WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling learning effects

  1. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran FARAJOLLAHI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment. In the present model, group and individual active teaching-learning approach, timely feedback, using IT and eight types of interactions have been designed with respect to theoretical foundations and current university missions. From among the issues emphasized in this model, one can refer to the Initial, Formative and Summative evaluations. In an effective distance learning environment, evaluation should be part of the learning process and the feedback resulting from it should be used to improve learning. For validating the specified features, the opinions of Distance learning experts in Payame Noor, Shiraz, Science and Technology and Amirkabir Universities have been used which verified a high percentage of the statistical sample of the above mentioned features.

  2. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model and Kolb Learning Styles on Learning Result of the Basics of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…

  3. A Conceptual Model for Effective Distance Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Mehran; Zare, Hosein; Hormozi, Mahmood; Sarmadi, Mohammad Reza; Zarifsanaee, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is…

  4. Personal Coaching: Reflection on a Model for Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kerryn

    2015-01-01

    The article "Personal Coaching: A Model for Effective Learning" (Griffiths, 2006) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 1, Issue 2 in 2006. Almost ten years on, Kerryn Griffiths reflects upon her original article. Specifically, Griffiths looks back at the combined coaching-learning model she suggested in her…

  5. Correlation Between Blended Learning Model With The Perspective Of Learning Effectiveness For Nursing Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Sumartiningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The learning model is one of the enabling factors that influence the achievement of students. That students have a good learning outcomes the lecturer must choose appropriate learning models. But in fact not all lecturers choose the most appropriate learning model with the demands of learning outcomes and student characteristics.The study design was descriptive quantitative correlation. Total population of 785 the number of samples are 202 were taken by purposive sampling. Techniques of data collection is done by cross-sectional and then processed through the Spearman test. The results showed no significant relationship between classroom lecture method in the context of blended learning models to study the effectiveness perspective the p value of 0.001. There is a significant relationship between e-learning methods in the context of blended learning models with perspective of activities study of nursing students the p value of 0.028. There is a significant relationship between learning model of blended learning with the perspective of nursing students learning effectiveness p value 0.167. Researchers recommend to future researchers conduct more research on the comparison between the effectiveness of the learning model based on student learning centers with the e-learning models and its impact on student achievement of learning competencies as well as to the implications for other dimensions of learning outcomes and others.

  6. The Effect of Integrated Learning Model and Critical Thinking Skill of Science Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazriyah, N.; Supriyati, Y.; Rahayu, W.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of integrated learning model and critical thinking skill toward science learning outcomes. The study was conducted in SDN Kemiri Muka 1 Depok in fifth grade school year 2014/2015 using cluster random sampling was done to 80 students. Retrieval of data obtained through tests and analysis by Variance (ANOVA) and two lines with the design treatment by level 2x2. The results showed that: (1) science learning outcomes students that given thematic integrated learning model is higher than in the group of students given fragmented learning model, (2) there is an interaction effect between critical thinking skills with integrated learning model, (3) for students who have high critical thinking skills, science learning outcomes students who given by thematic integrated learning model higher than fragmented learning model and (4) for students who have the ability to think critically low yield higher learning science fragmented model. The results of this study indicate that thematic learning model with critical thinking skills can improve science learning outcomes of students.

  7. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF THE ACTIVE LEARNING MODEL ON STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge TAÇMAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the active learning model onstudents. The subjects were 40 teacher candidates from computer and teaching technology department who were enrolled inthe course of “New Instructional Methods” at Near East University in TRNC. A queationnaires were used to collect the data.The data was analyzed by using frequencies and percentile techniques. The finding revealed that there was a positive effect ofavtive learning atmosphere on students.

  9. Grasping the Dynamic Complexity of Team Learning: An Integrative Model for Effective Team Learning in Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Stefan; Dochy, Filip; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative model of team learning. Literature shows that effective team learning requires the establishment of a dialogical space amongst team members, in which communicative behaviours such as "sharing", "co-construction" and "constructive conflict" are balanced. However, finding this balance is not enough.…

  10. The effect of learning models and emotional intelligence toward students learning outcomes on reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiani, Ani; Silitonga, Mei Y.

    2017-08-01

    This research focused on the effect of learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes on reaction rate teaching topic. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, with 2x2 factorial research design was used. There were two factors tested, namely: the learning models (factor A), and emotional intelligence (factor B) factors. Then, two learning models were used; problem-based learning/PBL (A1), and project-based learning/PjBL (A2). While, the emotional intelligence was divided into higher and lower types. The number of population was six classes containing 243 grade X students of SMAN 10 Medan, Indonesia. There were 15 students of each class were chosen as the sample of the research by applying purposive sampling technique. The data were analyzed by applying two-ways analysis of variance (2X2) at the level of significant α = 0.05. Based on hypothesis testing, there was the interaction between learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes. Then, the finding of the research showed that students' learning outcomes in reaction rate taught by using PBL with higher emotional intelligence is higher than those who were taught by using PjBL. There was no significant effect between students with lower emotional intelligence taught by using both PBL and PjBL in reaction rate topic. Based on the finding, the students with lower emotional intelligence were quite hard to get in touch with other students in group discussion.

  11. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and Students' Motivation toward Physics Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah; Tolla, Ismail; Ali, Muhammad Sidin; Muris

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at describing the effect of cooperative learning model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and motivation toward physics learning outcome. This research was a quasi-experimental research with a factorial design conducted at SMAN 2 Makassar. Independent variables were learning models. They were cooperative learning model of TGT and…

  12. Learning from video modeling examples : Content kept equal, adults are more effective models than peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the effectiv

  13. A Study of Developing a System Dynamics Model for the Learning Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used the research method of system dynamics and applied the Vensim software to develop a learning effectiveness evaluation model. This study developed four cause-and-effect chains affecting learning effectiveness, including teachers’ teaching enthusiasm, family involvement, school’s implementation of scientific activities, and creative teaching method, as well as the system dynamics model based on the four cause-and-effect chains. Based on the developed system dynamic model, this study performed simulation to investigate the relationship among family involvement, learning effectiveness, teaching achievement, creative teaching method, and students’ learning interest. The results of this study verified that there are positive correlations between family involvement and students’ learning effectiveness, as well as students’ learning effectiveness and teachers’ teaching achievements. The results also indicated that the use of creative teaching method is able to increase students’ learning interest and learning achievement.

  14. Evaluating Learning Effectiveness of an Information Law Course in a Blended Learning Environment Based on the Kirkpatrick Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naicheng Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply the Kirkpatrick four-level model (reaction, learning, behavior, result to evaluate the learning effectiveness of those students who studied the general education digital materials of “Information Law” in a blended learning environment. The study used a mixed-method approach, including a mainly quantitative online questionnaire, followed by semi-structured interviews. The results demonstrated that the students had a high overall satisfaction towards the course (reaction level, positive learning outcomes (learning level, and a positive behavior transfer after learning, which could occur either immediately or after a period of time (behavior level. The students had high efficiency and a positive contribution to their organizations and the information society after learning information law (result level. Based on the Kirkpatrick model, the results provided favorable evidence for the students’ learning effectiveness and the course’s value.

  15. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning.

  16. Modelling the pre-assessment learning effects of assessment: evidence in the validity chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, F.J.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46: 1087-1098 OBJECTIVES We previously developed a model of the pre-assessment learning effects of consequential assessment and started to validate it. The model comprises assessment factors, mechanism factors and learning effects. The purpose of this study was to continue th

  17. Computational Modeling of Statistical Learning: Effects of Transitional Probability versus Frequency and Links to Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Daniel; Estes, Katharine Graf; Magnuson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical learning mechanisms play an important role in theories of language acquisition and processing. Recurrent neural network models have provided important insights into how these mechanisms might operate. We examined whether such networks capture two key findings in human statistical learning. In Simulation 1, a simple recurrent network…

  18. Computational Modeling of Statistical Learning: Effects of Transitional Probability versus Frequency and Links to Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Daniel; Estes, Katharine Graf; Magnuson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical learning mechanisms play an important role in theories of language acquisition and processing. Recurrent neural network models have provided important insights into how these mechanisms might operate. We examined whether such networks capture two key findings in human statistical learning. In Simulation 1, a simple recurrent network…

  19. The Effects of Model Making on Design and Learning in Landscape Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzenli, Tugba; Yilmaz, Serap; Alpak, Elif Merve

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: One of the modeling methods used in the training of all design disciplines is physical model making. This study investigates the model-making technique and emphasizes the positive effects of model-making and its utility in the academic setting in order to understand its effects on design and learning. The "Equipment Design"…

  20. Scaffolding Learning by Modelling: The Effects of Partially Worked-out Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Yvonne G.; Bollen, Lars; de Jong, Ton; Lazonder, Ard W.

    2016-01-01

    Creating executable computer models is a potentially powerful approach to science learning. Learning by modelling is also challenging because students can easily get overwhelmed by the inherent complexities of the task. This study investigated whether offering partially worked-out models can facilitate students' modelling practices and promote…

  1. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill

    2004-01-01

    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  2. Scaffolding learning by modelling: The effects of partially worked-out models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Y.G.; Bollen, Lars; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Lazonder, Adrianus W.

    2016-01-01

    Creating executable computer models is a potentially powerful approach to science learning. Learning by modelling is also challenging because students can easily get overwhelmed by the inherent complexities of the task. This study investigated whether offering partially worked-out models can facilit

  3. Observational learning from animated models: Effects of modality and reflection on transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P.J.M., Paas, F. & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Observational learning from animated models: Effects of modality and reflection on transfer. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 1-8.

  4. Novel Symbol Learning-Induced Stroop Effect: Evidence for a Strategy-Based, Utility Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    The automaticity level and attention priority/strategy are two major theories that have attempted to explain the mechanism underlying the Stroop effect. Training is an effective way to manipulate the experience with the two dimensions (ink color and color word) in the Stroop task. In order to distinguish the above two factors (the automaticity or attention/strategy), we revised the training paradigm of MacLeod's study (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 14(1):126-135, 1988) by adding a control condition for the Stroop task on Chinese. We found that with training, the changing pattern for the Stroop effect was similar in Stroop tasks in novel symbols and in Chinese, showing markedly increasing interference and marginally decreasing facilitation. The current findings support the strategy-based learning account at early stages of novel learning of written symbols.

  5. A Bootstrapping Model of Frequency and Context Effects in Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has shown that people can learn many nouns (i.e., word-object mappings) from a short series of ambiguous situations containing multiple words and objects. For successful cross-situational learning, people must approximately track which words and referents co-occur most frequently. This study investigates the effects of allowing some word-referent pairs to appear more frequently than others, as is true in real-world learning environments. Surprisingly, high-frequency pairs are not always learned better, but can also boost learning of other pairs. Using a recent associative model (Kachergis, Yu, & Shiffrin, 2012), we explain how mixing pairs of different frequencies can bootstrap late learning of the low-frequency pairs based on early learning of higher frequency pairs. We also manipulate contextual diversity, the number of pairs a given pair appears with across training, since it is naturalistically confounded with frequency. The associative model has competing familiarity and uncertainty biases, and their interaction is able to capture the individual and combined effects of frequency and contextual diversity on human learning. Two other recent word-learning models do not account for the behavioral findings. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Validating and optimizing the effects of model progression in simulation-based inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Y.G.; Lazonder, A.W.; Jong, de T.; Anjewierden, A.A.; Bollen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Model progression denotes the organization of the inquiry learning process in successive phases of increasing complexity. This study investigated the effectiveness of model progression in general, and explored the added value of either broadening or narrowing students’ possibilities to change model

  7. Effects of the Learning Assistant Model on Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kara E.; Webb, David C.; Otero, Valerie K.

    2016-01-01

    Through the transformation of undergraduate STEM courses, the Colorado Learning Assistant Program recruits and prepares talented STEM majors for careers in teaching by providing them with early, sustained teaching experiences. The research reported here compares teaching practices of K-12 teachers who served as learning assistants (LAs) as…

  8. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of assessment is operational in an undergraduate clinical context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, F.J.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No validated model exists to explain the learning effects of assessment, a problem when designing and researching assessment for learning. We recently developed a model explaining the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in a theory teaching context. The challenge now

  9. Effects of the learning assistant model on teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kara E.; Webb, David C.; Otero, Valerie K.

    2016-12-01

    Through the transformation of undergraduate STEM courses, the Colorado Learning Assistant Program recruits and prepares talented STEM majors for careers in teaching by providing them with early, sustained teaching experiences. The research reported here compares teaching practices of K-12 teachers who served as learning assistants (LAs) as undergraduates to colleagues that were certified through the same teacher certification program but did not serve as LAs. Observations of teacher practices revealed that former LAs used significantly more reformed teaching practices than their colleagues, especially in their first year of teaching. These results suggest the LA Program serves as a valuable supplement to traditional teacher certification programs.

  10. Cognitive Modeling and Self-Efficacy: Effects on Preservice Teachers' Learning of Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Jeffrey; Capron, Earl

    1990-01-01

    Examines how cognitive modeling and self-efficacy affected preservice teachers' learning of teaching strategies. Two groups of students viewed videotaped training sessions with direct instruction or cognitive modeling. They then viewed either self-efficacy or task-oriented commentaries. Results indicated significant effects favoring cognitive…

  11. The Identification of Effective Models for Developing Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy Herard, Berretta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative descriptive study was to determine whether significant differences existed in the perceptions of elementary school teachers regarding the presence of the 5 dimensions of professional learning communities (PLCs) in Title I schools scoring above versus Title I schools scoring below the 55th percentile on state…

  12. A Dynamic Ubiquitous Learning Resource Model with Context and Its Effects on Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yu, Sheng Quan; Chiang, Feng Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Most ubiquitous learning researchers use resource recommendation and retrieving based on context to provide contextualized learning resources, but it is the kind of one-way context matching. Learners always obtain fixed digital learning resources, which present all learning contents in any context. This study proposed a dynamic ubiquitous learning…

  13. A Dynamic Ubiquitous Learning Resource Model with Context and Its Effects on Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yu, Sheng Quan; Chiang, Feng Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Most ubiquitous learning researchers use resource recommendation and retrieving based on context to provide contextualized learning resources, but it is the kind of one-way context matching. Learners always obtain fixed digital learning resources, which present all learning contents in any context. This study proposed a dynamic ubiquitous learning…

  14. The Effects of Computer-assisted and Distance Learning of Geometric Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Sozcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of computer-assisted and distance learning of geometric modeling and computer aided geometric design are studied. It was shown that computer algebra systems and dynamic geometric environments can be considered as excellent tools for teaching mathematical concepts of mentioned areas, and distance education technologies would be indispensable for consolidation of successfully passed topics

  15. The Robust Learning Model with a Spiral Curriculum: Implications for the Educational Effectiveness of Online Master Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Yoram; Neumann, Edith; Lewis, Shelia

    2017-01-01

    This study integrated the Spiral Curriculum approach into the Robust Learning Model as part of a continuous improvement process that was designed to improve educational effectiveness and then assessed the differences between the initial and integrated models as well as the predictability of the first course in the integrated learning model on a…

  16. Observational learning of a baseball-pitch: the effect of different model demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effects of observing different model demonstrations inclusive video, stick-figure and point-light models on observational learning of a Baseball pitch. 41 young adults performed 5 pretest trials, three blocks of 10 acquisition trials, and two retention tests of 5 trials in 10 min and one week after the last acquisition block. Kinematic pattern, movement form, and movement time of overall movement and movement phases were measured as depen...

  17. Effects of Problem-Based Learning Model versus Expository Model and Motivation to Achieve for Student's Physic Learning Result of Senior High School at Class XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    "Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…

  18. An application of Huber model on the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Mirzaiefar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive–survey study is to determine the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning based on Huber model. The study selects a sample of 54 people randomly from 499 regular employees of a Gas distribution firm located in province of Lorestan, Iran. For collecting data, two questionnaires of Huber organizational learning and psychological empowerment based on Spreitzer (1995 model [Spreitzer, G. M. (1995. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5, 1442-1465.] are used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of organizational and psychological empowerment questionnaires are 0.706 and 0.92, respectively. SPSS software and linear regression test, binomial test, Pearson correlation test, and Friedman tests are used to analyze data and examine the hypotheses. The results of the data analysis show that psychological empowerment of employees could influence on organizational learning aspects in organization, significantly.

  19. The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities: Exemplary Models, Changing Requirements, and New Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the imperatives of policy and rhetoric about their integration in formal education, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs are often used as an "add-on" in many classrooms and in many lesson plans. Nevertheless, many teachers find that interesting and well-planned tasks, projects, and resources provide a key to harnessing the educational potential of digital resources, Internet communications and interactive multimedia to engage the interest, interaction, and knowledge construction of young learners. To the extent that such approaches go beyond and transform traditional "transmission" models of teaching and formal lesson planning, this paper investigates the changing requirements and new possibilities represented by the challenge of integrating ICTs in education in a way which at the same time connects more effectively with both the specific contents of the curriculum and the various stages and elements of the learning process. Case studies from teacher education foundation courses provide an exemplary focus of inquiry in order to better link relevant new theories or models of learning with practice, to build upon related learner-centered strategies for integrating ICT resources and tools, and to incorporate interdependent functions of learning as information access, communication, and applied interactions. As one possible strategy in this direction, the concept of an "ICT-supported learning activity" suggests the need for teachers to approach this increasing challenge more as "designers" of effective and integrated learning rather than mere "transmitters" of skills or information through an add-on use of ICTs.

  20. Piecewise Linear Model for Multiskilled Workforce Scheduling Problems considering Learning Effect and Project Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujin Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Workforce scheduling is an important and common task for projects with high labour intensities. It becomes particularly complex when employees have multiple skills and the employees’ productivity changes along with their learning of knowledge according to the tasks they are assigned to. Till now, in this context, only little work has considered the minimum quality limit of tasks and the quality learning effect. In this research, the workforce scheduling model is developed for assigning tasks to multiskilled workforce by considering learning of knowledge and requirements of project quality. By using piecewise linearization to learning curve, the mixed 0-1 nonlinear programming model (MNLP is transformed into a mixed 0-1 linear programming model (MLP. After that, the MLP model is further improved by taking account of the upper bound of employees’ experiences accumulation, and the stable performance of mature employees. Computational experiments are provided using randomly generated instances based on the investigation of a software company. The results demonstrate that the proposed MLPs can precisely approach the original MNLP model but can be calculated in much less time.

  1. Order Effects of Learning with Modeling and Simulation Software on Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Children's Cognitive Performance: An Interaction Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos; Polemitou, Eirini; Fraggoulidou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the interaction between field dependence-independence (FD/I) and learning with modeling software and simulations, and their effect on children's performance. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A first learned with a modeling tool and then with simulations. Group B learned first with simulations and then…

  2. A model of human motor sequence learning explains facilitation and interference effects based on spike-timing dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Rothkopf, Constantin A; Triesch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects. At present it is unclear what the underlying neural mechanism are that give rise to these diverse findings. Here we show that a recently developed recurrent neural network model readily reproduces this diverse set of findings. The self-organizing recurrent neural network (SORN) model is a network of recurrently connected threshold units that combines a simplified form of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) with homeostatic plasticity mechanisms ensuring network stability, namely intrinsic plasticity (IP) and synaptic normalization (SN). When trained on sequence learning tasks modeled after recent experiments we find that it reproduces the full range of interference, facilitation, and transfer effects. We show how these effects are rooted in the network's changing internal representation of the different sequences across learning and how they depend on an interaction of training schedule and task similarity. Furthermore, since learning in the model is based on fundamental neuronal plasticity mechanisms, the model reveals how these plasticity mechanisms are ultimately responsible for the network's sequence learning abilities. In particular, we find that all three plasticity mechanisms are essential for the network to learn effective internal models of the different training sequences. This ability to form effective internal models is also the basis for the observed interference and facilitation effects. This suggests that STDP, IP, and SN

  3. The Effectiveness of a Meaningful Learning-Based Evaluation Model for Context-Aware Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Chiu, Po-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, context-aware mobile learning (CAML) has been widely applied to various fields and has become a popular issue in educational research. Despite the tremendous potential of CAML and its growing significance, continued evaluations and refinements under the advice of field experts and instructors are crucial to ensure its validity,…

  4. The Effectiveness of a Meaningful Learning-Based Evaluation Model for Context-Aware Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Chiu, Po-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, context-aware mobile learning (CAML) has been widely applied to various fields and has become a popular issue in educational research. Despite the tremendous potential of CAML and its growing significance, continued evaluations and refinements under the advice of field experts and instructors are crucial to ensure its validity,…

  5. Effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Wang, Yutong; Li, Jinfeng; Hua, Linlin; Han, Bing; Zhang, Yuzhen; Yang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Zhilei; Bai, Hongying; Yin, Honglei; Lou, Jiyu

    2016-09-01

    Caffeic acid is a type of phenolic acid and organic acid. It is found in food (such as tomatoes, carrots, strawberries, blueberries and wheat), beverages (such as wine, tea, coffee and apple juice) as well as Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rats were randomly divided into three groups: i) control group, ii) AD model group and iii) caffeic acid group. Caffeic acid significantly rescued learning deficits and increased cognitive function in the rats with AD as demonstrated by the Morris water maze task. Furthermore, caffeic acid administration resulted in a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and nitrite generation in the rats with AD compared with the AD model group. Furthermore, caffeic acid suppressed oxidative stress, inflammation, nuclear factor‑κB‑p65 protein expression and caspase‑3 activity as well as regulating the protein expression of p53 and phosphorylated (p-)p38 MAPK expression in the rats with AD. These experimental results indicate that the beneficial effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of AD were due to the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  6. Effect of Designed Materials According to 7E Learning Model on Success of High School Students in Modern Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günay PALİÇ ŞADOĞLU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is intended to develop class material for students and teachers in accordance with the 7E learning model and investigate effects of the material on students’ achievement for Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric Effect, and Compton Scattering subjects in Modern Physics Unit. In this study, it was used quasi-experimental design consisting of experimental and control groups. Subjects were taught according to 7E learning model in experimental group and traditional teaching was conducted in control group. The sample composed of 50 11th grade students from Anatolian High School and 1 physics teacher working at this school. Research data were collected by using Modern Physics Achievement Test consisting of seven open-ended questions. In this study, the results indicated that 7E learning model increased students’ achievement for Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric Effect, and Compton Scattering subjects. It is determined that 7E learning model affected positively students’ conceptual and computational learning.

  7. E-Learning Optimization: The Relative and Combined Effects of Mental Practice and Modeling on Enhanced Podcast-Based Learning--A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Boet, Sylvain; Piquette, Dominique; Lai, Anita; Perkes, Christopher P.; LeBlanc, Vicki R.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced podcasts increase learning, but evidence is lacking on how they should be designed to optimize their effectiveness. This study assessed the impact two learning instructional design methods (mental practice and modeling), either on their own or in combination, for teaching complex cognitive medical content when incorporated into enhanced…

  8. The effectiveness of snow cube throwing learning model based on exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Nenden Mutiara

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to know the effectiveness of Snow Cube Throwing (SCT) and Cooperative Model in Exploration-Based Math Learning in terms of the time required to complete the teaching materials and student engagement. This study was quasi-experimental research was conducted at SMPN 5 Cimahi, Indonesia. All student in grade VIII SMPN 5 Cimahi which consists of 382 students is used as population. The sample consists of two classes which had been chosen randomly with purposive sampling. First experiment class consists of 38 students and the second experiment class consists of 38 students. Observation sheet was used to observe the time required to complete the teaching materials and record the number of students involved in each meeting. The data obtained was analyzed by independent sample-t test and used the chart. The results of this study: SCT learning model based on exploration are more effective than cooperative learning models based on exploration in terms of the time required to complete teaching materials based on exploration and student engagement.

  9. An Enhanced Learning Diagnosis Model Based on Concept-Effect Relationships with Multiple Knowledge Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2010-01-01

    Conventional testing systems usually give students a score as their test result, but do not show them how to improve their learning performance. Researchers have indicated that students would benefit more if individual learning guidance could be provided. However, most of the existing learning diagnosis models ignore the fact that one concept…

  10. The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius

    2017-01-01

    Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.

  11. Training models in laparoscopy: a systematic review comparing their effectiveness in learning surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, W; Van De Putte, D; Van Renterghem, K; Van Nieuwenhove, Y; Ceelen, W; Pattyn, P

    2013-01-01

    Surgery has traditionally been learned on patients in the operating room, which is time-consuming, can have an impact on the patient outcomes, and is of variable effectiveness. As a result, surgical training models have been developed, which are compared in this systematic review. We searched Pubmed, CENTRAL, and Science Citation index expanded for randomised clinical trials and randomised cross-over studies comparing laparoscopic training models. Studies comparing one model with no training were also included. The reference list of identified trials was searched for further relevant studies. Fifty-eight trials evaluating several training forms and involving 1591 participants were included (four studies with a low risk of bias). Training (virtual reality (VR) or video trainer (VT)) versus no training improves surgical skills in the majority of trials. Both VR and VT are as effective in most studies. VR training is superior to traditional laparoscopic training in the operating room. Outcome results for VR robotic simulations versus robot training show no clear difference in effectiveness for either model. Only one trial included human cadavers and observed better results versus VR for one out of four scores. Contrasting results are observed when robotic technology is compared with manual laparoscopy. VR training and VT training are valid teaching models. Practicing on these models similarly improves surgical skills. A combination of both methods is recommended in a surgical curriculum. VR training is superior to unstructured traditional training in the operating room. The reciprocal effectiveness of the other models to learn surgical skills has not yet been established.

  12. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Animated models explicating how a problem is solved and why a particular method is chosen are expected to be effective learning tools for novices, especially when abstract cognitive processes or concepts are involved. Cognitive load theory was used to investigate how learners could be stimulated to engage in genuine learning activities. It was…

  13. A Path Model of Effective Technology-Intensive Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    Individual aptitude, attitudes, and behavior in inquiry-based learning (IBL) settings may affect work and learning performance outcomes during activities using different technologies. To encourage multifaceted learning, factors in IBL settings must be statistically significant and effective, and not cognitively or psychomotor intensive. We…

  14. A Path Model of Effective Technology-Intensive Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    Individual aptitude, attitudes, and behavior in inquiry-based learning (IBL) settings may affect work and learning performance outcomes during activities using different technologies. To encourage multifaceted learning, factors in IBL settings must be statistically significant and effective, and not cognitively or psychomotor intensive. We…

  15. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of assessment is operational in an undergraduate clinical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilliers Francois J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No validated model exists to explain the learning effects of assessment, a problem when designing and researching assessment for learning. We recently developed a model explaining the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in a theory teaching context. The challenge now is to validate this model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the model was operational in a clinical context as a first step in this process. Methods Given the complexity of the model, we adopted a qualitative approach. Data from in-depth interviews with eighteen medical students were subject to content analysis. We utilised a code book developed previously using grounded theory. During analysis, we remained alert to data that might not conform to the coding framework and open to the possibility of deploying inductive coding. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. Results The three components of the model i.e., assessment factors, mechanism factors and learning effects were all evident in the clinical context. Associations between these components could all be explained by the model. Interaction with preceptors was identified as a new subcomponent of assessment factors. The model could explain the interrelationships of the three facets of this subcomponent i.e., regular accountability, personal consequences and emotional valence of the learning environment, with previously described components of the model. Conclusions The model could be utilized to analyse and explain observations in an assessment context different to that from which it was derived. In the clinical setting, the (negative influence of preceptors on student learning was particularly prominent. In this setting, learning effects resulted not only from the high-stakes nature of summative assessment but also from personal stakes, e.g. for esteem and agency. The results suggest that to influence student learning, consequences should accrue from

  16. Optimal production lot sizing model in a supply chain with periodically fixed demand considering learning effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊中楷; SHEN; Tiesong

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal production model for manufacturer in a supply chain with a fixed demand at a fixed interval with respect to the learning effect on production capacity.An algorithm is employed to find theoptimal dela time for production and production time sequentially.It is found that the optimal delay time for production and the production time are not static,but dynamic and variant with time.It is important for a manufacturer to schedule the production so as to prevent facilities and workers from idling.

  17. Effect of Internet-Based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (i-CAM) on Statistics Learning among Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Farzaneh; Ahmad Tarmizi, Rohani

    2015-01-01

    Because students’ ability to use statistics, which is mathematical in nature, is one of the concerns of educators, embedding within an e-learning system the pedagogical characteristics of learning is ‘value added’ because it facilitates the conventional method of learning mathematics. Many researchers emphasize the effectiveness of cognitive apprenticeship in learning and problem solving in the workplace. In a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, skills are learned within a community of practitioners through observation of modelling and then practice plus coaching. This study utilized an internet-based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (i-CAM) in three phases and evaluated its effectiveness for improving statistics problem-solving performance among postgraduate students. The results showed that, when compared to the conventional mathematics learning model, the i-CAM could significantly promote students’ problem-solving performance at the end of each phase. In addition, the combination of the differences in students' test scores were considered to be statistically significant after controlling for the pre-test scores. The findings conveyed in this paper confirmed the considerable value of i-CAM in the improvement of statistics learning for non-specialized postgraduate students. PMID:26132553

  18. Effectiveness Evaluation Tools and Methods for Adaptive Training and Education in Support of the US Army Learning Model: Research Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation Tools and Methods for Adaptive Training and Education in Support of the US Army Learning Model: Research Outline by Joan H Johnston, Greg...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effectiveness Evaluation Tools and Methods for Adaptive Training and Education in Support of the US Army Learning Model...provide affordable, tailored SRL training and educational capabilities for the US Army, the US Army Research Laboratory is investigating and developing

  19. Modeling Eating Behaviors: the Role of Environment and Positive Food Association Learning via a Ratatouille Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Anarina L.; Safan, Muntaser; CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, CARLOS; Capaldi-Phillips, Elizabeth D.; Wadhera, Devina

    2015-01-01

    Eating behaviors among a large population of children are studied as a dynamic process driven by nonlinear interactions in the sociocultural school environment. The impact of food association learning on diet dynamics, inspired by a pilot study conducted among Arizona children in Pre-Kindergarten to 8th grades, is used to build simple population-level learning models. Qualitatively, mathematical studies are used to highlight the possible ramifications of instruction, learning in nutrition, an...

  20. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko

    2017-01-01

    To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students' learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of 'self-determination' in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen's d= 0.43). Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on 'self-determination' among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  1. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43). Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation. PMID:28167812

  2. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yamamura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training, 5th (before practical training at clinical sites, and 6th (after all practical training years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation, and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43. Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  3. Effect of Multimedia Assisted 7e Learning Model Applications on Academic Achievement and Retention in Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Hakan; Tarhan, Devrim

    2017-01-01

    In the rapidly developing age of technology, the contribution of using multimedia-supported instructional materials in the field of teaching technologies to science education has been increasing steadily. The purpose of this research is to compare the multimedia learning instructional materials prepared according to the 7E learning model and the…

  4. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE BLENDED LEARNING MODEL IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Effendi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was to test the effectiveness of the Web-Based Interactive Blended Learning Model (BLIBW for subjects in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Padang State University. The design that the researcher employed was a quasi-experimental design with one group pretest-posttest, which was conducted on a group of students consisting of 30 people and the test was conducted for two times. The effectiveness of BLIBW Model was tested by comparing the average pretest scores and the average posttest scores both in the first trial and the second trial. The average prestest and posttest scores in the first trial were 14.13 and 33.80. The increase in the average score was significant at alpha 0.05. Then, the average pretest and posttest scores in the second trial were 18.67 and 47.03. The result was also significant at alpha 0.05. The effectiveness of BLIBW Model in the second trial was higher than in the first test. Those result were not entirely satisfactory and it might be caused several weaknesses in both tests such as: the number of sessions were limited, there was only one subject, and the number of students who were subjected too limited. However, the researcher would like to conclude that the BLIBW Model might be implemented as a replacement alternative for the face-to-face instruction.

  5. Effects of gestures on older adults' learning from video-based models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Kim; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the positive effects of gestures on learning by decreasing working memory load, found in children and young adults, also apply to older adults, who might especially benefit from gestures given memory deficits associated with aging. Participants learned a

  6. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, F.J.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Herman, N.; Adendorff, H.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning. However, surprisingly little research has been published emanating from authentic higher education settings about the nature and mechanism of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment. Less still emanat

  7. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model Script and Think-Pair-Share to Critical Thinking Skills, Social Attitude and Learning Outcomes Cognitive Biology of multiethnic High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didimus Tanah Boleng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis   Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model

  8. Modeling effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the competition between striatal learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedecker, Joschka; Lampe, Thomas; Riedmiller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in psychology, economics, and other fields holds that higher performance will result if extrinsic rewards (such as money) are offered as an incentive. While this principle seems to work well for tasks that require the execution of the same sequence of steps over and over, with little uncertainty about the process, in other cases, especially where creative problem solving is required due to the difficulty in finding the optimal sequence of actions, external rewards can actually be detrimental to task performance. Furthermore, they have the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation to do an otherwise interesting activity. In this work, we extend a computational model of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal reinforcement learning systems to account for the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. The model assumes that the brain employs both a goal-directed and a habitual learning system, and competition between both is based on the trade-off between the cost of the reasoning process and value of information. The goal-directed system elicits internal rewards when its models of the environment improve, while the habitual system, being model-free, does not. Our results account for the phenomena that initial extrinsic reward leads to reduced activity after extinction compared to the case without any initial extrinsic rewards, and that performance in complex task settings drops when higher external rewards are promised. We also test the hypothesis that external rewards bias the competition in favor of the computationally efficient, but cruder and less flexible habitual system, which can negatively influence intrinsic motivation and task performance in the class of tasks we consider.

  9. Modeling effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the competition between striatal learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joschka eBoedecker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in psychology, economics, and other fields holds that higher performance will result if extrinsic rewards (such as money are offered as an incentive. While this principle seems to work well for tasks that require the execution of the same sequence of steps over and over, with little uncertainty about the process, in other cases, especially where creative problem solving is required due to the difficulty in finding the optimal sequence of actions, external rewards can actually be detrimental to task performance. Furthermore, they have the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation to do an otherwise interesting activity. In this work, we extend a computational model of the prefrontal and dorsolateral striatal reinforcement learning systems to account for the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. The model assumes that the brain employs both a goal-directed and a habitual learning system, and competition between both is based on the trade-off between the cost of the reasoning process and value of information. The goal-directed system elicits internal rewards when its models of the environment improve, while the habitual system, being model-free, does not. Our results account for the phenomena that initial extrinsic reward leads to reduced activity after extinction compared to the case without any initial extrinsic rewards, and that performance in complex task settings drops when higher external rewards are promised. We also test the hypothesis that external rewards bias the competition in favor of the computationally efficient, but cruder and less flexible habitual system, which can negatively influence intrinsic motivation and task performance in the class of tasks we consider.

