

    Colour and moisture content are important indices in quality monitoring of dehydrating carrot slices during dehydration process. This study investigated the potential of using multispectral imaging for real-time and non-destructive determination of colour change and moisture distribution during the hot air dehydration of carrot slices. Multispectral reflectance images, ranging from 405 to 970 nm, were acquired and then calibrated based on three chemometrics models of partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back propagation neural network (BPNN), respectively. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN considerably improved the prediction performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.991, root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP)=1.482% and residual predictive deviation (RPD)=11.378 for moisture content. It was concluded that multispectral imaging has an excellent potential for rapid, non-destructive and simultaneous determination of colour change and moisture distribution of carrot slices during dehydration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pancam: A Multispectral Imaging Investigation on the NASA 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Maki, J.; Schwochert, M.; Dingizian, A.; Brown, D.; Morris, R. V.; Arneson, H. M.; Johnson, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the six science payload elements carried on each of the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MER; Figure 1) is the Panoramic Camera System, or Pancam. Pancam consists of three major components: a pair of digital CCD cameras, the Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA), and a radiometric calibration target. The PMA provides the azimuth and elevation actuation for the cameras as well as a 1.5 meter high vantage point from which to image. The calibration target provides a set of reference color and grayscale standards for calibration validation, and a shadow post for quantification of the direct vs. diffuse illumination of the scene. Pancam is a multispectral, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging system, with a field of regard provided by the PMA that extends across 360 of azimuth and from zenith to nadir, providing a complete view of the scene around the rover in up to 12 unique wavelengths. The major characteristics of Pancam are summarized.

  13. Multispectral image compression algorithm based on spectral clustering and wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Qiao, Weidong; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Hong; Xue, Bin; Tao, Jinyou

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a method based on spectral clustering and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed, which is based on the problem of the high degree of space-time redundancy in the current multispectral image compression algorithm. First, the spectral images are grouped by spectral clustering methods, and the clusters of similar heights are grouped together to remove the redundancy of the spectra. Then, wavelet transform and coding of the class representative are performed, and the space redundancy is eliminated, and the difference composition is applied to the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) and wavelet transform. Experimental results show that with JPEG2000 and upon KLT + DWT algorithm, compared with the method has better peak signal-to-noise ratio and compression ratio, and it is suitable for compression of different spectral bands.

  14. Core segment 15008 - Regolith stratigraphy at Apennine Front Station 2 using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Meloy, A.; Hawke, B. R.; Nagle, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    High precision multispectral images for Apennine Front core segment 15008 are presented. These data have a spatial resolution less than approximately 0.5 mm and are analyzed for their compositional information using image analysis techniques. The stratigraphy of the regolith sampled by 15008 is documented here as three distinct zones, the most prominent of which is a feldspathic fragment-rich zone with a chaotic fabric that occurs between 10 and 18 cm depth. It is suggested that this material is the primary rim crest deposit of the local 10 m crater. Above this zone the stratigraphy is more horizontal in nature. Below this zone the soil is observed to be relatively homogeneous with no distinctive structure to 23 cm depth.

  15. Approaching bathymetry estimation from high resolution multispectral satellite images using a neuro-fuzzy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corucci, Linda; Masini, Andrea; Cococcioni, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses bathymetry estimation from high resolution multispectral satellite images by proposing an accurate supervised method, based on a neuro-fuzzy approach. The method is applied to two Quickbird images of the same area, acquired in different years and meteorological conditions, and is validated using truth data. Performance is studied in different realistic situations of in situ data availability. The method allows to achieve a mean standard deviation of 36.7 cm for estimated water depths in the range [-18, -1] m. When only data collected along a closed path are used as a training set, a mean STD of 45 cm is obtained. The effect of both meteorological conditions and training set size reduction on the overall performance is also investigated.

  16. Blind source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, July; Perez, Sandra; Montoya, Yonatan; Botina, Deivid; Garzón, Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Blind Source Separation methods (BSS) aim for the decomposition of a given signal in its main components or source signals. Those techniques have been widely used in the literature for the analysis of biomedical images, in order to extract the main components of an organ or tissue under study. The analysis of skin images for the extraction of melanin and hemoglobin is an example of the use of BSS. This paper presents a proof of concept of the use of source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral Images. The images are acquired with an interference filter-based imaging system. The images are processed by means of two algorithms: Independent Components analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization. In both cases, it is possible to obtain maps that quantify the concentration of the main chromophores present in aortic tissue. Also, the algorithms allow for spectral absorbance of the main tissue components. Those spectral signatures were compared against the theoretical ones by using correlation coefficients. Those coefficients report values close to 0.9, which is a good estimator of the method's performance. Also, correlation coefficients lead to the identification of the concentration maps according to the evaluated chromophore. The results suggest that Multi/hyper-spectral systems together with image processing techniques is a potential tool for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue.

  17. A comparative study of lossless compression algorithms on multispectral imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Michael; Gottipati, Srikanth; Gladkova, Irina; Rabinowitz, Malka; Alabi, Paul; George, Tence; Pacheco, Amnia

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of current lossless compression algorithms for data from a representative selection of satellite based earth science multispectral imagers. The study includes the performance of compression algorithms on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer(AVHRR), SEVIRI, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) imager, as well as a subset of MODIS bands as a proxy for the upcoming GOES-R series. SEVIRI aboard the ESA/EUMETSAT operated Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites is a geostationary imager. The AVHRR aboard the NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites and MODIS aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites have polar orbits. Thus this study will present representatives from both polar and geostationary orbiting imagers. The imagers we include have sensors for both reflected and emissive radiance. We also note that the older satellites have coarser quantizations and present our conclusions on the impact on compression ratios. Faced with a enormous growing large volume of data on a new emerging current generation images from faster scanning, finer spatial resolution, and greater spectral resolution, this study provides a comparison of current compression algorithms as a baseline for future work. With growing satellite Earth science multispectral imager volume data, it becomes increasingly important to evaluate which compression algorithms are most appropriate for data management in transmission and archiving. This comparative compression study uses a wide range standard implementations of the leading lossless compression algorithms. Examples include image compression algorithms such as PNG and JPEG2000, and widely-used file compression formats such as BZIP2 and 7z. This study includes a comparison with the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommended Szip software which uses the extended-Rice lossless compression algorithm as well as the most recent recommended compression standard which

  18. High throughput phenotyping of tomato spotted wilt disease in peanuts using unmanned aerial systems and multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of visible and near infrared light reflected by plants varies depending on their health. In this study, multispectral images were acquired by quadcopter for detecting tomato spot wilt virus amongst twenty genetic varieties of peanuts. The plants were visually assessed to acquire ground ...

  19. Radical advancement in multi-spectral imaging for autonomous vehicles (UAVs, UGVs, and UUVs) using active compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Brian F.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to demonstrate a compact, multi-spectral, refractive imaging systems using active optical compensation. Compared to a comparable, conventional lens system, our system has an increased operational bandwidth, provides for spectral selectivity and, non-mechanically corrects aberrations induced by the wavelength dependent properties of a passive refractive optical element (i.e. lens). The compact nature and low power requirements of the system lends itself to small platforms such as autonomous vehicles. In addition, the broad spectral bandwidth of our system would allow optimized performance for both day/night use, and the multi-spectral capability allows for spectral discrimination and signature identification.

  20. A novel method for non-destructive determination of hair photo-induced damage based on multispectral imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Qu, Hao; Xiong, Can; Liu, Changhong; Zheng, Lei

    2017-03-31

    Extended exposure to sunlight may give rise to chemical and physical damages of human hairs. In this work, we report a novel method for non-destructive quantification of hair photodamage via multispectral imaging (MSI) technology. We show that the multispectral reflectance value in near-infrared region has a strong correlation with hair photodamage. More specifically, the hair segments with longer growing time and the same hair root segment after continuous ultraviolet (UV) irradiation displaying more severe photodamage observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed significantly higher multispectral reflectance value. Besides, the multispectral reflectance value of hair segments with different growing time was precisely reproduced by exposing the same hair root segment to specific durations of UV irradiation, suggesting that MSI can be adequately applied to determine the sunlight exposure time of the hair. The loss of cystine content of photodamaged hairs was identified to be the main factor that physiologically contributed to the morphological changes of hair surface fibers and hence the variation of their multispectral reflectance spectra. Considering the environmental information recording nature of hairs, we believe that MSI for non-destructive evaluation of hair photodamage would prove valuable for assessing sunlight exposure time of a subject in the biomedical fields.

  1. Correlating multispectral imaging and compositional data from the Mars Exploration Rovers and implications for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bell, James F.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to infer compositional information about distant targets based on multispectral imaging data, we investigated methods of relating Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam multispectral remote sensing observations to in situ alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS)-derived elemental abundances and Mössbauer (MB)-derived abundances of Fe-bearing phases at the MER field sites in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. The majority of the partial correlation coefficients between these data sets were not statistically significant. Restricting the targets to those that were abraded by the rock abrasion tool (RAT) led to improved Pearson’s correlations, most notably between the red–blue ratio (673 nm/434 nm) and Fe3+-bearing phases, but partial correlations were not statistically significant. Partial Least Squares (PLS) calculations relating Pancam 11-color visible to near-IR (VNIR; ∼400–1000 nm) “spectra” to APXS and Mössbauer element or mineral abundances showed generally poor performance, although the presence of compositional outliers led to improved PLS results for data from Meridiani. When the Meridiani PLS model for pyroxene was tested by predicting the pyroxene content of Gusev targets, the results were poor, indicating that the PLS models for Meridiani are not applicable to data from other sites. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification of Gusev crater data showed mixed results. Of the 24 Gusev test regions of interest (ROIs) with known classes, 11 had >30% of the pixels in the ROI classified correctly, while others were mis-classified or unclassified. k-Means clustering of APXS and Mössbauer data was used to assign Meridiani targets to compositional classes. The clustering-derived classes corresponded to meaningful geologic and/or color unit differences, and SIMCA classification using these classes was somewhat successful, with >30% of pixels correctly classified in 9 of the 11 ROIs with known classes. This work shows

  2. Hyperspectral to multispectral imaging for detection of tree nuts and peanut traces in wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current industrial environments there is an increasing need for practical and inexpensive quality control systems to detect the foreign food materials in powder food processing lines. This demand is especially important for the detection of product adulteration with traces of highly allergenic products, such as peanuts and tree nuts. Manufacturing industries dealing with the processing of multiple powder food products present a substantial risk for the contamination of powder foods with traces of tree nuts and other adulterants, which might result in unintentional ingestion of nuts by the sensitised population. Hence, the need for an in-line system to detect nut traces at the early stages of food manufacturing is of crucial importance. In this present work, a feasibility study of a spectral index for revealing adulteration of tree nut and peanut traces in wheat flour samples with hyperspectral images is reported. The main nuts responsible for allergenic reactions considered in this work were peanut, hazelnut and walnut. Enhanced contrast between nuts and wheat flour was obtained after the application of the index. Furthermore, the segmentation of these images by selecting different thresholds for different nut and flour mixtures allowed the identification of nut traces in the samples. Pixels identified as nuts were counted and compared with the actual percentage of peanut adulteration. As a result, the multispectral system was able to detect and provide good visualisation of tree nut and peanut trace levels down to 0.01% by weight. In this context, multispectral imaging could operate in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to save time, money and skilled labour on product quality control. This approach could enable not only a few selected samples to be assessed but also to extensively incorporate quality control surveyance on product processing lines.

  3. Evaluation of port-wine stain treatment outcomes using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy; Krol, Alfons L.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2012-02-01

    Port-wine Stain (PWS) is a vascular malformation characterized by ectasia of superficial dermal capillaries. The flash-lamp pumped pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment has been the mainstay of PWS for the last decade. Despite the success of the PDL in significantly fading the PWS, the overall cure rate is less than 10%. The precise efficacy of an individual PDL treatment is hard to evaluate and the treatment outcome is measured by visual observation of clinical fading. A hand-held multi-spectral imaging system was developed to image PWS before and after PDL treatment. In an NIH-funded pilot study multi-spectral camera was used to image PWS in children (2- 17 years). Oxygen saturation (S) and blood content (B) of PWS before and after the treatment was determined by analysis of the reflectance spectra. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated during follow up visits of the patients. One of the major causes of failure of laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWS) is reperfusion of the lesion after laser treatment. Oxygen saturation and blood content maps of PWS before and after treatment can predict regions of reperfusion and subsequent failure of the treatment. The ability to measure reperfusion and to predict lesions or areas susceptible to reperfusion, will help in selection of patients/lesions for laser treatment and help to optimize laser dosimetry for maximum effect. The current studies also should provide a basis for monitoring of future alternative therapies or enhancers of laser treatment in resistant cases.

  4. Color Restoration of RGBN Multispectral Filter Array Sensor Images Based on Spectral Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulhee Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A multispectral filter array (MSFA image sensor with red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR filters is useful for various imaging applications with the advantages that it obtains color information and NIR information simultaneously. Because the MSFA image sensor needs to acquire invisible band information, it is necessary to remove the IR cut-offfilter (IRCF. However, without the IRCF, the color of the image is desaturated by the interference of the additional NIR component of each RGB color channel. To overcome color degradation, a signal processing approach is required to restore natural color by removing the unwanted NIR contribution to the RGB color channels while the additional NIR information remains in the N channel. Thus, in this paper, we propose a color restoration method for an imaging system based on the MSFA image sensor with RGBN filters. To remove the unnecessary NIR component in each RGB color channel, spectral estimation and spectral decomposition are performed based on the spectral characteristics of the MSFA sensor. The proposed color restoration method estimates the spectral intensity in NIR band and recovers hue and color saturation by decomposing the visible band component and the NIR band component in each RGB color channel. The experimental results show that the proposed method effectively restores natural color and minimizes angular errors.

  5. Single-Image Super Resolution for Multispectral Remote Sensing Data Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, L.; Körner, M.

    2016-06-01

    In optical remote sensing, spatial resolution of images is crucial for numerous applications. Space-borne systems are most likely to be affected by a lack of spatial resolution, due to their natural disadvantage of a large distance between the sensor and the sensed object. Thus, methods for single-image super resolution are desirable to exceed the limits of the sensor. Apart from assisting visual inspection of datasets, post-processing operations—e.g., segmentation or feature extraction—can benefit from detailed and distinguishable structures. In this paper, we show that recently introduced state-of-the-art approaches for single-image super resolution of conventional photographs, making use of deep learning techniques, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN), can successfully be applied to remote sensing data. With a huge amount of training data available, end-to-end learning is reasonably easy to apply and can achieve results unattainable using conventional handcrafted algorithms. We trained our CNN on a specifically designed, domain-specific dataset, in order to take into account the special characteristics of multispectral remote sensing data. This dataset consists of publicly available SENTINEL-2 images featuring 13 spectral bands, a ground resolution of up to 10m, and a high radiometric resolution and thus satisfying our requirements in terms of quality and quantity. In experiments, we obtained results superior compared to competing approaches trained on generic image sets, which failed to reasonably scale satellite images with a high radiometric resolution, as well as conventional interpolation methods.

  6. Calibration and Initial Analysis of Multispectral Images of Mars from the VIS Subsystem on the Mars Odyssey THEMIS Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Wolff, M. J.; Christensen, P. R.; Mehall, G.; Malin, M.; Caplinger, M.; Ravine, M.; Cherednik, L. L.; Bender, K. C.; Murray, K.; THEMIS Team

    2002-12-01

    The Visible Imaging Subsystem (VIS) on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft THEMIS instrument is a 5-color, 1024x1024 interline transfer CCD camera that is currently acquiring high spatial resolution multispectral images from Mars orbit. The five VIS filters have central bandpasses of 425, 540, 654, 749, and 860 nm, bandwidths of approximately 50 nm, and are bonded in 1000x200 pixel strips directly onto the VIS CCD. Odyssey is in a near-polar orbit, traveling southward on the dayside of the planet, and VIS acquires multispectral images by using along-track motion to step the ground footprint through each desired filter. Nominal ground surface resolution is approximately 18 meters per pixel, and summing modes are available that can provide 36 m or 72 m resolution for increased surface coverage. As of early September, just over 1.1% of the surface of Mars has been imaged by VIS during daytime (between about 3:00 pm to 4:15 pm local solar time), with about 80% of that coverage at 18 m/pixel and 20% of that coverage at 36 or 72 m/pixel. About 55% of the VIS image sequences are monochrome (650 nm) for geomorphology studies; the rest are multispectral sequences in 2 to 5 colors. VIS data are calibrated using a combination of pre-flight radiometric calibration measurements and in-flight flatfield and bias data. We have developed a VIS calibration pipeline that performs a bias subtraction, removes CCD frame transfer smear, and applies a flatfield correction for pixel-to-pixel nonuniformities. In addition, raw VIS data contain a substantial stray light component that is modeled and removed as part of our pipeline process using data collected in flight. VIS images corrected for these instrumental effects are then converted to radiances using pre-flight integrating sphere measurements. Division by the solar spectrum at Mars convolved to the VIS bandpasses results in a set of PDS-format image cubes calibrated to radiance factor (I/F). We validate our derived radiances by comparing

  7. Detection of live larvae in cocoons of Bathyplectes curculionis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) using visible/near-infrared multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Ytting, Nanna Karkov; Skovgård, Henrik; Boelt, Birte

    2018-03-15

    Multispectral (MS) imaging system is a non-destructive method that has potential in reducing labour and time required for quality control in the production of beneficial arthropods like the parasitoid Bathyplectus curculionis. In Denmark, a project is focusing on possible use of B. curculionis in augmentative control of Hypera weevil pests in white clover seed production where cocoons of the parasitoid remain as a by-product of seed processing. Only a fraction of the by-product contains live parasitoid larvae and requires an effective method for sorting the live cocoons for later augmentative control of the pest. Therefore, the study aims to identify live larval cocoons of B. curculionis using the MS imaging system. The live and dead cocoons were identified by the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) model with an accuracy of 91% and 80% (error rate 14%) in the training set and predicted with accuracy of 89% and 81% (error rate 15%) in the test set, respectively. The reflectance from the near-infrared region contained valuable information in identifying live cocoons as compared to the visible region. The MS imaging system is a rapid method for the separation of live and dead cocoons of B. curculionis. This study shows a clear prospect of developing an MS imaging system to facilitate sorting of live and dead cocoons and to optimise augmentative control of Hypera weevil pests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive in vivo multispectral optoacoustic imaging of apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer using indocyanine green conjugated phosphatidylserine monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannadorai, Ravi Kumar; Udumala, Sunil Kumar; Sidney, Yu Wing Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive and nonradioactive imaging modality to track and image apoptosis during chemotherapy of triple negative breast cancer is much needed for an effective treatment plan. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a biomarker transiently exposed on the outer surface of the cells during apoptosis. Its externalization occurs within a few hours of an apoptotic stimulus by a chemotherapy drug and leads to presentation of millions of phospholipid molecules per apoptotic cell on the cell surface. This makes PS an abundant and accessible target for apoptosis imaging. In the current work, we show that PS monoclonal antibody tagged with indocyanine green (ICG) can help to track and image apoptosis using multispectral optoacoustic tomography multispectral optoacoustic imaging does not involve the use of radioactivity, the longer the circulatory time of the PS antibody can be exploited to monitor apoptosis over a period of time without multiple injections of commonly used imaging probes such as Tc-99m Annexin V or F-18 ML10. The proposed apoptosis imaging technique involving multispectral optoacoustic tomography, monoclonal antibody, and near-infrared absorbing fluorescent marker can be an effective tool for imaging apoptosis and treatment planning.

  9. Joint pattern recognition/data compression concept for ERTS multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique which jointly applies clustering and source encoding concepts to obtain data compression. The cluster compression technique basically uses clustering to extract features from the measurement data set which are used to describe characteristics of the entire data set. In addition, the features may be used to approximate each individual measurement vector by forming a sequence of scalar numbers which define each measurement vector in terms of the cluster features. This sequence, called the feature map, is then efficiently represented by using source encoding concepts. A description of a practical cluster compression algorithm is given and experimental results are presented to show trade-offs and characteristics of various implementations. Examples are provided which demonstrate the application of cluster compression to multispectral image data of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

  10. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Robert J., E-mail: robert.cooper@ucl.ac.uk; Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C. [Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  11. Imaging molecular signatures for clinical detection of scleroderma in the hand by multispectral photoacoustic elastic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubin; Zhang, Lingyan; Li, Sushu; Han, Xinai; Yuan, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Scleroderma (SD) is a rare autoimmune disease, which is divided into 2 categories: the localized SD and systemic SD. The localized SD mainly causes skin thickening of the fingers, whereas the systemic SD can further affect the blood vessels and internal organs. In this pilot study, the multispectral photoacoustic elastic tomography (PAET) imaging technique was used to recover the quantitative physiological and elastic properties of biological tissues for the diagnosis of SD. Three healthy subjects and 3 SD patients were recruited and clinically examined by a rheumatologist, and then their hand/fingers were scanned by both magnetic resonance imaging and our home-made photoacoustic imaging system. Physiological parameters including oxygen saturation (S T O 2 ), deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) and oxy-hemoglobin (HbO 2 ) concentrations and mechanical properties such as bulk elastic modulus images were reconstructed using the developed PAET reconstruction method. Our imaging results demonstrated that the physiological and elastic parameters exhibit striking differences between the SD and normal fingers, indicating that these biomarkers can serve as molecular signatures for early detection of SD. These quantitative physiological properties and bulk modulus may also pave a new path for improved understanding the pathological mechanism of SD. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.

  13. Comparison of hyperspectral transformation accuracies of multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI and EO-1 ALI images for detecting minerals in a geothermal prospect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2018-03-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing generally provides more detailed spectral information and greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing for identification of surface materials. However, there have been no hyperspectral imagers that cover the entire Earth surface. This lack points to a need for producing pseudo-hyperspectral imagery by hyperspectral transformation from multispectral images. We have recently developed such a method, a Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Transformation Algorithm (PHITA), which transforms Landsat 7 ETM+ images into pseudo-EO-1 Hyperion images using multiple linear regression models of ETM+ and Hyperion band reflectance data. This study extends the PHITA to transform TM, OLI, and EO-1 ALI sensor images into pseudo-Hyperion images. By choosing a part of the Fish Lake Valley geothermal prospect area in the western United States for study, the pseudo-Hyperion images produced from the TM, ETM+, OLI, and ALI images by PHITA were confirmed to be applicable to mineral mapping. Using a reference map as the truth, three main minerals (muscovite and chlorite mixture, opal, and calcite) were identified with high overall accuracies from the pseudo-images (> 95% and > 42% for excluding and including unclassified pixels, respectively). The highest accuracy was obtained from the ALI image, followed by ETM+, TM, and OLI images in descending order. The TM, OLI, and ALI images can be alternatives to ETM+ imagery for the hyperspectral transformation that aids the production of pseudo-Hyperion images for areas without high-quality ETM+ images because of scan line corrector failure, and for long-term global monitoring of land surfaces.

