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Sample records for modeling language uml

  1. Event Modeling in UML. Unified Modeling Language and Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We show how events can be modeled in terms of UML. We view events as change agents that have consequences and as information objects that represent information. We show how to create object-oriented structures that represent events in terms of attributes, associations, operations, state charts......, and messages. We outline a run-time environment for the processing of events with multiple participants....

  2. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  3. Perancangan Aplikasi Informasi SMS untuk Alumni Unsoed Menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangun Wijayanto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is a language which have come to the standard in industry to visualize, design and document the software system. Using UML we can make model for All software application type, where the application can also written in many language. SMS (Short Message Service is the best choice to solve geographic problems in spreading information to the alumni Unsoed. The aim of this research is to compile notation of UML (Unified Modeling Language in development of SMS Server for Alumni Unsoed. This research is conducted with software engineer method. The design result of software SMS alumni Unsoed present that UML (Unified Modeling Language help in design and software programming

  4. UML as a cell and biochemistry modeling language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ken; White, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The systems biology community is building increasingly complex models and simulations of cells and other biological entities, and are beginning to look at alternatives to traditional representations such as those provided by ordinary differential equations (ODE). The lessons learned over the years by the software development community in designing and building increasingly complex telecommunication and other commercial real-time reactive systems, can be advantageously applied to the problems of modeling in the biology domain. Making use of the object-oriented (OO) paradigm, the unified modeling language (UML) and Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling (ROOM) visual formalisms, and the Rational Rose RealTime (RRT) visual modeling tool, we describe a multi-step process we have used to construct top-down models of cells and cell aggregates. The simple example model described in this paper includes membranes with lipid bilayers, multiple compartments including a variable number of mitochondria, substrate molecules, enzymes with reaction rules, and metabolic pathways. We demonstrate the relevance of abstraction, reuse, objects, classes, component and inheritance hierarchies, multiplicity, visual modeling, and other current software development best practices. We show how it is possible to start with a direct diagrammatic representation of a biological structure such as a cell, using terminology familiar to biologists, and by following a process of gradually adding more and more detail, arrive at a system with structure and behavior of arbitrary complexity that can run and be observed on a computer. We discuss our CellAK (Cell Assembly Kit) approach in terms of features found in SBML, CellML, E-CELL, Gepasi, Jarnac, StochSim, Virtual Cell, and membrane computing systems.

  5. Use of Unified Modeling Language (UML) in Model-Based Development (MBD) For Safety-Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    ControlStation switching between control and monitor states. The black dot indicates the initial transition. Once in the monitor state, the ControlStation can...is to develop a UML profile. UML profiles are analogous to spoken language dialects. For example, Cajun is a dialect of North American English...UML_AADL_Comparison.pdf. 49. Grady Booch, “Software Architecture, Software Engineering, and Renaissance Jazz , Microsoft and Domain Specific Languages,” December 2004

  6. Using Unified Modelling Language (UML) as a process-modelling technique for clinical-research process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, P; De Lusignan, S; Ellis, T; Jones, B

    2007-03-01

    The Primary Care Data Quality programme (PCDQ) is a quality-improvement programme which processes routinely collected general practice computer data. Patient data collected from a wide range of different brands of clinical computer systems are aggregated, processed, and fed back to practices in an educational context to improve the quality of care. Process modelling is a well-established approach used to gain understanding and systematic appraisal, and identify areas of improvement of a business process. Unified modelling language (UML) is a general purpose modelling technique used for this purpose. We used UML to appraise the PCDQ process to see if the efficiency and predictability of the process could be improved. Activity analysis and thinking-aloud sessions were used to collect data to generate UML diagrams. The UML model highlighted the sequential nature of the current process as a barrier for efficiency gains. It also identified the uneven distribution of process controls, lack of symmetric communication channels, critical dependencies among processing stages, and failure to implement all the lessons learned in the piloting phase. It also suggested that improved structured reporting at each stage - especially from the pilot phase, parallel processing of data and correctly positioned process controls - should improve the efficiency and predictability of research projects. Process modelling provided a rational basis for the critical appraisal of a clinical data processing system; its potential maybe underutilized within health care.

  7. UML in business process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Marcinkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection and proper application of business process modeling methods and techniques have a significant impact on organizational improvement capabilities as well as proper understanding of functionality of information systems that shall support activity of the organization. A number of business process modeling notations were popularized in practice in recent decades. Most significant of the notations include Business Process Modeling Notation (OMG BPMN and several Unified Modeling Language (OMG UML extensions. In this paper, the assessment whether one of the most flexible and strictly standardized contemporary business process modeling notations, i.e. Rational UML Profile for Business Modeling, enable business analysts to prepare business models that are all-embracing and understandable by all the stakeholders. After the introduction, methodology of research is discussed. Section 2 presents selected case study results. The paper is concluded with a summary.

  8. The use of UML activity diagrams and the i* language in the modeling of the balanced scorecard implantation process

    OpenAIRE

    Haya, Mariela; Franch, Xavier; Mayol, Enric

    2005-01-01

    Business management is a complex task that can be facilitated using different methodologies and models. One of their most relevant purposes is to align the organization strategy with the daily functioning of the organization. One of these models is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). In this paper, we propose a modeling strategy for the BSC implantation process. We will model it using UML Activity Diagrams and Strategy Dependency models of the language i*. The Activity Diagrams allow determining th...

  9. Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UMLS integrates and distributes key terminology, classification and coding standards, and associated resources to promote creation of more effective and...

  10. MODELING WORK OF SORTING STATION USING UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gorbova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the construction of methods and models for the graphical representation process of sorting station, using the unified modeling language (UML. Methodology. Methods of graph theory, finite automata and the representation theory of queuing systems were used as the methods of investigation. A graphical representation of the process was implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language UML. The sorting station process representation is implemented as a state diagram and actions through a set of IBM Rational Rose. Graphs can show parallel operation of sorting station, the parallel existence and influence of objects process and the transition from one state to another. The IBM Rational Rose complex allows developing a diagram of work sequence of varying degrees of detailing. Findings. The study has developed a graphical representation method of the process of sorting station of different kind of complexity. All graphical representations are made using the UML. They are represented as a directed graph with the states. It is clear enough in the study of the subject area. Applying the methodology of the representation process, it allows becoming friendly with the work of any automation object very fast, and exploring the process during algorithms construction of sorting stations and other railway facilities. This model is implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language (UML using a combination of IBM Rational Rose. Originality. The representation process of sorting station was developed by means of the Unified Modeling Language (UML use. Methodology of representation process allows creating the directed graphs based on the order of execution of the works chain, objects and performers of these works. The UML allows visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting, formalizing the representation process of sorting station and developing sequence diagrams of works of varying degrees of detail. Practical

  11. Aspect-oriented security hardening of UML design models

    CERN Document Server

    Mouheb, Djedjiga; Pourzandi, Makan; Wang, Lingyu; Nouh, Mariam; Ziarati, Raha; Alhadidi, Dima; Talhi, Chamseddine; Lima, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents a novel approach to the systematic security hardening of software design models expressed in the standard UML language. It combines model-driven engineering and the aspect-oriented paradigm to integrate security practices into the early phases of the software development process. To this end, a UML profile has been developed for the specification of security hardening aspects on UML diagrams. In addition, a weaving framework, with the underlying theoretical foundations, has been designed for the systematic injection of security aspects into UML models. The

  12. An investigation of difficulties experienced by students developing unified modelling language (UML) class and sequence diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-12-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they essentially do not know "what" to model. This article investigates the difficulties and misconceptions undergraduate students have with analysing systems using unified modelling language analysis class and sequence diagrams. These models were chosen because they represent important static and dynamic aspects of the software system under development. The results of this study will help students produce effective OO models, and facilitate software engineering lecturers design learning materials and approaches for introductory OOAD courses.

  13. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  14. Transformation of UML Behavioral Diagrams to Support Software Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is currently accepted as the standard for modeling (object-oriented software, and its use is increasing in the aerospace industry. Verification and Validation of complex software developed according to UML is not trivial due to complexity of the software itself, and the several different UML models/diagrams that can be used to model behavior and structure of the software. This paper presents an approach to transform up to three different UML behavioral diagrams (sequence, behavioral state machines, and activity into a single Transition System to support Model Checking of software developed in accordance with UML. In our approach, properties are formalized based on use case descriptions. The transformation is done for the NuSMV model checker, but we see the possibility in using other model checkers, such as SPIN. The main contribution of our work is the transformation of a non-formal language (UML to a formal language (language of the NuSMV model checker towards a greater adoption in practice of formal methods in software development.

  15. Verifying OCL specifications of UML models : tool support and compositionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyas, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Modelling Language (UML) and the Object Constraint Language (OCL) serve as specification languages for embedded and real-time systems used in a safety-critical environment. In this dissertation class diagrams, object diagrams, and OCL constraints are formalised. The formalisation

  16. An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Students Developing Unified Modelling Language (UML) Class and Sequence Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they…

  17. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Code clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of code) have been studied for long, and there is strong evidence that they are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs similarly in models, suggesting that model clones are as detrimental to model quality...... as they are to code quality. However, programming language code and visual models have significant differences that make it difficult to directly transfer notions and algorithms developed in the code clone arena to model clones. In this article, we develop and propose a definition of the notion of “model clone” based...... we believe that our approach advances the state of the art significantly, it is restricted to UML models, its results leave room for improvements, and there is no validation by field studies....

  18. QoS modelling and analysis with UML-statecharts: the StoCharts approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, D.N.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2005-01-01

    The UML is an influential and widespread notation for high-level modelling of information processing systems. UML statechart diagrams are a graphical language to describe system behaviour. They consitute one of the most intensively-used formalisms comprised by the UML. However, statechart diagrams are lacking concepts for describing real-time, performance, dependability and quality of service (QoS) characteristics at a behavioural level.This note describes a QoS-oriented extension of UML stat...

  19. Construction of UML class diagram with Model-Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Górski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Model transformations play a key role in software development projects based on Model--Driven Development (MDD principles. Transformations allow for automation of repetitive and well-defined steps, thus shortening design time and reducing a number of errors. In the object-oriented approach, the key elements are use cases. They are described, modelled and later designed until executable application code is obtained. The aim of the paper is to present transformation of a model-to-model type, Communication-2-Class, which automates construction of Unified Modelling Language (UML class diagram in the context of the analysis/design model. An UML class diagram is created based on UML communication diagram within use case realization. As a result, a class diagram shows all of the classes involved in the use case realization and the relationships among them. The plug-in which implements Communication-2-Class transformation was implemented in the IBM Rational Software Architect. The article presents the tests results of developed plug-in, which realizes Communication-2-Class transformation, showing capabilities of shortening use case realization’s design time.[b]Keywords[/b]: Model-Driven Development, transformations, Unified Modelling Language, analysis/design model, UML class diagram, UML communication diagram

  20. Querying UML models using OCL and Prolog: A performance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimiak-Opoka, J.; Felderer, M.; Lenz, C.; Lange, C.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The size of unified modeling language (UML) models used in practice is very large and ranges up to hundreds and thousands of classes. Querying of these models is used to support their quality assessment by information filtering and aggregating. For both, human cognition and automated analysis, there

  1. Vehicle System Management Modeling in UML for Ares I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Newton W.; Biehn, Bradley A.; Curry, Tristan D.; Martinez, Mario R.

    2011-01-01

    The Spacecraft & Vehicle Systems Department of Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for modeling the Vehicle System Management for the Ares I vehicle which was a part of the now canceled Constellation Program. An approach to generating the requirements for the Vehicle System Management was to use the Unified Modeling Language technique to build and test a model that would fulfill the Vehicle System Management requirements. UML has been used on past projects (flight software) in the design phase of the effort but this was the first attempt to use the UML technique from a top down requirements perspective.

  2. Model-Driven Theme/UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Andrew; Driver, Cormac; Jackson, Andrew; Clarke, Siobhán

    Theme/UML is an existing approach to aspect-oriented modelling that supports the modularisation and composition of concerns, including crosscutting ones, in design. To date, its lack of integration with model-driven engineering (MDE) techniques has limited its benefits across the development lifecycle. Here, we describe our work on facilitating the use of Theme/UML as part of an MDE process. We have developed a transformation tool that adopts model-driven architecture (MDA) standards. It defines a concern composition mechanism, implemented as a model transformation, to support the enhanced modularisation features of Theme/UML. We evaluate our approach by applying it to the development of mobile, context-aware applications-an application area characterised by many non-functional requirements that manifest themselves as crosscutting concerns.

  3. Executable UML Modeling For Automotive Embedded Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Engineers are more and more faced to the hard problem of sophisticated real-time System whereas time to market becomes always smaller. Object oriented modeling supported by UML standard brings effective solutions to such problems. However the possibility to specify real-time aspects of an application are not yet fully satisfactory Indeed, existing industrial proposals supply good answers to concurrency specification problem but they are yet limited regarding to real-time quantitative properties specification of an application. This work aims to construct a complete and consistent UML methodology based on a profile dedicated to automotive embedded Systems modeling and prototyping. This profile contains ail needed extensions to express easily the real-time quantitative properties of an application. Moreover, thanks to the formalization of UML protocol state machines, real-time concepts have been well-integrated in the object oriented paradigm. The main result of this deep integration is that a user is now able to model real-time Systems through the classical object oriented view i.e. without needing any specific knowing in real-time area. In order to answer to an industrial requirement, Systems prototyping (key point for car industry) the ACCORD/UML approach allows also to build executable models of an application. For that purpose, the method supplies a set of rules allow.ng to remove UML ambiguous semantics points, to complete semantics variation points and then to obtain a complete and coherent global model of an application being executable. The work of UML extension and its using formalization realized all along this thesis supplied also a complete and non-ambiguous modeling framework for automotive electronics Systems development. This is also a base particularly well-suited to tackle other facets of the Systems development as automatic and optimized code generation, validation, simulation or tests. (author) [fr

  4. Assessing and improving the quality of modeling : a series of empirical studies about the UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing and Improving the Quality of Modeling A Series of Empirical Studies about the UML This thesis addresses the assessment and improvement of the quality of modeling in software engineering. In particular, we focus on the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which is the de facto standard in

  5. Using UML to Model Web Services for Automatic Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Elgammal; Mohamed El-Sharkawi

    2010-01-01

    There is a great interest paid to the web services paradigm nowadays. One of the most important problems related to the web service paradigm is the automatic composition of web services. Several frameworks have been proposed to achieve this novel goal. The most recent and richest framework (model) is the Colombo model. However, even for experienced developers, working with Colombo formalisms is low-level, very complex and timeconsuming. We propose to use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to mod...

  6. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  7. UML 2 Certification Guide Fundamental & Intermediate Exams

    CERN Document Server

    Weilkiens, Tim

    2006-01-01

    The popular Unified Modeling Language (UML) is both a language and notation developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) used to design and create specifications for software systems. With the recent release of version 2.0 UML, the OMG has started the OMG-Certified UML Professional Program to provide an objective measure of UML knowledge. As a certified UML professional a developer has an important credential to present to employers and clients. Certification also benefits companies looking for skilled UML practitioners by giving them a basis for making hiring and promotion decisions.UML 2 C

  8. Dependability modeling and assessment in UML-based software development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Simona; Merseguer, José; Petriu, Dorina C

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of software nonfunctional properties (NFP) is an important problem in software development. In the context of model-driven development, an emerging approach for the analysis of different NFPs consists of the following steps: (a) to extend the software models with annotations describing the NFP of interest; (b) to transform automatically the annotated software model to the formalism chosen for NFP analysis; (c) to analyze the formal model using existing solvers; (d) to assess the software based on the results and give feedback to designers. Such a modeling→analysis→assessment approach can be applied to any software modeling language, be it general purpose or domain specific. In this paper, we focus on UML-based development and on the dependability NFP, which encompasses reliability, availability, safety, integrity, and maintainability. The paper presents the profile used to extend UML with dependability information, the model transformation to generate a DSPN formal model, and the assessment of the system properties based on the DSPN results.

  9. UML 2.0 Pocket Reference UML Syntax and Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Pilone, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Globe-trotting travelers have long resorted to handy, pocket-size dictionaries as an aid to communicating across the language barrier. Dan Pilone's UML 2.0 Pocket Reference is just such an aid for on-the-go developers who need to converse in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Use this book to decipher the many UML diagrams you'll encounter on the path to delivering a modern software system. Updated to cover the very latest in UML, you'll find coverage of the following UML 2.0 diagram types: Class diagramsComponent diagrams*Sequence diagrams*Communication diagrams*Timing diagrams*Interactio

  10. Formal Verification of UML Profil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, Arifa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2011-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is based on the Model Driven Development (MDD) approach which capturing the system functionality using the platform-independent model (PMI) and appropriate domain-specific languages. In UML base system notations, structural view is model by the class, components...

  11. Tracing the Rationale Behind UML Model Change Through Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jureta, Ivan J.; Faulkner, Stéphane

    Neglecting traceability—i.e., the ability to describe and follow the life of a requirement—is known to entail misunderstanding and miscommunication, leading to the engineering of poor quality systems. Following the simple principles that (a) changes to UML model instances ought be justified to the stakeholders, (b) justification should proceed in a structured manner to ensure rigor in discussions, critique, and revisions of model instances, and (c) the concept of argument instantiated in a justification process ought to be well defined and understood, the present paper introduces the UML Traceability through Argumentation Method (UML-TAM) to enable the traceability of design rationale in UML while allowing the appropriateness of model changes to be checked by analysis of the structure of the arguments provided to justify such changes.

  12. Prototype of Intrusion Detection Model using UML 5.0 and Forward Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthaiyan MADIAJAGAN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are using UML (Unified Modeling Language which is the blueprint language between the programmers, analysts, and designer’s for easy representation of pictures or diagrammatic notation with some textual data. Here we are using UML 5.0 to show “prototype of the Intrusion Detection Model” and by explaining it by combining various parts by drawing various UML diagrams such as Use cases and Activity diagrams and Class Diagram using which we show forward engineering using the class diagram of the IDM( Intrusion Detection Model. IDM is a device or software that works on detecting malicious activities by unauthorized users that can cause breach to the security policy within a network.

  13. Performance Evaluation of UML2-Modeled Embedded Streaming Applications with System-Level Simulation

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    Arpinen Tero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an efficient method to capture abstract performance model of streaming data real-time embedded systems (RTESs. Unified Modeling Language version 2 (UML2 is used for the performance modeling and as a front-end for a tool framework that enables simulation-based performance evaluation and design-space exploration. The adopted application meta-model in UML resembles the Kahn Process Network (KPN model and it is targeted at simulation-based performance evaluation. The application workload modeling is done using UML2 activity diagrams, and platform is described with structural UML2 diagrams and model elements. These concepts are defined using a subset of the profile for Modeling and Analysis of Realtime and Embedded (MARTE systems from OMG and custom stereotype extensions. The goal of the performance modeling and simulation is to achieve early estimates on task response times, processing element, memory, and on-chip network utilizations, among other information that is used for design-space exploration. As a case study, a video codec application on multiple processors is modeled, evaluated, and explored. In comparison to related work, this is the first proposal that defines transformation between UML activity diagrams and streaming data application workload meta models and successfully adopts it for RTES performance evaluation.

  14. A rule-based approach to model checking of UML state machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    In the paper a new approach to formal verification of control process specification expressed by means of UML state machines in version 2.x is proposed. In contrast to other approaches from the literature, we use the abstract and universal rule-based logical model suitable both for model checking (using the nuXmv model checker), but also for logical synthesis in form of rapid prototyping. Hence, a prototype implementation in hardware description language VHDL can be obtained that fully reflects the primary, already formally verified specification in form of UML state machines. Presented approach allows to increase the assurance that implemented system meets the user-defined requirements.

  15. Towards refactoring the Molecular Function Ontology with a UML profile for function modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Patryk; Loebe, Frank; Herre, Heinrich

    2017-10-04

    Gene Ontology (GO) is the largest resource for cataloging gene products. This resource grows steadily and, naturally, this growth raises issues regarding the structure of the ontology. Moreover, modeling and refactoring large ontologies such as GO is generally far from being simple, as a whole as well as when focusing on certain aspects or fragments. It seems that human-friendly graphical modeling languages such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML) could be helpful in connection with these tasks. We investigate the use of UML for making the structural organization of the Molecular Function Ontology (MFO), a sub-ontology of GO, more explicit. More precisely, we present a UML dialect, called the Function Modeling Language (FueL), which is suited for capturing functions in an ontologically founded way. FueL is equipped, among other features, with language elements that arise from studying patterns of subsumption between functions. We show how to use this UML dialect for capturing the structure of molecular functions. Furthermore, we propose and discuss some refactoring options concerning fragments of MFO. FueL enables the systematic, graphical representation of functions and their interrelations, including making information explicit that is currently either implicit in MFO or is mainly captured in textual descriptions. Moreover, the considered subsumption patterns lend themselves to the methodical analysis of refactoring options with respect to MFO. On this basis we argue that the approach can increase the comprehensibility of the structure of MFO for humans and can support communication, for example, during revision and further development.

  16. Contribution to the building of an execution engine for UML models for the simulation of competitor and timed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyahia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) places models at the heart of the software engineering process. MDE helps managing the complexity of software systems and improving the quality of the development process. The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) initiative from the Object Management Group (OMG) defines a framework for building design flows in the context of MDE. MDA relies heavily on formalisms which are normalized by the OMG, such as UML for modeling, QVT for model transformations and so on. This work deals with the execution semantics of the UML language applied to embedded real-time applications. In this context, the OMG has a norm which defines an execution model for a subset of UML called fUML (foundational UML subset). This execution model gives a precise semantics to UML models, which can be used for analyzing models, generating code, or verifying transformations. The goal of this PhD thesis is to define and build an execution engine for UML models of embedded real-time systems, which takes into account the explicit hypothesis made by the designer about the execution semantics at a high level of abstraction, in order to be able to execute models as early as possible in the design flow of a system. To achieve this goal, we have extended the fUML execution model along three important axes with regard to embedded real-time systems: - Concurrence: fUML does not provide any mechanism for handling concurrent activities in its execution engine. We address this issue by introducing an explicit scheduler which allows us to control the execution of concurrent tasks. - Time: fUML does not provide any mean to handle time. By adding a clock to the model of execution, we can take into account the elapsed time as well as temporal constraints on the execution of activities. - Profiles: fUML does not take profiles into account, which makes it difficult to personalize the execution engine with new semantic variants. The execution engine we propose allows the use of UML models with

  17. Preface to FP-UML 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Juan; Kim, Dae-Kyoo

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely accepted as the standard object-oriented (OO) modeling language for modeling various aspects of software and information systems. The UML is an extensible language, in the sense that it provides mechanisms to introduce new elements for specific domains if necessary, such as web applications, database applications, business modeling, software development processes, data warehouses. Furthermore, the latest version of UML 2.0 got even bigger and more complicated with more diagrams for some good reasons. Although UML provides different diagrams for modeling different aspects of a software system, not all of them need to be applied in most cases. Therefore, heuristics, design guidelines, lessons learned from experiences are extremely important for the effective use of UML 2.0 and to avoid unnecessary complication. Also, approaches are needed to better manage UML 2.0 and its extensions so they do not become too complex too manage in the end.

  18. Towards an automatic model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of complex event-driven systems requires studies and analysis prior to deployment with the goal of detecting unwanted behavior. UML is a language widely used by the software engineering community for modeling these systems through state machines, among other mechanisms. Currently, these models do not have appropriate execution and simulation tools to analyze the real behavior of systems. Existing tools do not provide appropriate libraries (sampling from a probability distribution, plotting, etc. both to build and to analyze models. Modeling and simulation for design and prototyping of systems are widely used techniques to predict, investigate and compare the performance of systems. In particular, the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS formalism separates the modeling and simulation; there are several tools available on the market that run and collect information from DEVS models. This paper proposes a model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models in the Model-Driven Development (MDD context, through the declarative QVT Relations language, in order to perform simulations using tools, such as PowerDEVS. A mechanism to validate the transformation is proposed. Moreover, examples of application to analyze the behavior of an automatic banking machine and a control system of an elevator are presented.

  19. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  20. Modeling Value Chain Analysis of Distance Education using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anal; Mukherjee, Soumen

    2010-10-01

    Distance education continues to grow as a methodology for the delivery of course content in higher education in India as well as abroad. To manage this growing demand and to provide certain flexibility, there must be certain strategic planning about the use of ICT tools. Value chain analysis is a framework for breaking down the sequence of business functions into a set of activities through which utility could be added to service. Thus it can help to determine the competitive advantage that is enjoyed by an institute. To implement these business functions certain visual representation is required. UML allows for this representation by using a set of structural and behavioral diagrams. In this paper, the first section defines a framework for value chain analysis and highlights its advantages. The second section gives a brief overview of related work in this field. The third section gives a brief discussion on distance education. The fourth section very briefly introduces UML. The fifth section models value chain of distance education using UML. Finally we discuss the limitations and the problems posed in this domain.

  1. Comparison of BrainTool to other UML modeling and model transformation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, Oksana; Gusarovs, Konstantins

    2017-07-01

    In the last 30 years there were numerous model generated software systems offered targeting problems with the development productivity and the resulting software quality. CASE tools developed due today's date are being advertised as having "complete code-generation capabilities". Nowadays the Object Management Group (OMG) is calling similar arguments in regards to the Unified Modeling Language (UML) models at different levels of abstraction. It is being said that software development automation using CASE tools enables significant level of automation. Actual today's CASE tools are usually offering a combination of several features starting with a model editor and a model repository for a traditional ones and ending with code generator (that could be using a scripting or domain-specific (DSL) language), transformation tool to produce the new artifacts from the manually created and transformation definition editor to define new transformations for the most advanced ones. Present paper contains the results of CASE tool (mainly UML editors) comparison against the level of the automation they are offering.

  2. UML Modeling for Dynamic Logistics System Based on DEVS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhiyong; Liu Jie; Zhang Xinhui

    2013-01-01

    DEVS is a hierarchical and modular system descriptive method. However, it cannot describe dynamic process and relationship of system members. This article has proposed a way to extend UML using stereotype, making it suitable for simulation modeling. To build a modeling tool, we defined atomic model class and coupled model class, both of which are in line with not only DEVS’s hierarchical and modular requirements but also UML’s object-oriented characteristics. At last, we use the tool to analy...

  3. Verification-Driven Slicing of UML/OCL Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Asadullah; Clarisó Viladrosa, Robert; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2010-01-01

    computational complexity can limit their scalability. In this paper, we consider a specific static model (UML class diagrams annotated with unrestricted OCL constraints) and a specific property to verify (satisfiability, i.e., “is it possible to create objects without violating any constraint?”). Current...... approaches to this problem have an exponential worst-case runtime. We propose a technique to improve their scalability by partitioning the original model into submodels (slices) which can be verified independently and where irrelevant information has been abstracted. The definition of the slicing procedure...

  4. Requirements for UML and OWL Integration Tool for User Data Consistency Modeling and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Oleshchuk, V. A.

    2003-01-01

    The amount of data available on the Internet is continuously increasing, consequentially there is a growing need for tools that help to analyse the data. Testing of consistency among data received from different sources is made difficult by the number of different languages and schemas being used....... In this paper we analyze requirements for a tool that support integration of UML models and ontologies written in languages like the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL). The tool can be used in the following way: after loading two legacy models into the tool, the tool user connects them by inserting modeling......, an important part of this technique is attaching of OCL expressions to special boolean class attributes that we call consistency attributes. The resulting integration model can be used for automatic consistency testing of two instances of the legacy models by automatically instantiate the whole integration...

  5. Model-based testing with UML applied to a roaming algorithm for bluetooth devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhen Ru; Grabowski, Jens; Neukirchen, Helmut; Pals, Holger

    2004-11-01

    In late 2001, the Object Management Group issued a Request for Proposal to develop a testing profile for UML 2.0. In June 2003, the work on the UML 2.0 Testing Profile was finally adopted by the OMG. Since March 2004, it has become an official standard of the OMG. The UML 2.0 Testing Profile provides support for UML based model-driven testing. This paper introduces a methodology on how to use the testing profile in order to modify and extend an existing UML design model for test issues. The application of the methodology will be explained by applying it to an existing UML Model for a Bluetooth device.

  6. Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardillo, Jesús; Golfarelli, Matteo; Rizzi, Stefano; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analysed. Though many techniques for visual modelling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, we argue, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modelling data warehousing flows for all applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated visual modelling technique for data cubes and data flows. This technique is based on UML profiling; its feasibility is evaluated by means of a prototype implementation.

  7. Optimizing UML Class Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of object-oriented development technologies rely on the use of the universal modeling language UML; class diagrams play a very important role in the design process play, used to build a software system model. Modern CASE tools, which are the basic tools for object-oriented development, can’t be used to optimize UML diagrams. In this manuscript we will explain how, based on the use of design patterns and anti-patterns, class diagrams could be verified and optimized. Certain transformations can be carried out automatically; in other cases, potential inefficiencies will be indicated and recommendations given. This study also discusses additional CASE tools for validating and optimizing of UML class diagrams. For this purpose, a plugin has been developed that analyzes an XMI file containing a description of class diagrams.

  8. Automatic Generation of Test Cases from UML Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Pérez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available [Context] The growing demand for high-quality software has caused the industry to incorporate processes to enable them to comply with these standards, but increasing the cost of development. A strategy to reduce this cost is to incorporate quality evaluations from early stages of software development. A technique that facilitates this evaluation is the model-based testing, which allows to generate test cases at early phases using as input the conceptual models of the system. [Objective] In this paper, we introduce TCGen, a tool that enables the automatic generation of abstract test cases starting from UML conceptual models. [Method] The design and implementation of TCGen, a technique that applies different testing criteria to class diagrams and state transition diagrams to generates test cases, is presented as a model-based testing approach. To do that, TCGen uses UML models, which are widely used at industry and a set of algorithms that recognize the concepts in the models in order to generate abstract test cases. [Results] An exploratory experimental evaluation has been performed to compare the TCGen tool with traditional testing. [Conclusions] Even though the exploratory evaluation shows promising results, it is necessary to perform more empirical evaluations in order to generalize the results. Abstract (in Spanish: [Contexto] La creciente demanda de software de alta calidad ha provocado que la industria incorpore procesos para permitirles cumplir con estos estándares, pero aumentando el costo del desarrollo. Una estrategia para reducir este costo es incorporar evaluaciones de calidad desde las primeras etapas del desarrollo del software. Una técnica que facilita esta evaluación es la prueba basada en modelos, que permite generar casos de prueba en fases tempranas utilizando como entrada los modelos conceptuales del sistema. [Objetivo] En este artículo, presentamos TCGen, una herramienta que permite la generación automática de casos de

  9. On the suitability of UML 2.0 activity diagrams for business process modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, N.C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Wohed, P.; Stumptner, M.; Hartmann, S.; Kiyoki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    UML is posited as the 'swiss army knife' for systems modelling and design activities. It embodies a number of modelling formalisms that have broad applicability in capturing both the static and dynamic aspects of software systems. One area of UML that has received particular attention is that of

  10. From UML Specification into FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bazydlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a method of using the Unified Modeling Language for specification of digital systems, especially logic controllers, is presented. The proposed method is based mainly on the UML state machine diagrams and uses Hierarchical Concurrent Finite State Machines (HCFSMs as a temporary model. The paper shows a way to transform the UML diagrams, expressed in XML language, to the form that is acceptable by reconfigurable FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The UML specification is used to generate an effective program in Hardware Description Languages (HDLs, especially Verilog.