  10. Designing e-learning cognitively: TSOI Hybrid Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Fie Tsoi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on learning has proposed various models for learning. However, generally, there has been an inadequate research of the application of these models for learning for example the Kolb’s experiential learning cycle or the Jarvis’s model of reflection and learning to the development of e-learning materials. This is more so especially due to lack of effective yet practical design model for designing interactive e-learning materials. Having this in mind, the TSOI Hybrid Learning Model can be used as a pedagogic model for the cognitive design of e-learning. This Model represents learning as a cyclical cognitive process. A major feature is to promote active cognitive processing in the learner for meaningful learning proceeding from inductive to deductive. Design specificity in science and chemistry education is illustrated in terms of instructional storyboarding and the research-based e-learning product developed. Learners’ cognitive abilities will be addressed as part of the research data collected.

  11. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  12. Effects of creating video-based modeling examples on learning and transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether acting as a peer model for a video-based modeling example, which entails studying a text with the intention to explain it to others and then actually explaining it on video, would foster learning and transfer. In both experiments, novices were instructed to study

  13. Capstone Teaching Models: Combining Simulation, Analytical Intuitive Learning Processes, History and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Maurice; Brown, Steve; Tabibzadeh, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade teaching models have been changing, reflecting the dynamics, complexities, and uncertainties of today's organizations. The traditional and the more current active models of learning have disadvantages. Simulation provides a platform to combine the best aspects of both types of teaching practices. This research explores the…

  14. Capstone Teaching Models: Combining Simulation, Analytical Intuitive Learning Processes, History and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Maurice; Brown, Steve; Tabibzadeh, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade teaching models have been changing, reflecting the dynamics, complexities, and uncertainties of today's organizations. The traditional and the more current active models of learning have disadvantages. Simulation provides a platform to combine the best aspects of both types of teaching practices. This research explores the…

  15. Teachers' modeling advantage and their modeling effects on college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes: a case of collaborative teaching in technical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, modeling advantage that depicts the likelihood of a teacher model being imitated by students over other competing models in a particular class was developed to differentiate the rival modeling of two kinds of teachers (the technical teachers vs. the lecturing teachers) between college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes in the collaborative teaching of technical courses. Results of a one-semester longitudinal study indicated that the students perceived a greater modeling advantage of the technical teachers than that of the lecturing teachers. Both the students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes were in accordance with those teachers as their role models. In general, the impact of the teachers' learning styles and occupational stereotypes on students appeared to be mediated by the teachers' modeling advantage. Administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the fact that the technical teachers appeared to exhibit greater modeling effects than the lecturing teachers in collaborative teaching.

  16. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND MODEL CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY TO PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita S. Zuliani Nasution

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.

  17. Effect of exercise on learning and memory in a rat model of developmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Laurian; Hescham, Sarah; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2009-12-01

    Adverse life events occurring in early development can result in long-term effects on behavioural, physiological and cognitive processes. In particular, perinatal stressors impair neurogenesis in the hippocampus which consequently impairs memory formation. Exercise has previously been shown to have antidepressant effects and to increase cognitive functioning by increasing neurogenesis and neurotrophins in the hippocampus. The current study examined the effects of maternal separation, which has been shown to model anxiety in animals, and the effects of exercise on learning and memory. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, maternally separated / non-runners, maternally separated / runners, non-separated / runners and non-separated / non-runners. Maternal separation occurred from postnatal day 2 (P2) to 14 (P14) for 3 h per day. Exercised rats were given voluntary access to individual running wheels attached to their cages from P29 to P49. Behavioural testing (Morris water maze (MWM) and object recognition tests) took place from P49 to P63. Maternally separated rats showed no significant difference in anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze and the open field compared to the normally reared controls. However, rats that were allowed voluntary access to running wheels showed increased levels of anxiety in the elevated plus maze and in the open field. Maternal separation did not have any effect on memory performance in the MWM or the object recognition tasks. Exercise increased spatial learning and memory in the MWM with the exercised rats displaying a decreased latency in locating the hidden platform than the non-exercised rats. The exercised rats spent significantly less time exploring the most recently encountered object in the temporal order task in comparison to the non-exercised controls, therefore showing improved temporal recognition memory. All groups performed the same on the other recognition tasks, with all rats showing intact

  18. What can Neighbourhood Density effects tell us about word learning? Insights from a connectionist model of vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Martin; Knott, Alistair; Stokes, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network model that learns general phonotactic patterns in the exposure language, as well as specific word forms and, crucially, mappings between word meanings and word forms. The network is faster at learning frequent words, and words containing high-probability phoneme sequences, as human word learners are, but, independently of this, the network is also faster at learning words with high ND, and, when its capacity is reduced, it learns high ND words in preference to other words, similarly to late talkers. We analyze the model and propose a novel explanation of the ND effect, in which word meanings play an important role in generating word-specific biases on general phonological trajectories. This explanation leads to a new prediction about the origin of the ND effect in infants.

  19. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  20. What Can Neighbourhood Density Effects Tell Us about Word Learning? Insights from a Connectionist Model of Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Martin; Knott, Alistair; Stokes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network…

  1. Effect of Internet-Based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (i-CAM) on Statistics Learning among Postgraduate Students: e0129938

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farzaneh Saadati; Rohani Ahmad Tarmizi; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub; Kamariah Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    ... is 'value added' because it facilitates the conventional method of learning mathematics. Many researchers emphasize the effectiveness of cognitive apprenticeship in learning and problem solving in the workplace...

  2. The Effect of Inquiry Training Learning Model Based on Just in Time Teaching for Problem Solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip, Betty; Wahyuni, Ida; Tanjung, Yul Ifda

    2016-01-01

    One of the factors that can support successful learning activity is the use of learning models according to the objectives to be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the differences in problem-solving ability Physics student learning model Inquiry Training based on Just In Time Teaching [JITT] and conventional learning taught by cooperative model…

  3. Learning planar ising models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Netrapalli, Praneeth [STUDENT UT AUSTIN

    2010-11-12

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus our attention on the class of planar Ising models, for which inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics [Kac and Ward; Kasteleyn]. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding [Chrobak and Payne], we propose a simple greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. We present the results of numerical experiments evaluating the performance of our algorithm.

  4. A Cognitive Multimedia Environment and Its Importance: A Conceptual Model for Effective E-Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2011-01-01

    Multimedia learning is innovative and has revolutionised the way we learn online. It is important to create a multimedia learning environment that stimulates active participation and effective learning. The significance of multimedia learning extends to include the cultivation of professional and personal experiences that reflect the reality of a…

  5. Protective Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract on Learning and Memory Deficit Induced by Aluminum in Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) on learning and memory deficit induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3), and explore its mechanisms. Methods: The rat models with learning and memory deficit were induced by administering via gastrogavage and drinking of AlCl3 solution. And the model rats were treated with GbE at the dose of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg every day for 2months accompanied with drinking of AlCl3 solution, respectively. Their abilities of spatial learning and memory were tested by Morris water maze, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in serum was assayed with chemical method, the AChE expression in hippocampus was observed by immunohistochemistry assay,and then quantitative analysis was done by BI 2000 image analysis system. Results: Learning and memory deficit of rats could be induced by AlCl3 solution (P<0.01), and AChE expressions in rats hippocampus were increased (P<0.01); GbE ameliorated learning and memory deficit and reduced AChE expression in rats hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner, while GbE significantly increased serum AChE activity at the dose of 200 mg/kg each day (P<0.05). Conclusion: GbE can ameliorate learning and memory deficit induced by AlCl3, which may be due to its inhibition of the AChE expression in hippocampus.

  6. A Rational Model of the Effects of Distributional Information on Feature Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerweil, Joseph L.; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Most psychological theories treat the features of objects as being fixed and immediately available to observers. However, novel objects have an infinite array of properties that could potentially be encoded as features, raising the question of how people learn which features to use in representing those objects. We focus on the effects of…

  7. A Delphi Study of Effective Practices for Developing Competency-Based Learning Models in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre-Hite, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is an increase in competency-based education programs in higher education institutions in response to student and employer needs. However, research is lacking on effective practices for developing competencies, assessments, and learning resources for these programs. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to gather expert…

  8. Effective Bayesian Transfer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    insufficient (most models) and models where clusters containing more than a few variables are too costly (e.g., stereopsis ). 10 Models where...detections 2D hypoth 3D hypoth 32 Stanford Traffic Vision: Year 1 Summary PI: Thrun •! Developed transfer machine learning technique. •! Transfer at...Detection, classification, and prediction of vehicular traffic . •! Is an application of Transfer Learning to the Visual Domain •! Impact: May make

  9. The Effect of using Facebook Markup Language (FBML) for Designing an E-Learning Model in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Amasha; Salem Alkhalaf

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of Facebook Markup Language (FBML) to design an e-learning model to facilitate teaching and learning in an academic setting. The qualitative research study presents a case study on how, Facebook is used to support collaborative activities in higher education. We used FBML to design an e-learning model called processes for e-learning resources in the Specialist Learning Resources Diploma (SLRD) program. Two groups drawn from the SLRD program were used; First were th...

  10. Designing a model to estimate the impact and cost effectiveness of online learning platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Meza-Bolaños, Doris Verónica; Compañ, Patricia; Satorre Cuerda, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    There are different methodologies that have attempted to measure profitability and impact of using online learning platforms, all of which focus on a set of quantifiable and non-quantifiable aspects. These methods consider different items from various perspectives. The purpose of this work is to assess each one and determine the suitable indicators applicable to the reality of higher education in Ecuador. A hybrid model with characteristics from different perspectives could be designed wit...

  11. The Effect of Treadmill Running on Passive Avoidance Learning in Animal Model of Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Hosseini; Hojjatallah Alaei; Parham Reisi; Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Background : Alzheimer′s disease was known as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is characterized by dementia and severe neuronal loss in the some regions of brain such as nucleus basalis magnocellularis. It plays an important role in the brain functions such as learning and memory. Loss of cholinergic neurons of nucleus basalis magnocellularis by ibotenic acid can commonly be regarded as a suitable model of Alzheimer′s disease. Previous studies reported that exercise...

  12. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  13. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power......—they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning...

  14. Ketamine effects on memory reconsolidation favor a learning model of delusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Corlett

    Full Text Available Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also modulates memory reconsolidation and hence explains their remarkable persistence. First, we quantified individual brain responses to prediction error in a causal learning task in 18 human subjects (8 female. Next, a placebo-controlled within-subjects study of the impact of ketamine was set up on the same individuals. We determined the influence of this NMDA receptor antagonist (previously shown to induce aberrant prediction error signal and lead to transient alterations in perception and belief on the evolution of a fear memory over a 72 hour period: they initially underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning; 24 hours later, during ketamine or placebo administration, the conditioned stimulus (CS was presented once, without reinforcement; memory strength was then tested again 24 hours later. Re-presentation of the CS under ketamine led to a stronger subsequent memory than under placebo. Moreover, the degree of strengthening correlated with individual vulnerability to ketamine's psychotogenic effects and with prediction error brain signal. This finding was partially replicated in an independent sample with an appetitive learning procedure (in 8 human subjects, 4 female. These results suggest a link between altered prediction error, memory strength and psychosis. They point to a core disruption that may explain not only the emergence of delusional beliefs but also their persistence.

  15. Ketamine Effects on Memory Reconsolidation Favor a Learning Model of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jennifer M.; Piggot, Jennifer S.; Turner, Danielle C.; Everitt, Jessica C.; Arana, Fernando Sergio; Morgan, Hannah L.; Milton, Amy L.; Lee, Jonathan L.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Everitt, Barry J.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Adapa, Ram; Subramanian, Naresh; Taylor, Jane R.; Krystal, John H.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also modulates memory reconsolidation and hence explains their remarkable persistence. First, we quantified individual brain responses to prediction error in a causal learning task in 18 human subjects (8 female). Next, a placebo-controlled within-subjects study of the impact of ketamine was set up on the same individuals. We determined the influence of this NMDA receptor antagonist (previously shown to induce aberrant prediction error signal and lead to transient alterations in perception and belief) on the evolution of a fear memory over a 72 hour period: they initially underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning; 24 hours later, during ketamine or placebo administration, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was presented once, without reinforcement; memory strength was then tested again 24 hours later. Re-presentation of the CS under ketamine led to a stronger subsequent memory than under placebo. Moreover, the degree of strengthening correlated with individual vulnerability to ketamine's psychotogenic effects and with prediction error brain signal. This finding was partially replicated in an independent sample with an appetitive learning procedure (in 8 human subjects, 4 female). These results suggest a link between altered prediction error, memory strength and psychosis. They point to a core disruption that may explain not only the emergence of delusional beliefs but also their persistence. PMID:23776445

  16. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  17. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Learning, Memory and Formation System of Free Radicals in Brain Tissues of Vascular Dementia Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎; 唐纯志; 赖新生

    2004-01-01

    In order to observe the regulative effect of electro-acupuncture on the formation system of free radicals in the brain tissues and learning and memory in vascular dementia (VD) model rats, the Morris's water labyrinth was used for testing the learning ability and memory in VD model rats made by 4-vessel occlusion method, and the activities or contents of nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined. Results showed that the mean escape latency in the electro-acupuncture group was markedly reduced in place test, and the times swam the place of the plate-form in the original plate-form quadrant were significantly more than those in the rest three quadrants in spatia1 probe test as compared with the model group. In the electro-acupuncture group and the nimodipine group the contents of NO and MDA and the activity of NOS were decreased, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased. It is indicated that electro-acupuncture can modulate the production and clearance of free radicals, and improve the ability of learning and memory of the VD model rats.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF INQUIRY TRAINING LEARNING MODEL AND CRITICAL THINGKING ABILITY TOWARD SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS OF SMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferawati Hutapea; Motlan .

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research are 1). To know are differences in science process skills of students with the applied of inquiry training learning model and direct instruction learning models, 2). To know are differences in science process skills of students who has high critical thinking ability and the  critically low ability, 3). To know the interaction inquiry training learning model and critical thinking ability toward students science process skills. The samples in this research conducted by c...

  19. E-learning optimization: the relative and combined effects of mental practice and modeling on enhanced podcast-based learning-a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Boet, Sylvain; Piquette, Dominique; Lai, Anita; Perkes, Christopher P; LeBlanc, Vicki R

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced podcasts increase learning, but evidence is lacking on how they should be designed to optimize their effectiveness. This study assessed the impact two learning instructional design methods (mental practice and modeling), either on their own or in combination, for teaching complex cognitive medical content when incorporated into enhanced podcasts. Sixty-three medical students were randomised to one of four versions of an airway management enhanced podcast: (1) control: narrated presentation; (2) modeling: narration with video demonstration of skills; (3) mental practice: narrated presentation with guided mental practice; (4) combined: modeling and mental practice. One week later, students managed a manikin-based simulated airway crisis. Knowledge acquisition was assessed by baseline and retention multiple-choice quizzes. Two blinded raters assessed all videos obtained from simulated crises to measure the students' skills using a key-elements scale, critical error checklist, and the Ottawa global rating scale (GRS). Baseline knowledge was not different between all four groups (p = 0.65). One week later, knowledge retention was significantly higher for (1) both the mental practice and modeling group than the control group (p = 0.01; p = 0.01, respectively) and (2) the combined mental practice and modeling group compared to all other groups (all ps = 0.01). Regarding skills acquisition, the control group significantly under-performed in comparison to all other groups on the key-events scale (all ps ≤ 0.05), the critical error checklist (all ps ≤ 0.05), and the Ottawa GRS (all ps ≤ 0.05). The combination of mental practice and modeling led to greater improvement on the key events checklist (p = 0.01) compared to either strategy alone. However, the combination of the two strategies did not result in any further learning gains on the two other measures of clinical performance (all ps > 0.05). The effectiveness of enhanced podcasts for

  20. Effect of Using the Electronic Content Designed Based on Robert Gagne Model on the Level of Student Learning in Statistics Lesson

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keshmiri S; Momeni Rad A

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to design and product the electronic content of "engineering statistics" course based on Gagne instructional design model and evaluate its effectiveness on students' learning. Materials & Methods...

  1. Context effects in a temporal discrimination task" further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2008-07-01

    Pigeons were trained on two temporal bisection tasks, which alternated every two sessions. In the first task, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; in the second task, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. Then the pigeons were exposed to a series of test trials in order to contrast two timing models, Learning-to-Time (LeT) and Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET). The models made substantially different predictions particularly for the test trials in which the sample duration ranged from 1 s to 16 s and the choice keys were Green and Blue, the keys associated with the same 4-s samples: LeT predicted that preference for Green should increase with sample duration, a context effect, but SET predicted that preference for Green should not vary with sample duration. The results were consistent with LeT. The present study adds to the literature the finding that the context effect occurs even when the two basic discriminations are never combined in the same session.

  2. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    —they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning......In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite...... identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power...

  3. The Game Enhanced Learning Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the Game Enhanced learning Model (GEM), which describes a range of gameoriented learning activities. The model is intended to give an overview of the possibilities of game-based learning in general and all the way up to purposive game productions. In the paper, we...... will describe the levels of the model, which is based on our experience in teaching professional game development at university level. Furthermore, we have been using the model to inspire numerous educators to improve their students’ motivation and skills. The model presents various game-based learning...... activities, and depicts their required planning and expected outcome through eight levels. At its lower levels, the model contains the possibilities of using stand-alone analogue and digital games as teachers, utilizing games as a facilitator of learning activities, exploiting gamification and motivating...

  4. Correcting Misconceptions on Electronics: Effects of a Simulation-Based Learning Environment Backed by a Conceptual Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Pan, Pei-Rong; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation has significant potential as a supplementary tool for effective conceptual-change learning based on the integration of technology and appropriate instructional strategies. This study elucidates misconceptions in learning on diodes and constructs a conceptual-change learning system that incorporates…

  5. Student Models of Learning and Their Impact on Study Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Johan; Valcke, Martin; Schuyten, Gilberte

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify student models of learning (sets of "intra-student" cognitions about learning) and to investigate their effect on study strategies. A two-step cluster analysis identified four student models of learning, representing students' self-efficacy beliefs, learning conceptions, attributions for academic performance…

  6. The Effect of an NCAM Mimetic on Learning and Memory Impairment in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    for schizophrenia. Neonatal treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 has been shown to induce acute neurodegeneration and long-term cognitive deficits and other behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. To evaluate the effect...... of FGL in this model, adult PCP rats were tested for spatial reference memory, reversal learning, and working memory deficits in Morris’ water maze in combination with different FGL treatment regimens. Two doses of PCP (10 and 30 mg/kg) were tested. Behavioral testing was complemented...... by immunohistochemical investigation of neurodegeneration and NMDA receptor activation in relevant brain regions. The results show that neonatal PCP treatment induces long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory. The higher PCP dose produced more robust deficits in all three tasks of the water maze, whereas...

  7. Some Aspects of Mathematical Model of Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    There are some mathematical learning models of collaborative learning, with which we can learn how students obtain knowledge and we expect to design effective education. We put together those models and classify into three categories; model by differential equations, so-called Ising spin and a stochastic process equation. Some of the models do not…

  8. Modelling a Complex System: Using Novice-Expert Analysis for Developing an Effective Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to present the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment (Air Pollution Modeling Environment [APoME]) that was informed by a novice-expert analysis and to discuss high school students' development of modelling practices in the learning environment. APoME was designed to help high school students…

  9. Ameliorative Effect and Its Mechanism of Forsythiaside on Learning and Memory of Composite Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Yu-ping; TIAN Ya-jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of forsythiaside and its mechanism on learning and memory of composite Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model mice. Methods: Fifty SAMP8 mice of 8 months old were randomly divided into negative control group (gavage of distilled water), positive control group (gavage of donepezil), low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (gavage of forsythiaside 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, respectively), 10 cases for each group. Another 10 SAMR1 male mice of 8-month old were designed as blank control group (gavage of distilled water). After gavage for 30 consecutive days, Morris water maze test was used to conduct behavioral test 1 h after gavage everyday. 24 h after completing behavior test, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholine esterase (AchE), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), monoamine oxidase (MAO), and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-PX) as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in brain tissue of mice in each group were tested. Results:In water maze test, forsythiaside could improve the learning and memory ability of composite AD model mice. After being given different doses of forsythiaside for a long term, the activity of SOD, ChAT, and GSH-PX increased inordinately and the content of MDA and NO reduced in varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Of all, the high-dose forsythiaside group was the best in therapeutic effect. Conclusion: Forsythiaside has a therapeutic effect on the learning and memory impairment of composite AD model mice probably by regulating the mechanism of the cholinergic system and antioxygenation.

  10. Ameliorative Effect and Its Mechanism of Forsythiaside on Learning and Memory of Composite Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ping XIONG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of forsythiaside and its mechanism on learning and memory of composite Alzheimer’s disease (AD model mice. Methods: Fifty SAMP8 mice of 8 months old were randomly divided into negative control group (gavage of distilled water, positive control group (gavage of donepezil, low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (gavage of forsythiaside 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, respectively, 10 cases for each group. Another 10 SAMR1 male mice of 8-month old were designed as blank control group (gavage of distilled water. After gavage for 30 consecutive days, Morris water maze test was used to conduct behavioral test 1 h after gavage everyday. 24 h after completing behavior test, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholine esterase (AchE, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT, monoamine oxidase (MAO, and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-PX as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO in brain tissue of mice in each group were tested. Results: In water maze test, forsythiaside could improve the learning and memory ability of composite AD model mice. After being given different doses of forsythiaside for a long term, the activity of SOD, ChAT, and GSH-PX increased inordinately and the content of MDA and NO reduced in varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Of all, the high-dose forsythiaside group was the best in therapeutic effect. Conclusion: Forsythiaside has a therapeutic effect on the learning and memory impairment of composite AD model mice probably by regulating the mechanism of the cholinergic system and antioxygenation.

  11. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Modality and Reflection on Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Animated models use animations and explanations to teach how a problem is solved and why particular problem-solving methods are chosen. Often spoken explanations are proposed to accompany animations in order to prevent overloading the visual channel (i.e., the modality effect). In this study we adopt the hypothesis that the inferior performance of…

  12. Using Film to Elucidate Leadership Effectiveness Models: Reflection on Authentic Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Diana; Andrew, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how students in a third year management unit at a university of technology in Australia evaluate the usefulness of film as a tool for developing a deeper understanding of the theoretical leadership effectiveness model developed by Robbins (1997). The study reviews the range of studies describing the use of films in teaching…

  13. Development of a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System Based on an Enhanced Concept--Effect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaburees, Patcharin; Triampo, Wannapong; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuedoung, Meechoke; Triampo, Darapond

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in computer technology during recent years, researchers have demonstrated the pivotal influences of computer-assisted diagnostic systems on student learning performance improvement. This research aims to develop a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System (DRLS) for an algebra course in a Thai lower secondary school context…

  14. The Effects of Collaborative Models in Second Life on French Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chia-Jui, Chu

    2015-01-01

    French is the ninth most widely used language globally, but French-learning environments in Taiwan have been insufficient. Language acquisition is easier in a natural setting, and so such a setting should be available to language learners wherever possible. This study aimed to (1) create an authentic environment for learning French in Second Life…

  15. Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.

  16. Neuroprotective effect and mechanism of daucosterol palmitate in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Zhong-Qi; Zhao, Hong; Yu, Xin-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and cognitive impairment. Amyloid beta (Aβ) has been proposed as the causative role for the pathogenesis of AD. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that Aβ neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity. Daucosterol palmitate (DSP), a plant steroid with anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect, was isolated from the anti-aging traditional Chinese medicinal herb Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. in our previous study. Based on the anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect of DSP, in this study we investigated potential benefit and mechanism of DSP in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in AD model rats. Results from this study showed that DSP administration effectively ameliorated Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment in rats, markedly inhibited Aβ-induced hippocampal ROS production, effectively prevented Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and significantly restored hippocampal synaptophysin expression level. This study suggests that DSP may be a potential candidate for development as a therapeutic agent for AD cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to Model in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsburg, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers and education scholars recommend incorporating mathematical modeling into mathematics education. Limited implementation of modeling instruction in schools, however, has constrained research on how students learn to model, leaving unresolved debates about whether modeling should be reified and explicitly taught as a competence, whether…

  18. Scheduling projects with multiskill learning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hong; Zhang, Lianying

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the project scheduling problem with multiskill learning effect. A new model is proposed to deal with the problem, where both autonomous and induced learning are considered. In order to obtain the optimal solution, a genetic algorithm with specific encoding and decoding schemes is introduced. A numerical example is used to illustrate the proposed model. The computational results show that the learning effect cannot be neglected in project scheduling. By means of determining the level of induced learning, the project manager can balance the project makespan with total cost.

  19. Technology-Assisted Learning: A Longitudinal Field Study of Knowledge Category, Learning Effectiveness and Satisfaction in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, W.; Hu, P. J.-H.; Clark, T. H. K.; Tam, K. Y.; Milton, J.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment compares the effectiveness and satisfaction associated with technology-assisted learning with that of face-to-face learning. The empirical evidence suggests that technology-assisted learning effectiveness depends on the target knowledge category. Building on Kolb's experiential learning model, we show that technology-assisted…

  20. Self-control and frequency of model presentation: effects on learning a ballet passé relevé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Julie; Chen, David D; Laguna, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the combined effects of self-control and frequency of model presentation on learning a complex motor skill, i.e., ballet passé relevé. Before practice started self-control participants were asked to choose two viewings or six viewings (before practice and then every five trials) and the externally controlled groups were yoked to their self-control counterparts. All participants completed 15 acquisition trials followed by 5 trials for the immediate and 5 trials for the delayed retention tests 48 hours later. Dependent variables included cognitive representation scores, physical reproduction rankings, and balance time. Statistical analyses indicated that under limited physical practice conditions self-control and higher frequency of model presentation facilitated the development of cognitive representation and did not produce further benefits in movement reproductions and balance time. The results were discussed with respect to the social cognitive theory.

  1. Modelling sociocognitive aspects of students' learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, I. T.; Kokkonen, T.; Nousiainen, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present a computational model of sociocognitive aspects of learning. The model takes into account a student's individual cognition and sociodynamics of learning. We describe cognitive aspects of learning as foraging for explanations in the epistemic landscape, the structure (set by instructional design) of which guides the cognitive development through success or failure in foraging. We describe sociodynamic aspects as an agent-based model, where agents (learners) compare and adjust their conceptions of their own proficiency (self-proficiency) and that of their peers (peer-proficiency) in using explanatory schemes of different levels. We apply the model here in a case involving a three-tiered system of explanatory schemes, which can serve as a generic description of some well-known cases studied in empirical research on learning. The cognitive dynamics lead to the formation of dynamically robust outcomes of learning, seen as a strong preference for a certain explanatory schemes. The effects of social learning, however, can account for half of one's success in adopting higher-level schemes and greater proficiency. The model also predicts a correlation of dynamically emergent interaction patterns between agents and the learning outcomes.

  2. Clinical group supervision in yoga therapy: model effects, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Bo; Volpe Horii, Cassandra; Earls, Bethany; Mashek, Stephanie; Akhtar, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Clinical supervision is an integral component of therapist training and professional development because of its capacity for fostering knowledge, self-awareness, and clinical acumen. Individual supervision is part of many yoga therapy training programs and is referenced in the IAYT Standards as "mentoring." Group supervision is not typically used in the training of yoga therapists. We propose that group supervision effectively supports the growth and development of yoga therapists-in-training. We present a model of group supervision for yoga therapist trainees developed by the New England School of Integrative Yoga Therapeutics™ (The NESIYT Model) that includes the background, structure, format, and development of our inaugural 18-month supervision group. Pre-and post-supervision surveys and analyzed case notes, which captured key didactic and process themes, are discussed. Clinical issues, such as boundaries, performance anxiety, sense of self efficacy, the therapeutic alliance, transference and counter transference, pacing of yoga therapy sessions, evaluation of client progress, and adjunct therapist interaction are reviewed. The timing and sequence of didactic and process themes and benefits for yoga therapist trainees' professional development, are discussed. The NESIYT group supervision model is offered as an effective blueprint for yoga therapy training programs.

  3. Librarian-Teacher Partnerships for Inquiry Learning: Measures of Effectiveness for a Practice-Based Model of Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Yukawa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study analyzed the effects of a practice-based model of professional development on the teaching and collaborative practices of 9 teams of librarians and teachers, who created and implemented units of inquiry-focused study with K-12 students during a yearlong course. The authors describe how the collection and analysis of evidence guided the development team in the formative and summative evaluations of the outcomes of the professional development, as well as the long-term results of participation in this initiative.Methods – The authors used an interpretive, participative approach. The first author was the external reviewer for the project; the second author headed the development team and served as a participant-observer. Triangulated data were collected from participants in the form of learning logs, discussion board postings, interviews, questionnaires, and learning portfolios consisting of unit and lesson plans and student work samples with critiques. Data were also collected from the professional development designers in the form of meeting notes, responses to participants, interviews, and course documents. For two years following the end of the formal course, the authors also conducted follow-up email correspondence with all teams and site visits with six teams to determine sustained or expanded implementation of inquiry-focused, collaborative curriculum development. Results – The practice-based approach to professional development required continual modification of the course design and timely, individualized mentoring and feedback, based on analysis and co-reflection by the developers on the evidence gathered through participant logs, reports, and school site visits. Modeling the inquiry process in their own course development work and making this process transparent to the participating community were essential to improvement. Course participants reported beneficial results in both immediate and long-term changes

  4. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  5. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  6. A Reference Model for Online Learning Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Seufert, Sabine; Lechner, Ulrike; Stanoevska, Katarina

    2002-01-01

    Online learning communities are introduced as a comprehensive model for technology-enabled learning. We give an analysis of goals in education and the requirements to community platforms. The main contribution of the article is a reference model for online learning communities that consists of four layers designing the organizational, interaction, channel or service and the technological model of learning communities. This reference model captures didactic goals, learning methods and learning...

  7. Learning Unknown Event Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In T. Roth -Berghofer, N. Tintarev, & D.B. Leake (Eds.) Explanation-Aware Computing: Papers from the IJCAI Workshop. Barcelona, Spain. Molineaux, M...pp. 65- 70). Edinburgh, Scotland : IEEE Press. Sutton, R.S., & Barto, A.G. (1998). Reinforcement learning: An introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

  8. Effects of Combined Hands-on Laboratory and Computer Modeling on Student Learning of Gas Laws: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Based on current theories of chemistry learning, this study intends to test a hypothesis that computer modeling enhanced hands-on chemistry laboratories are more effective than hands-on laboratories or computer modeling laboratories alone in facilitating high school students' understanding of chemistry concepts. Thirty-three high school chemistry…

  9. The Supervised Learning Gaussian Mixture Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马继涌; 高文

    1998-01-01

    The traditional Gaussian Mixture Model(GMM)for pattern recognition is an unsupervised learning method.The parameters in the model are derived only by the training samples in one class without taking into account the effect of sample distributions of other classes,hence,its recognition accuracy is not ideal sometimes.This paper introduces an approach for estimating the parameters in GMM in a supervising way.The Supervised Learning Gaussian Mixture Model(SLGMM)improves the recognition accuracy of the GMM.An experimental example has shown its effectiveness.The experimental results have shown that the recognition accuracy derived by the approach is higher than those obtained by the Vector Quantization(VQ)approach,the Radial Basis Function (RBF) network model,the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) approach and the GMM.In addition,the training time of the approach is less than that of Multilayer Perceptrom(MLP).

  10. WIL Curriculum Design and Student Learning: A Structural Model of Their Effects on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Calvin; Worsfold, Kate

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of work-integrated learning (WIL) as a feature of curricula, the idea of student satisfaction takes on a new dimension--students' experiences on placement are not routinely under the control of university academic staff, yet universities will ultimately be held responsible for the quality of students'…

  11. Ketamine Effects on Memory Reconsolidation Favor a Learning Model of Delusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corlett, Philip R.; Cambridge, Victoria; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Piggot, Jennifer S.; Turner, Danielle C.; Everitt, Jessica C.; Arana, Fernando Sergio; Morgan, Hannah L.; Milton, Amy L.; Lee, Jonathan L.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Everitt, Barry J.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Adapa, Ram; Subramanian, Naresh; Taylor, Jane R.; Krystal, John H.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also

  12. The Effects of Modeling Expert Cognitive Strategies during Problem-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Susan; Liu, Min

    This study examined the potential of a hypermedia-based expert tool to scaffold 66 regular education sixth graders engaged in a problem-based learning (PBL) program. Participants completed "Alien Rescue," a hypermedia PBL environment on the solar system. The tool under investigation offered students interactive video of an expert…

  13. Creating Effective Educational Computer Games for Undergraduate Classroom Learning: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapeepisarn, Kowit; Wong, Kok Wai; Fung, Chun Che; Khine, Myint Swe

    2008-01-01

    When designing Educational Computer Games, designers usually consider target age, interactivity, interface and other related issues. They rarely explore the genres which should employ into one type of educational game. Recently, some digital game-based researchers made attempt to combine game genre with learning theory. Different researchers use…

  14. WIL Curriculum Design and Student Learning: A Structural Model of Their Effects on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Calvin; Worsfold, Kate

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of work-integrated learning (WIL) as a feature of curricula, the idea of student satisfaction takes on a new dimension--students' experiences on placement are not routinely under the control of university academic staff, yet universities will ultimately be held responsible for the quality of students' placement…

  15. Ketamine Effects on Memory Reconsolidation Favor a Learning Model of Delusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corlett, Philip R.; Cambridge, Victoria; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Piggot, Jennifer S.; Turner, Danielle C.; Everitt, Jessica C.; Arana, Fernando Sergio; Morgan, Hannah L.; Milton, Amy L.; Lee, Jonathan L.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Everitt, Barry J.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Adapa, Ram; Subramanian, Naresh; Taylor, Jane R.; Krystal, John H.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also m

  16. Collaborative Inquiry Learning: Models, tools, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thorsten; Urhahne, Detlef; Schanze, Sascha; Ploetzner, Rolf

    2010-02-01

    Collaborative inquiry learning is one of the most challenging and exciting ventures for today's schools. It aims at bringing a new and promising culture of teaching and learning into the classroom where students in groups engage in self-regulated learning activities supported by the teacher. It is expected that this way of learning fosters students' motivation and interest in science, that they learn to perform steps of inquiry similar to scientists and that they gain knowledge on scientific processes. Starting from general pedagogical reflections and science standards, the article reviews some prominent models of inquiry learning. This comparison results in a set of inquiry processes being the basis for cooperation in the scientific network NetCoIL. Inquiry learning is conceived in several ways with emphasis on different processes. For an illustration of the spectrum, some main conceptions of inquiry and their focuses are described. In the next step, the article describes exemplary computer tools and environments from within and outside the NetCoIL network that were designed to support processes of collaborative inquiry learning. These tools are analysed by describing their functionalities as well as effects on student learning known from the literature. The article closes with challenges for further developments elaborated by the NetCoIL network.