  14. Design, fabrication and characterization of resonant metamaterial filters for infrared multispectral imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commandré, Mireille, E-mail: mireille.commandre@fresnel.fr [Centrale Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France); Vial, Benjamin [Centrale Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France); Silios Technologies, ZI Peynier-Rousset, rue Gaston Imbert Prolongée, 13790 Peynier (France); Tisserand, Stéphane; Roux, Laurent [Silios Technologies, ZI Peynier-Rousset, rue Gaston Imbert Prolongée, 13790 Peynier (France); Dallaporta, Hervé; Bedu, Frédéric [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CiNaM, UMR 7325, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Demésy, Guillaume; Nicolet, André; Zolla, Frédéric [Centrale Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France)

    2015-10-01

    We present the design of infrared filters for multispectral imaging applications, based on square annular aperture arrays in a thin gold film. These structures function as band pass filters with large bandwidth and high transmission at resonance. A modal analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is performed to obtain quickly the features of this resonance. The center wavelength can be tuned in the 7–12 μm range while keeping constant the quality factor and maximum transmission by scaling all transverse dimensions of the apertures, which allows to obtain filters with different centering on the same substrate in a single fabrication step. Large area samples have been fabricated on a silicon wafer by electronic lithography. Spectrophotometric measurements are in rather good agreement with numerical predictions. In addition, angle resolved measurements show that the filters are quite tolerant to the incidence angle up to 30° for both polarizations which is consistent with our FEM simulations. Finally, a complete sensitivity analysis allows us to evaluate acceptable opto-geometric tolerances of fabrication and thus to improve reproducibility on large areas. The impact of fabrication defaults (rounded corners, aperture anisotropy, aperture edge roughness, sloping aperture edges) on the filtering performances is analyzed. The simulations of realistic structures allow to explain and reduce the differences between measured and simulated spectra. - Highlights: • A theoretical and experimental study of resonant transmission of aperture arrays • Transmission filters in the infrared range are developed for multispectral imaging. • Impact of fabrication defaults, rounded corners, and aperture anisotropy is analyzed. • The simulations of realistic structures increase agreement measurement/simulation.

  15. Off-resonance suppression for multispectral MR imaging near metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, J Chiel; van Yperen, Gert H; Blume, Ulrike A; Bos, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Metal artifact reduction in MRI within clinically feasible scan-times without through-plane aliasing. Existing metal artifact reduction techniques include view angle tilting (VAT), which resolves in-plane distortions, and multispectral imaging (MSI) techniques, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) and multi-acquisition with variable resonances image combination (MAVRIC), that further reduce image distortions, but significantly increase scan-time. Scan-time depends on anatomy size and anticipated total spectral content of the signal. Signals outside the anticipated spatial region may cause through-plane back-folding. Off-resonance suppression (ORS), using different gradient amplitudes for excitation and refocusing, is proposed to provide well-defined spatial-spectral selectivity in MSI to allow scan-time reduction and flexibility of scan-orientation. Comparisons of MSI techniques with and without ORS were made in phantom and volunteer experiments. Off-resonance suppressed SEMAC (ORS-SEMAC) and outer-region suppressed MAVRIC (ORS-MAVRIC) required limited through-plane phase encoding steps compared with original MSI. Whereas SEMAC (scan time: 5'46") and MAVRIC (4'12") suffered from through-plane aliasing, ORS-SEMAC and ORS-MAVRIC allowed alias-free imaging in the same scan-times. ORS can be used in MSI to limit the selected spatial-spectral region and contribute to metal artifact reduction in clinically feasible scan-times while avoiding slice aliasing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neural network multispectral satellite images classification of volcanic ash plumes in a cloudy scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Picchiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the potential use of neural networks in the characterization of eruptive events monitored by satellite, through fast and automatic classification of multispectral images. The algorithm has been developed for the MODIS instrument and can easily be extended to other similar sensors. Six classes have been defined paying particular attention to image regions that represent the different surfaces that could possibly be found under volcanic ash clouds. Complex cloudy scenarios composed by images collected during the Icelandic eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull (2010 and Grimsvötn (2011 volcanoes have been considered as test cases. A sensitivity analysis on the MODIS TIR and VIS channels has been performed to optimize the algorithm. The neural network has been trained with the first image of the dataset, while the remaining data have been considered as independent validation sets. Finally, the neural network classifier’s results have been compared with maps classified with several interactive procedures performed in a consolidated operational framework. This comparison shows that the automatic methodology proposed achieves a very promising performance, showing an overall accuracy greater than 84%, for the Eyjafjalla - jökull event, and equal to 74% for the Grimsvötn event. 

  17. Effects of energy space smoothing and projection space normalization on multispectral PET image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, R.; Msaki, P.; Bentourkia, M.; Lecomte, R.

    1996-01-01

    Independent processing of multispectral positron emission tomography (MSPET) data in individual energy frames has the potential to improve system sensitivity and the accuracy of energy dependent scatter correction. However, statistical fluctuations due to the use of multiple energy windows and low system detection efficiency severely undermine this potential. These limitations have been overcome without resolution loss by smoothing data in the energy space to suppress statistical fluctuations and by normalizing detector efficiency in the spatial domain to minimize systematic errors. The effectiveness of these corrections was evaluated by comparing images acquired in different energy frames with and without energy space smoothing. Smoothing improved the sharpness and contrast and decreased noise of images. The FWHM and FWTM evaluated from line source images confirmed an earlier postulate which stated that smoothing in the energy space has no effect on image resolution since such process does not move counts across lines of response (LORs). It was concluded that smoothing in the energy space in conjunction with normalization in the projection space is a prerequisite for subsequent energy-dependent data processing such as scatter correction

  18. Effects of multispectral excitation on the sensitivity of molecular optoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-08-01

    Molecular optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging typically relies on the spectral identification of absorption signatures from molecules of interest. To achieve this, two or more excitation wavelengths are employed to sequentially illuminate tissue. Due to depth-related spectral dependencies and detection related effects, the multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) spectral unmixing problem presents a complex non-linear inversion operation. So far, different studies have showcased the spectral capacity of optoacoustic imaging, without however relating the performance achieved to the number of wavelengths employed. Overall, the dependence of the sensitivity and accuracy of optoacoustic imaging as a function of the number of illumination wavelengths has not been so far comprehensively studied. In this paper we study the impact of the number of excitation wavelengths employed on the sensitivity and accuracy achieved by molecular optoacoustic tomography. We present a quantitative analysis, based on synthetic MSOT datasets and observe a trend of sensitivity increase for up to 20 wavelengths. Importantly we quantify this relation and demonstrate an up to an order of magnitude sensitivity increase of multi-wavelength illumination vs. single or dual wavelength optoacoustic imaging. Examples from experimental animal studies are finally utilized to support the findings. In vivo MSOT imaging of a mouse brain bearing a tumor that is expressing a near-infrared fluorescent protein. (a) Monochromatic optoacoustic imaging at the peak excitation wavelength of the fluorescent protein. (b) Overlay of the detected bio-distribution of the protein (red pseudocolor) on the monochromatic optoacoustic image. (c) Ex vivo validation by means of cryoslicing fluorescence imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Using Multispectral Analysis in GIS to Model the Potential for Urban Agriculture in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Cooper, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    In the context of growing concerns about the international food system’s dependence on fossil fuels, soil degradation, climate change, and other diverse issues, a number of initiatives have arisen to develop and implement sustainable agricultural practices. Many seeking to reform the food system look to urban agriculture as a means to create localized, sustainable agricultural production, while simultaneously providing a locus for community building, encouraging better nutrition, and promoting the rebirth of depressed urban areas. The actual impact of such system, however, is not well understood, and many critics of urban agriculture regard its implementation as impractical and unrealistic. This project uses multispectral imagery from United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Imagery Program with a one-meter resolution to quantify the potential for increasing urban agriculture in an effort to create a sustainable food system in Philadelphia. Color infrared images are classified with a minimum distance algorithm in ArcGIS to generate baseline data on vegetative cover in Philadelphia. These data, in addition to mapping on the ground, form the basis of a model of land suitable for conversion to agriculture in Philadelphia, which will help address questions related to potential yields, workforce, and energy requirements. This research will help city planners, entrepreneurs, community leaders, and citizens understand how urban agriculture can contribute to creating a sustainable food system in a major North American city.

  20. Watershed image segmentation and cloud classification from multispectral MSG-SEVIRI imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Albano; Mendez, Zebensui; Munoz, Jonathan; Perez, Juan C.; Armas Padilla, Montserrat

    Clouds play an important role in the Earth's climate system, modulating the radiative energy budget. Consequently, a good knowledge of their radiative properties and of the spatial and temporal distribution of cloud cover is necessary. Earth observation satellites provide us with long time-series data on a global scale and they have become essential tools for the continuous monitoring of cloud properties. Thus, for example, ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project), ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) or CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) projects have provided essential datasets to improve our understanding of the effects of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing on climate. The problem of cloud segmentation and classification from multispectral satellite imagery is considered in this work. Many methods, based on both supervised and unsupervised classi- fication, have been developed previously, but most of them are based on independent pixel processing. In this study, a segmentation algorithm is applied as a first step, in order to get a partition of the original image into a set of meaningful objects. This segmentation is performed through order-invariant watershed algorithms, based on immersion and toboggan approaches. The multi-scale gradient magnitude has been obtained using a multi-resolution morphological operator from spectral data and texture information, computed through fractal and local binary patterns (LBP) methods. To reduce the oversegmentation produced by the watershed technique, a fast region merging is applied, using region dissimilarity functions that takes into account internal and boundary features.Once the objects present in the image have been segmented, they are classified using a multi-threshold classification method based on physical considerations and radiative and texture features. The proposed technique is applied to MSG-SEVIRI multispectral data, including both daylight and nighttime images. This

  1. Intraoperative measurement of bowel oxygen saturation using a multispectral imaging laparoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T; Arya, Shobhit; Stoyanov, Danail; Singh, Mohan; Hanna, George B; Elson, Daniel S

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 ) has potentially important applications in procedures such as organ transplantation or colorectal surgery, where successful reperfusion affects the viability and integrity of repaired tissues. In this paper a liquid crystal tuneable filter-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope is described. Motion-induced image misalignments are reduced, using feature-based registration, before regression of the tissue reflectance spectra to calculate relative quantities of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin. The laparoscope was validated in vivo, during porcine abdominal surgery, by making parallel MSI and blood gas measurements of the small bowel vasculature. Ischaemic conditions were induced by local occlusion of the mesenteric arcade and monitored using the system. The MSI laparoscope was capable of measuring StO2 over a wide range (30-100%) with a temporal error of ± 7.5%. The imager showed sensitivity to spatial changes in StO2 during dynamic local occlusions, as well as tracking the recovery of tissues post-occlusion.

  2. Experimental Study of Light Propagation in Apple Tissues Using a Multispectral Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Lamine Askoura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at highlighting the role played by the skin in the light propagation through the apple flesh. A multispectral Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR steady-state imaging setup based on the use of four continuous laser sources (633, 763, 784, and 852 nm and a charge–coupled–device (CCD camera was developed to record light diffusion inside apple tissues. Backscattering images and light reflectance profiles were studied to reveal optical features of three whole and half-cut apple varieties with and without skin. The optical absorption and scattering properties (μa, μ’s of intact apples and peeled apples were also retrieved in reflectance mode, using an optimal sensing range of 2.8–10 mm. A relative difference for Δμa ranging from 3.4% to 24.7% was observed for intact apples with respect to peeled apples. Under the same conditions, no significant changes were noted for Δμ’s, which ranged from 0.1% to 1.7%. These findings show that the apple skin cannot be ignored when using Vis-NIR optical imaging as a non-destructive sensing means to reveal major quality attributes of fruits.

  3. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI

  4. Potential use of multispectral imaging technology to identify moisture content and water-holding capacity in cooked pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wu; Li, Peijun; Niu, Xiangli; Chen, Conggui; Zheng, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The traditional detection methods for moisture content (MC) and water-holding capacity (WHC) in cooked pork sausages (CPS) are destructive, time consuming, require skilled personnel and are not suitable for online industry applications. The goal of this work was to explore the potential of multispectral imaging (MSI) in combination with multivariate analysis for the identification of MC and WHC in CPS. Spectra and textures of 156 CPS treated by six salt concentrations (0-2.5%) were analyzed using different calibration models to find the most optimal results of predicting MC and WHC in CPS. By using the fused data of spectra and textures, partial least squares regression models performed well for determining the MC and WHC, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.949 and 0.832, respectively. Additionally, their spatial distribution in CPS could be visualized via applying prediction equations to transfer each pixel in the image. Results of satisfactory detection and visualization of the MC and WHC showed that MSI has the potential to serve as a rapid and non-destructive method for use in sausage industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A combined use of multispectral and SAR images for ship detection and characterization through object based image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Martina; Gianinetto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Marine routes represent a huge portion of commercial and human trades, therefore surveillance, security and environmental protection themes are gaining increasing importance. Being able to overcome the limits imposed by terrestrial means of monitoring, ship detection from satellite has recently prompted a renewed interest for a continuous monitoring of illegal activities. This paper describes an automatic Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to detect vessels made of different materials in various sea environments. The combined use of multispectral and SAR images allows for a regular observation unrestricted by lighting and atmospheric conditions and complementarity in terms of geographic coverage and geometric detail. The method developed adopts a region growing algorithm to segment the image in homogeneous objects, which are then classified through a decision tree algorithm based on spectral and geometrical properties. Then, a spatial analysis retrieves the vessels' position, length and heading parameters and a speed range is associated. Optimization of the image processing chain is performed by selecting image tiles through a statistical index. Vessel candidates are detected over amplitude SAR images using an adaptive threshold Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm prior the object based analysis. Validation is carried out by comparing the retrieved parameters with the information provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), when available, or with manual measurement when AIS data are not available. The estimation of length shows R2=0.85 and estimation of heading R2=0.92, computed as the average of R2 values obtained for both optical and radar images.

  6. SINGLE-IMAGE SUPER RESOLUTION FOR MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING DATA USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liebel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In optical remote sensing, spatial resolution of images is crucial for numerous applications. Space-borne systems are most likely to be affected by a lack of spatial resolution, due to their natural disadvantage of a large distance between the sensor and the sensed object. Thus, methods for single-image super resolution are desirable to exceed the limits of the sensor. Apart from assisting visual inspection of datasets, post-processing operations—e.g., segmentation or feature extraction—can benefit from detailed and distinguishable structures. In this paper, we show that recently introduced state-of-the-art approaches for single-image super resolution of conventional photographs, making use of deep learning techniques, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN, can successfully be applied to remote sensing data. With a huge amount of training data available, end-to-end learning is reasonably easy to apply and can achieve results unattainable using conventional handcrafted algorithms. We trained our CNN on a specifically designed, domain-specific dataset, in order to take into account the special characteristics of multispectral remote sensing data. This dataset consists of publicly available SENTINEL-2 images featuring 13 spectral bands, a ground resolution of up to 10m, and a high radiometric resolution and thus satisfying our requirements in terms of quality and quantity. In experiments, we obtained results superior compared to competing approaches trained on generic image sets, which failed to reasonably scale satellite images with a high radiometric resolution, as well as conventional interpolation methods.

  7. New multispectral MRI data fusion technique for white matter lesion segmentation: method and comparison with thresholding in FLAIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del C Valdes Hernandez, Maria; Ferguson, Karen J.; Chappell, Francesca M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Brain tissue segmentation by conventional threshold-based techniques may have limited accuracy and repeatability in older subjects. We present a new multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis approach for segmenting normal and abnormal brain tissue, including white matter lesions (WMLs). We modulated two 1.5T MR sequences in the red/green colour space and calculated the tissue volumes using minimum variance quantisation. We tested it on 14 subjects, mean age 73.3 ± 10 years, representing the full range of WMLs and atrophy. We compared the results of WML segmentation with those using FLAIR-derived thresholds, examined the effect of sampling location, WML amount and field inhomogeneities, and tested observer reliability and accuracy. FLAIR-derived thresholds were significantly affected by the location used to derive the threshold (P = 0.0004) and by WML volume (P = 0.0003), and had higher intra-rater variability than the multispectral technique (mean difference ± SD: 759 ± 733 versus 69 ± 326 voxels respectively). The multispectral technique misclassified 16 times fewer WMLs. Initial testing suggests that the multispectral technique is highly reproducible and accurate with the potential to be applied to routinely collected clinical MRI data. (orig.)

  8. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated.

  9. Detection and classification of citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum using multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanei Ghooshkhaneh, Narges; Golzarian, Mahmood Reza; Mamarabadi, Mojtaba

    2018-01-04

    Fungal decay is a prevalent condition that mainly occurs during transportation of products to consumers (from harvest to consumption) and adversely affects postharvest operations and sales of citrus fruit. There are a variety of methods to control pathogenic fungi, including UV-assisted removal of fruit with suspected infection before storage, which is a time-consuming task and associated with human health risks. Therefore it is essential to adopt efficient and dependable alternatives for early decay detection. In this study, detection of orange decay caused by Penicillium genus fungi was examined using spectral imaging, a novel automated inspection technique for agricultural products. The reflectance parameter (including mean reflectance) and reflectance distribution parameters (including standard deviation and skewness) of surfaces were extracted from decayed and rotten regions of infected samples and healthy regions of non-infected samples. The classification accuracy of rotten, decayed and healthy regions at 4 and 5 days after fungal inoculation was 98.6 and 100% respectively using the mean and skewness of 500 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) spectra. Comparison of results between healthy and infected samples showed that early real-time detection of Penicillium digitatum using multispectral imaging was possible within the near-infrared (NIR) range. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Automatic Object-Oriented Roundabouts Extrction from High Resolution Multispectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, W.

    2017-09-01

    Road roundabouts, a typical class of road facilities to avoid collision, are generally not directed extracted in existing road extraction methods. This paper presents a novel four-step approach for automatic vegetated roundabout extractions from high resolution multispectral satellite images, which combines object-oriented extraction, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification and spatial relationship estimation. Firstly, after proper preconditioning, the vegetated roundabouts are extracted by object-oriented extract algorithm in ENVI with rules that simultaneously taking area, roundness and vegetation index (NDVI) into consideration. After a certain number of experiments, the set of three items' thresholds can be found, which may stand as the general rules for vegetated roundabouts extraction in similar conditions. Next, the roads are classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the outputs are several band shaped polygons. Then, the holes in road polygons will be detected by examining the topological relation in ArcGIS. Lastly, since the margin of extracted roundabout and the biggest detected hole may not strictly coincide, by comparing the distance between central points of both the extracted roundabout and the hole with the threshold, convincing determination can be made. The proposed automatic approach has been proved to have very high production accuracy that all above 85 % in each case of the test set, which is good enough for automatic vegetated roundabouts extraction from high resolution remote sensing images without manual interpretation.

  11. GENIE: A HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR FEATURE CLASSIFICATION IN MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. PERKINS; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    We consider the problem of pixel-by-pixel classification of a multi-spectral image using supervised learning. Conventional supervised classification techniques such as maximum likelihood classification and less conventional ones such as neural networks, typically base such classifications solely on the spectral components of each pixel. It is easy to see why the color of a pixel provides a nice, bounded, fixed dimensional space in which these classifiers work well. It is often the case however, that spectral information alone is not sufficient to correctly classify a pixel. Maybe spatial neighborhood information is required as well. Or may be the raw spectral components do not themselves make for easy classification, but some arithmetic combination of them would. In either of these cases we have the problem of selecting suitable spatial, spectral or spatio-spectral features that allow the classifier to do its job well. The number of all possible such features is extremely large. How can we select a suitable subset? We have developed GENIE, a hybrid learning system that combines a genetic algorithm that searches a space of image processing operations for a set that can produce suitable feature planes, and a more conventional classifier which uses those feature planes to output a final classification. In this paper we show that the use of a hybrid GA provides significant advantages over using either a GA alone or more conventional classification methods alone. We present results using high-resolution IKONOS data, looking for regions of burned forest and for roads.

  12. Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marcu, Laura

    2014-06-01

    We report the development and validation of a hybrid intravascular diagnostic system combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for cardiovascular imaging applications. A prototype FLIm system based on fluorescence pulse sampling technique providing information on artery biochemical composition was integrated with a commercial IVUS system providing information on artery morphology. A customized 3-Fr bimodal catheter combining a rotational side-view fiberoptic and a 40-MHz IVUS transducer was constructed for sequential helical scanning (rotation and pullback) of tubular structures. Validation of this bimodal approach was conducted in pig heart coronary arteries. Spatial resolution, fluorescence detection efficiency, pulse broadening effect, and lifetime measurement variability of the FLIm system were systematically evaluated. Current results show that this system is capable of temporarily resolving the fluorescence emission simultaneously in multiple spectral channels in a single pullback sequence. Accurate measurements of fluorescence decay characteristics from arterial segments can be obtained rapidly (e.g., 20 mm in 5 s), and accurate co-registration of fluorescence and ultrasound features can be achieved. The current finding demonstrates the compatibility of FLIm instrumentation with in vivo clinical investigations and its potential to complement conventional IVUS during catheterization procedures.

  13. Force adaptive multi-spectral imaging with an articulated robotic endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, David P; Payne, Christopher J; Shang, Jianzhong; Sauvage, Vincent; Newton, Richard; Elson, Daniel; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in optical spectroscopic techniques have permitted in vivo, in situ cellular and molecular sensing and imaging to allow for real-time tissue characterization, functional assessment, and intraoperative guidance. The small area sensed by these probes, however, presents unique challenges when attempting to obtain useful tissue information in-vivo due to the need to maintain constant distance or contact with the target, and tissue deformation. In practice, the effective area can be increased by translating the tip of the probe over the tissue surface and generating functional maps of the underlying tissue response. However, achieving such controlled motions under manual guidance is very difficult, particularly since the probe is typically passed down the instrument channel of a flexible endoscope. This paper describes a force adaptive multi-spectral imaging system integrated with an articulated robotic endoscope that allows a constant contact force to be maintained between the probe and the tissue as the robot tip is actuated across complex tissue profiles. Detailed phantom and ex-vivo tissue validation is provided.