  11. Supporting several levels of restriction in the UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide; Thomsen, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Bas....... This approach potentially increases the usability of the UML, and thus ultimately leads to greater quality and adoption of UML models.......The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Based...

  12. A UMLS-based spell checker for natural language processing in vaccine safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be analyzed using natural language processing. To extract Unified Medical Language System (UMLS concepts from free text and classify AEFI reports based on concepts they contain, we first needed to clean the text by expanding abbreviations and shortcuts and correcting spelling errors. Our objective in this paper was to create a UMLS-based spelling error correction tool as a first step in the natural language processing (NLP pipeline for AEFI reports. Methods We developed spell checking algorithms using open source tools. We used de-identified AEFI surveillance reports to create free-text data sets for analysis. After expansion of abbreviated clinical terms and shortcuts, we performed spelling correction in four steps: (1 error detection, (2 word list generation, (3 word list disambiguation and (4 error correction. We then measured the performance of the resulting spell checker by comparing it to manual correction. Results We used 12,056 words to train the spell checker and tested its performance on 8,131 words. During testing, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV for the spell checker were 74% (95% CI: 74–75, 100% (95% CI: 100–100, and 47% (95% CI: 46%–48%, respectively. Conclusion We created a prototype spell checker that can be used to process AEFI reports. We used the UMLS Specialist Lexicon as the primary source of dictionary terms and the WordNet lexicon as a secondary source. We used the UMLS as a domain-specific source of dictionary terms to compare potentially misspelled words in the corpus. The prototype sensitivity was comparable to currently available

  13. UML-based testcase- and system model for railway process control- and safety engineering; UML-basierte Testfall- und Systemmodelle fuer die Eisenbahnleit- und -sicherungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollmann, V.

    2007-12-15

    The continuous introduction of more sophisticated and more complex automation systems is of high relevance for operations- and control devices for railway applications. One example of this trend is the European Train Control System (ETCS). I is harmonized for all European member states and currently deployed for commercial use on selected lines. Applications like ETCS take responsibility for passengers, environment and the rolling stock material. For this reason, the development of those applications is characterized by high demands on testing, documentation and quality assurance. Unfortunately, real projects have proven to achieve these high demands only with tremendous efforts as long as they stick to their traditional development processes and methods. Therefore, a wide spread exploration for new concepts regarding planning, implementation and - most of all - testing of safety relevant systems is under its way. This thesis contributes to the search for new design methods for such systems. It combines recent achievements in the environment of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to an integrated approach for a consistent testcase- and system description in a single UML model. The model comprises the UML profiles SysML (System Modeling Language) and U2TP (UML 2 Testing Profile), which are officially specified and released by the Object Management Group (OMG). This thesis shows how based on these two profiles - a single, combined system- and testcase model can be build - relationships between requirements, implementation- and testcase can be established - requirement relationships can be evaluated automatically to ensure model consistency and to determine implementation and testcase coverage - C++-code can be generated directly from the model - TTCN-3-code (Testing and Test Control Notation, Version 3) can be derived automatically from the model - a toolchain can be set up which supports all mentioned functions. In order to prove the feasibility of this approach, a

  14. UML Profile for Mining Process: Supporting Modeling and Simulation Based on Metamodels of Activity Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giubergia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An UML profile describes lightweight extension mechanism to the UML by defining custom stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints. They are used to adapt UML metamodel to different platforms and domains. In this paper we present an UML profile for models supporting event driving simulation. In particular, we use the Arena simulation tool and we focus on the mining process domain. Profiles provide an easy way to obtain well-defined specifications, regulated by the Object Management Group (OMG. They can be used as a presimulation technique to obtain solid models for the mining industry. In this work we present a new profile to extend the UML metamodel; in particular we focus on the activity diagram. This extended model is applied to an industry problem involving loading and transportation of minerals in the field of mining process.

  15. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  16. Behavioral Modeling of WSN MAC Layer Security Attacks: A Sequential UML Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    is the vulnerability to security attacks/threats. The performance and behavior of a WSN are vastly affected by such attacks. In order to be able to better address the vulnerabilities of WSNs in terms of security, it is important to understand the behavior of the attacks. This paper addresses the behavioral modeling...... of medium access control (MAC) security attacks in WSNs. The MAC layer is responsible for energy consumption, delay and channel utilization of the network and attacks on this layer can introduce significant degradation of the individual sensor nodes due to energy drain and in performance due to delays....... The behavioral modeling of attacks will be beneficial for designing efficient and secure MAC layer protocols. The security attacks are modeled using a sequential diagram approach of Unified Modeling Language (UML). Further, a new attack definition, specific to hybrid MAC mechanisms, is proposed....

  17. minimUML: A Minimalist Approach to UML Diagramming for Early Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Scott A.; Perez-Quinones, Manuel A.; Edwards, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    In introductory computer science courses, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is commonly used to teach basic object-oriented design. However, there appears to be a lack of suitable software to support this task. Many of the available programs that support UML focus on developing code and not on enhancing learning. Programs designed for…

  18. UML Statechart Fault Tree Generation By Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    of the popular Business Process Modelling and Nota-tion (BPMN) language. To capture uncertainty and unreliability in workflows, we extend this formalism with probabilistic non-deterministic branching.We present an algorithm that allows for exhaustive gen-eration of possible error states that could arise in ex...

  19. OOAspectZ and aspect-oriented UML class diagrams for Aspect-oriented software modelling (AOSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vidal Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding modularised software development, Aspect-oriented programming (AOP identifies and represents individually crosscutting concerns during the software development cycle’s programming stage. This article proposes and applies OOAspectZ to formal Aspect-oriented requirement specifications for prior stages of the software development cycle. It particularly concerns requirement specification and the structural design of data and behaviour, along with describing and applying Aspect-oriented UML class diagrams to designing classes, aspects and associations among classes and aspects during Aspect-oriented software development (AOSD.OOAspectZ is a language integrating both Object-Z and AspectZ formal languages whereas Aspect-oriented UML class diagrams represent AOP code, object class and crosscutting concern class structure by means of stereotypes. This article shows and applies the main OOAspectZ and AO UML class diagram characteristics to Aspect-oriented software modelling (AOSM using a classic example of AOP. Ideas for future work concerning an actual AOP version are also indicated.

  20. UML for systems engineering watching the wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Up until a few years ago there were over 150 different modelling languages available to software developers. This vast array of choice however, only served to severely hinder effective communication. Therefore, to combat this, every methodologist and many companies agreed to speak the same language, hence the birth of the unified modelling language (UML). The UML offers a means to communicate complex information in a simple way using visual modelling; i.e. drawing diagrams to create a model of a system. This fully revised edition, based on a training course given by the author, coincides with

  1. The Development Methodology of the UML Electronic Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Magariu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A technological model for realization of the electronic guide to UML language is considered. This model includes description of peculiarities of using the special graphic editor for constructing the UML diagrams, XML vocabularies (XMI, DocBook, SVG, XSLT for representing the text and diagrams and JavaScript code for constructing the tests.

  2. 基于UML statecharts 测试方法的研究%Research of testing method based on UML statecharts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占学德

    2006-01-01

    @@ Unified modeling language (UML) is a powerful graphical modeling language with intuitional meaning.It provides various diagrams to depict system characteristics and complex environment from different viewpoints and different application layers. UML-based software development and modeling environments have been widely accepted in industry, including areas in which safety is an important issue such as spaceflight,defense, automobile, etc.

  3. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  4. Specification of real-time automation systems with HybridUML; Spezifikation von Echtzeit-Automatisierungssystemen mit HybridUML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkenkoetter, K.; Bisanz, S.; Hannemann, U.; Peleska, J. [Univ. Bremen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Complex automation systems require specification formalisms supporting the description of real-time requirements with respect to both discrete and time-continuous observables. For this purpose, the authors have designed the HybridUML specification language. Discrete events, communication, and variable assignments are specified by state machines, timers, and invariant conditions. The time-continuous aspects of system behaviour are described by associating differential equations or time-dependent algebraic conditions with system states. The complexity of large systems is controlled by decomposing the specification into parallel components and hierarchical state machines. Instead of inventing a new language syntax, HybridUML is represented as a profile of the Unified Modeling Language UML 2.0. This allows to re-use the syntactic framework of well-accepted graphical UML constructs and development support provided by various UML case tools. The profile is associated with a precise language semantics linking unambiguous meaning to all HybridUML specifications. As a consequence, HybridUML specifications can be compiled into executable code which is suitable for execution in hard realtime on multi-processor computers. This serves both for the development of automation systems and for specification-based testing in real-time. This paper contains an introduction to HybridUML which is illustrated by an example from the field of automated train control. (orig.)

  5. UML: Un lenguaje de modelo de objetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Lizcano-Bueno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A Unified Modeling Language (UML: Unified Modeling Language is a tool that allows object-oriented modeling across a wide graphic vocabulary focused on conceptual and physical representation of software systems software. It is now a standard adopted by the development group orbjetos (OMG: Object Management Group.   This paper presents an introduction to this language, the different components that form and briefly explain their functions are shown.

  6. Comprehensive Aspectual UML Approach to Support AspectJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aws Magableh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a “good design” criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs.

  7. Comprehensive Aspectual UML approach to support AspectJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magableh, Aws; Shukur, Zarina; Ali, Noorazean Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a "good design" criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs.

  8. Methodology for the development and the UML (unified modified language) simulation of data acquisition and data processing systems dedicated to high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvar, S.

    2002-09-01

    The increasing complexity of the real-time data acquisition and processing systems (TDAQ: the so called Trigger and Data AcQuisition systems) in high energy physics calls for an appropriate evolution of development tools. This work is about the interplay between in principle specifications of TDAQ systems and their actual design and realization on a concrete hardware and software platform. The basis of our work is to define a methodology for the development of TDAQ systems that meets the specific demands for the development of such systems. The result is the detailed specification of a 'methodological framework' based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and designed to manage a development process. The use of this UML-based methodological framework progressively leads to the setting up of a 'home-made' framework, i.e. a development tool that comprises reusable components and generic architectural elements adapted to TDAQ systems. The main parts of this dissertation are sections II to IV. Section II is devoted to the characterization and evolution of TDAQ systems. In section III, we review the main technologies that are relevant to our problematic, namely software reuse techniques such as design patterns and frameworks, especially concerning the real-time and embedded systems domain. Our original conceptual contribution is presented in section IV, where we give a detailed, formalized and example-driven specification of our development model. Our final conclusions are presented in section V, where we present the MORDICUS project devoted to a concrete realization of our UML methodological framework, and the deep affinities between our work and the emerging 'Model Driven Architecture' (MDA) paradigm developed by the Object Management Group. (author)

  9. Path generation algorithm for UML graphic modeling of aerospace test software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, MingCheng; Wu, XiangHu; Tao, YongChao; Chen, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Aerospace traditional software testing engineers are based on their own work experience and communication with software development personnel to complete the description of the test software, manual writing test cases, time-consuming, inefficient, loopholes and more. Using the high reliability MBT tools developed by our company, the one-time modeling can automatically generate test case documents, which is efficient and accurate. UML model to describe the process accurately express the need to rely on the path is reached, the existing path generation algorithm are too simple, cannot be combined into a path and branch path with loop, or too cumbersome, too complicated arrangement generates a path is meaningless, for aerospace software testing is superfluous, I rely on our experience of ten load space, tailor developed a description of aerospace software UML graphics path generation algorithm.

  10. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  11. Integrating decision management with UML modeling concepts and tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    , but also for guiding the user by proposing subsequent decisions. In model-based software development, many decisions directly affect the structural and behavioral models used to describe and develop a software system and its architecture. However, the decisions are typically not connected to these models...... of formerly disconnected tools could improve tool usability as well as decision maker productivity....

  12. Integrating a Decision Management Tool with UML Modeling Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    by proposing potential subsequent design issues. In model-based software development, many decisions directly affect the structural and behavioral models used to describe and develop a software system and its architecture. However, these decisions are typically not connected to the models created during...... integration of formerly disconnected tools improves tool usability as well as decision maker productivity....

  13. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Demeyer, Serge; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  14. Requirements Validation: Execution of UML Models with CPN Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ricardo J.; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Oliveira, Sérgio

    2007-01-01

    Requirements validation is a critical task in any engineering project. The confrontation of stakeholders with static requirements models is not enough, since stakeholders with non-computer science education are not able to discover all the inter-dependencies between the elicited requirements. Eve...... requirements, where the system to be built must explicitly support the interaction between people within a pervasive cooperative workflow execution. A case study from a real project is used to illustrate the proposed approach....

  15. Generation of safe optimised execution strategies for uml models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    When designing safety critical systems there is a need for verification of safety properties while ensuring system operations have a specific performance profile. We present a novel application of model checking to derive execution strategies, sequences of decisions at workflow branch points...... which optimise a set of reward variables, while simultaneously observing constraints which encode any required safety properties and accounting for the underlying stochastic nature of the system. By evaluating quantitative properties of the generated adversaries we are able to construct an execution...

  16. Communicating systems with UML 2 modeling and analysis of network protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera, David Garduno

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a practical approach to modeling and analyzing communication protocols using UML 2. Network protocols are always presented with a point of view focusing on partial mechanisms and starting models. This book aims at giving the basis needed for anybody to model and validate their own protocols. It follows a practical approach and gives many examples for the description and analysis of well known basic network mechanisms for protocols.The book firstly shows how to describe and validate the main protocol issues (such as synchronization problems, client-server interactions, layer

  17. 3rd International Workshop on Critical Systems Development with UML

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Jürjens; Eduardo B. Fernandez; Robert France; Bernhard Rumpe

    2017-01-01

    Topics of the Workshop include: --- Applications of UML to real-time systems security-critical systems dependable / safety-critical systems performance-critical systems embedded systems hybrid systems reactive systems --- Extensions of UML (UML-RT, UMLsec, Automotive UML, Embedded UML, ...) and new developments (UML 2.0, MDA) --- Modeling, synthesis, model transformation, code generation, testing, validation, and verification of critical systems using UML --- Aspect-oriented or Component-base...

  18. HRT-UML: a design method for hard real-time systems based on the UML notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Massimo; Mazzini, Silvia; di Natale, Marco; Lipari, Giuseppe

    2002-07-01

    The Hard Real-Time-Unified Modelling Language (HRT-UML) method aims at providing a comprehensive solution to the modeling of Hard Real Time systems. The experience shows that the design of Hard Real-Time systems needs methodologies suitable for the modeling and analysis of aspects related to time, schedulability and performance. In the context of the European Aerospace community a reference method for design is Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HOOD) and in particular its extension for the modeling of hard real time systems, Hard Real-Time-Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HRT-HOOD), recommended by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the development of on-board systems. On the other hand in recent years the Unified Modelling Language (UML) has been gaining a very large acceptance in a wide range of domains, all over the world, becoming a de-facto international standard. Tool vendors are very active in this potentially big market. In the Aerospace domain the common opinion is that UML, as a general notation, is not suitable for Hard Real Time systems, even if its importance is recognized as a standard and as a technological trend in the near future. These considerations suggest the possibility of replacing the HRT-HOOD method with a customized version of UML, that incorporates the advantages of both standards and complements the weak points. This approach has the clear advantage of making HRT-HOOD converge on a more powerful and expressive modeling notation. The paper identifies a mapping of the HRT-HOOD semantics into the UML one, and proposes a UML extension profile, that we call HRT-UML, based on the UML standard extension mechanisms, to fully represent HRT-HOOD design concepts. Finally it discusses the relationships between our profile and the UML profile for schedulability, performance and time, adopted by OMG in November 2001.

  19. [Modeling the requirements on routine data of general practitioners from the health-care researcher's point of view with the help of unified modeling langauge (UML)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, M; Hauswaldt, J; Lingner, H

    2012-08-01

    Health-care research is, besides primary acquired study data, based on data from widely differing secondary sources. In order to link, compare and analyze data sources uniform models and methods are needed. This could be facilitated by a more structured description of requirements, models and methods of health-care research than those currently used. Suitable methods of presentation were sought in an approach to this target and the unified modeling language (UML) identified as a possible alternative. Using different tools 3 UML diagrams were created to represent some individual aspects of a scientific use file (SUF): A use case diagram as well as an activity and a class diagram. In the use case diagram we attempted to represent the general use cases of an SUF based on general practitioners routine data. Secondly a class diagram was constructed to visualize the contents and structure of a SUF. Thirdly an activity diagram was developed to graphically represent the concept of a general practitioner's episode of care. The creation of the UML diagrams was possible without any technical difficulties. Regarding the content the 3 diagrams must still be considered as prototypes. The use case diagram shows possible uses and users of an SUF, e. g. a research worker, industry but also the general practitioner who supplies the data. The class diagram reveals a general data structure that can serve information processes in practice and research. Besides aggregation, possibilities for specialization and generalization are essential elements of the class diagram that can be used meaningfully. The activity diagram for the schematic representation of a general practitioner's episode of care reveals the existence of multiple endpoints of an episode and the possibility to form relationships by means of episodes (diagnosis>therapy). The constructed diagrams are preliminary results and should be refined in future steps. Use case diagrams enable a rapid overview of the meaning and

  20. The Use of UML for Software Requirements Expression and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alex; Clark, Ken

    2015-01-01

    It is common practice to write English-language "shall" statements to embody detailed software requirements in aerospace software applications. This paper explores the use of the UML language as a replacement for the English language for this purpose. Among the advantages offered by the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a high degree of clarity and precision in the expression of domain concepts as well as architecture and design. Can this quality of UML be exploited for the definition of software requirements? While expressing logical behavior, interface characteristics, timeliness constraints, and other constraints on software using UML is commonly done and relatively straight-forward, achieving the additional aspects of the expression and management of software requirements that stakeholders expect, especially traceability, is far less so. These other characteristics, concerned with auditing and quality control, include the ability to trace a requirement to a parent requirement (which may well be an English "shall" statement), to trace a requirement to verification activities or scenarios which verify that requirement, and to trace a requirement to elements of the software design which implement that requirement. UML Use Cases, designed for capturing requirements, have not always been satisfactory. Some applications of them simply use the Use Case model element as a repository for English requirement statements. Other applications of Use Cases, in which Use Cases are incorporated into behavioral diagrams that successfully communicate the behaviors and constraints required of the software, do indeed take advantage of UML's clarity, but not in ways that support the traceability features mentioned above. Our approach uses the Stereotype construct of UML to precisely identify elements of UML constructs, especially behaviors such as State Machines and Activities, as requirements, and also to achieve the necessary mapping capabilities. We describe this approach in the

  1. Comparative analysis of business rules and business process modeling languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Rima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During developing an information system is important to create clear models and choose suitable modeling languages. The article analyzes the SRML, SBVR, PRR, SWRL, OCL rules specifying language and UML, DFD, CPN, EPC and IDEF3 BPMN business process modeling language. The article presents business rules and business process modeling languages theoretical comparison. The article according to selected modeling aspects of the comparison between different business process modeling languages ​​and business rules representation languages sets. Also, it is selected the best fit of language set for three layer framework for business rule based software modeling.

  2. Especificación formal en OCL de reglas de consistencia entre los diagramas de clases y casos de uso de UML y el modelo de interfaces Formal OCL specification of consistency rules between the UML class and the use case models and the interfaces model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Zapata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ciclo de vida del software, durante las fases de definición y análisis, se realiza una especificación de los requisitos. Para ello, es necesario realizar un proceso de captura de las necesidades y expectativas de los interesados, que se traduce posteriormente en un conjunto de modelos que representan tanto el problema como su solución. Por lo general, la mayoría de esos modelos se expresan en el lenguaje de modelado unificado -UML-, que define un conjunto de artefactos que permiten especificar los requisitos del software, los cuales deberían guardar consistencia, cuando se trate del mismo modelo. Sin embargo, la consistencia entre diferentes artefactos no se encuentra definida en la especificación de UML y poco se ha trabajado con este tipo de consistencia. En este artículo se propone un método para verificar la consistencia entre el diagrama de clases y el diagrama de casos de uso de UML de una manera formal. Dicho proceso se lleva a cabo evaluando una serie de reglas definidas en el lenguaje de restricciones de objetos -OCL- que se deben cumplir para garantizar que la información brindada por dichos modelos sea consistente. Como se reconoce la participación de los dos diagramas en la elaboración de las interfaces gráficas de usuario -GUI-, se define adicionalmente la consistencia con este artefacto.In a software lifetime, during definition and analysis stages, a specification of requirements is carried out. For such a purpose, it is necessary to get through a process to capture interested persons’ needs and expectations, which will later be translated into a set of models representing both the problem and the solution. Most models are frequently expressed by the UML (Unified Modeling Language which defines a set of devices for specifying software requirements which should be consistent with the same model. However, consistency among several devices is not defined in the UML specification and not too much work has been made

  3. PERANCANGAN ATURAN TRANSFORMASI UML – SYSTEMC DALAM PERANCANGAN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Abdurohman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pemodelan adalah salah satu proses awal dalam pengembangan suatu aplikasi atau produk. Tahap ini dilakukan untuk meminimalkan kesalahan pada produk akhir. Salah satu metode pemodelan berorientasi objek yang banyak digunakan adalah pemodelan UML (Unified Modeling Language. Dalam UML suatu sistem dipandang sebagai kumpulan objek yang memiliki atribut dan method. SystemC adalah bahasa perancangan perangkat keras yang berbasis C++. SystemC merupakan sebuah library yang mendefinisikan tipe-tipe komponen perangkat keras. Dalam pemodelan bersama perangkat keras dan perangkat lunak, UML dan SystemC memiliki kemampuan yang sama. Pada paper ini dilakukan analisis proses transformasi dari pemodelan berorientasi objek dengan UML dan implementasi dengan menggunakan SystemC. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa proses transformasi UML-SystemC dapat dilakukan karena keduanya memiliki nature yang sama sebagai lingkungan yang dapat merancang bersama hardware dan software. Perangkat yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah Rational Rose dan SystemC. Modeling is one of the first process in the development of an application or product. This phase is done to minimize errors in the final product. One method in object-oriented modeling that is widely used is UML (Unified Modeling Language. In UML a system is seen as a collection of objects that have attributes and methods. SystemC is a hardware design language based on C++. SystemC is a library that defines the types of hardware components. In a joint modeling of hardware and software, UML and SystemC have similar capabilities. In this paper, researchers analyzed the transformation of object-oriented modeling with UML and the implementation by using SystemC. The results shows that the transformation process of UML-SystemC can be done because both have the same nature as the environment that can design both hardware and software. The device used for this study is the Rational Rose and SystemC.

  4. Methodology for the development and the UML (unified modified language) simulation of data acquisition and data processing systems dedicated to high energy physics experiments; Methodologie de developpement et de modelisation UML des systemes d'acquisition et de traitement en temps reel pour les experiences de physique des hautes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, S

    2002-09-01

    The increasing complexity of the real-time data acquisition and processing systems (TDAQ: the so called Trigger and Data AcQuisition systems) in high energy physics calls for an appropriate evolution of development tools. This work is about the interplay between in principle specifications of TDAQ systems and their actual design and realization on a concrete hardware and software platform. The basis of our work is to define a methodology for the development of TDAQ systems that meets the specific demands for the development of such systems. The result is the detailed specification of a 'methodological framework' based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and designed to manage a development process. The use of this UML-based methodological framework progressively leads to the setting up of a 'home-made' framework, i.e. a development tool that comprises reusable components and generic architectural elements adapted to TDAQ systems. The main parts of this dissertation are sections II to IV. Section II is devoted to the characterization and evolution of TDAQ systems. In section III, we review the main technologies that are relevant to our problematic, namely software reuse techniques such as design patterns and frameworks, especially concerning the real-time and embedded systems domain. Our original conceptual contribution is presented in section IV, where we give a detailed, formalized and example-driven specification of our development model. Our final conclusions are presented in section V, where we present the MORDICUS project devoted to a concrete realization of our UML methodological framework, and the deep affinities between our work and the emerging 'Model Driven Architecture' (MDA) paradigm developed by the Object Management Group. (author)

  5. Methodology for the development and the UML (unified modified language) simulation of data acquisition and data processing systems dedicated to high energy physics experiments; Methodologie de developpement et de modelisation UML des systemes d'acquisition et de traitement en temps reel pour les experiences de physique des hautes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, S

    2002-09-01

    The increasing complexity of the real-time data acquisition and processing systems (TDAQ: the so called Trigger and Data AcQuisition systems) in high energy physics calls for an appropriate evolution of development tools. This work is about the interplay between in principle specifications of TDAQ systems and their actual design and realization on a concrete hardware and software platform. The basis of our work is to define a methodology for the development of TDAQ systems that meets the specific demands for the development of such systems. The result is the detailed specification of a 'methodological framework' based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and designed to manage a development process. The use of this UML-based methodological framework progressively leads to the setting up of a 'home-made' framework, i.e. a development tool that comprises reusable components and generic architectural elements adapted to TDAQ systems. The main parts of this dissertation are sections II to IV. Section II is devoted to the characterization and evolution of TDAQ systems. In section III, we review the main technologies that are relevant to our problematic, namely software reuse techniques such as design patterns and frameworks, especially concerning the real-time and embedded systems domain. Our original conceptual contribution is presented in section IV, where we give a detailed, formalized and example-driven specification of our development model. Our final conclusions are presented in section V, where we present the MORDICUS project devoted to a concrete realization of our UML methodological framework, and the deep affinities between our work and the emerging 'Model Driven Architecture' (MDA) paradigm developed by the Object Management Group. (author)

  6. Functional Size Measurement applied to UML-based user requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Dekkers, Ton; Oudshoorn, Rogier; Dekkers, T.

    There is a growing interest in applying standardized methods for Functional Size Measurement (FSM) to Functional User Requirements (FUR) based on models in the Unified Modelling Language (UML). No consensus exists on this issue. We analyzed the demands that FSM places on FURs. We propose a

  7. Modeling Turkey National 2D Geo-Data Model as a CityGML Application Domain Extension in UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Ates Aydar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the generation of the 3D national geo-data model of Turkey, which is compatible with the international OGC CityGML Encoding Standard. We prepare an ADE named CityGML-TRKBIS that is produced by extending existing thematic modules of CityGML according to TRKBIS needs. All thematic data groups in TRKBIS geo-data model have been remodeled in order to generate the national large scale 3D geodata model for Turkey. Within the concept of reference model-driven framework for modelling CityGML ADEs in UML, the first step is conceptual mapping between CityGML and national information model. To test all stages of the framework for Urban GIS Turkey, Building data theme is mapped with CityGML-Building thematic model. All classes, attributes, code lists and code list values of the TRKBIS is tried to be mapped with related CityGML concept. New classes, attributes and code list values that will be added to CityGML Building model are determined based on this conceptual mapping. Finally the new model for CityGML-TRKBIS.BI is established in UML with subclassing of the related CityGML classes. This study provides new insights into 3D applications in Turkey. The generated 3D geo-data model for building thematic class will be used as a common exchange format that meets 2D, 2.5D and 3D implementation needs at national level.

  8. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  9. BGen: A UML Behavior Network Generator Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Reder, Leonard J.; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    BGen software was designed for autogeneration of code based on a graphical representation of a behavior network used for controlling automatic vehicles. A common format used for describing a behavior network, such as that used in the JPL-developed behavior-based control system, CARACaS ["Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing" (NPO-43635), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 10 (October 2008), page 40] includes a graph with sensory inputs flowing through the behaviors in order to generate the signals for the actuators that drive and steer the vehicle. A computer program to translate Unified Modeling Language (UML) Freeform Implementation Diagrams into a legacy C implementation of Behavior Network has been developed in order to simplify the development of C-code for behavior-based control systems. UML is a popular standard developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) to model software architectures graphically. The C implementation of a Behavior Network is functioning as a decision tree.

  10. A model-based design and validation approach with OMEGA-UML and the IF toolset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-hafaiedh, Imene; Constant, Olivier; Graf, Susanne; Robbana, Riadh

    2009-03-01

    Intelligent, embedded systems such as autonomous robots and other industrial systems are becoming increasingly more heterogeneous with respect to the platforms on which they are implemented, and thus the software architecture more complex to design and analyse. In this context, it is important to have well-defined design methodologies which should be supported by (1) high level design concepts allowing to master the design complexity, (2) concepts for the expression of non-functional requirements and (3) analysis tools allowing to verify or invalidate that the system under development will be able to conform to its requirements. We illustrate here such an approach for the design of complex embedded systems on hand of a small case study used as a running example for illustration purposes. We briefly present the important concepts of the OMEGA-RT UML profile, we show how we use this profile in a modelling approach, and explain how these concepts are used in the IFx verification toolbox to integrate validation into the design flow and make scalable verification possible.

  11. Modeling Multi-Mobile Agents System Based on Coalition Signature Mechanism Using UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNZhixin; HUANGHaiping; WANGRuchuan

    2004-01-01

    With the development of electronic commerce and agent techniques, multi-mobile agents cooperation can not only improve the efficiency of electronic business trade, but more importantly, it has a comprehensive applicative value in solving the security issues of mobile agent system. This paper firstly describes the mechanism of multi-mobile agents coalition signature aiming at the system security. Subsequently it brings forward a basic architecture of Multi-mobile agents system (MMAS) based on the design pattern of multi-mobile agents. The paper uses the diagrs_rn of UML, such as use case diagram, class diagram and sequence diagram to build the detailed model of the coalition signature and multi-mobile agents cooperation results. Through security analysis, we find that multimobile agents cooperation and interaction can solve some security problems of mobile agents in transfer, and also it can improve the efficiency of business trade. These results indicate that MMAS has a high security performance and can be widely used in E-commerce trade.

  12. Integrating UML, the Q-model and a Multi-Agent Approach in Process Specifications and Behavioural Models of Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Savimaa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient estimation and representation of an organisation's behaviour requires specification of business processes and modelling of actors' behaviour. Therefore the existing classical approaches that concentrate only on planned processes are not suitable and an approach that integrates process specifications with behavioural models of actors should be used instead. The present research indicates that a suitable approach should be based on interactive computing. This paper examines the integration of UML diagrams for process specifications, the Q-model specifications for modelling timing criteria of existing and planned processes and a multi-agent approach for simulating non-deterministic behaviour of human actors in an organisation. The corresponding original methodology is introduced and some of its applications as case studies are reviewed.

  13. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing Tool Support for Translating Use Cases and UML 2.0 Sequence Diagrams into a Coloured Petri Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Joao Miguel; Tjell, Simon; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2007-01-01

    On a case study on the specification of an elevator controller, this paper presents an approach that can translate given UML descriptions into a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model. The UML descriptions must be specified in the form of Use Cases (UCs) and UML 2.0 Sequence Diagrams (SDs). The CPN model...... constitutes one single, coherent and executable representation of all possible behaviours that are specified by the given UML artefacts. CPN is a formal modelling language that enables construction and analysis of scalable, executable models of behaviour. A combined use of UML and CPN can be useful in several...... projects. CPN is well supported by the tool called CPN Tools and the work we present here is aimed at building a CPN Tools front-end engine that implements the proposed translation....

  15. A collaborative knowledge management framework for supply chains: A UML-based model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Esteban Hernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the most general cases, collaborative activities imply a distributed decision-making process which involves several supply chain nodes. In this paper, by means of a literature review, and by also considering the deficiencies of existing proposals, a collaborative knowledge management UML-based framework supported is proposed. In addition, this proposal synthesizes existing knowledge, and it not only fulfils, but enriches, each component with the modeller’s own knowledge.