  17. Effects of Distance Learning on Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Cheng; Yen, Jih-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The development of computers in the past two decades has resulted in the changes of education in enterprises and schools. The advance of computer hardware and platforms allow colleges generally applying distance courses to instruction that both Ministry of Education and colleges have paid attention to the development of Distance Learning. To…

  18. Concept Model on Topological Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  19. Longitudinal mathematics development of students with learning disabilities and students without disabilities: a comparison of linear, quadratic, and piecewise linear mixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nidhi; Sullivan, Amanda L; Sadeh, Shanna; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2015-04-01

    Effective instructional planning and intervening rely heavily on accurate understanding of students' growth, but relatively few researchers have examined mathematics achievement trajectories, particularly for students with special needs. We applied linear, quadratic, and piecewise linear mixed-effects models to identify the best-fitting model for mathematics development over elementary and middle school and to ascertain differences in growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities relative to their typically developing peers. The analytic sample of 2150 students was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort, a nationally representative sample of United States children who entered kindergarten in 1998. We first modeled students' mathematics growth via multiple mixed-effects models to determine the best fitting model of 9-year growth and then compared the trajectories of students with and without learning disabilities. Results indicate that the piecewise linear mixed-effects model captured best the functional form of students' mathematics trajectories. In addition, there were substantial achievement gaps between students with learning disabilities and students with no disabilities, and their trajectories differed such that students without disabilities progressed at a higher rate than their peers who had learning disabilities. The results underscore the need for further research to understand how to appropriately model students' mathematics trajectories and the need for attention to mathematics achievement gaps in policy. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. E-Learning Security Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zuev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into methods and models that are useful when analyzing the risks and vulnerabilities of complex e-learning systems in an emergency management context. Definitions of vulnerability and emergency response capabilities, such as "VLE/PLE attack surface", are suggested.The article provides insight into some of the issues related to analysis of risks and vulnerabilities of e-learning systems, but more research is needed to address this difficult and comprehensive task.

  1. [Mathematical models of decision making and learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Computational models of reinforcement learning have recently been applied to analysis of brain imaging and neural recording data to identity neural correlates of specific processes of decision making, such as valuation of action candidates and parameters of value learning. However, for such model-based analysis paradigms, selecting an appropriate model is crucial. In this study we analyze the process of choice learning in rats using stochastic rewards. We show that "Q-learning," which is a standard reinforcement learning algorithm, does not adequately reflect the features of choice behaviors. Thus, we propose a generalized reinforcement learning (GRL) algorithm that incorporates the negative reward effect of reward loss and forgetting of values of actions not chosen. Using the Bayesian estimation method for time-varying parameters, we demonstrated that the GRL algorithm can predict an animal's choice behaviors as efficiently as the best Markov model. The results suggest the usefulness of the GRL for the model-based analysis of neural processes involved in decision making.

  2. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Karimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which patients experience spontaneous recurrent seizures and deficiency in learning and memory. Although the most commonly recommended therapy is drug treatment, some patients do not achieve adequate control of their seizures on existing drugs. New medications with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to currently-available drugs. While alpha-lipoic acid as a antioxidant has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. Therefore, the protective effect of pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in male rats. Methods: In the present study, Wistar male rats were injected intrahippocampally with 0.9% saline(Sham-operated group, kainic acid(4 μg alone, or α-lipoic acid (25mg and 50mg/kg in association with kainic acid(4μg. We performed behavior monitoring(spontaneous seizure, learning and memory by Y-maze and passive avoidance test, intracranial electroencepholography (iEEG recording, histological analysis, to evaluate the anti- epilepsy effect of α-lipoic acid in kainate-induced epileptic rats.   Results: Behavior data showed that the kainate rats exhibit spontaneous seizures, lower spontaneous alternation score inY-maze tasks (p<0.01, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.05. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid, in both doses, significantly decrease the number of spontaneous seizures, improved alternation score in Y-maze task (p<0.005 and impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.01 in kainite rats. Moreover, lipoic acid could improve the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level and superoxid dismutase activity.Conclusion: This study indicates that lipoic acid pretreatment attenuates kainic acid-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats

  3. Effects of Role Division, Interaction, and Shared Mental Model on Team Performance in Project-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…

  4. Integrating E-Learning into the Direct-Instruction Model to Enhance the Effectiveness of Critical-Thinking Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chu

    2009-01-01

    The "Direct-instruction Model" favors the use of teacher explanations and modeling combined with student practice and feedback to teach thinking skills. Using this paradigm, this study incorporates e-learning during an 18-week experimental instruction period that includes 48 preservice teachers. The instructional design in this study emphasizes…

  5. Effects of Role Division, Interaction, and Shared Mental Model on Team Performance in Project-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…

  6. Effects of Cooperative E-Learning on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shang-Pao; Fu, Hsin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of E-Learning and cooperative learning on learning outcomes. E-Learning covers the dimensions of Interpersonal communication, abundant resources, Dynamic instruction, and Learning community; and, cooperative learning contains three dimensions of Cooperative motive, Social interaction, and Cognition…

  7. A Multiobjective Sparse Feature Learning Model for Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maoguo; Liu, Jia; Li, Hao; Cai, Qing; Su, Linzhi

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical deep neural networks are currently popular learning models for imitating the hierarchical architecture of human brain. Single-layer feature extractors are the bricks to build deep networks. Sparse feature learning models are popular models that can learn useful representations. But most of those models need a user-defined constant to control the sparsity of representations. In this paper, we propose a multiobjective sparse feature learning model based on the autoencoder. The parameters of the model are learnt by optimizing two objectives, reconstruction error and the sparsity of hidden units simultaneously to find a reasonable compromise between them automatically. We design a multiobjective induced learning procedure for this model based on a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. In the experiments, we demonstrate that the learning procedure is effective, and the proposed multiobjective model can learn useful sparse features.

  8. Effect of pregabalin on fear-based conditioned avoidance learning and spatial learning in a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałat, Kinga; Podkowa, Adrian; Malikowska, Natalia; Trajer, Jędrzej

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive deficits are one of the frequent symptoms accompanying epilepsy or its treatment. In this study, the effect on cognition of intraperitoneally administered antiepileptic drug, pregabalin (10 mg/kg), was investigated in scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice in the passive avoidance task and Morris water maze task. The effect of scopolamine and pregabalin on animals' locomotor activity was also studied. In the retention phase of the passive avoidance task, pregabalin reversed memory deficits induced by scopolamine (p learning in this task. During the probe trial a significant difference (p task, pregabalin reversed learning deficits induced by scopolamine. In the Morris water maze, pregabalin did not influence spatial learning deficits induced by scopolamine. These results are relevant for epileptic patients treated with pregabalin and those who use it for other therapeutic indications (anxiety, pain).

  9. Effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide on learning and memory in a scopolamine-induced mouse model of dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhang; Jiguo Zhang; Lihua Wang; Dexiang Mao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Learning and memory processes are accompanied by complex neuropathological and biochemical changes. Free radicals play an important role in learning and memory damage. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP) in comparison with vitamin E on inhibiting free radical damage, as well as improving the degree of cerebral ischemia and learning and memory in a scopolamine-induced mouse model of dementia.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTINGS: Department of Pharmacology, Taishan Medical College; Shandong Jewim Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.MATERIALS: A total of 105 healthy Kunming mice, comprising 90 males and 15 females that were clean grade, were provided by the Animal Center of Taishan Medical College. PSP (extracted and purified by Huangjing, Taishan) was provided by the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taishan Medical College (purity of 79.6% by using a phenol-concentrated sulphate acid method), and hydrogen bromine acid scopolamine injection solution (SCO) by Shanghai Hefeng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.METHODS: This study was performed at the Pharmacological Laboratory of Taishan Medical College from March to June 2007. ① A total of 75 healthy Kunming male mice of clean grade were randomly divided into a normal control group, positive control group, and low-dosage and high-dosage PSP groups, with 15 mice in each group. Mice in both the low-dosage and high-dosage PSP groups were intragastrically administered 0.5 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg PSP, respectively. Mice in the positive control group were intragastrically administered 0.5 g/kg vitamin E. In addition, mice in both the normal control group and model group were intragastrically administered the same volume of saline, respectively, once a day for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the final administration on day 6, mice in the positive control group, model group, low-dosage and high-dosage PSP groups were subcutaneously injected with 3.0 mg/kg SCO, while

  10. Learning Analytics for Networked Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Srecko; Hatala, Marek; Gaševic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning in networked settings has attracted significant attention recently. The central topic of networked learning research is human-human and human-information interactions occurring within a networked learning environment. The nature of these interactions is highly complex and usually requires a multi-dimensional approach to…

  11. Learning generative models of molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Narges Sharif; Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Langmead, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce three algorithms for learning generative models of molecular structures from molecular dynamics simulations. The first algorithm learns a Bayesian-optimal undirected probabilistic model over user-specified covariates (e.g., fluctuations, distances, angles, etc). L1 regularization is used to ensure sparse models and thus reduce the risk of over-fitting the data. The topology of the resulting model reveals important couplings between different parts of the protein, thus aiding in the analysis of molecular motions. The generative nature of the model makes it well-suited to making predictions about the global effects of local structural changes (e.g., the binding of an allosteric regulator). Additionally, the model can be used to sample new conformations. The second algorithm learns a time-varying graphical model where the topology and parameters change smoothly along the trajectory, revealing the conformational sub-states. The last algorithm learns a Markov Chain over undirected graphical models which can be used to study and simulate kinetics. We demonstrate our algorithms on multiple molecular dynamics trajectories.

  12. Evaluation of a Digital Game-Based Learning Program for Enhancing Youth Mental Health: A Structural Equation Modeling of the Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Jenny My; Lai, Eliza Sy; Shum, Angie Ky; So, Sam Wk; Chan, Melissa Ky; Wong, Paul Wc; Law, Y W; Yip, Paul Sf

    2016-10-07

    Digital game-based learning (DGBL) makes use of the entertaining power of digital games for educational purposes. Effectiveness assessment of DGBL programs has been underexplored and no attempt has been made to simultaneously model both important components of DGBL: learning attainment (ie, educational purposes of DGBL) and engagement of users (ie, entertaining power of DGBL) in evaluating program effectiveness. This study aimed to describe and evaluate an Internet-based DGBL program, Professor Gooley and the Flame of Mind, which promotes mental health to adolescents in a positive youth development approach. In particular, we investigated whether user engagement in the DGBL program could enhance their attainment on each of the learning constructs per DGBL module and subsequently enhance their mental health as measured by psychological well-being. Users were assessed on their attainment on each learning construct, psychological well-being, and engagement in each of the modules. One structural equation model was constructed for each DGBL module to model the effect of users' engagement and attainment on the learning construct on their psychological well-being. Of the 498 secondary school students that registered and participated from the first module of the DGBL program, 192 completed all 8 modules of the program. Results from structural equation modeling suggested that a higher extent of engagement in the program activities facilitated users' attainment on the learning constructs on most of the modules and in turn enhanced their psychological well-being after controlling for users' initial psychological well-being and initial attainment on the constructs. This study provided evidence that Internet intervention for mental health, implemented with the technologies and digital innovations of DGBL, could enhance youth mental health. Structural equation modeling is a promising approach in evaluating the effectiveness of DGBL programs.

  13. Learning generative models of natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiann-Ming; Lin, Zheng-Han

    2002-04-01

    This work proposes an unsupervised learning process for analysis of natural images. The derivation is based on a generative model, a stochastic coin-flip process directly operating on many disjoint multivariate Gaussian distributions. Following the maximal likelihood principle and using the Potts encoding, the goodness-of-fit of the generative model to tremendous patches randomly sampled from natural images is quantitatively expressed by an objective function subject to a set of constraints. By further combination of the objective function and the minimal wiring criterion, we achieve a mixed integer and linear programming. A hybrid of the mean field annealing and the gradient descent method is applied to the mathematical framework and produces three sets of interactive dynamics for the learning process. Numerical simulations show that the learning process is effective for extraction of orientation, localization and bandpass features and the generative model can make an ensemble of a sparse code for natural images.

  14. Motivation-driven learning and teaching model for construction education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyas Kamardeen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality learning outcomes are correlated with students’ motivation to learn. Lecturers need to design courses that enthuse, inspire and motivate their students. But, this is a fundamental challenge facing many lecturers. A new motivation-driven learning and teaching model was developed to help lecturers in this regard. Its operationalisation, implementation and evaluation were conducted in a first year course in Construction Management degree through action research. Study findings suggest that the new model can help lecturers to improve overall teaching quality and student learning experience as it facilitates effective course delivery, stimulation of student motivation to learn and improved learning support.

  15. The Effect of Using the Constructivist Learning Model in Teaching Science on the Achievement and Scientific Thinking of 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarareh, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of using constructivist learning model in teaching science, especially in the subject of light: its nature, mirrors, lens, and properties, on the achievement of eighth-grade students and their scientific thinking. The study sample consisted of (136) male and female 8th graders were chosen from two basic…

  16. A Study of the Relative Effectiveness of a Meaningful Concrete and a Meaningful Symbolic Model in Learning a Selected Mathematical Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, Elizabeth

    Reported is a study to determine the relative effectiveness of a meaningful concrete and a meaningful symbolic model in learning a selected mathematics principle. Subjects were from a second grade population and they were assigned to three treatments. Students assigned to Treatment 1 received instruction in the principle with a meaningful symbolic…

  17. From Learning Object to Learning Cell: A Resource Organization Model for Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengquan; Yang, Xianmin; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Minjuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for organizing learning resources: Learning Cell. This model is open, evolving, cohesive, social, and context-aware. By introducing a time dimension into the organization of learning resources, Learning Cell supports the dynamic evolution of learning resources while they are being used. In addition, by introducing a…

  18. Toward a Model of Sources of Influence in Online Education: Cognitive Learning and the Effects of Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Caleb T.; Zube, Paul; Dickens, Eric; Hayter, Carolyn A.; Barterian, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the integration of education processes into social media, we tested an initial model of student learning via interactive web tools and theorized three sources of influence: interpersonal, intrapersonal, and masspersonal. Three-hundred thirty-seven students observed an online lecture and then completed a series of scales. Structural…

  19. Toward a Model of Sources of Influence in Online Education: Cognitive Learning and the Effects of Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Caleb T.; Zube, Paul; Dickens, Eric; Hayter, Carolyn A.; Barterian, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the integration of education processes into social media, we tested an initial model of student learning via interactive web tools and theorized three sources of influence: interpersonal, intrapersonal, and masspersonal. Three-hundred thirty-seven students observed an online lecture and then completed a series of scales. Structural…

  20. A Neural Network Model of the Effects of Entrenchment and Memory Development on Grammatical Gender Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monner, Derek; Vatz, Karen; Morini, Giovanna; Hwang, So-One; DeKeyser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential causes of L2 performance deficits that correlate with age of onset, we use a computational model to explore the individual contributions of L1 entrenchment and aspects of memory development. Since development and L1 entrenchment almost invariably coincide, studying them independently is seldom possible in humans. To avoid…

  1. A vintage model of technology diffusion: The effects of returns to disversity and learning by using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.F. de Groot (Henri); M.W. Hofkes; P. Mulder (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe diffusion of new technologies is a lengthy process and many firms continue to invest in relatively old technologies. This paper develops a vintage model of technology adoption and diffusion that aims at explaining these two phenomena. Our explanation for these phenomena emphasises th

  2. A Neural Network Model of the Effects of Entrenchment and Memory Development on Grammatical Gender Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monner, Derek; Vatz, Karen; Morini, Giovanna; Hwang, So-One; DeKeyser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential causes of L2 performance deficits that correlate with age of onset, we use a computational model to explore the individual contributions of L1 entrenchment and aspects of memory development. Since development and L1 entrenchment almost invariably coincide, studying them independently is seldom possible in humans. To avoid…

  3. Effect of adaptive learning style scenarios on learning achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhilov, Danail; Stefanov, Krassen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2009-01-01

    Bozhilov, D., Stefanov, K., & Stoyanov, S. (2009). Effect of adaptive learning style scenarios on learning achievements [Special issue]. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning (IJCEELL), 19(4/5/6), 381-398.

  4. Example-based learning: Effects of model expertise in relation to student expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Boekhout (Teun); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); M.W.J. van de Wiel (Margje); D. Gerards-Last (Dorien); F. Geraets (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Worked examples are very effective for novice learners. They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study. nAims. This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a non-didactical solution (i.e., ba

  5. Electronic learning and constructivism: a model for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Sasikarn; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Pohthong, Amnart

    2010-01-01

    Nurse educators are challenged to teach nursing students to become competent professionals, who have both in-depth knowledge and decision-making skills. The use of electronic learning methods has been found to facilitate the teaching-learning process in nursing education. Although learning theories are acknowledged as useful guides to design strategies and activities of learning, integration of these theories into technology-based courses appears limited. Constructivism is a theoretical paradigm that could prove to be effective in guiding the design of electronic learning experiences for the purpose of providing positive outcomes, such as the acquisition of knowledge and decision-making skills. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to: describe electronic learning, present a brief overview of what is known about the outcomes of electronic learning, discuss constructivism theory, present a model for electronic learning using constructivism, and describe educators' roles emphasizing the utilization of the model in developing electronic learning experiences in nursing education.

  6. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students.

  7. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students. Th

  8. 基于网络学习空间的混合式教学模式下学生学习效果评价研究%On Learning Effectiveness of Blended Learning Model Based on Learning Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢茂森; 张家录; 文武

    2015-01-01

    基于网络学习空间的混合式教学 (本文简称为空间教学) 模式是介于 MOOC、SPOC等网络学习和传统的 "教室+课堂" 教学之间的教学模式. 本研究对空间教学模式下学生学习过程评价自测问卷项目进行信度分析和因子分析, 进而确定空间教学模式下学生学习过程评价量规. 应用模糊综合评价方法将学生学习过程的评价从量规的等级评价转化为定量的分数评价, 结合课程考试成绩 (分数) 最终确定学生的课程结业成绩.%Blended learning model based on learning network is a learning model between the traditional"Classroom Teaching"mode and the e-learning modes, such as MOOC and SPOC, etc.This paper applies reliability analysis and factor analysis to self-test questionnaire items of learning process evalua-tion of students, and determines the evaluation factors of learning process under blended learning model based on learning network.Then it advocates to change the grade evaluation of learning process of students into score by means of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and to determine the final score of course combining the exam score and the score of learning process.

  9. Learning Software Component Model for Online Tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Web services are interface elements which allow applications to render functional services to requesting clients using open standard protocols. A lecture method combines both social association and urban processing as course design and delivery is termed as Interface Learning. Many Interface learning services is presenting through online. To make an online tutoring scheme more effective, the previous study used web services and application programs like instant messaging based on environments in which students reside. But the downside is that it is difficult to maintain the service request queues online. The services and data storage processes are inefficient. Approach: To overcome all the above issues, a Learning Software Component Model (LSCM framework is formed in the present study to build a component model based on communication services available on the network. In addition to this, the proposed software component modeled with Learning Object (LO aspects integrates the related sub hierarchical components with the main component object framework. Based on LSCM, training schedules are identified efficiently. Results: The proposed LSCM framework is experimented to show the performance improvement with the previous online tutoring scheme based on web services in terms of delivery report, maintenance of tutoring sessions and reliability. Conclusion: Compared to an existing online tutoring through web services, the proposed LSCM framework performance is 75% better in providing learning services to the providers.

  10. Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…

  11. A Model to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Collaborative Online Learning Teams – Self-Disclosure and Social Exchange Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chieh Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative online learning teams (COLTs are teams that are comprised of groups of online students. Accompanying the popularity of online learning, both on campuses and as professional development within many industries, learning in groups has been attracting much attention. However, there is little research constructing intact frameworks to evaluate the effectiveness of COLTs. This study built a framework by incorporating six constructs: self-disclosure, social exchange, trust, cohesion, performance and satisfaction, and validated it by analyzing data from a five-week experiment. The results showed that social exchange had a significant impact on trust, but self-disclosure did not. Trust was significantly related to cohesion and cohesion was significantly related to performance and satisfaction. This study suggests that instructors should incorporate the number of students’ posts into parts of evaluation to facilitate self-disclosure, and to stop “social loafing” behaviors while encouraging social exchange activities.

  12. Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucic, Tania; Robinson, Linda; Ramburuth, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the effect of leadership style of a team leader on team-member learning in organizations, to conceptually extend an initial model of leadership and to empirically examine the new model of ambidextrous leadership in a team context. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative research utilizing the case study method…

  13. Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucic, Tania; Robinson, Linda; Ramburuth, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the effect of leadership style of a team leader on team-member learning in organizations, to conceptually extend an initial model of leadership and to empirically examine the new model of ambidextrous leadership in a team context. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative research utilizing the case study method…

  14. iNACOL's New Learning Models Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This brief summarizes iNACOL's New Learning Models, which personalize learning using competency-based approaches. Supported by blended and online learning modalities, teachers use technology to differentiate instruction and engage students in deeper learning. By adapting instruction to reflect a student's level of mastery, blended and online…

  15. Machine learning in sedimentation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, B; Solomatine, D P

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents machine learning (ML) models that predict sedimentation in the harbour basin of the Port of Rotterdam. The important factors affecting the sedimentation process such as waves, wind, tides, surge, river discharge, etc. are studied, the corresponding time series data is analysed, missing values are estimated and the most important variables behind the process are chosen as the inputs. Two ML methods are used: MLP ANN and M5 model tree. The latter is a collection of piece-wise linear regression models, each being an expert for a particular region of the input space. The models are trained on the data collected during 1992-1998 and tested by the data of 1999-2000. The predictive accuracy of the models is found to be adequate for the potential use in the operational decision making.

  16. Modeling learned categorical perception in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Matthew C; Sowden, Paul T

    2012-09-01

    A long standing debate in cognitive neuroscience has been the extent to which perceptual processing is influenced by prior knowledge and experience with a task. A converging body of evidence now supports the view that a task does influence perceptual processing, leaving us with the challenge of understanding the locus of, and mechanisms underpinning, these influences. An exemplar of this influence is learned categorical perception (CP), in which there is superior perceptual discrimination of stimuli that are placed in different categories. Psychophysical experiments on humans have attempted to determine whether early cortical stages of visual analysis change as a result of learning a categorization task. However, while some results indicate that changes in visual analysis occur, the extent to which earlier stages of processing are changed is still unclear. To explore this issue, we develop a biologically motivated neural model of hierarchical vision processes consisting of a number of interconnected modules representing key stages of visual analysis, with each module learning to exhibit desired local properties through competition. With this system level model, we evaluate whether a CP effect can be generated with task influence to only the later stages of visual analysis. Our model demonstrates that task learning in just the later stages is sufficient for the model to exhibit the CP effect, demonstrating the existence of a mechanism that requires only a high-level of task influence. However, the effect generalizes more widely than is found with human participants, suggesting that changes to earlier stages of analysis may also be involved in the human CP effect, even if these are not fundamental to the development of CP. The model prompts a hybrid account of task-based influences on perception that involves both modifications to the use of the outputs from early perceptual analysis along with the possibility of changes to the nature of that early analysis itself

  17. Memristive model of amoeba learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, Yuriy V.; La Fontaine, Steven; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2010-03-01

    Recently, it was shown that the amoeba-like cell Physarum polycephalum when exposed to a pattern of periodic environmental changes learns and adapts its behavior in anticipation of the next stimulus to come. Here we show that such behavior can be mapped into the response of a simple electronic circuit consisting of a LC contour and a memory-resistor (a memristor) to a train of voltage pulses that mimic environment changes [1]. We also discuss a possible biological origin of the memristive behavior in the cell. These biological memory features are likely to occur in other unicellular as well as multicellular organisms, albeit in different forms. Therefore, the above memristive circuit model, which has learning properties, is useful to better understand the origins of primitive intelligence. [1] Yu. V. Pershin, S. La Fontaine, and M. Di Ventra, Phys. Rev. E 80, 021926 (2009)

  18. Inquiry based learning as didactic model in distant learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years many universities are involved in development of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Unfortunately an appropriate didactic model for cooperated network learning is lacking. In this paper we introduce inquiry based learning as didactic model. Students are assumed to ask themselves quest

  19. Effects of Swimming Exercise on Learning and Memory in the Kainate-Lesion Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Bond, Vernon; Meyers, Dewey G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An aerobic exercise (Ex) augments neurogenesis and may ameliorate learning and memory deficits in the rat Kainic Acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy in the short-term but whether it reverses learning and memory deficits after a substantial period of delay remains unclear. Aim This study tests the hypothesis that aerobic Ex attenuates the learning and memory deficits associated with kainate seizures in the long-term. Materials and Methods A total of 60 rats were subjected to chemical lesioning using KA and to an Ex intervention consisting of a 30 days period of daily swimming for 15 min, immediately after KA lesioning (immediate exposure) or after a 60 days period of normal activity (delayed exposure). We evaluated spatial learning on a T-maze test, expressed as percentage of correct responses. We evaluated memory on a passive-avoidance test, expressed as time spent in a compartment in which the rats were previously exposed to an aversive stimulus. Results Ex increases the percentage of correct responses, percentage bias, and number of alternations, associated with the T-maze testing for the normal control, sham-operated control and kainate-lesioned animals after both immediate and delayed exposures to Ex. Ex decreased the time exposed to the aversive stimulus in the smaller compartment of the two-compartment passive-avoidance test, also for the normal control, sham-operated control and kainate-lesioned animals after both immediate and delayed exposures to Ex. Conclusion These findings suggest that, after temporal lobe epileptic seizures in rats, swimming exercise may attenuate the learning and memory deficits, even if the exercise treatment is delayed. PMID:28050361

  20. Principal component analysis of the effects of environmental enrichment and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate on age-associated learning deficits in a mouse model of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina eCatuara-Solarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS individuals present increased risk for Alzheimer disease (AD neuropathology and AD-type dementia. Here, we investigated the use of green tea extracts containing (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, as co-adjuvant to enhance the effects of environmental enrichment (EE in Ts65Dn mice, a segmental trisomy model of DS that partially mimics DS/AD pathology, at the age of initiation of cognitive decline. Classical repeated measures ANOVA showed that combined EE-EGCG treatment was more efficient than EE or EGCG alone to improve specific spatial learning related variables. Using principal component analysis (PCA we found that several spatial learning parameters contributed similarly to a first PC and explained a large proportion of the variance among groups, thus representing a composite learning measure. This PC1 revealed that EGCG or EE alone had no significant effect. However, combined EE-EGCG significantly ameliorated learning alterations of middle age Ts65Dn mice. Interestingly, PCA revealed an increased variability along learning sessions with good and poor learners in Ts65Dn, and this stratification did not disappear upon treatments. Our results suggest that combining EE and EGCG represents a viable therapeutic approach for amelioration of age-related cognitive decline in DS, although its efficacy may vary across individuals.

  1. A situated model of creative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching...... creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that there is a need to describe the concept of creative learning and to analyse its possible constituents. Accordingly, this presentation introduces an empirically based and theoretically informed model of a creative learning community. The model is based...... of interest. As a theoretical point of departure, this presentation will outline a situated model of creativity and learning, and following this, will introduce a model of creative learning. This presentation will include several empirical examples. In the final part, the model will be discussed in relation...

  2. A Situated Model of Creative Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept...

  3. Understanding the evolution of learning by explicitly modeling learning mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michal ARBILLY

    2015-01-01

    Models of the evolution of learning often assume that learning leads to the best solution to any task,and disregard the details of the learning and decision-making process along with its potential pitfalls.These models therefore do not explain instances in the animal behavior literature in which learning leads to maladaptive behaviors.In recent years a growing number of theoretical studies use explicit models of learning mechanisms,offering a fresh perspective on the issue by revealing the dynamics of information acquisition and biases arising from it.These models have pointed out possible learning rules and their adaptive value,and shown that the value of learning may crucially depend on such factors as the layout of the physical environment to be leamed,the structure of the payoffs offered by different alternatives,the risk of failure,characteristics of the learner and social interactions.This review considers the merits of explicit modeling in studying the evolution of learning,describes the kinds of results that can only be obtained from this modeling approach,and outlines directions for future research [Current Zoology 61 (2):341-349,2015].

  4. Effect of high cholesterol diet on spatial learning and memory in a rat model of Alzheimer's diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanqin Fang; Huadong Zhou; Jingcheng Li; Jing Li; Meng Zhang; Yanjiang Wang; Changyue Gao; Juan Deng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently study indicates a potentially important link between cholesterol, Aβ deposit, and clinicopathological manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD).OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of high cholesterol diet on cognitive function and neuronal loss of hippocampal dentate gyrus in AD model rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal study, which was performed in the Laboratory of Stem Cells, Department of Pathology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from February 2006 to March 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty healthy, male, Wistar rats, aged 3-4 months and weighing (300+20)g, were selected for this study. Aβ1-40 was provided by Sigma Company, USA. Standard diet and high cholesterol diet mixed with cholesterol (5%), sodium hypocholic acid (1%), lard (10%), and ordinary rat food (84%) were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.METHODS: Rats were fed on high cholesterol diet or standard diet for eight successive weeks. Then, rats were randomly divided into cholesterol diet+Aβ, high cholesterol diet+phosphate buffered saline (PBS), standard diet+Aβ, and standard diet+PBS group, with five rats in each group. AD rat models were established by local injection of Aβ1-40 solution (10μL) into the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Rats in the control group were injected with the same volume of PBS. After injection, rat were fed for two weeksMAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuronal cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were detected by Nissl staining; spatial navigation and spatial probe were detected by Morris water maze to reflect learning and memory.RESULTS: Twenty rats were included in the final analysis, without any loss. (1) Neuronal numbers: neuronal loss in the high cholesterol diet+Aβ and standard diet+Aβ groups was significantly higher than in the PBS groups (Pstandard diet+Aβ group>high cholesterol diet+PBS group>standard diet+PBS group

  5. Learning Undirected Graphical Models with Structure Penalty

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Shilin

    2011-01-01

    In undirected graphical models, learning the graph structure and learning the functions that relate the predictive variables (features) to the responses given the structure are two topics that have been widely investigated in machine learning and statistics. Learning graphical models in two stages will have problems because graph structure may change after considering the features. The main contribution of this paper is the proposed method that learns the graph structure and functions on the graph at the same time. General graphical models with binary outcomes conditioned on predictive variables are proved to be equivalent to multivariate Bernoulli model. The reparameterization of the potential functions in graphical model by conditional log odds ratios in multivariate Bernoulli model offers advantage in the representation of the conditional independence structure in the model. Additionally, we impose a structure penalty on groups of conditional log odds ratios to learn the graph structure. These groups of fu...

  6. Preference learning with evolutionary Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    for human decision making. Learning models from pairwise preference data is however an NP-hard problem. Therefore, constructing models that can effectively learn such data is a challenging task. Models are usually constructed with accuracy being the most important factor. Another vitally important aspect...... that is usually given less attention is expressiveness, i.e. how easy it is to explain the relationship between the model input and output. Most machine learning techniques are focused either on performance or on expressiveness. This paper employ MARS models which have the advantage of being a powerful method...

  7. Effects of Shenlong Decoction on Learning and Memory Abilities as well as SOD and MDA in Brain-aging Model Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi; Wang Fawei; Yang Minghui; Zheng Qingping; Wang Youjing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Brain aging (dementia) model mice were made by cervical subcutaneous injection of D-galactose solution.Learning and memory abilities were detected with water maze test and superoxide dismulase(SOD)activities and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents in the liver and brain were determined after intragastrical administration of Shenlong Decoction (参龙汤) for 6 weeks. The results indicated that the swimming time was shortened and the correct swimming times increased, SOD activity raised and MDA content decreased in the three Shenlong Decoction groups with different doses as compared with the model group. It is concluded that Shenlong Decoction has the effects of anti-free radical injuries and improving the learning and memory abilities of the brain-aging mice induced by D-galactose.

  8. Web-Based Instruction, Learning Effectiveness and Learning Behavior: The Impact of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…

  9. The effects of reduced dopamine transporter function and chronic lithium on motivation, probabilistic learning, and neurochemistry in mice: Modeling bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Kesby, James P; Graves, Mary; van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Semenova, Svetlana; Minassian, Arpi; Markou, Athina; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) mania patients exhibit poor cognition and reward-seeking/hypermotivation, negatively impacting a patient's quality of life. Current treatments (e.g., lithium), do not treat such deficits. Treatment development has been limited due to a poor understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Here, we investigated putative mechanisms underlying cognition and reward-seeking/motivational changes relevant to BD mania patients using two validated mouse models and neurochemical analyses. The effects of reducing dopamine transporter (DAT) functioning via genetic (knockdown vs. wild-type littermates), or pharmacological (GBR12909- vs. vehicle-treated C57BL/6J mice) means were assessed in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), and progressive ratio breakpoint (PRB) test, during either water or chronic lithium treatment. These tasks quantify reward learning and effortful motivation, respectively. Neurochemistry was performed on brain samples of DAT mutants ± chronic lithium using high performance liquid chromatography. Reduced DAT functioning increased reversals in the PRLT, an effect partially attenuated by chronic lithium. Chronic lithium alone slowed PRLT acquisition. Reduced DAT functioning increased motivation (PRB), an effect attenuated by lithium in GBR12909-treated mice. Neurochemical analyses revealed that DAT knockdown mice exhibited elevated homovanillic acid levels, but that lithium had no effect on these elevated levels. Reducing DAT functioning recreates many aspects of BD mania including hypermotivation and improved reversal learning (switching), as well as elevated homovanillic acid levels. Chronic lithium only exerted main effects, impairing learning and elevating norepinephrine and serotonin levels of mice, not specifically treating the underlying mechanisms identified in these models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Situated Model of Creative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that…

  11. A Generative Model of Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittrock, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The learning of mathematics is presented as a cognitive process rather than as a behavioristic one. A generative model of mathematics learning is described. Learning with understanding can occur with discovery or reception treatments. Relevant empirical research is discussed and implications for teaching mathematics as a generative process are…

  12. A Situated Model of Creative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that…

  13. A Generative Model for Deep Convolutional Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Yunchen; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A generative model is developed for deep (multi-layered) convolutional dictionary learning. A novel probabilistic pooling operation is integrated into the deep model, yielding efficient bottom-up (pretraining) and top-down (refinement) probabilistic learning. Experimental results demonstrate powerful capabilities of the model to learn multi-layer features from images, and excellent classification results are obtained on the MNIST and Caltech 101 datasets.

  14. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...