  14. Multispectral Imaging Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells in Negatively Enriched Peripheral Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brandon; Lustberg, Maryam; Summers, Thomas A; Chalmers, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    A variety of biomarkers are present on cells in peripheral blood of patients with a variety of disorders, including solid tumor malignancies. While rare, characterization of these cells for specific protein levels with the advanced technology proposed, will lead to future validation studies of blood samples as "liquid biopsies" for the evaluation of disease status and therapeutic response. While circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been isolated in the blood samples of patients with solid tumors, the exact role of CTCs as clinically useful predictive markers is still debated. Current commercial technology has significant bias in that a positive selection technology is used that preassumes specific cell surface markers (such as EpCAM) are present on CTCs. However, CTCs with low EpCAM expression have been experimentally demonstrated to be more likely to be missed by this method. In contrast, this application uses a previously developed, technology that performs a purely negative enrichment methodology on peripheral blood, yielding highly enriched blood samples that contain CTCs as well as other, undefined cell types. The focus of this contribution is the use of multispectral imaging of epifluorescent, microscopic images of these enriched cells in order to help develop clinically relevant liquid biopsies from peripheral blood samples.

  15. METimage: an innovative multi-spectral imaging radiometer for the EUMETSAT polar system follow-on satellite mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Matthias; Brüns, Christian; Pillukat, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The evolving needs of the meteorological community concerning the EUMETSAT Polar System follow-on satellite mission (Post-EPS) require the development of a high-performance multi-spectral imaging radiometer. Recognizing these needs, Jena Optronik GmbH proposed an innovative instrument concept, which comprises a high flexibility to adapt to user requirements as a very important feature. Core parameters like ground sampling distance (GSD), number and width of spectral channels, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization control and calibration facilities can be chosen in a wide range without changing the basic instrument configuration. Core item of the METimage instrument is a rotating telescope scanner to cover the large swath width of about 2800 km, which all polar platforms need for global coverage. The de-rotated image facilitates use of in-field spectral channel separation, which allows tailoring individual channel GSD (ground sampling distance) and features like TDI (time delay and integration). State-of-the-art detector arrays and readout electronics can easily be employed. Currently, the German DLR Space Agency, Jena- Optronik GmbH and AIM Infrarot Module GmbH work together implementing core assemblies of METimage: the rotating telescope scanner and the infrared detectors. The METimage instrument phase B study was kicked-off in September 2008. Germany intents to provide METimage as an in-kind contribution of the first METimage flight model to the EUMETSAT Post-EPS Programme.

  16. TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION OF BROADLEAVED FORESTS IN NAGANO, CENTRAL JAPAN, USING AIRBORNE LASER DATA AND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to classify three coniferous and ten broadleaved tree species by combining airborne laser scanning (ALS data and multispectral images. The study area, located in Nagano, central Japan, is within the broadleaved forests of the Afan Woodland area. A total of 235 trees were surveyed in 2016, and we recorded the species, DBH, and tree height. The geographical position of each tree was collected using a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS device. Tree crowns were manually detected using GNSS position data, field photographs, true-color orthoimages with three bands (red-green-blue, RGB, 3D point clouds, and a canopy height model derived from ALS data. Then a total of 69 features, including 27 image-based and 42 point-based features, were extracted from the RGB images and the ALS data to classify tree species. Finally, the detected tree crowns were classified into two classes for the first level (coniferous and broadleaved trees, four classes for the second level (Pinus densiflora, Larix kaempferi, Cryptomeria japonica, and broadleaved trees, and 13 classes for the third level (three coniferous and ten broadleaved species, using the 27 image-based features, 42 point-based features, all 69 features, and the best combination of features identified using a neighborhood component analysis algorithm, respectively. The overall classification accuracies reached 90 % at the first and second levels but less than 60 % at the third level. The classifications using the best combinations of features had higher accuracies than those using the image-based and point-based features and the combination of all of the 69 features.

  17. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo. PMID:25027002

  18. Multispectral imaging for highly accurate analysis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasaturo, Angela; Di Blasio, Stefania; Verweij, Dagmar; Blokx, Willeke A M; van Krieken, J Han; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Figdor, Carl G

    2017-03-01

    The quality and quantity of the infiltration of immune cells into tumour tissues have substantial impacts on patients' clinical outcomes, and are associated with response to immunotherapy. Therefore, the precise analysis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is becoming an important additional pathological biomarker. Analysis of TILs is usually performed semiquantitatively by pathologists on haematoxylin and eosin-stained or immunostained tissue sections. However, automated quantification outperforms semiquantitative approaches, and is becoming the standard. Owing to the presence of melanin pigment, this approach is seriously hampered in melanoma, because the spectrum of melanin lies close to that of commonly used immunohistochemical stains. Aim of this study is to overcome the technical issues due to the presence of melanin for an automated and accurate quantification of TILs in melanoma. Here, we successfully applied a novel multispectral imaging (MSI) technique to enumerate T cells in human primary melanomas. This microscopy technique combines imaging with spectroscopy to obtain both quantitative expression data and the tissue distributions of different cellular markers. We demonstrate that MSI allows complete and accurate analysis of TILs, successfully avoiding the blurring of images by melanin pigments, in whole tissue slide primary melanoma lesions, which could otherwise not be accurately detected by conventional digital image methodologies. Our study highlights the potential of MSI for accurate assessment of immune cell infiltrates, including those in notoriously difficult tissues, such as pigmented melanomas. Quantification of tumour infiltration by different immune cell types is crucial in the search for new biomarkers to predict patient responses to immunotherapies. Our findings show that this innovative microscopy technique is an important extension of the armamentarium of pathologists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development of detailed design concepts for the EarthCARE multi-spectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Dan; Escadero, Isabel; Chang, Mark; Gode, Sophie

    2017-11-01

    The EarthCARE mission is dedicated to the study of clouds by observations from a satellite in low Earth orbit. The payload will include major radar and LIDAR instruments, supported by a multi-spectral imager (MSI) and a broadband radiometer. The paper describes development of detailed design concepts for the MSI, and analysis of critical performance parameters. The MSI will form Earth images at 500m ground sample distance (GSD) over a swath width of 150km, from a nominal platform altitude of around 400km. The task of the MSI is to provide spatial context for the single-point measurements made by the radar and LIDAR systems; it will image Earth in 7 spectral bands: one visible, one near-IR, two short-wave IR and three thermal IR. The MSI instrument will be formed in two parts: a visible-NIR-SWIR (VNS) system, radiometrically calibrated using a sunilluminated diffuser, and a thermal IR (TIR) system calibrated using cold space and an internal black-body. The VNS system will perform push-broom imaging, using linear array detectors (silicon and InGaAs) and 4 separate lenses. The TIR system will use a microbolometer array detector in a time delay and integration (TDI) mode. Critical issues discussed for the VNS system include detector selection and detailed optical design trade-offs. The latter are related to the desirability of dichroics to achieve a common aperture, which influences the calibration hardware and lens design. The TIR system's most significant problems relate to control of random noise and bias errors, requiring optimisation of detector operation and calibration procedures.

  20. Introducing a Low-Cost Mini-Uav for - and Multispectral-Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendig, J.; Bolten, A.; Bareth, G.

    2012-07-01

    's image covers an area of approx. 50 by 40 m. The sensor's resolution is 160 x 120 pixel and the field of view is 28° (H) x 21° (V). According to the producer, absolute accuracy for temperature is ±1 °C and the thermal sensitivity is >0.1 K. Additionally, the MK-Okto is equipped with Tetracam's Mini MCA. The Mini MCA in our study is a four band multispectral imaging system. Total weight is 700 g and spectral characteristics can be modified by filters between 400 and 1000 nm. In this study, three bands with a width of 10 nm (green: 550 nm, red: 671 nm, NIR1: 800 nm) and one band of 20 nm width (NIR2: 950 nm) have been used. Even so the MK-Okto is able to carry both sensors at the same time, the imaging systems were used separately for this contribution. First results of a combined thermal- and multispectral MK-Okto campaign in 2011 are presented and evaluated for a sugarbeet field experiment examining pathogens and drought stress.

  1. INTRODUCING A LOW-COST MINI-UAV FOR THERMAL- AND MULTISPECTRAL-IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bendig

    2012-07-01

    100 m, the camera's image covers an area of approx. 50 by 40 m. The sensor's resolution is 160 x 120 pixel and the field of view is 28° (H x 21° (V. According to the producer, absolute accuracy for temperature is ±1 °C and the thermal sensitivity is >0.1 K. Additionally, the MK-Okto is equipped with Tetracam's Mini MCA. The Mini MCA in our study is a four band multispectral imaging system. Total weight is 700 g and spectral characteristics can be modified by filters between 400 and 1000 nm. In this study, three bands with a width of 10 nm (green: 550 nm, red: 671 nm, NIR1: 800 nm and one band of 20 nm width (NIR2: 950 nm have been used. Even so the MK-Okto is able to carry both sensors at the same time, the imaging systems were used separately for this contribution. First results of a combined thermal- and multispectral MK-Okto campaign in 2011 are presented and evaluated for a sugarbeet field experiment examining pathogens and drought stress.

  2. Simultaneous Evaluation of Cerebral Hemodynamics and Light Scattering Properties of the In Vivo Rat Brain Using Multispectral Diffuse Reflectance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Mustari, Afrina; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2017-05-07

    The simultaneous evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics and the light scattering properties of in vivo rat brain tissue is demonstrated using a conventional multispectral diffuse reflectance imaging system. This system is constructed from a broadband white light source, a motorized filter wheel with a set of narrowband interference filters, a light guide, a collecting lens, a video zoom lens, and a monochromatic charged-coupled device (CCD) camera. An ellipsoidal cranial window is made in the skull bone of a rat under isoflurane anesthesia to capture in vivo multispectral diffuse reflectance images of the cortical surface. Regulation of the fraction of inspired oxygen using a gas mixture device enables the induction of different respiratory states such as normoxia, hyperoxia, and anoxia. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the measured multispectral diffuse reflectance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) is then performed to visualize the two-dimensional maps of hemodynamics and the light scattering properties of the in vivo rat brain.

  3. Removal of Optically Thick Clouds from Multi-Spectral Satellite Images Using Multi-Frequency SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Eckardt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for the reconstruction of pixels contaminated by optical thick clouds in multi-spectral Landsat images using multi-frequency SAR data. A number of reconstruction techniques have already been proposed in the scientific literature. However, all of the existing techniques have certain limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, we expose the Closest Spectral Fit (CSF method proposed by Meng et al. to a new, synergistic approach using optical and SAR data. Therefore, the term Closest Feature Vector (CFV is introduced. The technique facilitates an elegant way to avoid radiometric distortions in the course of image reconstruction. Furthermore the cloud cover removal is independent from underlying land cover types and assumptions on seasonality, etc. The methodology is applied to mono-temporal, multi-frequency SAR data from TerraSAR-X (X-Band, ERS (C-Band and ALOS Palsar (L-Band. This represents a way of thinking about Radar data not as foreign, but as additional data source in multi-spectral remote sensing. For the assessment of the image restoration performance, an experimental framework is established and a statistical evaluation protocol is designed. The results show the potential of a synergistic usage of multi-spectral and SAR data to overcome the loss of data due to cloud cover.

  4. RIS4E at Kilauea's December 1974 Flow: Assessing the Integration of Portable Infrared Multispectral Imaging into Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, G.; Rogers, D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Young, K. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    Portable, hand-held geochemical and mineralogical instruments are potentially valuable tools to be used in sample collection and site documentation activities during future human missions to planetary bodies. The main purpose of these instruments is to allow fast in situ analyses of rocks and soils so that astronauts can quickly document sample characteristics and context, and make strategic decisions on sample selection in the context of predefined scientific objectives. As part of the Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration (RIS4E) investigation, we test the performance of candidate instruments and operational procedures through fieldwork expeditions that simulate lunar and asteroid environments on Earth. Our field site, Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, is a lava field with landscape and mineralogy that represent a reasonable analog to the Moon and some differentiated asteroids. In this paper, we focus on one of the candidate instruments, the infrared multispectral imager. During field expeditions in 2014 and 2015, we explored the applicability of the multispectral imager in manned surface operations. From these expeditions, our instrument calibration techniques and data collection procedures matured. Current work focuses on assessment of data product usefulness, through comparison with detailed laboratory chemical and spectral measurements, and field descriptions of surface textures. Our field expeditions will continue in other analog locations to obtain improved understanding of the multispectral imager and its role in sampling workflow so that science return can be maximized in future human missions.

  5. Hyperspectral versus multispectral crop-productivity modeling and type discrimination for the HyspIRI mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, Isabella; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Huete, Alfredo; Slonecker, E. Terrence; Platonov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Precise monitoring of agricultural crop biomass and yield quantities is critical for crop production management and prediction. The goal of this study was to compare hyperspectral narrowband (HNB) versus multispectral broadband (MBB) reflectance data in studying irrigated cropland characteristics of five leading world crops (cotton, wheat, maize, rice, and alfalfa) with the objectives of: 1. Modeling crop productivity, and 2. Discriminating crop types. HNB data were obtained from Hyperion hyperspectral imager and field ASD spectroradiometer, and MBB data were obtained from five broadband sensors: Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Indian Remote Sensing (IRS), IKONOS, and QuickBird. A large collection of field spectral and biophysical variables were gathered for the 5 crops in Central Asia throughout the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Overall, the HNB and hyperspectral vegetation index (HVI) crop biophysical models explained about 25% greater variability when compared with corresponding MBB models. Typically, 3 to 7 HNBs, in multiple linear regression models of a given crop variable, explained more than 93% of variability in crop models. The evaluation of λ1 (400–2500 nm) versus λ2 (400–2500 nm) plots of various crop biophysical variables showed that the best two-band normalized difference HVIs involved HNBs centered at: (i) 742 nm and 1175 nm (HVI742-1175), (ii) 1296 nm and 1054 nm (HVI1296-1054), (iii) 1225 nm and 697 nm (HVI1225-697), and (iv) 702 nm and 1104 nm (HVI702-1104). Among the most frequently occurring HNBs in various crop biophysical models, 74% were located in the 1051–2331 nm spectral range, followed by 10% in the moisture sensitive 970 nm, 6% in the red and red-edge (630–752 nm), and the remaining 10% distributed between blue (400–500 nm), green (501–600 nm), and NIR (760–900 nm).Discriminant models, used for discriminating 3 or 4 or 5 crop types, showed

  6. Assessment of advanced glycated end product accumulation in skin using auto fluorescence multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marcus; Favilla, Riccardo; Strömberg, Tomas

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have shown that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a role in both the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and are closely linked to inflammation and atherosclerosis. AGEs accumulate in skin and can be detected using their auto fluorescence (AF). A significant correlation exists between AGE AF and the levels of AGEs as obtained from skin biopsies. A commercial device, the AGE Reader, has become available to assess skin AF for clinical purposes but, while displaying promising results, it is limited to single-point measurements performed in contact to skin tissue. Furthermore, in vivo imaging of AGE accumulation is virtually unexplored. We proposed a non-invasive, contact-less novel technique for quantifying fluorescent AGE deposits in skin tissue using a multispectral imaging camera setup (MSI) during ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Imaging involved applying a region-of-interest mask, avoiding specular reflections and a simple calibration. Results of a study conducted on 16 subjects with skin types ranging from fair to deeply pigmented skin, showed that AGE measured with MSI in forearm skin was significantly correlated with the AGE reference method (AGE Reader on forearm skin, R=0.68, p=0.005). AGE measured in facial skin was borderline significantly related to AGE Reader on forearm skin (R=0.47, p=0.078). These results support the use of the technique in devices for non-touch measurement of AGE content in either facial or forearm skin tissue over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An investigation of multispectral imaging for the mapping of pigments in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Berns, Roy S.; Taplin, Lawrence A.; Coddington, James

    2008-02-01

    Compared with colorimetric imaging, multispectral imaging has the advantage of retrieving spectral reflectance factor of each pixel of a painting. Using this spectral information, pigment mapping is concerned with decomposing the spectrum into its constituent pigments and their relative contributions. The output of pigment mapping is a series of spatial concentration maps of the pigments comprising the painting. This approach was used to study Vincent van Gogh's The Starry Night. The artist's palette was approximated using ten oil pigments, selected from a large database of pigments used in oil paintings and a priori analytical research on one of his self portraits, executed during the same time period. The pigment mapping was based on single-constant Kubelka-Munk theory. It was found that the region of blue sky where the stars were located contained, predominantly, ultramarine blue while the swirling sky and region surrounding the moon contained, predominantly, cobalt blue. Emerald green, used in light bluish-green brushstrokes surrounding the moon, was not used to create the dark green in the cypresses. A measurement of lead white from Georges Seurat's La Grande Jatte was used as the white when mapping The Starry Night. The absorption and scattering properties of this white were replaced with a modern dispersion of lead white in linseed oil and used to simulate the painting's appearance before the natural darkening and yellowing of lead white oil paint. Pigment mapping based on spectral imaging was found to be a viable and practical approach for analyzing pigment composition, providing new insight into an artist's working method, the possibility for aiding in restorative inpainting, and lighting design.

  8. High Fidelity Multi-Mode Hyperspectral Multispectral Imager with Programmable Spectral Resolution, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II proposal introduces a fast multi-mode hyperspectral-multispectral (MM-HS-MS) sensor with programmable spectral resolution. The sensor brings the...

  9. Inflight Radiometric Calibration of New Horizons' Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C. J. A.; Parker, A. H.; Olkin, C. B.; Reuter, D. C.; Ennico, K.; Grundy, W. M.; Graps, A. L.; Harrison, K. P.; Throop, H. B.; Buie, M. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We discuss two semi-independent calibration techniques used to determine the inflight radiometric calibration for the New Horizons Multi-spectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC). The first calibration technique compares the measured number of counts (DN) observed from a number of well calibrated stars to those predicted using the component-level calibration. The ratio of these values provides a multiplicative factor that allows a conversation between the preflight calibration to the more accurate inflight one, for each detector. The second calibration technique is a channel-wise relative radiometric calibration for MVIC's blue, near-infrared and methane color channels using Hubble and New Horizons observations of Charon and scaling from the red channel stellar calibration. Both calibration techniques produce very similar results (better than 7% agreement), providing strong validation for the techniques used. Since the stellar calibration described here can be performed without a color target in the field of view and covers all of MVIC's detectors, this calibration was used to provide the radiometric keyword values delivered by the New Horizons project to the Planetary Data System (PDS). These keyword values allow each observation to be converted from counts to physical units; a description of how these keyword values were generated is included. Finally, mitigation techniques adopted for the gain drift observed in the near-infrared detector and one of the panchromatic framing cameras are also discussed.

  10. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  11. Multispectral Enhancement Method to Increase the Visual Differences of Tissue Structures in Stained Histopathology Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky A. Bautista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a multispectral enhancement scheme in which the spectral colors of the stained tissue-structure of interest and its background can be independently modified by the user to further improve their visualization and color discrimination. The colors of the background objects are modified by transforming their N-band spectra through an NxN transformation matrix, which is derived by mapping the representative samples of their original spectra to the spectra of their target colors using least mean square method. On the other hand, the color of the tissue structure of interest is modified by modulating the transformed spectra with the sum of the pixel’s spectral residual-errors at specific bands weighted through an NxN weighting matrix; the spectral error is derived by taking the difference between the pixel’s original spectrum and its reconstructed spectrum using the first M dominant principal component vectors in principal component analysis. Promising results were obtained on the visualization of the collagen fiber and the non-collagen tissue structures, e.g., nuclei, cytoplasm and red blood cells (RBC, in a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained image.

  12. Non-invasive detection of aflatoxin-contaminated figs using fluorescence and multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Habil; Güneş, Ali; Durmuş, Efkan; Kuşçu, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural products are prone to aflatoxin (AF)-producing moulds (Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus) during harvesting, drying, processing and also storage. AF is a mycotoxin that may cause liver cancer when consumed in amounts higher than allowed limits. Figs, like other agricultural products, are mostly affected by AF-producing moulds and these moulds usually produce kojic acid together with AF. Kojic acid is a fluorescent compound and exhibiting bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light. Using this fluorescence property, fig-processing plants manually select and remove the BGYF+ figs to reduce the AF level of the processed figs. Although manual selection is based on subjective criteria and strongly depends on the expertise level of the workers, it is known as the most effective way of removing AF-contaminated samples. However, during manual selection, workers are exposed to UV radiation and this brings skin health problems. In this study, we individually investigated the figs to measure their fluorescence level, surface mould concentration and AF levels and noted a strong correlation between mould concentration and BGYF and AF, and BGYF and surface. In addition to a pairwise correlation, we proposed a machine-vision and machine-learning approach to detect the AF-contaminated figs using their multispectral images under UV light. The figs were classified in two different approaches considering their surface mould and AF level with error rates of 9.38% and 11.98%, respectively.

  13. Quantitation of Protein Expression and Co-localization Using Multiplexed Immuno-histochemical Staining and Multispectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Tyler M; Ricke, Emily A; Drew, Sally A; Huang, Wei; Ricke, William A

    2016-04-08

    Immunohistochemistry is a commonly used clinical and research lab detection technique for investigating protein expression and localization within tissues. Many semi-quantitative systems have been developed for scoring expression using immunohistochemistry, but inherent subjectivity limits reproducibility and accuracy of results. Furthermore, the investigation of spatially overlapping biomarkers such as nuclear transcription factors is difficult with current immunohistochemistry techniques. We have developed and optimized a system for simultaneous investigation of multiple proteins using high throughput methods of multiplexed immunohistochemistry and multispectral imaging. Multiplexed immunohistochemistry is performed by sequential application of primary antibodies with secondary antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Different chromogens are used to detect each protein of interest. Stained slides are loaded into an automated slide scanner and a protocol is created for automated image acquisition. A spectral library is created by staining a set of slides with a single chromogen on each. A subset of representative stained images are imported into multispectral imaging software and an algorithm for distinguishing tissue type is created by defining tissue compartments on images. Subcellular compartments are segmented by using hematoxylin counterstain and adjusting the intrinsic algorithm. Thresholding is applied to determine positivity and protein co-localization. The final algorithm is then applied to the entire set of tissues. Resulting data allows the user to evaluate protein expression based on tissue type (ex. epithelia vs. stroma) and subcellular compartment (nucleus vs. cytoplasm vs. plasma membrane). Co-localization analysis allows for investigation of double-positive, double-negative, and single-positive cell types. Combining multispectral imaging with multiplexed immunohistochemistry and automated image acquisition is an

  14. SPLASSH: Open source software for camera-based high-speed, multispectral in-vivo optical image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ryan; Bouchard, Matthew B.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Camera-based in-vivo optical imaging can provide detailed images of living tissue that reveal structure, function, and disease. High-speed, high resolution imaging can reveal dynamic events such as changes in blood flow and responses to stimulation. Despite these benefits, commercially available scientific cameras rarely include software that is suitable for in-vivo imaging applications, making this highly versatile form of optical imaging challenging and time-consuming to implement. To address this issue, we have developed a novel, open-source software package to control high-speed, multispectral optical imaging systems. The software integrates a number of modular functions through a custom graphical user interface (GUI) and provides extensive control over a wide range of inexpensive IEEE 1394 Firewire cameras. Multispectral illumination can be incorporated through the use of off-the-shelf light emitting diodes which the software synchronizes to image acquisition via a programmed microcontroller, allowing arbitrary high-speed illumination sequences. The complete software suite is available for free download. Here we describe the software’s framework and provide details to guide users with development of this and similar software. PMID:21258475

  15. Optimized lighting method of applying shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of LED-multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Hu, Yajia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimized lighting method of applying a shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of light emitting diode (LED)-multispectral imaging system. The optimized lighting method is based on the linear response zone of the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and the spectral response of the camera. The auxiliary light at a higher sensitivity-camera area is introduced to increase the A/D quantization levels that are within the linear response zone of ADC and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The active light is modulated by the shaped-function signal to improve the gray-scale resolution of the image. And the auxiliary light is modulated by the constant intensity signal, which is easy to acquire the images under the active light irradiation. The least square method is employed to precisely extract the desired images. One wavelength in multispectral imaging based on LED illumination was taken as an example. It has been proven by experiments that the gray-scale resolution and the accuracy of information of the images acquired by the proposed method were both significantly improved. The optimum method opens up avenues for the hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue.