  16. MODELAGEM DE UM SISTEMA ESPECIALISTA PARA APRIMORAR PRODUTOS E PROCESSOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE UTILIZANDO A UML /MODELING AN EXPERT SYSTEM TO IMPROVE PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES IN THE MILK PRODUCTION USING THE UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mollo Neto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A zootecnia de precisão permite o desenvolvimento de ferramentas automatizadas que fornecem um acompanhamento detalhado do plantel, aumentando a rentabilidade, e protegendo os animais racionalmente. O setor agropecuário brasileiro, em decorrência das intempéries da economia mundial globalizada, vem, de maneira crescente, se adaptando à utilização destas ferramentas automatizadas para suporte à tomada de decisão. A laminite é a patologia de maior custo para o gado de leite confinado. Suas causas incluem condições climáticas, de alojamento, de alimentação e a presença de pisos mais abrasivos. Baseando-se nessas informações é possível, utilizando o algoritmo correto, construir um modelo que permita ao usuário estimar a possibilidade de incidência de laminite em gado leiteiro, a partir de dados históricos ou mesmo de outras variáveis que causam a patologia. Neste trabalho foi realizada a modelagem, utilizando a Universal Modelling Language (UML, de um sistema especialista com motor de inferência Fuzzy para o diagnóstico preventivo desta patologia que reduza os impactos na produção e no conforto animal. A partir da modelagem realizada ficam disponíveis novas bases para a futura codificação e construção do sistema especialista para mitigar a patologia de casco, reduzir os impactos de perdas de receita relacionados e ampliar o conforto animal. Palavras-chave: Laminite, Sistema Especialista, Suporte a Decisão, Lógica Fuzzy, Diagnóstico Preventivo, Bem-estar animal, Modelagem.

  17. Design of an UML conceptual model and implementation of a GIS with metadata information for a seismic hazard assessment cooperative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Y.; Escalante, M. P.

    2009-04-01

    This work illustrates the advantages of using a Geographic Information System in a cooperative project with researchers of different countries, such as the RESIS II project (financed by the Norwegian Government and managed by CEPREDENAC) for seismic hazard assessment of Central America. As input data present different formats, cover distinct geographical areas and are subjected to different interpretations, data inconsistencies may appear and their management get complicated. To achieve data homogenization and to integrate them in a GIS, it is required previously to develop a conceptual model. This is accomplished in two phases: requirements analysis and conceptualization. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to compose the conceptual model of the GIS. UML complies with ISO 19100 norms and allows the designer defining model architecture and interoperability. The GIS provides a frame for the combination of large geographic-based data volumes, with an uniform geographic reference and avoiding duplications. All this information contains its own metadata following ISO 19115 normative. In this work, the integration in the same environment of active faults and subduction slabs geometries, combined with the epicentres location, has facilitated the definition of seismogenetic regions. This is a great support for national specialists of different countries to make easier their teamwork. The GIS capacity for making queries (by location and by attributes) and geostatistical analyses is used to interpolate discrete data resulting from seismic hazard calculations and to create continuous maps as well as to check and validate partial results of the study. GIS-based products, such as complete, homogenised databases and thematic cartography of the region, are distributed to all researchers, facilitating cross-national communication, the project execution and results dissemination.

  18. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  19. A UML profile for the OBO relation ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ontologies have increasingly been used in the biomedical domain, which has prompted the emergence of different initiatives to facilitate their development and integration. The Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry consortium provides a repository of life-science ontologies, which are developed according to a set of shared principles. This consortium has developed an ontology called OBO Relation Ontology aiming at standardizing the different types of biological entity classes and associated relationships. Since ontologies are primarily intended to be used by humans, the use of graphical notations for ontology development facilitates the capture, comprehension and communication of knowledge between its users. However, OBO Foundry ontologies are captured and represented basically using text-based notations. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides a standard and widely-used graphical notation for modeling computer systems. UML provides a well-defined set of modeling elements, which can be extended using a built-in extension mechanism named Profile. Thus, this work aims at developing a UML profile for the OBO Relation Ontology to provide a domain-specific set of modeling elements that can be used to create standard UML-based ontologies in the biomedical domain. Results We have studied the OBO Relation Ontology, the UML metamodel and the UML profiling mechanism. Based on these studies, we have proposed an extension to the UML metamodel in conformance with the OBO Relation Ontology and we have defined a profile that implements the extended metamodel. Finally, we have applied the proposed UML profile in the development of a number of fragments from different ontologies. Particularly, we have considered the Gene Ontology (GO), the PRotein Ontology (PRO) and the Xenopus Anatomy and Development Ontology (XAO). Conclusions The use of an established and well-known graphical language in the development of biomedical ontologies provides a more

  20. Model Sistem Informasi Manajemen Sekolah Berbasiskan Notasi Unified Modeling Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Kurniawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basically the use of integrated information systems can be applied not only for the company, but also education industry, particularly schools. To support business processes at the school, this research would like to describe a conceptual model of information systems using the Unified Modeling Language (UML notationwith "4 +1 View" architectural model. This model is expected to assist analysis and design the whole business processes at school. A conceptual model of the information system can help application developers to easily and clearly understand the school system. By adopting this information system model, schools are able to have effective understanding of management information systems.

  1. Modeling and analysis of real-time and embedded systems with UML and MARTE developing cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Selic, Bran

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time and Embedded Systems with UML and MARTE explains how to apply the complex MARTE standard in practical situations. This approachable reference provides a handy user guide, illustrating with numerous examples how you can use MARTE to design and develop real-time and embedded systems and software. Expert co-authors Bran Selic and Sébastien Gérard lead the team that drafted and maintain the standard and give you the tools you need apply MARTE to overcome the limitations of cyber-physical systems. The functional sophistication required of modern cyber-physical

  2. A passage retrieval method based on probabilistic information retrieval model and UMLS concepts in biomedical question answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouti, Mourad; Ouatik El Alaoui, Said

    2017-04-01

    Passage retrieval, the identification of top-ranked passages that may contain the answer for a given biomedical question, is a crucial component for any biomedical question answering (QA) system. Passage retrieval in open-domain QA is a longstanding challenge widely studied over the last decades. However, it still requires further efforts in biomedical QA. In this paper, we present a new biomedical passage retrieval method based on Stanford CoreNLP sentence/passage length, probabilistic information retrieval (IR) model and UMLS concepts. In the proposed method, we first use our document retrieval system based on PubMed search engine and UMLS similarity to retrieve relevant documents to a given biomedical question. We then take the abstracts from the retrieved documents and use Stanford CoreNLP for sentence splitter to make a set of sentences, i.e., candidate passages. Using stemmed words and UMLS concepts as features for the BM25 model, we finally compute the similarity scores between the biomedical question and each of the candidate passages and keep the N top-ranked ones. Experimental evaluations performed on large standard datasets, provided by the BioASQ challenge, show that the proposed method achieves good performances compared with the current state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods by an average of 6.84% in terms of mean average precision (MAP). We have proposed an efficient passage retrieval method which can be used to retrieve relevant passages in biomedical QA systems with high mean average precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling views in the layered view model for XML using UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajugan, R.; Dillon, T.S.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.

    In data engineering, view formalisms are used to provide flexibility to users and user applications by allowing them to extract and elaborate data from the stored data sources. Conversely, since the introduction of Extensible Markup Language (XML), it is fast emerging as the dominant standard for

  4. XML View, Part III: An UML Based Design Methodology for XML Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajugan, R.; Dillon, T.S.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.

    Object-Oriented (OO) conceptual models have the power in describing and modelling real-world data semantics and their inter-relationships in a form that is precise and comprehensible to users. Today UML has established itself as the language of choice for modelling complex enterprises information

  5. Making sense to modelers: Presenting UML class model differences in prose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the difference between two models, such as different versions of a design, can be difficult. It is a commonly held belief in the model differencing community that the best way of presenting a model difference is by using graph or tree-based visualizations. We disagree and present an...... by a controlled experiment that tests three alternatives to presenting model differences. Our findings support our claim that the approach presented here is superior to EMF Compare.......Understanding the difference between two models, such as different versions of a design, can be difficult. It is a commonly held belief in the model differencing community that the best way of presenting a model difference is by using graph or tree-based visualizations. We disagree and present...... an alternative approach where sets of low-level model differences are abstracted into high-level model differences that lend themselves to being presented textually. This format is informed by an explorative survey to elicit the change descriptions modelers use themselves. Our approach is validated...

  6. Combining UML2 Application and SystemC Platform Modelling for Performance Evaluation of Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Yang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Future mobile devices will be based on heterogeneous multiprocessing platforms accommodating several stand-alone applications. The network-on-chip communication and device networking combine the design challenges of conventional distributed systems and resource constrained real-time embedded systems. Interoperable design space exploration for both the application and platform development is required. Application designer needs abstract platform models to rapidly check the feasibility of a new feature or application. Platform designer needs abstract application models for defining platform computation and communication capacities. We propose a layered UML application/workload and SystemC platform modelling approach that allow application and platform to be modelled at several levels of abstraction, which enables early performance evaluation of the resulting system. The overall approach has been experimented with a mobile video player case study, while different load extraction methods have been validated by applying them to MPEG-4 encoder, Quake2 3D game, and MP3 decoder case studies previously.

  7. Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Hettne (Kristina); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); R.J.A. Schijvenaars (Bob); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Identification of terms is essential for biomedical text mining. We concentrate here on the use of vocabularies for term identification, specifically the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). To make the UMLS more suitable for biomedical text mining we implemented and

  8. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  9. SISTEM INFORMASI PENJUALAN TAS BERBASIS WEB DENGAN PEMODELAN UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Azwanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At this time many people who use the website instead of just looking for information, but rather as a land promotion, sales and other activities that could open up opportunities for businesses. Mendi Shopping is one of the businesses engaged in the sale of bags that are already using the internet as a media sales services. The internet service is up. However, in the recording of transactions still use manual recording that led to the frequent occurrence of data loss sales and had to repeat the recording back so that the generated report is not accurate. Use of the Website can be used as a media sales in Mendi Shopping. Unified Modeling Language (UML is a tool or tools that can be used in doing the design of the system to be built. UML can describe clearly the information systems that will be built. Shopping Mendi to assist in storing their data, created a database using MySQL as a storage medium. In addition, it can reduce errors and data loss in data processing sales. The website can also be a media campaign to inform the latest products and berkulitas so as to increase the sales charts in Mendi Shopping. Keywords: website, sales, MySQL, UML Pada saat ini banyak individu yang menggunakan website bukan hanya sekedar mencari informasi saja, melainkan sebagai lahan promosi, penjualan dan aktivitas lainnya yang dapat membuka peluang untuk bisnis. Mendi Shopping merupakan salah satu usaha yang bergerak dibidang penjualan tas yang sudah menggunakan layanan internet sebagai media penjualan. Layanan internet tersebut adalah Facebook. Namun, dalam pencatatan transaksinya masih menggunakan pencatatan secara manual yang menyebabkan sering terjadinya kehilangan data penjualan dan harus mengulang pencatatan kembali sehingga laporan yang dihasilkan tidak akurat. Penggunaan Website dapat dijadikan sebagai media penjualan pada Mendi Shopping. Unified Modeling Language (UML merupakan tools atau alat bantu yang dapat digunakan dalam melakukan desain terhadap

  10. Transformación de las restricciones OCL de un esquema UML a consultas de SQL

    OpenAIRE

    Casillas Cortázar, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad existen muchos métodos y herramientas que permiten la generación automática y completa del código de una aplicación a partir de un diagrama en UML. El lenguaje UML (Unified Modeling Language, Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado) es un lenguaje visual cuyo uso más extendido es documentar, construir y especificar los modelos del sistema. Todas estas herramientas son capaces de generar clases en Java o tablas en un Sistema de Gestión de Bases de Datos (DBMS, DataBase Management Sy...

  11. Experiences and Comparison Study of EPC & UML For Business Process & IS Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rashedul Islam; Md. Rofiqul Islam; Md. Shariful Alam; Md. Shafiul Azam

    2011-01-01

    Business process modeling is an approach by which we can analyze and integrate the business process. Using the Business Process Modeling we can represent the current and future process of a business/organization/enterprise. The business process modeling is a prerequisite and essential implementing a business or making any automation system. In this paper, we present our experience in a Business Process Modeling for organization. This paper presents detailed description about business process ...

  12. Transformation of UML models to CSP : a case study for graph transformation tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varró, D.; Asztalos, M.; Bisztray, D.; Boronat, A.; Dang, D.; Geiß, R.; Greenyer, J.; Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Kniemeyer, O.; Narayanan, A.; Rencis, E.; Weinell, E.; Schürr, A.; Nagl, M.; Zündorf, A.

    2008-01-01

    Graph transformation provides an intuitive mechanism for capturing model transformations. In the current paper, we investigate and compare various graph transformation tools using a compact practical model transformation case study carried out as part of the AGTIVE 2007 Tool Contest [22]. The aim of

  13. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  14. Model-Based Requirements Analysis for Reactive Systems with UML Sequence Diagrams and Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a formal foundation for a specialized approach to automatically checking traces against real-time requirements. The traces are obtained from simulation of Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models of reactive systems. The real-time requirements are expressed in terms of a derivat...

  15. Extracting UML Class Diagrams from Object-Oriented Fortran: ForUML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Nanthaamornphong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists who implement computational science and engineering software have adopted the object-oriented (OO Fortran paradigm. One of the challenges faced by OO Fortran developers is the inability to obtain high level software design descriptions of existing applications. Knowledge of the overall software design is not only valuable in the absence of documentation, it can also serve to assist developers with accomplishing different tasks during the software development process, especially maintenance and refactoring. The software engineering community commonly uses reverse engineering techniques to deal with this challenge. A number of reverse engineering-based tools have been proposed, but few of them can be applied to OO Fortran applications. In this paper, we propose a software tool to extract unified modeling language (UML class diagrams from Fortran code. The UML class diagram facilitates the developers' ability to examine the entities and their relationships in the software system. The extracted diagrams enhance software maintenance and evolution. The experiments carried out to evaluate the proposed tool show its accuracy and a few of the limitations.

  16. Model Process Control Language

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MPC (Model Process Control) language enables the capture, communication and preservation of a simulation instance, with sufficient detail that it can be...

  17. PERFIL PARA REPRESENTAR UNA ARQUITECTURA DE COMPONENTES EN UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Orejas Valdés

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El lenguaje unificado de modelado (Unified Modeling Language, UML es un lenguaje de modelado estándar para problemas generales, sin embargo, es necesario extenderlo para dominios específicos como puede ser el caso de determinadas arquitecturas. Aquí se presenta una extensión mediante un perfil para una arquitectura de componentes y conectores genéricos.

  18. Graphical modeling and query language for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzdins, Janis; Barzdins, Juris; Rencis, Edgars; Sostaks, Agris

    2013-01-01

    So far there has been little evidence that implementation of the health information technologies (HIT) is leading to health care cost savings. One of the reasons for this lack of impact by the HIT likely lies in the complexity of the business process ownership in the hospitals. The goal of our research is to develop a business model-based method for hospital use which would allow doctors to retrieve directly the ad-hoc information from various hospital databases. We have developed a special domain-specific process modelling language called the MedMod. Formally, we define the MedMod language as a profile on UML Class diagrams, but we also demonstrate it on examples, where we explain the semantics of all its elements informally. Moreover, we have developed the Process Query Language (PQL) that is based on MedMod process definition language. The purpose of PQL is to allow a doctor querying (filtering) runtime data of hospital's processes described using MedMod. The MedMod language tries to overcome deficiencies in existing process modeling languages, allowing to specify the loosely-defined sequence of the steps to be performed in the clinical process. The main advantages of PQL are in two main areas - usability and efficiency. They are: 1) the view on data through "glasses" of familiar process, 2) the simple and easy-to-perceive means of setting filtering conditions require no more expertise than using spreadsheet applications, 3) the dynamic response to each step in construction of the complete query that shortens the learning curve greatly and reduces the error rate, and 4) the selected means of filtering and data retrieving allows to execute queries in O(n) time regarding the size of the dataset. We are about to continue developing this project with three further steps. First, we are planning to develop user-friendly graphical editors for the MedMod process modeling and query languages. The second step is to do evaluation of usability the proposed language and tool

  19. Pemodelan UML Sistem Informasi Geografis Pasar Tradisional Kota Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutejo Sutejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDunia sistem informasi terdapat banyak model sistem informasi, kaitan pasar dengan sistem informasi geografis adalah untuk memberikan berbagai macam informasi, terutama letak geografis pasar tersebut. Pentingnya informasi ini memberi banyak inspirasi terhadap pembuat model untuk merancang sistem-sistem yang mendekati dunia nyata. Model sistem informasi juga diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai alat prediksi kejadian di masa depan dengan mendasarkan pada data yang ada pada masa lalu dan masa sekarang. Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG ini di rancang untuk mengumpulkan data, meyimpan dan mengubah data, serta menganalisis objek beserta data geografis yang bersifat penting untuk di analisis. GIS yang disajikan dengan berbasis web pada perancangan ini juga dapat digunakan sebagai alat pemberian informasi kepada masyarakat luas. Hasil penelitian dengan pemodelan UML (Unified Modelling Language sangat membantu dalam proses perancangan sebuah sistem informasi geografis pasar tradisional serta aplikasi sistem informasi geografis pasar tradisional berbasis web ini dapat digunakan sebagai sarana informasi pasar, khususnya bagi para calon pedagang yang ingin berdagang di salah satu pasar tradisional yang ada di Kota Pekanbaru. Kata Kunci : Sistem Informasi Geografis, Web, Pasar Tradisional, Pemodelan, UML. AbstractThe world of information systems provides many models of information systems, the link of market with a geographic information system is to provide various kinds of information, specially the geographical markets. The importance of this information gives a lot of inspiration for the model makers to design systems that approximates the real world. Model of information system is also expected to be used as predictors of future events by basing on the existing data on past and present. Geographic Information Systems (GIS is designed to collect data, store and modify data, and analyzing object along with geographic data which is important for

  20. Suggest an Aspect-Oriented Design Approach for UML Communication Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Nather, Mohammed F.; Saleem, Dr. Nada N.

    2013-01-01

    More and more works are done on the design of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) which is designed to help us for modeling effective object oriented software, Existing Object-Oriented design methods are not mature enough to capture non-functional requirement such as concurrency, fault tolerance, distribution and persistence of a software approach. Our approach proposed to use aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) mechanisms to solve the issues for interactions of the communication diag...

  1. Perancangan Case Tools untuk Diagram Use Case, Activity, dan Class untuk Permodelan Uml Berbasis Web Menggunakan HTML5 dan PHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Subekti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to generate an application tools (CASE tools that allows a software developer to create a modeling system design using Unified Modeling Language (UML, especially in making use case, activity or class diagrams more quickly and easily. The tools developed will also facilitate developers in doing UML modeling by accessing the network through a web-based internet application. With the web-based applications, the users require only a browser and an internet connection to use this application. This application also helps developers to understand of how to make UML diagrams correctly and good. In this research traditional methods Scrum model is used. Scrum method is Agile methods that is a process to cultivate software easily and can be developed in accordance with the development of information technology. Scrum is using empirical methods or in other words every stage in it involves inspection and adaptation.

  2. A UML profile for code generation of component based distributed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiozzi, G.; Karban, R.; Andolfato, L.; Tejeda, A.

    2012-01-01

    A consistent and unambiguous implementation of code generation (model to text transformation) from UML (must rely on a well defined UML (Unified Modelling Language) profile, customizing UML for a particular application domain. Such a profile must have a solid foundation in a formally correct ontology, formalizing the concepts and their relations in the specific domain, in order to avoid a maze or set of wildly created stereotypes. The paper describes a generic profile for the code generation of component based distributed systems for control applications, the process to distill the ontology and define the profile, and the strategy followed to implement the code generator. The main steps that take place iteratively include: defining the terms and relations with an ontology, mapping the ontology to the appropriate UML meta-classes, testing the profile by creating modelling examples, and generating the code. This has allowed us to work on the modelling of E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) control system and instrumentation without knowing what infrastructure will be finally used

  3. Learning UML 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Russ

    2006-01-01

    Engaging and accessible, this book shows you how to use UML to craft and communicate your project's design. Russ Miles and Kim Hamilton have written a pragmatic introduction to UML based on hard-earned practice, not theory. Regardless of the software process or methodology you use, this book is the one source you need to get up and running with UML 2.0

  4. From system requirements to source code: transitions in UML and RUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wrycza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many manuals explaining language specification among UML-related books. Only some of books mentioned concentrate on practical aspects of using the UML language in effective way using CASE tools and RUP. The current paper presents transitions from system requirements specification to structural source code, useful while developing an information system.

  5. Description of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) using the Unified Modelling Language (UML)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available ; boxshadowdwn Pay for something; boxshadowdwn Provide something; boxshadowdwn Invoice for something; boxshadowdwn Offer something; boxshadowdwn Service somebody; and boxshadowdwn Register something. All interactions should be described in text form... as scenarios of these interactions. Table 1: Interactions between an SDI and actors. No. Name Interaction Ia End user barb2right SDI - ask for metadata - ask for data - ask for services - ask for integrated services - ask for standards - pay...

  6. Model-driven dependability assessment of software systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Simona; Petriu, Dorina C

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors present cutting-edge model-driven techniques for modeling and analysis of software dependability. Most of them are based on the use of UML as software specification language. From the software system specification point of view, such techniques exploit the standard extension mechanisms of UML (i.e., UML profiling). UML profiles enable software engineers to add non-functional properties to the software model, in addition to the functional ones. The authors detail the state of the art on UML profile proposals for dependability specification and rigorously describe the t

  7. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  8. Towards Model Validation and Verification with SAT Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gogolla, Martin

    2010-01-01

    After sketching how system development and the UML (Unified Modeling Language) and the OCL (Object Constraint Language) are related, validation and verification with the tool USE (UML-based Specification Environment) is demonstrated. As a more efficient alternative for verification tasks, two approaches using SAT-based techniques are put forward: First, a direct encoding of UML and OCL with Boolean variables and propositional formulas, and second, an encoding employing an...

  9. USING UML SCENARIOS IN B2B SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jakimi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios has become a popular technique for requirements elicitation and specification building. Since scenarios capture only partial descriptions of the system behavior, an approach for scenario composition and/or integration is needed to produce more complete specifications. The Unified Modeling Language (UML, which has become a standard notation for object-oriented modeling, provides a suitable framework for scenario acquisition using Use Case diagrams and Sequence or Collaboration diagrams. In this paper, we suggest an algorithmic and tool support for composing and integrating scenarios that are represented in form of sequence diagrams. We suggest four operators (;: sequential operator, ||: concurrent operator, ?: conditional operator and  * :iteration operator to compose a set of scenarios that describe a use case of a given system. In this paper, we suggest also to apply the scenario approach to B2B systems (Business to Business. We propose to develop B2B systems as a three activities process deriving formal specifications and code skeletons from UML scenarios. Activities of this proposed process are generally automatic and are supported by a set of developed algorithms and tools.

  10. Augmented halal food traceability system: analysis and design using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Y. V.; Fauzi, A. M.; Irawadi, T. T.; Djatna, T.

    2018-04-01

    Augmented halal food traceability is expanding the range of halal traceability in food supply chain where currently only available for tracing from the source of raw material to the industrial warehouse or inbound logistic. The halal traceability system must be developed in the integrated form that includes inbound and outbound logistics. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable initial model of integrated traceability system of halal food supply chain. The method was based on unified modeling language (UML) such as use case, sequence, and business process diagram. A goal programming model was formulated considering two objective functions which include (1) minimization of risk of halal traceability failures happened potentially during outbound logistics activities and (2) maximization of quality of halal product information. The result indicates the supply of material is the most important point to be considered in minimizing the risk of failure of halal food traceability system whereas no risk observed in manufacturing and distribution.

  11. Women's Language Model: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Bethany K.

    It is possible to think of women's language in terms of the model implied by the following statement. Insofar as native speakers of English are concerned, the language of women in America has four sets of components: those shared with the language of men in America; those shared, in varying proportions, with other women living in patriarchies;…

  12. An Infrastructure for UML-Based Code Generation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmeister, Marco A.; Freitas, Edison P.; Pereira, Carlos E.

    The use of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) techniques in the domain of distributed embedded real-time systems are gain importance in order to cope with the increasing design complexity of such systems. This paper discusses an infrastructure created to build GenERTiCA, a flexible tool that supports a MDE approach, which uses aspect-oriented concepts to handle non-functional requirements from embedded and real-time systems domain. GenERTiCA generates source code from UML models, and also performs weaving of aspects, which have been specified within the UML model. Additionally, this paper discusses the Distributed Embedded Real-Time Compact Specification (DERCS), a PIM created to support UML-based code generation tools. Some heuristics to transform UML models into DERCS, which have been implemented in GenERTiCA, are also discussed.

  13. Connecting UML and VDM++ with Open Tool Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth; Listrup, Hans Kristian; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Most formal method notations are text based, while tools used in industry often use graphical notations, such as UML. This paper demonstrates how the power of both approaches can be combined by providing the automatic translation of VDM++ models to and from UML. The translation is implemented as ...... as a plugin for the popular Eclipse development environment by the open-source Overture initiative. Both UML class diagrams and sequence diagrams can be translated, the latter enabling the novel ability to link with the combinatorial test facility of Overture....

  14. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBozec, C; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Degoulet, P

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users.

  15. Relating UMLS semantic types and task-based ontology to computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Ciccarese, Paolo; Quaglini, Silvana; Stefanelli, Mario; Caffi, Ezio; Boiocchi, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Medical knowledge in clinical practice guideline (GL) texts is the source of task-based computer-interpretable clinical guideline models (CIGMs). We have used Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types (STs) to understand the percentage of GL text which belongs to a particular ST. We also use UMLS semantic network together with the CIGM-specific ontology to derive a semantic meaning behind the GL text. In order to achieve this objective, we took nine GL texts from the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and marked up the text dealing with a particular ST. The STs we took into consideration were restricted taking into account the requirements of a task-based CIGM. We used DARPA Agent Markup Language and Ontology Inference Layer (DAML + OIL) to create the UMLS and CIGM specific semantic network. For the latter, as a bench test, we used the 1999 WHO-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. We took into consideration the UMLS STs closest to the clinical tasks. The percentage of the GL text dealing with the ST "Health Care Activity" and subtypes "Laboratory Procedure", "Diagnostic Procedure" and "Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure" were measured. The parts of text belonging to other STs or comments were separated. A mapping of terms belonging to other STs was done to the STs under "HCA" for representation in DAML + OIL. As a result, we found that the three STs under "HCA" were the predominant STs present in the GL text. In cases where the terms of related STs existed, they were mapped into one of the three STs. The DAML + OIL representation was able to describe the hierarchy in task-based CIGMs. To conclude, we understood that the three STs could be used to represent the semantic network of the task-bases CIGMs. We identified some mapping operators which could be used for the mapping of other STs into these.

  16. Analysis and design of hospital management information system based on UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Zhao, Huifang; You, Shi Jun; Ge, Wenyong

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of computer technology, computer information management system has been utilized in many industries. Hospital Information System (HIS) is in favor of providing data for directors, lightening the workload for the medical workers, and improving the workers efficiency. According to the HIS demand analysis and system design, this paper focus on utilizing unified modeling language (UML) models to establish the use case diagram, class diagram, sequence chart and collaboration diagram, and satisfying the demands of the daily patient visit, inpatient, drug management and other relevant operations. At last, the paper summarizes the problems of the system and puts forward an outlook of the HIS system.

  17. A remote sensing computer-assisted learning tool developed using the unified modeling language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Karslioglu, M. O.

    The goal of this work has been to create an easy-to-use and simple-to-make learning tool for remote sensing at an introductory level. Many students struggle to comprehend what seems to be a very basic knowledge of digital images, image processing and image arithmetic, for example. Because professional programs are generally too complex and overwhelming for beginners and often not tailored to the specific needs of a course regarding functionality, a computer-assisted learning (CAL) program was developed based on the unified modeling language (UML), the present standard for object-oriented (OO) system development. A major advantage of this approach is an easier transition from modeling to coding of such an application, if modern UML tools are being used. After introducing the constructed UML model, its implementation is briefly described followed by a series of learning exercises. They illustrate how the resulting CAL tool supports students taking an introductory course in remote sensing at the author's institution.

  18. Tool Support for Collaborative Teaching and Learning of Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Ratzer, Anne Vinter

    2002-01-01

    Modeling is central to doing and learning object-oriented development. We present a new tool, Ideogramic UML, for gesture-based collaborative modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which can be used to collaboratively teach and learn modeling. Furthermore, we discuss how we have...

  19. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  20. Language Models With Meta-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Language modeling plays a critical role in natural language processing and understanding. Starting from a general structure, language models are able to learn natural language patterns from rich input data. However, the state-of-the-art language models only take advantage of words themselves, which

  1. Document Categorization with Modified Statistical Language Models for Agglutinative Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantug

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the document categorization task with statistical language models. Our study mainly focuses on categorization of documents in agglutinative languages. Due to the productive morphology of agglutinative languages, the number of word forms encountered in naturally occurring text is very large. From the language modeling perspective, a large vocabulary results in serious data sparseness problems. In order to cope with this drawback, previous studies in various application areas suggest modified language models based on different morphological units. It is reported that performance improvements can be achieved with these modified language models. In our document categorization experiments, we use standard word form based language models as well as other modified language models based on root words, root words and part-of-speech information, truncated word forms and character sequences. Additionally, to find an optimum parameter set, multiple tests are carried out with different language model orders and smoothing methods. Similar to previous studies on other tasks, our experimental results on categorization of Turkish documents reveal that applying linguistic preprocessing steps for language modeling provides improvements over standard language models to some extent. However, it is also observed that similar level of performance improvements can also be acquired by simpler character level or truncated word form models which are language independent.

  2. Use Case Modelling of Bingham University Library Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advent of object oriented design, Unified Modelling Language (UML) has become prominent in software industry. Software is better modelled with the use of UML diagrams like use cases which provide a better flow of logic and comprehensive summary of the whole software system in a single illustration.

  3. TGGs for Transforming UML to CSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart; Rieke, Jan

    Contest. The second transformation problem, a transformation from UML activity diagrams to CSP processes, i.e. a transformation between two models, is a typical application for Triple Graph Grammars (TGGs). We present our contributed solution, presenting the TGG rules and the implementation of our TGG...... interpreter. Moreover, we point out the advantages of our soulution as well as some restrictions of the current implementation. This paper will only briefly state the transformation problem and focus on our TGG approach and the discussion of the rules....

  4. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  5. SysML Model of the Pick and Place Unit for Papyrus UML: Scenario Sc4b

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel-Heuser, Birgit; Folmer, Jens; Legat, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The Pick and Place Unit (PPU) is a bench-scale lab demonstrator which is open to the research community to investigate a variety of different topics. To conduct research on the evolution of production automation systems, a variety of different manifestations of the PPU (referred to as scenarios) were developed. A documentation of the PPU and its scenarios is publicly available at www.ppu-demonstrator.org. In this zipped file, a SysML model consisting of state charts and block definition diagr...