  15. The effects of problem-based learning about modern concepts of education and classroom discipline models in education of students of the Teachers’ Training Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the necessity of including the contents related to theoretical approaches to classroom discipline, research results on this topic and prevention models of classroom discipline in the curriculum of university education of future class teachers. Learning about the features of modern concepts of education and their understanding should precede learning about modern classroom discipline models in education of students of the Teachers’ Training Faculty. The selection of a discipline model and strategies for maintaining classroom discipline should be consistent with the concept of education accepted by the teacher. The aim of the conducted research was to determine the effects of problem-based learning about modern concepts of education and classroom discipline models on students’ opinions about the nature of children and adequate disciplinary measures in conflict situations. A quasi-experiment with parallel groups was used in the research, comprising 53 respondents, 32 in the control group and 21 in the experimental group. The results of the conducted experiment indicate that, compared to the control group, the experimental group was much more optimistic about the nature of children, considerably more attached to positive educational procedures, more consistent in elaborating disciplinary measures and more successful at articulating and explaining their attitudes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179020: Koncepcije i strategije obezbeđivanja kvaliteta bazičnog obrazovanja i vaspitanja

  16. Online Learning in Discrete Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    We present and analyse three online algorithms for learning in discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and compare them with the Baldi-Chauvin Algorithm. Using the Kullback-Leibler divergence as a measure of generalisation error we draw learning curves in simplified situations. The performance for learning drifting concepts of one of the presented algorithms is analysed and compared with the Baldi-Chauvin algorithm in the same situations. A brief discussion about learning and symmetry breaking b...

  17. Are All Hands-On Activities Equally Effective? Effect of Using Plastic Models, Organ Dissections, and Virtual Dissections on Student Learning and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Sara A.; Hicks, Reimi E.; Thompson, Katerina V.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or…

  18. Are All Hands-On Activities Equally Effective? Effect of Using Plastic Models, Organ Dissections, and Virtual Dissections on Student Learning and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Sara A.; Hicks, Reimi E.; Thompson, Katerina V.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or…

  19. An integrated model for the effects of self-reflection and clinical experiential learning on clinical nursing performance in nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2016-10-01

    The use of clinical simulation in undergraduate nursing programs in Taiwan has gradually increased over the past 5years. Previous research has shown that students' experience of anxiety during simulated laboratory sessions influences their self-reflection and learning effectiveness. Thus, further study that tracks what influences students' clinical performance in actual clinical sites is vital. The aim of the study is to develop an integrated model that considers the associations among anxiety, self-reflection, and learning effectiveness and to understand how this model applies to student nurses' clinical performance while on clinical placement. This study used a correlational and longitudinal study design. The 80 nursing students, who ranged in age from 19 to 21 (mean=20.38, SD=0.56), were recruited from a nursing school in southern Taiwan. Data were collected during three phases of implementation using four questionnaires. During the first phase, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale (SLES), and Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) were used after students completed the simulation course in the school simulation laboratory. Nursing students also completed the Holistic Nursing Competence Scale at 2months (Phase 2) and 4months (Phase 3) after clinical practice experience. In Phase 3, students again completed the STAI and SRIS. Partial least squares (PLS), a structural equation modeling (SEM) procedure, was used to test the research model. The findings showed that: (1) at the start of the simulation laboratory, anxiety had a significant negative effect on students' simulation learning effectiveness (SLE; β=-0.14, p<0.05) and on self-reflection with insight (SRI; β=-0.52, p<0.01). Self-reflection also had a significant positive effect on simulation learning effectiveness (β=0.37, p<0.01). Anxiety had a significant negative effect on students' nursing competence during the first 2months of practice in a clinical

  20. Effects of ginsenoside of stem and leaf combined with choline on learning and memory ability of rat models with Alzheimer diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Yunsheng Gao; Yuyun Zhu; Hongxia Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central adrenergic nerve and 5-serotonergic nerve can influence central cholinergic nerve on learning and memory and make easy for study; however, ginsenoside of stem and leaf (GSL) can improve functions of central adrenergic nerve; moreover, 5-serotonergic nerve and the combination with choline can produce synergistic effect and enhance learning and memory ability so as to improve learning and memory disorder of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of GSL combining with choline on learning and memory of AD model rats.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design and controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Pharmacological Department of Medical College of Jilin University from October 1996 to January 1997. Forty healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade were randomly divided into 5 groups, including sham-injury group, model group, GSL group, choline group and combination group, with 8 rats in each group. Main medications: GSL with the volume more than 92.8% was provided by Department of Chemistry, Norman Bethune Medical College of Jilin University. Panaxatriol, the main component, was detected with thin layer scanning technique and regarded as the index of GSL quality [(55±1)%, CV= 2%, n= 5]. Choline was provided by the Third Shanghai Laboratory Factory.METHODS: 150 nmol quinolinic acid was used to damage bilateral Meynert basal nuclei of adult rats so as to establish AD models. Rats in GSL, choline and combination groups were intragastric administrated with 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days before operation. Rats in sham-injury group and model group were perfused with the same volume of distilled jumped up safe platform when they were shocked with 36 V

  1. Effects of lithium and carbamazepine on spatial learning and depressive behavior in a rat model of bipolar disorder induced by ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chou; Wang, En-Nan; Wang, Chia-Chuan; Huang, Chung-Lei; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2013-04-01

    Lithium (LiCl) and carbamazepine (CBZ), the common mood stabilizers, are thought to be effective treatments for bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether LiCl as well as CBZ has similar effects on the bipolar disorder-associated cognitive dysfunctions in rats, particularly the spatial learning and depressive responses. Adult male Wistar rats were administered intracerebroventricularly with 5μl of 10(-3)M ouabain on session 1, and then received an intraperitoneal injection of LiCl or CBZ for 4 sessions (1 session/2days). For the behavioral tests, all rats were subjected to the water maze 15min for spatial learning and the forced swimming test 5min for depression on each session. The present results showed that ouabain resulted in increased latency and longer distance traveled to reach the hidden platform in the water maze, indicating that ouabain impaired the spatial learning. However, ouabain did not affect swimming velocity in the water maze and depressive responses in the forced swimming test. LiCl treatment decreased the ouabain-enhanced latency and the total distance, but not the velocity, swam to reach the hidden platform in the water maze task. Additionally, LiCl did not result in changes of any depressive indices, such as struggling behavior, swimming behavior, and floating behavior. Likewise, CBZ did not affect any behavioral indices of spatial learning and depression. A linear regression analysis suggested that LiCl, but not CBZ, could predict the decreased latency and total distance traveled except the velocity of swimming in the water maze and depressive behaviors. In summary, the present results suggested that lithium provided a better therapeutic effect than CBZ for ouabain-caused dysfunctions of spatial learning in a rat model of bipolar disorder. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The game-based learning evaluation model (GEM): measuring the effectiveness of serious games using a standardised method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Visschedijk, G.C.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.C.; Dankbaar, M.; Trooster, W.; Schuit, S.C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the background, design, and practical application of the game-based evaluation model (GEM). The aim of this evaluation model is to measure the effectiveness of serious games in a practical way. GEM contains the methodology and indicators to be measured in validation research.

  3. Learning How To Throw Darts : The Effect Of Modeling Type And Reflection On Dart-Throwing Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loo, Janneke; Frissen, Eefje; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of modeling type and reflection on the acquisition of dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs and self-reaction scores by replicating a study by Kitsantas, Zimmerman, and Cleary (2000). Participants observing a coping model were expected to surpass partici

  4. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  5. A concept model for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, R.; Kommers, P.; Vos, H.; Dijkum, van C.

    2000-01-01

    For years, it has been attempted within educational science to establish the process of learning. A lot is known about instruction, but as to learning and acquiring knowledge and insight, we still know very little. A lot of research is conducted on methods of instruction, but very little on learning

  6. Increasing Effectiveness of Strategic Planning Seminars through Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Nail

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the effectiveness of taking learning style variables from the Kolb learning model in designing strategic planning seminars. We observe in our research that the participants in the seminar--school principals--positively judge the effectiveness of the seminar. The research also tests the seminar's effectiveness in terms of the…

  7. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework.

  8. Predicting Motivation To Learn and Motivation To Transfer Learning Back to the Job in a Service Organization--A New Systemic Model for Training Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of human resource development (HRD) focuses on an exploratory study that attempted to identify key predictors of motivation to learn during training and motivation to transfer learning back to the workplace, as well as examine the relationship between the two variables. Presents conceptual frameworks for training transfer. (Author/LRW)

  9. Single-Machine Scheduling with Accelerating Learning Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. E. Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling with learning effects has been widely studied. However, there are situations where the learning effect might accelerate. In this paper, we propose a new model where the learning effect accelerates as time goes by. We derive the optimal solutions for the single-machine problems to minimize the makespan, total completion time, total weighted completion time, maximum lateness, maximum tardiness, and total tardiness.

  10. Blended learning as an effective pedagogical paradigm for biomedical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Hartfield

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blended learning as a progressive educative paradigm for the teaching of biomedical science and evaluates the opportunities that blended learning offers for the delivery of accessible, flexible and sustainable teaching and learning experiences. A central tenet of biomedical science education at the tertiary level is the development of comprehensive hands-on practical competencies and technical skills (many of which require laboratory-based learning environments, and it is advanced that a blended learning model, which combines face-to-face synchronous teaching and learning activities with asynchronous online teaching and learning activities, effectively creates an authentic, enriching, and student-centred learning environment for biomedical science. Lastly, a blending learning design for introductory biochemistry will be described as an effective example of integrating face-to-face and online teaching, learning and assessment activities within the teaching domain of biomedical science.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.169

  11. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...

  12. Modelling and Optimizing Mathematics Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Tanja; Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Solenthaler, Barbara; Baschera, Gian-Marco; Kohn, Juliane; Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael; Gross, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a student model and control algorithm, optimizing mathematics learning in children. The adaptive system is integrated into a computer-based training system for enhancing numerical cognition aimed at children with developmental dyscalculia or difficulties in learning mathematics. The student model consists of a dynamic…

  13. Team learning: building shared mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, van den P.; Gijselaers, W.; Segers, M.; Woltjer, G.B.; Kirschner, P.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning

  14. Beliefs about Language Learning: The Horwitz Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    Research on beliefs about second language learning based on a model designed by Elaine Horwitz is reviewed. The model is incorporated in the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) developed for students of English as a Second Language, college students of commonly taught languages (French, German, Spanish), and college teachers of…

  15. Team learning: building shared mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, van den P.; Gijselaers, W.; Segers, M.; Woltjer, G.B.; Kirschner, P.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning

  16. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  17. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Second Graders' Learning from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on second-graders' motivation and learning from text. In Study 1, students (n = 160) in cooperative learning groups were compared with their counterparts (n = 107) in traditional instruction groups. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the…

  18. The Effectiveness of the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS and Its Impact on Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamer Ali Shakroum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies and experiments have been conducted in recent years to examine the value and the advantage of using the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS.The investigation of the influence of the GBLS mode on the learning outcomes is still scarce. Most previous studies did not address more than one category of learning outcomes (cognitive, affective outcomes, etc. at the same time when used to understand the impact of GBLS. Moreover, none of these studies considered the difference in students’ characteristics such as learning styles and spatial abilities. Therefore, a comprehensive empirical research on the impact of the GBLS mode on learning outcomes is needed. The purpose of this paper is to fill in the gap and to investigate the effectiveness of the GBLS mode on learning using Technology Mediated Learning (TML models. This study revealed that the GBLS mode has greater positive impact on students’ learning outcomes (cognitive and affective outcomes when compared with other two learning modes that are classified as Computer Simulation Software Learning (CSSL mode and conventional learning mode. In addition, this study also found that the GBLS mode is capable of serving all students with different learning styles and spatial ability levels. The results of this study revealed that the GBLS mode outperformed the existing learning methods by providing a unique learning experience that considers the differences between students. The results have also shown that the Kinect user interface can create an interactive and an enjoyable learning experience.

  19. Students’ mathematical learning in modelling activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts...... involved. We argue that progress in students’ conceptual learning needs to be conceptualised separately from that of progress in their modelling competency. Findings are that modelling activities open a window to the students’ images of the mathematical concepts involved; that modelling activities can...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....

  20. Learning curve estimation in medical devices and procedures: hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Usha S; Stillo, Marco; Goldfarb, David; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S

    2017-07-30

    In the use of medical device procedures, learning effects have been shown to be a critical component of medical device safety surveillance. To support their estimation of these effects, we evaluated multiple methods for modeling these rates within a complex simulated dataset representing patients treated by physicians clustered within institutions. We employed unique modeling for the learning curves to incorporate the learning hierarchy between institution and physicians and then modeled them within established methods that work with hierarchical data such as generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed effect models. We found that both methods performed well, but that the GEE may have some advantages over the generalized linear mixed effect models for ease of modeling and a substantially lower rate of model convergence failures. We then focused more on using GEE and performed a separate simulation to vary the shape of the learning curve as well as employed various smoothing methods to the plots. We concluded that while both hierarchical methods can be used with our mathematical modeling of the learning curve, the GEE tended to perform better across multiple simulated scenarios in order to accurately model the learning effect as a function of physician and hospital hierarchical data in the use of a novel medical device. We found that the choice of shape used to produce the 'learning-free' dataset would be dataset specific, while the choice of smoothing method was negligibly different from one another. This was an important application to understand how best to fit this unique learning curve function for hierarchical physician and hospital data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Learning Probabilistic Models of Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation presents several new methods of supervised and unsupervised learning of word sense disambiguation models. The supervised methods focus on performing model searches through a space of probabilistic models, and the unsupervised methods rely on the use of Gibbs Sampling and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. In both the supervised and unsupervised case, the Naive Bayesian model is found to perform well. An explanation for this success is presented in terms of learning rates and bias-variance decompositions.

  2. Educational software design: applying models of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Richards

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The model of learning adopted within this paper is the 'spreading ripples' (SR model proposed by Race (1994. This model was chosen for two important reasons. First, it makes use of accessible ideas and language, .and is therefore simple. Second, .Race suggests that the model can be used in the design, of educational and training programmes (and can thereby be applied to the design of computer-based learning materials.

  3. Effects of stimulus salience on touchscreen serial reversal learning in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Price E; Corkill, Beau; McKimm, Eric; Miller, Mellessa M; Calton, Michele A; Goldowitz, Daniel; Blaha, Charles D; Mittleman, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in males and the most common genetic cause of autism. Although executive dysfunction is consistently found in humans with FXS, evidence of executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of FXS, has been inconsistent. One possible explanation for this is that executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, similar to humans with FXS, is only evident when cognitive demands are high. Using touchscreen operant conditioning chambers, male Fmr1 KO mice and their male wildtype littermates were tested on the acquisition of a pairwise visual discrimination followed by four serial reversals of the response rule. We assessed reversal learning performance under two different conditions. In the first, the correct stimulus was salient and the incorrect stimulus was non-salient. In the second and more challenging condition, the incorrect stimulus was salient and the correct stimulus was non-salient; this increased cognitive load by introducing conflict between sensory-driven (i.e., bottom-up) and task-dependent (i.e., top-down) signals. Fmr1 KOs displayed two distinct impairments relative to wildtype littermates. First, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more learning-type errors during the second reversal stage, but only under high cognitive load. Second, during the first reversal stage, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more attempts to collect a reward during the timeout following an incorrect response. These findings indicate that Fmr1 KO mice display executive dysfunction that, in some cases, is only evident under high cognitive load.

  4. Enhanced democratic learning within the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model [Kjersdam & Enemark, 1997; Kolmos et al., 2004] is an example of a democratic learning system [Qvist, 2008]. Writing one project each semester in teams is an important element in the model. Medicine with Industrial Specialisation - a study at the Faculties of Engineering......, Science and Medicine at Aalborg University - has combined the Aalborg Model with solving cases as used by other models. A questionnaire survey related to democratic learning indicates that the democratic learning has been enhanced. This paper presents the results....

  5. Enhanced democratic learning within the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model [Kjersdam & Enemark, 1997; Kolmos et al., 2004] is an example of a democratic learning system [Qvist, 2008]. Writing one project each semester in teams is an important element in the model. Medicine with Industrial Specialisation - a study at the Faculties of Engineering......, Science and Medicine at Aalborg University - has combined the Aalborg Model with solving cases as used by other models. A questionnaire survey related to democratic learning indicates that the democratic learning has been enhanced. This paper presents the results....

  6. Perbandingan antara Keefektifan Model Guided Discovery Learning dan Project-Based Learning pada Matakuliah Geometri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okky Riswandha Imawan

    2015-12-01

    Abstract This research aims to describe the effectiveness and effectiveness differences of the Guided Discovery Learning (GDL Model and the Project Based Learning (PjBL Model in terms of achievement, self-confidence, and critical thinking skills of students on the Solid Geometry subjects. This research was quasi experimental. The research subjects were two undergraduate classes of Mathematics Education Program, Ahmad Dahlan University, in their second semester, established at random. The data analysis to test the effectiveness of the GDL and PjBL Models in terms of each of the dependent variables used the t-test. The data analysis to test differences between effectiveness of the GDL and that of the PjBL Model used the MANOVA test. The results of this research show that viewed from achievement, self confidence, and critical thinking skills of the students are the application of the GDL Model on Solid Geometry subject is effective, the application of the PjBL Model on Solid Geometry subject is effective, and there is no difference in the effectiveness of GDL and PjBL Models on Solid Geometry subject in terms of achievement, self confidence, and critical thinking skills of the students. Keywords: guided discovery learning model, project-based learning model, achievement, self-confidence, critical thinking skills

  7. Effects of exogenous ganglioside-1 on learning and memory in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhi Li; Nong Xiao; Xiaoping Zhang; Ling Liu; Liyun Lin; Siyuan Chen; Yuxia Chen; Bei Xu

    2008-01-01

    greater in the hippocampal CA3 region compared to the model group I week after surgery (P < 0.05). In all three groups, brain weight of the right hemisphere was significantly less than the left hemisphere, in particular in the model group (P < 0.05). In the GMI group, the weight difference between two hemispheres, as well as the extent of damage in the right hemisphere, was less than the model group (P < 0.01). In the sham operation group, brain tissue consisted of integrated structures and ordered cells. In the model group, the cerebral cortex layers of the right hemisphere were not defined, neurons were damaged, and neurons were disarranged in the hippocampal area. In the GMI group, neurons were dense in the right cerebral cortex and hippocampal area, with no significant change in glial prolitferation. (2) The average time of escape latency in the GM1 group was shortened 4 weeks after surgery, and significantly less than the model group (P < 0.05), In addition, the frequency platform passing in the GM1 group was significantly greater than the model group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Exogenous GMI may reduce brain injury and improve learning and memory in hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage rats. This protection may be associated with increased growth-associated protein-43 expression, which is involved in neuronal remodeling processes.

  8. Democratic learning in the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    reaching the learning outcomes, the technical and professional knowledge and insight. In principle the participants must be equal with equal rights and feel committed to the values of rationality and impartiality. The Aalborg Model is an example of a democratic learning system although not 100% democratic....... The influence of the students in relation to their own learning is not extended to e.g. the teaching in courses and the facilitation of the groups might be elitist. But the learning in groups during the project work is in principle learning in a communication community, free and without supremacy. Decisions......, processes and behaviour related to learning can be established through argumentation (discussion) or negotiation (dialog), voting or consensus (alone or in combination) within the group simultaneously reaching the learning outcomes, the technical and professional knowledge and insight. This article...

  9. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  10. Model learning and knowledge sharing for a multiagent system with Dyna-Q learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kao-Shing; Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-05-01

    In a multiagent system, if agents' experiences could be accessible and assessed between peers for environmental modeling, they can alleviate the burden of exploration for unvisited states or unseen situations so as to accelerate the learning process. Since how to build up an effective and accurate model within a limited time is an important issue, especially for complex environments, this paper introduces a model-based reinforcement learning method based on a tree structure to achieve efficient modeling and less memory consumption. The proposed algorithm tailored a Dyna-Q architecture to multiagent systems by means of a tree structure for modeling. The tree-model built from real experiences is used to generate virtual experiences such that the elapsed time in learning could be reduced. As well, this model is suitable for knowledge sharing. This paper is inspired by the concept of knowledge sharing methods in multiagent systems where an agent could construct a global model from scattered local models held by individual agents. Consequently, it can increase modeling accuracy so as to provide valid simulated experiences for indirect learning at the early stage of learning. To simplify the sharing process, the proposed method applies resampling techniques to grafting partial branches of trees containing required and useful experiences disseminated from experienced peers, instead of merging the whole trees. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed sharing method can achieve the objectives of sample efficiency and learning acceleration in multiagent cooperation applications.

  11. A Hybrid Teaching and Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhary, Jowati Binti

    This paper aims at analysing the needs for a specific teaching and learning model for the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM). The main argument is that whether there are differences between teaching and learning for academic component versus military component at the university. It is further argued that in order to achieve excellence, there should be one teaching and learning culture. Data were collected through interviews with military cadets. It is found that there are variations of teaching and learning strategies for academic courses, in comparison to a dominant teaching and learning style for military courses. Thus, in the interest of delivering quality education and training for students at the university, the paper argues that possibly a hybrid model for teaching and learning is fundamental in order to generate a one culture of academic and military excellence for the NDUM.

  12. A model of food reward learning with dynamic reward exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Hammond

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of conditioning via reward learning is highly relevant to the study of food choice and obesity. Learning is itself shaped by environmental exposure, with the potential for such exposures to vary substantially across individuals and across place and time. In this paper, we use computational techniques to extend a well-validated standard model of reward learning, introducing both substantial heterogeneity and dynamic reward exposures. We then apply the extended model to a food choice context. The model produces a variety of individual behaviors and population-level patterns which are not evident from the traditional formulation, but which offer potential insights for understanding food reward learning and obesity. These include a lock-in effect, through which early exposure can strongly shape later reward valuation. We discuss potential implications of our results for the study and prevention of obesity, for the reward learning field, and for future experimental and computational work.

  13. A Technology Enhanced Learning Model for Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherly, Elizabeth; Uddin, Md. Meraj

    Technology Enhanced Learning and Teaching (TELT) Model provides learning through collaborations and interactions with a framework for content development and collaborative knowledge sharing system as a supplementary for learning to improve the quality of education system. TELT deals with a unique pedagogy model for Technology Enhanced Learning System which includes course management system, digital library, multimedia enriched contents and video lectures, open content management system and collaboration and knowledge sharing systems. Open sources like Moodle and Wiki for content development, video on demand solution with a low cost mid range system, an exhaustive digital library are provided in a portal system. The paper depicts a case study of e-learning initiatives with TELT model at IIITM-K and how effectively implemented.

  14. Learners’ Attitudes Towards Extended-Blended Learning Experience Based on the S2P Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eddine BAHJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the Moroccan context, the Higher Education Institutions have realized the importance of the integration of information technologies into the formal learning curriculum. However, the risks of demotivation remain large in tertiary education, even with the support of these new technologies. It is therefore essential to ensure consistently the maintenance of the learners’ motivation, which must start from the design phase by adopting real motivational strategies. Blended Learning addresses the issue of the quality of teaching and learning offering then some answers to learners’ motivation issue. So, we try to extend of the dimensions of Blended Learning to an “Extended Blended Learning (Ex-BL”, according to the S2P Model Learning designed as an integration model, arguing that knowledge and learning tools are nowadays available everywhere. This integration of educational resources takes into consideration various components: Face-to-face/online learning, Text-based Learning/Game-based Learning/Media-based Learning, Gamification, and Open Educational Resources. This paper investigates the learner perceptions of this instructional design. This includes their perceptions of learning effectiveness and its impact on their motivation during the learning experience. This investigation focused on two main points: the “Observation of learners’ behavior”, especially during online activities, as a way to gauge the degree of motivation and engagement; and the “Evaluation of the learning experience” through a survey covering the appreciation of the instructional design; the degree of satisfaction; the students’ motivation; the online platform; the extension of Ex-BL elements and their impact on learners’ motivation.

  15. Extension of Companion Modeling Using Classification Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Daisuke; Bousquet, François; Ishida, Toru

    Companion Modeling is a methodology of refining initial models for understanding reality through a role-playing game (RPG) and a multiagent simulation. In this research, we propose a novel agent model construction methodology in which classification learning is applied to the RPG log data in Companion Modeling. This methodology enables a systematic model construction that handles multi-parameters, independent of the modelers ability. There are three problems in applying classification learning to the RPG log data: 1) It is difficult to gather enough data for the number of features because the cost of gathering data is high. 2) Noise data can affect the learning results because the amount of data may be insufficient. 3) The learning results should be explained as a human decision making model and should be recognized by the expert as being the result that reflects reality. We realized an agent model construction system using the following two approaches: 1) Using a feature selction method, the feature subset that has the best prediction accuracy is identified. In this process, the important features chosen by the expert are always included. 2) The expert eliminates irrelevant features from the learning results after evaluating the learning model through a visualization of the results. Finally, using the RPG log data from the Companion Modeling of agricultural economics in northeastern Thailand, we confirm the capability of this methodology.

  16. Effect of Intrahippocampal Administration of Vitamin C and Progesterone on Learning in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Babri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intrahippocampal injection of vitamin C and progesterone, alone or in combination, on passive avoidance learning (PAL in multiple sclerosis. Methods: Sixty- three male wistar rats were divided into nine groups (n=7 as following: control (saline, lesion, vitamin C (0.2, 1, 5 mg/kg, progesterone (0.01, 0.1, 1 μg/μl and combination therapy. Lesion was induced by intrahippocampal injection of ethidium bromide. In combination therapy, animals were treated with vitamin C (5 mg/kg plus progesterone (0.01 mg/kg. Animals in experimental groups received different treatments for 7 days, and then all groups were tested for step through latency (STL. Results: Our results showed that intrahippocampal injection of ethidium bromide destroys PAL significantly (p<0.001. Treatment with vitamin C (5mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 improved PAL. Lower doses of progesterone did not affect latency but dose of 1 μg/μl significantly (p<0.05 increased STL. In combination therapy group STL was significantly (p<0.05 more than in the lesion group, although it was not significantly different from the vitamin C group. Conclusion: Based on our results, we concluded that intrahippocampal injection of vitamin C improves memory for PAL, but progesterone alone or in combination with vitamin C had no improving effects on memory.

  17. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...... then successfully applied to activity recognition, activity simulation and multi-target tracking. Our method compares favourably with respect to previously reported results using Hidden Markov Models and Relational Particle Filtering....

  18. Learning to Order Words: A Connectionist Model of Heavy NP Shift and Accessibility Effects in Japanese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Languages differ from one another and must therefore be learned. Processing biases in word order can also differ across languages. For example, heavy noun phrases tend to be shifted to late sentence positions in English, but to early positions in Japanese. Although these language differences suggest a role for learning, most accounts of these…

  19. Modeling Personalized Learning Styles in a Web-Based Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Cheng; Wang, Kun-Te; Huang, Yueh-Min

    An innovative learning mechanism for identifying learners' learning styles to improve adaptive learning is proposed. Hypermedia-learning tools are highly interactive to learners in web-based environments that have become increasingly popular in the field of education. However, these learning tools are frequently inadequate for individualize learning because accessing adaptive learning content is required for learners to achieve objectives. For predicating adaptive learning, a neuron-fuzzy inference approach is used to model the diagnosis of learning styles. Then, according to the diagnosis results, a recommendation model is constructed to help learners obtain adaptive digital content. The proposed approach has the capability of tracking learning activities on-line to correspond with learning styles. The results show that the identified model successfully classified 102 learners into groups based on learning style. The implemented learning mechanism produced a clear learning guide for learning activities, which can help an advanced learning system retrieve a well-structure learning unit.

  20. Learning generative models for protein fold families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sivaraman; Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Carbonell, Jaime G; Lee, Su-In; Langmead, Christopher James

    2011-04-01

    We introduce a new approach to learning statistical models from multiple sequence alignments (MSA) of proteins. Our method, called GREMLIN (Generative REgularized ModeLs of proteINs), learns an undirected probabilistic graphical model of the amino acid composition within the MSA. The resulting model encodes both the position-specific conservation statistics and the correlated mutation statistics between sequential and long-range pairs of residues. Existing techniques for learning graphical models from MSA either make strong, and often inappropriate assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA (e.g., Hidden Markov Models), or else use suboptimal algorithms to learn the parameters of the model. In contrast, GREMLIN makes no a priori assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA. We formulate and solve a convex optimization problem, thus guaranteeing that we find a globally optimal model at convergence. The resulting model is also generative, allowing for the design of new protein sequences that have the same statistical properties as those in the MSA. We perform a detailed analysis of covariation statistics on the extensively studied WW and PDZ domains and show that our method out-performs an existing algorithm for learning undirected probabilistic graphical models from MSA. We then apply our approach to 71 additional families from the PFAM database and demonstrate that the resulting models significantly out-perform Hidden Markov Models in terms of predictive accuracy.

  1. Effects of a single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine in the rat brain regions of a learned helplessness model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Effects of a single bilateral infusion of R-enantiomer of ketamine in rat brain regions of learned helplessness model of depression were examined. A single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine into infralimbic (IL) portion of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus showed antidepressant effects. By contrast, a single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine into prelimbic (PL) portion of mPFC, shell and core of nucleus accumbens, basolateral amygdala and central nucleus of the amygdala had no effect. This study suggests that IL of mPFC, CA3 and DG of hippocampus might be involved in the antidepressant actions of R-ketamine.

  2. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  4. Learning More Effectively from Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing the capacity for individuals to learn effectively from their experiences is an important part of building the knowledge and skills in organizations to do good adaptive management. This paper reviews some of the research from cognitive psychology and phenomenography to present a way of thinking about learning to assist individuals to make better use of their personal experiences to develop understanding of environmental systems. We suggest that adaptive expertise (an individual's ability to deal flexibly with new situations is particularly relevant for environmental researchers and practitioners. To develop adaptive expertise, individuals need to: (1 vary and reflect on their experiences and become adept at seeking out and taking different perspectives; and (2 become proficient at making balanced judgements about how or if an experience will change their current perspective or working representation of a social, economic, and biophysical system by applying principles of "good thinking." Such principles include those that assist individuals to be open to the possibility of changing their current way of thinking (e.g., the disposition to be adventurous and those that reduce the likelihood of making erroneous interpretations (e.g., the disposition to be intellectually careful. An example of applying some of the principles to assist individuals develop their understanding of a dynamically complex wetland system (the Macquarie Marshes in Australia is provided. The broader implications of individual learning are also discussed in relation to organizational learning, the role of experiential knowledge for conservation, and for achieving greater awareness of the need for ecologically sustainable activity.

  5. Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

  6. Learning to Learn: towards a Relational and Transformational Model of Learning for Improved Integrated Care Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Diamond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Health and social care systems are implementing fundamental changes to organizational structures and work practices in an effort to achieve integrated care. While some integration initiatives have produced positive outcomes, many have not. We reframe the concept of integration as a learning process fueled by knowledge exchange across diverse professional and organizational communities. We thus focus on the cognitive and social dynamics of learning in complex adaptive systems, and on learning behaviours and conditions that foster collective learning and improved collaboration. We suggest that the capacity to learn how to learn shapes the extent to which diverse professional groups effectively exchange knowledge and self-organize for integrated care delivery.

  7. The Effect of Scientific Inquiry Learning Model Based on Conceptual Change on Physics Cognitive Competence and Science Process Skill (SPS) of Students at Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahhyar; Nst, Febriani Hastini

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the physics cognitive competence and science process skill of students using scientific inquiry learning model based on conceptual change better than using conventional learning. The research type was quasi experiment and two group pretest-posttest designs were used in this study. The sample were Class…

  8. A Research on the Generative Learning Model Supported by Context-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Fatma Merve; Onen, Aysem Seda

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on the generative learning model which involves context-based learning. Using the generative learning model, we taught the topic of Halogens. This topic is covered in the grade 10 chemistry curriculum using activities which are designed in accordance with the generative learning model supported by context-based learning. The…

  9. Flipped classroom model for learning evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Sydney Y; Ozdogan, Zulfukar; Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2017-01-01

    Journal club (JC), as a pedagogical strategy, has long been used in graduate medical education (GME). As evidence-based medicine (EBM) becomes a mainstay in GME, traditional models of JC present a number of insufficiencies and call for novel models of instruction. A flipped classroom model appears to be an ideal strategy to meet the demands to connect evidence to practice while creating engaged, culturally competent, and technologically literate physicians. In this article, we describe a novel model of flipped classroom in JC. We present the flow of learning activities during the online and face-to-face instruction, and then we highlight specific considerations for implementing a flipped classroom model. We show that implementing a flipped classroom model to teach EBM in a residency program not only is possible but also may constitute improved learning opportunity for residents. Follow-up work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this model on both learning and clinical practice.

  10. Flipped classroom model for learning evidence-based medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Sydney Y; Ozdogan, Zulfukar; Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2017-01-01

    Journal club (JC), as a pedagogical strategy, has long been used in graduate medical education (GME). As evidence-based medicine (EBM) becomes a mainstay in GME, traditional models of JC present a number of insufficiencies and call for novel models of instruction. A flipped classroom model appears to be an ideal strategy to meet the demands to connect evidence to practice while creating engaged, culturally competent, and technologically literate physicians. In this article, we describe a novel model of flipped classroom in JC. We present the flow of learning activities during the online and face-to-face instruction, and then we highlight specific considerations for implementing a flipped classroom model. We show that implementing a flipped classroom model to teach EBM in a residency program not only is possible but also may constitute improved learning opportunity for residents. Follow-up work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this model on both learning and clinical practice. PMID:28919831

  11. PENGARUH MODEL EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar’atus Sholihah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Experiential Learning models developed by Kolb's theory of the critical thinking skills of high school students. This study uses a quasi experiment conducted in SMA Assa'adah Gresik. The population of students of class X IS second semester of academic year 2015/2016. Samples are 2 classes that are homogeneous. Methods of data collection using test questions and the ability to think critically using observation sheet. Data were analyzed by comparing the average acquisition value of critical thinking skills with experimental class control class. Average value of the critical thinking skills using model Experiential Learning higher at 80.9 while the control class is 71.2. Based on the average it can be concluded that the learning model of Experiential Learning can improve students' critical thinking skills. This study is expected to provide information on the application and benefits of the model Experiential Learning in teaching geography and make it more meaningful for students. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh model Experiential Learning yang dikembangkan oleh teori Kolb terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa SMA. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi experimen yang dilakukan di SMA Assa’adah Gresik. Populasi siswa kelas X IS semester genap tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Sampel yang digunakan sebanyak 2 kelas yang bersifat homogen. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan soal tes kemampuan berpikir kritis serta menggunakan lembar observasi. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis dengan membandingkan rata-rata perolehan nilai kemampuan berpikir kritis kelas kontrol dengan kelas eksperimen. Nilai rata rata kemampuan berpikir kritis yang menggunakan model pembelajaran Experiential Learning lebih tinggi, yaitu sebesar 80,9, sedangkan kelas kontrol sebesar 71,2. Berdasarkan nilai rata-rata tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa model pembelajaran Experiential Learning dapat

  12. A Novel Model for Cloud Based Mobile Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Omar Baalghusun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning (M-learning becomes revolutionary way to educate the world with the mass advancement in information and communications technology (ICT. It is difficult to deal with m-learning due to increasing number of users, services, education contents and resources and modes to deploy. Cloud computing, with its dynamic scalability and virtualized resources usage, is widely deployed for several applications in many organizations. It has a significant impact in the educational and learning environment. This paper presents a new model for mobile learning system in cloud computing environment that is enriched with high performance computing (HPC and graphical processing unit (GPU cluster infrastructure. This model aggregates the power with new technologies to implement M-leaning process more effective with high performance and quick response.