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of multispectral imaging in detecting central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Cheng, Yong; Pan, Xue; Jin, Enzhong; Li, Shanshan; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Xiaoxin

    2017-07-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a common and idiopathic retinal disorder that affects young to middle aged adults. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of eyes with CSCR using a light-emitting diode (LED)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) system and to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of MSI compared to fluorescein angiography (FA) in detecting CSCR. A total of 56 eyes among 52 patients with 1 or more retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) abnormality were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The patients underwent complete examination, including optical coherence tomography, FA, indocyanine-green angiography, and MSI. MSI images were retrospectively reviewed by experienced masked graders. Diagnoses that were made based on MSI alone were compared with those that were made using FA. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and the morphological features on MSI were summarized. Among 56 eyes in 52 patients, MSI detected 22 of 26 true-positive CSCR cases but missed 4 FA-confirmed lesions. Further, it correctly excluded 30 of 30 non-CSCR lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of MSI were 84.6 and 100%, respectively, for identifying CSCR. Using MSI, RPE leakage was observed in 25 (96.2%) of 26 eyes with CSCR, which was comparable to the performance of FA. Dome-shaped areas of signal, which corresponded to fluid accumulation associated with neurosensory retinal detachment or RPE detachment were observed in 23 (88.5%) of 26 eyes. As a non-invasive technique, MSI permitted the visualization of RPE leakage and neurosensory detachment and allowed good detection of CSCR in this selected clinical population. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:498-505, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Multispectral imaging system based on laser-induced fluorescence for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Del Franco, M.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Spizzichino, V.

    2016-10-01

    The development of portable sensors for fast screening of crime scenes is required to reduce the number of evidences useful to be collected, optimizing time and resources. Laser based spectroscopic techniques are good candidates to this scope due to their capability to operate in field, in remote and rapid way. In this work, the prototype of a multispectral imaging LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) system able to detect evidence of different materials on large very crowded and confusing areas at distances up to some tens of meters will be presented. Data collected as both 2D fluorescence images and LIF spectra are suitable to the identification and the localization of the materials of interest. A reduced scan time, preserving at the same time the accuracy of the results, has been taken into account as a main requirement in the system design. An excimer laser with high energy and repetition rate coupled to a gated high sensitivity ICCD assures very good performances for this purpose. Effort has been devoted to speed up the data processing. The system has been tested in outdoor and indoor real scenarios and some results will be reported. Evidence of the plastics polypropylene (PP) and polyethilene (PE) and polyester have been identified and their localization on the examined scenes has been highlighted through the data processing. By suitable emission bands, the instrument can be used for the rapid detection of other material classes (i.e. textiles, woods, varnishes). The activities of this work have been supported by the EU-FP7 FORLAB project (Forensic Laboratory for in-situ evidence analysis in a post blast scenario).

  18. Estimation of leaf nitrogen concentration on winter wheat by multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, Vincent; Marlier, Guillaume; Destain, Marie-France; Dumont, Benjamin; Mercatoris, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Precision agriculture can be considered as one of the solutions to optimize agricultural practice such as nitrogen fertilization. Nitrogen deficiency is a major limitation to crop production worldwide whereas excess leads to environmental pollution. In this context, some devices were developed as reflectance spot sensors for on-the-go applications to detect leaves nitrogen concentration deduced from chlorophyll concentration. However, such measurements suffer from interferences with the crop growth stage and the water content of plants. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the nitrogen status in winter wheat by using multispectral imaging. The proposed system is composed of a CMOS camera and a set of filters ranged from 450 nm to 950 nm and mounted on a wheel which moves due to a stepper motor. To avoid the natural irradiance variability, a white reference is used to adjust the integration time. The segmentation of Photosynthetically Active Leaves is performed by using Bayes theorem to extract their mean reflectance. In order to introduce information related to the canopy architecture, i.e. the crop growth stage, textural attributes are also extracted from raw images at different wavelength ranges. Nc was estimated by partial least squares regression (R² = 0.94). The best attribute was homogeneity extracted from the gray level co-occurrence matrix (R² = 0.91). In order to select in limited number of filters, best subset selection was performed. Nc could be estimated by four filters (450 +/- 40 nm, 500 +/- 20 nm, 650 +/- 40 nm, 800 +/- 50 nm) (R² = 0.91).

  19. Feasibility of combining spectra with texture data of multispectral imaging to predict heme and non-heme iron contents in pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Qin, Hao; Shi, Kefu; Zhou, Cunliu; Chen, Conggui; Hu, Xiaohua; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To precisely determine heme and non-heme iron contents in meat product, the feasibility of combining spectral with texture features extracted from multispectral imaging data (405-970 nm) was assessed. In our study, spectra and textures of 120 pork sausages (PSs) treated by different temperatures (30-80 °C) were analyzed using different calibration models including partial least squares regression (PLSR) and LIB support vector machine (Lib-SVM) for predicting heme and non-heme iron contents in PSs. Based on a combination of spectral and textural features, optimized PLSR models were obtained with determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.912 for heme and of 0.901 for non-heme iron prediction, which demonstrated the superiority of combining spectra with texture data. Results of satisfactory determination and visualization of heme and non-heme iron contents indicated that multispectral imaging could serve as a feasible approach for online industrial applications in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual light-emitting diode-based multichannel microscopy for whole-slide multiplane, multispectral and phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jun; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Zibang; Bian, Zichao; Guo, Kaikai; Nambiar, Aparna; Jiang, Yutong; Jiang, Shaowei; Zhong, Jingang; Choma, Michael; Zheng, Guoan

    2018-02-01

    We report the development of a multichannel microscopy for whole-slide multiplane, multispectral and phase imaging. We use trinocular heads to split the beam path into 6 independent channels and employ a camera array for parallel data acquisition, achieving a maximum data throughput of approximately 1 gigapixel per second. To perform single-frame rapid autofocusing, we place 2 near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at the back focal plane of the condenser lens to illuminate the sample from 2 different incident angles. A hot mirror is used to direct the near-infrared light to an autofocusing camera. For multiplane whole-slide imaging (WSI), we acquire 6 different focal planes of a thick specimen simultaneously. For multispectral WSI, we relay the 6 independent image planes to the same focal position and simultaneously acquire information at 6 spectral bands. For whole-slide phase imaging, we acquire images at 3 focal positions simultaneously and use the transport-of-intensity equation to recover the phase information. We also provide an open-source design to further increase the number of channels from 6 to 15. The reported platform provides a simple solution for multiplexed fluorescence imaging and multimodal WSI. Acquiring an instant focal stack without z-scanning may also enable fast 3-dimensional dynamic tracking of various biological samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Multispectral Imaging Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Gusev and Meridiani Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Athena Science

    2004-11-01

    Multispectral images from 400 to 1000 nm from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and Opportunity Pancams have provided new information on the morphology, physical properties, and mineralogy of rocks and soils at Gusev and Meridiani and have played a critical role in helping to choose specific targets for detailed compositional analyses using the rovers' arm instruments. Images within the Gusev plains reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with moderate- to high-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular hollows. Optically thick coverings or coatings of fine-grained ferric-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces show near-IR signatures consistent with mafic silicates like pyroxene or olivine. Imaging in the Columbia Hills reveals evidence for outcrop, layered materials, and a different style of physical and/or chemical weathering of some rocks than in the plains. At Meridiani, images within Eagle crater and in the plains during the traverse to Endurance crater reveal a low-albedo, generally flat and rock-free surface. Outcrops of higher-albedo, red, laminated rocks are observed within and around small craters, riftlike cracks in the plains, and well into Endurance crater. Fine-grained materials include dark ferrous-Fe rich basaltic sand, angular rock clasts, bright dust, and mm-size, low- and high-albedo spherical granules (spherules) that occur within and near the bright outcrop. Spectra of the low-albedo sand, small rock clasts, and one larger dark rock found on the plains show near-IR signatures consistent with the presence of pyroxene or olivine. Spectra of the dark spherules are consistent with the presence of crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, supporting their interpretation as concretions. Bright spherule spectra are consistent with dark spherules covered or coated by nanocrystalline ferric-rich dust. Spectra of the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence

  2. Automated melanoma detection with a novel multispectral imaging system: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomatis, Stefano; Carrara, Mauro; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Lualdi, Manuela; Tragni, Gabrina; Colombo, Ambrogio; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of a new spectroscopic system in the diagnosis of melanoma. This study involves a consecutive series of 1278 patients with 1391 cutaneous pigmented lesions including 184 melanomas. In an attempt to approach the 'real world' of lesion population, a further set of 1022 not excised clinically reassuring lesions was also considered for analysis. Each lesion was imaged in vivo by a multispectral imaging system. The system operates at wavelengths between 483 and 950 nm by acquiring 15 images at equally spaced wavelength intervals. From the images, different lesion descriptors were extracted related to the colour distribution and morphology of the lesions. Data reduction techniques were applied before setting up a neural network classifier designed to perform automated diagnosis. The data set was randomly divided into three sets: train (696 lesions, including 90 melanomas) and verify (348 lesions, including 53 melanomas) for the instruction of a proper neural network, and an independent test set (347 lesions, including 41 melanomas). The neural network was able to discriminate between melanomas and non-melanoma lesions with a sensitivity of 80.4% and a specificity of 75.6% in the 1391 histologized cases data set. No major variations were found in classification scores when train, verify and test subsets were separately evaluated. Following receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the resulting area under the curve was 0.85. No significant differences were found among areas under train, verify and test set curves, supporting the good network ability to generalize for new cases. In addition, specificity and area under ROC curve increased up to 90% and 0.90, respectively, when the additional set of 1022 lesions without histology was added to the test set. Our data show that performance of an automated system is greatly population dependent, suggesting caution in the comparison with results reported in the

  3. MODELLING CARRYING CAPACITY FOR THE THANDA PRIVATE GAME RESERVE, SOUTH AFRICA USING LANDSAT 8 MULTISPECTRAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Oumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands which consist of grasslands, shrublands and savannahs are used by wildlife for habitat and are the main source of forage for livestock. The assessment and monitoring of rangeland condition is one of the most important factors for rangeland scientists in order to calculate the carrying capacity of livestock with consideration for coexisting wildlife. This study assessed the potential of Landsat 8 multispectral bands and broadband vegetation indices to model woody vegetation parameters such as tree equivalents (TE and total leaf mass (LMASS for the Thanda Private Game Reserve using partial least squares regression (PLSR. The PLSR model predicted TE with an R2 value of 0.76 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 1411 TE/ha using an independent test dataset. LMASS was predicted with an R2 value of 0.67 and a RMSE of 853 kg/ha on an independent test dataset. The predictive models were then inverted to map TE and LMASS over the study area. The modelled TE and LMASS layers were integrated with conventional grazing and browse capacity models to map carrying capacity for the Game Reserve. The study indicates the potential of Landsat 8 multispectral data in carrying capacity modelling. The result is significant for rangeland monitoring in Southern Africa using remote sensing technologies.

  4. Robust and adaptive band-to-band image transform of UAS miniature multi-lens multispectral camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, Jyun-Ping; Rau, Jiann-Yeou; Haala, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    Utilizing miniature multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) cameras by mounting them on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has the benefits of convenience and flexibility to collect remote sensing imagery for precision agriculture, vegetation monitoring, and environment investigation applications. Most miniature MS cameras adopt a multi-lens structure to record discrete MS bands of visible and invisible information. The differences in lens distortion, mounting positions, and viewing angles among lenses mean that the acquired original MS images have significant band misregistration errors. We have developed a Robust and Adaptive Band-to-Band Image Transform (RABBIT) method for dealing with the band co-registration of various types of miniature multi-lens multispectral cameras (Mini-MSCs) to obtain band co-registered MS imagery for remote sensing applications. The RABBIT utilizes modified projective transformation (MPT) to transfer the multiple image geometry of a multi-lens imaging system to one sensor geometry, and combines this with a robust and adaptive correction (RAC) procedure to correct several systematic errors and to obtain sub-pixel accuracy. This study applies three state-of-the-art Mini-MSCs to evaluate the RABBIT method's performance, specifically the Tetracam Miniature Multiple Camera Array (MiniMCA), Micasense RedEdge, and Parrot Sequoia. Six MS datasets acquired at different target distances and dates, and locations are also applied to prove its reliability and applicability. Results prove that RABBIT is feasible for different types of Mini-MSCs with accurate, robust, and rapid image processing efficiency.

  5. Evaluation of laser treatment response of vascular skin disorders in relation to skin properties using multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, Rowland; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Rem, Alex; Couwenberg, Sharon; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    There can be a large variation in response between laser treatments of vascular malformations like port-wine stains even in one patient. This could be ascribed to variations in the skin properties like tint (melanin) and perfusion (redness) which will influence the effectiveness of the laser dosimetry. To obtain a better understanding of the relation between skin properties just before treatment, laser dosimetry and clinical response, a multi-spectral dermatoscope is applied. A sequence of calibrated images is captured from 400 to 720 nm. Images at the treatment laser wavelength (532 nm) show the absorbing structures during laser exposure. Images of different treatment sessions of one patient were matched with dedicated registration software to quantify the results of the laser treatment (change in blood vessels structure, effect on pigment). For feasibility, images were collected from 5 patients and used to determine the optimal wavelength combination strategies. The image matching software gives an objective impression of the improvement, e.g. the clearing of the port-wine stain over time or pigment reactions, which will facilitate the discussion with the patient about the end point of treatment. The multi-spectral dermatoscope and software developed enables the evaluation of large patient series which will result in objective data to advise the dermatologist on the optimal laser dosimetry in future in relation to the skin properties.

  6. [Multispectral Radiation Algorithm Based on Emissivity Model Constraints for True Temperature Measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei; Sun, Xiao-gang; Luan, Mei-sheng

    2015-10-01

    Temperature measurement is one of the important factors for ensuring product quality, reducing production cost and ensuring experiment safety in industrial manufacture and scientific experiment. Radiation thermometry is the main method for non-contact temperature measurement. The second measurement (SM) method is one of the common methods in the multispectral radiation thermometry. However, the SM method cannot be applied to on-line data processing. To solve the problems, a rapid inversion method for multispectral radiation true temperature measurement is proposed and constraint conditions of emissivity model are introduced based on the multispectral brightness temperature model. For non-blackbody, it can be drawn that emissivity is an increasing function in the interval if the brightness temperature is an increasing function or a constant function in a range and emissivity satisfies an inequality of emissivity and wavelength in that interval if the brightness temperature is a decreasing function in a range, according to the relationship of brightness temperatures at different wavelengths. The construction of emissivity assumption values is reduced from multiclass to one class and avoiding the unnecessary emissivity construction with emissivity model constraint conditions on the basis of brightness temperature information. Simulation experiments and comparisons for two different temperature points are carried out based on five measured targets with five representative variation trends of real emissivity. decreasing monotonically, increasing monotonically, first decreasing with wavelength and then increasing, first increasing and then decreasing and fluctuating with wavelength randomly. The simulation results show that compared with the SM method, for the same target under the same initial temperature and emissivity search range, the processing speed of the proposed algorithm is increased by 19.16%-43.45% with the same precision and the same calculation results.

  7. Imaging the distribution of photoswitchable probes with temporally-unmixed multispectral optoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Stiel, Andre C.; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Westmeyer, Gil G.; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Synthetic and genetically encoded chromo- and fluorophores have become indispensable tools for biomedical research enabling a myriad of applications in imaging modalities based on biomedical optics. The versatility offered by the optoacoustic (photoacoustic) contrast mechanism enables to detect signals from any substance absorbing light, and hence these probes can be used as optoacoustic contrast agents. While contrast versatility generally represents an advantage of optoacoustics, the strong background signal generated by light absorption in endogeneous chromophores hampers the optoacoustic capacity to detect a photo-absorbing agent of interest. Increasing the optoacoustic sensitivity is then determined by the capability to differentiate specific features of such agent. For example, multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) exploits illuminating the tissue at multiple optical wavelengths to spectrally resolve (unmix) the contribution of different chromophores. Herein, we present an alternative approach to enhance the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of optoacoustic contrast agents. This is achieved with photoswitchable probes that change optical absorption upon illumination with specific optical wavelengths. Thereby, temporally unmixed MSOT (tuMSOT) is based on photoswitching the compounds according to defined schedules to elicit specific time-varying optoacoustic signals, and then use temporal unmixing algorithms to locate the contrast agent based on their particular temporal profile. The photoswitching kinetics is further affected by light intensity, so that tuMSOT can be employed to estimate the light fluence distribution in a biological sample. The performance of the method is demonstrated herein with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein Dronpa and its fast-switching fatigue resistant variant Dronpa-M159T.

  8. Multispectral 3D phase-encoded turbo spin-echo for imaging near metal: Limitations and possibilities demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, Jetse S; Nizak, Razmara; Bouwman, Job G; Saris, Daniël B F; Seevinck, Peter R

    2017-06-01

    To see improvements in the imaging performance near biomaterial implants we assessed a multispectral fully phase-encoded turbo spin-echo (ms3D-PE-TSE) sequence for artifact reduction capabilities and scan time efficiency in simulation and phantom experiments. For this purpose, ms3D-PE-TSE and ms3D-TSE sequences were implemented to obtain multispectral images (±20kHz) of a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) knee implant embedded in agarose. In addition, a knee implant computer model and the acquired ms3D-PE-TSE images were used to investigate the possibilities for scan time acceleration using field-of-view (FOV) reduction for off-resonance frequency bins and compressed sensing reconstructions of undersampled data. Both acceleration methods were combined to acquire a +10kHz frequency bin in a second experiment. The obtained ms3D-PE-TSE images showed no susceptibility related artifacts, while ms3D-TSE images suffered from hyper-intensity artifacts. The limitations of ms3D-TSE were apparent in the far off-resonance regions (±[10-20]kHz) located close to the implant. The scan time calculations showed that ms3D-PE-TSE can be applied in a clinically relevant timeframe (~12min), when omitting the three central frequency bins. The feasibility of CS acceleration for ms3D-PE-TSE was demonstrated using retrospective reconstructions before combining CS and rFOV imaging to decrease the scan time for the +10kHz frequency bin from ~10.9min to ~3.5min, while also increasing the spatial resolution fourfold. The temporally resolved signal of ms3D-PE-TSE proved to be useful to decrease the intensity ripples after sum-of-squares reconstructions and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The presented results suggest that the scan time limitations of ms3D-PE-TSE can be sufficiently addressed when focusing on signal acquisitions in the direct vicinity of metal implants. Because these regions cannot be measured with existing multispectral methods, the presented ms3D-PE-TSE method may enable the

  9. Potential of multispectral imaging technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of the microbiological quality of beef filets during aerobic storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagou, Efstathios Z.; Papadopoulou, Olga; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a multispectral imaging system has been evaluated in monitoring aerobically packaged beef filet spoilage at different storage temperatures (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16°C). Spectral data in the visible and short wave near infrared area (405–970nm) were collected from the surface of meat...... counts, namely Class 1 (TVC7.0log10CFU/g). Furthermore, PLS regression models were developed to provide quantitative estimations of microbial counts during meat storage. In both cases model validation was implemented with independent experiments at intermediate storage temperatures (2 and 10°C) using...... different batches of meat. Results demonstrated good performance in classifying meat samples with overall correct classification rate for the three quality classes ranging from 91.8% to 80.0% for model calibration and validation, respectively. For quantitative estimation, the calculated regression...

  10. Object-oriented classification using quasi-synchronous multispectral images (optical and radar) over agricultural surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais Sicre, Claire; Baup, Frederic; Fieuzal, Remy

    2015-04-01

    over 214 plots during the MCM'10 experiment conducted by the CESBIO laboratory in 2010. Classifications performances have been evaluated considering two cases: using only one frequency in optical or microwave domain, or using a combination of several frequencies (mixed between optical and microwave). For the first case, best results were obtained using optical wavelength with mean overall accuracy (OA) of 84%, followed by Terrasar-X (HH) and Radarsat-2 (HV or HV) which respectively offer overall accuracies of 77% and 73%. Concerning the vegetation, wheat was well classified whatever the wavelength used (OA > 93%). Barley was more complicated to classified and could be mingled with wheat or grassland. Best results were obtained using of green, red, blue, X-band or L-band wavelength offering an OA superior to 45%. Radar images were clearly well adapted to identify rapeseed (OA > 83%), especially at C (VV, HH and HV) and X-band (HH). The accuracy of grassland classification never exceeded 79% and results were stable between frequencies (excepted at L-band: 51%). The three soil roughness states were quite well classified whatever the wavelength and performances decreased with the increase of soil roughness. The combine use of multi-frequencies increased performances of the classification. Overall accuracy reached respectively 83% and 96% for C-band full polarization and for Formosat-2 multispectral approaches.

  11. Continuous multispectral imaging of surface phonon polaritons on silicon carbide with an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougakiuchi, Tatsuo; Kawada, Yoichi; Takebe, Gen

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate the continuous multispectral imaging of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) on silicon carbide excited by an external cavity quantum cascade laser using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy. The launched SPhPs were well characterized via the confirmation that the theoretical dispersion relation and measured in-plane wave vectors are in excellent agreement in the entire measurement range. The proposed scheme, which can excite and observe SPhPs with an arbitrary wavelength that effectively covers the spectral gap of CO2 lasers, is expected to be applicable for studies of near-field optics and for various applications based on SPhPs.