  6. For-LySa: UML for Authentication Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Montangero, Carlo; Perrone, Lara

    2005-01-01

    The DEGAS project aims at enriching standard UML-centred development environments in such a way that the developers of global applications can exploit automated formal analyses with minimal overhead. In this paper, we present For-LySa, an instantiation of the DEGAS approach for authentication...... analysis, which exploits an existing analysis tool developed for the process calculus LySa. We discuss what information is needed for the analysis, and how to build the UML model of an authentication protocol in such a way that the needed information can be extracted from the model. We then present our...

  7. Toward a Model-Based Approach for Flight System Fault Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John; Meakin, Peter; Murray, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Use SysML/UML to describe the physical structure of the system This part of the model would be shared with other teams - FS Systems Engineering, Planning & Execution, V&V, Operations, etc., in an integrated model-based engineering environment Use the UML Profile mechanism, defining Stereotypes to precisely express the concepts of the FP domain This extends the UML/SysML languages to contain our FP concepts Use UML/SysML, along with our profile, to capture FP concepts and relationships in the model Generate typical FP engineering products (the FMECA, Fault Tree, MRD, V&V Matrices)

  8. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  9. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  10. Language Networks as Models of Cognition: Understanding Cognition through Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Nicole M.; Colunga, Eliana

    Language is inherently cognitive and distinctly human. Separating the object of language from the human mind that processes and creates language fails to capture the full language system. Linguistics traditionally has focused on the study of language as a static representation, removed from the human mind. Network analysis has traditionally been focused on the properties and structure that emerge from network representations. Both disciplines could gain from looking at language as a cognitive process. In contrast, psycholinguistic research has focused on the process of language without committing to a representation. However, by considering language networks as approximations of the cognitive system we can take the strength of each of these approaches to study human performance and cognition as related to language. This paper reviews research showcasing the contributions of network science to the study of language. Specifically, we focus on the interplay of cognition and language as captured by a network representation. To this end, we review different types of language network representations before considering the influence of global level network features. We continue by considering human performance in relation to network structure and conclude with theoretical network models that offer potential and testable explanations of cognitive and linguistic phenomena.

  11. Design Of Computer Based Test Using The Unified Modeling Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedyyana, Agus; Danuri; Lidyawati

    2017-12-01

    The Admission selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis through interest and talent search (PMDK), Joint Selection of admission test for state Polytechnics (SB-UMPN) and Independent (UM-Polbeng) were conducted by using paper-based Test (PBT). Paper Based Test model has some weaknesses. They are wasting too much paper, the leaking of the questios to the public, and data manipulation of the test result. This reasearch was Aimed to create a Computer-based Test (CBT) models by using Unified Modeling Language (UML) the which consists of Use Case diagrams, Activity diagram and sequence diagrams. During the designing process of the application, it is important to pay attention on the process of giving the password for the test questions before they were shown through encryption and description process. RSA cryptography algorithm was used in this process. Then, the questions shown in the questions banks were randomized by using the Fisher-Yates Shuffle method. The network architecture used in Computer Based test application was a client-server network models and Local Area Network (LAN). The result of the design was the Computer Based Test application for admission to the selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis.

  12. Colaborated Architechture Framework for Composition UML 2.0 in Zachman Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan; Hastarista, Fika

    2016-01-01

    Zachman Framework (ZF) is the framework of enterprise architechture that most widely adopted in the Enterprise Information System (EIS) development. In this study, has been developed Colaborated Architechture Framework (CAF) to collaborate ZF with Unified Modeling Language (UML) 2.0 modeling. The CAF provides the composition of ZF matrix that each cell is consist of the Model Driven architechture (MDA) from the various UML models and many Software Requirement Specification (SRS) documents. Implementation of this modeling is used to develops Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Because ERP have a coverage of applications in large numbers and complexly relations, it is necessary to use Agile Model Driven Design (AMDD) approach as an advanced method to transforms MDA into components of application modules with efficiently and accurately. Finally, through the using of the CAF, give good achievement in fullfilment the needs from all stakeholders that are involved in the overall process stage of Rational Unified Process (RUP), and also obtaining a high satisfaction to fullfiled the functionality features of the ERP software in PT. Iglas (Persero) Gresik.

  13. Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettne Kristina M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of terms is essential for biomedical text mining.. We concentrate here on the use of vocabularies for term identification, specifically the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. To make the UMLS more suitable for biomedical text mining we implemented and evaluated nine term rewrite and eight term suppression rules. The rules rely on UMLS properties that have been identified in previous work by others, together with an additional set of new properties discovered by our group during our work with the UMLS. Our work complements the earlier work in that we measure the impact on the number of terms identified by the different rules on a MEDLINE corpus. The number of uniquely identified terms and their frequency in MEDLINE were computed before and after applying the rules. The 50 most frequently found terms together with a sample of 100 randomly selected terms were evaluated for every rule. Results Five of the nine rewrite rules were found to generate additional synonyms and spelling variants that correctly corresponded to the meaning of the original terms and seven out of the eight suppression rules were found to suppress only undesired terms. Using the five rewrite rules that passed our evaluation, we were able to identify 1,117,772 new occurrences of 14,784 rewritten terms in MEDLINE. Without the rewriting, we recognized 651,268 terms belonging to 397,414 concepts; with rewriting, we recognized 666,053 terms belonging to 410,823 concepts, which is an increase of 2.8% in the number of terms and an increase of 3.4% in the number of concepts recognized. Using the seven suppression rules, a total of 257,118 undesired terms were suppressed in the UMLS, notably decreasing its size. 7,397 terms were suppressed in the corpus. Conclusions We recommend applying the five rewrite rules and seven suppression rules that passed our evaluation when the UMLS is to be used for biomedical term identification in MEDLINE. A software

  14. The OCoN approach to workflow modeling in object-oriented systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, G.; Weske, M.H.; Giese, H.

    2001-01-01

    Workflow management aims at modeling and executing application processes in complex technical and organizational environments. Modern information systems are often based on object-oriented design techniques, for instance, the Unified Modeling Language (UML). These systems consist of application

  15. From use cases to UML class diagrams using logic grammars and constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Tveitane, Knut

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the possibilities for automated transition from Use Cases in a restricted natural language syntax into UML class diagrams, by trying to capture the semantics of the natural language and map it into building blocks of the object oriented programming paradigm (classes, objects, methods...

  16. An 00 visual language definition approach supporting multiple views

    OpenAIRE

    Akehurst, David H.; I.E.E.E. Computer Society

    2000-01-01

    The formal approach to visual language definition is to use graph grammars and/or graph transformation techniques. These techniques focus on specifying the syntax and manipulation rules of the concrete representation. This paper presents a constraint and object-oriented approach to defining visual languages that uses UML and OCL as a definition language. Visual language definitions specify a mapping between concrete and abstract models of possible visual sentences, which carl subsequently be ...

  17. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  18. The feasibility of using UML to compare the impact of different brands of computer system on the clinical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, Pushpa; de Lusignan, Simon; Koczan, Phil; Jones, Beryl; Sheeler, Ian

    2007-01-01

    UK general practice is universally computerised, with computers used in the consulting room at the point of care. Practices use a range of different brands of computer system, which have developed organically to meet the needs of general practitioners and health service managers. Unified Modelling Language (UML) is a standard modelling and specification notation widely used in software engineering. To examine the feasibility of UML notation to compare the impact of different brands of general practice computer system on the clinical consultation. Multi-channel video recordings of simulated consultation sessions were recorded on three different clinical computer systems in common use (EMIS, iSOFT Synergy and IPS Vision). User action recorder software recorded time logs of keyboard and mouse use, and pattern recognition software captured non-verbal communication. The outputs of these were used to create UML class and sequence diagrams for each consultation. We compared 'definition of the presenting problem' and 'prescribing', as these tasks were present in all the consultations analysed. Class diagrams identified the entities involved in the clinical consultation. Sequence diagrams identified common elements of the consultation (such as prescribing) and enabled comparisons to be made between the different brands of computer system. The clinician and computer system interaction varied greatly between the different brands. UML sequence diagrams are useful in identifying common tasks in the clinical consultation, and for contrasting the impact of the different brands of computer system on the clinical consultation. Further research is needed to see if patterns demonstrated in this pilot study are consistently displayed.

  19. The Use of UML to Development of a Railway Interlocking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using the Unifield Modeling Lanfuage (UML in developmentt of new railway interlocking and signalling systems. A simplifield example of the control circuit of a point machine is used to demonstrate an object-oriented approach to specifying the functional safety requirements. An informal specification given by the relevant technical standart is used as a starting point and results in semi-formal specification based on UML model. Advantages of the presented approach are discussed and new trends of increasing formality of UML models are indicated within conclusions.

  20. Formal models, languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangarajan, K; Mukund, M

    2006-01-01

    A collection of articles by leading experts in theoretical computer science, this volume commemorates the 75th birthday of Professor Rani Siromoney, one of the pioneers in the field in India. The articles span the vast range of areas that Professor Siromoney has worked in or influenced, including grammar systems, picture languages and new models of computation. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (150 KB). Contents: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (A Atanasiu et al.); Hexagonal Contextual Array P Systems (K S Dersanambika et al.); Con

  1. Auditing the multiply-related concepts within the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Fleur; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work focuses on multiply-related Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, that is, concepts associated through multiple relations. The relations involved in such situations are audited to determine whether they are provided by source vocabularies or result from the integration of these vocabularies within the UMLS. We study the compatibility of the multiple relations which associate the concepts under investigation and try to explain the reason why they co-occur. Towards this end, we analyze the relations both at the concept and term levels. In addition, we randomly select 288 concepts associated through contradictory relations and manually analyze them. At the UMLS scale, only 0.7% of combinations of relations are contradictory, while homogeneous combinations are observed in one-third of situations. At the scale of source vocabularies, one-third do not contain more than one relation between the concepts under investigation. Among the remaining source vocabularies, seven of them mainly present multiple non-homogeneous relations between terms. Analysis at the term level also shows that only in a quarter of cases are the source vocabularies responsible for the presence of multiply-related concepts in the UMLS. These results are available at: http://www.isped.u-bordeaux2.fr/ArticleJAMIA/results_multiply_related_concepts.aspx. Manual analysis was useful to explain the conceptualization difference in relations between terms across source vocabularies. The exploitation of source relations was helpful for understanding why some source vocabularies describe multiple relations between a given pair of terms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Lazaridis, Christos; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  3. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  4. Unified Modeling Language description of the object-oriented multi-scale adaptive finite element method for Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszynski, Maciej; Gurgul, Piotr; Sieniek, Marcin; Pardo, David

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of the paper we present the multi-scale simulation of the Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL), a modern patterning process. The simulation utilizes the hp adaptive Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) coupled with Molecular Statics (MS) model. Thus, we consider the multi-scale problem, with molecular statics applied in the areas of the mesh where the highest accuracy is required, and the continuous linear elasticity with thermal expansion coefficient applied in the remaining part of the domain. The degrees of freedom from macro-scale element's nodes located on the macro-scale side of the interface have been identified with particles from nano-scale elements located on the nano-scale side of the interface. In the second part of the paper we present Unified Modeling Language (UML) description of the resulting multi-scale application (hp-FEM coupled with MS). We investigated classical, procedural codes from the point of view of the object-oriented (O-O) programming paradigm. The discovered hierarchical structure of classes and algorithms makes the UML project as independent on the spatial dimension of the problem as possible. The O-O UML project was defined at an abstract level, independent on the programming language used.

  5. Extraction of UMLS® Concepts Using Apache cTAKES™ for German Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Böckmann, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Automatic information extraction of medical concepts and classification with semantic standards from medical reports is useful for standardization and for clinical research. This paper presents an approach for an UMLS concept extraction with a customized natural language processing pipeline for German clinical notes using Apache cTAKES. The objectives are, to test the natural language processing tool for German language if it is suitable to identify UMLS concepts and map these with SNOMED-CT. The German UMLS database and German OpenNLP models extended the natural language processing pipeline, so the pipeline can normalize to domain ontologies such as SNOMED-CT using the German concepts. For testing, the ShARe/CLEF eHealth 2013 training dataset translated into German was used. The implemented algorithms are tested with a set of 199 German reports, obtaining a result of average 0.36 F1 measure without German stemming, pre- and post-processing of the reports.

  6. Querying Business Process Models with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald; Acretoaie, Vlad

    2013-01-01

    The Visual Model Query Language (VMQL) has been invented with the objectives (1) to make it easier for modelers to query models effectively, and (2) to be universally applicable to all modeling languages. In previous work, we have applied VMQL to UML, and validated the first of these two claims. ...

  7. JGOOSE: A REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING TOOL TO INTEGRATE I* ORGANIZATIONAL MODELING WITH USE CASES IN UML JGOOSE: UNA HERRAMIENTA DE INGENIERÍA DE REQUISITOS PARA LA INTEGRACIÓN DE L MODELADO ORGANIZACIONAL I* CON EL MODELADO DE CASOS DE USO EN UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abe Vicente

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Computational Systems are being characterized by their complexity, dynamism and great strategic importance. In this complex context of software specification, generating high quality documentation is very difficult. Usually, clients are not sure about their needs and sometimes software requirements do not represent clients and organizational environment needs. Inconsistent and incomplete requirements are very frequent. One of the challenges to solve this problem is to integrate organizational and functional requirements of the system to be developed. In this paper the JGOOSE (Java Goal into Object Oriented Standard Extension tool used to assist requirement engineers in the development of use cases from the organizational models represented by i* technique is presented. To validate the tool, it was used and applied to the Conference Management System case study.En los días actuales los sistemas computacionales se caracterizan por su complejidad, dinamismo y gran importancia estratégica. En este complejo escenario de especificación de software, generar documentación de alta calidad es una difícil tarea. En general los clientes no saben exactamente lo que desean y muchas veces los requisitos del software no reflejan las reales necesidades de los clientes y del ambiente organizacional. Es bastante común encontrar requisitos inconsistentes e incompletos. En este contexto, uno de los grandes desafíos está en la necesidad de integrar los requisitos organizacionales y funcionales del sistema computacional que será desarrollado. En este trabajo se presenta la herramienta computacional JGOOSE (Java Goal Into Object Oriented Standard Extension que permite integrar diagramas de casos de uso en UML con requisitos organizacionales representados utilizando la técnica i*. Se presenta la utilización de la herramienta en el caso de estudio de un Sistema de Gestión de Evento Científico.

  8. Alignment of the UMLS semantic network with BioTop: Methodology and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Schulz; E. Beisswanger (Elena); L. van den Hoek (László); O. Bodenreider (Olivier); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMotivation: For many years, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic network (SN) has been used as an upper-level semantic framework for the categorization of terms from terminological resources in biomedicine. BioTop has recently been developed as an upper-level ontology for

  9. A Core Language for Separate Variability Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej; Schaefer, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Separate variability modeling adds variability to a modeling language without requiring modifications of the language or the supporting tools. We define a core language for separate variability modeling using a single kind of variation point to define transformations of software artifacts in object...... hierarchical dependencies between variation points via copying and flattening. Thus, we reduce a model with intricate dependencies to a flat executable model transformation consisting of simple unconditional local variation points. The core semantics is extremely concise: it boils down to two operational rules...

  10. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David

    " of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain...... for deciding reaction rule causation. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the modular construction of domain-specic modelling languages as bigraphical reactive systems, exploring the relationship between vertical renement and language specialisation in this setting. The thesis is composed of several...

  11. A unified tool for performance modelling and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Stephen; Kloul, Leila

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel performability modelling approach, which facilitates the efficient solution of performance models extracted from high-level descriptions of systems. The notation which we use for our high-level designs is the Unified Modelling Language (UML) graphical modelling language. The technology which provides the efficient representation capability for the underlying performance model is the multi-terminal binary decision diagram (MTBDD)-based PRISM probabilistic model checker. The UML models are compiled through an intermediate language, the stochastic process algebra PEPA, before translation into MTBDDs for solution. We illustrate our approach on a real-world analysis problem from the domain of mobile telephony

  12. Quality Assurance of UMLS Semantic Type Assignments Using SNOMED CT Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Chen, Y; He, Z; Halper, M; Chen, L

    2016-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is one of the largest biomedical terminological systems, with over 2.5 million concepts in its Metathesaurus repository. The UMLS's Semantic Network (SN) with its collection of 133 high-level semantic types serves as an abstraction layer on top of the Metathesaurus. In particular, the SN elaborates an aspect of the Metathesaurus's concepts via the assignment of one or more types to each concept. Due to the scope and complexity of the Metathesaurus, errors are all but inevitable in this semantic-type assignment process. To develop a semi-automated methodology to help assure the quality of semantic-type assignments within the UMLS. The methodology uses a cross-validation strategy involving SNOMED CT's hierarchies in combination with UMLS semantic types. Semantically uniform, disjoint concept groups are generated programmatically by partitioning the collection of all concepts in the same SNOMED CT hierarchy according to their respective semantic-type assignments in the UMLS. Domain experts are then called upon to review the concepts in any group having a small number of concepts. It is our hypothesis that a semantic-type assignment combination applicable only to a very small number of concepts in a SNOMED CT hierarchy is an indicator of potential problems. The methodology was applied to the UMLS 2013AA release along with the SNOMED CT from January 2013. An overall error rate of 33% was found for concepts proposed by the quality-assurance methodology. Supporting our hypothesis, that number was four times higher than the error rate found in control samples. The results show that the quality-assurance methodology can aid in effective and efficient identification of UMLS semantic-type assignment errors.

  13. A method of formal requirements analysis for NPP I and C systems based on object-oriented visual modeling with SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S. R.; Seong, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a formal requirements analysis method for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) I and C systems is suggested. This method uses Unified Modeling Language (UML) for modeling systems visually and Software Cost Reduction (SCR) formalism for checking the system models. Since object-oriented method can analyze a document by the objects in a real system, UML models that use object-oriented method are useful for understanding problems and communicating with everyone involved in the project. In order to analyze the requirement more formally, SCR tabular notations is converted from UML models. To help flow-through from UML models to SCR specifications, additional syntactic extensions for UML notation and a converting procedure are defined. The combined method has been applied to Dynamic Safety System (DSS). From this application, three kinds of errors were detected in the existing DSS requirements

  14. Presheaf models for CCS-like languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    for a general process language, in which CCS and related languages are easily encoded. The results are then transferred to traditional models for processes. By first establishing the congruence results for presheaf models, abstract, general proofs of congruence properties can be provided and the awkwardness...... caused through traditional models not always possessing the cartesian liftings, used in the breakdown of process operations, are side stepped. The abstract results are applied to show that hereditary history-preserving bisimulation is a congruence for CCS-like languages to which is added a refinement...

  15. On Combining Language Models: Oracle Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacioglu, Kadri; Ward, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we address the of combining several language models (LMs). We find that simple interpolation methods, like log-linear and linear interpolation, improve the performance but fall short of the performance of an oracle...

  16. Efficient Representation of Timed UML 2 Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knapp, Alexander; Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    UML 2 interactions describe system behavior over time in a declarative way. The standard approach to defining their formal semantics enumerates traces of events; other representation formats, like Büchi automata or prime event structures, have been suggested, too. We describe another, more succin...

  17. Arranging ISO 13606 archetypes into a knowledge base using UML connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2014-01-01

    To enable the efficient reuse of standard based medical data we propose to develop a higher-level information model that will complement the archetype model of ISO 13606. This model will make use of the relationships that are specified in UML to connect medical archetypes into a knowledge base within a repository. UML connectors were analysed for their ability to be applied in the implementation of a higher-level model that will establish relationships between archetypes. An information model was developed using XML Schema notation. The model allows linking different archetypes of one repository into a knowledge base. Presently it supports several relationships and will be advanced in future.

  18. Associating clinical archetypes through UMLS Metathesaurus term clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

    2012-06-01

    Clinical archetypes are modular definitions of clinical data, expressed using standard or open constraint-based data models as the CEN EN13606 and openEHR. There is an increasing archetype specification activity that raises the need for techniques to associate archetypes to support better management and user navigation in archetype repositories. This paper reports on a computational technique to generate tentative archetype associations by mapping them through term clusters obtained from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The terms are used to build a bipartite graph model and graph connectivity measures can be used for deriving associations.

  19. Model-Based Requirements Management in Gear Systems Design Based On Graph-Based Design Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, a wide-spread consensus concerning the enormous importance of an in-depth clarification of the specifications of a product has been observed. A weak clarification of specifications is repeatedly listed as a main cause for the failure of product development projects. Requirements, which can be defined as the purpose, goals, constraints, and criteria associated with a product development project, play a central role in the clarification of specifications. The collection of activities which ensure that requirements are identified, documented, maintained, communicated, and traced throughout the life cycle of a system, product, or service can be referred to as “requirements engineering”. These activities can be supported by a collection and combination of strategies, methods, and tools which are appropriate for the clarification of specifications. Numerous publications describe the strategy and the components of requirements management. Furthermore, recent research investigates its industrial application. Simultaneously, promising developments of graph-based design languages for a holistic digital representation of the product life cycle are presented. Current developments realize graph-based languages by the diagrams of the Unified Modelling Language (UML, and allow the automatic generation and evaluation of multiple product variants. The research presented in this paper seeks to present a method in order to combine the advantages of a conscious requirements management process and graph-based design languages. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is the investigation of a model-based integration of requirements in a product development process by means of graph-based design languages. The research method is based on an in-depth analysis of an exemplary industrial product development, a gear system for so-called “Electrical Multiple Units” (EMU. Important requirements were abstracted from a gear system

  20. Modeling the Emergence of Contact Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Francesca; Servedio, Vito D.P.; Mufwene, Salikoko S.; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena. PMID:25875371

  1. Translating message sequence charts to other process languages using process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Dongen, van B.F.; Jensen, K.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Billington, J.

    2008-01-01

    Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are often used by software analysts when discussing the behavior of a system with different stakeholders. Often such discussions lead to more complete behavioral models in the form of, e.g., Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs), Unified Modeling Language (UML), activity

  2. Analyzing polysemous concepts from a clinical perspective: Application to auditing concept categorization in the UMLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Fleur; Bodenreider, Olivier; Burgun, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Polysemy is a frequent issue in biomedical terminologies. In the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), polysemous terms are either represented as several independent concepts, or clustered into a single, multiply-categorized concept. The objective of this study is to analyze polysemous concepts in the UMLS through their categorization and hierarchical relations for auditing purposes. Methods We used the association of a concept with multiple Semantic Groups (SGs) as a surrogate for polysemy. We first extracted multi-SG (MSG) concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus and characterized them in terms of the combinations of SGs with which they are associated. We then clustered MSG concepts in order to identify major types of polysemy. We also analyzed the inheritance of SGs in MSG concepts. Finally, we manually reviewed the categorization of the MSG concepts for auditing purposes. Results The 1208 MSG concepts in the Metathesaurus are associated with 30 distinct pairs of SGs. We created 75 semantically homogeneous clusters of MSG concepts, and 276 MSG concepts could not be clustered for lack of hierarchical relations. The clusters were characterized by the most frequent pairs of semantic types of their constituent MSG concepts. MSG concepts exhibit limited semantic compatibility with their parent and child concepts. A large majority of MSG concepts (92%) are adequately categorized. Examples of miscategorized concepts are presented. Conclusion This work is a systematic analysis and manual review of all concepts categorized by multiple SGs in the UMLS. The correctly-categorized MSG concepts do reflect polysemy in the UMLS Metathesaurus. The analysis of inheritance of SGs proved useful for auditing concept categorization in the UMLS. PMID:19303057

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Language Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Vittorio; Baronchelli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea

    In this chapter we explore several language games of increasing complexity. We first consider the so-called Naming Game, possibly the simplest example of the complex processes leading progressively to the establishment of human-like languages. In this framework, a globally shared vocabulary emerges as a result of local adjustments of individual word-meaning association. The emergence of a common vocabulary only represents a first stage while it is interesting to investigate the emergence of higher forms of agreement, e.g., compositionality, categories, syntactic or grammatical structures. As an example in this direction we consider the so-called Category Game. Here one focuses on the process by which a population of individuals manages to categorize a single perceptually continuous channel. The problem of the emergence of a discrete shared set of categories out of a continuous perceptual channel is a notoriously difficult problem relevant for color categorization, vowels formation, etc. The central result here is the emergence of a hierarchical category structure made of two distinct levels: a basic layer, responsible for fine discrimination of the environment, and a shared linguistic layer that groups together perceptions to guarantee communicative success.

  4. Croatian Cadastre Database Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Biljecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cadastral Data Model has been developed as a part of a larger programme to improve products and production environment of the Croatian Cadastral Service of the State Geodetic Administration (SGA. The goal of the project was to create a cadastral data model conforming to relevant standards and specifications in the field of geoinformation (GI adapted by international organisations for standardisation under the competence of GI (ISO TC211 and OpenGIS and it implementations.The main guidelines during the project have been object-oriented conceptual modelling of the updated users' requests and a "new" cadastral data model designed by SGA - Faculty of Geodesy - Geofoto LLC project team. The UML of the conceptual model is given per all feature categories and is described only at class level. The next step was the UML technical model, which was developed from the UML conceptual model. The technical model integrates different UML schemas in one united schema.XML (eXtensible Markup Language was applied for XML description of UML models, and then the XML schema was transferred into GML (Geography Markup Language application schema. With this procedure we have completely described the behaviour of each cadastral feature and rules for the transfer and storage of cadastral features into the database.

  5. Melody Track Selection Using Discriminative Language Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Li, Ming; Suo, Hongbin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this letter we focus on the task of selecting the melody track from a polyphonic MIDI file. Based on the intuition that music and language are similar in many aspects, we solve the selection problem by introducing an n-gram language model to learn the melody co-occurrence patterns in a statistical manner and determine the melodic degree of a given MIDI track. Furthermore, we propose the idea of using background model and posterior probability criteria to make modeling more discriminative. In the evaluation, the achieved 81.6% correct rate indicates the feasibility of our approach.

  6. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  7. Una extensión de UML para el modelado de servicios Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Marcos M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los servicios Web han surgido para proveer un marco basado en estándares, que permite la interacción de aplicaciones a través de la Web. A pesar de que existen varias tecnologías que facilitan el desarrollo de servicios Web y aplicaciones orientadas a servicios, la carencia de una base metodológica sólida para el desarrollo de tales aplicaciones, plantea la necesidad de nuevos métodos o técnicas de modelado que puedan garantizar la calidad en el desarrollo de este tipo de aplicaciones. MIDAS es un marco metodológico orientado a modelos para el desarrollo de SIWs, que está basado en UML, XML y tecnología objetorelacional y que propone el modelado del comportamiento del sistema basado en servicios Web. En este artículo se presenta una extensión de UML para el modelado de servicios Web, basada en el estándar Web Service Description Language (WSDL propuesto por el W3C para la descripción de servicios Web. La extensión propuesta aporta una notación en UML que, por un lado, permite obtener una representación gráfica de un servicio Web y por otro, facilitará la generación automática de código WSDL a partir de un diagrama UML.

  8. Parents' and speech and language therapists' explanatory models of language development, language delay and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Phillips, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Parental and speech and language therapist (SLT) explanatory models may affect engagement with speech and language therapy, but there has been dearth of research in this area. This study investigated parents' and SLTs' views about language development, delay and intervention in pre-school children with language delay. The aims were to describe, explore and explain the thoughts, understandings, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge and feelings held by: a group of parents from East Manchester, UK, whose pre-school children had been referred with suspected language delay; and SLTs working in the same area, in relation to language development, language delay and language intervention. A total of 24 unstructured interviews were carried out: 15 with parents whose children had been referred for speech and language therapy and nine with SLTs who worked with pre-school children. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using Atlas/ti. The data were analysed, subjected to respondent validation, and grounded theories and principled descriptions developed to explain and describe parents' and SLTs' beliefs and views. Parent and SLT data are presented separately. There are commonalities and differences between the parents and the SLTs. Both groups believe that language development and delay are influenced by both external and internal factors. Parents give more weight to the role of gender, imitation and personality and value television and videos, whereas the SLTs value the 'right environment' and listening skills and consider that health/disability and socio-economic factors are important. Parents see themselves as experts on their child and have varied ideas about the role of SLTs, which do not always accord with SLTs' views. The parents and SLTs differ in their views of the roles of imitation and play in intervention. Parents typically try strategies before seeing an SLT. These data suggest that parents' ideas vary and that, although parents and SLTs may share some

  9. Formal specification with the Java modeling language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Grahl, Daniel; Hentschel, Martin; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Beckert, Bernhard; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattoas

    2016-01-01

    This text is a general, self contained, and tool independent introduction into the Java Modeling Language, JML. It appears in a book about the KeY approach and tool, because JML is the dominating starting point of KeY style Java verification. However, this chapter does not depend on KeY, nor any

  10. Issues for a Model of Language Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    1989-01-01

    Examines the following issues as they relate to a model of language planning: (1) types of decisions (policy or implemental, higher- or lower-level, rational or arbitrary); (2) the planning mechanism; (3) the role of fact finding (prepolicy, preimplementation, and intraimplementation); (4) levels of planning; and (5) the nature of status versus…

  11. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  12. Expressing Model Constraints Visually with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    ) for specifying constraints on UML models. We examine VMQL's usability by controlled experiments and its expressiveness by a representative sample. We conclude that VMQL is less expressive than OCL, although expressive enough for most of the constraints in the sample. In terms of usability, however, VMQL......OCL is the de facto standard language for expressing constraints and queries on UML models. However, OCL expressions are very difficult to create, understand, and maintain, even with the sophisticated tool support now available. In this paper, we propose to use the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL...

  13. Transforming Functional Requirements from UML into BPEL to Efficiently Develop SOA-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Anisha; Subramanian, Nary

    The intended behavior of any system such as services, tasks or functions can be captured by functional requirements of the system. As our dependence on online services has grown steadily, the web applications are being developed employing the SOA. BPEL4WS provides a means for expressing functional requirements of an SOA-based system by providing constructs to capture business goals and objectives for the system. In this paper we propose an approach for transforming user-centered requirements captured using UML into a corresponding BPEL specification, where the business processes are captured by means of use-cases from which UML sequence diagrams and activity diagrams are extracted. Subsequently these UML models are mapped to BPEL specifications that capture the essence of the initial business requirements to develop the SOA-based system by employing CASE tools. A student housing system is used as a case study to illustrate this approach and the system is validated using NetBeans.

  14. Analýza a návrh aplikace s využitím UML

    OpenAIRE

    Hajník, Julius

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to create an example of analysis and design of computer application utilizing the notation of UML usable for purposes of education in elementary informatics classes. Analysis and design are demonstrated on application Distributor SW. This application serves for recording purchase orders in software retail business. astah* is the CASE tool used in this work for modeling with UML notation.

  15. Enterprise architecture evaluation using architecture framework and UML stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Shahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for enterprise architecture in numerous organizations with complicated systems with various processes. Support for information technology, organizational units whose elements maintain complex relationships increases. Enterprise architecture is so effective that its non-use in organizations is regarded as their institutional inability in efficient information technology management. The enterprise architecture process generally consists of three phases including strategic programing of information technology, enterprise architecture programing and enterprise architecture implementation. Each phase must be implemented sequentially and one single flaw in each phase may result in a flaw in the whole architecture and, consequently, in extra costs and time. If a model is mapped for the issue and then it is evaluated before enterprise architecture implementation in the second phase, the possible flaws in implementation process are prevented. In this study, the processes of enterprise architecture are illustrated through UML diagrams, and the architecture is evaluated in programming phase through transforming the UML diagrams to Petri nets. The results indicate that the high costs of the implementation phase will be reduced.