  13. The effect of PN-1, a Traditional Chinese Prescription, on the Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is a complete medical system that has been practiced for more than 3000 years. Prescription number 1 (PN-1 consists of several Chinese medicines and is designed according to TCM theories to treat patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The evidence of clinical practice suggests the benefit effects of PN-1 on cognitive deficits of dementia patients. We try to prove and explain this by using contemporary methodology and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The behavioral studies were developed to evaluate the memory of transgenic animals after intragastric administration of PN-1 for 3 months. Amyloid beta-protein (Aβ neuropathology was quantified using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The western blotting was used to detect the levels of plasticity associated proteins. The safety of PN-1 on mice was also assessed through multiple parameters. Results showed that PN-1 could effectively relieve learning and memory impairment of transgenic animals. Possible mechanisms showed that PN-1 could significantly reduce plaque burden and Aβ levels and boost synaptic plasticity. Our observations showed that PN-1 could improve learning and memory ability through multiple mechanisms without detectable side effects on mice. We propose that PN-1 is a promising alternative treatment for AD in the future.

  14. The effect of PN-1, a Traditional Chinese Prescription, on the Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ling; Liang, Liang; Liu, Yu; Yang, Ya-Jun; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Chun-Mei; Qin, Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a complete medical system that has been practiced for more than 3000 years. Prescription number 1 (PN-1) consists of several Chinese medicines and is designed according to TCM theories to treat patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The evidence of clinical practice suggests the benefit effects of PN-1 on cognitive deficits of dementia patients. We try to prove and explain this by using contemporary methodology and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The behavioral studies were developed to evaluate the memory of transgenic animals after intragastric administration of PN-1 for 3 months. Amyloid beta-protein (A β ) neuropathology was quantified using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The western blotting was used to detect the levels of plasticity associated proteins. The safety of PN-1 on mice was also assessed through multiple parameters. Results showed that PN-1 could effectively relieve learning and memory impairment of transgenic animals. Possible mechanisms showed that PN-1 could significantly reduce plaque burden and A β levels and boost synaptic plasticity. Our observations showed that PN-1 could improve learning and memory ability through multiple mechanisms without detectable side effects on mice. We propose that PN-1 is a promising alternative treatment for AD in the future.

  15. Team learning: building shared mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjers, Geert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W., Segers, M., Woltjer, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Team learning: Building shared mental models. Instructional Science, 39, 283-301. doi:10.1007/s11251-010-9128-3.

  16. Context Effects in a Temporal Discrimination Task: Further Tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on two temporal bisection tasks, which alternated every two sessions. In the first task, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; in the second task, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. Then the pigeons were exposed to a…

  17. Effect of Demographic Factors on E-Learning Effectiveness in a Higher Learning Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Rahim, Noor Asliza Abdul; Liang, Tan Chee; Momtaz, Hasina

    2011-01-01

    This research attempted to find out the effect of demographic factors on the effectiveness of the e-learning system in a higher learning Institution. The students from this institution were randomly selected in order to evaluate the effectiveness of learning system in student's learning process. The primary data source is the questionnaires that…

  18. Model-observer similarity, error modeling and social learning in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Monkeys readily learn to discriminate between rewarded and unrewarded items or actions by observing their conspecifics. However, they do not systematically learn from humans. Understanding what makes human-to-monkey transmission of knowledge work or fail could help identify mediators and moderators of social learning that operate regardless of language or culture, and transcend inter-species differences. Do monkeys fail to learn when human models show a behavior too dissimilar from the animals' own, or when they show a faultless performance devoid of error? To address this question, six rhesus macaques trained to find which object within a pair concealed a food reward were successively tested with three models: a familiar conspecific, a 'stimulus-enhancing' human actively drawing the animal's attention to one object of the pair without actually performing the task, and a 'monkey-like' human performing the task in the same way as the monkey model did. Reward was manipulated to ensure that all models showed equal proportions of errors and successes. The 'monkey-like' human model improved the animals' subsequent object discrimination learning as much as a conspecific did, whereas the 'stimulus-enhancing' human model tended on the contrary to retard learning. Modeling errors rather than successes optimized learning from the monkey and 'monkey-like' models, while exacerbating the adverse effect of the 'stimulus-enhancing' model. These findings identify error modeling as a moderator of social learning in monkeys that amplifies the models' influence, whether beneficial or detrimental. By contrast, model-observer similarity in behavior emerged as a mediator of social learning, that is, a prerequisite for a model to work in the first place. The latter finding suggests that, as preverbal infants, macaques need to perceive the model as 'like-me' and that, once this condition is fulfilled, any agent can become an effective model.

  19. The effects of problem-based learning about modern concepts of education and classroom discipline models in education of students of the Teachers’ Training Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The paper elaborates the necessity of including the contents related to theoretical approaches to classroom discipline, research results on this topic and prevention models of classroom discipline in the curriculum of university education of future class teachers. Learning about the features of modern concepts of education and their understanding should precede learning about modern classroom discipline models in education of students of the Teachers’ Training Faculty. The selection of ...

  20. Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open learner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....

  1. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  2. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  3. Neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid on hippocampal cell death and learning and memory impairments in a valproic acid-induced rat autism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingquan; Wang, Xuelai; Sun, Hongli; Cao, Yonggang; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Han; Wang, Yanming; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Fengyu; Wu, Lijie

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in rat offspring is capable of inducing experimental autism with neurobehavioral aberrations. This study investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hippocampal cell death, learning and memory alteration in an experimental rat autism model. We found that DHA supplementation (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day, 21 days) rescued the VPA (600 mg/kg) induced DHA reduction in plasma and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner, increased the levels of hippocampal p-CaMKII and p-CREB without affecting total protein level, and altered BDNF-AKT-Bcl-2 signaling pathway, as well as inhibited the activity of caspase-3. DHA also influenced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the VPA-treated offspring. Consistent with the previous results, we also observed that 300 mg/kg DHA supplementation markedly increased the cell survival, decreased the cell apoptosis, and increased mature neuronal cell in the hippocampus in VPA-treated offspring. Utilizing the Morris water maze test, we found that DHA prevented cognitive impairment in offspring of VPA-treated rats. The data suggested that DHA may play a neuroprotective role in hippocampal neuronal cell and ameliorates dysfunctions in learning and memory in this rat autism model. Thus, DHA could be used as treatment intervention for mitigating behavioral dysfunctions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

  4. Aligning Learning Activities with Instructional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitch, Rachel; Metzler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Model-based instruction has been increasingly used in physical education for the past two decades. Metzler (2011) identified eight instructional models that are commonly used in physical education today. Each model is designed to promote certain kinds of learning outcomes for students and to address different combinations of the national…

  5. Learning Markov Decision Processes for Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Hua; Chen, Yingke; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Constructing an accurate system model for formal model verification can be both resource demanding and time-consuming. To alleviate this shortcoming, algorithms have been proposed for automatically learning system models based on observed system behaviors. In this paper we extend the algorithm on...

  6. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  7. Generative Modeling for Machine Learning on the D-Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Sciences Group

    2016-11-15

    These are slides on Generative Modeling for Machine Learning on the D-Wave. The following topics are detailed: generative models; Boltzmann machines: a generative model; restricted Boltzmann machines; learning parameters: RBM training; practical ways to train RBM; D-Wave as a Boltzmann sampler; mapping RBM onto the D-Wave; Chimera restricted RBM; mapping binary RBM to Ising model; experiments; data; D-Wave effective temperature, parameters noise, etc.; experiments: contrastive divergence (CD) 1 step; after 50 steps of CD; after 100 steps of CD; D-Wave (experiments 1, 2, 3); D-Wave observations.

  8. Are all hands-on activities equally effective? Effect of using plastic models, organ dissections, and virtual dissections on student learning and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Sara A; Hicks, Reimi E; Thompson, Katerina V; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or plastic models). Each group received a 15-min lecture followed by a 45-min activity with one of the treatments. Immediately after the lesson and then 2 mo later, students were tested on anatomy and physiology knowledge and completed an attitude survey. Students who used plastic models achieved significantly higher overall scores on both the initial and followup exams than students who performed organ or virtual dissections. On the initial exam, students in the plastic model and organ dissection treatments scored higher on anatomy questions than students who performed virtual dissections. Students in the plastic model group scored higher than students who performed organ dissections on physiology questions. On the followup exam, when asked anatomy questions, students in the plastic model group scored higher than dissection students and virtual dissection students. On attitude surveys, organ dissections had higher perceived value and were requested for inclusion in curricula twice as often as any other activity. Students who performed organ dissections were more likely than the other treatment groups to agree with the statement that "science is fun," suggesting that organ dissections may promote positive attitudes toward science. The findings of this study provide evidence for the importance of multiple types of hands-on activities in anatomy laboratory courses.

  9. A Student-Centered Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihyar Hesson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the authors experience in applying different approaches of active learning and student-centered teaching, the main problem that prevented the achievement of the full advantages of these approaches is the lack of motivation of students for self-centered learning. A new model for a student-centered learning is presented in this work. This model is of teaching integrative thinking, based on existing models of creativity and synthesis. In this model, the student is put at the heart of a bigger learning process that includes instructors, specialists and the public. Usually students who are in the final year of their study will be the target of the application of this model as a part of a capstone course or final year project. This model promotes the research and thinking skills of the students as well as the gained motivation of self-learning as a result of being in contact with the specialists who might be their potential future employers. A proto-type web-based system based on this model was developed. Although it is applied on a sample of students from the Biology department, the system is readily expandable to any number of other disciplines without any complications or programming overheads. The results achieved from the application of this model were very encouraging.

  10. Measuring the Moderating Effect of Gender and Age on E-Learning Acceptance in England: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach for an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhini, Ali; Hone, Kate; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    The success of an e-learning intervention depends to a considerable extent on student acceptance and use of the technology. Therefore, it has become imperative for practitioners and policymakers to understand the factors affecting the user acceptance of e-learning systems in order to enhance the students' learning experience. Based on an extended…

  11. Runtime Optimizations for Tree-Based Machine Learning Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Asadi; J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractTree-based models have proven to be an effective solution for web ranking as well as other machine learning problems in diverse domains. This paper focuses on optimizing the runtime performance of applying such models to make predictions, specifically using gradient-boosted regression

  12. The Effect of Adaptive Learning Style Scenarios on Learning Achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhilov, Danail; Stefanov, Krassen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2009-01-01

    Bozhilov, D., Stefanov, K., & Stoyanov, S. (2008). The Effect of Adaptive Learning Style Scenarios on Learning Achievements. In R. Koper, K. Stefanov & D. Dicheva (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Knowledge Sharing" (pp.

  13. Negative Effects of Learning Spreadsheet Management on Learning Database Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágner, Anikó; Zsakó, László

    2015-01-01

    A lot of students learn spreadsheet management before database management. Their similarities can cause a lot of negative effects when learning database management. In this article, we consider these similarities and explain what can cause problems. First, we analyse the basic concepts such as table, database, row, cell, reference, etc. Then, we…

  14. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... system models from data in the form of observations of the target system. Common for these approaches is that they assume the data to consist of multiple independent observation sequences. However, for certain types of systems, in particular many running embedded systems, one would only have access...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  15. Effect of the Four-Step Learning Cycle Model on Students' Understanding of Concepts Related to Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the efficacy of four-step (4-E) learning cycle approach on students understanding of concepts related to Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). 124 students (63 for experimental group and 61 for control group) participated in the study. The students' views and ideas in simple Harmonic Achievement test were analyzed qualitatively. The…

  16. Multidimensional Learner Model In Intelligent Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyska, B.; Rozeva, A.

    2009-11-01

    The learner model in an intelligent learning system (ILS) has to ensure the personalization (individualization) and the adaptability of e-learning in an online learner-centered environment. ILS is a distributed e-learning system whose modules can be independent and located in different nodes (servers) on the Web. This kind of e-learning is achieved through the resources of the Semantic Web and is designed and developed around a course, group of courses or specialty. An essential part of ILS is learner model database which contains structured data about learner profile and temporal status in the learning process of one or more courses. In the paper a learner model position in ILS is considered and a relational database is designed from learner's domain ontology. Multidimensional modeling agent for the source database is designed and resultant learner data cube is presented. Agent's modules are proposed with corresponding algorithms and procedures. Multidimensional (OLAP) analysis guidelines on the resultant learner module for designing dynamic learning strategy have been highlighted.

  17. Peer-to-Peer Learning and the Army Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    electronic books , augmented reality, gesture-based computing, and visual data analysis will have the greatest effect on the learning environment in...open content, electronic books , augmented reality, gesture based computing, and visual data analysis,” are some of the needs for change (Department of

  18. A Constructionist Learning Environment for Teachers to Model Learning Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, D.; Charlton, P.; Craft, B.; Dimakopoulos, D.; Ljubojevic, D.; Magoulas, G.; Masterman, E.; Pujadas, R.; Whitley, E.A.; Whittlestone, K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital technologies is now widespread and increasing, but is not always optimized for effective learning. Teachers in higher education have little time or support to work on innovation and improvement of their teaching, which often means they simply replicate their current practice in a digital medium. This paper makes the case for a…

  19. A Constructionist Learning Environment for Teachers to Model Learning Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, D.; Charlton, P.; Craft, B.; Dimakopoulos, D.; Ljubojevic, D.; Magoulas, G.; Masterman, E.; Pujadas, R.; Whitley, E.A.; Whittlestone, K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital technologies is now widespread and increasing, but is not always optimized for effective learning. Teachers in higher education have little time or support to work on innovation and improvement of their teaching, which often means they simply replicate their current practice in a digital medium. This paper makes the case for a…

  20. Orientating cooperative learning model on social responsibility in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chuan Chiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Five alternative generic models on Physical Education were addressed by Jewett et al. (1995. Although these five generic models enumerate the main curriculum design, it rarely presents well the full view of it. Cooperative learning (CL is generally adopted by the teachers in social science field and receives splendid effects. In the field of physical education, there are also numerous successful examples applied on CL model. On the other hand, CL curriculum emphasizes on active learning that involves the processes of social interaction, making decision, and cognitive outcome to provide students with a holistic education; that was expelled from the five generic models. Therefore, this study adopts content analysis to explore the link between cooperative learning and social responsibility in physical education. Aforementioned, the contribution of this study is preliminarily building up CL model on social responsibility value orientation in physical education for the extension of Jewett et al. (1995 to complete the structure of the theoretical integrity.

  1. Integrating visual learning within a model-based ATR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Mark; Nebrich, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) systems, like human photo-interpreters, rely on a variety of visual information for detecting, classifying, and identifying manmade objects in aerial imagery. We describe the integration of a visual learning component into the Image Data Conditioner (IDC) for target/clutter and other visual classification tasks. The component is based on an implementation of a model of the visual cortex developed by Serre, Wolf, and Poggio. Visual learning in an ATR context requires the ability to recognize objects independent of location, scale, and rotation. Our method uses IDC to extract, rotate, and scale image chips at candidate target locations. A bootstrap learning method effectively extends the operation of the classifier beyond the training set and provides a measure of confidence. We show how the classifier can be used to learn other features that are difficult to compute from imagery such as target direction, and to assess the performance of the visual learning process itself.

  2. Distance Learning Class Model for Teaching a Foreign Language in University-Level Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to introduce the distance learning class model for a foreign language in university-level education context, and to prove that this class model is effective in cultivating the motivation and interest of university students for learning a foreign language. This distance learning lesson consists of two parts: Online chatting session,…

  3. Learning approaches and studies of effect of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a presentation of 3P model of learning (Presage-Process-Product, which comprises learning approaches placed in a wider context of the set of variables related to personality, environment, process and outcomes of learning. Three approaches to learning - surface, deep and achievement-oriented - consist of motives and the corresponding learning strategies. There is a discussion of the findings and implications of a great deal of research using the instruments based on this model. We analyzed research findings about the effect of instruction on learning approaches acquired by pupils, and especially students. It is shown how based on learning approach employed by pupils it is possible to draw conclusions about the quality of instruction. Testing the instruments on various samples indicates that the model is applicable in different cultures. Cross-cultural research opened up the problem of relation between memorising and understanding. Further research is necessary, both empirical and theoretical, that is, development of conceptualization of these constructs, and especially their role in education. Perspectives for further research also open up in the direction of studying various factors connected with personality and their relations with learning approaches. The role of learning approaches of teachers in developing the learning approaches of pupils is yet to be examined.

  4. Low fidelity, high quality: a model for e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Chandratilake, Madawa; Baker, Paul

    2013-08-01

    E-learning continues to proliferate as a method to deliver continuing medical education. The effectiveness of e-learning has been widely studied, showing that it is as effective as traditional forms of education. However, most reports focus on whether the e-learning is effective, rather than discussing innovations to allow clinical educators to ask 'how' and 'why' it is effective, and to facilitate local reproduction. Previous work has set out a number of barriers to the introduction of e-learning interventions. Cost, the time to produce interventions, and the training requirements for educators and trainees have all been identified as barriers. We set out to design an e-learning intervention on paediatric prescribing that could address these issues using a low-fidelity approach, and report our methods so as to allow interested readers to use a similar approach. Using low-cost, readily accessible tools and applying appropriate educational theory, the intervention was produced in a short period of time. As part of a randomised controlled trial, long-term retention of prescribing skills was demonstrated, with significantly higher prescribing skill scores in the e-learning group at 4 and 12 weeks (p designing can successfully overcome many of the barriers to the introduction of e-learning. The design model described is simple and can be used by clinical teachers to support local development. Further research could investigate the experiences of these clinicians using this method of instructional design. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Effect of Teaching ModelLearning Cycles 5E’ toward Students’ Achievement in Learning Mathematic at X Years Class SMA Negeri 1 Banuhampu 2013/2014 Academic Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni, N.; Suryabayu, E. P.; Handayani, T.

    2017-02-01

    Based on the survey showed that mathematics teacher still dominated in teaching and learning process. The process of learning is centered on the teacher while the students only work based on instructions provided by the teacher without any creativity and activities that stimulate students to explore their potential. Realized the problem above the writer interested in finding the solution by applying teaching modelLearning Cycles 5E’. The purpose of his research is to know whether teaching modelLearning Cycles 5E’ is better than conventional teaching in teaching mathematic. The type of the research is quasi experiment by Randomized Control test Group Only Design. The population in this research were all X years class students. The sample is chosen randomly after doing normality, homogeneity test and average level of students’ achievement. As the sample of this research was X.7’s class as experiment class used teaching model learning cycles 5E and X.8’s class as control class used conventional teaching. The result showed us that the students achievement in the class that used teaching modelLearning Cycles 5E’ is better than the class which did not use the model.

  6. Hypermedia as an experiential learning tool: a theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Baptista Nunes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of methodical design and development is of extreme importance in the production of educational software. However, this process will only be effective, if it is based on a theoretical model that explicitly defines what educational approach is being used and how specific features of the technology can best support it. This paper proposes a theoretical model of how hypermedia can be used as an experiential learning tool. The development of the model was based on a experiential learning approach and simultaneously aims at minimising the inherent problems of hypermedia as the underlying support technology.

  7. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal…

  8. Visualising Learning Goals with the Quail Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botturi, Luca

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the Quail Model, a device for the classification and visualisation of learning goals. The model is a communication tool that can smoothen the discussion within a course design team, support shared understanding, and improve decision making. Its theoretical background mingles contributions from instructional design (Bloom,…

  9. Modeling social learning of language and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge.

  10. Effect of learning strategies and anxiety of learning mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is intended to discover the effect of instructional strategies and math anxiety on learning outcomes in mathematics. Factorial design 2 x 2 was employed in order to answer the research question how the effect of the instructional strategies and math anxiety on learning outcomes in mathematics. It implies that there is no single instructional strategy that gives better result on learning outcomes in mathematics for all students with the different math anxieties. Based on this research findings mathematics vocational teachers in the field of technology and industry should apply several instructional strategies to serve students with different math anxieties.

  11. A developmental approach to learning causal models for cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugan, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    To keep pace with our adversaries, we must expand the scope of machine learning and reasoning to address the breadth of possible attacks. One approach is to employ an algorithm to learn a set of causal models that describes the entire cyber network and each host end node. Such a learning algorithm would run continuously on the system and monitor activity in real time. With a set of causal models, the algorithm could anticipate novel attacks, take actions to thwart them, and predict the second-order effects flood of information, and the algorithm would have to determine which streams of that flood were relevant in which situations. This paper will present the results of efforts toward the application of a developmental learning algorithm to the problem of cyber security. The algorithm is modeled on the principles of human developmental learning and is designed to allow an agent to learn about the computer system in which it resides through active exploration. Children are flexible learners who acquire knowledge by actively exploring their environment and making predictions about what they will find,1, 2 and our algorithm is inspired by the work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.3 Piaget described how children construct knowledge in stages and learn new concepts on top of those they already know. Developmental learning allows our algorithm to focus on subsets of the environment that are most helpful for learning given its current knowledge. In experiments, the algorithm was able to learn the conditions for file exfiltration and use that knowledge to protect sensitive files.

  12. To have or to learn? The effects of materialism on British and Chinese children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lisbeth; Dittmar, Helga; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a systematic attempt to examine the associations of materialism with learning in 9- to 11-year-old children in 2 countries of similar economic development but different cultural heritage. Using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods, we test a theoretically driven model of associations among materialism, learning motivations, and learning outcomes. Convergent findings suggest that a materialist orientation in elementary school children lowers intrinsic learning motivations, fosters extrinsic learning motivations, and leads to poorer learning outcomes. Materialism was linked directly to lower exam performance, and this link was mediated by lower mastery and heightened performance goals, with patterns not differing between British and Hong Kong Chinese children (Study 1). A follow-up showed that initial materialism predicted worse exam grades 1 year later, suggesting a detrimental long-term effect on Chinese children's school performance (Study 2). We then tested relationships between materialism and learning experimentally, by priming a momentary (state) orientation toward materialism. Writing about material possessions and money affected Chinese children's learning motivations, so that they endorsed lower mastery and higher performance goals (Study 3). A video-diary materialism prime had significant effects on actual learning behaviors, leading British children to (a) choose a performance-oriented learning task over a mastery-oriented task and (b) give up on the task more quickly (Study 4). This research has important implications for personality psychology, educational policy, and future research.

  13. Effective Multicultural Learning in Iterative Cycles; Language Learning Breaking Gender Barriers in Doing Craft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva-Maija Henrita Lappalainen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Myths prevail on craft, culture and language, and in multicultural learning environments. In multicultural education teaching, I explored the learning language in craft learning environments and in learning situation the myths’ effects on gender gap. Basic terms and conceptions are 1. The Ha-La-Cu - method and learning style: language and textile material and color impression (craft learning in doing, 2. Reflecting the process, generating interpretations of textile material and color impression (design, producing and processing analysis in textile material and color impression learning and 3. Multi-scientific and multicultural education, interactive language and craft learning in doing -pedagogy: in craft activity, the analyses contain elements that are challenging learners in an active and innovative dialogue with a cultural awareness process. This is a tool for transcending the prevailing gender gap. Gathering the material, I used the (Ashman & Conway, 1989 classroom integration model, a cognitive verbalizing method; the contextualized notes I made by partial parallel and phased coding. Analogies and associations were linked to the vocabulary, increasing it in a sensitive creative manner. This multicultural pedagogy and didactic, in various contexts, is effectively breaking the gender gap. Keywords: crafts learning in doing, content analysis, gender gap, Ha-La-Cu –method, multicultural learning   

  14. Quality Assurance in E-Learning: PDPP Evaluation Model and its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available E-learning has become an increasingly important teaching and learning mode in educational institutions and corporate training. The evaluation of e-learning, however, is essential for the quality assurance of e-learning courses. This paper constructs a four-phase evaluation model for e-learning courses, which includes planning, development, process, and product evaluation, called the PDPP evaluation model. Planning evaluation includes market demand, feasibility, target student group, course objectives, and finance. Development evaluation includes instructional design, course material design, course Web site design, flexibility, student-student interaction, teacher/tutor support, technical support, and assessment. Process evaluation includes technical support, Web site utilization, learning interaction, learning evaluation, learning support, and flexibility. Product evaluation includes student satisfaction, teaching effectiveness, learning effectiveness, and sustainability. Using the PDPP model as a research framework, a purely e-learning course on Research Methods in Distance Education, developed by the School of Professional and Continuing Education at the University of Hong Kong (HKU SPACE and jointly offered with the School of Distance Learning for Medical Education of Peking University (SDLME, PKU, was used as a case study. Sixty students from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Malaysia were recruited for this course. According to summative evaluation through a student e-learning experience survey, the majority of students were very satisfied/satisfied on all e-learning dimensions of this course. The majority of students thought that the learning effectiveness of this course was equivalent, even better, than face-to-face learning because of cross-border collaborative learning, student-centred learning, sufficient learning support, and learning flexibility. This study shows that a high quality of teaching and learning might be assured by

  15. Memristive model of amoeba's learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pershin, Yuriy V.; La Fontaine, Steven; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that the amoeba-like cell {\\it Physarum polycephalum} when exposed to a pattern of periodic environmental changes learns and adapts its behavior in anticipation of the next stimulus to come. Here we show that such behavior can be mapped into the response of a simple electronic circuit consisting of an $LC$ contour and a memory-resistor (a memristor) to a train of voltage pulses that mimic environment changes. We also identify a possible biological origin of the memristi...

  16. Dopamine selectively remediates 'model-based' reward learning: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Madeleine E; Foerde, Karin; Daw, Nathaniel D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-02-01

    Patients with loss of dopamine due to Parkinson's disease are impaired at learning from reward. However, it remains unknown precisely which aspect of learning is impaired. In particular, learning from reward, or reinforcement learning, can be driven by two distinct computational processes. One involves habitual stamping-in of stimulus-response associations, hypothesized to arise computationally from 'model-free' learning. The other, 'model-based' learning, involves learning a model of the world that is believed to support goal-directed behaviour. Much work has pointed to a role for dopamine in model-free learning. But recent work suggests model-based learning may also involve dopamine modulation, raising the possibility that model-based learning may contribute to the learning impairment in Parkinson's disease. To directly test this, we used a two-step reward-learning task which dissociates model-free versus model-based learning. We evaluated learning in patients with Parkinson's disease tested ON versus OFF their dopamine replacement medication and in healthy controls. Surprisingly, we found no effect of disease or medication on model-free learning. Instead, we found that patients tested OFF medication showed a marked impairment in model-based learning, and that this impairment was remediated by dopaminergic medication. Moreover, model-based learning was positively correlated with a separate measure of working memory performance, raising the possibility of common neural substrates. Our results suggest that some learning deficits in Parkinson's disease may be related to an inability to pursue reward based on complete representations of the environment.

  17. Learning Action Models: Qualitative Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolander, T.; Gierasimczuk, N.; van der Hoek, W.; Holliday, W.H.; Wang, W.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite

  18. Intensity-dependent effects of repetitive anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on learning and memory in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuehong; Li, Yiyan; Wen, Huizhong; Zhang, Yinghui; Tian, Xuelong

    2015-09-01

    Single-session anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve the learning-memory function of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). After-effects of tDCS can be more significant if the stimulation is repeated regularly in a period. Here the behavioral and the histologic effects of the repetitive anodal tDCS on a rat model of AD were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups, the sham group, the β-amyloid (Aβ) group, the Aβ+20μA tDCS group, the Aβ+60μA tDCS group, the Aβ+100μA tDCS group and the Aβ+200μA tDCS group. Bilateral hippocampus of the rats in the Aβ group and the Aβ+tDCS groups were lesioned by Aβ1-40 to produce AD models. One day after drug injection, repetitive anodal tDCS (10 sessions in two weeks, 20min per session) was applied to the frontal cortex of the rats in the tDCS groups, while sham stimulation was applied to the Aβ group and the sham group. The spatial learning and memory capability of the rats were tested by Morris water maze. Bielschowsky's silver staining, Nissl's staining, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and glial-fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry of the hippocampus were conducted for histologic analysis. Results show in the Morris water maze task, rats in the Aβ+100μA and the Aβ+200μA tDCS groups had shorter escape latency and larger number of crossings on the platform. Significant histologic differences were observed in the Aβ+100μA and the Aβ+200μA tDCS groups compared to the Aβ group. The behavioral and the histological experiments indicate that the proposed repetitive anodal tDCS treatment can protect spatial learning and memory dysfunction of Aβ1-40-lesioned AD rats.

  19. Toward a Course Conversion Model for Distance Learning: A Review of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agustino, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current literature examining the design of effective online learning opportunities recommends an array of best practices but no agreed upon and unifying model. The purpose of this paper is to survey the existing research of effective design models for online learning in an attempt to identify best practices and present a new model.…

  20. Individual learning effects on knowledge transfer in international joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li Thuy; Napier, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines micro (individual-level) aspects of knowledge transfer and learning in international joint ventures in an emerging economy context. Learning by expatriate and local managers appears far more complex, mutually dependent, and significant to the knowledge transfer process than...... suggested in existing literature. Building upon conceptualizations of individual learning and cognitive – behavioural effects in an organisational context while drawing evidence from two cases of Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, we propose a model of individual-level knowledge transfer and learning...

  1. Learning Software Component Model for Online Tutoring

    OpenAIRE

    Duraiswamy, K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Web services are interface elements which allow applications to render functional services to requesting clients using open standard protocols. A lecture method combines both social association and urban processing as course design and delivery is termed as Interface Learning. Many Interface learning services is presenting through online. To make an online tutoring scheme more effective, the previous study used web services and application programs like instant messaging ba...

  2. Learning Quantum Chemical Model with Learning Media Concept Map and Power Point Viewed from Memory and Creativity Skills Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.

  3. E- Learning: An effective pedagogical tool for learning

    CERN Document Server

    Boumedyen,; Rafael,; Victor,

    2011-01-01

    In the info-tech age E-Methods of learning are becoming the most important vehicle in disseminating knowledge in higher education institutions. This sector is growing and changing at a rapid speed due to developments in technologies. But teaching is an art. Can there be fun learning with raw and dry technology? How can we make the best use of E- Methods, can we make the required information and data available to the students in a flexible manner, at ease all the time? What are the advantages of traditional methods of teaching and learning? Is E-learning a progressive stage incubating all the benefits of the Manual learning or it is only a window dressing on the face of advancement? Can we convert the boring, tedious subjects into interactive, monotony breaking joyous learning? In this paper the researchers have focused on the modernization of E- Pedagogy vis-a-vis the traditional method of learning. They have highlighted the effectiveness of using the E- learning elements and various E- Methods. This work has...

  4. Implications of the Situated Learning Model for Teaching and Learning Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieselman, Janet A.; Stark, Nola; Farruggia, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A situated learning model was applied in a workshop on nursing research in order to provide a multifaceted, engaging learning experience. Techniques used included stories, reflection, cognitive apprenticeship, collaboration, coaching, multiple practice, articulation of learning skills, and technology. (SK)

  5. A Conceptual Model of Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Epistemological Beliefs, and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale; Sungur, Semra

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed a conceptual model of relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (Personal Relevance, Uncertainty, Critical Voice, Shared Control, and Student Negotiation), scientific epistemological belief variables (fixed and tentative), and learning approach. It was proposed that learning environment…

  6. The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Poumay, M; Leclercq, D

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence

  7. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  8. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  9. The Aalborg Model and participant directed learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2009-01-01

    students. Teaching democracy should be promoted in lessons and curricula. Creating democratic learning systems in institutions of higher education could be the answer to reaching the aim related to democracy. The Aalborg Model practised at Aalborg University is a learning system which has collaborative...... democratic elements built into the model. This paper brings results from an online quantitative, questionnaire survey between nearly 200 engineering and science students in their second semester at Aalborg University. The main findings are: Nearly 85 percent of the respondent’s state that their group uses...

  10. A Bayesian Approach for Structural Learning with Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Li

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov Models(HMM have proved to be a successful modeling paradigm for dynamic and spatial processes in many domains, such as speech recognition, genomics, and general sequence alignment. Typically, in these applications, the model structures are predefined by domain experts. Therefore, the HMM learning problem focuses on the learning of the parameter values of the model to fit the given data sequences. However, when one considers other domains, such as, economics and physiology, model structure capturing the system dynamic behavior is not available. In order to successfully apply the HMM methodology in these domains, it is important that a mechanism is available for automatically deriving the model structure from the data. This paper presents a HMM learning procedure that simultaneously learns the model structure and the maximum likelihood parameter values of a HMM from data. The HMM model structures are derived based on the Bayesian model selection methodology. In addition, we introduce a new initialization procedure for HMM parameter value estimation based on the K-means clustering method. Experimental results with artificially generated data show the effectiveness of the approach.

  11. Improving Critical Thinking Skills of College Students through RMS Model for Learning Basic Concepts in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin, Ahmad; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) Examine the effect of RMS learning model towards critical thinking skills. 2) Examine the effect of different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. 3) Examine the effect of the interaction between RMS learning model and different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. The research…

  12. Improving Critical Thinking Skills of College Students through RMS Model for Learning Basic Concepts in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin, Ahmad; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) Examine the effect of RMS learning model towards critical thinking skills. 2) Examine the effect of different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. 3) Examine the effect of the interaction between RMS learning model and different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. The research…

  13. The Generative Learning Model and Its Implications for Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Roger; Wittrock, Merlin

    1985-01-01

    Suggesting that learning be considered as a generative process, attempts to: (1) place generative learning ideas in the context of other viewpoints of learning; (2) explicate key postulates of the generative learning model; and (3) examine implications of these theoretical ideas for teaching, learning, curriculum development, and research. (JN)

  14. Effect on English Output Competence by Exerting Lexical Chunks Ap-proach in Autonomous Learning Model Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅王星; 王艳荣

    2015-01-01

    English language skill is an important part of the comprehensive linguistic competence for college students. Especially the language output competence by students Autonomous Learning. During the 70s of the last century, Becker came up with the term and and later put forward his Lexical Chunks. Since then, it has been researched increasingly and paid more and more atten⁃tion to due to the fact that lexical chunks possess the features of both vocabulary and grammar. Teachers should exert lexical chunks approach, consciously raise students’awareness of lexical chunks, and design various instructional activities based on dif⁃ferent teaching contents to improve students’language output competence. In this paper, the author carries out an experiment on the college students from two classes of the same level in Grade one. And compared with the experimental class itself or with the control class, found the students in experimental class have made far greater progress in English speaking and writing.