  12. Functional optoacoustic imaging of moving objects using microsecond-delay acquisition of multispectral three-dimensional tomographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Bay, Erwin; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The breakthrough capacity of optoacoustics for three-dimensional visualization of dynamic events in real time has been recently showcased. Yet, efficient spectral unmixing for functional imaging of entire volumetric regions is significantly challenged by motion artifacts in concurrent acquisitions at multiple wavelengths. Here, we introduce a method for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral volumetric datasets by introducing a microsecond-level delay between excitation laser pulses at different wavelengths. Robust performance is demonstrated by real-time volumetric visualization of functional blood parametrers in human vasculature with a handheld matrix array optoacoustic probe. This approach can avert image artifacts imposed by velocities greater than 2 m/s, thus, does not only facilitate imaging influenced by respiratory, cardiac or other intrinsic fast movements in living tissues, but can achieve artifact-free imaging in the presence of more significant motion, e.g. abrupt displacements during handheld-mode operation in a clinical environment. PMID:25073504

  13. Regression modeling and mapping of coniferous forest basal area and tree density from discrete-return lidar and multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Nicholas L. Crookston; Jeffrey S. Evans; Michael K. Falkowski; Alistair M. S. Smith; Paul E. Gessler; Penelope Morgan

    2006-01-01

    We compared the utility of discrete-return light detection and ranging (lidar) data and multispectral satellite imagery, and their integration, for modeling and mapping basal area and tree density across two diverse coniferous forest landscapes in north-central Idaho. We applied multiple linear regression models subset from a suite of 26 predictor variables derived...

  14. A new prostate segmentation approach using multispectral magnetic resonance imaging and a statistical pattern classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Bianca; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Fütterer, Jurgen J.; Haynor, David R.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Prostate segmentation is essential for calculating prostate volume, creating patient-specific prostate anatomical models and image fusion. Automatic segmentation methods are preferable because manual segmentation is timeconsuming and highly subjective. Most of the currently available segmentation

  15. Development of a technique based on multi-spectral imaging for monitoring the conservation of cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Manfredi, Marcello; Zerbinati, Orfeo; Robotti, Elisa; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gosetti, Fabio; Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Shor, Pnina

    2011-11-14

    A new approach for monitoring the state of conservation of cultural heritage objects surfaces is being developed. The technique utilizes multi-spectral imaging, multivariate analysis and statistical process control theory for the automatic detection of a possible deterioration process, its localization and identification, and the wavelengths most sensitive to detecting this before the human eye can detect the damage or potential degradation changes occur. A series of virtual degradation analyses were performed on images of parchment in order to test the proposed algorithm in controlled conditions. The spectral image of a Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) parchment, IAA (Israel Antiquities Authority) inventory plate # 279, 4Q501 Apocryphal Lamentations B, taken during the 2008 Pilot of the DSS Digitization Project, was chosen for the simulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conceptual design and proof-of-principle testing of the real-time multispectral imaging system MANTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Andrebe, Y.; Classen, I. G. J.; Duval, B. P.; Lipschultz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Multispectral Advanced Narrowband Tokamak Imaging System (MANTIS) is proposed to resolve the steep temperature and density gradients in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks in real-time. The initial design is to deliver two-dimensional distributions of key plasma parameters of the TCV tokamak to a real-time control system in order to enable novel control strategies, while providing new insights into power exhaust physics in the full offline analysis. This paper presents the conceptual system design, the mechanical and optical design of a prototype that was built to assess the optical performance, and the results of the first proof-of-principle tests of the prototype. These demonstrate a central resolving power of 50-46 line pairs per millimeter (CTF50) in the first four channels. For the additional channels, the sharpness is a factor two worse for the odd channels (likely affected by sub-optimal alignment), while the even channels continue the trend observed for the first four channels of 3% degradation per channel. This is explained by the self-cancellation of off-axis aberrations, which is an attractive property of the chosen optical design. The results show that at least a 10-channel real-time multispectral imaging system is feasible.

  17. Rapid detection of frozen-then-thawed minced beef using multispectral imaging and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropodi, Athina I; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, fraud detection has become a major priority for food authorities, as fraudulent practices can have various economic and safety consequences. This work explores ways of identifying frozen-then-thawed minced beef labeled as fresh in a rapid, large-scale and cost-effective way. For this reason, freshly-ground beef was purchased from seven separate shops at different times, divided in fifteen portions and placed in Petri dishes. Multi-spectral images and FTIR spectra of the first five were immediately acquired while the remaining were frozen (-20°C) and stored for 7 and 32days (5 samples for each time interval). Samples were thawed and subsequently subjected to similar data acquisition. In total, 105 multispectral images and FTIR spectra were collected which were further analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis and support vector machines. Two meat batches (30 samples) were reserved for independent validation and the remaining five batches were divided in training and test set (75 samples). Results showed 100% overall correct classification for test and external validation MSI data, while FTIR data yielded 93.3 and 96.7% overall correct classification for FTIR test set and external validation set respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation for detection of osteoarthritis in the finger joints using multispectral three-dimensional quantitative photoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    We present quantitative imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in in vivo finger joints and evaluate the feasibility of detecting osteoarthritis (OA) in the hand using three-dimensional (3D) multispectral quantitative photoacoustic tomography (3D qPAT). The results show that both the anatomical structures and quantitative chromophore concentrations (oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin) of different joint tissues (hard phalanges and soft cartilage/synovial fluid between phalanges) can be imaged in vivo with the multispectral 3D qPAT. Enhanced hemoglobin concentrations and dropped oxygen saturations in osteoarthritic phalanges and soft joint tissues in joint cavities have been observed. This study indicates that the multispectral 3D qPAT is a promising approach to detect the angiogenesis and hypoxia associated with OA disease and a potential clinical tool for early OA detection in the finger joints. (paper)

  19. The visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared channels of the EarthCARE multi-spectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornink, J.; de Goeij, B.; Marinescu, O.; Meijer, E.; Vink, R.; van Werkhoven, W.; van't Hof, A.

    2017-11-01

    The EarthCARE satellite mission objective is the observation of clouds and aerosols from low Earth orbit. The payload will include active remote sensing instruments being the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and the ATLID LIDAR. These are supported by the passive instruments Broadband Radiometer (BBR) and the Multispectral Imager (MSI) providing the radiometric and spatial context of the ground scene being probed. The MSI will form Earth images over a swath width of 150 km; it will image the Earth atmosphere in 7 spectral bands. The MSI instrument consists of two parts: the Visible, Near infrared and Short wave infrared (VNS) unit, and the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) unit. Subject of this paper is the VNS unit. In the VNS optical unit, the ground scene is imaged in four spectral bands onto four linear detectors via separate optical channels. Driving requirements for the VNS instrument performance are the spectral sensitivity including out-of-band rejection, the MTF, co-registration and the inter-channel radiometric accuracy. The radiometric accuracy performance of the VNS is supported by in-orbit calibration, in which direct solar radiation is fed into the instrument via a set of quasi volume diffusers. The compact optical concept with challenging stability requirements together with the strict thermal constraints have led to a sophisticated opto-mechanical design. This paper, being the second of a sequence of two on the Multispectral Imager describes the VNS instrument concept chosen to fulfil the performance requirements within the resource and accommodation constraints.

  20. Multivariate alteration detection (MAD) in multispectral, bi-temporal image data: A new approach to change detction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    1988 covering a forested region in northern Sweden show the usefulness of these new concepts. Because of their ability to detect change in many channels simultaneously, the MAD transformation and the MAF post-processing are expected to be even more useful when applied to image data with more bands....... for the definition of the MAD transformation is proven. As opposed to traditional univariate change detection schemes our scheme transforms two sets of multivariate observations (e.g. two multispectral satellite images covering the same geographical area acquired at different points in time) into a difference...... only, our method can be applied to any spatial and/or spectral subset of the full data set to direct the analysis in any desired manner. In order to obtain a spatially more coherent representation of the detected change as obtained from the MAD analysis, post-processing by means of a minimum...

  1. Multispectral imaging based on a Smartphone with an external C-MOS camera for detection of seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manjae; Kim, Sewoong; Hwang, Minjoo; Kim, Jihun; Je, Minkyu; Jang, Jae Eun; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Jae Youn

    2017-02-01

    To date, the incident rates of various skin diseases have increased due to hereditary and environmental factors including stress, irregular diet, pollution, etc. Among these skin diseases, seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis are a chronic/relapsing dermatitis involving infection and temporary alopecia. However, they typically exhibit similar symptoms, thus resulting in difficulty in discrimination between them. To prevent their associated complications and appropriate treatments for them, it is crucial to discriminate between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis with high specificity and sensitivity and further continuously/quantitatively to monitor the skin lesions during their treatment at other locations besides a hospital. Thus, we here demonstrate a mobile multispectral imaging system connected to a smartphone for selfdiagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis and further discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp, which is the more challenging case. Using the system developed, multispectral imaging and analysis of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp was carried out. It was here found that the spectral signatures of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis were discernable and thus seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp could be distinguished from psoriasis by using the system. In particular, the smartphone-based multispectral imaging and analysis moreover offered better discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis than the RGB imaging and analysis. These results suggested that the multispectral imaging system based on a smartphone has the potential for self-diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis with high portability and specificity.

  2. Automated registration of multispectral MR vessel wall images of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klooster, R. van ' t; Staring, M.; Reiber, J. H. C.; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; Geest, R. J. van der, E-mail: rvdgeest@lumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Klein, S. [Department of Radiology and Department of Medical Informatics, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3015 GE (Netherlands); Kwee, R. M.; Kooi, M. E. [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6202 AZ (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. The detailed assessment of atherosclerosis of the carotid artery requires high resolution imaging of the vessel wall using multiple MR sequences with different contrast weightings. These images allow manual or automated classification of plaque components inside the vessel wall. Automated classification requires all sequences to be in alignment, which is hampered by patient motion. In clinical practice, correction of this motion is performed manually. Previous studies applied automated image registration to correct for motion using only nondeformable transformation models and did not perform a detailed quantitative validation. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated accurate 3D registration method, and to extensively validate this method on a large set of patient data. In addition, the authors quantified patient motion during scanning to investigate the need for correction. Methods: MR imaging studies (1.5T, dedicated carotid surface coil, Philips) from 55 TIA/stroke patients with ipsilateral <70% carotid artery stenosis were randomly selected from a larger cohort. Five MR pulse sequences were acquired around the carotid bifurcation, each containing nine transverse slices: T1-weighted turbo field echo, time of flight, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo, and pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted turbo spin-echo images (T1W TSE). The images were manually segmented by delineating the lumen contour in each vessel wall sequence and were manually aligned by applying throughplane and inplane translations to the images. To find the optimal automatic image registration method, different masks, choice of the fixed image, different types of the mutual information image similarity metric, and transformation models including 3D deformable transformation models, were evaluated. Evaluation of the automatic registration results was performed by comparing the lumen segmentations of the fixed image and

  3. Mapping within-field variations of soil organic carbon content using UAV multispectral visible near-infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Michelin, Joël

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO project of the French Space Agency (CNES) and the SOERE PRO network working on environmental impacts of Organic Waste Products recycling on field crops at long time scale. The organic matter is an important soil fertility parameter and previous studies have shown the potential of spectral information measured in the laboratory or directly in the field using field spectro-radiometer or satellite imagery to predict the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. This work proposes a method for a spatial prediction of bare cultivated topsoil SOC content, from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) multispectral imagery. An agricultural plot of 13 ha, located in the western region of Paris France, was analysed in April 2013, shortly before sowing while it was still bare soil. Soils comprised haplic luvisols, rendzic cambisols and calcaric or colluvic cambisols. The UAV platform used was a fixed wing provided by Airinov® flying at an altitude of 150m and was equipped with a four channels multispectral visible near-infrared camera MultiSPEC 4C® (550nm, 660nm, 735 nm and 790 nm). Twenty three ground control points (GCP) were sampled within the plot according to soils descriptions. GCP positions were determined with a centimetric DGPS. Different observations and measurements were made synchronously with the drone flight: soil surface description, spectral measurements (with ASD FieldSpec 3® spectroradiometer), roughness measurements by a photogrammetric method. Each of these locations was sampled for both soil standard physico-chemical analysis and soil water content. A Structure From Motion (SFM) processing was done from the UAV imagery to produce a 15 cm resolution multispectral mosaic using the Agisoft Photoscan® software. The SOC content was modelled by partial least squares regression (PLSR) between the

  4. Classification of multispectral image data by the Binary Diamond neural network and by nonparametric, pixel-by-pixel methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salu, Yehuda; Tilton, James

    1993-01-01

    The classification of multispectral image data obtained from satellites has become an important tool for generating ground cover maps. This study deals with the application of nonparametric pixel-by-pixel classification methods in the classification of pixels, based on their multispectral data. A new neural network, the Binary Diamond, is introduced, and its performance is compared with a nearest neighbor algorithm and a back-propagation network. The Binary Diamond is a multilayer, feed-forward neural network, which learns from examples in unsupervised, 'one-shot' mode. It recruits its neurons according to the actual training set, as it learns. The comparisons of the algorithms were done by using a realistic data base, consisting of approximately 90,000 Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper pixels. The Binary Diamond and the nearest neighbor performances were close, with some advantages to the Binary Diamond. The performance of the back-propagation network lagged behind. An efficient nearest neighbor algorithm, the binned nearest neighbor, is described. Ways for improving the performances, such as merging categories, and analyzing nonboundary pixels, are addressed and evaluated.

  5. Multispectral imaging burn wound tissue classification system: a comparison of test accuracies between several common machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squiers, John J.; Li, Weizhi; King, Darlene R.; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.

    2016-03-01

    The clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons is currently the standard on which diagnostic and therapeutic decisionmaking regarding burn injuries is based. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has the potential to increase the accuracy of burn depth assessment and the intraoperative identification of viable wound bed during surgical debridement of burn injuries. A highly accurate classification model must be developed using machine-learning techniques in order to translate MSI data into clinically-relevant information. An animal burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and to study the burn tissue classification ability of several models trained via common machine-learning algorithms. The algorithms tested, from least to most complex, were: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), decision tree (DT), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), weighted linear discriminant analysis (W-LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), ensemble linear discriminant analysis (EN-LDA), ensemble K-nearest neighbors (EN-KNN), and ensemble decision tree (EN-DT). After the ground-truth database of six tissue types (healthy skin, wound bed, blood, hyperemia, partial injury, full injury) was generated by histopathological analysis, we used 10-fold cross validation to compare the algorithms' performances based on their accuracies in classifying data against the ground truth, and each algorithm was tested 100 times. The mean test accuracy of the algorithms were KNN 68.3%, DT 61.5%, LDA 70.5%, W-LDA 68.1%, QDA 68.9%, EN-LDA 56.8%, EN-KNN 49.7%, and EN-DT 36.5%. LDA had the highest test accuracy, reflecting the bias-variance tradeoff over the range of complexities inherent to the algorithms tested. Several algorithms were able to match the current standard in burn tissue classification, the clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons. These results will guide further development of an MSI burn tissue classification system. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care

  6. Use of partial least squares discriminant analysis on visible-near infrared multispectral image data to examine germination ability and germ length in spinach seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Gislum, René

    2012-01-01

    Because of the difficulties in obtaining homogenous germination of spinach seeds for baby leaf production, the possibility of using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on features extracted from multispectral images of spinach seeds was investigated. The objective has been...

  7. Multispectral 3D phase-encoded turbo spin-echo for imaging near metal : Limitations and possibilities demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Jetse S.; Nizak, Razmara; Bouwman, Job G.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Seevinck, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    To see improvements in the imaging performance near biomaterial implants we assessed a multispectral fully phase-encoded turbo spin-echo (ms3D-PE-TSE) sequence for artifact reduction capabilities and scan time efficiency in simulation and phantom experiments. For this purpose, ms3D-PE-TSE and

  8. Identification of a murine erythroblast subpopulation enriched in enucleating events by multi-spectral imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Diamantis G; Pushkaran, Suvarnamala; Giger, Katie; Manganaris, Stefanos; Zheng, Yi; Kalfa, Theodosia A

    2014-06-06

    Erythropoiesis in mammals concludes with the dramatic process of enucleation that results in reticulocyte formation. The mechanism of enucleation has not yet been fully elucidated. A common problem encountered when studying the localization of key proteins and structures within enucleating erythroblasts by microscopy is the difficulty to observe a sufficient number of cells undergoing enucleation. We have developed a novel analysis protocol using multiparameter high-speed cell imaging in flow (Multi-Spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry), a method that combines immunofluorescent microscopy with flow cytometry, in order to identify efficiently a significant number of enucleating events, that allows to obtain measurements and perform statistical analysis. We first describe here two in vitro erythropoiesis culture methods used in order to synchronize murine erythroblasts and increase the probability of capturing enucleation at the time of evaluation. Then, we describe in detail the staining of erythroblasts after fixation and permeabilization in order to study the localization of intracellular proteins or lipid rafts during enucleation by multi-spectral imaging flow cytometry. Along with size and DNA/Ter119 staining which are used to identify the orthochromatic erythroblasts, we utilize the parameters "aspect ratio" of a cell in the bright-field channel that aids in the recognition of elongated cells and "delta centroid XY Ter119/Draq5" that allows the identification of cellular events in which the center of Ter119 staining (nascent reticulocyte) is far apart from the center of Draq5 staining (nucleus undergoing extrusion), thus indicating a cell about to enucleate. The subset of the orthochromatic erythroblast population with high delta centroid and low aspect ratio is highly enriched in enucleating cells.

  9. ORTHO-RECTIFICATION OF HJ-1A/1B MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGE BASED ON THE GCP IMAGE DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available HJ satellite is the abbreviation of the Small Satellite Constellation of Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting in China, which plays a very important role in forecasting and monitoring the environment problems and natural disasters. The ortho-rectification of HJ images aided by GCP (Ground Control Point image database is presented in this paper. The GCP image database is constructed from historical LandSat-TM images and the GCP chip consists of image and geographic attribute information. Then auto-searching and matching algorithm is introduced and mis-matching elimination method is presented. The imaging model based on collinearity equation and the polynomial description of the attitude and position of scanning line is utilized for ortho-rectification. Four scene images are experimented and compared, and the result demonstrated the feasibility and high efficiency of the whole work flow.

  10. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gai-Yun; Al-Wesabi, Samer Abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study.Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis' RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters.No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = -0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively).MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH. This is a

  11. Multispectral UV imaging for fast and non-destructive quality control of chemical and physical tablet attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X; Rantanen, Jukka; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-07-30

    Monitoring of tablet quality attributes in direct vicinity of the production process requires analytical techniques that allow fast, non-destructive, and accurate tablet characterization. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of multispectral UV imaging as a reliable, rapid technique for estimation of the tablet API content and tablet hardness, as well as determination of tablet intactness and the tablet surface density profile. One of the aims was to establish an image analysis approach based on multivariate image analysis and pattern recognition to evaluate the potential of UV imaging for automatized quality control of tablets with respect to their intactness and surface density profile. Various tablets of different composition and different quality regarding their API content, radial tensile strength, intactness, and surface density profile were prepared using an eccentric as well as a rotary tablet press at compression pressures from 20MPa up to 410MPa. It was found, that UV imaging can provide both, relevant information on chemical and physical tablet attributes. The tablet API content and radial tensile strength could be estimated by UV imaging combined with partial least squares analysis. Furthermore, an image analysis routine was developed and successfully applied to the UV images that provided qualitative information on physical tablet surface properties such as intactness and surface density profiles, as well as quantitative information on variations in the surface density. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that UV imaging combined with image analysis is an effective and non-destructive method to determine chemical and physical quality attributes of tablets and is a promising approach for (near) real-time monitoring of the tablet compaction process and formulation optimization purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High spatial resolution telescopic multispectral imaging and spectroscopy of the Moon. 1: The Serenitatis/Tranquillitatis border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James F., III; Hawke, B. R.

    1994-01-01

    The region of the moon near the border between Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis is one of the most geologically and compositionally complex areas of the nearside. The geologic history of this region has been shaped by impacts of widely-varying spatial scale and temporal occurrence, by volcanism of variable style and composition with time, and by limited tectonism. We have been studying this region as part of a larger multi remote sensing technique effort to understand the composition, morphology, geology, and stratigraphy of the moon at spatial scales of 2 km or less. The effort has been aided by the proximity of this area to the Apollo 11, 15, and 17 landing sites and by the occurrence of one of the primary lunar spectroscopic 'standard areas' within our scene (MS2). Here, some of the findings from the multispectral imaging and spectroscopy part of this effort are reported.