  16. A Unified Toolset for Business Process Model Formalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Changizi (Behnaz); N. Kokash (Natallia); F. Arbab (Farhad)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we present a toolset to automate the transformation of Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN), UML Sequence Diagrams, and Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), into their proposed formal semantics expressed in the channel-based coordination language Reo. Such

  17. An Evaluation of ADLs on Modeling Patterns for Software Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2007-01-01

    Architecture patterns provide solutions to recurring design problems at the architecture level. In order to model patterns during software architecture design, one may use a number of existing Architecture Description Languages (ADLs), including the UML, a generic language but also a de facto

  18. Apricot - An Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Huixing; Zhu, Huibiao; Shi, Jianqi

    2013-01-01

    We propose Apricot as an object-oriented language for modeling hybrid systems. The language combines the features in domain specific language and object-oriented language, that fills the gap between design and implementation, as a result, we put forward the modeling language with simple and distinct syntax, structure and semantics. In addition, we introduce the concept of design by convention into Apricot.As the characteristic of object-oriented and the component architecture in Apricot, we c...

  19. Language Models and the Teaching of English Language to Secondary School Students in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntongieh, Njwe Amah Eyovi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Language models with an emphasis on an appraisal of the Competence Based Language Teaching Model (CBLT) employed in the teaching and learning of English language in Cameroon. Research endeavours at various levels combined with cumulative deficiencies experienced over the years have propelled educational policy makers to…

  20. A simple branching model that reproduces language family and language population distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwämmle, Veit; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro

    2009-07-01

    Human history leaves fingerprints in human languages. Little is known about language evolution and its study is of great importance. Here we construct a simple stochastic model and compare its results to statistical data of real languages. The model is based on the recent finding that language changes occur independently of the population size. We find agreement with the data additionally assuming that languages may be distinguished by having at least one among a finite, small number of different features. This finite set is also used in order to define the distance between two languages, similarly to linguistics tradition since Swadesh.

  1. Computer modelling as a tool for understanding language evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bart; Gontier, N; VanBendegem, JP; Aerts, D

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the uses of computer models in studying the evolution of language. Language is a complex dynamic system that can be studied at the level of the individual and at the level of the population. Much of the dynamics of language evolution and language change occur because of the

  2. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ] Affects both civilian and military domains [8] [9] Related to the concepts of infowar, information operations, hacking, hackivism, cyberterrorism and cybotage depending on motivations and techniques [10] Encompasses both technological solutions...]. In addition, Williers as well as Qingbao and Anwar discuss more offensive aspects of information security and Network Warfare like Hacking, Vulnerability Injection, Network Attacks, Denial of Capability, Interception and Blockage [6] [18] [19]. Various...

  3. 基于UML的PPP项目融资管理信息系统的分析%Analysis of PPP Project Financing Management Information System Based on UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫萍; 何楠

    2012-01-01

    PPP项目融资过程中,为便于各主体之间以及主体与外部环境之间信息的流通与传递,实现PPP项目融资过程中的信息化管理,运用UML可视化建模语言对PPP项目融资管理信息系统进行功能分析,创建用例图、类图和顺序图等,从而为后期开发PPP项目融资管理信息系统奠定基础。%In the process of PPP project financing, in order to facilitate the circulation and transmission of information between the main bodies and between the subject and external environment, and realize the process of information management of the PPP project fi- nancing, this paper uses the visualized modeling language UML throughout the whole process of the design of the PPP project financing management information system, and introduces the concept and features of PPP financing model and the related concepts of UML mod- eling firstly, then analyses the function of the PPP project financing management information system, and finally, analyses PPP project financing management information system with the UML modeling. It creates the use case diagram, the class diagram and the sequence diagram for the PPP project financing management information system. Thus it lays foundation for the later development of PPP project financing management information system.

  4. The UMLS Knowledge Source Server: an experience in Web 2.0 technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Karen E; Bangalore, Anantha K; Browne, Allen C

    2007-10-11

    The UMLS Knowledge Source Server (UMLSKS), developed at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), makes the knowledge sources of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) available to the research community over the Internet. In 2003, the UMLSKS was redesigned utilizing state-of-the-art technologies available at that time. That design offered a significant improvement over the prior version but presented a set of technology-dependent issues that limited its functionality and usability. Four areas of desired improvement were identified: software interfaces, web interface content, system maintenance/deployment, and user authentication. By employing next generation web technologies, newer authentication paradigms and further refinements in modular design methods, these areas could be addressed and corrected to meet the ever increasing needs of UMLSKS developers. In this paper we detail the issues present with the existing system and describe the new system's design using new technologies considered entrants in the Web 2.0 development era.

  5. Using UML and Petri nets for visualization of business document flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two principles of business workflow modeling, Petri nets and UML notation, that are the acceptable approaches to business modeling and can be used also for business documents workflow. The special type of Petri nets, WF-nets and UML activity diagrams are used in this article and both modeling ways are presented on the concrete business workflow and then there are presented and specified their advantage and disadvantage for business documents flows. At beginning it is explained the word workflow in context business documents, its features, principles and using in business environment. After that it is clarified that the UML is OMG’s most-used specification, and the way the world models not only application structure, behavior, and architecture, but also business process, workflows and data structure. Activity diagram UML is good way to show how different workflows in the business are managed, how they start, go and stop. Diagrams also show many different decision paths that can be taken from start to finish. State charts can be used as a detail the transitions or changes of states when documents can go through in the business. They show how a documents moves from one state to another and the rules that govern that change. Petri-nets offer a graphical notation for stepwise processes that include choice, iteration, and concurrent execution. Unlike UML Petri nets have an exact mathematical definition of their execution semantics, with a well-developed mathematical theory for process analysis. In the article there are modeled a special type of Petri nets, the WF-nets. The practical part of article incorporates two models of concrete business documents workflows presented in these notations, their comparison and recommendation for using these diagrams in business process management.

  6. MODEL NATIVIS LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (SEBUAH TEORI PEMEROLEHAN BAHASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamluatul Hasanah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of using mother tongue has been possessed by every child. They can master the language without getting specific education. In a short time a child has mastered the language to communicate with others. There are many theories of language acquisition. One of them that still exists is The Native Model of Language Acquisition (LAD. This theory was pioneered by Noam Chomsky. In this language naturally. This ability develops automatically when the language is used is Language Acquisition Device (LAD. LAD constitutes a hypothesis of feature of grammatical rules used progressively by a child in accordance with his psychological development.

  7. Alignment of the UMLS semantic network with BioTop: methodology and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Beisswanger, Elena; van den Hoek, László; Bodenreider, Olivier; van Mulligen, Erik M

    2009-06-15

    For many years, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic network (SN) has been used as an upper-level semantic framework for the categorization of terms from terminological resources in biomedicine. BioTop has recently been developed as an upper-level ontology for the biomedical domain. In contrast to the SN, it is founded upon strict ontological principles, using OWL DL as a formal representation language, which has become standard in the semantic Web. In order to make logic-based reasoning available for the resources annotated or categorized with the SN, a mapping ontology was developed aligning the SN with BioTop. The theoretical foundations and the practical realization of the alignment are being described, with a focus on the design decisions taken, the problems encountered and the adaptations of BioTop that became necessary. For evaluation purposes, UMLS concept pairs obtained from MEDLINE abstracts by a named entity recognition system were tested for possible semantic relationships. Furthermore, all semantic-type combinations that occur in the UMLS Metathesaurus were checked for satisfiability. The effort-intensive alignment process required major design changes and enhancements of BioTop and brought up several design errors that could be fixed. A comparison between a human curator and the ontology yielded only a low agreement. Ontology reasoning was also used to successfully identify 133 inconsistent semantic-type combinations. BioTop, the OWL DL representation of the UMLS SN, and the mapping ontology are available at http://www.purl.org/biotop/.

  8. A model of language inflection graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukś, Henryk; Farzad, Babak; Cao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Inflection graphs are highly complex networks representing relationships between inflectional forms of words in human languages. For so-called synthetic languages, such as Latin or Polish, they have particularly interesting structure due to the abundance of inflectional forms. We construct the simplest form of inflection graphs, namely a bipartite graph in which one group of vertices corresponds to dictionary headwords and the other group to inflected forms encountered in a given text. We, then, study projection of this graph on the set of headwords. The projection decomposes into a large number of connected components, to be called word groups. Distribution of sizes of word group exhibits some remarkable properties, resembling cluster distribution in a lattice percolation near the critical point. We propose a simple model which produces graphs of this type, reproducing the desired component distribution and other topological features.

  9. Examining the interrelationships among students' personological characteristics, attitudes toward the Unified Modeling Language, self-efficacy, and multiple intelligences with respect to student achievement in a software design methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Iles, Gail Marie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationships among student's demographics, attitudes toward the Unified Modeling Language (UML), general self-efficacy, and multiple intelligence (MI) profiles, and the use of UML to develop software. The dependent measures were course grades and course project scores. The study was grounded in problem solving theory, self-efficacy theory, and multiple intelligence theory. The sample was an intact class of 18 students who took the junior-level Software Design Methods course, CSE 3421, at Florida Institute of Technology in the Spring 2008 semester. The course incorporated instruction in UML with Java. Attitudes were measured by a researcher-modified instrument derived from the Computer Laboratory Survey by Newby and Fisher, and self-efficacy was measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem. MI profiles, which were the proportion of Gardner's eight intelligences, were determined from Shearer's Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment Scales. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that only the collective set of MI profiles was significant, but none of the individual intelligences were significant. The study's findings supported what one would expect to find relative to problem solving theory, but were contradictory to self-efficacy theory. The findings also supported Gardner's concept that multiple intelligences must be considered as an integral unit and the importance of not focusing on an individual intelligence. The findings imply that self-efficacy is not a major consideration for a software design methods class that requires a transition to problem solving strategy and suggest that the instructor was instrumental in fostering positive attitudes toward UML. Recommendations for practice include (1) teachers should not be concerned with focusing on a single intelligence simply because they believe one intelligence might be more aligned to a

  10. Large-Scale Topic Detection and Language Model Adaptation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seymore, Kristie

    1997-01-01

    .... We have developed a language model adaptation scheme that takes apiece of text, chooses the most similar topic clusters from a set of over 5000 elemental topics, and uses topic specific language...

  11. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  12. Spin Glass Models of Syntax and Language Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Siva, Karthik; Tao, Jim; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Using the SSWL database of syntactic parameters of world languages, and the MIT Media Lab data on language interactions, we construct a spin glass model of language evolution. We treat binary syntactic parameters as spin states, with languages as vertices of a graph, and assigned interaction energies along the edges. We study a rough model of syntax evolution, under the assumption that a strong interaction energy tends to cause parameters to align, as in the case of ferromagnetic materials. W...

  13. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  14. A Policy Language for Modelling Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El Kalam, Anas; Balbiani, Philippe

    While current and emergent applications become more and more complex, most of existing security policies and models only consider a yes/no response to the access requests. Consequently, modelling, formalizing and implementing permissions, obligations and prohibitions do not cover the richness of all the possible scenarios. In fact, several applications have access rules with the recommendation access modality. In this paper we focus on the problem of formalizing security policies with recommendation needs. The aim is to provide a generic domain-independent formal system for modelling not only permissions, prohibitions and obligations, but also recommendations. In this respect, we present our logic-based language, the semantics, the truth conditions, our axiomatic as well as inference rules. We also give a representative use case with our specification of recommendation requirements. Finally, we explain how our logical framework could be used to query the security policy and to check its consistency.

  15. On the Designing of Model Checkers for Real-Time Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Volkanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify real-time properties of UML statecharts one may apply a UPPAAL, toolbox for model checking of real-time systems. One of the most suitable ways to specify an operational semantics of UML statecharts is to invoke the formal model of Hierarchical Timed Automata. Since the model language of UPPAAL is based on Networks of Timed Automata one has to provide a conversion of Hierarchical Timed Automata to Networks of Timed Automata. In this paper we describe this conversion algorithm and prove that it is correct w.r.t. UPPAAL query language which is based on the subset of Timed CTL.

  16. FuGEFlow: data model and markup language for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manion Frank J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry technology is widely used in both health care and research. The rapid expansion of flow cytometry applications has outpaced the development of data storage and analysis tools. Collaborative efforts being taken to eliminate this gap include building common vocabularies and ontologies, designing generic data models, and defining data exchange formats. The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt standard was recently adopted by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. This standard guides researchers on the information that should be included in peer reviewed publications, but it is insufficient for data exchange and integration between computational systems. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE formalizes common aspects of comprehensive and high throughput experiments across different biological technologies. We have extended FuGE object model to accommodate flow cytometry data and metadata. Methods We used the MagicDraw modelling tool to design a UML model (Flow-OM according to the FuGE extension guidelines and the AndroMDA toolkit to transform the model to a markup language (Flow-ML. We mapped each MIFlowCyt term to either an existing FuGE class or to a new FuGEFlow class. The development environment was validated by comparing the official FuGE XSD to the schema we generated from the FuGE object model using our configuration. After the Flow-OM model was completed, the final version of the Flow-ML was generated and validated against an example MIFlowCyt compliant experiment description. Results The extension of FuGE for flow cytometry has resulted in a generic FuGE-compliant data model (FuGEFlow, which accommodates and links together all information required by MIFlowCyt. The FuGEFlow model can be used to build software and databases using FuGE software toolkits to facilitate automated exchange and manipulation of potentially large flow cytometry experimental data sets

  17. FuGEFlow: data model and markup language for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Tchuvatkina, Olga; Spidlen, Josef; Wilkinson, Peter; Gasparetto, Maura; Jones, Andrew R; Manion, Frank J; Scheuermann, Richard H; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Brinkman, Ryan R

    2009-06-16

    Flow cytometry technology is widely used in both health care and research. The rapid expansion of flow cytometry applications has outpaced the development of data storage and analysis tools. Collaborative efforts being taken to eliminate this gap include building common vocabularies and ontologies, designing generic data models, and defining data exchange formats. The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt) standard was recently adopted by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. This standard guides researchers on the information that should be included in peer reviewed publications, but it is insufficient for data exchange and integration between computational systems. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE) formalizes common aspects of comprehensive and high throughput experiments across different biological technologies. We have extended FuGE object model to accommodate flow cytometry data and metadata. We used the MagicDraw modelling tool to design a UML model (Flow-OM) according to the FuGE extension guidelines and the AndroMDA toolkit to transform the model to a markup language (Flow-ML). We mapped each MIFlowCyt term to either an existing FuGE class or to a new FuGEFlow class. The development environment was validated by comparing the official FuGE XSD to the schema we generated from the FuGE object model using our configuration. After the Flow-OM model was completed, the final version of the Flow-ML was generated and validated against an example MIFlowCyt compliant experiment description. The extension of FuGE for flow cytometry has resulted in a generic FuGE-compliant data model (FuGEFlow), which accommodates and links together all information required by MIFlowCyt. The FuGEFlow model can be used to build software and databases using FuGE software toolkits to facilitate automated exchange and manipulation of potentially large flow cytometry experimental data sets. Additional project documentation, including

  18. A conceptual model specification language (CMSL Version 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1992-01-01

    Version 2 of a language (CMSL) to specify conceptual models is defined. CMSL consists of two parts, the value specification language VSL and the object spercification language OSL. There is a formal semantics and an inference system for CMSL but research on this still continues. A method for

  19. VMTL: a language for end-user model transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    , these languages are largely ill-equipped for adoption by end-user modelers in areas such as requirements engineering, business process management, or enterprise architecture. We aim to introduce a model transformation language addressing the skills and requirements of end-user modelers. With this contribution, we......Model transformation is a key enabling technology of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). Existing model transformation languages are shaped by and for MDE practitioners—a user group with needs and capabilities which are not necessarily characteristic of modelers in general. Consequently...... hope to broaden the application scope of model transformation and MDE technology in general. We discuss the profile of end-user modelers and propose a set of design guidelines for model transformation languages addressing them. We then introduce Visual Model Transformation Language (VMTL) following...

  20. A universal model for languages and cities, and their lifetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2007-01-01

    Present human languages display slightly asymmetric log-normal (Gauss) distribution for size [1-3], whereas present cities follow power law (Pareto-Zipf law)[4]. Our model considers the competition between languages and that between cities in terms of growing (multiplicative noise process)[5] and fragmentation [6]; where, relevant parameters are (naturally) different for languages and cities. We consider lifetime distribution for old and living languages and that for old and living cities. We...

  1. Object-oriented biomedical system modelling--the language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakman, M; Groth, T

    1999-11-01

    The paper describes a new object-oriented biomedical continuous system modelling language (OOBSML). It is fully object-oriented and supports model inheritance, encapsulation, and model component instantiation and behaviour polymorphism. Besides the traditional differential and algebraic equation expressions the language includes also formal expressions for documenting models and defining model quantity types and quantity units. It supports explicit definition of model input-, output- and state quantities, model components and component connections. The OOBSML model compiler produces self-contained, independent, executable model components that can be instantiated and used within other OOBSML models and/or stored within model and model component libraries. In this way complex models can be structured as multilevel, multi-component model hierarchies. Technically the model components produced by the OOBSML compiler are executable computer code objects based on distributed object and object request broker technology. This paper includes both the language tutorial and the formal language syntax and semantic description.

  2. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  3. Sophia: A Expedient UMLS Concept Extraction Annotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divita, Guy; Zeng, Qing T; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Duvall, Scott; Nebeker, Jonathan; Samore, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity exists for meaningful concept extraction and indexing from large corpora of clinical notes in the Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical record. Currently available tools such as MetaMap, cTAKES and HITex do not scale up to address this big data need. Sophia, a rapid UMLS concept extraction annotator was developed to fulfill a mandate and address extraction where high throughput is needed while preserving performance. We report on the development, testing and benchmarking of Sophia against MetaMap and cTAKEs. Sophia demonstrated improved performance on recall as compared to cTAKES and MetaMap (0.71 vs 0.66 and 0.38). The overall f-score was similar to cTAKES and an improvement over MetaMap (0.53 vs 0.57 and 0.43). With regard to speed of processing records, we noted Sophia to be several fold faster than cTAKES and the scaled-out MetaMap service. Sophia offers a viable alternative for high-throughput information extraction tasks.

  4. Semi-Supervised Learning to Identify UMLS Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    The UMLS Semantic Network is constructed by experts and requires periodic expert review to update. We propose and implement a semi-supervised approach for automatically identifying UMLS semantic relations from narrative text in PubMed. Our method analyzes biomedical narrative text to collect semantic entity pairs, and extracts multiple semantic, syntactic and orthographic features for the collected pairs. We experiment with seeded k-means clustering with various distance metrics. We create and annotate a ground truth corpus according to the top two levels of the UMLS semantic relation hierarchy. We evaluate our system on this corpus and characterize the learning curves of different clustering configuration. Using KL divergence consistently performs the best on the held-out test data. With full seeding, we obtain macro-averaged F-measures above 70% for clustering the top level UMLS relations (2-way), and above 50% for clustering the second level relations (7-way).

  5. Probabilistic language models in cognitive neuroscience: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Kristijan; Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals. Measures obtained from these models emphasize the probabilistic, information-processing view of language understanding and provide a set of tools that can be used for testing neural hypotheses about language comprehension. Here, we provide a cursory review of the theoretical foundations and example neuroimaging studies employing probabilistic language models. We highlight the advantages and potential pitfalls of this approach and indicate avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Picture languages formal models for picture recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1979-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Picture Languages: Formal Models for Picture Recognition treats pictorial pattern recognition from the formal standpoint of automata theory. This book emphasizes the capabilities and relative efficiencies of two types of automata-array automata and cellular array automata, with respect to various array recognition tasks. The array automata are simple processors that perform sequences of operations on arrays, while the cellular array automata are arrays of processors that operate on pictures in a highly parallel fashion, one processor per picture element. This compilation also reviews a collection of results on two-dimensional sequential and parallel array acceptors. Some of the analogous one-dimensional results and array grammars and their relation to acceptors are likewise covered in this text. This publication is suitable for researchers, professionals, and specialists interested in pattern recognition and automata theory.

  7. Bayesian Recurrent Neural Network for Language Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Ku, Yuan-Chu

    2016-02-01

    A language model (LM) is calculated as the probability of a word sequence that provides the solution to word prediction for a variety of information systems. A recurrent neural network (RNN) is powerful to learn the large-span dynamics of a word sequence in the continuous space. However, the training of the RNN-LM is an ill-posed problem because of too many parameters from a large dictionary size and a high-dimensional hidden layer. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to regularize the RNN-LM and apply it for continuous speech recognition. We aim to penalize the too complicated RNN-LM by compensating for the uncertainty of the estimated model parameters, which is represented by a Gaussian prior. The objective function in a Bayesian classification network is formed as the regularized cross-entropy error function. The regularized model is constructed not only by calculating the regularized parameters according to the maximum a posteriori criterion but also by estimating the Gaussian hyperparameter by maximizing the marginal likelihood. A rapid approximation to a Hessian matrix is developed to implement the Bayesian RNN-LM (BRNN-LM) by selecting a small set of salient outer-products. The proposed BRNN-LM achieves a sparser model than the RNN-LM. Experiments on different corpora show the robustness of system performance by applying the rapid BRNN-LM under different conditions.

  8. AADL and Model-based Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    pictures – MDE and MDA with UML – Automatically generated documents We need language for architecture modeling • Strongly typed • Well-defined...Mail Software Engineering Institute Customer Relations 4500 Fifth Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2612 USA Web Wiki.sei.cmu.edu/aadl www.aadl.info

  9. Innovations in Language Learning: The Oregon Chinese Flagship Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Falsgraf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning in the United States suffers from a culture of low expectations. Lacking bilingual role models around them, students often view language class as, at best, a way to become a tourist in a country with a language different from their own. Monolingual policymakers assume that learning another language fluently is impossible and inconsequential, since they themselves are capable professionals with one language. Educators, discouraged by years of inadequate funding and support, have come to hope for nothing more than incremental improvements. The National Flagship Language Program (NFLP aims to break this cycle of low expectations and low results by providing funding to institutions willing to accept the challenge of producing Superior (Level 3 language users through a radical re-engineering of the language learning enterprise. The need for fundamental change in language education is longstanding, but the events of September 11 brought the importance of this need to the awareness of national policymakers. Due to the emphasis of critical languages, responsibility for carrying out this fundamental re-examination of language learning has fallen to those engaged in the less commonly taught languages. 1

  10. MOCQL: A Declarative Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Language (MOCQL), an experimental declarative textual language to express queries (and constraints) on models. We introduce MOCQL by examples and its grammar, evaluate its usability by means of controlled experiments, and find that modelers perform better and experience less cognitive load when working...

  11. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-06-11

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka-Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data.

  12. Similar words analysis based on POS-CBOW language model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongru RUAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar words analysis is one of the important aspects in the field of natural language processing, and it has important research and application values in text classification, machine translation and information recommendation. Focusing on the features of Sina Weibo's short text, this paper presents a language model named as POS-CBOW, which is a kind of continuous bag-of-words language model with the filtering layer and part-of-speech tagging layer. The proposed approach can adjust the word vectors' similarity according to the cosine similarity and the word vectors' part-of-speech metrics. It can also filter those similar words set on the base of the statistical analysis model. The experimental result shows that the similar words analysis algorithm based on the proposed POS-CBOW language model is better than that based on the traditional CBOW language model.

  13. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  14. ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Grgec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD, object diagram (OD, sequence diagram (SD, collaboration diagram (COD, state chart diagram (SCD, activity diagram (AD, 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD, 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram, 4. Physical view (deployment diagram, and 5. Use case view (use case diagram, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD which combines the four mentioned above. With sequence diagram constructs we are describing object behavior in scope of one use case and their interaction. Each object in system goes through a so called lifecycle (create, supplement object with data, use object, decommission object. The concept of the object lifecycle is used to understand and formalize the behavior of objects from creation to deletion. With help of sequence diagram concepts our paper will describe the way of interaction modeling between objects through lifeline of each of them, and their importance in software development.

  15. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Woosung; Khudanpur, Sanjeev

    2003-01-01

    .... We achieve this through an extension of the method of lexical triggers to the cross-language problem, and by developing a likelihoodbased adaptation scheme for combining a trigger model with an N-gram model...

  16. Expanding the Extent of a UMLS Semantic Type via Group Neighborhood Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Xu, Junchuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective Each Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept is assigned one or more semantic types (ST). A dynamic methodology for aiding an auditor in finding concepts that are missing the assignment of a given ST, S is presented. Design The first part of the methodology exploits the previously introduced Refined Semantic Network and accompanying refined semantic types (RST) to help narrow the search space for offending concepts. The auditing is focused in a neighborhood surrounding the extent of an RST, T (of S) called an envelope, consisting of parents and children of concepts in the extent. The audit moves outward as long as missing assignments are discovered. In the second part, concepts not reached previously are processed and reassigned T as needed during the processing of S's other RSTs. The set of such concepts is expanded in a similar way to that in the first part. Measurements The number of errors discovered is reported. To measure the methodology's efficiency, “error hit rates” (i.e., errors found in concepts examined) are computed. Results The methodology was applied to three STs: Experimental Model of Disease (EMD), Environmental Effect of Humans, and Governmental or Regulatory Activity. The EMD experienced the most drastic change. For its RST “EMD ∩ Neoplastic Process” (RST “EMD”) with only 33 (31) original concepts, 915 (134) concepts were found by the first (second) part to be missing the EMD assignment. Changes to the other two STs were smaller. Conclusion The results show that the proposed auditing methodology can help to effectively and efficiently identify concepts lacking the assignment of a particular semantic type. PMID:19567802

  17. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  18. Consumers' Use of UMLS Concepts on Social Media: Diabetes-Related Textual Data Analysis in Blog and Social Q&A Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Sook; He, Zhe; Chen, Zhiwei; Oh, Sanghee; Bian, Jiang

    2016-11-24

    The widely known terminology gap between health professionals and health consumers hinders effective information seeking for consumers. The aim of this study was to better understand consumers' usage of medical concepts by evaluating the coverage of concepts and semantic types of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) on diabetes-related postings in 2 types of social media: blogs and social question and answer (Q&A). We collected 2 types of social media data: (1) a total of 3711 blogs tagged with "diabetes" on Tumblr posted between February and October 2015; and (2) a total of 58,422 questions and associated answers posted between 2009 and 2014 in the diabetes category of Yahoo! Answers. We analyzed the datasets using a widely adopted biomedical text processing framework Apache cTAKES and its extension YTEX. First, we applied the named entity recognition (NER) method implemented in YTEX to identify UMLS concepts in the datasets. We then analyzed the coverage and the popularity of concepts in the UMLS source vocabularies across the 2 datasets (ie, blogs and social Q&A). Further, we conducted a concept-level comparative coverage analysis between SNOMED Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) and Open-Access Collaborative Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV)-the top 2 UMLS source vocabularies that have the most coverage on our datasets. We also analyzed the UMLS semantic types that were frequently observed in our datasets. We identified 2415 UMLS concepts from blog postings, 6452 UMLS concepts from social Q&A questions, and 10,378 UMLS concepts from the answers. The medical concepts identified in the blogs can be covered by 56 source vocabularies in the UMLS, while those in questions and answers can be covered by 58 source vocabularies. SNOMED CT was the dominant vocabulary in terms of coverage across all the datasets, ranging from 84.9% to 95.9%. It was followed by OAC CHV (between 73.5% and 80.0%) and Metathesaurus Names (MTH) (between 55.7% and 73.5%). All of the social

  19. Improving Language Learning Strategies and Performance of Pre-Service Language Teachers through a CALLA-TBLT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guapacha Chamorro, Maria Eugenia; Benavidez Paz, Luis Humberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an action-research study on language learning strategies in tertiary education at a Colombian university. The study aimed at improving the English language performance and language learning strategies use of 33 first-year pre-service language teachers by combining elements from two models: the cognitive academic language…

  20. Modelling and Implementation of Catalogue Cards Using FreeMarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenovic, Jelen; Milosavljevic, Branko; Surla, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study involving the specification (using Unified Modelling Language (UML) 2.0) of information requirements and implementation of the software components for generating catalogue cards. The implementation in a Java environment is developed using the FreeMarker software.…

  1. Leveraging Small-Lexicon Language Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    Glottolog/ ... a typical example: ./geo_distance.tsv – geographical distance sets (0 to 500 km, by 100km) ./ety_distance.tsv – genetic distance...normalizing notation affected automated syllabification; while tweaks of language and subbranch-specific syllable-break rubrics affected proper...many languages – an index that points to the forms that are most likely to be genetically related, but still respects semantic variation between

  2. A Model of Instruction for Integrating Culture and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    An integrated model of instruction in language and culture uses a sequential method of discovering sensation, perception, concept, and principle to develop self-analysis skills in students. When planning activities for learning a language and developing cultural understanding, teachers might follow a sequence such as the following: introduce…

  3. Microscopic Abrams-Strogatz model of language competition

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffer, Dietrich; Castello, Xavier; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Miguel, Maxi San

    2006-01-01

    The differential equation of Abrams and Strogatz for the competition between two languages is compared with agent based Monte Carlo simulations for fully connected networks as well as for lattices in one, two and three dimensions, with up to 10^9 agents. In the case of socially equivalent languages, agent-based models and a mean field approximation give grossly different results.

  4. A new model for competition between many languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    Time evolutions of number of cities, population of cities, world population, and size distribution of present languages are studied in terms of a new model, where population of each city increases by a random rate and decreases by a random division. World population and size distribution of languages come out in good agreement with the available empirical data.

  5. The Illinois State Interdisciplinary Model for Teaching Languages for Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Carson H., Jr.; Whitcomb, Richard O.

    This model combines in a team-taught course the study of business and a foreign language. The objective is to give business students a foreign language experience in a relatively brief time and also to offer them a business-oriented introduction to a culture other than their own. Students in business courses are preparing for a career in…

  6. Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carl A., Ed.; Moran, Clarice M., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom method, particularly when used with digital video, has recently attracted many supporters within the education field. Now more than ever, language arts educators can benefit tremendously from incorporating flipped classroom techniques into their curriculum. "Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts…

  7. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  8. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  9. 13th Forum for Specification and Design Languages (FDL) conference

    CERN Document Server

    Morawiec, Adam; System Specification and Design Languages : Selected Contributions from FDL 2010

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the thirteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in Southampton, UK in September 2010.  FDL is a well established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modelling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems. Covers design verification, automatic synthesis and mechanized debug aids; Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems that include significant analog parts in electrical and non-electrical domains; Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods for complex embedded systems based on the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and Model Driven E...

  10. Modeling of Slovak Language for Broadcast News Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAŠ Ján

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes recent progress in the development the Slovak language models for transcription of spontaneous speech such as broadcast news, educational talks and lectures, or meetings. This work extends previous research oriented on the automatic transcription of dictated speech and brings some new extensions for improving perplexity and robustness of the Slovak language models trained on the web-based and electronic language resources for being more precise in recognition of spontaneous speech. These improvements include better text preprocessing, document classification, class-based and filled pauses modeling, web-data augmentation and fast model adaptation to the target domain. Experiments have been performed on the four different evaluation data sets, including judicial and newspaper readings, broadcast news recordings and parliament proceedings with the Slovak transcription system. Preliminary results show significant decrease of the word error rate for multiple transcription system configurations of acoustic and language models.