  15. A New Profile Learning Model for Recommendation System based on Machine Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen H. Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems (RSs have been used to successfully address the information overload problem by providing personalized and targeted recommendations to the end users. RSs are software tools and techniques providing suggestions for items to be of use to a user, hence, they typically apply techniques and methodologies from Data Mining. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new user profile learning model to promote the recommendation accuracy of vertical recommendation systems. The proposed profile learning model employs the vertical classifier that has been used in multi classification module of the Intelligent Adaptive Vertical Recommendation (IAVR system to discover the user’s area of interest, and then build the user’s profile accordingly. Experimental results have proven the effectiveness of the proposed profile learning model, which accordingly will promote the recommendation accuracy.

  16. The effectiveness of the problem-based learning teaching model for use in introductory Chinese undergraduate medical courses: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqi Zhang

    Full Text Available Although the problem-based learning (PBL emerged in 1969 and was soon widely applied internationally, the rapid development in China only occurred in the last 10 years. This study aims to compare the effect of PBL and lecture-based learning (LBL on student course examination results for introductory Chinese undergraduate medical courses.Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trial studies on PBL use in Chinese undergraduate medical education were retrieved through PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP-CSTJ with publication dates from 1st January 1966 till 31 August 2014. The pass rate, excellence rate and examination scores of course examination were collected. Methodological quality was evaluated based on the modified Jadad scale. The I-square statistic and Chi-square test of heterogeneity were used to assess the statistical heterogeneity. Overall RRs or SMDs with their 95% CIs were calculated in meta-analysis. Meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses were also performed based on comparators and other confounding factors. Funnel plots and Egger's tests were performed to assess degrees of publication bias.The meta-analysis included 31studies and 4,699 subjects. Fourteen studies were of high quality with modified Jadad scores of 4 to 6, and 17 studies were of low quality with scores of 1 to 3. Relative to the LBL model, the PBL model yielded higher course examination pass rates [RR = 1.09, 95%CI (1.03, 1.17], excellence rates [RR = 1.66, 95%CI (1.33, 2.06] and examination scores [SMD = 0.82, 95%CI (0.63, 1.01]. The meta-regression results show that course type was the significant confounding factor that caused heterogeneity in the examination-score meta-analysis (t = 0.410, P<0.001. The examination score SMD in "laboratory course" subgroup [SMD = 2.01, 95% CI: (1.50, 2.52] was higher than that in "theory course" subgroup [SMD = 0

  17. The Effectiveness of the Problem-Based Learning Teaching Model for Use in Introductory Chinese Undergraduate Medical Courses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqi; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Ling; Wu, Yazhou; Zhao, Zengwei; Yi, Dali; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the problem-based learning (PBL) emerged in 1969 and was soon widely applied internationally, the rapid development in China only occurred in the last 10 years. This study aims to compare the effect of PBL and lecture-based learning (LBL) on student course examination results for introductory Chinese undergraduate medical courses. Methods Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trial studies on PBL use in Chinese undergraduate medical education were retrieved through PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP-CSTJ) with publication dates from 1st January 1966 till 31 August 2014. The pass rate, excellence rate and examination scores of course examination were collected. Methodological quality was evaluated based on the modified Jadad scale. The I-square statistic and Chi-square test of heterogeneity were used to assess the statistical heterogeneity. Overall RRs or SMDs with their 95% CIs were calculated in meta-analysis. Meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses were also performed based on comparators and other confounding factors. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests were performed to assess degrees of publication bias. Results The meta-analysis included 31studies and 4,699 subjects. Fourteen studies were of high quality with modified Jadad scores of 4 to 6, and 17 studies were of low quality with scores of 1 to 3. Relative to the LBL model, the PBL model yielded higher course examination pass rates [RR = 1.09, 95%CI (1.03, 1.17)], excellence rates [RR = 1.66, 95%CI (1.33, 2.06)] and examination scores [SMD = 0.82, 95%CI (0.63, 1.01)]. The meta-regression results show that course type was the significant confounding factor that caused heterogeneity in the examination-score meta-analysis (t = 0.410, Pteaching model application in introductory undergraduate medical courses can increase course examination excellence rates and scores in

  18. Modelling Benefits-Oriented Costs for Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of technology enhanced learning (TEL) methods changes the deployment of the most important resource in the education system: teachers' and learners' time. New technology promises greater personalization and greater productivity, but without careful modeling of the effects on the use of staff time, TEL methods can easily increase…

  19. Applying TSOI Hybrid Learning Model to Enhance Blended Learning Experience in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Mun Fie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research on the nature of blended learning and its features has led to a variety of approaches to the practice of blended learning. The purpose of this paper is to provide an alternative practice model, the TSOI hybrid learning model (HLM) to enhance the blended learning experiences in science education. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  20. Prototype-based models in machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of prototype-based models in machine learning. In this framework, observations, i.e., data, are stored in terms of typical representatives. Together with a suitable measure of similarity, the systems can be employed in the context of unsupervised and supervised analysis of poten

  1. Prototype-based models in machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of prototype-based models in machine learning. In this framework, observations, i.e., data, are stored in terms of typical representatives. Together with a suitable measure of similarity, the systems can be employed in the context of unsupervised and supervised analysis of

  2. School Improvement Model to Foster Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    Many classroom teachers are still using the traditional teaching methods. The traditional teaching methods are one-way learning process, where teachers would introduce subject contents such as language arts, English, mathematics, science, and reading separately. However, the school improvement model takes into account that all students have…

  3. A Storytelling Learning Model for Legal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Nicola; De Maio, Carmen; Gaeta, Angelo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Salerno, Saverio; Fratesi, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a learning model based on "Storytelling" and its application in the context of legal education helping build challenging training resources that explain, to common citizens with little or no background about legal topics, concepts related to "Legal Mediation" in general and in specific…

  4. Enhancing Learning Outcomes: The Internet Mirror Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The author redesigned an undergraduate physiology course using a novel Internet mirror model: parallel lecture and Internet-based sections conducted so that students can move freely from one to the other (or choose both) during the semester. Within the constraints of this paradigm, he used technology to enhance student learning: adding…

  5. Effects of observational learning on students' use of and attitude towards reading and learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniep, J.; Janssen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that observation can be effective for learning in various domains, for instance writing, reading and creative art work. By observing models at work, students may develop strategic knowledge and they may also change their conception of what the modeled skill involves. The

  6. Grade Level, Study Time, and Grade Retention and Their Effects on Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Mathematics Achievement: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Valle, António; González-Pienda, Julio; Lourenço, Abílio

    2013-01-01

    The present study complements previous research findings with new data to improve our understanding of the relationship between motivational variables and academic performance in math mediated by self-regulated learning (SRL). A structural equation model with predictor (i.e., grade retention, grade level, and study time), process (i.e., perceived…

  7. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  8. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Modeling human decision making... Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Report Title ABSTRACT Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with...an unknown automated opponent. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Roi Ceren Department of Computer Science

  9. The Aalborg Model and participant directed learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2009-01-01

    Preparing students for a life as active citizens in a democratic society is one of the aims within the Bologna process. The Council of Europe has also stressed the importance of focus on democracy in Higher Education. Higher Education is seen as important to develop a democratic culture among...... students. Teaching democracy should be promoted in lessons and curricula. Creating democratic learning systems in institutions of higher education could be the answer to reaching the aim related to democracy. The Aalborg Model practised at Aalborg University is a learning system which has collaborative...

  10. Bilevel Model-Based Discriminative Dictionary Learning for Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pan; Zhang, Chao; Lin, Zhouchen

    2017-03-01

    Most supervised dictionary learning methods optimize the combinations of reconstruction error, sparsity prior, and discriminative terms. Thus, the learnt dictionaries may not be optimal for recognition tasks. Also, the sparse codes learning models in the training and the testing phases are inconsistent. Besides, without utilizing the intrinsic data structure, many dictionary learning methods only employ the l0 or l1 norm to encode each datum independently, limiting the performance of the learnt dictionaries. We present a novel bilevel model-based discriminative dictionary learning method for recognition tasks. The upper level directly minimizes the classification error, while the lower level uses the sparsity term and the Laplacian term to characterize the intrinsic data structure. The lower level is subordinate to the upper level. Therefore, our model achieves an overall optimality for recognition in that the learnt dictionary is directly tailored for recognition. Moreover, the sparse codes learning models in the training and the testing phases can be the same. We further propose a novel method to solve our bilevel optimization problem. It first replaces the lower level with its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions and then applies the alternating direction method of multipliers to solve the equivalent problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  11. The Emergence of the Open Networked ``i-Learning'' Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Gianluca

    The most significant forces that are changing the business world and the society behaviors in this beginning of the twenty-first century can be identified into the globalization of the economy, technological evolution and convergence, change of the workers' expectations, workplace diversity and mobility, and mostly, knowledge and learning as major organizational assets. But which type of ­learning dynamics must be nurtured and pursued within the organizations, today, in order to generate valuable knowledge and its effective applications? After a brief discussion on the main changes observable in management, ICT and society/workplace in the last years, this chapter aims to answer to this question, through the proposition of the “Π-shaped” profile (a new professional archetype for leading change), and through the discussion of the open networked “i-Learning” model (a new framework to “incubate” innovation in learning processes). Actually, the “i” stands for “innovation” (to highlight the nature of the impact on traditional ­learning model), but also it stands for “incubation” (to underline the urgency to have new environments in which incubating new professional profiles). Specifically, the main key characteristics at the basis of the innovation of the learning processes will be ­presented and described, by highlighting the managerial, technological and societal aspects of their nature. A set of operational guidelines will be also ­provided to ­activate and sustain the innovation process, so implementing changes in the strategic dimensions of the model. Finally, the “i-Learning Radar” is presented as an operational tool to design, communicate and control an “i-Learning experience”. This tool is represented by a radar diagram with six strategic dimensions of a ­learning initiative.

  12. The effectiveness of e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    to the findings of the literature study. The study suggests that it is difficult to use e-Learning to improve teaching performance, as participating teachers can apply several strategies to avoid substantially changing their work-related practices. Furthermore, the study shows that only using the fulfilment......A structured search of library databases revealed that research examining the effectiveness of e-Learning has heavily increased within the last five years. After taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that previous researchers defined and investigated effectiveness...... in multiple ways. At the same time, learning and development professionals within public and private organisations are increasingly being asked to prove the effectiveness of their learning and development initiatives. This paper investigates the effectiveness of e-Learning through an integrative review...

  13. Support Vector Machine active learning for 3D model retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel Support Vector Machine active learning algorithm for effective 3D model retrieval using the concept of relevance feedback. The proposed method learns from the most informative objects which are marked by the user, and then creates a boundary separating the relevant models from irrelevant ones. What it needs is only a small number of 3D models labelled by the user. It can grasp the user's semantic knowledge rapidly and accurately. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the retrieval effectiveness. Compared with four state-of-the-art query refinement schemes for 3D model retrieval, it provides superior retrieval performance after no more than two rounds of relevance feedback.

  14. Synthetic Modeling of Autonomous Learning with a Chaotic Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Masatoshi

    We investigate the possible role of intermittent chaotic dynamics called chaotic itinerancy, in interaction with nonsupervised learnings that reinforce and weaken the neural connection depending on the dynamics itself. We first performed hierarchical stability analysis of the Chaotic Neural Network model (CNN) according to the structure of invariant subspaces. Irregular transition between two attractor ruins with positive maximum Lyapunov exponent was triggered by the blowout bifurcation of the attractor spaces, and was associated with riddled basins structure. We secondly modeled two autonomous learnings, Hebbian learning and spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rule, and simulated the effect on the chaotic itinerancy state of CNN. Hebbian learning increased the residence time on attractor ruins, and produced novel attractors in the minimum higher-dimensional subspace. It also augmented the neuronal synchrony and established the uniform modularity in chaotic itinerancy. STDP rule reduced the residence time on attractor ruins, and brought a wide range of periodicity in emerged attractors, possibly including strange attractors. Both learning rules selectively destroyed and preserved the specific invariant subspaces, depending on the neuron synchrony of the subspace where the orbits are situated. Computational rationale of the autonomous learning is discussed in connectionist perspective.

  15. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Sözcü

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training and developing e-learning projects as well as multimedia design tools. For this reason, this paper will clarify the basic e-learning development techniques, such as ID processes, and the present innovative multimedia design models in addition to traditional instruction design models. In this approach, rapid course development techniques were presented and considered as other ways of e-learning design techniques, such as job training, rapid synchronous e-learning, rapid asynchronous e-learning and online learning with multimedia design models. In the literature, developments in and considerations of multimedia learning are scrutinized. To design effective, efficient and engaging multimedia learning environments, instructional and meaningful e-learning models, which can be defined as integrated e-learning and multimedia projects design models, were developed and discussed. In this paper, firstly, rapid e-learning training development strategies and their characteristics are defined. Secondly, ID systems’ stages are presented as a generic model that includes several phases, such as analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. In this process, these ID phases were adapted into e-learning and multimedia learning design by using ID models and approaches. As a result, the paper is based on research findings and resources in the field of instructional technologies and e-learning design tools for multimedia learning in order to indicate rapid instructional development strategies more effectively.

  16. Culture in Transition: A learning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan

    2010-01-01

    of spare capacity, desire, focus, and information. By integrating the element of culture, both in the organizational sense and that pertaining to diversity, otherwise overseen aspects of transition are brought into view, with the potential of reducing stress and increasing job satisfaction. The model......This paper addresses the problem of resistance to attempted changes in organizational culture, particularly those involving diversity, by 1) identifying precisely what is meant by organizational as opposed to societal culture, 2) developing a theoretical model of learning useful in contexts...... of organizational transition, and 3) demonstrating the efficacy of the model by using it to explain empirical research findings. It is argued that learning new cultural currency involves the use of active intelligence to locate and answer relevant questions, and further that this process requires the interplay...

  17. Temporal-pattern learning in neural models

    CERN Document Server

    Genís, Carme Torras

    1985-01-01

    While the ability of animals to learn rhythms is an unquestionable fact, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still no more than conjectures. This monograph explores the requirements of such mechanisms, reviews those previously proposed and postulates a new one based on a direct electric coding of stimulation frequencies. Experi­ mental support for the option taken is provided both at the single neuron and neural network levels. More specifically, the material presented divides naturally into four parts: a description of the experimental and theoretical framework where this work becomes meaningful (Chapter 2), a detailed specifica­ tion of the pacemaker neuron model proposed together with its valida­ tion through simulation (Chapter 3), an analytic study of the behavior of this model when submitted to rhythmic stimulation (Chapter 4) and a description of the neural network model proposed for learning, together with an analysis of the simulation results obtained when varying seve­ ral factors r...

  18. Coaching Model + Clinical Playbook = Transformative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Katherine A; Meyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Health care employers demand that workers be skilled in clinical reasoning, able to work within complex interprofessional teams to provide safe, quality patient-centered care in a complex evolving system. To this end, there have been calls for radical transformation of nursing education including the development of a baccalaureate generalist nurse. Based on recommendations from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, faculty concluded that clinical education must change moving beyond direct patient care by applying the concepts associated with designer, manager, and coordinator of care and being a member of a profession. To accomplish this, the faculty utilized a system of focused learning assignments (FLAs) that present transformative learning opportunities that expose students to "disorienting dilemmas," alternative perspectives, and repeated opportunities to reflect and challenge their own beliefs. The FLAs collected in a "Playbook" were scaffolded to build the student's competencies over the course of the clinical experience. The FLAs were centered on the 6 Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies, with 2 additional concepts of professionalism and systems-based practice. The FLAs were competency-based exercises that students performed when not assigned to direct patient care or had free clinical time. Each FLA had a lesson plan that allowed the student and faculty member to see the competency addressed by the lesson, resources, time on task, student instructions, guide for reflection, grading rubric, and recommendations for clinical instructor. The major advantages of the model included (a) consistent implementation of structured learning experiences by a diverse teaching staff using a coaching model of instruction; (b) more systematic approach to present learning activities that build upon each other; (c) increased time for faculty to interact with students providing direct patient care; (d) guaranteed capture of selected transformative

  19. A Multidimensional/Non-Linear Teaching and Learning Model: Teaching and Learning Music in an Authentic and Holistic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual framework that leads to the design of a teaching and learning model as part of a recent ethnographic study that considered the effectiveness of current Victorian government secondary school music teaching and learning practices when engaged with technology. The philosophical and theoretical basis for this…

  20. ``Learning to Research'' in a Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study on the Effectiveness of a Socio-constructivist Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, C.; Fernández-Pampillón, A.; de-Miguel, E.; Pita, G.

    Learning is the basis for research and lifelong training. The implementation of virtual environments for developing this competency requires the use of effective learning models. In this study we present an experiment in positive learning from the virtual campus of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). In order to carry it out we have used E-Ling, an e-learning environment that has been developed with an innovative didactic design based on a socio-constructivist learning approach. E-Ling has been used since 2006 to train future teachers and researchers in “learning to research”. Some of the results of this experiment have been statistically analysed in order to compare them with other learning models. From the obtained results we have concluded that E-Ling is a more productive proposal for developing competences in learning to research.

  1. Social learning in Models and Cases - an Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Johannes; De Cian, Enrica; Carrara, Samuel; Monetti, Silvia; Berg, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Our paper follows an interdisciplinary understanding of social learning. We contribute to the literature on social learning in transition research by bridging case-oriented research and modelling-oriented transition research. We start by describing selected theories on social learning in innovation, diffusion and transition research. We present theoretical understandings of social learning in techno-economic and agent-based modelling. Then we elaborate on empirical research on social learning in transition case studies. We identify and synthetize key dimensions of social learning in transition case studies. In the following we bridge between more formal and generalising modelling approaches towards social learning processes and more descriptive, individualising case study approaches by interpreting the case study analysis into a visual guide on functional forms of social learning typically identified in the cases. We then try to exemplarily vary functional forms of social learning in integrated assessment models. We conclude by drawing the lessons learned from the interdisciplinary approach - methodologically and empirically.

  2. Broad Learning System: An Effective and Efficient Incremental Learning System Without the Need for Deep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin

    2017-07-21

    Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.

  3. Effects of Collaborative Learning Styles on Performance of Students in a Ubiquitous Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakomogbon, Michael Ayodele; Bolaji, Hameed Olalekan

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning is an approach employed by instructors to facilitate learning and improve learner's performance. Mobile learning can accommodate a variety of learning approaches. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of collaborative learning styles on performance of students in a mobile learning environment. The specific purposes…

  4. Effects of Teaching and Learning Styles on Students' Reflection Levels for Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Jang, Yu-Ruei; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous learning (u-learning), in conjunction with supports from the digital world, is recognized as an effective approach for situating students in real-world learning environments. Earlier studies concerning u-learning have mainly focused on investigating the learning attitudes and learning achievements of students, while the causations such…

  5. Effects of Teaching and Learning Styles on Students' Reflection Levels for Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Jang, Yu-Ruei; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous learning (u-learning), in conjunction with supports from the digital world, is recognized as an effective approach for situating students in real-world learning environments. Earlier studies concerning u-learning have mainly focused on investigating the learning attitudes and learning achievements of students, while the causations such…

  6. Learning Environments Designed According to Learning Styles and Its Effects on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerem, Aysen; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: While designing a learning environment it is vital to think about learner characteristics (learning styles, approaches, motivation, interests… etc.) in order to promote effective learning. The learning environment and learning process should be designed not to enable students to learn in the same manner and at the same level,…

  7. Effect of GIS Learning on Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…

  8. Conditions for effective smart learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Reference: Koper, E.J.R. (2014) Conditions for effective smart learning environments. Smart Learning Environments,1(5), 1-17. http://www.slejournal.com/content/1/1/5/abstract doi:10.1186/s40561-014-0005-4

  9. A workflow learning model to improve geovisual analytics utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert E; Maceachren, Alan M; McCabe, Craig A

    2009-01-01

    the concept of scientific workflows. Second, we implemented an interface in the G-EX Portal Learn Module to demonstrate the workflow learning model. The workflow interface allows users to drag learning artifacts uploaded to the G-EX Portal onto a central whiteboard and then annotate the workflow using text and drawing tools. Once completed, users can visit the assembled workflow to get an idea of the kind, number, and scale of analysis steps, view individual learning artifacts associated with each node in the workflow, and ask questions about the overall workflow or individual learning artifacts through the associated forums. An example learning workflow in the domain of epidemiology is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: In the context of geovisual analytics, GIScientists are not only responsible for developing software to facilitate visually-mediated reasoning about large and complex spatiotemporal information, but also for ensuring that this software works. The workflow learning model discussed in this paper and demonstrated in the G-EX Portal Learn Module is one approach to improving the utility of geovisual analytics software. While development of the G-EX Portal Learn Module is ongoing, we expect to release the G-EX Portal Learn Module by Summer 2009.

  10. Service Learning In Physics: The Consultant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, David

    2005-04-01

    Each year thousands of students across the country and across the academic disciplines participate in service learning. Unfortunately, with no clear model for integrating community service into the physics curriculum, there are very few physics students engaged in service learning. To overcome this shortfall, a consultant based service-learning program has been developed and successfully implemented at Saint Anselm College (SAC). As consultants, students in upper level physics courses apply their problem solving skills in the service of others. Most recently, SAC students provided technical and managerial support to a group from Girl's Inc., a national empowerment program for girls in high-risk, underserved areas, who were participating in the national FIRST Lego League Robotics competition. In their role as consultants the SAC students provided technical information through brainstorming sessions and helped the girls stay on task with project management techniques, like milestone charting. This consultant model of service-learning, provides technical support to groups that may not have a great deal of resources and gives physics students a way to improve their interpersonal skills, test their technical expertise, and better define the marketable skill set they are developing through the physics curriculum.

  11. A Model of Inductive Bias Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, J

    2011-01-01

    A major problem in machine learning is that of inductive bias: how to choose a learner's hypothesis space so that it is large enough to contain a solution to the problem being learnt, yet small enough to ensure reliable generalization from reasonably-sized training sets. Typically such bias is supplied by hand through the skill and insights of experts. In this paper a model for automatically learning bias is investigated. The central assumption of the model is that the learner is embedded within an environment of related learning tasks. Within such an environment the learner can sample from multiple tasks, and hence it can search for a hypothesis space that contains good solutions to many of the problems in the environment. Under certain restrictions on the set of all hypothesis spaces available to the learner, we show that a hypothesis space that performs well on a sufficiently large number of training tasks will also perform well when learning novel tasks in the same environment. Explicit bounds are also de...

  12. [Improvement of genetics teaching using literature-based learning model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Shiqian, Liang; Hongyan, Qin; Yong, Ji; Hua, Han

    2015-06-01

    Genetics is one of the most important courses for undergraduate students majoring in life science. In recent years, new knowledge and technologies are continually updated with deeper understanding of life science. However, the teaching model of genetics is still based on theoretical instruction, which makes the abstract principles hard to understand by students and directly affects the teaching effect. Thus, exploring a new teaching model is necessary. We have carried out a new teaching model, literature-based learning, in the course on Microbial Genetics for undergraduate students majoring in biotechnology since 2010. Here we comprehensively analyzed the implementation and application value of this model including pre-course knowledge, how to choose professional literature, how to organize teaching process and the significance of developing this new teaching model for students and teachers. Our literature-based learning model reflects the combination of "cutting-edge" and "classic" and makes book knowledge easy to understand, which improves students' learning effect, stimulates their interests, expands their perspectives and develops their ability. This practice provides novel insight into exploring new teaching model of genetics and cultivating medical talents capable of doing both basic and clinical research in the "precision medicine" era.

  13. Online Learning of Industrial Manipulators' Dynamics Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polydoros, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    The robotics industry has introduced light-weight compliant manipulators to increase the safety during human-robot interaction. This characteristic is achieved by replacing the stiff actuators of the traditional robots with compliant ones which creates challenges in the analytical derivation...... of the dynamics models. Those mainly derive from physics-based methods and thus they are based on physical properties which are hard to be calculated.  In this thesis, is presented, a novel online machine learning approach  which is able to model both inverse and forward dynamics models of industrial manipulators...

  14. Quasilinear Extreme Learning Machine Model Based Internal Model Control for Nonlinear Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for internal model control (IMC is proposed using a regression algorithm of quasilinear model with extreme learning machine (QL-ELM. Aimed at the chemical process with nonlinearity, the learning process of the internal model and inverse model is derived. The proposed QL-ELM is constructed as a linear ARX model with a complicated nonlinear coefficient. It shows some good approximation ability and fast convergence. The complicated coefficients are separated into two parts. The linear part is determined by recursive least square (RLS, while the nonlinear part is identified through extreme learning machine. The parameters of linear part and the output weights of ELM are estimated iteratively. The proposed internal model control is applied to CSTR process. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are extensively verified through numerical results.

  15. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  16. An ART neural network model of discrimination shift learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Coffey, E.; Stevenson, C.; Winkel, J.; Berkeljon, A.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present an ART-based neural network model (adapted from [2]) of the development of discrimination-shift learning that models the trial-by-trial learning process in great detail. In agreement with the results of human participants (4-20 years of age) in [1] the model revealed two distinct learning

  17. Antiamnesic Effect of Actinidia arguta Extract Intake in a Mouse Model of TMT-Induced Learning and Memory Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Su Ha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from Actinidia arguta (EFAA on trimethyltin- (TMT- induced memory impairment were investigated to find the possibility of functional food substances. EFAA showed a potent AChE inhibitory effect (IC50 = 53 μg/mL and efficient neuroprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The administration of EFAA significantly decreased TMT-induced cognitive deficit in Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM tests. After the behavioral tests, the antioxidant activities were confirmed using mice brain tissues. EFAA not only showed the inhibition of AChE activity and the decline of malondialdehyde (MDA level as a sign of lipid peroxidation but also presented the increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD level and the decrease of the oxidized glutathione (GSSG/total glutathione (GSH + GSSG ratio. Finally, the phenolics in EFAA were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry, and four main phenolics, such as quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoyl hexose, and quercetin-3-glucoside, were identified. These results suggest that EFAA containing physiological phenolics might enhance drug-induced amnesia through AChE inhibition and neuroprotection.

  18. Applying MDL to Learning Best Model Granularity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Q; Vitanyi, P; Gao, Qiong; Li, Ming; Vitanyi, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle is solidly based on a provably ideal method of inference using Kolmogorov complexity. We test how the theory behaves in practice on a general problem in model selection: that of learning the best model granularity. The performance of a model depends critically on the granularity, for example the choice of precision of the parameters. Too high precision generally involves modeling of accidental noise and too low precision may lead to confusion of models that should be distinguished. This precision is often determined ad hoc. In MDL the best model is the one that most compresses a two-part code of the data set: this embodies ``Occam's Razor.'' In two quite different experimental settings the theoretical value determined using MDL coincides with the best value found experimentally. In the first experiment the task is to recognize isolated handwritten characters in one subject's handwriting, irrespective of size and orientation. Based on a new modification of elastic...

  19. A Cultural Model of Learning: Chinese "Heart and Mind for Wanting T Learn."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin

    2002-01-01

    Examined the Chinese model of learning using the Chinese term, "hao-xue-xin" (heart and mind for wanting to learn.) College students described ideal learners. They considered learning a process of moral striving (self-perfection) that stressed seeking knowledge and cultivating passion for lifelong learning, fostering diligence, enduring…

  20. Designing for Learning and Play - The Smiley Model as Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for designing engaging learning experiences in games – the Smiley Model. In this Design-Based Research project, student-game-designers were learning inside a gamified learning design - while designing and implementing learning goals from curriculum into the small...... digital games. The Smiley Model inspired and provided a scaffold or a heuristic for the overall gamified learning design –- as well as for the students’ learning game design processes when creating small games turning the learning situation into an engaging experience. The audience for the experiments...

  1. Enriching the Student Experience Through a Collaborative Cultural Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInally, Wendy; Metcalfe, Sharon; Garner, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a knowledge and understanding of an international, collaborative, cultural learning model for students from the United States and Scotland. Internationalizing the student experience has been instrumental for student learning for the past eight years. Both countries have developed programs that have enriched and enhanced the overall student learning experience, mainly through the sharing of evidence-based care in both hospital and community settings. Student learning is at the heart of this international model, and through practice learning, leadership, and reflective practice, student immersion in global health care and practice is immense. Moving forward, we are seeking new opportunities to explore learning partnerships to provide this collaborative cultural learning experience.

  2. Models of Integrating Content and Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaying Howard

    2006-01-01

    Content-based instruction has become increasingly recognized as a means of developing both linguistic and content ability. Drawing on educational practices at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, this paper analyzes conditions that encourage the integration of language and content learning, presents various content-based instructional models-including those that have been developed at the Monterey Institute, and examines the decisionmaking process of selecting...

  3. Designing for Learning and Play - The Smiley Model as Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for designing engaging learning experiences in games – the Smiley Model. In this Design-Based Research project, student-game-designers were learning inside a gamified learning design - while designing and implementing learning goals from curriculum into the small d...

  4. Learning to grasp and extract affordances: the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The activity of certain parietal neurons has been interpreted as encoding affordances (directly perceivable opportunities) for grasping. Separate computational models have been developed for infant grasp learning and affordance learning, but no single model has yet combined these processes in a neurobiologically plausible way. We present the Integrated Learning of Grasps and Affordances (ILGA) model that simultaneously learns grasp affordances from visual object features and motor parameters for planning grasps using trial-and-error reinforcement learning. As in the Infant Learning to Grasp Model, we model a stage of infant development prior to the onset of sophisticated visual processing of hand-object relations, but we assume that certain premotor neurons activate neural populations in primary motor cortex that synergistically control different combinations of fingers. The ILGA model is able to extract affordance representations from visual object features, learn motor parameters for generating stable grasps, and generalize its learned representations to novel objects.

  5. Language learning apps or games: an investigation utilizing the RETAIN model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda A. Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Combining games with mobile devices can promote learning opportunities at the learners' fingertips and enable ubiquitous learning experiences. As teachers increasingly assign games to reinforce language learning, it becomes essential to evaluate how effective these applications are in helping students learn the content or develop the skills that the games are reinforcing. This article examines two English language learning apps under the RETAIN model (GUNTER; KENNY; VICK, 2008. The findings indicate that although these apps offer some language learning opportunities, they do not present scenario-based quality or gameplay, among other elements, if they are to be considered games.

  6. Design and Implementation of Mobile Blended Learning Model Based on WeChat Public Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yanyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Merging together the ideas of mobile learning, blended learning and flipped classroom, a Mobile Blended Learning Model (MBLM is constructed. Based on WeChat Public Platform (WPP, MBLM can optimize the instructional process and improve the learning efficiency. A Mobile Blended Learning System(MBLS is implemented by using MBLM, and it is constructed by both WPP and auxiliary learning system which based on Java Web. This system has reasonable designed function, easy operation, and beautiful interface, so it can effectively promote the popularization of MBLM.

  7. Intelligent Learning Environments wthin Blended Learning for Ensuring Effective C Programming Course

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a blended learning implementation and experience supported with intelligent learning environments included in a learning management system (LMS) called @KU-UZEM. The blended learning model is realized as a combination of face to face education and e-learning. The intelligent learning environments consist of two applications named CTutor, ITest. In addition to standard e-learning tools, students can use CTutor to resolve C programming exercises. CTutor is a ...

  8. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  9. A model for incorporating patient and stakeholder voices in a learning health care network: Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Edwards, Todd C; Farrokhi, Ellen T; Kessler, Larry; Lavallee, Danielle C; Patrick, Donald L; Sullivan, Sean D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Yanez, N David; Flum, David R

    2013-08-01

    To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive with noninvasive treatments for peripheral artery disease, and to focus on the patient centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual framework for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). The peripheral artery disease study was selected because of clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient centeredness is achieved through the "Patient Voices Project," a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the study. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms, the latter developed with input from the patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3-6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, thereby returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. The CERTAIN's inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a learning health care network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media for instrumental analytical chemistry lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurweni, Wibawa, Basuki; Erwin, Tuti Nurian

    2017-08-01

    The framework for teaching and learning in the 21st century was prepared with 4Cs criteria. Learning providing opportunity for the development of students' optimal creative skills is by implementing collaborative learning. Learners are challenged to be able to compete, work independently to bring either individual or group excellence and master the learning material. Virtual laboratory is used for the media of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry (Vis, UV-Vis-AAS etc) lectures through simulations computer application and used as a substitution for the laboratory if the equipment and instruments are not available. This research aims to design and develop collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media for Instrumental Analytical Chemistry lectures, to know the effectiveness of this design model adapting the Dick & Carey's model and Hannafin & Peck's model. The development steps of this model are: needs analyze, design collaborative-creative learning, virtual laboratory media using macromedia flash, formative evaluation and test of learning model effectiveness. While, the development stages of collaborative-creative learning model are: apperception, exploration, collaboration, creation, evaluation, feedback. Development of collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media can be used to improve the quality learning in the classroom, overcome the limitation of lab instruments for the real instrumental analysis. Formative test results show that the Collaborative-Creative Learning Model developed meets the requirements. The effectiveness test of students' pretest and posttest proves significant at 95% confidence level, t-test higher than t-table. It can be concluded that this learning model is effective to use for Instrumental Analytical Chemistry lectures.

  11. Learning Objects Reusability Effectiveness Metric (LOREM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torky Ibrahim Sultan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research we aim to propose an advanced metric to evaluate the effectiveness of learning objects in order to be reused in new contexts. By the way learning objects reusability is achieving economic benefits from educational technology as it saving time and improving quality, but in case of choosing unsuitable learning object it may be less benefit than creating the learning object from scratch. Actually learning objects reusability can facilitate systems development and adaptation. By surveying the current evaluation metrics, we found that while they cover essential aspects, they enables all reviewers of learning objects to evaluate all criteria without paying attention to their roles in creating the learning object which affect their capability to evaluate specific criteria. Our proposed Approach (LOREM is evaluating learning objects based on a group of Aspects which measure their level of effectiveness in order to be reused in other contexts. LOREM classifies reviewers into 3 categories; 1. Academic Group: (Subject Expert Matter “SME” and Instructor. 2. Technical Group: (Instructional Designer “ID”, LO Developer and LO Designer. 3. Students group. The authorization of reviewers in these several categories are differentiated according to reviewer's type, e.g., (Instructor, LO Developer and their area of expert (their expertise subjects for academic and students reviewers.