  13. Non-invasive skin oxygenation imaging using a multi-spectral camera system: effectiveness of various concentration algorithms applied on human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2009-02-01

    This study describes noninvasive noncontact methods to acquire and analyze functional information from the skin. Multispectral images at several selected wavelengths in the visible and near infrared region are collected and used in mathematical methods to calculate concentrations of different chromophores in the epidermis and dermis of the skin. This is based on the continuous wave Near Infrared Spectroscopy method, which is a well known non-invasive technique for measuring oxygenation changes in the brain and in muscle tissue. Concentration changes of hemoglobin (dO2Hb, dHHb and dtHb) can be calculated from light attenuations using the modified Lambert Beer equation. We applied this technique on multi-spectral images taken from the skin surface using different algorithms for calculating changes in O2Hb, HHb and tHb. In clinical settings, the imaging of local oxygenation variations and/or blood perfusion in the skin can be useful for e.g. detection of skin cancer, detection of early inflammation, checking the level of peripheral nerve block anesthesia, study of wound healing and tissue viability by skin flap transplantations. Images from the skin are obtained with a multi-spectral imaging system consisting of a 12-bit CCD camera in combination with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter. The skin is illuminated with either a broad band light source or a tunable multi wavelength LED light source. A polarization filter is used to block the direct reflected light. The collected multi-spectral imaging data are images of the skin surface radiance; each pixel contains either the full spectrum (420 - 730 nm) or a set of selected wavelengths. These images were converted to reflectance spectra. The algorithms were validated during skin oxygen saturation changes induced by temporary arm clamping and applied to some clinical examples. The initial results with the multi-spectral skin imaging system show good results for detecting dynamic changes in oxygen concentration. However, the

  14. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Kim Dung, Doan; Fukushima, Shoichiro; Furukawa, Taichi; Niioka, Hirohiko; Sannomiya, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Miyake, Jun

    2016-09-06

    Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL), and near-infrared (NIR), as favored by imaging probe Gd₂O₃ co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs). A series of Gd₂O₃:Ln 3+ /Yb 3+ (Ln 3+ : Tm 3+ , Ho 3+ , Er 3+ ) NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC)/downconverting (DC) emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP) method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd₂O₃ co-doped Ln 3+ /Yb 3+ (Ln 3+ : Tm 3+ , Ho 3+ , Er 3+ ) in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd₂O₃ promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  15. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Thi Kim Dung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL, and near-infrared (NIR, as favored by imaging probe Gd2O3 co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs. A series of Gd2O3:Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+ NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC/downconverting (DC emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd2O3 co-doped Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+ in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd2O3 promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

  16. Detection of SO2, HCl and CO2 in Arenal Volcano Eruptive Plume Using MASTER Multispectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, J.; Berrocal, M.; Malavassi, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) Mission developed in March-April, 2003 was a join effort between the National Program for Airtransported Missions of the National Center for High Technology of Costa Rica formed by the four public universities in Costa Rica, and NASA. This mission took aerial infrared photography and multiespectral images using the MASTER sensor of 70% of the national territory of Costa Rica. Multiespectral images were taken from Arenal volcano at high (13780 m) and at low (3450 m) altitude. The MASTER images have an aperture ranging between 0.44 micrometers in the visible and 13 micrometers in the thermic infrared. In addition, the distribution of the 50 channels of the MASTER sensor, have been arranged to avoid the influence of water vapor, always present in large quantities in the atmosphere and also in volcanic gases. We determined that SO2 is clearly visible between 8.5-9.3 micrometers (LWIR), and CO2, H2S and HCl in a smaller bandwidth 3.5-4.4 micrometers (MWIR). Another gas detected at Arenal volcanic plumes is methane, in a bandwidth between 7.7-8.1 micrometers (LWIR). When both multispectral images were taken, Arenal volcano had an active lava flow descending its NE flank and no significative winds were blowing, so the eruptive plume was rising almost vertically from the active vent. Profiles of gas concentration collected from the above mentioned bands were performed on the image using the software ENVI to detect different species present in volcanic gases. The concentration of volcanic gases in the multiespectral image was largest above the active crater (north vent of Crater C), and lower on the short active lava flow whose blocks were cascading down up to 1 km on the NE flank. Significant amounts of SO2 were measured above the lava flow and the fan of cascading blocks suggesting that the cooling lava continues to release magmatic gases as their cascading blocks move down flank of the volcano. The

  17. SPECIES-SPECIFIC FOREST VARIABLE ESTIMATION USING NON-PARAMETRIC MODELING OF MULTI-SPECTRAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohlin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent development in software for automatic photogrammetric processing of multispectral aerial imagery, and the growing nation-wide availability of Digital Elevation Model (DEM data, are about to revolutionize data capture for forest management planning in Scandinavia. Using only already available aerial imagery and ALS-assessed DEM data, raster estimates of the forest variables mean tree height, basal area, total stem volume, and species-specific stem volumes were produced and evaluated. The study was conducted at a coniferous hemi-boreal test site in southern Sweden (lat. 58° N, long. 13° E. Digital aerial images from the Zeiss/Intergraph Digital Mapping Camera system were used to produce 3D point-cloud data with spectral information. Metrics were calculated for 696 field plots (10 m radius from point-cloud data and used in k-MSN to estimate forest variables. For these stands, the tree height ranged from 1.4 to 33.0 m (18.1 m mean, stem volume from 0 to 829 m3 ha-1 (249 m3 ha-1 mean and basal area from 0 to 62.2 m2 ha-1 (26.1 m2 ha-1 mean, with mean stand size of 2.8 ha. Estimates made using digital aerial images corresponding to the standard acquisition of the Swedish National Land Survey (Lantmäteriet showed RMSEs (in percent of the surveyed stand mean of 7.5% for tree height, 11.4% for basal area, 13.2% for total stem volume, 90.6% for pine stem volume, 26.4 for spruce stem volume, and 72.6% for deciduous stem volume. The results imply that photogrammetric matching of digital aerial images has significant potential for operational use in forestry.

  18. Spectral Separation of Quantum Dots within Tissue Equivalent Phantom Using Linear Unmixing Methods in Multispectral Fluorescence Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Najafzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Non-invasive Fluorescent Reflectance Imaging (FRI is used for accessing physiological and molecular processes in biological media. The aim of this article is to separate the overlapping emission spectra of quantum dots within tissue-equivalent phantom using SVD, Jacobi SVD, and NMF methods in the FRI mode. Materials and Methods In this article, a tissue-like phantom and an optical setup in reflectance mode were developed. The algorithm of multispectral imaging method was then written in Matlab environment. The setup included the diode-pumped solid-state lasers at 479 nm, 533 nm, and 798 nm, achromatic telescopic, mirror, high pass and low pass filters, and EMCCD camera. The FRI images were acquired by a CCD camera using band pass filter centered at 600 nm and high pass max at 615 nm for the first region and high pass filter max at 810 nm for the second region. The SVD and Jacobi SVD algorithms were written in Matlab environment and compared with a Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF and applied to the obtained images. Results PSNR, SNR, CNR of SVD, and NMF methods were obtained as 39 dB, 30.1 dB, and 0.7 dB, respectively. The results showed that the difference of Jacobi SVD PSNR with PSNR of NMF and modified NMF algorithm was significant (p

  19. Multi-spectral synthetic image generation for ground vehicle identification training

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christopher M.; Pinto, Neil A.; Sanders, Jeffrey S.

    2016-05-01

    There is a ubiquitous and never ending need in the US armed forces for training materials that provide the warfighter with the skills needed to differentiate between friendly and enemy forces on the battlefield. The current state of the art in battlefield identification training is the Recognition of Combat Vehicles (ROC-V) tool created and maintained by the Communications - Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (CERDEC NVESD). The ROC-V training package utilizes measured visual and thermal imagery to train soldiers about the critical visual and thermal cues needed to accurately identify modern military vehicles and combatants. This paper presents an approach to augment the existing ROC-V imagery database with synthetically generated multi-spectral imagery that will allow NVESD to provide improved training imagery at significantly lower costs.

  20. The use of multispectral imaging to distinguish reactive urothelium from neoplastic urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The interpretation of urothelial atypia in a setting of chronic inflammation and reactive changes can prove difficult with small biopsies. Limited recuts lessen the efficacy of ancillary studies such as CK20, P53 and CD44 in these instances. Objective: To evaluate a triple-immunostain with the assistance of multispectral microscopy. Design: Fifty-three bladder biopsies with previous diagnosis of benign/reactive, dysplastic, carcinoma in situ or carcinoma were prepared using a triple-immunostain cocktail consisting of CK20, P53 and CD44. Three control stains were used for the purpose of creating a spectral library for the Nuance CRI Flex microscopy system. All specimens were interpreted by light microscopy, processed with the Nuance 2.71 software, and CK20 and P53 were scored blinded to the case diagnoses. CD44 was not scored as it proved difficult to interpret in many cases. Results: The results demonstrated that it was possible to separate CK20, P53 and the counterstain that were co-localized in the biopsies. Separation of the stains demonstrated a correlation of p53 and CK20 dual expression in biopsies diagnosed as carcinoma. Low or undetectable levels of expression were seen in biopsies later diagnosed as reactive or benign. Conclusion: The combination of multispectral microscopy and multiple immunostain cocktails form a powerful and useful tool for the interpretation of small biopsies with faint or difficult to interpret staining and for cases with limited material such as small-bladder biopsies.

  1. Compressive Multispectral Spectrum Sensing for Spectrum Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeison Marín Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of spectrum sensing applied to wireless communications, it is possible to build interference maps based on acquired power spectral values. This allows the characterization of spectral occupation, which is crucial to take management spectrum decisions. However, the amount of information both in the space and frequency domains that needs to be processed generates an enormous amount of data with high transmission delays and high memory requirements. Meanwhile, compressive sensing is a technique that allows the reconstruction of sparse or compressible signals using fewer samples than those required by the Nyquist criterion. This paper presents a new model that uses compressed multispectral sampling for spectrum sensing. The aim is to reduce the number of data required for the storage and the subsequent construction of power spectral maps with geo-referenced information in different frequency bands. This model is based on architectures that use compressive sensing to analyze multispectral images. The operation of a centralized manager is presented in order to select the power data of different sensors by binary patterns. These sensors are located in different geographical positions. The centralized manager reconstructs a data cube with the transmitted power and frequency of operation of all the sensors based on the samples taken and applying multispectral sensing techniques. The results show that this multispectral data cube can be built with 50% of the samples generated by the devices, and the spectrum cartography information can be stored using only 6.25% of the original data.

  2. Compressive Multispectral Spectrum Sensing for Spectrum Cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Alfonso, Jeison; Martínez Torre, Jose Ignacio; Arguello Fuentes, Henry; Agudelo, Leonardo Betancur

    2018-01-29

    In the process of spectrum sensing applied to wireless communications, it is possible to build interference maps based on acquired power spectral values. This allows the characterization of spectral occupation, which is crucial to take management spectrum decisions. However, the amount of information both in the space and frequency domains that needs to be processed generates an enormous amount of data with high transmission delays and high memory requirements. Meanwhile, compressive sensing is a technique that allows the reconstruction of sparse or compressible signals using fewer samples than those required by the Nyquist criterion. This paper presents a new model that uses compressed multispectral sampling for spectrum sensing. The aim is to reduce the number of data required for the storage and the subsequent construction of power spectral maps with geo-referenced information in different frequency bands. This model is based on architectures that use compressive sensing to analyze multispectral images. The operation of a centralized manager is presented in order to select the power data of different sensors by binary patterns. These sensors are located in different geographical positions. The centralized manager reconstructs a data cube with the transmitted power and frequency of operation of all the sensors based on the samples taken and applying multispectral sensing techniques. The results show that this multispectral data cube can be built with 50% of the samples generated by the devices, and the spectrum cartography information can be stored using only 6.25% of the original data.

  3. Characteristics ofXanthosoma sagittifoliumroots during cooking, using physicochemical analysis, uniaxial compression, multispectral imaging and low field NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Abena Achiaa; Gudjónsdóttir, María; Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Wireko-Manu, Faustina Dufie; Oduro, Ibok

    2017-08-01

    To effectively promote the industrial utilization of cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium ) roots for enhanced food sustainability and security, there is a need to study their molecular, mechanical and physicochemical properties in detail. The physicochemical and textural characteristics of the red and white varieties of cocoyam roots were thus analysed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, multispectral imaging, uniaxial compression testing, and relevant physicochemical analysis in the current study. Both varieties had similar dry matter content, as well as physical and mechanical properties. However, up to four fast-interacting water populations were observed in the roots, dependent on the root variety and their degree of gelatinization during cooking. Changes in the relaxation parameters indicated weak gelatinization of starch at approximately 80 °C in both varieties. However, shorter relaxation times and a higher proportion of restricted water in the white variety indicated that this variety was slightly more sensitive towards gelatinization. A strong negative correlation existed between dry matter and all multispectral wavelengths >800 nm, suggesting the potential use of that spectral region for rapid analysis of dry matter and water content of the roots. The small, but significant differences in the structural and gelatinization characteristics of the two varieties indicated that they may not be equally suited for further processing, e.g. to flours or starches. Processors thus need to choose their raw materials wisely dependent on the aimed product characteristics. However, the spectroscopic methods applied in the study were shown to be effective in assessing important quality attributes during cooking of the roots.

  4. Statistical correction of lidar-derived digital elevation models with multispectral airborne imagery in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) is a valuable tool for collecting large amounts of elevation data across large areas; however, the limited ability to penetrate dense vegetation with lidar hinders its usefulness for measuring tidal marsh platforms. Methods to correct lidar elevation data are available, but a reliable method that requires limited field work and maintains spatial resolution is lacking. We present a novel method, the Lidar Elevation Adjustment with NDVI (LEAN), to correct lidar digital elevation models (DEMs) with vegetation indices from readily available multispectral airborne imagery (NAIP) and RTK-GPS surveys. Using 17 study sites along the Pacific coast of the U.S., we achieved an average root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.072 m, with a 40–75% improvement in accuracy from the lidar bare earth DEM. Results from our method compared favorably with results from three other methods (minimum-bin gridding, mean error correction, and vegetation correction factors), and a power analysis applying our extensive RTK-GPS dataset showed that on average 118 points were necessary to calibrate a site-specific correction model for tidal marshes along the Pacific coast. By using available imagery and with minimal field surveys, we showed that lidar-derived DEMs can be adjusted for greater accuracy while maintaining high (1 m) resolution.

  5. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2016-09-01

    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  6. Chemical spoilage extent traceability of two kinds of processed pork meats using one multispectral system developed by hyperspectral imaging combined with effective variable selection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-04-15

    The feasibility of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) (400-1000nm) for tracing the chemical spoilage extent of the raw meat used for two kinds of processed meats was investigated. Calibration models established separately for salted and cooked meats using full wavebands showed good results with the determination coefficient in prediction (R 2 P ) of 0.887 and 0.832, respectively. For simplifying the calibration models, two variable selection methods were used and compared. The results showed that genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) with as much continuous wavebands selected as possible always had better performance. The potential of HSI to develop one multispectral system for simultaneously tracing the chemical spoilage extent of the two kinds of processed meats was also studied. Good result with an R 2 P of 0.854 was obtained using GA-PLS as the dimension reduction method, which was thus used to visualize total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) contents corresponding to each pixel of the image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dimension Reduction of Multi-Spectral Satellite Image Time Series to Improve Deforestation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sequential tests for detecting structural changes in time series have been adapted for deforestation monitoring using satellite data. The input time series of such sequential tests is typically a vegetation index (e.g., NDVI, which uses two or three bands and ignores all other bands. Being limited to a vegetation index will not benefit from the richer spectral information provided by newly launched satellites and will bring two bottle-necks for deforestation monitoring. Firstly, it is hard to select a suitable vegetation index a priori. Secondly, a single vegetation index is typically affected by seasonal signals, noise and other natural dynamics, which decrease its power for deforestation detection. A novel multispectral time series change monitoring method that combines dimension reduction methods with a sequential hypothesis test is proposed to address these limitations. For each location, the proposed method automatically chooses a “suitable” index for deforestation monitoring. To demonstrate our approach, we implemented it in two study areas: a dry tropical forest in Bolivia (time series length: 444 with strong seasonality and a moist tropical forest in Brazil (time series length: 225 with almost no seasonality. Our method significantly improves accuracy in the presence of strong seasonality, in particular the temporal lag between disturbance and its detection.

  8. Online Multi-Spectral Meat Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    We perform an explorative study on multi-spectral image data from a prototype device developed for fast online quality inspection of meat products. Because the camera setup is built for speed, we sacrifice exact pixel correspondences between the different bands of the multi-spectral images. Our...

  9. Mutual information registration of multi-spectral and multi-resolution images of DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 imaging satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Grzegorz; Shafer, Jeff; Baugh, William M.; Bader, Brett; Karspeck, Milan; Pacifici, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    WorldView-3 (WV-3) is a DigitalGlobe commercial, high resolution, push-broom imaging satellite with three instruments: visible and near-infrared VNIR consisting of panchromatic (0.3m nadir GSD) plus multi-spectral (1.2m), short-wave infrared SWIR (3.7m), and multi-spectral CAVIS (30m). Nine VNIR bands, which are on one instrument, are nearly perfectly registered to each other, whereas eight SWIR bands, belonging to the second instrument, are misaligned with respect to VNIR and to each other. Geometric calibration and ortho-rectification results in a VNIR/SWIR alignment which is accurate to approximately 0.75 SWIR pixel at 3.7m GSD, whereas inter-SWIR, band to band registration is 0.3 SWIR pixel. Numerous high resolution, spectral applications, such as object classification and material identification, require more accurate registration, which can be achieved by utilizing image processing algorithms, for example Mutual Information (MI). Although MI-based co-registration algorithms are highly accurate, implementation details for automated processing can be challenging. One particular challenge is how to compute bin widths of intensity histograms, which are fundamental building blocks of MI. We solve this problem by making the bin widths proportional to instrument shot noise. Next, we show how to take advantage of multiple VNIR bands, and improve registration sensitivity to image alignment. To meet this goal, we employ Canonical Correlation Analysis, which maximizes VNIR/SWIR correlation through an optimal linear combination of VNIR bands. Finally we explore how to register images corresponding to different spatial resolutions. We show that MI computed at a low-resolution grid is more sensitive to alignment parameters than MI computed at a high-resolution grid. The proposed modifications allow us to improve VNIR/SWIR registration to better than ¼ of a SWIR pixel, as long as terrain elevation is properly accounted for, and clouds and water are masked out.

  10. Dual-Modality Imaging of the Human Finger Joint Systems by Using Combined Multispectral Photoacoustic Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubin; Wang, Yating; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    We developed a homemade dual-modality imaging system that combines multispectral photoacoustic computed tomography and ultrasound computed tomography for reconstructing the structural and functional information of human finger joint systems. The fused multispectral photoacoustic-ultrasound computed tomography (MPAUCT) system was examined by the phantom and in vivo experimental tests. The imaging results indicate that the hard tissues such as the bones and the soft tissues including the blood vessels, the tendon, the skins, and the subcutaneous tissues in the finger joints systems can be effectively recovered by using our multimodality MPAUCT system. The developed MPAUCT system is able to provide us with more comprehensive information of the human finger joints, which shows its potential for characterization and diagnosis of bone or joint diseases.

  11. Dual-Modality Imaging of the Human Finger Joint Systems by Using Combined Multispectral Photoacoustic Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a homemade dual-modality imaging system that combines multispectral photoacoustic computed tomography and ultrasound computed tomography for reconstructing the structural and functional information of human finger joint systems. The fused multispectral photoacoustic-ultrasound computed tomography (MPAUCT system was examined by the phantom and in vivo experimental tests. The imaging results indicate that the hard tissues such as the bones and the soft tissues including the blood vessels, the tendon, the skins, and the subcutaneous tissues in the finger joints systems can be effectively recovered by using our multimodality MPAUCT system. The developed MPAUCT system is able to provide us with more comprehensive information of the human finger joints, which shows its potential for characterization and diagnosis of bone or joint diseases.

  12. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Final Report on LDRD project 130784 : functional brain imaging by tunable multi-spectral Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Spahn, Olga Blum; Hsu, Alan Yuan-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Functional brain imaging is of great interest for understanding correlations between specific cognitive processes and underlying neural activity. This understanding can provide the foundation for developing enhanced human-machine interfaces, decision aides, and enhanced cognition at the physiological level. The functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based event-related optical signal (EROS) technique can provide direct, high-fidelity measures of temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks underlying cognitive behavior. However, current EROS systems are hampered by poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and depth of measure, limiting areas of the brain and associated cognitive processes that can be investigated. We propose to investigate a flexible, tunable, multi-spectral fNIRS EROS system which will provide up to 10x greater SNR as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution through significant improvements in electronics, optoelectronics and optics, as well as contribute to the physiological foundation of higher-order cognitive processes and provide the technical foundation for miniaturized portable neuroimaging systems.

  14. Multispectral images of flowers reveal the adaptive significance of using long-wavelength-sensitive receptors for edge detection in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Vera; Hanley, Daniel; Kevan, Peter G; Chittka, Lars

    2017-04-01

    Many pollinating insects acquire their entire nutrition from visiting flowers, and they must therefore be efficient both at detecting flowers and at recognizing familiar rewarding flower types. A crucial first step in recognition is the identification of edges and the segmentation of the visual field into areas that belong together. Honeybees and bumblebees acquire visual information through three types of photoreceptors; however, they only use a single receptor type-the one sensitive to longer wavelengths-for edge detection and movement detection. Here, we show that these long-wavelength receptors (peak sensitivity at ~544 nm, i.e., green) provide the most consistent signals in response to natural objects. Using our multispectral image database of flowering plants, we found that long-wavelength receptor responses had, depending on the specific scenario, up to four times higher signal-to-noise ratios than the short- and medium-wavelength receptors. The reliability of the long-wavelength receptors emerges from an intricate interaction between flower coloration and the bee's visual system. This finding highlights the adaptive significance of bees using only long-wavelength receptors to locate flowers among leaves, before using information provided by all three receptors to distinguish the rewarding flower species through trichromatic color vision.

  15. Aircraft Field Exercise to Develop Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging for CTBT On-Site Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, M O [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zelinski, M E [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-23

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) permits Multi-Spectral and InfraRed Imaging (MSIR) to be performed as part of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) for the purpose of reducing the search area for the location of a possible underground nuclear explosion (UNE). Dedicated airborne MSIR measurements have not been made in conjunction with historical or recent UNE’s. Satellite data has been used to show that MSIR observables can be used to reduce the search area, but the satellite data do not have the spatial resolution or spectral and thermal capabilities desired to fully characterize the MSIR observables. Consequently, there is insufficient information currently available to confidently specify an MSIR instrument to be used on an Additional Overflight as part of an OSI. The potential MSIR observables are known, but not well characterized. The possibility of using airborne MSIR measurements to characterize some of those observables has been assessed here for a variety of field exercise scenarios. The main challenge in making aircraft measurements is to have confidence that the field conditions will accurately reproduce the MSIR observable compared to a UNE. The four types of events expected to generate relevant MSIR observables are (1) underground coal fires, (2) road traffic measurements, (3) underground mining operations, and (4) certain carefully staged explosions, such as the Source Physics Experiment.

  16. Potential of multispectral imaging technology for assessment coniferous forests bitten by a bark beetle in Central Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanova Marina; Kandilarov Alexander; Koutev Vesselin; Nitcheva Olga; Dobreva Polya

    2018-01-01

    Much of the coniferous forest in Bulgaria is struck by Ips typographus, Ips acuminatus and Ips sexdentatus beetles. The multispectral camera test near the town of Kalofer, Bulgaria in August 2017, showed the good capabilities of remote-piloted aircraft for observation and mapping of large areas in highly intersected areas. The collected data from the multispectral camera allowed producing maps with different indices of the observed vegetation. Beetles damaged stains were identified and outlin...

  17. Multispectral upconversion luminescence intensity ratios for ascertaining the tissue imaging depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Tu, L.; Ding, Y.; Aalders, M.C.G.; Buma, W.J.; Zhang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have in recent years emerged as excellent contrast agents for in vivo luminescence imaging of deep tissues. But information abstracted from these images is in most cases restricted to 2-dimensions, without the depth information. In this work, a simple method has

  18. 3D and Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Price, Jeffery R [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A classification method to differentiate subcutaneous structures is presented. To obtain characteristic spectral signatures, we are investigating light propagation phenomena in biological tissues by combining visible to near-infrared multi-wavelength skin imaging and three dimensional topographic imaging of the skin surface.