  11. Klaim-DB: A Modeling Language for Distributed Database Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xi; Li, Ximeng; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    and manipulation of structured data, with integrity and atomicity considerations. We present the formal semantics of KlaimDB and illustrate the use of the language in a scenario where the sales from different branches of a chain of department stores are aggregated from their local databases. It can be seen......We present the modelling language, Klaim-DB, for distributed database applications. Klaim-DB borrows the distributed nets of the coordination language Klaim but essentially re-incarnates the tuple spaces of Klaim as databases, and provides high-level language abstractions for the access...... that raising the abstraction level and encapsulating integrity checks (concerning the schema of tables, etc.) in the language primitives for database operations benefit the modelling task considerably....

  12. How does language model size effects speech recognition accuracy for the Turkish language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam ASEFİSARAY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aimed at investigating the effect of Language Model (LM size on Speech Recognition (SR accuracy. We also provided details of our approach for obtaining the LM for Turkish. Since LM is obtained by statistical processing of raw text, we expect that by increasing the size of available data for training the LM, SR accuracy will improve. Since this study is based on recognition of Turkish, which is a highly agglutinative language, it is important to find out the appropriate size for the training data. The minimum required data size is expected to be much higher than the data needed to train a language model for a language with low level of agglutination such as English. In the experiments we also tried to adjust the Language Model Weight (LMW and Active Token Count (ATC parameters of LM as these are expected to be different for a highly agglutinative language. We showed that by increasing the training data size to an appropriate level, the recognition accuracy improved on the other hand changes on LMW and ATC did not have a positive effect on Turkish speech recognition accuracy.

  13. Language policy and language learning in Macedonia Which lessons may be adopted from the Swiss model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhaferri, Gëzim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper will investigate the acquisition of Macedonian languages in public schools and universities, focusing on the Albanian and Macedonian languages. As the saying goes: "The more languages you speak, the more human you are". Abiding by this proverb, the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia should be encouraged to become multilingual by learning the national languages. The acquisition of the national languages in a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country like Macedonia is, in my opinion, a necessary step toward the establishment of smooth and peaceful communication between the country's two largest cultural groups (Macedonians and Albanians, and is therefore also a prerequisite for the successful integration of every citizen into their home country's society. This paper also investigates Switzerland's multilingual and multicultural society, which serves as a successful and positive example of how a nation can deal with a multilingual population and the integration of its population. With this in mind, the question is raised here whether the model of Switzerland's language policy and national language instruction can perhaps also serve as an example for the Republic of Macedonia.

  14. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  15. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills

  16. SISTEM INFORMASI REALISASI BEBAN KERJA SALES DAN MARKETING BERBASIS WEB DENGAN PERMODELAN UML (STUDY KASUS: LKP PALCOMTECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Hari Pertiwi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah website sudah mulai banyak digunakan oleh organisasi atau perusahaan dengan tujuan sebagai media komunikasi, promosi atau bahkan menjadi media transaksi bagi perusahaan tersebut. Karena banyaknya kemampuan yang dimiliki oleh sebuah website maka perusahaan mulai banyak memanfaatkan website untuk kebutuhan yang lainnya, salah satu pemanfaatan website yaitu digunakan untuk pemantauan target kerja yang dilakukan oleh bagian sales dan marketing. Pembagian target kerja akan langsung dibagi berdasarkan potensi cabang masing-masing sehingga kepala cabang, koordinator cabang dapat langsung melakukan pemantauan terhadap capaian yang dilakukan oleh sales dan marekting terhadapt target yang diberikan. Karena website yang dapat menjadi media komunikasi pemcapaian realisasi target kerja maka website dibuat dengan menggunakan permodelan UML (Unified Modeling Language untuk memudahkan jika suatu saat akan dilakukan pengembangan sistem informasi realisasi beban kerja sales dan marketing. Sistem informasi realisasi beban kerja sales dan marketing akan menyimpan informasi target untuk masing-masing cabang, nama produk yang akan dipromosikan, serta akan menyimpan data konsumen dan capaian yang dilakukan oleh sales dan marketing. Realisasi pencapaian dapat langsung dilihat melalui dashboard masing-masing kepala cabang dan koordinator cabang sehingga tidak perlu menunggu laporan yang dikirimkan oleh masing-masing sales dan marketing. Sistem informasi realisasi beban kerja sales dan marketing ini dibuat dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Framework PHP yaitu  codeigniter sedangkan database yang digunakan adalah MySQL.

  17. Statistical Language Models for Intelligent XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blanken, Henk; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    The XML standards that are currently emerging have a number of characteristics that can also be found in database management systems, like schemas (DTDs and XML schema) and query languages (XPath and XQuery). Following this line of reasoning, an XML database might resemble traditional database

  18. Statistical language Models for Intelligent XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blanken, H.M.; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    The XML standards that are currently emerging have a number of characteristics that can also be found in database management systems, like schemas (DTDs and XML schema) and query languages (XPath and XQuery). Following this line of reasoning, an XML database might resemble traditional database

  19. Methods & Strategies: A Model of Shared Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kate; Coy, Stephanie; Pocock, Aija

    2015-01-01

    The authors' rural community experienced an explosion of young learners moving into their schools who did not have English as their primary language. To help their teachers meet these challenges, they began to partner with a program that provides grant-funded support for migrant learners (see Internet Resources) to find ways to address these…

  20. Language acquisition is model-based rather than model-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) propose that learning language is learning to process language. However, we believe that the general-purpose prediction mechanism they propose is insufficient to account for many phenomena in language acquisition. We argue from theoretical considerations and empirical evidence that many acquisition tasks are model-based, and that different acquisition tasks require different, specialized models.

  1. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  2. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  3. Improving Language Learning Strategies and Performance of Pre-Service Language Teachers Through a CALLA-TBLT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Guapacha Chamorro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an action-research study on language learning strategies in tertiary education at a Colombian university. The study aimed at improving the English language performance and language learning strategies use of 33 first-year pre-service language teachers by combining elements from two models: the cognitive academic language learning approach and task-based language teaching. Data were gathered through surveys, a focus group, students’ and teachers’ journals, language tests, and documentary analysis. Results evidenced that the students improved in speaking, writing, grammar, vocabulary and in their language learning strategies repertoire. As a conclusion, explicit strategy instruction in the proposed model resulted in a proper combination to improve learners’ language learning strategies and performance.

  4. An Integrated Framework to Specify Domain-Specific Modeling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    , a logic-based specification language. The drawback of MS DSL Tools is it does not provide a formal and rigorous approach for semantics specifications. In this framework, we use Microsoft DSL Tools to define the metamodel and graphical notations of DSLs, and an extended version of ForSpec as a formal......In this paper, we propose an integrated framework that can be used by DSL designers to implement their desired graphical domain-specific languages. This framework relies on Microsoft DSL Tools, a meta-modeling framework to build graphical domain-specific languages, and an extension of ForSpec...... language to define their semantics. Integrating these technologies under the umbrella of Microsoft Visual Studio IDE allows DSL designers to utilize a single development environment for developing their desired domain-specific languages....

  5. Domain Specific Language for Modeling Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram

    environmental technologies i.e. solid waste management systems. Flow-based programming is used to support concurrent execution of the processes, and provides a model-integration language for composing processes from homogeneous or heterogeneous domains. And a domain-specific language is used to define atomic......In order to develop sustainable waste management systems with considering life cycle perspective, scientists and domain experts in environmental science require readily applicable tools for modeling and evaluating the life cycle impacts of the waste management systems. Practice has proved...... a domain specific language for modeling of waste-management systems on the basis of our framework. We evaluate the language by providing a set of case studies. The contributions of this thesis are; addressing separation of concerns in Flow-based programming and providing the formal specification of its...

  6. Examination of Modeling Languages to Allow Quantitative Analysis for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    System Operation ...............37 Figure 15. UML/SysML Datatype Diagram .....................................................................40...SysML has non-normative guidance on defining random variable datatypes but does not provide any guidance on how to handle random variables that are...normative guidance for properties without fixed values. The UML Datatype Diagram, shown in Figure 15. does support defining properties with a

  7. Linguistic steganography on Twitter: hierarchical language modeling with manual interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex; Blunsom, Phil; Ker, Andrew D.

    2014-02-01

    This work proposes a natural language stegosystem for Twitter, modifying tweets as they are written to hide 4 bits of payload per tweet, which is a greater payload than previous systems have achieved. The system, CoverTweet, includes novel components, as well as some already developed in the literature. We believe that the task of transforming covers during embedding is equivalent to unilingual machine translation (paraphrasing), and we use this equivalence to de ne a distortion measure based on statistical machine translation methods. The system incorporates this measure of distortion to rank possible tweet paraphrases, using a hierarchical language model; we use human interaction as a second distortion measure to pick the best. The hierarchical language model is designed to model the speci c language of the covers, which in this setting is the language of the Twitter user who is embedding. This is a change from previous work, where general-purpose language models have been used. We evaluate our system by testing the output against human judges, and show that humans are unable to distinguish stego tweets from cover tweets any better than random guessing.

  8. The GRAIL concept modelling language for medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, A L; Bechhofer, S; Goble, C A; Horrocks, I; Nowlan, W A; Solomon, W D

    1997-02-01

    The GALEN representation and integration language (GRAIL) has been developed to support effective clinical user interfaces and extensible re-usable models of medical terminology. It has been used successfully to develop the prototype GALEN common reference (CORE) model for medical terminology and for a series of projects in clinical user interfaces within the GALEN and PEN&PAD projects. GRAIL is a description logic or frame language with novel features to support part-whole and other transitive relations and to support the GALEN modelling style aimed at re-use and application independence. GRAIL began as an experimental language. However, it has clarified many requirements for an effective knowledge representation language for clinical concepts. It still has numerous limitations despite its practical successes. The GRAIL experience is expected to form the basis for future languages which meet the same requirements but have greater expressiveness and more soundly based semantics. This paper provides a description and motivation for the GRAIL language and gives examples of the modelling paradigm which it supports.

  9. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  10. Pitch modelling for the Nguni languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Govender ngovender@csir.co.za, Etienne Barnard ebarnard@csir.co.za, Marelie Davel mdavel@csir.co.za by varying the levels of pitch, intensity and duration in the voice. An overview of intonation as observed in a variety of languages is provided in [1... nature of laryngograph data in voiced speech) and thus either could be used as the basis for the experiments. The pitch values extracted by Yin for all the laryngograph databases was consequently used as the basis for our comparisons. Pitch...

  11. Language modeling for automatic speech recognition of inflective languages an applications-oriented approach using lexical data

    CERN Document Server

    Donaj, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    This book covers language modeling and automatic speech recognition for inflective languages (e.g. Slavic languages), which represent roughly half of the languages spoken in Europe. These languages do not perform as well as English in speech recognition systems and it is therefore harder to develop an application with sufficient quality for the end user. The authors describe the most important language features for the development of a speech recognition system. This is then presented through the analysis of errors in the system and the development of language models and their inclusion in speech recognition systems, which specifically address the errors that are relevant for targeted applications. The error analysis is done with regard to morphological characteristics of the word in the recognized sentences. The book is oriented towards speech recognition with large vocabularies and continuous and even spontaneous speech. Today such applications work with a rather small number of languages compared to the nu...

  12. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying…

  13. MEMO Organisation Modelling Language (1): Focus on organisational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Organisation models are at the core of enterprise model, since they represent key aspects of a company's action system. Within MEMO, the Organisation Modelling Language (OrgML) supports the construction of organisation models. They can be divided into two main abstractions: a static abstraction is focusing on the structure of an organisation that reflects the division of labour with respect to static responsibilities and a dynamic abstraction that is focusing on models of business processes. ...

  14. Clone Detection for Graph-Based Model Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strüber, Daniel; Plöger, Jennifer; Acretoaie, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    and analytical quality assurance. From these use cases, we derive a set of key requirements. We describe our customization of existing model clone detection techniques allowing us to address these requirements. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation, indicating that our customization of ConQAT, one......Cloning is a convenient mechanism to enable reuse across and within software artifacts. On the downside, it is also a practice related to significant long-term maintainability impediments, thus generating a need to identify clones in affected artifacts. A large variety of clone detection techniques...... has been proposed for programming and modeling languages; yet no specific ones have emerged for model transformation languages. In this paper, we explore clone detection for graph-based model transformation languages. We introduce potential use cases for such techniques in the context of constructive...

  15. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  16. Andragogical Model in Language Training of Mining Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, Evgeniya; Chistyakova, Galina; Kleshevskyi, Yury; Sergeev, Sergey; Stepanov, Aleksey

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class) one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.

  17. English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject teachers. ... lack of critical academic language skills in English as the Language of Learning and ... process of lesson design and the 'forward' process of lesson presentation.

  18. Conceptual language models for domain-specific retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Trieschnigg, D.; de Rijke, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, various meta-languages have been used to manually enrich documents with conceptual knowledge of some kind. Examples include keyword assignment to citations or, more recently, tags to websites. In this paper we propose generative concept models as an extension to query modeling within

  19. Declarative versus imperative process modeling languages : the issue of maintainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.; Weidlich, M.; Zugal, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Leymann, F.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of interest in declarative languages for process modeling both justifies and demands empirical investigations into their presumed advantages over more traditional, imperative alternatives. Our concern in this paper is with the ease of maintaining business process models, for example due to

  20. UNCONSTRAINED HANDWRITING RECOGNITION : LANGUAGE MODELS, PERPLEXITY, AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, U-V.; Bunke, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a number of language models and their behavior in the recognition of unconstrained handwritten English sentences. We use the perplexity to compare the different models and their prediction power, and relate it to the performance of a recognition system under different

  1. Methods of checking general safety criteria in UML statechart specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pap, Zsigmond; Majzik, Istvan; Pataricza, Andras; Szegi, Andras

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods and tools for safety analysis of UML statechart specifications. A comprehensive set of general safety criteria including completeness and consistency is applied in automated analysis. Analysis techniques are based on OCL expressions, graph transformations and reachability analysis. Two canonical intermediate representations of the statechart specification are introduced. They are suitable for straightforward implementation of checker methods and for the support of the proof of the correctness and soundness of the applied analysis. One of them also serves as a basis of the metamodel of a variant of UML statecharts proposed for the specification of safety-critical control systems. The analysis is extended to object-oriented specifications. Examples illustrate the application of the checker methods implemented by an automated tool-set

  2. Building CMU Sphinx language model for the Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yassine El Amrani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of a simplified set of Arabic phonemes in an Arabic Speech Recognition system applied to Holy Quran. The CMU Sphinx 4 was used to train and evaluate a language model for the Hafs narration of the Holy Quran. The building of the language model was done using a simplified list of Arabic phonemes instead of the mainly used Romanized set in order to simplify the process of generating the language model. The experiments resulted in very low Word Error Rate (WER reaching 1.5% while using a very small set of audio files during the training phase when using all the audio data for both the training and the testing phases. However, when using 90% and 80% of the training data, the WER obtained was respectively 50.0% and 55.7%.

  3. Using UMLS to map from a library to a clinical classification: Improving the functionality of a digital library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Judas; de Lusignan, Simon; Kostkova, Patty; Madge, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) offers the possibility of mapping between various medical vocabularies. The Primary Care Electronic Library (PCEL) contains a database of over six thousand Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) describing the resources of the electronic library. We were interested to know if it was possible to map from MeSH to the Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT). Such a mapping would aid healthcare professionals to retrieve relevant data from our digital library as it would enable links between clinical systems and indexed material.

  4. Language modeling for what-with-where on GOOG-411

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available . For example, consider the query “looking for restaurants in Portland Oregon.” A business annotator identifies “restaurants” as a business/category, while the location annotator identifies “portland Oregon” as a city-state. This separation enables both task...-specific data selection (location and business), and task- specific text normalization. The output of this second step is used to build the business and location language models described in Section 3. 3. Language Modeling Alternatives In this section we...

  5. Concrete syntax definition for modeling languages

    OpenAIRE

    Fondement, Frédéric; Baar, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) promotes the use of models as primary artefacts of a software development process, as an attempt to handle complexity through abstraction, e.g. to cope with the evolution of execution platforms. MDE follows a stepwise approach, by prescribing to develop abstract models further improved to integrate little by little details relative to the final deployment platforms. Thus, the application of an MDE process results in various models residing at various levels of a...

  6. Concrete syntax definition for modeling languages

    OpenAIRE

    Fondement, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) promotes the use of models as primary artefacts of a software development process, as an attempt to handle complexity through abstraction, e.g. to cope with the evolution of execution platforms. MDE follows a stepwise approach, by prescribing to develop abstract models further improved to integrate little by little details relative to the final deployment platforms. Thus, the application of an MDE process results in various models residing at various levels of a...

  7. Language and modeling word problems in mathematics among bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2005-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether the language of math word problems would affect how Filipino-English bilingual problem solvers would model the structure of these word problems. Modeling the problem structure was studied using the problem-completion paradigm, which involves presenting problems without the question. The paradigm assumes that problem solvers can infer the appropriate question of a word problem if they correctly grasp its problem structure. Arithmetic word problems in Filipino and English were given to bilingual students, some of whom had Filipino as a first language and others who had English as a first language. The problem-completion data and solution data showed similar results. The language of the problem had no effect on problem-structure modeling. The results were discussed in relation to a more circumscribed view about the role of language in word problem solving among bilinguals. In particular, the results of the present study showed that linguistic factors do not affect the more mathematically abstract components of word problem solving, although they may affect the other components such as those related to reading comprehension and understanding.

  8. Lexical access in sign language: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOLINGUISTIC THEORIES HAVE PREDOMINANTLY BEEN BUILT UPON DATA FROM SPOKEN LANGUAGE, WHICH LEAVES OPEN THE QUESTION: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  9. Lexical access in sign language: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kenney Caselli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012 presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012, and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either 1 the time course of sign perception or 2 the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  10. BPMN4SOA : A service oriented process modelling language

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstøl, Eivind

    2010-01-01

    Service oriented architectures have become very popular the last few years. The abstraction of computer systems into a service paradigm bring many new solutions, both for cross business processes to aid interoperability and the reuse of existing legacy systems in a new network centric world. In the wake of this, service modelling has become a part of OMGs Model Driven Architecture and new modelling languages that are based on past experience for the new paradigm are emerging. BPMN 2.0 and...

  11. Model-based design languages: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting; Navet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Fast-paced innovation in the embedded systems domain puts an ever increasing pressure on effective software development methods, leading to the growing popularity of Model-Based Design (MBD). In this context, a proper choice of modeling languages and related tools - depending on design goals and problem qualities - is crucial to make the most of MBD benefits. In this paper, a comparison between two dissimilar approaches to modeling is carried out, with the goal of highlighting their relative ...

  12. Synchronous Modeling of Modular Avionics Architectures using the SIGNAL Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Gautier , Thierry

    2002-01-01

    This document presents a study on the modeling of architecture components for avionics applications. We consider the avionics standard ARINC 653 specifications as basis, as well as the synchronous language SIGNAL to describe the modeling. A library of APEX object models (partition, process, communication and synchronization services, etc.) has been implemented. This should allow to describe distributed real-time applications using POLYCHRONY, so as to access formal tools and techniques for ar...

  13. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  14. Bayesian molecular design with a chemical language model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Hongo, Kenta; Isomura, Tetsu; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of computational molecular design is the identification of promising hypothetical molecules with a predefined set of desired properties. We address the issue of accelerating the material discovery with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The method involves two different types of prediction; the forward and backward predictions. The objective of the forward prediction is to create a set of machine learning models on various properties of a given molecule. Inverting the trained forward models through Bayes' law, we derive a posterior distribution for the backward prediction, which is conditioned by a desired property requirement. Exploring high-probability regions of the posterior with a sequential Monte Carlo technique, molecules that exhibit the desired properties can computationally be created. One major difficulty in the computational creation of molecules is the exclusion of the occurrence of chemically unfavorable structures. To circumvent this issue, we derive a chemical language model that acquires commonly occurring patterns of chemical fragments through natural language processing of ASCII strings of existing compounds, which follow the SMILES chemical language notation. In the backward prediction, the trained language model is used to refine chemical strings such that the properties of the resulting structures fall within the desired property region while chemically unfavorable structures are successfully removed. The present method is demonstrated through the design of small organic molecules with the property requirements on HOMO-LUMO gap and internal energy. The R package iqspr is available at the CRAN repository.

  15. Motivation within the Information Processing Model of Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou-Sergi, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    The present article highlights the importance of the motivational construct for the foreign language learning (FLL) process. More specifically, in the present article it is argued that motivation is likely to play a significant role at all three stages of the FLL process as they are discussed within the information processing model of FLL, namely,…

  16. Optlang: An algebraic modeling language for mathematical optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian; Cardoso, Joao; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Optlang is a Python package implementing a modeling language for solving mathematical optimization problems, i.e., maximizing or minimizing an objective function over a set of variables subject to a number of constraints. It provides a common native Python interface to a series of optimization...

  17. LCM 3.0: A Language for describing Conceptual Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Remco; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1993-01-01

    The syntax of the conceptual model specification language LCM is defined. LCM uses equational logic to specify data types and order-sorted dynamic logic to specify objects with identity and mutable state. LCM specifies database transactions as finite sets of atomic object transitions.

  18. Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical

  19. Multidimensional Data Model and Query Language for Informetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Timo; Hirvonen, Lasse; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2003-01-01

    Discusses multidimensional data analysis, or online analytical processing (OLAP), which offer a single subject-oriented source for analyzing summary data based on various dimensions. Develops a conceptual/logical multidimensional model for supporting the needs of informetrics, including a multidimensional query language whose basic idea is to…

  20. Phase transition in a sexual age-structured model of learning foreign languages

    OpenAIRE

    Schwammle, Veit

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition where the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages is the order para...

  1. Computer-Aided Transformation of PDE Models: Languages, Representations, and a Calculus of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations A domain-specific embedded language called...languages, representations, and a calculus of operations Report Title A domain-specific embedded language called ibvp was developed to model initial...Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations 1 Vision and background Physical and engineered systems

  2. 18th edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Wille, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the eighteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which took place on September 14-16, 2015, in Barcelona, Spain. FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems. Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems that include significant analog parts in electrical and non-electrical domains; Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods for complex embedded systems based on the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and Model Driven Engineering...

  3. 17th edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Pasaje, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the seventeenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which took place on October 14-16, 2014, in Munich, Germany.  FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.   •Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; •Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; •Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems; •Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods for complex embedded systems based on the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and Model Driven Engineering (MDE); •Covers parallel architectures – both as platforms f...

  4. UN PATRÓN DE INTERACCIÓN ENTRE DIAGRAMAS DE ACTIVIDADES UML Y SISTEMAS WORKFLOW AN INTERACTION PATTERN BETWEEN UML ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS AND WORKFLOW SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Silvia Tabares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en los ambientes de desarrollo de software hay un gran interés en buscar y desarrollar técnicas que puedan integrar los sistemas transaccionales con los flujos de trabajo que soportan los procesos del negocio de las organizaciones. Sin embargo, en la industria del software no es común encontrar técnicas o prácticas que faciliten el desarrollo de los modelos del sistema en función de los procesos del negocio. En este artículo se define un patrón de desarrollo que estandariza la interacción entre diagramas de actividades de UML 2.0, que representan las operaciones de un sistema, y procesos del negocio automatizados bajo tecnologías workflow. La trazabilidad de dicha interacción se mantiene por medio de modelos de trazabilidad que controlan la evolución de las operaciones del negocio y del sistema. Para mostrar la aplicación del patrón se desarrolla un caso de estudioIn software development environments there is a big interest to look and develop techniques that could integrate transactional systems with Workflow systems in order to support the business processes in organizations Nevertheless, in the software industry it is not common to find techniques or practices that facilitate the development of system models according to the business processes. In this article we define a development pattern to standardize the interaction between UML 2.0 activity diagrams, which represent the operations of a system, and the business processes automated by means of Workflow technologies. The traceability of the above mentioned interaction is supported by means of traceability models that control the evolution of both operations of the business and of the system. To show the application of the pattern a case study is developed.

  5. Modelling of Signal - Level Crossing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Novak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an object-oriented model of a railway level-crossing system created for the purpose of functional requirements specification. Unified Modelling Language (UML, version 1.4, which enables specification, visualisation, construction and documentation of software system artefacts, was used. The main attention was paid to analysis and design phases. The former phase resulted in creation of use case diagrams and sequential diagrams, the latter in creation of class/object diagrams and statechart diagrams.

  6. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Much recent research work discusses the transformation between different process modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific process modelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformation concepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim...... to abstract from concrete transformation strategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for representing control flow in process modelling languages: block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages (such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategies...... for transforming from block-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages, and vice versa....

  7. Relationship Structures and Semantic Type Assignments of the UMLS Enriched Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Cimino, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Enriched Semantic Network (ESN) was introduced as an extension of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network (SN). Its multiple subsumption configuration and concomitant multiple inheritance make the ESN's relationship structures and semantic type assignments different from those of the SN. A technique for deriving the relationship structures of the ESN's semantic types and an automated technique for deriving the ESN's semantic type assignments from those of the SN are presented. Design: The technique to derive the ESN's relationship structures finds all newly inherited relationships in the ESN. All such relationships are audited for semantic validity, and the blocking mechanism is used to block invalid relationships. The mapping technique to derive the ESN's semantic type assignments uses current SN semantic type assignments and preserves nonredundant categorizations, while preventing new redundant categorizations. Results: Among the 426 newly inherited relationships, 326 are deemed valid. Seven blockings are applied to avoid inheritance of the 100 invalid relationships. Sixteen semantic types have different relationship structures in the ESN as compared to those in the SN. The mapping of semantic type assignments from the SN to the ESN avoids the generation of 26,950 redundant categorizations. The resulting ESN contains 138 semantic types, 149 IS-A links, 7,303 relationships, and 1,013,876 semantic type assignments. Conclusion: The ESN's multiple inheritance provides more complete relationship structures than in the SN. The ESN's semantic type assignments avoid the existing redundant categorizations appearing in the SN and prevent new ones that might arise due to multiple parents. Compared to the SN, the ESN provides a more accurate unifying semantic abstraction of the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:16049233

  8. Attention-based Memory Selection Recurrent Network for Language Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Da-Rong; Chuang, Shun-Po; Lee, Hung-yi

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have achieved great success in language modeling. However, since the RNNs have fixed size of memory, their memory cannot store all the information about the words it have seen before in the sentence, and thus the useful long-term information may be ignored when predicting the next words. In this paper, we propose Attention-based Memory Selection Recurrent Network (AMSRN), in which the model can review the information stored in the memory at each previous time ...

  9. Language Model Adaptation Using Machine-Translated Text for Resource-Deficient Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaoki Furui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Text corpus size is an important issue when building a language model (LM. This is a particularly important issue for languages where little data is available. This paper introduces an LM adaptation technique to improve an LM built using a small amount of task-dependent text with the help of a machine-translated text corpus. Icelandic speech recognition experiments were performed using data, machine translated (MT from English to Icelandic on a word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence basis. LM interpolation using the baseline LM and an LM built from either word-by-word or sentence-by-sentence translated text reduced the word error rate significantly when manually obtained utterances used as a baseline were very sparse.

  10. The Neighborhood Auditing Tool: A Hybrid Interface for Auditing the UMLS

    OpenAIRE

    Morrey, C. Paul; Geller, James; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua

    2009-01-01

    The UMLS’s integration of more than 100 source vocabularies, not necessarily consistent with one another, causes some inconsistencies. The purpose of auditing the UMLS is to detect such inconsistencies and to suggest how to resolve them while observing the requirement of fully representing the content of each source in the UMLS. A software tool, called the Neighborhood Auditing Tool (NAT), that facilitates UMLS auditing is presented. The NAT supports “neighborhood-based” auditing, where, at a...

  11. Categorical model of structural operational semantics for imperative language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Steingartner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of programming languages consists of the formal definition of syntax and semantics. One of the most popular semantic methods used in various stages of software engineering is structural operational semantics. It describes program behavior in the form of state changes after execution of elementary steps of program. This feature makes structural operational semantics useful for implementation of programming languages and also for verification purposes. In our paper we present a new approach to structural operational semantics. We model behavior of programs in category of states, where objects are states, an abstraction of computer memory and morphisms model state changes, execution of a program in elementary steps. The advantage of using categorical model is its exact mathematical structure with many useful proved properties and its graphical illustration of program behavior as a path, i.e. a composition of morphisms. Our approach is able to accentuate dynamics of structural operational semantics. For simplicity, we assume that data are intuitively typed. Visualization and facility of our model is  not only  a  new model of structural operational semantics of imperative programming languages but it can also serve for education purposes.

  12. MODELLING OF THE PROCESS OF TEACHING READING ENGLISH LANGUAGE PERIODICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Глушко

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a scientifically substantiated process of teaching reading English language periodicals in all its components, which are consistently developed, and form of interconnection of the structural elements in the process of teaching reading. This process is presented as a few interconnected and interdetermined models: 1 the models of the process of acquiring standard and expressive lexical knowledge; 2 the models of the process of formation of skills to use such vocabulary; 3 the models of the development of skills to read texts of the different linguistic levels.

  13. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    to abstract from concrete transformationstrategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for process modelling languages:block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages(such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategiesfor transforming from block......Much recent research work discusses the transformation between differentprocess modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific processmodelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformationconcepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim......-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages,and vice versa. We also present two case studies of applying our strategies....

  14. Modeling of Future Initial Teacher of Foreign Language Training, Using Situation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana М. Sidun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the content of modeling of future initial teacher of foreign language, using situation analysis, defines the stages of modeling during the professional competence formation of future teacher of foreign language: preparatory, analytical and executive.

  15. Semantic Models of Sentences with Verbs of Motion in Standard Language and in Scientific Language Used in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Banionytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic models of sentences with verbs of motion in German standard language and in scientific language used in biology are analyzed in the article. In its theoretic part it is affirmed that the article is based on the semantic theory of the sentence. This theory, in its turn, is grounded on the correlation of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles. The combination of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles is expressed by the main semantic formula – proposition. In its practical part the differences between the semantic models of standard and scientific language used in biology are explained. While modelling sentences with verbs of motion, two groups of semantic models of sentences are singled out: that of action (Handlung and process (Vorgang. The analysis shows that the semantic models of sentences with semantic action predicatives dominate in the text of standard language while the semantic models of sentences with semantic process predicatives dominate in the texts of scientific language used in biology. The differences how the doer and direction are expressed in standard and in scientific language are clearly seen and the semantic cases (Agens, Patiens, Direktiv1 help to determine that. It is observed that in scientific texts of high level of specialization (biology science in contrast to popular scientific literature models of sentences with moving verbs are usually seldom found. They are substituted by denominative constructions. In conclusions it is shown that this analysis can be important in methodics, especially planning material for teaching professional-scientific language.

  16. The unified coordination language UnCL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.V. Guillen Scholten (Juan); J.F. Jacob (Joost)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we show how to use a (subset) of UML as an Unified Coordination Language (UnCL) that is based on a separation of concerns between coordination and computation. As such UnCL provides a general language for the coordination of, in particular, object-oriented applications. The

  17. An object-oriented approach for harmonization of multimedia markup languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Feng; Kuo, May-Chen; Sun, Xiaoming; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2003-12-01

    An object-oriented methodology is proposed to harmonize several different markup languages in this research. First, we adopt the Unified Modelling Language (UML) as the data model to formalize the concept and the process of the harmonization process between the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) applications. Then, we design the Harmonization eXtensible Markup Language (HXML) based on the data model and formalize the transformation between the Document Type Definitions (DTDs) of the original XML applications and HXML. The transformation between instances is also discussed. We use the harmonization of SMIL and X3D as an example to demonstrate the proposed methodology. This methodology can be generalized to various application domains.