  12. Models of Integrating Content and Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Howard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Content-based instruction has become increasingly recognized as a means of developing both linguistic and content ability. Drawing on educational practices at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, this paper analyzes conditions that encourage the integration of language and content learning, presents various content-based instructional models-including those that have been developed at the Monterey Institute, and examines the decisionmaking process of selecting a content-based instructional model for a particular educational setting. Discussions center on making decisions that are most likely to accelerate the growth of foreign language proficiency and the acquisition of content knowledge.

  13. Flipped classroom model for learning evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucker SY

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sydney Y Rucker,1 Zulfukar Ozdogan,1 Morhaf Al Achkar2 1School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Journal club (JC, as a pedagogical strategy, has long been used in graduate medical education (GME. As evidence-based medicine (EBM becomes a mainstay in GME, traditional models of JC present a number of insufficiencies and call for novel models of instruction. A flipped classroom model appears to be an ideal strategy to meet the demands to connect evidence to practice while creating engaged, culturally competent, and technologically literate physicians. In this article, we describe a novel model of flipped classroom in JC. We present the flow of learning activities during the online and face-to-face instruction, and then we highlight specific considerations for implementing a flipped classroom model. We show that implementing a flipped classroom model to teach EBM in a residency program not only is possible but also may constitute improved learning opportunity for residents. Follow-up work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this model on both learning and clinical practice. Keywords: evidence-based medicine, flipped classroom, residency education

  14. The Effect of Flipped Learning (Revised Learning) on Iranian Students' Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Malahat; Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the flipped (revised) learning had effect on student learning outcome. Lage et al (2000) describes the flipped classroom as " Inverting the classroom means that events that have traditionally take place inside the classroom now take place outside the class and vice versa" (p.32). The…

  15. Bio-Inspired Neural Model for Learning Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan; Duong, Vu; Suri, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A neural-network mathematical model that, relative to prior such models, places greater emphasis on some of the temporal aspects of real neural physical processes, has been proposed as a basis for massively parallel, distributed algorithms that learn dynamic models of possibly complex external processes by means of learning rules that are local in space and time. The algorithms could be made to perform such functions as recognition and prediction of words in speech and of objects depicted in video images. The approach embodied in this model is said to be "hardware-friendly" in the following sense: The algorithms would be amenable to execution by special-purpose computers implemented as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits that would operate at relatively high speeds and low power demands.

  16. [Connectionist models of social learning: a case of learning by observing a simple task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paignon, A; Desrichard, O; Bollon, T

    2004-03-01

    alone is not sufficient to ensure accurate reproduction and must be made functional through the production phase (Deakin & Proteau, 2000). Results obtained through a second simulation replicate those produced by Bandura & Jeffery (1973), who observed that the individual tested following the retention phase recalled recorded information better than he realized in the production phase. The outcome of a third simulation shows that, when performing the transfer task, agents performed the task all the more effectively when they were required to learn a simple path which facilitated knowledge transfer to an adjacent situation. New explanatory assumptions of the mechanics of learning through observation may be produced through OLEANNet. Thus, observed deterioration between memorization and production is caused by successive approximations which occur in the acquisition phase then in the production phase. Further, depending on the type of learning undergone by agents, use of representation as a production guide induces a more or less stringent constraint in the approximation of actual behaviour. This results, during the transfer task, in the ability to effectively generalize acquired knowledge where such knowledge is not specifically related to the task at hand. In conclusion, connectionist model architecture appears valid for modeling learning through observation as defined by Bandura (1977). However, certain limitations appear during implementation, especially in terms of the observed behaviour's availability and the planning of produced behaviours that future developments are liable to counter.

  17. The effect of testing on skills learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten L; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In addition to the extrinsic effects of assessment and examinations on students' study habits, testing can have an intrinsic effect on the memory of studied material. Whether this testing effect also applies to skills learning is not known. However, this is especially interesting...... in view of the need to maximise learning outcomes from costly simulation-based courses. This study was conducted to determine whether testing as the final activity in a skills course increases learning outcome compared with an equal amount of time spent practising the skill. METHODS: We carried out...... = 41; mean score 82.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4-86.2) compared with the control group (n = 40; mean score 73.3%, 95% CI 70.5-76.1) (P skills course for medical students increases learning outcome...

  18. Surveying and Modeling Students' Motivation and Learning Strategies for Mobile-Assisted Seamless Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Seamless language learning promises to be an effective learning approach that addresses the limitations of classroom-only language learning. It leverages mobile technologies to facilitate holistic and perpetual learning experiences that bridge different locations, times, technologies or social settings. Despite the emergence of studies on seamless…

  19. The Learning-Teaching Nexus: Modelling the Learning-Teaching Relationship in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knewstubb, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    The teaching-learning relationship is often described as a conversation. However, many models of teaching and learning depict the worlds of teacher and learner as enclosed and inaccessible, linked by apparently transferred communicative meanings. A new interdisciplinary learning-teaching nexus (LTN) model combines perspectives from higher…

  20. Adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in adaptive e-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailović Đorđe; Despotović-Zrakić Marijana; Bogdanović Zorica; Barać Dušan; Vujin Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in development of adaptive e-learning systems. Main goal of the paper is to improve the existing e-learning courses by developing a method for adaptation based on learning styles. The proposed method includes analysis of data related to students characteristics and applying the concept of personalization in creating e-learning courses. The research has been conducted at Faculty of organi...

  1. Tool Support for Collaborative Teaching and Learning of Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Ratzer, Anne Vinter

    2002-01-01

    Modeling is central to doing and learning object-oriented development. We present a new tool, Ideogramic UML, for gesture-based collaborative modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which can be used to collaboratively teach and learn modeling. Furthermore, we discuss how we have...... effectively used Ideogramic UML to teach object-oriented modeling and the UML to groups of students using the UML for project assignments....

  2. An entropy model for artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Pothos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed to characterize the type of knowledge acquired in Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL. In particular, Shannon entropy is employed to compute the complexity of different test items in an AGL task, relative to the training items. According to this model, the more predictable a test item is from the training items, the more likely it is that this item should be selected as compatible with the training items. The predictions of the entropy model are explored in relation to the results from several previous AGL datasets and compared to other AGL measures. This particular approach in AGL resonates well with similar models in categorization and reasoning which also postulate that cognitive processing is geared towards the reduction of entropy.

  3. A Judgement-Based Model of Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasou, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a judgement-based model of adult learning. This approach is set out as a Perceptual-Judgemental-Reinforcement approach to social learning under conditions of complexity and where there is no single, clearly identified correct response. The model builds upon the Hager-Halliday thesis of workplace learning and…

  4. Examining Asymmetrical Relationships of Organizational Learning Antecedents: A Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ery Tri Djatmika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Global era is characterized by highly competitive advantage market demand. Responding to the challenge of rapid environmental changes, organizational learning is becoming a strategic way and solution to empower people themselves within the organization in order to create a novelty as valuable positioning source. For research purposes, determining the influential antecedents that affect organizational learning is vital to understand research-based solutions given for practical implications. Accordingly, identification of variables examined by asymmetrical relationships is critical to establish. Possible antecedent variables come from organizational and personal point of views. It is also possible to include a moderating one. A proposed theoretical model of asymmetrical effects of organizational learning and its antecedents is discussed in this article.

  5. College English Students’ Autonomous Learning Motivation and Cultivation Model Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳荣; 李娥

    2015-01-01

    Studying the autonomous learning motivation and excitation model can stimulate intrinsic motivation of foreign language learners,develop students self-management strategy evaluation are very necessary.The purpose of this paper is to give students the skills of listening and speaking for their autonomous learning.Then study the cultivation and motivation of college English students autonomous learning,hoping to make students to learn autonomous learning and stimulate their motivation fully.

  6. The Relationship between Shared Mental Models and Task Performance in an Online Team- Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tristan E.; Lee, Youngmin

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to better understand learning teams, this study examines the effects of shared mental models on team and individual performance. The results indicate that each team's shared mental model changed significantly over the time that subjects participated in team-based learning activities. The results also showed that the shared mental…

  7. Developing the Mathematics Learning Management Model for Improving Creative Thinking in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwongchai, Arunee; Jantharajit, Nirat; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The study purposes were: 1) To study current states and problems of relevant secondary students in developing mathematics learning management model for improving creative thinking, 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of model about: a) efficiency of learning process, b) comparisons of pretest and posttest on creative thinking and achievement of…

  8. Spatial Learning: Conditions and Basic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D. Chamizo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the spatial and the temporal domains seem to share the same or similar conditions, basic effects, and mechanisms. The blocking, unblocking and overshadowing experiments (and also those of latent inhibition and perceptual learning reviewed by Prados and Redhead in this issue show that to exclude associative learning as a basic mechanism responsible for spatial learning is quite inappropriate. All these results, especially those obtained with strictly spatial tasks, seem inconsistent with O’Keefe and Nadel’s account of true spatial learning or locale learning. Their theory claims that this kind of learning is fundamentally different and develops with total independence from other ways of learning (like classical and instrumental conditioning -taxon learning. In fact, the results reviewed can be explained appealing on to a sophisticated guidance system, like for example the one proposed by Leonard and McNaughton (1990; see also McNaughton and cols, 1996. Such a system would allow that an animal generates new space information: given the distance and address from of A to B and from A to C, being able to infer the distance and the address from B to C, even when C is invisible from B (see Chapuis and Varlet, 1987 -the contribution by McLaren in this issue constitutes a good example of a sophisticated guidance system.

  9. The Estimated Effects of Service Learning on Students' Intercultural Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgo, Cindy A.

    2015-01-01

    As the higher education landscape continues to diversify, intercultural effectiveness comes to the forefront among important outcomes for students. Service learning is one programmatic tool that institutions of higher education can use to foster the development of intercultural effectiveness. This study provides evidence that service learning is…

  10. A multiplicative reinforcement learning model capturing learning dynamics and interindividual variability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathellier, Brice; Tee, Sui Poh; Hrovat, Christina; Rumpel, Simon

    2013-12-03

    Both in humans and in animals, different individuals may learn the same task with strikingly different speeds; however, the sources of this variability remain elusive. In standard learning models, interindividual variability is often explained by variations of the learning rate, a parameter indicating how much synapses are updated on each learning event. Here, we theoretically show that the initial connectivity between the neurons involved in learning a task is also a strong determinant of how quickly the task is learned, provided that connections are updated in a multiplicative manner. To experimentally test this idea, we trained mice to perform an auditory Go/NoGo discrimination task followed by a reversal to compare learning speed when starting from naive or already trained synaptic connections. All mice learned the initial task, but often displayed sigmoid-like learning curves, with a variable delay period followed by a steep increase in performance, as often observed in operant conditioning. For all mice, learning was much faster in the subsequent reversal training. An accurate fit of all learning curves could be obtained with a reinforcement learning model endowed with a multiplicative learning rule, but not with an additive rule. Surprisingly, the multiplicative model could explain a large fraction of the interindividual variability by variations in the initial synaptic weights. Altogether, these results demonstrate the power of multiplicative learning rules to account for the full dynamics of biological learning and suggest an important role of initial wiring in the brain for predispositions to different tasks.

  11. Learning reliable manipulation strategies without initial physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Alan D.; Mason, Matthew T.; Mitchell, Tom M.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of a robot, possessing limited sensory and effectory capabilities but no initial model of the effects of its actions on the world, that acquires such a model through exploration, practice, and observation. By acquiring an increasingly correct model of its actions, it generates increasingly successful plans to achieve its goals. In an apparently nondeterministic world, achieving reliability requires the identification of reliable actions and a preference for using such actions. Furthermore, by selecting its training actions carefully, the robot can significantly improve its learning rate.

  12. Learning object models from few examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ishan; Wang, Yuxiong; Hebert, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Current computer vision systems rely primarily on fixed models learned in a supervised fashion, i.e., with extensive manually labelled data. This is appropriate in scenarios in which the information about all the possible visual queries can be anticipated in advance, but it does not scale to scenarios in which new objects need to be added during the operation of the system, as in dynamic interaction with UGVs. For example, the user might have found a new type of object of interest, e.g., a particular vehicle, which needs to be added to the system right away. The supervised approach is not practical to acquire extensive data and to annotate it. In this paper, we describe techniques for rapidly updating or creating models using sparsely labelled data. The techniques address scenarios in which only a few annotated training samples are available and need to be used to generate models suitable for recognition. These approaches are crucial for on-the-fly insertion of models by users and on-line learning.

  13. Use of machine learning techniques for modeling of snow depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ayzel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow exerts significant regulating effect on the land hydrological cycle since it controls intensity of heat and water exchange between the soil-vegetative cover and the atmosphere. Estimating of a spring flood runoff or a rain-flood on mountainous rivers requires understanding of the snow cover dynamics on a watershed. In our work, solving a problem of the snow cover depth modeling is based on both available databases of hydro-meteorological observations and easily accessible scientific software that allows complete reproduction of investigation results and further development of this theme by scientific community. In this research we used the daily observational data on the snow cover and surface meteorological parameters, obtained at three stations situated in different geographical regions: Col de Porte (France, Sodankyla (Finland, and Snoquamie Pass (USA.Statistical modeling of the snow cover depth is based on a complex of freely distributed the present-day machine learning models: Decision Trees, Adaptive Boosting, Gradient Boosting. It is demonstrated that use of combination of modern machine learning methods with available meteorological data provides the good accuracy of the snow cover modeling. The best results of snow cover depth modeling for every investigated site were obtained by the ensemble method of gradient boosting above decision trees – this model reproduces well both, the periods of snow cover accumulation and its melting. The purposeful character of learning process for models of the gradient boosting type, their ensemble character, and use of combined redundancy of a test sample in learning procedure makes this type of models a good and sustainable research tool. The results obtained can be used for estimating the snow cover characteristics for river basins where hydro-meteorological information is absent or insufficient.

  14. Model-based reinforcement learning with dimension reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkaratt, Voot; Morimoto, Jun; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    The goal of reinforcement learning is to learn an optimal policy which controls an agent to acquire the maximum cumulative reward. The model-based reinforcement learning approach learns a transition model of the environment from data, and then derives the optimal policy using the transition model. However, learning an accurate transition model in high-dimensional environments requires a large amount of data which is difficult to obtain. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper, we propose to combine model-based reinforcement learning with the recently developed least-squares conditional entropy (LSCE) method, which simultaneously performs transition model estimation and dimension reduction. We also further extend the proposed method to imitation learning scenarios. The experimental results show that policy search combined with LSCE performs well for high-dimensional control tasks including real humanoid robot control.

  15. Learning about faces: effects of trustworthiness on affective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Román, Francisco J; Fernández-Cahill, María; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica

    2011-11-01

    The results of two studies on the relationship between evaluations of trustworthiness, valence and arousal of faces are reported. In Experiment 1, valence and trustworthiness judgments of faces were positively correlated, while arousal was negatively correlated with both trustworthiness and valence. In Experiment 2, learning about faces based on their emotional expression and the extent to which this learning is influenced by perceived trustworthiness was investigated. Neutral faces of different models differing in trustworthiness were repeatedly associated with happy or with angry expressions and the participants were asked to categorize each neutral face as belonging to a "friend" or to an "enemy" based on these associations. Four pairing conditions were defined in terms of the congruency between trustworthiness level and expression: Trustworthy-congruent, trustworthy-incongruent, untrustworthy-congruent and untrustworthy-incongruent. Categorization accuracy during the learning phase and face evaluation after learning were measured. During learning, participants learned to categorize with similar efficiency trustworthy and untrustworthy faces as friends or enemies and thus no effects of congruency were found. In the evaluation phase, faces of enemies were rated as more negative and arousing than those of friends, thus showing that learning was effective to change the affective value of the faces. However, faces of untrustworthy models were still judged on average more negative and arousing than those of trustworthy ones. In conclusion, although face trustworthiness did not influence learning of associations between faces and positive or negative social information it did have a significant influence on face evaluation that was manifest even after that learning.

  16. The Game Object Model and expansive learning: Creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Game Object Model and expansive learning: Creation, instantiation, ... into the design, integration, evaluation and use of video games in learning and teaching. ... individual understanding of the role of games in education and transformed ...

  17. Feedback model to support designers of blended learning courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Hummel, H. G. K. (2006, December). Feedback model to support designers of blended learning courses. International Review of Open and Distance Learning [Online], 7(3). Available: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/379/748

  18. A Reference Model for Mobile Social Software for Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Tim; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    De Jong, T., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2008). A reference model for mobile social software for learning. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 18(1), 118-138.

  19. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremenska, Anelly

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia,

  20. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremenska, Anelly

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgar

  1. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremenska, Anelly

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgar

  2. Learning Predictive Movement Models From Fabric-Mounted Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Brendan; Howard, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    The measurement and analysis of human movement for applications in clinical diagnostics or rehabilitation is often performed in a laboratory setting using static motion capture devices. A growing interest in analyzing movement in everyday environments (such as the home) has prompted the development of "wearable sensors", with the most current wearable sensors being those embedded into clothing. A major issue however with the use of these fabric-embedded sensors is the undesired effect of fabric motion artefacts corrupting movement signals. In this paper, a nonparametric method is presented for learning body movements, viewing the undesired motion as stochastic perturbations to the sensed motion, and using orthogonal regression techniques to form predictive models of the wearer's motion that eliminate these errors in the learning process. Experiments in this paper show that standard nonparametric learning techniques underperform in this fabric motion context and that improved prediction accuracy can be made by using orthogonal regression techniques. Modelling this motion artefact problem as a stochastic learning problem shows an average 77% decrease in prediction error in a body pose task using fabric-embedded sensors, compared to a kinematic model.

  3. Technological Learning in Energy Models: Experience and Scenario Analysis with MARKAL and the ERIS Model Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    1999-09-01

    Understanding technology dynamics, a fundamental driving factor of the evolution of energy systems, is essential for sound policy formulation and decision making. Technological change is not an autonomous process, but evolves from a number of endogenous interactions within the social system. Technologies evolve and improve only if experience with them is possible. Efforts must be devoted to improve our analytical tools concerning the treatment given to the technological variable, recognising the cumulative and gradual nature of technological change and the important role played by learning processes. This report presents a collection of works developed by the authors concerning the endogenisation of technological change in energy optimisation models, as a contribution to the Energy Technology Dynamics andAdvanced Energy System Modelling Project (TEEM), developed in the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme JOULE III of the European Union (DGXII). Here, learning curves, an empirically observed manifestation of the cumulative technological learning processes, are endogenised in two energy optimisation models. MARKAL, a widely used bottom-up model developed by the ETSAP programme of the IEA and ERIS, a model prototype, developed within the TEEM project for assessing different concepts and approaches. The methodological approach is described and some results and insights derived from the model analyses are presented. The incorporation of learning curves results in significantly different model outcomes than those obtained with traditional approaches. New, innovative technologies, hardly considered by the standard models, are introduced to the solution when endogenous learning is present. Up-front investments in initially expensive, but promising, technologies allow the necessary accumulation of experience to render them cost-effective. When uncertainty in emission reduction commitments is considered, the results point also in the direction of undertaking early

  4. Technological Learning in Energy Models: Experience and Scenario Analysis with MARKAL and the ERIS Model Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    1999-09-01

    Understanding technology dynamics, a fundamental driving factor of the evolution of energy systems, is essential for sound policy formulation and decision making. Technological change is not an autonomous process, but evolves from a number of endogenous interactions within the social system. Technologies evolve and improve only if experience with them is possible. Efforts must be devoted to improve our analytical tools concerning the treatment given to the technological variable, recognising the cumulative and gradual nature of technological change and the important role played by learning processes. This report presents a collection of works developed by the authors concerning the endogenisation of technological change in energy optimisation models, as a contribution to the Energy Technology Dynamics andAdvanced Energy System Modelling Project (TEEM), developed in the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme JOULE III of the European Union (DGXII). Here, learning curves, an empirically observed manifestation of the cumulative technological learning processes, are endogenised in two energy optimisation models. MARKAL, a widely used bottom-up model developed by the ETSAP programme of the IEA and ERIS, a model prototype, developed within the TEEM project for assessing different concepts and approaches. The methodological approach is described and some results and insights derived from the model analyses are presented. The incorporation of learning curves results in significantly different model outcomes than those obtained with traditional approaches. New, innovative technologies, hardly considered by the standard models, are introduced to the solution when endogenous learning is present. Up-front investments in initially expensive, but promising, technologies allow the necessary accumulation of experience to render them cost-effective. When uncertainty in emission reduction commitments is considered, the results point also in the direction of undertaking early

  5. The CLEM model: Path analysis of the mediating effects of attitudes and motivational beliefs on the relationship between perceived learning environment and course performance in an undergraduate nonmajor biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Matthew L.

    The problem addressed in this study stems from three crises currently faced by post-secondary science educators in the United States: relatively low scientific literacy among students entering college, the need for more students to pursue science related careers, and poor attitudes among students toward studying science. In this dissertation the following questions are addressed: Is there a relationship between students' perceptions of their learning environment and course performance, and what roles do motivation and attitudes play in mediating that relationship? This study also examines the effects of gender and ethnicity on motivation, attitudes, and course performance. The purpose of this study is to test a path model describing the mediating effects of motivation and attitudes on constructivist learning environments and course performance. The following study considers contemporary understanding of teaching and learning as well as motivation and attitudes to suggest a direction for future reform efforts and to guide post-secondary science education instructors and leaders in the design of constructivist learning environments for undergraduate nonmajor biology courses. This study concludes that, although the classroom learning environment has a small direct effect on course performance, there is a moderate total effect on self-efficacy and intrinsic goal orientation. The classroom learning environment also had a moderate indirect effect on attitudes toward biology. Furthermore, attitudes have a moderate direct effect on course performance and self-efficacy has a strong direct effect on both course performance and attitudes toward biology. Self-efficacy seems to be particularly important; however, each of these constructs is important in its own right and instructors in higher education should strive to enhance each of them among their students. If students are to learn using constructivist methods they need the proper motivation and positive attitudes to

  6. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  7. Self-paced model learning for robust visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhui; Gu, Jason; Ma, Xin; Li, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    In visual tracking, learning a robust and efficient appearance model is a challenging task. Model learning determines both the strategy and the frequency of model updating, which contains many details that could affect the tracking results. Self-paced learning (SPL) has recently been attracting considerable interest in the fields of machine learning and computer vision. SPL is inspired by the learning principle underlying the cognitive process of humans, whose learning process is generally from easier samples to more complex aspects of a task. We propose a tracking method that integrates the learning paradigm of SPL into visual tracking, so reliable samples can be automatically selected for model learning. In contrast to many existing model learning strategies in visual tracking, we discover the missing link between sample selection and model learning, which are combined into a single objective function in our approach. Sample weights and model parameters can be learned by minimizing this single objective function. Additionally, to solve the real-valued learning weight of samples, an error-tolerant self-paced function that considers the characteristics of visual tracking is proposed. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our tracker on a recent tracking benchmark data set with 50 video sequences.

  8. A Situated Model of Creative Learning - Keynote at EERA, Istanbul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    , 2000-2001). However, Anna Craft (2005) has stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that there is a need to describe the concept of creative learning and to analyze its possible constituents. Accordingly, this presentation introduces an empirically based......) Experimentation and inquiry learning and 3) Resistance from the material of interest. As a theoretical point of departure, I will outline a situated model of creativity and learning, and following this, I will introduce my model of creative learning and the basic components of a creative learning community...

  9. Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

    2010-01-01

    Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

  10. Effects of Learning Styles and Interest on Concentration and Achievement of Students in Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Learning concentration deserves in-depth investigation in the field of mobile learning. Therefore, this study examined the interaction effects of learning styles and interest on the learning concentration and academic achievement of students who were asked to learn conceptual knowledge via their mobile phones in a classroom setting. A total of 92…

  11. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and protection against free radical injury to brain tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanji Xu; Chunji Han; Songji Xu; Xing Yu; Guozhe Jiang; Chunhua Nan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Acanthopanax senticosus,a plant of the Araliaceae family,is used in traditional Chinese medicine.It can be used to replenish Qi,strengthen the spleen,tonify the kidney,and relieve mental strain.OBJECTIVE:To observe effects ofAcanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and abnormal biochemical changes in the brain tissue.DESIGN:A completely randomized grouping,controlled animal experiment.SETTING:Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University.MATERIALS:A total of 50 Kunming mice,aged 1-1.5 months,equal numbers of males and females,were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Yanbian University Medical College.The study was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.Acanthopanax was provided by Yanbian Chengda Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.Acanthopanax senticosus(0.5 kg)was soaked in water for 1 hour and transferred to 1.5 kg distilled water for extraction.It was boiled for 1 hour and extracted after 1 hour of boiling.The procedure was repeated 3 times.The extract was condensed to 500 mL and then adjusted to 500 and 1 000 g/L with water.Piracetam tablets were produced by Shandong Luoxin Pharmaceutical Corporation, China.Malonaldehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD),and acetylcholinesterase(ACHE)kits were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Co.,Ltd.,China. METHODS:This study was performed at the Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University from January to June 2007.All mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 mice in each:control group,model group,low-,and high-dose Acanthopanax senticosus-treated groups, and piracetam-treated group.All groups were administered 0.1 mL/10 g.In the control and model groups, mice were intragastrically administered saline each morning for 5 days prior to experimentation.Five days later,they were intraperitoneally perfused with saline and aluminum trichloride

  12. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  13. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  14. Effects of Learning Styles and Interest on Concentration and Achievement of Students in Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Learning concentration deserves in-depth investigation in the field of mobile learning. Therefore, this study examined the interaction effects of learning styles and interest on the learning concentration and academic achievement of students who were asked to learn conceptual knowledge via their mobile phones in a classroom setting. A total of 92…

  15. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  16. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  17. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention.

  18. Effect of explicit dimensional instruction on speech category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E; Maddox, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    Learning nonnative speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is underweighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height, resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension.

  19. The Effect of the Attitude towards E-learning: The Employees' Intention to Use E-Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Han, Seung-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine employees' acceptance levels towards e-learning in the workplace. By using "The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology" (UTAUT), our model captured the effect of factors influencing employees' intention to use e-learning in the workplace. Data was collected from 261 employees in a food…

  20. Self-Selection Effects in Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Kenna Bolton; Pinnow, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    This study models the registration process in order to directly examine the possibility of pre-existing differences between undergraduate students who choose to take service-learning classes compared to those who do not. Foremost among the findings, on most measures there was no significant effect of self-selection. However, students who chose a…

  1. Dynamic Models of Appraisal Networks Explaining Collective Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Wenjun; Friedkin, Noah E.; Lewis, Kyle; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes models of learning process in teams of individuals who collectively execute a sequence of tasks and whose actions are determined by individual skill levels and networks of interpersonal appraisals and influence. The closely-related proposed models have increasing complexity, starting with a centralized manager-based assignment and learning model, and finishing with a social model of interpersonal appraisal, assignments, learning, and influences. We show how rational optima...

  2. Understanding students’ satisfaction and continuance intention of e-learning: Application of expectation–confirmation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Rezaeian Tiyar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of technologies leads to the great significance of e-learning in the domain of education. Recognition of the crucial factors which influence learners’ aims towards continued use of e-learning would guide teachers, learners and e-learning developers to increase e-learning use. To this end, the present study investigates the Expectation-Confirmation Model (ECM factors of Post-Adoption Expectation (PAE which is explored via using language learners’ post-adoption experiences in the use of e-learning systems. Learning process, tutor interaction, peer interaction, and course design are the four factors identified used for extending the perception of language learners’ experiences in e-learning. The survey method was used to empirically validate the suggested model (ECM of the present study. A total sample of 120 Iranian university students participated in the study. In order to investigate the proposed model, structural equation modelling employing Smart PLS 2.0 was run. The findings indicate that learners’ confirmation of using e-learning has a significant effect on the four aforementioned factors. Learning process and course design are the only two factors that have a significant effect on users’ satisfaction and continuance intention. On the other hand, the results showed that tutor interaction and peer interaction do not have a significant effect on predicting learners’ satisfaction and continuance intention of e-learning systems.

  3. An Analysis of the Effect of Problem Based Learning Model on the 10th Grade Students’ Achievement, Attitude and Motivation in the Unit of “Mixtures”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut KUŞDEMİR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research was to study how problem based learning model affected students’ achievement, attidute and motivation in Chemistry Lesson the unit of “Mixtures”. In the study, semi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group was used. The sample of the research was 52 students who were the 10th grade students in 2009-2010 academic year spring semester. The students were divided into two groups as treatment and control groups according to random sampling method. The unit was taught with problem based learning in the treatment group, but in the control group traditional method was used in the same unit. The classes were implemented during 9 weeks in both groups. An Achievement Test, a Chemistry Attitude Scale , Motivation Scale and Student Interview Forms were used as data collection tools. At the end of the study, it was found out that there was significant difference between the treatment and control groups in view of achievement, attitude and motivation in Chemistry course in favour of the treatment group. In addition to this, students could have positive attitude towards Problem Based Learning and group study.

  4. Learner Open Modeling in Adaptive Mobile Learning System for Supporting Student to Learn English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cong Pham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a personalized context-aware mobile learning architecture for supporting student to learn English as foreign language in order to prepare for TOEFL test. We consider how to apply open learner modeling techniques to adapt contents for different learners based on context, which includes location, amount of time to learn, the manner as well as learner's knowledge in learning progress. Through negotiation with system, the editable learner model will be updated to support adaptive engine to select adaptive contents meeting learner's demands. Empirical testing results for students who used application prototype indicate that interaction user modeling is helpful in supporting learner to learn adaptive materials.

  5. A Situated Model of Creative Learning - Keynote at EERA, Istanbul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    This presentation puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept (Torrance, 1972; Hennessey & Amabile, 1987; De Bono, 1992; Fasko......) Experimentation and inquiry learning and 3) Resistance from the material of interest. As a theoretical point of departure, I will outline a situated model of creativity and learning, and following this, I will introduce my model of creative learning and the basic components of a creative learning community......, 2000-2001). However, Anna Craft (2005) has stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that there is a need to describe the concept of creative learning and to analyze its possible constituents. Accordingly, this presentation introduces an empirically based...

  6. Multi-item economic production quantity model for imperfect items with multiple production setups and rework under the effect of preservation technology and learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Jawla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the multi-item inventory model in a production/rework system with multiple production setups. Rework can be depicted as the transformation of production rejects, failed, or non-conforming items into re-usable products of the same or lower quality during or after inspection. Rework is very valuable and profitable, especially if materials are limited in availability and also pricey. Moreover, rework can be a good contribution to a ‘green image environment’. In this paper, we establish a multi-item inventory model to determine the optimal inventory replenishment policy for the economic production quantity (EPQ model for imperfect, deteriorating items with multiple productions and rework under inflation and learning environment. In inventory modelling, Inflation plays a very important role. In one cycle, production system produces items in n production setups and one rework setup, i.e. system follows (n, 1 policy. To reduce the deterioration of products preservation technology investment is also considered in this model. Holding cost is taken as time dependent. We develop expressions for the average profit per time unit, including procurement of input materials, costs for production, rework, deterioration cost and storage of serviceable and reworkable lots. Using those expressions, the proposed model is demonstrated numerically and the sensitivity analysis is also performed to study the behaviour of the model.

  7. Changing Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs about Using Computers for Teaching and Learning Mathematics: The Effect of Three Different Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of three different computer integration models on pre-service mathematics teachers' beliefs about using computers in mathematics education. Participants included 104 pre-service mathematics teachers (36 second-year students in the Computer Oriented Model group, 35 fourth-year students in the Integrated Model (IM)…

  8. An Intelligent Mediating Model for Collaborative e-Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanbi Caleb Olufisoye

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E-learning management systems(e- LMSs lack ontologies for sharing their domain knowledge learning objects with others due to differences or non-uniformity in architectures, platforms, protocols and representations. The effect of this on e-learners is that collaboration with other e-LMS during learning processes is not permitted. Hence, learning process is restricted only to the knowledge base of a particular E-LMS adopted by an institution, which may limit the mastery level of learners. To provide a remedy to this problem, an intelligent multi-agent mediating system model is proposed in this study using hybrid rule and case based reasoning scheme. Unified Modeling Language(UML is used as a design tool to specify the active and passive entities of the model in form class The model proposed provides a collaborative platform for sharing of the learning objects across multiple e-LMSs, during learning processes.

  9. Effects of Narrator Gender on Conceptual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Betty D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effects of sex stereotyping and non-sex stereotyping in the use of narrators for instructional videotape materials designed for nursing students. All variables but gender of narrator were controlled, and no effects on learning were found using male and female voices. (Author/BK)

  10. Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P

    2013-11-01

    We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model.

  11. Application of learning styles for effective mobile learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Jane Yin-Kim; Joy, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Mobile technologies are increasingly used for learning, both individually and collaboratively, and supported by wireless connectivity, mobile devices have succeeded in achieving anywhere, anytime learning. Students learn in different ways and usually have their own styles and preferences for learning, and our understanding of these issues is supported by research which has taken place on “learning styles”. Given that mobile learning is a fairly new area, there has not been much work done on h...

  12. Towards an intelligent learning management system under blended learning trends, profiles and modeling perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Sofia B; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2013-01-01

    This book offers useful information that evokes initiatives towards rethinking of the value, efficiency, inclusiveness, effectiveness and personalization of the intelligent learning management systems-based blended-learning environment.

  13. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

    2012-01-01

    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  14. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  15. Effect of blended learning to academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Karani Ceylan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of blended learning on the middle school students’ academic achievement level and product evaluation scores were investigated. Blended learning provides more effective learning outcome gains through enriching todays’ developing Web Technologies with learning environments. This study was carried out with a total of 53 students enrolled in the experimental group and control group in the 6th grade classrooms during the 2014/2015 school year in a middle school in southwest part of Turkey. The intervention lasted 7 weeks. During the seven weeks, the unit of “problem solving, computer programming and development of Software product”, covered in Educational technologies and Software course, is taught through blended learning environment. The experimental group was taught using blended learning environment which supported with enriched web technologies (such as video-conference, Learning Management System, Discussion blogs , etc.. Whereas the experimental group was given access to all these enriched contents that are presented to the control group only during the classroom environment through present teaching methods. The design of the study includes quantitative method. We collected quantitative data such as academic achievement test and product evaluation scale. Academic achievement test and product evaluation scale were used as quantitative data collection sources. Quantitative data was collected through the evaluation of students’ projects that they developed during the process of the study and the academic achievement tests. During the data analysis phase, independent t-test, frequency and ANOVA tests were used. As a result of this study, it is concluded that blended learning environment had generated a significant difference in students’ academic achievement on behalf of experimental group. Implications of the study for the educational environments were discussed.