  19. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed

  20. Mid‐infrared multispectral tissue imaging using a chalcogenide fiber supercontinuum source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Prtljaga, Nikola; Farries, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of mid‐infrared supercontinuum tissue imaging at wavelengths beyond 5 μm using a fiber‐coupled supercontinuum source spanning 2‐7.5 μm. The supercontinuum was generated in a tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber in order to obtain broad...... bandwidth, high average power, and single‐mode output for diffraction‐limited imaging performance. Tissue imaging was demonstrated in transmission at selected wavelengths between 5.7μm (1754 cm‐1) and 7.3μm (1370 cm‐1) by point scanning over a sub‐mm region of colon tissue, and the results were compared...... to images obtained from a commercial instrument...

  1. RELIABILITY OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEMS: USE OF MULTISPECTRAL BEADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a need for a standardized, impartial calibration, and validation protocol on confocal spectral imaging (CSI) microscope systems. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have testing tools to provide a reproducible way to evaluate instrument performance. ...

  2. Multispectral autofluorescence imaging for detection of cervical lesions: A preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo-Jin; Lee, Dae-Sic; Berezin, Vladimir; Kang, Uk; Lee, Keun-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel optical imaging system for detecting protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) autofluorescence, to prove that PpIX autofluorescence is as useful as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced fluorescence for detecting and localizing cervical cancer, and to monitor the change in PpIX autofluorescence or induced PpIX fluorescence before, during, and after photodynamic therapy (PDT). TC-1 cells - highly tumorigenic cells immortalized using human papillomavirus type 16 proteins E6 and E7 - were subcutaneously grafted into the thighs of nude mice. The suspected tumor tissues were visualized using autofluorescence imaging and induced fluorescence imaging under 5-ALA administration. When the 5-ALA-induced PpIX was sufficiently accumulated in tumor tissues, PDT was performed using a 635-nm laser. We observed the change in fluorescence intensity during PDT. For 3 weeks after PDT, we monitored tumor remission by using white-light imaging and fluorescence imaging. The transplanted cells were visualized by PpIX autofluorescence, which was induced by heme synthesis. After 5-ALA administration, PpIX could be targeted by using PDT, which decreased PpIX autofluorescence. Photobleaching is useful for monitoring PDT dosimetry and for determining the photodynamic response to therapy. PpIX autofluorescence clearly differentiated the tumor from adjacent normal tissues. The results of PpIX autofluorescence imaging and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence imaging were identical. PpIX autofluorescence imaging is a simple and cost-effective cervical cancer screening method that could be performed during or after PDT to ensure effective treatment or remission as a change in fluorescence intensity can be observed in real time without a blinding effect. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. SENSOR CORRECTION AND RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF A 6-BAND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING SENSOR FOR UAV REMOTE SENSING

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kelcey; A. Lucieer

    2012-01-01

    The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-...

  4. Olive Plantation Mapping on a Sub-Tree Scale with Object-Based Image Analysis of Multispectral UAV Data; Operational Potential in Tree Stress Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Karydas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for mapping olive plantations on a sub-tree scale. For this purpose, multispectral imagery of an almost 60-ha plantation in Greece was acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Objects smaller than the tree crown were produced with image segmentation. Three image features were indicated as optimum for discriminating olive trees from other objects in the plantation, in a rule-based classification algorithm. After limited manual corrections, the final output was validated by an overall accuracy of 93%. The overall processing chain can be considered as suitable for operational olive tree monitoring for potential stresses.

  5. Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy: A First Step Towards a Fluorescence-based Anatomic Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Buckle, Tessa; KleinJan, Gijs H; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2017-07-01

    During (robot-assisted) sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedures, intraoperative fluorescence imaging can be used to enhance radioguided SN excision. For this combined pre- and intraoperative SN identification was realized using the hybrid SN tracer, indocyanine green- 99m Tc-nanocolloid. Combining this dedicated SN tracer with a lymphangiographic tracer such as fluorescein may further enhance the accuracy of SN biopsy. Clinical evaluation of a multispectral fluorescence guided surgery approach using the dedicated SN tracer ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid, the lymphangiographic tracer fluorescein, and a commercially available fluorescence laparoscope. Pilot study in ten patients with prostate cancer. Following ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid administration and preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomograpy imaging, the number and location of SNs were determined. Fluorescein was injected intraprostatically immediately after the patient was anesthetized. A multispectral fluorescence laparoscope was used intraoperatively to identify both fluorescent signatures. Multispectral fluorescence imaging during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection and SN biopsy. (1) Number and location of preoperatively identified SNs. (2) Number and location of SNs intraoperatively identified via ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid imaging. (3) Rate of intraoperative lymphatic duct identification via fluorescein imaging. (4) Tumor status of excised (sentinel) lymph node(s). (5) Postoperative complications and follow-up. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid visualized 85.3% of the SNs. In 8/10 patients, fluorescein imaging allowed bright and accurate identification of lymphatic ducts, although higher background staining and tracer washout were observed. The main limitation is the small patient population. Our findings indicate that a lymphangiographic tracer can provide additional information during SN biopsy based on ICG- 99m

  6. Handling of huge multispectral image data volumes from a spectral hole burning device (SHBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Werner; Rosselet, Armel C.; Wild, Urs P.; Gschwind, Rudolf; Keller, Christoph U.

    1995-06-01

    We use chlorin-doped polymer films at low temperatures as the primary imaging detector. Based on the principles of persistent spectral hole burning, this system is capable of storing spatial and spectral information simultaneously in one exposure with extremely high resolution. The sun as an extended light source has been imaged onto the film. The information recorded amounts to tens of GBytes. This data volume is read out by scanning the frequency of a tunable dye laser and reading the images with a digital CCD camera. For acquisition, archival, processing, and visualization, we use MUSIC (MUlti processor System with Intelligent Communication), a single instruction multiple data parallel processor system equipped with the necessary I/O facilities. The huge amount of data requires the developemnt of sophisticated algorithms to efficiently calibrate the data and to extract useful and new information for solar physics.

  7. Development of a mobile multispectral imaging platform for precise field phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensgaard, Jesper; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Christensen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    nitrogen levels, replicated on two different soil types at four different dates from 15 May (BBCH 13) to 18 June (BBCH 41 to 57). The images were analyzed and derived vegetation coverage and Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) were used to assess varietal differences. The results showed...... potentials for differentiating between the varieties using both vegetation coverage and NDVI, especially at the early growth stages. The perspectives of high-precision and high-throughput imaging for field phenotyping are discussed including the potentials of measuring varietal differences via spectral...

  8. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  9. Mars Exploration Rover Pancam Multispectral Imaging of Rocks, Soils, and Dust at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Calvin, W. M.; Farrand, W.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Morris, R. V.; Sullivan, R. J.; Thompson, S.; Wang, A.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Multispectral imaging from the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity has provided important new insights about the geology and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Pancam observations from near-UV to near-IR wavelengths provide limited compositional and mineralogic constraints on the presence abundance, and physical properties of ferric- and ferrous-iron bearing minerals in rocks, soils, and dust at both sites. High resolution and stereo morphologic observations have also helped to infer some aspects of the composition of these materials at both sites. Perhaps most importantly, Pancam observations were often efficiently and effectively used to discover and select the relatively small number of places where in situ measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling the much more quantitative mineralogic discoveries made using elemental chemistry and mineralogy data. This chapter summarizes the major compositionally- and mineralogically-relevant results at Gusev and Meridiani derived from Pancam observations. Classes of materials encountered in Gusev crater include outcrop rocks, float rocks, cobbles, clasts, soils, dust, rock grindings, rock coatings, windblown drift deposits, and exhumed whitish/yellowish salty soils. Materials studied in Meridiani Planum include sedimentary outcrop rocks, rock rinds, fracture fills, hematite spherules, cobbles, rock fragments, meteorites, soils, and windblown drift deposits. This chapter also previews the results of a number of coordinated observations between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were designed to provide complementary new information and constraints on the mineralogy and physical properties of martian surface materials.

  10. Integration, Testing, and Analysis of Multispectral Imager on Small Unmanned Aerial System for Skin Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    55 Figure 18: Left, depicts an rendering of the filter wheel housing model. Right, depicts a... subpixel domain (Morales, 2012). Proper spatial pixel density is essential for a sensor and target detection methods. When targeting spectral... rendering of the filter wheel housing model. Right, depicts a wireframe model. There are several technical requirements for the stepper motor and

  11. Multispectral mapper - Imaging spectroscopy as applied to the mapping of earth resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    An instrument concept that uses solid-state array imaging has been developed for a future land observing system. The design concept is responsive to a variety of use needs and provides improved capabilities over the planned Landsat Thematic Mapper. A comparison of the differing approaches to the instrument design was made, resulting in the selection of a concept which uses a spectrograph coupled to a line-array imager to provide simultaneous spatial and spectral resolution. The design provides an inherent solution to the problem of achieving precise registration among the spectral bands. Data processing on the focal plane is used to select the spectral bands and their band widths. Onboard capabilities include radiometric correction, selection of instantaneous field-of-view and swath width, and data compression.

  12. Multispectral imaging and analysis system. [using charge coupled devices and linear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Landawer, F. P., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Arrays of charge coupled devices or linear detector arrays simultaneously obtain spectral reflectance data of different wavelengths for a target area. Several accommodating a particular bandwidth, are individually associated with each array. Data from the arrays are read out in parallel and applied to a computer or microprocessor for processing. The microprocessor serves to analyze the data in real time and if possible, in accordance with hard-wired algorithms. The data are then displayed as an image on an appropriate display unit and also recorded for further use. The display system may be operationally connected to receive a terrain image such that the target area and the analyzed spectral reflectance data are superimposed and simultaneously displayed.

  13. Remote sensing of surface hemispherical reflectance (albedo) using pointable multispectral imaging spectroradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Remote techniques for determining albedo are examined in terms of the range of view angles required in the use of string techniques with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the High Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (HIRIS). Ground data are used to compute full and half strings out to 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees for various sun angles and ground cover types. A knowledge-based system is employed to evaluate both the visible and near-IR bands, and the results indicate errors of up to 7 percent for the MODIS data, HIRIS data, and the full-string +/- 60 degrees. In the cases of large extrapolations greater ranges of error are noted indicating that 60-deg systems are most effective. The error is increased in the case of sensor systems that only view in the fore or aft direction, and the MODIS full string for +/- 45 deg is also considered a good system.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Infrared Multispectral Imaging Using Plasmonic Filter Array (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-10

    tested on a target at extremely high temperature as a challenging scenario for the detection scheme. Infrared (IR) spectral imagers1–3 have been widely...hypothetical bandpass filter which best approximates a desired spectral filter shape. This synthetic spectral responsivity then serves as a means for...reconstruction using an array of SP spectral filters to measure the radiant power from an unknown source in a scene in the long wave IR (LWIR) region. The LWIR

  15. Multichannel and Multispectral Image Restoration Employing Fuzzy Theory and Directional Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, Alberto; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr

    2009-01-01

    It has designed a novel structure of robust framework to remove impulse noise and additive noise in images and multichannel video sequences. Unlike existed techniques, the designed approach employs fuzzy and directional techniques to estimate motion and noise in the past and present frames showing good results. The designed fuzzy rules characterize the presence of motion and noise between the pixels in two frames (past and present frames). It has been demonstrated that the combined use of gra...

  16. COSTAL BATHYMETRY ESTIMATION FROM MULTISPECTRAL IMAGE WITH BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetric data in coastal area are important for marine sciences, hydrological applications and even for transportation and military purposes. Compare to traditional sonar and recent airborne bathymetry LIDAR systems, optical satellite images can provide information to survey a large area with single or multiple satellite images efficiently and economically. And it is especially suitable for coastal area because the penetration of visible light in water merely reaches 30 meters. In this study, a three-layer back propagation neural network is proposed to estimate bathymetry. In the learning stage, some training samples with known depth are adopted to train the weights of the neural network until the stopping criterion is satisfied. The spectral information is sent to the input layer and fits the true water depth with the output. The depths of training samples are manually measured from stereo images of the submerged reefs after water refraction correction. In the testing stage, all non-land pixels are processed. The experiments show the mean square errors are less than 3 meters.

  17. CLASSIFICATION BY USING MULTISPECTRAL POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Liao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing images are generally recorded in two-dimensional format containing multispectral information. Also, the semantic information is clearly visualized, which ground features can be better recognized and classified via supervised or unsupervised classification methods easily. Nevertheless, the shortcomings of multispectral images are highly depending on light conditions, and classification results lack of three-dimensional semantic information. On the other hand, LiDAR has become a main technology for acquiring high accuracy point cloud data. The advantages of LiDAR are high data acquisition rate, independent of light conditions and can directly produce three-dimensional coordinates. However, comparing with multispectral images, the disadvantage is multispectral information shortage, which remains a challenge in ground feature classification through massive point cloud data. Consequently, by combining the advantages of both LiDAR and multispectral images, point cloud data with three-dimensional coordinates and multispectral information can produce a integrate solution for point cloud classification. Therefore, this research acquires visible light and near infrared images, via close range photogrammetry, by matching images automatically through free online service for multispectral point cloud generation. Then, one can use three-dimensional affine coordinate transformation to compare the data increment. At last, the given threshold of height and color information is set as threshold in classification.

  18. Fusion of Satellite Multispectral Images Based on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR Data for the Investigation of Buried Concealed Archaeological Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Agapiou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the superficial layers of an archaeological landscape based on the integration of various remote sensing techniques. It is well known in the literature that shallow depths may be rich in archeological remains, which generate different signal responses depending on the applied technique. In this study three main technologies are examined, namely ground-penetrating radar (GPR, ground spectroscopy, and multispectral satellite imagery. The study aims to propose a methodology to enhance optical remote sensing satellite images, intended for archaeological research, based on the integration of ground based and satellite datasets. For this task, a regression model between the ground spectroradiometer and GPR is established which is then projected to a high resolution sub-meter optical image. The overall methodology consists of nine steps. Beyond the acquirement of the in-situ measurements and their calibration (Steps 1–3, various regression models are examined for more than 70 different vegetation indices (Steps 4–5. The specific data analysis indicated that the red-edge position (REP hyperspectral index was the most appropriate for developing a local fusion model between ground spectroscopy data and GPR datasets (Step 6, providing comparable results with the in situ GPR measurements (Step 7. Other vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, have also been examined, providing significant correlation between the two datasets (R = 0.50. The model is then projected to a high-resolution image over the area of interest (Step 8. The proposed methodology was evaluated with a series of field data collected from the Vésztő-Mágor Tell in the eastern part of Hungary. The results were compared with in situ magnetic gradiometry measurements, indicating common interpretation results. The results were also compatible with the preliminary archaeological investigations of the area (Step 9. The overall

  19. Biophysical control of intertidal benthic macroalgae revealed by high-frequency multispectral camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Daphne; van Dalen, Jeroen; Wielemaker-van den Dool, Annette; Dijkstra, Jasper T.; Ysebaert, Tom

    2014-07-01

    Intertidal benthic macroalgae are a biological quality indicator in estuaries and coasts. While remote sensing has been applied to quantify the spatial distribution of such macroalgae, it is generally not used for their monitoring. We examined the day-to-day and seasonal dynamics of macroalgal cover on a sandy intertidal flat using visible and near-infrared images from a time-lapse camera mounted on a tower. Benthic algae were identified using supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised classification techniques, validated with monthly ground-truthing over one year. A supervised classification (based on maximum likelihood, using training areas identified in the field) performed best in discriminating between sediment, benthic diatom films and macroalgae, with highest spectral separability between macroalgae and diatoms in spring/summer. An automated unsupervised classification (based on the Normalised Differential Vegetation Index NDVI) allowed detection of daily changes in macroalgal coverage without the need for calibration. This method showed a bloom of macroalgae (filamentous green algae, Ulva sp.) in summer with > 60% cover, but with pronounced superimposed day-to-day variation in cover. Waves were a major factor in regulating macroalgal cover, but regrowth of the thalli after a summer storm was fast (2 weeks). Images and in situ data demonstrated that the protruding tubes of the polychaete Lanice conchilega facilitated both settlement (anchorage) and survival (resistance to waves) of the macroalgae. Thus, high-frequency, high resolution images revealed the mechanisms for regulating the dynamics in cover of the macroalgae and for their spatial structuring. Ramifications for the mode, timing, frequency and evaluation of monitoring macroalgae by field and remote sensing surveys are discussed.

  20. INTRODUCING A LOW-COST MINI-UAV FOR THERMAL- AND MULTISPECTRAL-IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bendig; A. Bolten; G. Bareth; G. Bareth

    2012-01-01

    The trend to minimize electronic devices also accounts for Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs) as well as for sensor technologies and imaging devices. Consequently, it is not surprising that UAVs are already part of our daily life and the current pace of development will increase civil applications. A well known and already wide spread example is the so called flying video game based on Parrot's AR.Drone which is remotely controlled by an iPod, iPhone, or iPad (http://ardrone.parrot.com). The l...

  1. Multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscopy combined with optical coherence tomography for simultaneous in vivo mouse retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Jian, Yifan; Wang, Xinlei; Burns, Marie E.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    A compact, non-invasive multi-modal system has been developed for in vivo mouse retina imaging. It is configured for simultaneously detecting green and red fluorescent protein signals with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) back-scattered light from the SLO illumination beam, and depth information about different retinal layers by means of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Simultaneous assessment of retinal characteristics with different modalities can provide a wealth of information about the structural and functional changes in the retinal neural tissue and chorio-retinal vasculature in vivo. Additionally, simultaneous acquisition of multiple channels facilitates analysis of the data of different modalities by automatic temporal and structural co-registration. As an example of the instrument's performance we imaged the retina of a mouse with constitutive expression of GFP in microglia cells (Cx3cr1GFP/+), and which also expressed the red fluorescent protein mCherry in Müller glial cells by means of adeno-associated virus delivery (AAV2) of an mCherry cDNA driven by the GFAP (glial fibrillary acid protein) promoter.

  2. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Calvin, W.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.

  3. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Spirit Rover at Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera images at Gusev crater reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with high- to moderate-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular swales or hollows. Optically thick coatings of fine-grained ferric iron-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces and rock regions exposed by brushing or grinding show near-infrared spectral signatures consistent with the presence of mafic silicates such as pyroxene or olivine. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission, and astronomical observations captured solar transits by the martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, as well as a view of Earth from the martian surface.

  4. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.F.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H.M.; Bass, D.; Calvin, W.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A.G.; Hubbard, M.Y.H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M.J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Li, R.; Madsen, M.B.; Maki, J.N.; Malin, M.; McCartney, E.; McLennan, S.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Parker, T.J.; Proton, J.; Rice, J. W.; Seelos, F.; Soderblom, J.M.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weitz, C.M.; Wolff, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.

  5. Monitoring urban growth by using segmentation-classification of multispectral Landsat images in Izmit, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Selin; Doker, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-07-01

    Assessing the spatial land use and land cover (LULC) information is essential for decision making and management of landscapes. In fact, LULC information has been changed dramatically in fast-growing cities. This results in wrong land use problems due to unplanned and uncontrolled urbanization. The planning and evaluating of limited natural resources under the pressure of a growing population can be possible when a precise land use management plan is established. Therefore, it is imperative to monitor continuous LULC changes for future planning. Remote sensing (RS) technique is used for determining changes in LULC in urban areas. In this study, we have focused on Izmit, which is one of a growing number of metropolitan cities where the impact of the spatial growing period on LULC has been assessed over the past 30 years by using RS data. We have utilized the segmentation process and supervised classification of Landsat satellite images for four different dates (1985, 1995, 2005, and 2015). The outcome of this research can be summarized by significant changes in the shares of urban areas and farmland LULC classes. The overall observed increase in urban area class is up to 2177 ha between 1985 and 2015 period and this dramatic change has resulted in the decline of 1211 ha of farmland. Another conclusion is that the new residential areas have been created to the north, south and east of Izmit during this period.

  6. The MIND PALACE: A Multi-Spectral Imaging and Spectroscopy Database for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, E.; Doloboff, I.; Hara, E. K.; Uckert, K.; Sapers, H. M.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Multi-Instrument Database (MIND) is the web-based home to a well-characterized set of analytical data collected by a suite of deep-UV fluorescence/Raman instruments built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Samples derive from a growing body of planetary surface analogs, mineral and microbial standards, meteorites, spacecraft materials, and other astrobiologically relevant materials. In addition to deep-UV spectroscopy, datasets stored in MIND are obtained from a variety of analytical techniques obtained over multiple spatial and spectral scales including electron microscopy, optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and direct fluorescence imaging. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, primarily Principal Component Analysis (PCA), are used to guide interpretation of these large multi-analytical spectral datasets. Spatial co-referencing of integrated spectral/visual maps is performed using QGIS (geographic information system software). Georeferencing techniques transform individual instrument data maps into a layered co-registered data cube for analysis across spectral and spatial scales. The body of data in MIND is intended to serve as a permanent, reliable, and expanding database of deep-UV spectroscopy datasets generated by this unique suite of JPL-based instruments on samples of broad planetary science interest.

  7. A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Seo, Anna; Kim, Jun-Young; Choi, Sung Hyouk; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunjoo; Hwang, Jae Youn

    2017-12-13

    We report a multimodal biomicroscopic system which offers high-frequency ultrasound B-mode, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), and multispectral imaging for qualitative tumor characterization ex vivo. Examinations of resected tissues from diseased regions such as tumors are crucial procedures during surgical operations to treat cancer. Particularly, if tiny tumors remain at surgical sites after tumor resection, such tumors can result in unwanted outcomes, such as cancer recurrence or metastasis to other organs. To avoid this, accurate characterizations of tumors resected during surgery are necessary. To this end, we devised a multimodal biomicroscopic system including high-frequency ultrasound B-mode, ARFI, and multispectral imaging modalities to examine resected tumors with high levels of accuracy. This system was evaluated with tissue-mimicking phantoms with different mechanical properties. In addition, colorectal tumors excised from cancer patients were examined. The proposed system offers highly resolved anatomical, mechanical, chemical information pertaining to tumors, thus allowing the detection of tumor regions from the surface to deep inside tissues. These results therefore suggest that the multimodal biomicroscopic system has the potential to undertake qualitative characterizations of excised tumors ex vivo.