  18. Conformance test development with the Java modeling language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a Java Specification Request, a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents a model-based development of a TCK test suite and a test execution tool for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ......) profile specification. The Java Modeling Language (JML) is used to model conformance constraints for the profile. JML annotations define contracts for classes and interfaces. The annotations are translated by a tool into runtime assertion checks.Hereby the design and elaboration of the concrete test cases...

  19. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  1. Five Year Results of US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 With Postoperative CA 19-9 {<=}90 U/mL and Comparison to the CONKO-001 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Safran, Howard [Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Alan B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); MacDonald, John [St. Vincent' s Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9704 was the largest randomized trial to use adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. This report analyzes 5-year survival by serum level of tumor marker CA 19-9 of {<=}90 vs >90 U/mL and compares results to the those of the CONKO-001 trial. Methods and Materials: CA 19-9 expression was analyzed as a dichotomized variable ({<=}90 vs >90 U/mL). Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of the CA 19-9 value on overall survival (OS). Actuarial estimates of OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Both univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-4.3, P<.0001) and multivariate (HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.2, P<.0001) analyses demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in OS for CA 19-9 serum level of {>=}90 U/mL. For patients in the gemcitabine (Gem) treatment arm with CA 19-9 <90 U/mL, median survival was 21 months. For patients with CA 19-9 {>=}90 U/mL, this number dropped to 10 months. In patients with pancreatic head tumors in the Gem treatment arm with RT quality assurance per protocol and CA 19-9 of <90 U/mL, median survival and 5-year rate were 24 months and 34%. In comparison, the median survival and 5-year OS rate for patients in the Gem arm of the CONKO trial were 22 months and 21%. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that patients with postresection CA 19-9 values {>=}90 U/mL had a significantly worse survival. Patients with pancreatic head tumors treated with Gem with CA 19-9 serum level of <90 U/mL and per protocol RT had favorable survival compared to that seen in the CONKO trial. CA 19-9 is a stratification factor for the current RTOG adjuvant pancreas trial (0848).

  2. Leveraging the UML Metamodel: Expressing ORM Semantics Using a UML Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CUYLER,DAVID S.

    2000-11-01

    Object Role Modeling (ORM) techniques produce a detailed domain model from the perspective of the business owner/customer. The typical process begins with a set of simple sentences reflecting facts about the business. The output of the process is a single model representing primarily the persistent information needs of the business. This type of model contains little, if any reference to a targeted computerized implementation. It is a model of business entities not of software classes. Through well-defined procedures, an ORM model can be transformed into a high quality objector relational schema.

  3. Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Penjualan Berbasis Waterfall Model Untuk Perusahaan Dagang

    OpenAIRE

    Harjunawati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    A profit-oriented company is always trying to get the maximum margin of sales above cost. Use of System InformasiAkuntansi integrated sales and follow the development of technology will mempu increase sales volume while creating efficiencies. Trading companies, especially companies trading with sales system in cash, a model watterfall with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) as the hydraulic system can be used to develop a sales system into the sales system that is integrated with inventory s...

  4. Source Authenticity in the UMLS – A Case Study of the Minimal Standard Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhanan, Gai; Huang, Kuo-Chuan; Perl, Yehoshua

    2010-01-01

    As the UMLS integrates multiple source vocabularies, the integration process requires that certain adaptation be applied to the source. Our interest is in examining the relationship between the UMLS representation of a source vocabulary and the source vocabulary itself. We investigated the integration of the Minimal Standard Terminology (MST) into the UMLS in order to examine how close its UMLS representation is to the source MST. The MST was conceived as a “minimal” list of terms and structure intended for use within computer systems to facilitate standardized reporting of gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. Although the MST has an overall schema and implied relationship structure, many of the UMLS integrated MST terms were found to be hierarchically orphaned, and with lateral relationships that do not closely adhere to the source MST. Thus, the MST representation within the UMLS significantly differs from that of the source MST. These representation discrepancies may affect the usability of the MST representation in the UMLS for knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, they pose a problem from the perspective of application developers. While these findings may not necessarily apply to other source terminologies, they highlight the conflict between preservation of authentic concept orientation and the UMLS overall desire to provide fully specified names for all source terms. PMID:20692366

  5. Visual syntax of UML class and package diagram constructs as an ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and package diagrams are two diagrams of UML. The motivation for this work is twofold; UML lacks a formal visual syntax specification and ontologies are under-explored for visual syntax specifications. The work in this paper, therefore, explores using...

  6. Workflow Generation from the Two-Hemisphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusarovs Konstantīns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-Driven Software Development (MDSD is a trend in Software Development that focuses on code generation from various kinds of models. To perform such a task, it is necessary to develop an algorithm that performs source model transformation into the target model, which ideally is an actual software code written in some kind of a programming language. However, at present a lot of methods focus on Unified Modelling Language (UML diagram generation. The present paper describes a result of authors’ research on Two-Hemisphere Model (2HM processing for easier code generation.

  7. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  8. A Model of Competition Among More than Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Ryo; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-04-01

    We extend the Abrams-Strogatz model for competition between two languages (Abrams and Strogatz in Nature 424:900, 2003) to the case of n (≥2) competing states (i.e., languages). Although the Abrams-Strogatz model for n=2 can be interpreted as modeling either majority preference or minority aversion, the two mechanisms are distinct when n≥3. We find that the condition for the coexistence of different states is independent of n under the pure majority preference, whereas it depends on n under the pure minority aversion. We also show that the stable coexistence equilibrium and stable monopoly equilibria can be multistable under the minority aversion and not under the majority preference. Furthermore, we obtain the phase diagram of the model when the effects of the majority preference and minority aversion are mixed, under the condition that different states have the same attractiveness. We show that the multistability is a generic property of the model facilitated by large n.

  9. Episodic grammar: a computational model of the interaction between episodic and semantic memory in language processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be

  10. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  11. Imitative Modeling as a Theoretical Base for Instructing Language-Disordered Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, John A.; Courtright, Illene C.

    1976-01-01

    A modification of A. Bandura's social learning theory (imitative modeling) was employed as a theoretical base for language instruction with eight language disordered children (5 to 10 years old). (Author/SBH)

  12. Auditing hierarchical cycles to locate other inconsistencies in the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Michael; Morrey, C Paul; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai; Hripcsak, George; Perl, Yehoshua

    2011-01-01

    A cycle in the parent relationship hierarchy of the UMLS is a configuration that effectively makes some concept(s) an ancestor of itself. Such a structural inconsistency can easily be found automatically. A previous strategy for disconnecting cycles is to break them with the deletion of one or more parent relationships-irrespective of the correctness of the deleted relationships. A methodology is introduced for auditing of cycles that seeks to discover and delete erroneous relationships only. Cycles involving three concepts are the primary consideration. Hypotheses about the high probability of locating an erroneous parent relationship in a cycle are proposed and confirmed with statistical confidence and lend credence to the auditing approach. A cycle may serve as an indicator of other non-structural inconsistencies that are otherwise difficult to detect automatically. An extensive auditing example shows how a cycle can indicate further inconsistencies.

  13. Auditing Hierarchical Cycles to Locate Other Inconsistencies in the UMLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Michael; Morrey, C. Paul; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai; Hripcsak, George; Perl, Yehoshua

    2011-01-01

    A cycle in the parent relationship hierarchy of the UMLS is a configuration that effectively makes some concept(s) an ancestor of itself. Such a structural inconsistency can easily be found automatically. A previous strategy for disconnecting cycles is to break them with the deletion of one or more parent relationships—irrespective of the correctness of the deleted relationships. A methodology is introduced for auditing of cycles that seeks to discover and delete erroneous relationships only. Cycles involving three concepts are the primary consideration. Hypotheses about the high probability of locating an erroneous parent relationship in a cycle are proposed and confirmed with statistical confidence and lend credence to the auditing approach. A cycle may serve as an indicator of other non-structural inconsistencies that are otherwise difficult to detect automatically. An extensive auditing example shows how a cycle can indicate further inconsistencies. PMID:22195107

  14. A New Bigram-PLSA Language Model for Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrani Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for combining bigram model and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA is introduced for language modeling. The motivation behind this idea is the relaxation of the "bag of words" assumption fundamentally present in latent topic models including the PLSA model. An EM-based parameter estimation technique for the proposed model is presented in this paper. Previous attempts to incorporate word order in the PLSA model are surveyed and compared with our new proposed model both in theory and by experimental evaluation. Perplexity measure is employed to compare the effectiveness of recently introduced models with the new proposed model. Furthermore, experiments are designed and carried out on continuous speech recognition (CSR tasks using word error rate (WER as the evaluation criterion. The superiority of the new bigram-PLSA model over Nie et al.'s bigram-PLSA and simple PLSA models is demonstrated in the results of our experiments. Experiments on BLLIP WSJ corpus show about 12% reduction in perplexity and 2.8% WER improvement compared to Nie et al.'s bigram-PLSA model.

  15. Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2016-01-01

    , though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...

  16. Models, Languages and Logics for Concurrent Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EEC Esprit Basic Research Action No 3011, Models, Languages and Logics for Con current Distributed Systems, CEDISYS, held its second workshop at Aarhus University in May, l991, following the successful workshop in San Miniato in 1990. The Aarhus Workshop was centered around CEDISYS research...... activities, and the selected themes of Applications and Automated Tools in the area of Distributed Systerns. The 24 participants were CEDISYS partners, and invited guests with expertise on the selected themes. This booklet contains the program of the workshop, short abstracts for the talks presented...

  17. Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

  18. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  19. E language based on MCNP modeling software for autonomous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Ge Liangquan; Zhang Qingxian

    2010-01-01

    MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Code) is based on the Monte Carlo method for computing neutron, photon and other particles as the object of the movement simulation computer program. Because of its powerful computing simulation, flexible and universal features in many fields has been widely used, but due to a software professional in the operating area has been greatly restricted, so that in later development has been greatly hindered. E-language was used in order to develop the autonomy of MCNP modeling software, used to address users not familiar with MCNP and can not create object model, get rid of dull red tape 'notebook' type of program type and built a new MCNP modeling system. (authors)

  20. The medical simulation markup language - simplifying the biomechanical modeling workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Stoll, Markus; Schalck, Sebastian; Schoch, Nicolai; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Bendl, Rolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of the human body by means of continuum mechanics has become an important tool in diagnostics, computer-assisted interventions and training. This modeling approach seeks to construct patient-specific biomechanical models from tomographic data. Usually many different tools such as segmentation and meshing algorithms are involved in this workflow. In this paper we present a generalized and flexible description for biomechanical models. The unique feature of the new modeling language is that it not only describes the final biomechanical simulation, but also the workflow how the biomechanical model is constructed from tomographic data. In this way, the MSML can act as a middleware between all tools used in the modeling pipeline. The MSML thus greatly facilitates the prototyping of medical simulation workflows for clinical and research purposes. In this paper, we not only detail the XML-based modeling scheme, but also present a concrete implementation. Different examples highlight the flexibility, robustness and ease-of-use of the approach.

  1. MODEL-BASED SECURITY ENGINEERING OF SOA SYSTEM USING SECURITY INTENT DSL

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qaiser Saleem; Jafreezal Jaafar; Mohd Fadzil Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Currently most of the enterprises are using SOA and web services technologies to build their web information system. They are using MDA principles for design and development of WIS and using UML as a modelling language for business process modelling. Along with the increased connectivity in SOA environment, security risks rise exponentially. Security is not defined during the early phases of development and left onto developer. Properly configuring security requirements in SOA applications is...

  2. Huffman and linear scanning methods with statistical language models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Brian; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Gibbons, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Current scanning access methods for text generation in AAC devices are limited to relatively few options, most notably row/column variations within a matrix. We present Huffman scanning, a new method for applying statistical language models to binary-switch, static-grid typing AAC interfaces, and compare it to other scanning options under a variety of conditions. We present results for 16 adults without disabilities and one 36-year-old man with locked-in syndrome who presents with complex communication needs and uses AAC scanning devices for writing. Huffman scanning with a statistical language model yielded significant typing speedups for the 16 participants without disabilities versus any of the other methods tested, including two row/column scanning methods. A similar pattern of results was found with the individual with locked-in syndrome. Interestingly, faster typing speeds were obtained with Huffman scanning using a more leisurely scan rate than relatively fast individually calibrated scan rates. Overall, the results reported here demonstrate great promise for the usability of Huffman scanning as a faster alternative to row/column scanning.

  3. Enhancing English Language Planning Strategy Using a WebQuest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Rania Kamal Muhammad; Abdel-Haq, Eman Muhammad; El-Deeb, Mervat Abou-Bakr; Ali, Mahsoub Abdel-Sadeq

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at developing English language planning strategy of second year distinguished governmental language preparatory school pupils using the a WebQuest model. Fifty participants from second year at Hassan Abu-Bakr Distinguished Governmental Language School at Al-Qanater Al-Khairia (Qalubia Governorate) were randomly assigned…

  4. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  5. Robot Control Using UML and Multi-agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavliska

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased industrialization and new markets have led to an accumulation of used technical consumer goods, which results in greater exploitation of raw materials, energy and landfill sites. In order to reduce the use of natural resources conserve precious energy and limit the increase in waste volume. The application of disassembly techniques is the first step towards this prevention of waste. These techniques form a reliable and clean approach: "noble" or high-graded recycling. This paper presents a multi agent system for disassembly process, which is implemented in a computer-aided application for supervising of the disassembling system: the Interactive Intelligent Interface for Disassembling System. Unified modeling language diagrams are used for an internal and external definition of the disassembling system.

  6. The logical foundations of scientific theories languages, structures, and models

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Decio

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicate...

  7. Creating Shared Mental Models: The Support of Visual Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Renske B.; van den Broek, Egon L.; Gieskes, José F. B.

    Cooperative design involves multiple stakeholders that often hold different ideas of the problem, the ways to solve it, and to its solutions (i.e., mental models; MM). These differences can result in miscommunication, misunderstanding, slower decision making processes, and less chance on cooperative decisions. In order to facilitate the creation of a shared mental model (sMM), visual languages (VL) are often used. However, little scientific foundation is behind this choice. To determine whether or not this gut feeling is justified, a research was conducted in which various stakeholders had to cooperatively redesign a process chain, with and without VL. To determine whether or not a sMM was created, scores on agreement in individual MM, communication, and cooperation were analyzed. The results confirmed the assumption that VL can indeed play an important role in the creation of sMM and, hence, can aid the processes of cooperative design and engineering.

  8. MODELAGEM SISTÊMICA DE PROJETOS DE AEC EM UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cristina Ferreira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de Sistemas de Informação é uma possível solução para a integração das atividades de projeto em AEC, permitindo que decisões sejam tomadas ainda na fase de projeto e, conseqüentemente, evitando-se retrabalhos em obra. Neste sentido, esforços têm sido realizados para padronizar conceitos e terminologias de AEC, permitindo a troca e armazenagem de informações, como a norma ISO 12006-2 e os padrões estabelecidos pelo IFC. Ambas são baseadas na linguagem EXPRESS, assim como é o padrão industrial STEP. Entretanto, as representações de informação usadas na indústria de produtos não são as mais adequadas para a Engenharia de Software, responsável pelo desenvolvimento de Sistemas de Informação, onde as representações semânticas envolvem não somente a representação estrutural da informação, mas também a representação comportamental. Este artigo contribui com uma visão de implementação em UML da informação de um projeto de AEC e tornam explícitas, sob a ótica do desenvolvimento de software, as relações semânticas existentes. Os resultados desta pesquisa foram obtidos através da realização de um estudo de caso de projeto de produção em CAD 3D dos subsistemas alvenaria e revestimento para um edifício residencial. A partir das observações do estudo de caso foi feita a modelagem em UML dos objetos pertinentes. O principal resultado obtido foi a representação explícita das interfaces entre objetos AEC.

  9. Enabling the usage of UML in the verification of railway systems: The DAM-rail approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, S.; Flammini, F.; Marrone, S.; Mazzocca, N.; Merseguer, J.; Nardone, R.; Vittorini, V.

    2013-01-01

    The need for integration of model-based verification into industrial processes has produced several attempts to define Model-Driven solutions implementing a unifying approach to system development. A recent trend is to implement tool chains supporting the developer both in the design phase and V and V activities. In this Model-Driven context, specific domains require proper modelling approaches, especially for what concerns RAM (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability) analysis and fulfillment of international standards. This paper specifically addresses the definition of a Model-Driven approach for the evaluation of RAM attributes in railway applications to automatically generate formal models. For this aim we extend the MARTE-DAM UML profile with concepts related to maintenance aspects and service degradation, and show that the MARTE-DAM framework can be successfully specialized for the railway domain. Model transformations are then defined to generate Repairable Fault Tree and Bayesian Network models from MARTE-DAM specifications. The whole process is applied to the railway domain in two different availability studies

  10. Effects of Mode of Modeling, Model Age, and Ethnicity on Rule-Governed Language Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, James I.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of three model variables on student performance of syntactic and semantic language behaviors in the absence of direct or vicarious reinforcement was examined. Subjects were sixth-grade students of both sexes attending New Mexico Schools. Half of the subjects and models were Chicanos and half were Anglos. (BJG)

  11. The Sociolinguistic Model in Speech and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    A discussion of the role of sociolinguistics in the treatment of communication disorders focuses on issues related to dialect and language variation. It begins with an examination of linguistic diversity and dynamic description of language, reporting on a study of speech and language pathologists' judgments of sentences in African American…

  12. Multimodal Languaging as a Pedagogical Model--A Case Study of the Concept of Division in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenlahti, Jorma; Kulju, Pirjo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a multimodal languaging model for mathematics education. The model consists of mathematical symbolic language, a pictorial language, and a natural language. By applying this model, the objective was to study how 4th grade pupils (N = 21) understand the concept of division. The data was collected over six…

  13. Classroom tandem – Outlining a model for language learning and ınstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Karjalaınen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedishmedium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.

  14. Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gerlach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

  15. Testing a model of intonation in a tone language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, M

    1986-09-01

    Schematic fundamental frequency curves of simple statements and questions are generated for Hausa, a two-tone language of Nigeria, using a modified version of an intonational model developed by Gårding and Bruce [Nordic Prosody II, edited by T. Fretheim (Tapir, Trondheim, 1981), pp. 33-39]. In this model, rules for intonation and tones are separated. Intonation is represented as sloping grids of (near) parallel lines, inside which tones are placed. The tones are associated with turning points of the fundamental frequency contour. Local rules may also modify the exact placement of a tone within the grid. The continuous fundamental frequency contour is modeled by concatenating the tonal points using polynomial equations. Thus the final pitch contour is modeled as an interaction between global and local factors. The slope of the intonational grid lines depends at least on sentence type (statement or question), sentence length, and tone pattern. The model is tested by reference to data from nine speakers of Kano Hausa.

  16. Generación de código Hibernate desde modelos UML

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueiro Mariscal, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en un generador de código para Hibernate desde modelos UML. El código generado es el conjunto de clases del modelo implementadas en Java con una serie de anotaciones JPA 2.0. Estas clases, mediante Hibernate, sirven para añadir persistencia a nuestro código. Los modelos UML tendrán una serie de anotaciones para poder transformarlos correctamente.

  17. Agent based models of language competition: macroscopic descriptions and order–disorder transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Castelló, X; San Miguel, M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of two agent based models of language competition. In the first model, each individual can be in one of two possible states, either using language X or language Y, while the second model incorporates a third state XY, representing individuals that use both languages (bilinguals). We analyze the models on complex networks and two-dimensional square lattices by analytical and numerical methods, and show that they exhibit a transition from one-language dominance to language coexistence. We find that the coexistence of languages is more difficult to maintain in the bilinguals model, where the presence of bilinguals facilitates the ultimate dominance of one of the two languages. A stability analysis reveals that the coexistence is more unlikely to happen in poorly connected than in fully connected networks, and that the dominance of just one language is enhanced as the connectivity decreases. This dominance effect is even stronger in a two-dimensional space, where domain coarsening tends to drive the system towards language consensus

  18. Two-Language, Two-Paradigm Introductory Computing Curriculum Model and its Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Zanev, Vladimir; Radenski, Atanas

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes difficulties with the introduction of object-oriented concepts in introductory computing education and then proposes a two-language, two-paradigm curriculum model that alleviates such difficulties. Our two-language, two-paradigm curriculum model begins with teaching imperative programming using Python programming language, continues with teaching object-oriented computing using Java, and concludes with teaching object-oriented data structures with Java.

  19. Optimizing DNA assembly based on statistical language modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gang; Zhang, Shemin; Dong, Yafei

    2017-12-15

    By successively assembling genetic parts such as BioBrick according to grammatical models, complex genetic constructs composed of dozens of functional blocks can be built. However, usually every category of genetic parts includes a few or many parts. With increasing quantity of genetic parts, the process of assembling more than a few sets of these parts can be expensive, time consuming and error prone. At the last step of assembling it is somewhat difficult to decide which part should be selected. Based on statistical language model, which is a probability distribution P(s) over strings S that attempts to reflect how frequently a string S occurs as a sentence, the most commonly used parts will be selected. Then, a dynamic programming algorithm was designed to figure out the solution of maximum probability. The algorithm optimizes the results of a genetic design based on a grammatical model and finds an optimal solution. In this way, redundant operations can be reduced and the time and cost required for conducting biological experiments can be minimized. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  1. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  2. Grotoco@SLAM: Second Language Acquisition Modeling with Simple Features, Learners and Task-wise Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Sigrid; Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Plank, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    We present our submission to the 2018 Duolingo Shared Task on Second Language Acquisition Modeling (SLAM). We focus on evaluating a range of features for the task, including user-derived measures, while examining how far we can get with a simple linear classifier. Our analysis reveals that errors...

  3. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    .... Initiated in 2004 at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC), the SACOT knowledge engineering research project is currently investigating, developing and validating innovative natural language processing (NLP...

  4. From Mimicry to Language: A Neuroanatomically Based Evolutionary Model of the Emergence of Vocal Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliva, Oren

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex communicates with the frontal lobe via the middle temporal gyrus (auditory ventral stream; AVS) or the inferior parietal lobule (auditory dorsal stream; ADS). Whereas the AVS is ascribed only with sound recognition, the ADS is ascribed with sound localization, voice detection, prosodic perception/production, lip-speech integration, phoneme discrimination, articulation, repetition, phonological long-term memory and working memory. Previously, I interpreted the juxtaposition of sound localization, voice detection, audio-visual integration and prosodic analysis, as evidence that the behavioral precursor to human speech is the exchange of contact calls in non-human primates. Herein, I interpret the remaining ADS functions as evidence of additional stages in language evolution. According to this model, the role of the ADS in vocal control enabled early Homo (Hominans) to name objects using monosyllabic calls, and allowed children to learn their parents' calls by imitating their lip movements. Initially, the calls were forgotten quickly but gradually were remembered for longer periods. Once the representations of the calls became permanent, mimicry was limited to infancy, and older individuals encoded in the ADS a lexicon for the names of objects (phonological lexicon). Consequently, sound recognition in the AVS was sufficient for activating the phonological representations in the ADS and mimicry became independent of lip-reading. Later, by developing inhibitory connections between acoustic-syllabic representations in the AVS and phonological representations of subsequent syllables in the ADS, Hominans became capable of concatenating the monosyllabic calls for repeating polysyllabic words (i.e., developed working memory). Finally, due to strengthening of connections between phonological representations in the ADS, Hominans became capable of encoding several syllables as a single representation (chunking). Consequently, Hominans began vocalizing and

  5. A Model for Community-based Language Teaching to Young Learners: The Impact of University Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nyikos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A primary challenge given to university foreign language departments and Title VI National Resource Centers is to increase interest and participation in foreign language learning, with particular emphasis on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs. Given that many LCTLs in high demand by the US government, including Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Turkish, rarely find their way into the school curricula, this article offers a successful ongoing community-based model of how one university-town partnership addresses advocacy with programming for pre-K-grade 9. Non-native and heritage undergraduate language students who volunteered as community language teachers found the experience invaluable to their pedagogical development. Teacher education programs or language departments can employ this approach to community-based teaching, by providing free, sustained language teaching in existing community centers. This article offers guidance for how to start and expand such a program.

  6. WebWorkFlow : An Object-Oriented Workflow Modeling Language for Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Verhaaf, R.; Visser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: MODELS 2008 - International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5301, 2008; doi:10.1007/978-3-540-87875-9_8 Workflow languages are designed for the high-level description of processes and are typically not

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Echoic and Modeling Procedures in Language Instruction With Culturally Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Carolyn; Keislar, Evan

    In an attempt to explore a systematic approach to language expansion and improved sentence structure, echoic and modeling procedures for language instruction were compared. Four hypotheses were formulated: (1) children who use modeling procedures will produce better structured sentences than children who use echoic prompting, (2) both echoic and…

  8. Blueprint model and language for engineering cloud applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is positioned within the domain of engineering CSBAs. Its contribution is twofold: (1) a uniform specification language, called the Blueprint Specification Language (BSL), for specifying cloud services across several cloud vendors and (2) a set of associated

  9. Toward cognitively constrained models of language processing : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Margreet; Mills, Anne C.; Reitter, David; van Rij, Jacolien; Hendriks, Petra; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2017-01-01

    Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained

  10. Pragmatic Language Assessment: A Pragmatics-as-Social Practice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatic language skills are important for developing relationships with others, and for communicating with a range of interlocutors in a variety of contexts, including preschool and elementary school classrooms. Pragmatic language difficulties frequently are a primary area of disability for children diagnosed with autism, Asperger's syndrome,…

  11. UN MÉTODO DE INGENIERÍA INVERSA DE CÓDIGO JAVA HACIA DIAGRAMAS DE SECUENCIAS DE UML 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Zapata

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La Ingeniería inversa de software aparece como un proceso que ayuda al aseguramiento de la calidad y documentación de aplicaciones con deficiencias en los modelos de análisis y diseño. Además, ayuda en la disminución de costos y tiempos de mantenimiento. En la actualidad existen herramientas CASE y algunas propuestas de investigación que realizan el proceso de ingeniería inversa a diagramas UML, en especial a los diagramas de clases y secuencias. Algunas se encuentran en fases experimentales; otras se enfocan mucho más en el diagrama de clases que en el de secuencias. Un tercer grupo obtiene algunos elementos del diagrama de secuencias, pero no posee muchos de los elementos que hacen parte de la especificación de UML 2.0. En este artículo se propone un método que automatiza la conversión de código JAVA en diagrama de secuencias de UML 2.0, por medio de la aplicación de reglas de transformación que convierten los elementos del código en elementos del diagrama. Se presenta también un ejemplo de aplicación del método con un prototipo que lo emplea, el UNC-Inversor.Software reverse engineering seems to be the process for helping software quality assurance and documentation in applications with low-quality analysis and design models. It also helps for decreasing maintenance cost and time. Currently, some CASE tools and research proposals assist analysts to develop reverse engineering process with UML diagrams as a result (especially class and sequence diagram. Some of them have reached experimental phases. Some others are focused more on class diagram and less on sequence diagram. A third group of CASE tools and proposals obtains sequence diagram, but the resulting diagram lacks some of the elements of the UML 2.0 specification. In this paper, we propose a method for automating the conversion of JAVA code into UML 2.0 sequence diagram, by means of the application of transformation rules for converting code elements to the diagram

  12. The caBIG® Life Science Business Architecture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Lauren Becnel; Hunicke-Smith, Scott P; Stafford, Grace A; Freund, Elaine T; Ehlman, Michele; Chandran, Uma; Dennis, Robert; Fernandez, Anna T; Goldstein, Stephen; Steffen, David; Tycko, Benjamin; Klemm, Juli D

    2011-05-15

    Business Architecture Models (BAMs) describe what a business does, who performs the activities, where and when activities are performed, how activities are accomplished and which data are present. The purpose of a BAM is to provide a common resource for understanding business functions and requirements and to guide software development. The cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Life Science BAM (LS BAM) provides a shared understanding of the vocabulary, goals and processes that are common in the business of LS research. LS BAM 1.1 includes 90 goals and 61 people and groups within Use Case and Activity Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams. Here we report on the model's current release, LS BAM 1.1, its utility and usage, and plans for future use and continuing development for future releases. The LS BAM is freely available as UML, PDF and HTML (https://wiki.nci.nih.gov/x/OFNyAQ).

  13. 基于UML的自动组卷系统的分析与设计%Design and Analysis of Automatic Generation of Test Paper System Based on UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧梅

    2012-01-01

      本文运用基于面向对象的建模语言 UML 对自动组卷系统进行分析和设计,建立了自动组卷系统分析设计模型,为实现自动组卷系统打下良好的基础。%  this paper analyzed and designed the automatic generation of test paper system by UML, construct the design model based on analysis of the automatic generation of test paper system, and fully prepare for the realization of the automatic generation of test paper system.

  14. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, A.; Aberer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce processes. We introduce a language that is specifically designed for information commerce. It can be directly used for the implementation of the processes and communication required in information comme...

  15. Knowledge Graphs as Context Models: Improving the Detection of Cross-Language Plagiarism with Paraphrasing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Salvador, Marc; Gupta, Parth; Rosso, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language plagiarism detection attempts to identify and extract automatically plagiarism among documents in different languages. Plagiarized fragments can be translated verbatim copies or may alter their structure to hide the copying, which is known as paraphrasing and is more difficult to detect. In order to improve the paraphrasing detection, we use a knowledge graph-based approach to obtain and compare context models of document fragments in different languages. Experimental results i...

  16. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  17. From Cognition To Language: The Modeling Field Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    multi-agent framework was probably best made by Ferdinand de Saussure in his famous statement “language is not complete in any speaker; it exists...according to de Saussure (see quotation above), this is not an acceptable framework for language. In addition, a bias toward compositionality is built in...signals to exchange information about n objects. Actually, since the groundbreaking work of de Saussure [1] it is known that signals refer to real

  18. Blueprint model and language for engineering cloud applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is positioned within the domain of engineering CSBAs. Its contribution is twofold: (1) a uniform specification language, called the Blueprint Specification Language (BSL), for specifying cloud services across several cloud vendors and (2) a set of associated techniques, called the Blueprint Manipulation Techniques (BMTs), for publishing, querying, and composing cloud service specifications with aim to support the flexible design and configuration of an CSBA.

  19. A conceptual data model and modelling language for fields and agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Merijn; de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is essential in order to understand environmental systems. Environmental systems are heterogeneous because they consist of fields and agents. Fields have a value defined everywhere at all times, for example surface elevation and temperature. Agents are bounded in space and time and have a value only within their bounds, for example biomass of a tree crown or the speed of a car. Many phenomena have properties of both fields and agents. Although many systems contain both fields and agents and integration of these concepts would be required for modelling, existing modelling frameworks concentrate on either agent-based or field-based modelling and are often low-level programming frameworks. A concept is lacking that integrates fields and agents in a way that is easy to use for modelers who are not software engineers. To address this issue, we develop a conceptual data model that represents fields and agents uniformly. We then show how the data model can be used in a high-level modelling language. The data model represents fields and agents in space-time. Also relations and networks can be represented using the same concepts. Using the conceptual data model we can represent static and mobile agents that may have spatial and temporal variation within their extent. The concepts we use are phenomenon, property set, item, property, domain and value. The phenomenon is the thing that is modelled, which can be any real world thing, for example trees. A phenomenon usually consists of several items, e.g. single trees. The domain is the spatiotemporal location and/or extent for which the items in the phenomenon are defined. Multiple different domains can coexist for a given phenomenon. For example a domain describing the extent of the trees and a domain describing the stem locations. The same goes for the property, which is an attribute of the thing that is being modeled. A property has a value, which is possibly discretized, for example the biomass over the tree crown

  20. Channel-dependent GMM and multi-class logistic: Regression models for language recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, D.A. van; Brümmer, Niko

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes two new approaches to spoken language recognition. These were both successfully applied in the NIST 2005 Language Recognition Evaluation. The first approach extends the Gaussian Mixture Model technique with channel dependency, which results in actual detection costs (CDET) of

  1. Weaving Together Science and English: An Interconnected Model of Language Development for Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores third-grade science and language instruction for emergent bilinguals designed through a framework of planning, lessons, and assessment in an interconnected model including content, linguistic features, and functions. Participants were a team of language specialist, classroom teacher, and researcher who designed…

  2. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  3. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Aberer, K.