  16. Application of a learning model in a traditional engineering classroom and laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cordelia Magalene

    The purpose of this dissertation research was to develop a learning model. This three-phase learning model involved administering pre-assessment inventories, facilitating collaborative exercises, and evaluating learning experiences. This dissertation explores the potential effects the learning model might have on course performance and overall academic performance. It focuses on potential relationships between course performance and learning style preferences data, demographics, and level of participation in phases of the learning model. It also examines relationships between confidence levels and the performance of course objectives. The first and final phases were applied to an introductory Electrical Engineering course. The second phase was applied to selected sections of the course. In the initial phase, students in all sections of the course were administered the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and a pre-laboratory evaluation. In the second phase of the learning model, the students in the selected sections participated in weekly learning sessions. The weekly learning sessions provided students with practice problem sets and a structured environment to collaboratively practice problems and discuss course concepts. The final phase of the learning model evaluated the performance of students in both environments. From the application of the learning model, the effects that various instructional methods would have on students' performance in a laboratory type of environment were investigated. Overall, students that participated in the weekly learning sessions earned grades that were comparable or better than non-participants. Participants and non-participants in the weekly learning sessions with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Engineering Type (INTJ or ISTJ) earned about the same grade. Participants in the weekly learning sessions with types other than MBTI Engineering Type outperformed their peers of the same MBTI type

  17. Effects of Learning Styles on Self-directed Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is an on-going and life-long process, which is greatly influenced by individual differences. It has been noted that there is inefficient self-directed FL vocabulary learning of college students in mainland China and non-individualized learning may be one of the major reasons. As one of the most significant individual differences, a student’s learning style is supposed to largely determine their selection of learning strategies and have an effect on learning outcomes. This paper focuses on categorizing diversified vocabulary learning tasks which activate various vocabulary learning strategies, and integrating them into a learning system along particular learning paths to cater for different learning styles. The system is also tested in an empirical study for the purpose of checking the effects of these learning paths.

  18. Structural Equation Modeling towards Online Learning Readiness, Academic Motivations, and Perceived Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Kaymak, Zeliha Demir; Gungoren, Ozlem Canan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between online learning readiness, academic motivations, and perceived learning was investigated via structural equation modeling in the research. The population of the research consisted of 750 students who studied using the online learning programs of Sakarya University. 420 of the students who volunteered for the research and…

  19. The Development of the Assessment for Learning Model of Mathematics for Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannaree Pansiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were 1 to develop the assessment for learning model of Mathematics for Rajamangala University 2 to study the effectivness of assessment for learning model of Mathematics for Rajamagala University of Technology Rattanakosin. The research target group consisted of 72 students from 3 classes and 3 General Mathematics teachers. The data was gathered from observation, worksheets, achievement test and skill of assessment for learning, questionnaire of the assessment for learning model of Mathematics. The statistics that used in this research were Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, and Growth Score. The results of this research were 1. The assessment of learning model of Mathematics for Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin consisted of 3 components ; 1. Pre-assessment which consisted of 4 activities ; a Preparation b Teacher development c Design and creation the assessment plan and instrument for assessment and d Creation of the learning experience plan 2. The component for assessment process consisted of 4 steps which were a Identifying the learning objectives and criteria b Identifying the learning experience plan and assessment follow the plan c Learning reflection and giving feedback and d Learner development based on information and improve instruction and 3. Giving feedback component. 2. The effective of assessment for learning model found that most students had good score in concentration, honest, responsibilities, group work, task presentation, worksheets, and doing exercises. The development knowledge of learning and knowledge and skill of assessment for learning of lecturers were fairly good. The opinion to the assessment for learning of learners and assessment for learning model of Mathematics of teachers found that was in a good level.

  20. A Model for Collaborative Learning in Undergraduate Climate Change Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranes, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Like several colleges and universities across the nation, the University of California, San Diego, has introduced climate change topics into many existing and new undergraduate courses. I have administered a program in this area at UCSD and have also developed and taught a new lower-division UCSD course entitled "Climate Change and Society", a general education course for non-majors. This class covers the basics of climate change, such as the science that explains it, the causes of climate change, climate change impacts, and mitigation strategies. The teaching methods for this course stress interdisciplinary approaches. I find that inquiry-based and collaborative modes of learning are particularly effective when applied to science-based climate, environmental and sustainability topics. Undergraduate education is often dominated by a competitive and individualistic approach to learning. In this approach, individual success is frequently perceived as contingent on others being less successful. Such a model is at odds with commonly stated goals of teaching climate change and sustainability, which are to equip students to contribute to the debate on global environmental change and societal adaptation strategies; and to help students become better informed citizens and decision makers. I present classroom-tested strategies for developing collaborative forms of learning in climate change and environmental courses, including team projects, group presentations and group assessment exercises. I show how critical thinking skills and long-term retention of information can benefit in the collaborative mode of learning. I find that a collaborative learning model is especially appropriate to general education courses in which the enrolled student body represents a wide diversity of majors, class level and expertise. I also connect collaborative coursework in interdisciplinary environmental topics directly to applications in the field, where so much "real-world" achievement in

  1. Pioglitazone improves reversal learning and exerts mixed cerebrovascular effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with combined amyloid-β and cerebrovascular pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota Papadopoulos

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD are invaluable in dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms and assessing the efficacy of potential new therapies. Here, we used the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone in an attempt to rescue the pathogenic phenotype in adult (12 months and aged (>18 months bitransgenic A/T mice that overexpress a mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind and a constitutively active form of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. A/T mice recapitulate the AD-related cognitive deficits, amyloid beta (Aβ and cerebrovascular pathologies, as well as the altered metabolic and vascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity. Pioglitazone normalized neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling responses to sensory stimulation, and reduced cortical astroglial and hippocampal microglial activation in both age groups. Spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze were not rescued by pioglitazone, but reversal learning was improved in the adult cohort notwithstanding a progressing Aβ pathology. While pioglitazone preserved the constitutive nitric oxide synthesis in the vessel wall, it unexpectedly failed to restore cerebrovascular reactivity in A/T mice and even exacerbated the dilatory deficits. These data demonstrate pioglitazone's efficacy on selective AD hallmarks in a complex AD mouse model of comorbid amyloidosis and cerebrovascular pathology. They further suggest a potential benefit of pioglitazone in managing neuroinflammation, cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in AD patients devoid of cerebrovascular pathology.

  2. Engaging Students in Mathematical Modeling through Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2014-01-01

    I have included a service-learning project in my mathematical modeling course for the last 6 years. This article describes my experience with service-learning in this course. The article includes a description of the course and the service-learning projects. There is a discussion of how to connect with community partners and identify…

  3. Research on Model of Student Engagement in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, online learning refers students under the guidance of teachers through the online learning platform for organized learning. Based on the analysis of related research results, considering the existing problems, the main contents of this paper include the following aspects: (1) Analyze and study the current student engagement model.…

  4. An Analytical Model for Learning: An Applied Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter Arthur

    A mediated-learning package, geared toward non-traditional students, was developed for use in the College of Marin's cultural anthropology courses. An analytical model for learning was used in the development of the package, utilizing concepts related to learning objectives, programmed instruction, Gestalt psychology, cognitive psychology, and…

  5. Modeling Spaces for Self-Directed Learning at University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pata, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the theoretical framework of modeling learning spaces for self-directed learning at university courses. It binds together two ideas: (a) self-directed learners' common learning spaces may be characterized as abstract niches, (b) niche characteristics are collectively determined through individually perceived affordances.…

  6. Stochastic collusion and the power law of learning - A general reinforcement learning model of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Macy, MW

    2002-01-01

    Concerns about models of cultural adaptation as analogs of genetic selection have led cognitive game theorists to explore learning-theoretic specifications. Two prominent examples, the Bush-Mosteller stochastic learning model and the Roth-Erev payoff-matching model, are aligned and integrated as spe

  7. Stochastic collusion and the power law of learning: a general reinforcement learning model of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A.

    2002-01-01

    Concerns about models of cultural adaptation as analogs of genetic selection have led cognitive game theorists to explore learning-theoretic specifications. Two prominent examples, the Bush-Mosteller stochastic learning model and the Roth-Erev payoff-matching model, are aligned and integrated as spe

  8. Stochastic collusion and the power law of learning: a general reinforcement learning model of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A.

    2002-01-01

    Concerns about models of cultural adaptation as analogs of genetic selection have led cognitive game theorists to explore learning-theoretic specifications. Two prominent examples, the Bush-Mosteller stochastic learning model and the Roth-Erev payoff-matching model, are aligned and integrated as

  9. "Positive Attitude": A multilevel model analysis of the effectiveness of a Social and Emotional Learning Program for Portuguese middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vítor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Sousa, Vanda

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the impact, reported by students and their teachers, of a universal, school-based, social-emotional learning program, implemented in three school years on the social-emotional competencies of middle school students (7th to 9th grade). It also analyzes, at post-test and follow-up, the differential results by gender and among students with lower levels of competence. There were 1091 participants, 855 students received the treatment condition (i.e., Project Attitude) and 236 students the control condition. Self-reports identified positive intervention results in social awareness, self-control, self-esteem, social isolation and social anxiety, teachers reported gains in all dimensions. These positive effects were stably effective along the three cohorts. Self-reports also identified bigger gains for girls in social awareness and for boys in social anxiety, self-esteem and leadership. Students with initial lower levels of competence benefited more from the intervention, especially at follow-up. These results support the effectiveness of social-emotional learning programs.

  10. Reciprocal learning and chronic care model implementation in primary care: results from a new scale of learning in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noël Polly H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to improve the care of patients with chronic disease in primary care settings have been mixed. Application of a complex adaptive systems framework suggests that this may be because implementation efforts often focus on education or decision support of individual providers, and not on the dynamic system as a whole. We believe that learning among clinic group members is a particularly important attribute of a primary care clinic that has not yet been well-studied in the health care literature, but may be related to the ability of primary care practices to improve the care they deliver. To better understand learning in primary care settings by developing a scale of learning in primary care clinics based on the literature related to learning across disciplines, and to examine the association between scale responses and chronic care model implementation as measured by the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC scale. Methods Development of a scale of learning in primary care setting and administration of the learning and ACIC scales to primary care clinic members as part of the baseline assessment in the ABC Intervention Study. All clinic clinicians and staff in forty small primary care clinics in South Texas participated in the survey. Results We developed a twenty-two item learning scale, and identified a five-item subscale measuring the construct of reciprocal learning (Cronbach alpha 0.79. Reciprocal learning was significantly associated with ACIC total and sub-scale scores, even after adjustment for clustering effects. Conclusions Reciprocal learning appears to be an important attribute of learning in primary care clinics, and its presence relates to the degree of chronic care model implementation. Interventions to improve reciprocal learning among clinic members may lead to improved care of patients with chronic disease and may be relevant to improving overall clinic performance.

  11. Learning Networks: connecting people, organizations, autonomous agents and learning resources to establish the emergence of effective lifelong learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Sloep, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Koper, E.J.R., Sloep, P.B. (2002) Learning Networks connecting people, organizations, autonomous agents and learning resources to establish the emergence of effective lifelong learning. RTD Programma into Learning Technologies 2003-2008. More is different… Heerlen, Nederland: Open Universiteit Neder

  12. Effects of a blended learning module on self-reported learning performances in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2011-11-01

    This article is a report of a quasi-experimental study of the effects of blended modules on nursing students' learning of ethics course content. There is yet to be an empirically supported mix of strategies on which a working blended learning model can be built for nursing education. This was a two-group pretest and post-test quasi-experimental study in 2008 involving a total of 233 students. Two of the five clusters were designated the experimental group to experience a blended learning model, and the rest were designated the control group to be given classroom lectures only. The Case Analysis Attitude Scale, Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale, Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, and Metacognition Scale were used in pretests and post-tests for the students to rate their own performance. In this study, the experimental group did not register significantly higher mean scores on the Case Analysis Attitude Scale at post-test and higher mean ranks on the Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale, the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, and the Metacognition Scale at post-test than the control group. Moreover, the experimental group registered significant progress in the mean ranks on the Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale and the Metacognition Scale from pretest to post-test. No between-subjects effects of four scales at post-test were found. Newly developed course modules, be it blended learning or a combination of traditional and innovative components, should be tested repeatedly for effectiveness and popularity for the purpose of facilitating the ultimate creation of a most effective course module for nursing education. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  14. Knowledge transfer for learning robot models via local procrustes analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makondo, N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning of robot kinematic and dynamic models from data has attracted much interest recently as an alternative to manually defined models. However, the amount of data required to learn these models becomes large when the number of degrees...

  15. An Integrated Model of Information Literacy, Based upon Domain Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary B.; Lathey, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Grounded in Alexander's model of domain learning, this study presents an integrated micro-model of information literacy. It is predicated upon the central importance of domain learning for the development of the requisite research skills by students. Method. The authors reviewed previous models of information literacy and…

  16. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joolingen, van Wouter R.; Jong, de Ton

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS fr

  17. An Integrated Multimedia Learning Model vs. the Traditional Face-to-Face Learning Model: An Examination of College Economics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Barbara; Simonian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia learning tools can assist and help motivate students by supplementing traditional teaching modalities with learner-centered learning through application and practice. The overall effectiveness of multimedia learning has been documented (Son & Simonian, 2013; Son & Goldstone, 2012; Zhang, 2005). How are effective multimedia…

  18. Novel associative-memory-based self-learning neurocontrol model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke

    1992-09-01

    Intelligent control is an important field of AI application, which is closely related to machine learning, and the neurocontrol is a kind of intelligent control that controls actions of a physical system or a plant. Linear associative memory model is a good analytic tool for artificial neural networks. In this paper, we present a novel self-learning neurocontrol on the basis of the linear associative memory model to support intelligent control. Using our self-learning neurocontrol model, the learning process is viewed as an extension of one of J. Piaget's developmental stages. After a particular linear associative model developed by us is presented, a brief introduction to J. Piaget's cognitive theory is described as the basis of our self-learning style control. It follows that the neurocontrol model is presented, which usually includes two learning stages, viz. primary learning and high-level learning. As a demonstration of our neurocontrol model, an example is also presented with simulation techniques, called that `bird' catches an aim. The tentative experimental results show that the learning and controlling performance of this approach is surprisingly good. In conclusion, future research is pointed out to improve our self-learning neurocontrol model and explore other areas of application.

  19. Implications of Multimodal Learning Models for foreign language teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Farías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review article approaches the topic of information and communications technologies from the perspective of their impact on the language learning process, with particular emphasis on the most appropriate designs of multimodal texts as informed by models of multimodal learning. The first part contextualizes multimodality within the fields of discourse studies, the psychology of learning and CALL; the second, deals with multimodal conceptions of reading and writing by discussing hypertextuality and literacy. A final section outlines the possible implications of multimodal learning models for foreign language teaching and learning.

  20. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just

  1. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just

  2. A model for hypermedia learning environments based on electronic books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Aedo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Current hypermedia learning environments do not have a common development basis. Their designers have often used ad-hoc solutions to solve the learning problems they have encountered. However, hypermedia technology can take advantage of employing a theoretical scheme - a model - which takes into account various kinds of learning activities, and solves some of the problems associated with its use in the learning process. The model can provide designers with the tools for creating a hypermedia learning system, by allowing the elements and functions involved in the definition of a specific application to be formally represented.

  3. Combining Spatial and Telemetric Features for Learning Animal Movement Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kapicioglu, Berk; Wikelski, Martin; Broderick, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new graphical model for tracking radio-tagged animals and learning their movement patterns. The model provides a principled way to combine radio telemetry data with an arbitrary set of userdefined, spatial features. We describe an efficient stochastic gradient algorithm for fitting model parameters to data and demonstrate its effectiveness via asymptotic analysis and synthetic experiments. We also apply our model to real datasets, and show that it outperforms the most popular radio telemetry software package used in ecology. We conclude that integration of different data sources under a single statistical framework, coupled with appropriate parameter and state estimation procedures, produces both accurate location estimates and an interpretable statistical model of animal movement.

  4. Performance and Perception in the Flipped Learning Model: An Initial Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a New Teaching Methodology in a General Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, David; Jeong, Jin Su; Airado Rodríguez, Diego; Cañada-Cañada, Florentina

    2016-06-01

    "Flipped classroom" teaching methodology is a type of blended learning in which the traditional class setting is inverted. Lecture is shifted outside of class, while the classroom time is employed to solve problems or doing practical works through the discussion/peer collaboration of students and instructors. This relatively new instructional methodology claims that flipping your classroom engages more effectively students with the learning process, achieving better teaching results. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the effects of the flipped classroom on the students' performance and perception of this new methodology. This study was conducted in a general science course, sophomore of the Primary Education bachelor degree in the Training Teaching School of the University of Extremadura (Spain) during the course 2014/2015. In order to assess the suitability of the proposed methodology, the class was divided in two groups. For the first group, a traditional methodology was followed, and it was used as control. On the other hand, the "flipped classroom" methodology was used in the second group, where the students were given diverse materials, such as video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home by them. Online questionnaires were as well provided to assess the progress of the students before the class. Finally, the results were compared in terms of students' achievements and a post-task survey was also conducted to know the students' perceptions. A statistically significant difference was found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. In addition, most students had a favorable perception about the flipped classroom noting the ability to pause, rewind and review lectures, as well as increased individualized learning and increased teacher availability.

  5. Multiple instance learning for hidden Markov models: application to landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jeremy; Yuksel, Seniha Esen; Gader, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Multiple instance learning is a recently researched learning paradigm in machine intelligence which operates under conditions of uncertainty. A Multiple Instance Hidden Markov Model (MI-HMM) is investigated with applications to landmine detection using ground penetrating radar data. Without introducing any additional parameters, the MI-HMM provides an elegant and simple way to learn the parameters of an HMM in a multiple instance framework. The efficacy of the model is shown on a real landmine dataset. Experiments on the landmine dataset show that MI-HMM learning is effective.

  6. The drift diffusion model as the choice rule in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads Lund; Frank, Michael J; Biele, Guido

    2016-12-13

    Current reinforcement-learning models often assume simplified decision processes that do not fully reflect the dynamic complexities of choice processes. Conversely, sequential-sampling models of decision making account for both choice accuracy and response time, but assume that decisions are based on static decision values. To combine these two computational models of decision making and learning, we implemented reinforcement-learning models in which the drift diffusion model describes the choice process, thereby capturing both within- and across-trial dynamics. To exemplify the utility of this approach, we quantitatively fit data from a common reinforcement-learning paradigm using hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation, and compared model variants to determine whether they could capture the effects of stimulant medication in adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The model with the best relative fit provided a good description of the learning process, choices, and response times. A parameter recovery experiment showed that the hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach enabled accurate estimation of the model parameters. The model approach described here, using simultaneous estimation of reinforcement-learning and drift diffusion model parameters, shows promise for revealing new insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of learning and decision making, as well as the alteration of such processes in clinical groups.

  7. The Effect of Flipped Learning (Revised Learning on Iranian Students’ Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the flipped (revised learning had effect on student learning outcome. Lage et al (2000 describes the flipped classroom as  " Inverting the classroom means that events that have traditionally take place inside the classroom now take place outside the class and vice versa" (p.32. The participants in this study were 250 students and five teachers from a secondary school in Ardabil. Homogenous students were selected on the basis of their scores in the last year.  Ten classes were considered for investigation. There were 25 students in each class and each teacher taught two classes that one of classes was flipped class and another was ordinary class. T-test was used to compare the overall performances of two classes in each subject in order to determine the effect of flipped learning on students’ learning outcomes. The findings of this research demonstrated that there were significant differences between flipped and ordinary classes in students’ learning outcomes. Keywords: flipped class, tradition class, learning outcomes

  8. The Clinical Learning Dyad Model: An Innovation in Midwifery Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Susanna R; Thomas, Celeste R; Gerard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    There is a national shortage of women's health and primary care providers in the United States, including certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives. This shortage is directly related to how many students can be trained within the existing system. The current model of midwifery clinical training is based on apprenticeship, with one-on-one interaction between a student and preceptor. Thus, the number of newly trained midwifery providers is limited by the number of available and willing preceptors. The clinical learning dyad model (CLDM), which pairs 2 beginning midwifery students with one preceptor in a busy practice, addresses this problem. In addition, this model brings in a senior midwife student as a near-peer mentor when the students are first oriented into outpatient clinical practice. The model began as a pilot project to improve the quality of training and increase available student spots in clinical education. This article discusses the origins of the model, the specifics of its design, and the results of a midterm and one-year postintervention survey. Students and preceptors involved in this model identified several advantages to the program, including increased student accountability, enhanced socialization into the profession, improved learning, and reduced teaching burden on preceptors. An additional benefit of the CLDM is that students form a learning community and collaborate with preceptors to care for women in busy clinical settings. Challenges of the model will also be discussed. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLDM. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern modeling and recognition via deterministic learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xunde DONG; Cong WANG; Junmin HU; Shanxing OU

    2014-01-01

    A method for electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern modeling and recognition via deterministic learning theory is presented in this paper. Instead of recognizing ECG signals beat-to-beat, each ECG signal which contains a number of heartbeats is recognized. The method is based entirely on the temporal features (i.e., the dynamics) of ECG patterns, which contains complete information of ECG patterns. A dynamical model is employed to demonstrate the method, which is capable of generating synthetic ECG signals. Based on the dynamical model, the method is shown in the following two phases:the identification (training) phase and the recognition (test) phase. In the identification phase, the dynamics of ECG patterns is accurately modeled and expressed as constant RBF neural weights through the deterministic learning. In the recognition phase, the modeling results are used for ECG pattern recognition. The main feature of the proposed method is that the dynamics of ECG patterns is accurately modeled and is used for ECG pattern recognition. Experimental studies using the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. A Machine-Learning-Driven Sky Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satylmys, Pynar; Bashford-Rogers, Thomas; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Sky illumination is responsible for much of the lighting in a virtual environment. A machine-learning-based approach can compactly represent sky illumination from both existing analytic sky models and from captured environment maps. The proposed approach can approximate the captured lighting at a significantly reduced memory cost and enable smooth transitions of sky lighting to be created from a small set of environment maps captured at discrete times of day. The author's results demonstrate accuracy close to the ground truth for both analytical and capture-based methods. The approach has a low runtime overhead, so it can be used as a generic approach for both offline and real-time applications.

  11. A Case Based Learning Model in Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, learning a Pharmaceutical Profession is an increasing challenge. Apart from traditional texts, lectures and self-guided individual learning, pharmaceutical educators are encouraged to find and implement ways to promote higher order thinking, collaborative learning and to increase students’ motivation. One way of achieving these objectives is to complement traditional learning methods with the development and implementation of Case Based Learning (CBL, supported in real life situations. Methods regarding real problems stand in contrast to a more traditional approach to learning and instruction. They promote learner-centered, small group, interactive learning experiences, instead of large group, didactic, teacher-centered instruction. Developing such a learning approach can be a challenge. In this sense, it becomes relevant to promote and share experiences already underway and by doing so, disseminate knowledge in this field. It is our goal with this text to share our experience in the design and implementation of a Case Based Approach to Therapeutics.

  12. The Effect of Culture on Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinasevych, Orest

    2010-01-01

    The author is conducting survey research to identify possible effects of culture on online learning success. The research will consider the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance identified by Hofstede (2001). The research participants will be students at Canadian post-secondary institutions. The survey will ask learners about their…

  13. Some Factors Effected Student's Calculus Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Wamington

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…

  14. Effective Teaching and Learning of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Effective Teaching and Learning of Writing describes the current state of the art in research on the way in which children acquire skills in written text production and defines the features of instruction that can play a part in teaching such skills. The book discusses research by 'reflective practi

  15. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    The object of this experimental study is to measure the effectiveness of a blended learning environment which is laid out on the basis of features for face to face and online environments. The study was applied to 110 students who attend to Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey and take Introduction to Computers Course. During the application,…

  16. Effective Teaching and Learning of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Effective Teaching and Learning of Writing describes the current state of the art in research on the way in which children acquire skills in written text production and defines the features of instruction that can play a part in teaching such skills. The book discusses research by 'reflective practi

  17. Enhancing Teaching Effectiveness and Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript addresses how post-secondary educators can enhance their teaching effectiveness and student learning outcomes through student assessment. Highlights will include evidence-based practices, teaching style, methodology, and the use of assessment data for university instructors. Primary focus will be data obtained from key stakeholders…

  18. Effective Teaching and Learning of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Effective Teaching and Learning of Writing describes the current state of the art in research on the way in which children acquire skills in written text production and defines the features of instruction that can play a part in teaching such skills. The book discusses research by 'reflective

  19. Question Answering System for an Effective Collaborative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Kohei Arai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing advances of Internet Technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. With the rapid development of E-Learning, collaborative learning is an important for teaching, learning methods and strategies. Interaction between the students also student with the teacher is important for student to gain knowledge. Based on the four basic teaching styles formal authority, demonstrator or personal model, facilitator and delegator, today combined between facilitator and delegator style is responsible for student learning. It is student centered and the teacher as facilitates the material and activities, but learning becomes part of valuable and effective when they collaborate with each other, and as the teacher who will delegates and facilitates the responsibility of learning to the students. In this paper, we introduce an effective question answering Q&A system for collaborative learning, which can act not just like a virtual teacher, but also virtual discussion for student. With the proposed system, brings a new Q&A system, student can attach their question when they want collaborate using collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills. Students can ask their questions to the group when they want to collaborate with others, asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas, then each of the answer will compare with encyclopedia data base. In this research, the Q&A system for the Senior High School in Indonesia, in this subject of Information Communication Technology implemented. From the the 40 question and 120 answer, the result is 90,48% precision 50% recall.

  20. Exploring the Impact of Students' Learning Approach on Collaborative Group Modeling of Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kang, Eunhee; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on group dynamics of statements associated with deep learning approaches (DLA) and their contribution to cognitive collaboration and model development during group modeling of blood circulation. A group was selected for an in-depth analysis of collaborative group modeling. This group constructed a model in a…

  1. Active Learning by Play Dough Modeling in the Medical Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herur, Anita; Kolagi, Sanjeev; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Manjula, R.; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Active learning produces meaningful learning, improves attitudes toward learning, and increases knowledge and retention, but is still not fully institutionalized in the undergraduate sciences. A few studies have compared the effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations, student seminars, quizzes, and use of CD-ROMs with blackboard teaching and…

  2. Active Learning by Play Dough Modeling in the Medical Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herur, Anita; Kolagi, Sanjeev; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Manjula, R.; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Active learning produces meaningful learning, improves attitudes toward learning, and increases knowledge and retention, but is still not fully institutionalized in the undergraduate sciences. A few studies have compared the effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations, student seminars, quizzes, and use of CD-ROMs with blackboard teaching and…

  3. The Role of Emotion in Informal Science Learning: Testing an Exploratory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staus, Nancy L.; Falk, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial research on the effect of emotions on educational outcomes in the classroom, relatively little is known about how emotion affects learning in informal science contexts. We examined the role of emotion in the context of an informal science learning experience by utilizing a path model to investigate the relationships…

  4. Modeling the Relations among Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, Learning Approach, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilgunes, Berna; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed a model to explain how epistemological beliefs, achievement motivation, and learning approach related to achievement. The authors assumed that epistemological beliefs influence achievement indirectly through their effect on achievement motivation and learning approach. Participants were 1,041 6th-grade students. Results of the…

  5. From Add-On to Mainstream: Applying Distance Learning Models for ALL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Robert, III.; Wesley, Threasa L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of distance learning technology has allowed Northern Kentucky University's W. Frank Steely Library to remove traditional boundaries between both distance and on-campus students. An emerging model that applies these distance learning methodologies to all students has proven effective for enhancing reference and instructional services. This…

  6. Learning to Swim Using Video Modelling and Video Feedback within a Self-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, So-An; Furlonger, Brett E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Busacca, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Although many adults who cannot swim are primarily interested in learning by direct coaching there are options that have a focus on self-directed learning. As an alternative a self-management program combined with video modelling, video feedback and high quality and affordable video technology was used to assess its effectiveness to assisting an…

  7. From Add-On to Mainstream: Applying Distance Learning Models for ALL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Robert, III.; Wesley, Threasa L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of distance learning technology has allowed Northern Kentucky University's W. Frank Steely Library to remove traditional boundaries between both distance and on-campus students. An emerging model that applies these distance learning methodologies to all students has proven effective for enhancing reference and instructional services. This…

  8. The Effectiveness of Model Learning CUPs: Impact on The Higher Order Thinking Skill Students at Madrasah Aliyah Mathla'ul Anwar Gisting Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antomi Saregar

    2016-10-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas model pembelajaran CUPs (Conceptual Understanding Procedures terhadap kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik kelas X IPA MA Mathla’ul Anwar Gisting. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuasi eksperimen dengan desain non equivalent control group. Populasi dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 52 peserta didik, dengan sampel X IPA 1 sebagai kelas eksperimen dan X IPA 2 sebagai kelas kontrol. Uji independent sample t-test digunakan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik menggunakan model CUPs dengan model pembelajaran langsung. Hasil analisis menyatakan bahwa terdapat perbedaan rata-rata kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik antara menggunakan model CUPs dengan model pembelajaran langsung. efektivitas penggunaan model CUPs lebih baik dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik, dapat diketahui dari nilai effect size yang diperoleh sebesar 0,3 termasuk dalam kategori sedang. Kata kunci: conceptual understanding procedures, HOTS, kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi, model CUPs

  9. Modelling an Institutional Mobile Learning Readiness Analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireri, Bonface Ngari; Omwenga, Elijah I.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the affordability, ease of use and availability of mobile devices, many people in Africa and developing countries have acquired at least a mobile device. The penetration of mobile devices places many learning institution in a position to adopt mobile learning, however there are few tools for measuring mobile learning readiness for an…

  10. A Collaborative Model for Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jorge; Barbosa, Debora; Rabello, Solon

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile devices and widespread adoption of wireless networks have enabled the emergence of Ubiquitous Computing. Application of this technology to improving education strategies gave rise to Ubiquitous e-Learning, also known as Ubiquitous Learning. There are several approaches to organizing ubiquitous learning environments, but most of them…

  11. A Collaborative Model for Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jorge; Barbosa, Debora; Rabello, Solon

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile devices and widespread adoption of wireless networks have enabled the emergence of Ubiquitous Computing. Application of this technology to improving education strategies gave rise to Ubiquitous e-Learning, also known as Ubiquitous Learning. There are several approaches to organizing ubiquitous learning environments, but most of them…

  12. Effects of Teacher Training in Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund; Wahlgren, Bjarne

    This paper tries to shed light over two questions raised in the workshop: ‘Effects of Teacher Training' at the ASEM conference June 2009 on Teachers and Trainers in Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Professional Development in Asia and Europe. At first it is asked what do we already know abou...... training? This will be illustrated by describing a research design in progress at the National Centre of  Competence Development, Denmark, regarding a program where teachers are taught teaching Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical and didactical method....

  13. Effective Classroom Assessment for Children's Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志红

    2004-01-01

    Formative assessment is a new concept introduced to the English teachers in China by the National English Curriculum (NEC). Its main feature is to provide quick feedback to promote learning and improve teaching, compared with summative assessment. Mostly, formative assessment is implemented during teaching practice. It should be a part of teaching and learning process. So far as it is concerned, teachers play a very important role. They should be able to decide or select what to be assessed and how to assess in classroom teaching. Thus, the focus of this article is to show them the practical ways to reach the goal, i.e. how to implement formative assessment more effectively.

  14. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students' learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users' behaviors. The purpose…

  15. Blended Learning Model on Hands-On Approach for In-Service Secondary School Teachers: Combination of E-Learning and Face-to-Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vinh-Thang; Nakamori, Yoshiteru; Ho, Tu-Bao; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a blended learning model on hands-on approach for in-service secondary school teachers using a quasi-experimental design. A 24-h teacher-training course using the blended learning model was administered to 117 teachers, while face-to-face instruction was given to 60 teachers. The…

  16. Testing Two Path Models to Explore Relationships between Students' Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment, Approaches to Learning and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the relationships between students' experiences of the teaching-learning environment and their approaches to learning, and the effects of these variables on academic achievement. Two three-stage models were tested with structural equation modelling techniques. The "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students"…

  17. Blended Learning Model on Hands-On Approach for In-Service Secondary School Teachers: Combination of E-Learning and Face-to-Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vinh-Thang; Nakamori, Yoshiteru; Ho, Tu-Bao; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a blended learning model on hands-on approach for in-service secondary school teachers using a quasi-experimental design. A 24-h teacher-training course using the blended learning model was administered to 117 teachers, while face-to-face instruction was given to 60 teachers. The…

  18. Why do children learn to say "Broke"? A model of learning the past tense without feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, NA; Anderson, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    Learning the English past tense is characterized by a U-shaped learning function for the irregular verbs. Existing cognitive models often rely on a sudden increase in vocabulary, a high token-frequency of regular verbs, and complicated schemes of feedback in order to model this phenomenon. All these

  19. IMPROVING LEARNING THROUGH APPLICATION OF QUANTUM LEARNING TEACHING MODEL ON THE SUBJECT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Juliana; Widayastuti, Umi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to increase student’s learning performance on “Doing Administration Procedure” through the implementation of quantum teaching model. The action research was conducted with three cycle. Each cycle is formulated with four stages: planning, action, observation and reflections. This research shown that the implementation of quantum teaching model has got positive contribution in increasing student’s learning achievement.

  20. Ready to learn physics: a team-based learning model for first year university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parappilly, Maria; Schmidt, Lisa; De Ritter, Samantha

    2015-09-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an established model of group work which aims to improve students' ability to apply discipline-related content. TBL consists of a readiness assurance process (RAP), student groups and application activities. While TBL has not been implemented widely in science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines, it has been effective in improving student learning in other disciplines. This paper describes the incorporation of TBL activities into a non-calculus based introductory level physics topic—Physics for the Modern World. Students were given pre-class preparation materials and an individual RAP online test before the workshops. The pre-workshop individual RAP test ensured that all students were exposed to concept-based questions before their workshops and motivated them to use the preparatory materials in readiness for the workshop. The students were placed into random teams and during the first part of the workshop, the teams went through a subset of the quiz questions (team RAP test) and in the remaining time, teams completed an in-class assignment. After the workshop students were allowed another attempt at the individual RAP test to see if their knowledge had improved. The ability of TBL to promote student learning of key concepts was evaluated by experiment using pre- and post- testing. The students’ perception of TBL was monitored by discussion posts and survey responses. Finally, the ability of TBL to support peer-peer interaction was evaluated by video analysis of the class. We found that the TBL process improved student learning; students did interact with each other in class; and the students had a positive view of TBL. To assess the transferability of this model to other topics, we conducted a comparison study with an environmental science topic which produced similar results. Our study supports the use of this TBL model in science topics.