  8. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cameron HJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracing cell dynamics in the embryo becomes tremendously difficult when cell trajectories cross in space and time and tissue density obscure individual cell borders. Here, we used the chick neural crest (NC as a model to test multicolor cell labeling and multispectral confocal imaging strategies to overcome these roadblocks. Results We found that multicolor nuclear cell labeling and multispectral imaging led to improved resolution of in vivo NC cell identification by providing a unique spectral identity for each cell. NC cell spectral identity allowed for more accurate cell tracking and was consistent during short term time-lapse imaging sessions. Computer model simulations predicted significantly better object counting for increasing cell densities in 3-color compared to 1-color nuclear cell labeling. To better resolve cell contacts, we show that a combination of 2-color membrane and 1-color nuclear cell labeling dramatically improved the semi-automated analysis of NC cell interactions, yet preserved the ability to track cell movements. We also found channel versus lambda scanning of multicolor labeled embryos significantly reduced the time and effort of image acquisition and analysis of large 3D volume data sets. Conclusions Our results reveal that multicolor cell labeling and multispectral imaging provide a cellular fingerprint that may uniquely determine a cell's position within the embryo. Together, these methods offer a spectral toolbox to resolve in vivo cell dynamics in unprecedented detail.

  9. Potential of multispectral imaging technology for assessment coniferous forests bitten by a bark beetle in Central Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Marina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the coniferous forest in Bulgaria is struck by Ips typographus, Ips acuminatus and Ips sexdentatus beetles. The multispectral camera test near the town of Kalofer, Bulgaria in August 2017, showed the good capabilities of remote-piloted aircraft for observation and mapping of large areas in highly intersected areas. The collected data from the multispectral camera allowed producing maps with different indices of the observed vegetation. Beetles damaged stains were identified and outlining the areas of intervention and their sizing is possible by forestry specialists. The NDVI index in the range of 0.7 to 0.95 characterizes green tree vegetation. Affected forest subjected to stress has lower NDVI index values - 0.65.The NDVI index of damaged areas range from 0.45-0.5. Identifying affected forest areas is the first important step to solve the problem. Taking pictures of drones and multispectral camera can be of great help, and the test conducted clearly demonstrates it. Preventive actions can happen much earlier before trees are completely destroyed and the problem is clearly visible with the naked eye. In view of the rapid spread and the complete destruction of some conifers, immediate action is needed to cut out and remove the diseased and infected trees in order to break the development cycle and prevent subsequent contamination of adjacent plots

  10. Thermal surveillance of Cascade Range volcanoes using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner, aircraft imaging systems, and ground-based data communication platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. D.; Frank, D. G.; Preble, D.; Painter, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of infrared images depicting areas of thermal emission and ground calibration points have proved to be particularly useful in plotting time-dependent changes in surface temperatures and radiance and in delimiting areas of predominantly convective heat flow to the earth's surface in the Cascade Range and on Surtsey Volcano, Iceland. In an integrated experiment group using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) and aircraft infrared imaging systems in conjunction with multiple thermistor arrays, volcano surface temperatures are relayed daily to Washington via data communication platform (DCP) transmitters and ERTS-1. ERTS-1 MSS imagery has revealed curvilinear structures at Lassen, the full extent of which have not been previously mapped. Interestingly, the major surface thermal manifestations at Lassen are aligned along these structures, particularly in the Warner Valley.

  11. Extracting Urban Morphology for Atmospheric Modeling from Multispectral and SAR Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, S.; Karila, K.; Puttonen, E.; Hellsten, A.; Auvinen, M.; Karjalainen, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an approach designed to derive an urban morphology map from satellite data while aiming to minimize the cost of data and user interference. The approach will help to provide updates to the current morphological databases around the world. The proposed urban morphology maps consist of two layers: 1) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and 2) land cover map. Sentinel-2 data was used to create a land cover map, which was realized through image classification using optical range indices calculated from image data. For the purpose of atmospheric modeling, the most important classes are water and vegetation areas. The rest of the area includes bare soil and built-up areas among others, and they were merged into one class in the end. The classification result was validated with ground truth data collected both from field measurements and aerial imagery. The overall classification accuracy for the three classes is 91 %. TanDEM-X data was processed into two DEMs with different grid sizes using interferometric SAR processing. The resulting DEM has a RMSE of 3.2 meters compared to a high resolution DEM, which was estimated through 20 control points in flat areas. Comparing the derived DEM with the ground truth DEM from airborne LIDAR data, it can be seen that the street canyons, that are of high importance for urban atmospheric modeling are not detectable in the TanDEM-X DEM. However, the derived DEM is suitable for a class of urban atmospheric models. Based on the numerical modeling needs for regional atmospheric pollutant dispersion studies, the generated files enable the extraction of relevant parametrizations, such as Urban Canopy Parameters (UCP).

  12. Multispectral hyperbolic incoherent holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinuanjan, Keerayoot; Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a new method of multispectral hyperbolic incoherent holography in which a hyperbolic volume interferogram was directly measured by an appropriate designed interferometer. This method enables to obtain a set of spectral components of three-dimensional images and continuous spectra for spatially incoherent, polychromatic objects. We introduced a calibration method of a phase aberration of the interferometer. The spectral resolution and spatial resolutions are investigated based on analytical solution of impulse response function of hyperbolic holography. From experimental results and theoretical predictions, the validity of the calibration method was confirmed. Experimental results agree with the theoretical ones. Consequently, the retrieved images obtained by the method are shown to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  13. Spatial Co-Registration of Ultra-High Resolution Visible, Multispectral and Thermal Images Acquired with a Micro-UAV over Antarctic Moss Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Turner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs as tools for environmental remote sensing has become more commonplace. Compared to traditional airborne remote sensing, UAVs can provide finer spatial resolution data (up to 1 cm/pixel and higher temporal resolution data. For the purposes of vegetation monitoring, the use of multiple sensors such as near infrared and thermal infrared cameras are of benefit. Collecting data with multiple sensors, however, requires an accurate spatial co-registration of the various UAV image datasets. In this study, we used an Oktokopter UAV to investigate the physiological state of Antarctic moss ecosystems using three sensors: (i a visible camera (1 cm/pixel, (ii a 6 band multispectral camera (3 cm/pixel, and (iii a thermal infrared camera (10 cm/pixel. Imagery from each sensor was geo-referenced and mosaicked with a combination of commercially available software and our own algorithms based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The validation of the mosaic’s spatial co-registration revealed a mean root mean squared error (RMSE of 1.78 pixels. A thematic map of moss health, derived from the multispectral mosaic using a Modified Triangular Vegetation Index (MTVI2, and an indicative map of moss surface temperature were then combined to demonstrate sufficient accuracy of our co-registration methodology for UAV-based monitoring of Antarctic moss beds.

  14. Experience using the NDVI normalized difference vegetation index for monitoring Polesye agricultural land based on multispectral Ikonos satellite imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporovich, Z. A.; Radevich, E. A.

    2012-09-01

    We discuss our experience in application of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which we use as a basis for proposing methods for automated recognition, classification, and assessment of the condition of land utilized for different agricultural purposes (agriculture, pasture, peat soils, water bodies, etc.), with visualization of the results as color-coded raster maps. The objective is realized utilizing the specialized ERDAS Imagine software, using multispectral Ikonos satellite data (1.2 m resolution), based on standardization against 84 reference areas from the Polesskaja experimental station. The results were tested on landscape analogs.

  15. Instantaneous 3D Continental-Shelf Scale Imaging of Oceanic Fish by Multi-Spectral Resonance Sensing Reveals Group Behavior during Spawning Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Yi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of extensive social groups towards specific spawning grounds in vast and diverse ocean environments is an integral part of the regular spawning process of many oceanic fish species. Oceanic fish in such migrations typically seek locations with environmental parameters that maximize the probability of successful spawning and egg/larval survival. The 3D spatio-temporal dynamics of these behavioral processes are largely unknown due to technical difficulties in sensing the ocean environment over wide areas. Here, we use ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (OAWRS to instantaneously image immense herring groups over continental-shelf-scale areas at the Georges Bank spawning ground. Via multi-spectral OAWRS measurements, we capture a shift in swimbladder resonance peak correlated with the herring groups’ up-slope spawning migration, enabling 3D spatial behavioral dynamics to be instantaneously inferred over thousands of square kilometers. We show that herring groups maintain near-bottom vertical distributions with negative buoyancy throughout the migration. We find a spatial correlation greater than 0.9 between the average herring group depth and corresponding seafloor depth for migratory paths along the bathymetric gradient. This is consistent with herring groups maintaining near-seafloor paths to both search for optimal spawning conditions and reduce the risk of predator attacks during the migration to shallower waters where near-surface predators are more dangerous. This analysis shows that multi-spectral resonance sensing with OAWRS can be used as an effective tool to instantaneously image and continuously monitor the behavioral dynamics of swimbladder-bearing fish group behavior in three spatial dimensions over continental-shelf scales.

  16. Object-based analysis of multispectral airborne laser scanner data for land cover classification and map updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Karila, Kirsi; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula; Puttonen, Eetu; Ahokas, Eero

    2017-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with passive multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. The main benefits have been achieved in the mapping of elevated objects such as buildings and trees. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and active multispectral information is for the first time available for 3D ALS point clouds from a single sensor. This article discusses the potential of this new technology in map updating, especially in automated object-based land cover classification and change detection in a suburban area. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from an object-based random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral ALS data are very useful for land cover classification, considering both elevated classes and ground-level classes. The overall accuracy of the land cover classification results with six classes was 96% compared with validation points. The classes under study included building, tree, asphalt, gravel, rocky area and low vegetation. Compared to classification of single-channel data, the main improvements were achieved for ground-level classes. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral intensity features based on several channels were more useful than those based on one channel. Automatic change detection for buildings and roads was also demonstrated by utilising the new multispectral ALS data in combination with old map vectors. In change detection of buildings, an old digital surface model (DSM) based on single-channel ALS data was also used. Overall, our analyses suggest that the new data have high potential for further increasing the automation level in mapping. Unlike passive aerial imaging commonly used in mapping, the multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and there are

  17. Modelling forest canopy height by integrating airborne LiDAR samples with satellite Radar and multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mariano; Saatchi, Sassan; Ustin, Susan; Balzter, Heiko

    2018-04-01

    Spatially-explicit information on forest structure is paramount to estimating aboveground carbon stocks for designing sustainable forest management strategies and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. LiDAR measurements provide samples of forest structure that must be integrated with satellite imagery to predict and to map landscape scale variations of forest structure. Here we evaluate the capability of existing satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with multispectral data to estimate forest canopy height over five study sites across two biomes in North America, namely temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and temperate coniferous forests. Pixel size affected the modelling results, with an improvement in model performance as pixel resolution coarsened from 25 m to 100 m. Likewise, the sample size was an important factor in the uncertainty of height prediction using the Support Vector Machine modelling approach. Larger sample size yielded better results but the improvement stabilised when the sample size reached approximately 10% of the study area. We also evaluated the impact of surface moisture (soil and vegetation moisture) on the modelling approach. Whereas the impact of surface moisture had a moderate effect on the proportion of the variance explained by the model (up to 14%), its impact was more evident in the bias of the models with bias reaching values up to 4 m. Averaging the incidence angle corrected radar backscatter coefficient (γ°) reduced the impact of surface moisture on the models and improved their performance at all study sites, with R2 ranging between 0.61 and 0.82, RMSE between 2.02 and 5.64 and bias between 0.02 and -0.06, respectively, at 100 m spatial resolution. An evaluation of the relative importance of the variables in the model performance showed that for the study sites located within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome ALOS-PALSAR HV polarised backscatter was the most important

  18. Geometric calibration of lens and filter distortions for multispectral filter-wheel cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauers, Johannes; Aach, Til

    2011-02-01

    High-fidelity color image acquisition with a multispectral camera utilizes optical filters to separate the visible electromagnetic spectrum into several passbands. This is often realized with a computer-controlled filter wheel, where each position is equipped with an optical bandpass filter. For each filter wheel position, a grayscale image is acquired and the passbands are finally combined to a multispectral image. However, the different optical properties and non-coplanar alignment of the filters cause image aberrations since the optical path is slightly different for each filter wheel position. As in a normal camera system, the lens causes additional wavelength-dependent image distortions called chromatic aberrations. When transforming the multispectral image with these aberrations into an RGB image, color fringes appear, and the image exhibits a pincushion or barrel distortion. In this paper, we address both the distortions caused by the lens and by the filters. Based on a physical model of the bandpass filters, we show that the aberrations caused by the filters can be modeled by displaced image planes. The lens distortions are modeled by an extended pinhole camera model, which results in a remaining mean calibration error of only 0.07 pixels. Using an absolute calibration target, we then geometrically calibrate each passband and compensate for both lens and filter distortions simultaneously. We show that both types of aberrations can be compensated and present detailed results on the remaining calibration errors.

  19. Detection of live larvae in cocoons of Bathyplectes curculionis (Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae) using visible/near-infrared multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Ytting, Nanna Karkov

    2018-01-01

    on the possible use of B. curculionis in augmentative control of Hypera weevil pests in white clover seed production where cocoons of the parasitoid remain as a by-product of seed processing. Only a fraction of the by-product contains live parasitoid larvae and an effective method is required detect live cocoons...... for later augmentative control of the pest. Therefore, this study aims to identify live larval cocoons of B. curculionis using the MS imaging system. RESULTS: Live and dead cocoons were identified using the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) model with an accuracy of 91% and 80% (error rate 14...... cocoons of B. curculionis. This study shows the potential of developing an MS imaging system to facilitate sorting of live and dead cocoons and optimize augmentative control of Hypera weevil pests. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry....

  20. Orbital multispectral mapping of Mercury with the MESSENGER Mercury Dual Imaging System: Evidence for the origins of plains units and low-reflectance material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Klima, Rachel L.; Denevi, Brett W.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Keller, Mary R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Blewett, David T.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Hash, Christopher D.; Malaret, Erick; Izenberg, Noam R.; Vilas, Faith; Nittler, Larry R.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-07-01

    A principal data product from MESSENGER's primary orbital mission at Mercury is a global multispectral map in eight visible to near-infrared colors, at an average pixel scale of 1 km, acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System. The constituent images have been calibrated, photometrically corrected to a standard geometry, and map projected. Global analysis reveals no spectral units not seen during MESSENGER's Mercury flybys and supports previous conclusions that most spectral variation is related to changes in spectral slope and reflectance between spectral end-member high-reflectance red plains (HRP) and low-reflectance material (LRM). Comparison of color properties of plains units mapped on the basis of morphology shows that the two largest unambiguously volcanic smooth plains deposits (the interior plains of Caloris and the northern plains) are close to HRP end members and have average color properties distinct from those of most other smooth plains and intercrater plains. In contrast, smaller deposits of smooth plains are nearly indistinguishable from intercrater plains on the basis of their range of color properties, consistent with the interpretation that intercrater plains are older equivalents of smooth plains. LRM having nearly the same reflectance is exposed in crater and basin ejecta of all ages, suggesting impact excavation from depth of material that is intrinsically dark or darkens very rapidly, rather than gradual darkening of exposed material purely by space weathering. A global search reveals no definitive absorptions attributable to Fe2+-containing silicates or to sulfides over regions 20 km or more in horizontal extent, consistent with results from MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer. The only absorption-like feature identified is broad upward curvature of the spectrum centered near 600 nm wavelength. The feature is strongest in freshly exposed LRM and weak or absent in older exposures of LRM. We modeled spectra

  1. UAV MULTISPECTRAL SURVEY TO MAP SOIL AND CROP FOR PRECISION FARMING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New sensors mounted on UAV and optimal procedures for survey, data acquisition and analysis are continuously developed and tested for applications in precision farming. Procedures to integrate multispectral aerial data about soil and crop and ground-based proximal geophysical data are a recent research topic aimed to delineate homogeneous zones for the management of agricultural inputs (i.e., water, nutrients. Multispectral and multitemporal orthomosaics were produced over a test field (a 100 m x 200 m plot within a maize field, to map vegetation and soil indices, as well as crop heights, with suitable ground resolution. UAV flights were performed in two moments during the crop season, before sowing on bare soil, and just before flowering when maize was nearly at the maximum height. Two cameras, for color (RGB and false color (NIR-RG images, were used. The images were processed in Agisoft Photoscan to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM of bare soil and crop, and multispectral orthophotos. To overcome some difficulties in the automatic searching of matching points for the block adjustment of the crop image, also the scientific software developed by Politecnico of Milan was used to enhance images orientation. Surveys and image processing are described, as well as results about classification of multispectral-multitemporal orthophotos and soil indices.

  2. Development of a multispectral imagery device devoted to weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vioix, Jean-Baptiste; Douzals, Jean-Paul; Truchetet, Frederic; Navar, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Multispectral imagery is a large domain with number of practical applications: thermography, quality control in industry, food science and agronomy, etc. The main interest is to obtain spectral information of the objects for which reflectance signal can be associated with physical, chemical and/or biological properties. Agronomic applications of multispectral imagery generally involve the acquisition of several images in the wavelengths of visible and near infrared. This paper will first present different kind of multispectral devices used for agronomic issues and will secondly introduce an original multispectral design based on a single CCD. Third, early results obtained for weed detection are presented.

  3. Multispectral imaging of formalin-fixed tissue predicts ability to generate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zipei; Puri, Sachin; Moudgil, Tarsem; Wood, William; Hoyt, Clifford C; Wang, Chichung; Urba, Walter J; Curti, Brendan D; Bifulco, Carlo B; Fox, Bernard A

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has shown great promise in melanoma, with over 50 % response rate in patients where autologous tumor-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) can be cultured and expanded. A major limitation of ACT is the inability to generate or expand autologous tumor-reactive TIL in 25-45 % of patients tested. Methods that successfully identify tumors that are not suitable for TIL generation by standard methods would eliminate the costs of fruitless expansion and enable these patients to receive alternate therapy immediately. Multispectral fluorescent immunohistochemistry with a panel including CD3, CD8, FoxP3, CD163, PD-L1 was used to analyze the tumor microenvironment in 17 patients with melanoma among our 36-patient cohort to predict successful TIL generation. Additionally, we compared tumor fragments and enzymatic digestion of tumor samples for efficiency in generating tumor-reactive TIL. Tumor-reactive TIL were generated from 21/36 (58 %) of melanomas and for 12/13 (92 %) tumors where both enzymatic and fragment methods were compared. TIL generation was successful in 10/13 enzymatic preparations and in 10/13 fragment cultures; combination of both methods resulted in successful generation of autologous tumor-reactive TIL in 12/13 patients. In 17 patients for whom tissue blocks were available, IHC analysis identified that while the presence of CD8(+) T cells alone was insufficient to predict successful TIL generation, the CD8(+) to FoxP3(+) ratio was predictive with a positive-predictive value (PPV) of 91 % and negative-predictive value (NPV) of 86 %. Incorporation of CD163+ macrophage numbers and CD8:PD-L1 ratio did not improve the PPV. However, the NPV could be improved to 100 % by including the ratio of CD8(+):PD-L1(+) expressing cells. This is the first study to apply 7-color multispectral immunohistochemistry to analyze the immune environment of tumors from patients with melanoma. Assessment of the data using unsupervised

  4. Retrospective assessment of macrophytic communities in southern Lake Garda (Italy from in situ and MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ and hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer images acquired over a period of 13 years are used to assess changes in macrophyte colonization patterns in the coastal zones of the Sirmione Peninsula in the southern part of Lake Garda (Italy. In situ data (abundance, cover density and diversity of macrophyte communities and MIVIS-derived maps of colonized substrates are analyzed by considering the variability of the main hydrological and physicochemical variables in order to indicate the main factors that explain the spatiotemporal variability of macrophyte communities. The results show a considerable modification in terms of macrophyte structural complexity and colonized areas. Almost 98% of macrophyte meadows (in particular communities with a density of over 70% are lost and subsequently replaced by moderate to extremely rare communities with density from 10% to 40%. Well-established submerged macrophytes are replaced by de-structured communities characterized by moderate to scarce density: on average lower than 30%. The study indicates that macrophyte distribution along the littoral zone of the Sirmione Peninsula is certainly linked to water transparency and water level fluctuation. The results also indicate that the worsening of eutrophication may be associated with the gradual disappearance of macrophyte meadows, but may also be accelerated by herbivorous aquatic birds grazing there. Lastly, the increasing frequency and number of catamaran tours could be considered a threat for the stability of these valuable communities.

  5. A linear model to predict with a multi-spectral radiometer the amount of nitrogen in winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyniers, M.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Baardemaaker, De J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to develop an optimal vegetation index (VIopt) to predict with a multi-spectral radiometer nitrogen in wheat crop (kg[N] ha-1). Optimality means that nitrogen in the crop can be measured accurately in the field during the growing season. It also means that the measurements are

  6. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  7. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  8. Radiomics Evaluation of Histological Heterogeneity Using Multiscale Textures Derived From 3D Wavelet Transformation of Multispectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chaddad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available PurposeColorectal cancer (CRC is markedly heterogeneous and develops progressively toward malignancy through several stages which include stroma (ST, benign hyperplasia (BH, intraepithelial neoplasia (IN or precursor cancerous lesion, and carcinoma (CA. Identification of the malignancy stage of CRC pathology tissues (PT allows the most appropriate therapeutic intervention.MethodsThis study investigates multiscale texture features extracted from CRC pathology sections using 3D wavelet transform (3D-WT filter. Multiscale features were extracted from digital whole slide images of 39 patients that were segmented in a pre-processing step using an active contour model. The capacity for multiscale texture to compare and classify between PTs was investigated using ANOVA significance test and random forest classifier models, respectively.Results12 significant features derived from the multiscale texture (i.e., variance, entropy, and energy were found to discriminate between CRC grades at a significance value of p < 0.01 after correction. Combining multiscale texture features lead to a better predictive capacity compared to prediction models based on individual scale features with an average (±SD classification accuracy of 93.33 (±3.52%, sensitivity of 88.33 (± 4.12%, and specificity of 96.89 (± 3.88%. Entropy was found to be the best classifier feature across all the PT grades with an average of the area under the curve (AUC value of 91.17, 94.21, 97.70, 100% for ST, BH, IN, and CA, respectively.ConclusionOur results suggest that multiscale texture features based on 3D-WT are sensitive enough to discriminate between CRC grades with the entropy feature, the best predictor of pathology grade.

  9. PAN-SHARPENING APPROACHES BASED ON UNMIXING OF MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palubinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Model based analysis or explicit definition/listing of all models/assumptions used in the derivation of a pan-sharpening method allows us to understand the rationale or properties of existing methods and shows a way for a proper usage or proposal/selection of new methods ‘better’ satisfying the needs of a particular application. Most existing pan-sharpening methods are based mainly on the two models/assumptions: spectral consistency for high resolution multispectral data (physical relationship between multispectral and panchromatic data in a high resolution scale and spatial consistency for multispectral data (so-called Wald’s protocol first property or relationship between multispectral data in different resolution scales. Two methods, one based on a linear unmixing model and another one based on spatial unmixing, are desc