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  4. Metaphoric Modeling of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, with Special Reference to Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghbban, Mohammed I.; Ben Salamh, Sami; Maalej, Zouheir

    2017-01-01

    The current article investigates teachers' metaphoric modeling of foreign language teaching and learning at the College of Languages and Translation, King Saud University. It makes use of teaching philosophy statements as a corpus. Our objective is to analyze the underlying conceptualizations of teaching/learning, the teachers' perception of the…

  5. You Just Want to Be Like that Teacher: Modelling and Intercultural Competence in Young Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Language teachers are called upon to understand both the nature of students' intercultural competence and their own role in its development. Limited research attention has been paid to the relationship between the types of behaviour that language teachers model and the intercultural competence their students acquire. This article reports on a case…

  6. Improving Language Models in Speech-Based Human-Machine Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Justo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on speech-based human-machine interaction. Specifically, a Spoken Dialogue System (SDS that could be integrated into a robot is considered. Since Automatic Speech Recognition is one of the most sensitive tasks that must be confronted in such systems, the goal of this work is to improve the results obtained by this specific module. In order to do so, a hierarchical Language Model (LM is considered. Different series of experiments were carried out using the proposed models over different corpora and tasks. The results obtained show that these models provide greater accuracy in the recognition task. Additionally, the influence of the Acoustic Modelling (AM in the improvement percentage of the Language Models has also been explored. Finally the use of hierarchical Language Models in a language understanding task has been successfully employed, as shown in an additional series of experiments.

  7. Applicability of the Compensatory Encoding Model in Foreign Language Reading: An Investigation with Chinese College English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei

    2017-01-01

    While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading. This research empirically tested the Compensatory Encoding Model in English reading among Chinese college English language learners (ELLs). Two studies were conducted. Study one focused on testing whether reading condition varying time affects the relationship between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension. Students were tested on a computerized English word recognition test, a computerized Operation Span task, and reading comprehension in time constraint and non-time constraint reading. The correlation and regression analyses showed that the strength of association was much stronger between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension in time constraint than that in non-time constraint reading condition. Study two examined whether FL readers were able to operate metacognitive reading strategies as a compensatory way of reading comprehension for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation in non-time constraint reading. The participants were tested on the same computerized English word recognition test and Operation Span test. They were required to think aloud while reading and to complete the comprehension questions. The think-aloud protocols were coded for concurrent use of reading strategies, classified

  8. A formal approach to the analysis of clinical computer-interpretable guideline modeling languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, M Adela; Glasspool, David; Fox, John

    2012-01-01

    To develop proof strategies to formally study the expressiveness of workflow-based languages, and to investigate their applicability to clinical computer-interpretable guideline (CIG) modeling languages. We propose two strategies for studying the expressiveness of workflow-based languages based on a standard set of workflow patterns expressed as Petri nets (PNs) and notions of congruence and bisimilarity from process calculus. Proof that a PN-based pattern P can be expressed in a language L can be carried out semi-automatically. Proof that a language L cannot provide the behavior specified by a PNP requires proof by exhaustion based on analysis of cases and cannot be performed automatically. The proof strategies are generic but we exemplify their use with a particular CIG modeling language, PROforma. To illustrate the method we evaluate the expressiveness of PROforma against three standard workflow patterns and compare our results with a previous similar but informal comparison. We show that the two proof strategies are effective in evaluating a CIG modeling language against standard workflow patterns. We find that using the proposed formal techniques we obtain different results to a comparable previously published but less formal study. We discuss the utility of these analyses as the basis for principled extensions to CIG modeling languages. Additionally we explain how the same proof strategies can be reused to prove the satisfaction of patterns expressed in the declarative language CIGDec. The proof strategies we propose are useful tools for analysing the expressiveness of CIG modeling languages. This study provides good evidence of the benefits of applying formal methods of proof over semi-formal ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Diagram Type and Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only. In the ......Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only...

  10. Hypermedia for language learning: the FREE model at Coventry University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Orsini-Jones

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of incorporating CALL into the language-learning curriculum goes back to the early 1980s at Coventry University, and since then has evolved in keeping with changes in the technology available (Corness 1984; Benwell 1986; Orsini-Jones 1987; Corness et al 1992; Orsini-Jones 1993. Coventry University is at present pioneering the integration of hypermedia into the curriculum for the teaching of Italian language and society. The syllabus for a complete module of the BA Modern Languages and BA European Studies Degrees, which will count as l/8th of the students' programme for year 2, has been designed upon in-house produced hypermedia courseware.

  11. The role of the putamen in language: a meta-analytic connectivity modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas-Guasch, Nestor; Wu, Yan Jing

    2017-12-01

    The putamen is a subcortical structure that forms part of the dorsal striatum of basal ganglia, and has traditionally been associated with reinforcement learning and motor control, including speech articulation. However, recent studies have shown involvement of the left putamen in other language functions such as bilingual language processing (Abutalebi et al. 2012) and production, with some authors arguing for functional segregation of anterior and posterior putamen (Oberhuber et al. 2013). A further step in exploring the role of putamen in language would involve identifying the network of coactivations of not only the left, but also the right putamen, given the involvement of right hemisphere in high order language functions (Vigneau et al. 2011). Here, a meta-analytic connectivity modeling technique was used to determine the patterns of coactivation of anterior and bilateral putamen in the language domain. Based on previous evidence, we hypothesized that left putamen coactivations would include brain regions directly associated with language processing, whereas right putamen coactivations would encompass regions involved in broader semantic processes, such as memory and visual imagery. The results showed that left anterior putamen coactivated with clusters predominantly in left hemisphere, encompassing regions directly associated with language processing, a left posterior putamen network spanning both hemispheres, and cerebellum. In right hemisphere, coactivations were in both hemispheres, in regions associated with visual and orthographic processing. These results confirm the differential involvement of right and left putamen in different language components, thus highlighting the need for further research into the role of putamen in language.

  12. Recent advances in modeling languages for pathway maps and computable biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ted

    2014-02-01

    As our theories of systems biology grow more sophisticated, the models we use to represent them become larger and more complex. Languages necessarily have the expressivity and flexibility required to represent these models in ways that support high-resolution annotation, and provide for simulation and analysis that are sophisticated enough to allow researchers to master their data in the proper context. These languages also need to facilitate model sharing and collaboration, which is currently best done by using uniform data structures (such as graphs) and language standards. In this brief review, we discuss three of the most recent systems biology modeling languages to appear: BEL, PySB and BCML, and examine how they meet these needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  14. Conceptual model of the globalization for domain-specific languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, T.; van den Brand, M.; Combemale, B.; Rumpe, B.; Combemale, B.

    2015-01-01

    Domain Specific Languages (DSL) have received some prominence recently. Designing a DSL and all their tools is still cumbersome and lots of work. Engineering of DSLs is still at infancy, not even the terms have been coined and agreed on. In particular globalization and all its consequences need to

  15. Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…

  16. Video Self-Modeling for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Précille; Rao, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Teachers of English language learners (ELLs), expected to address grade-level standards and prepare ELLs for standardized assessments, have the difficult task of designing instruction that meets the range of needs in their classrooms. When these learners have experienced limited or interrupted education, the challenges intensify. Whereas…

  17. Paired structures in logical and semiotic models of natural language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The evidence coming from cognitive psychology and linguistics shows that pairs of reference concepts (as e.g. good/bad, tall/short, nice/ugly, etc.) play a crucial role in the way we everyday use and understand natural languages in order to analyze reality and make decisions. Different situations...

  18. A DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS MODEL OF COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE GROWTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGEERT, P

    In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework is sketched to define cognitive growth, including language growth, as a process of growth under limited resources. Important concepts are the process, level, and rate of growth; minimal structural growth level; carrying capacity and unutilized

  19. Assessing the Accuracy and Consistency of Language Proficiency Classification under Competing Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how measurement models and statistical procedures can be applied to estimate the accuracy of proficiency classification in language testing. The paper starts with a concise introduction of four measurement models: the classical test theory (CTT) model, the dichotomous item response theory (IRT) model, the testlet response…

  20. The Neighborhood Auditing Tool: a hybrid interface for auditing the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, C Paul; Geller, James; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua

    2009-06-01

    The UMLS's integration of more than 100 source vocabularies, not necessarily consistent with one another, causes some inconsistencies. The purpose of auditing the UMLS is to detect such inconsistencies and to suggest how to resolve them while observing the requirement of fully representing the content of each source in the UMLS. A software tool, called the Neighborhood Auditing Tool (NAT), that facilitates UMLS auditing is presented. The NAT supports "neighborhood-based" auditing, where, at any given time, an auditor concentrates on a single-focus concept and one of a variety of neighborhoods of its closely related concepts. Typical diagrammatic displays of concept networks have a number of shortcomings, so the NAT utilizes a hybrid diagram/text interface that features stylized neighborhood views which retain some of the best features of both the diagrammatic layouts and text windows while avoiding the shortcomings. The NAT allows an auditor to display knowledge from both the Metathesaurus (concept) level and the Semantic Network (semantic type) level. Various additional features of the NAT that support the auditing process are described. The usefulness of the NAT is demonstrated through a group of case studies. Its impact is tested with a study involving a select group of auditors.

  1. On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Size Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Practical experience suggests that usage and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. While existing research failed to provide conclusive evidence in support of this hypothesis, our own previous work provided substantial evidence to this effect. When...

  2. On the impact of size to the understanding of UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical experience suggests that usage and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. While existing research failed to provide conclusive and comprehensive evidence in support of this hypothesis, our own previous work provided substantial evid...

  3. Augmenting Oracle Text with the UMLS for enhanced searching of free-text medical reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Erdal, Selnur; Dhaval, Rakesh; Kamal, Jyoti

    2007-10-11

    The intrinsic complexity of free-text medical reports imposes great challenges for information retrieval systems. We have developed a prototype search engine for retrieving clinical reports that leverages the powerful indexing and querying capabilities of Oracle Text, and the rich biomedical domain knowledge and semantic structures that are captured in the UMLS Metathesaurus.

  4. "UML Quiz": Automatic Conversion of Web-Based E-Learning Content in Mobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Franqué, Alexander; Tellioglu, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Many educational institutions use Learning Management Systems to provide e-learning content to their students. This often includes quizzes that can help students to prepare for exams. However, the content is usually web-optimized and not very usable on mobile devices. In this work a native mobile application ("UML Quiz") that imports…

  5. Lessons learned from a pilot implementation of the UMLS information sources map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P L; Frawley, S J; Wright, L; Roderer, N K; Powsner, S M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the software design issues involved in implementing an operational information sources map (ISM) knowledge base (KB) and system of navigational tools that can help medical users access network-based information sources relevant to a biomedical question. DESIGN: A pilot biomedical ISM KB and associated client-server software (ISM/Explorer) have been developed to help students, clinicians, researchers, and staff access network-based information sources, as part of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) multi-institutional Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project. The system allows the user to specify and constrain a search for a biomedical question of interest. The system then returns a list of sources matching the search. At this point the user may request 1) further information about a source, 2) that the list of sources be regrouped by different criteria to allow the user to get a better overall appreciation of the set of retrieved sources as a whole, or 3) automatic connection to a source. RESULTS: The pilot system operates in client-server mode and currently contains coded information for 121 sources. It is in routine use from approximately 40 workstations at the Yale School of Medicine. The lessons that have been learned are that: 1) it is important to make access to different versions of a source as seamless as possible, 2) achieving seamless, cross-platform access to heterogeneous sources is difficult, 3) significant differences exist between coding the subject content of an electronic information resource versus that of an article or a book, 4) customizing the ISM to multiple institutions entails significant complexities, and 5) there are many design trade-offs between specifying searches and viewing sets of retrieved sources that must be taken into consideration. CONCLUSION: An ISM KB and navigational tools have been constructed. In the process, much has been learned about the complexities of development and evaluation in this

  6. Lessons learned from a pilot implementation of the UMLS information sources map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P L; Frawley, S J; Wright, L; Roderer, N K; Powsner, S M

    1995-01-01

    To explore the software design issues involved in implementing an operational information sources map (ISM) knowledge base (KB) and system of navigational tools that can help medical users access network-based information sources relevant to a biomedical question. A pilot biomedical ISM KB and associated client-server software (ISM/Explorer) have been developed to help students, clinicians, researchers, and staff access network-based information sources, as part of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) multi-institutional Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project. The system allows the user to specify and constrain a search for a biomedical question of interest. The system then returns a list of sources matching the search. At this point the user may request 1) further information about a source, 2) that the list of sources be regrouped by different criteria to allow the user to get a better overall appreciation of the set of retrieved sources as a whole, or 3) automatic connection to a source. The pilot system operates in client-server mode and currently contains coded information for 121 sources. It is in routine use from approximately 40 workstations at the Yale School of Medicine. The lessons that have been learned are that: 1) it is important to make access to different versions of a source as seamless as possible, 2) achieving seamless, cross-platform access to heterogeneous sources is difficult, 3) significant differences exist between coding the subject content of an electronic information resource versus that of an article or a book, 4) customizing the ISM to multiple institutions entails significant complexities, and 5) there are many design trade-offs between specifying searches and viewing sets of retrieved sources that must be taken into consideration. An ISM KB and navigational tools have been constructed. In the process, much has been learned about the complexities of development and evaluation in this new environment, which are different

  7. The possibility of coexistence and co-development in language competition: ecology-society computational model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jian; Shang, Song-Chao; Wei, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Language is characterized by both ecological properties and social properties, and competition is the basic form of language evolution. The rise and decline of one language is a result of competition between languages. Moreover, this rise and decline directly influences the diversity of human culture. Mathematics and computer modeling for language competition has been a popular topic in the fields of linguistics, mathematics, computer science, ecology, and other disciplines. Currently, there are several problems in the research on language competition modeling. First, comprehensive mathematical analysis is absent in most studies of language competition models. Next, most language competition models are based on the assumption that one language in the model is stronger than the other. These studies tend to ignore cases where there is a balance of power in the competition. The competition between two well-matched languages is more practical, because it can facilitate the co-development of two languages. A third issue with current studies is that many studies have an evolution result where the weaker language inevitably goes extinct. From the integrated point of view of ecology and sociology, this paper improves the Lotka-Volterra model and basic reaction-diffusion model to propose an "ecology-society" computational model for describing language competition. Furthermore, a strict and comprehensive mathematical analysis was made for the stability of the equilibria. Two languages in competition may be either well-matched or greatly different in strength, which was reflected in the experimental design. The results revealed that language coexistence, and even co-development, are likely to occur during language competition.

  8. Lexical prediction via forward models: N400 evidence from German Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosemann, Jana; Herrmann, Annika; Steinbach, Markus; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Models of language processing in the human brain often emphasize the prediction of upcoming input-for example in order to explain the rapidity of language understanding. However, the precise mechanisms of prediction are still poorly understood. Forward models, which draw upon the language production system to set up expectations during comprehension, provide a promising approach in this regard. Here, we present an event-related potential (ERP) study on German Sign Language (DGS) which tested the hypotheses of a forward model perspective on prediction. Sign languages involve relatively long transition phases between one sign and the next, which should be anticipated as part of a forward model-based prediction even though they are semantically empty. Native speakers of DGS watched videos of naturally signed DGS sentences which either ended with an expected or a (semantically) unexpected sign. Unexpected signs engendered a biphasic N400-late positivity pattern. Crucially, N400 onset preceded critical sign onset and was thus clearly elicited by properties of the transition phase. The comprehension system thereby clearly anticipated modality-specific information about the realization of the predicted semantic item. These results provide strong converging support for the application of forward models in language comprehension. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Charles Smith

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language-mediated visual attention describes the interaction of two fundamental components of the human cognitive system, language and vision. Within this paper we present an amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention that offers a description of the information and processes involved in this complex multimodal behaviour and a potential explanation for how this ability is acquired. We demonstrate that the model is not only sufficient to account for the experimental effects of Visual World Paradigm studies but also that these effects are emergent properties of the architecture of the model itself, rather than requiring separate information processing channels or modular processing systems. The model provides an explicit description of the connection between the modality-specific input from language and vision and the distribution of eye gaze in language mediated visual attention. The paper concludes by discussing future applications for the model, specifically its potential for investigating the factors driving observed individual differences in language mediated eye gaze.

  10. CVXPY: A Python-Embedded Modeling Language for Convex Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Steven; Boyd, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    CVXPY is a domain-specific language for convex optimization embedded in Python. It allows the user to express convex optimization problems in a natural syntax that follows the math, rather than in the restrictive standard form required by solvers. CVXPY makes it easy to combine convex optimization with high-level features of Python such as parallelism and object-oriented design. CVXPY is available at http://www.cvxpy.org/ under the GPL license, along with documentation and examples.

  11. CVXPY: A Python-Embedded Modeling Language for Convex Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Steven; Boyd, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    CVXPY is a domain-specific language for convex optimization embedded in Python. It allows the user to express convex optimization problems in a natural syntax that follows the math, rather than in the restrictive standard form required by solvers. CVXPY makes it easy to combine convex optimization with high-level features of Python such as parallelism and object-oriented design. CVXPY is available at http://www.cvxpy.org/ under the GPL license, along with documentation and examples.

  12. Language learning apps or games: an investigation utilizing the RETAIN model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda A. Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Combining games with mobile devices can promote learning opportunities at the learners' fingertips and enable ubiquitous learning experiences. As teachers increasingly assign games to reinforce language learning, it becomes essential to evaluate how effective these applications are in helping students learn the content or develop the skills that the games are reinforcing. This article examines two English language learning apps under the RETAIN model (GUNTER; KENNY; VICK, 2008. The findings indicate that although these apps offer some language learning opportunities, they do not present scenario-based quality or gameplay, among other elements, if they are to be considered games.

  13. SPECIFIC USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN A BLENDED MODEL OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kameneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the role and analyzes specificity of the use of information technology in a mixed model of learning foreign languages in higher educational institutions. The authors also describe such forms of e-learning as a webinar, seminar videos, video conferencing, case-technology. The ways of overcoming difficulties in learning foreign languages, which the students can face when using distance learning technologies, are indicated. The positive experience of using E-learning System «Virtual Campus» in the teaching foreign languages at the Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics is mentioned.

  14. Using the SIOP Model for Effective Content Teaching with Second and Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Veronika; Echevarria, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive model of instruction for providing consistent, high quality teaching to L2 students. This model, the SIOP Model (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol), provides an explicit framework for organizing instructional practices to optimize the effectiveness of teaching second and foreign language learners.…

  15. Basis of a formal language for facilitating communication among climate modelers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, Ramon de [Climate Analysis Team, Consortium Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre ESCER, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    The objective of this work is to present the basis for a formal language that aims to express in a concise way some fundamental beliefs held within the climate research community. The expression of this set of beliefs takes the form of relations, conjectures or propositions that describe characteristics of different aspects of climate modeling. Examples are constructed using topics that are much discussed within the climate modeling community. The article first introduces, as elements of this formal language, models considered a priori (the model as a code or algorithm) or a posteriori (the model as output), and then presents different relations between these elements. The most important relation is that of dominance, which helps to define the superiority of one model over another based on which model a rational agent will choose. Various kinds of dominance are considered. Also presented in a formal language are propositions and conjectures relating to model development, model calibration and climate change ensemble projections, each of which are held with diverse levels of acceptance within the climate modeling community. In addition, the relevance of defining elements - models - whose existence is improbable, such as bug-free model versions, is discussed. Although the potential value of this language is shown, there remains a need to improve the definitions presented here, as some of them remain unsatisfying. Still, we believe that this attempt may help us not only communicate more clearly but also to better distinguish different schools of thought that currently exist within the community. (orig.)

  16. A Domain-Specific Language for Generic Interlocking Models and Their Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    of this work is to provide a domain-specific language for generic models and an instantiator tool taking not only configuration data but also a generic model as input instead of using a hard-coded generator for instantiating only one fixed generic model and its properties with configuration data....

  17. Effects of the teach-model-coach-review instructional approach on caregiver use of language support strategies and children's expressive language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y; Kaiser, Ann P; Wolfe, Cathy E; Bryant, Julie D; Spidalieri, Alexandria M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline study. Children were between 24 and 42 months of age and had language impairment. Interventionists used the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach to teach caregivers to use matched turns, expansions, time delays, and milieu teaching prompts during 24 individualized clinic sessions. Caregiver use of each EMT language support strategy and child use of communication targets were the dependent variables. The caregivers demonstrated increases in their use of each EMT language support strategy after instruction. Generalization and maintenance of strategy use to the home was limited, indicating that teaching across routines is necessary to achieve maximal outcomes. All children demonstrated gains in their use of communication targets and in their performance on norm-referenced measures of language. The results indicate that the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach resulted in increased use of EMT language support strategies by caregivers. Caregiver use of these strategies was associated with positive changes in child language skills.

  18. Employing UMLS for generating hints in a tutoring system for medical problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Hameedullah; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2012-06-01

    While problem-based learning has become widely popular for imparting clinical reasoning skills, the dynamics of medical PBL require close attention to a small group of students, placing a burden on medical faculty, whose time is over taxed. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) offer an attractive means to increase the amount of facilitated PBL training the students receive. But typical intelligent tutoring system architectures make use of a domain model that provides a limited set of approved solutions to problems presented to students. Student solutions that do not match the approved ones, but are otherwise partially correct, receive little acknowledgement as feedback, stifling broader reasoning. Allowing students to creatively explore the space of possible solutions is exactly one of the attractive features of PBL. This paper provides an alternative to the traditional ITS architecture by using a hint generation strategy that leverages a domain ontology to provide effective feedback. The concept hierarchy and co-occurrence between concepts in the domain ontology are drawn upon to ascertain partial correctness of a solution and guide student reasoning towards a correct solution. We describe the strategy incorporated in METEOR, a tutoring system for medical PBL, wherein the widely available UMLS is deployed and represented as the domain ontology. Evaluation of expert agreement with system generated hints on a 5-point likert scale resulted in an average score of 4.44 (Spearman's ρ=0.80, p<0.01). Hints containing partial correctness feedback scored significantly higher than those without it (Mann Whitney, p<0.001). Hints produced by a human expert received an average score of 4.2 (Spearman's ρ=0.80, p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pedagogical Model for Explicit Teaching of Reading Comprehension to English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Tiyb Al Khaiyali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension instruction is considered one of the major challenges that most English language teachers and students encounter. Therefore, providing a systematic, explicit, and flexible model to teaching reading comprehension strategies could help resolve some of these challenges and increase the possibility of teaching reading comprehension, particularly in language learners’ classrooms. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to provide a model to teach reading comprehension strategies in language learning classrooms. The proposed instructional model is divided into three systematic phases through which strategies are taught before reading, during reading, and after reading. Each phase is explained and elaborated using recommended models for teachers. Finally, suggested considerations to consolidate this model are provided.

  1. Model Problems in Technologies for Interoperability: OWL Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metcalf, Chris; Lewis, Grace A

    2006-01-01

    .... The OWL Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S) is a language to describe the properties and capabilities of Web Services in such a way that the descriptions can be interpreted by a computer system in an automated manner. This technical note presents the results of applying the model problem approach to examine the feasibility of using OWL-S to allow applications to automatically discover, compose, and invoke services in a dynamic services-oriented environment.

  2. Modeling cancer registration processes with an enhanced activity diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalin, D; Williams, W

    2005-01-01

    Adequate instruments are needed to reflect the complexity of routine cancer registry operations properly in a business model. The activity diagram is a key instrument of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the modeling of business processes. The authors aim to improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other public health domains, through the enhancements of an activity diagram notation within the standard semantics of UML. The authors introduced the practical approach to enhance a conventional UML activity diagram, complementing it with the following business process concepts: timeline, duration for individual activities, responsibilities for individual activities within swimlanes, and descriptive text. The authors used an enhanced activity diagram for modeling surveillance processes in the cancer registration domain. Specific example illustrates the use of an enhanced activity diagram to visualize a process of linking cancer registry records with external mortality files. Enhanced activity diagram allows for the addition of more business concepts to a single diagram and can improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other domains. Additional features of an enhanced activity diagram allow to advance the visualization of cancer registration processes. That, in turn, promotes the clarification of issues related to the process timeline, responsibilities for particular operations, and collaborations among process participants. Our first experiences in a cancer registry best practices development workshop setting support the usefulness of such an approach.

  3. Macromolecular query language (MMQL): prototype data model and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindyalov, I N; Chang, W; Pu, C; Bourne, P E

    1994-11-01

    Macromolecular query language (MMQL) is an extensible interpretive language in which to pose questions concerning the experimental or derived features of the 3-D structure of biological macromolecules. MMQL portends to be intuitive with a simple syntax, so that from a user's perspective complex queries are easily written. A number of basic queries and a more complex query--determination of structures containing a five-strand Greek key motif--are presented to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the language. The predominant features of MMQL are a filter and pattern grammar which are combined to express a wide range of interesting biological queries. Filters permit the selection of object attributes, for example, compound name and resolution, whereas the patterns currently implemented query primary sequence, close contacts, hydrogen bonding, secondary structure, conformation and amino acid properties (volume, polarity, isoelectric point, hydrophobicity and different forms of exposure). MMQL queries are processed by MMQLlib; a C++ class library, to which new query methods and pattern types are easily added. The prototype implementation described uses PDBlib, another C(++)-based class library from representing the features of biological macromolecules at the level of detail parsable from a PDB file. Since PDBlib can represent data stored in relational and object-oriented databases, as well as PDB files, once these data are loaded they too can be queried by MMQL. Performance metrics are given for queries of PDB files for which all derived data are calculated at run time and compared to a preliminary version of OOPDB, a prototype object-oriented database with a schema based on a persistent version of PDBlib which offers more efficient data access and the potential to maintain derived information. MMQLlib, PDBlib and associated software are available via anonymous ftp from cuhhca.hhmi.columbia.edu.

  4. Hybrid parallel execution model for logic-based specification languages

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2001-01-01

    Parallel processing is a very important technique for improving the performance of various software development and maintenance activities. The purpose of this book is to introduce important techniques for parallel executation of high-level specifications of software systems. These techniques are very useful for the construction, analysis, and transformation of reliable large-scale and complex software systems. Contents: Current Approaches; Overview of the New Approach; FRORL Requirements Specification Language and Its Decomposition; Rewriting and Data Dependency, Control Flow Analysis of a Lo

  5. Genetic biasing through cultural transmission: do simple Bayesian models of language evolution generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    2009-08-07

    The recent Bayesian approaches to language evolution and change seem to suggest that genetic biases can impact on the characteristics of language, but, at the same time, that its cultural transmission can partially free it from these same genetic constraints. One of the current debates centres on the striking differences between sampling and a posteriori maximising Bayesian learners, with the first converging on the prior bias while the latter allows a certain freedom to language evolution. The present paper shows that this difference disappears if populations more complex than a single teacher and a single learner are considered, with the resulting behaviours more similar to the sampler. This suggests that generalisations based on the language produced by Bayesian agents in such homogeneous single agent chains are not warranted. It is not clear which of the assumptions in such models are responsible, but these findings seem to support the rising concerns on the validity of the "acquisitionist" assumption, whereby the locus of language change and evolution is taken to be the first language acquirers (children) as opposed to the competent language users (the adults).

  6. Definition of an Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Enterprise Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Lê, Lam Son; Wegmann, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In enterprise architecture, the goal is to integrate business resources and IT resources in order to improve an enterprises competitiveness. In an enterprise architecture project, the development team usually constructs a model that represents the enterprise: the enterprise model. In this paper, we present a modeling language for building such enterprise models. Our enterprise models are hierarchical object-oriented representations of the enterprises. This paper presents the foundations of o...

  7. Brain-computer interface with language model-electroencephalography fusion for locked-in syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Barry S; Orhan, Umut; Roark, Brian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Fowler, Andrew; Mooney, Aimee; Peters, Betts; Miller, Meghan; Fried-Oken, Melanie B

    2014-05-01

    Some noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are currently available for locked-in syndrome (LIS) but none have incorporated a statistical language model during text generation. To begin to address the communication needs of individuals with LIS using a noninvasive BCI that involves rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of symbols and a unique classifier with electroencephalography (EEG) and language model fusion. The RSVP Keyboard was developed with several unique features. Individual letters are presented at 2.5 per second. Computer classification of letters as targets or nontargets based on EEG is performed using machine learning that incorporates a language model for letter prediction via Bayesian fusion enabling targets to be presented only 1 to 4 times. Nine participants with LIS and 9 healthy controls were enrolled. After screening, subjects first calibrated the system, and then completed a series of balanced word generation mastery tasks that were designed with 5 incremental levels of difficulty, which increased by selecting phrases for which the utility of the language model decreased naturally. Six participants with LIS and 9 controls completed the experiment. All LIS participants successfully mastered spelling at level 1 and one subject achieved level 5. Six of 9 control participants achieved level 5. Individuals who have incomplete LIS may benefit from an EEG-based BCI system, which relies on EEG classification and a statistical language model. Steps to further improve the system are discussed.

  8. An analytic solution of a model of language competition with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Espinar, M. V.; Seoane, L. F.; Nieto, J. J.; Mira, J.

    2013-12-01

    An in-depth analytic study of a model of language dynamics is presented: a model which tackles the problem of the coexistence of two languages within a closed community of speakers taking into account bilingualism and incorporating a parameter to measure the distance between languages. After previous numerical simulations, the model yielded that coexistence might lead to survival of both languages within monolingual speakers along with a bilingual community or to extinction of the weakest tongue depending on different parameters. In this paper, such study is closed with thorough analytical calculations to settle the results in a robust way and previous results are refined with some modifications. From the present analysis it is possible to almost completely assay the number and nature of the equilibrium points of the model, which depend on its parameters, as well as to build a phase space based on them. Also, we obtain conclusions on the way the languages evolve with time. Our rigorous considerations also suggest ways to further improve the model and facilitate the comparison of its consequences with those from other approaches or with real data.

  9. Cognitive processes and neural basis of language switching: proposal of a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2009-12-09

    Although studies on bilingualism are abundant, cognitive processes and neural foundations of language switching received less attention. The aim of our study is to provide new insights to this still open question: do dedicated region(s) for language switching exist or is this function underlain by a distributed circuit of interconnected brain areas, part of a more general cognitive system? On the basis of recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies, we propose an original 'hodological' model of language switching. This process might be subserved by a large-scale cortico-subcortical network, with an executive system (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus) controlling a more dedicated language subcircuit, which involves postero-temporal areas, supramarginal and angular gyri, Broca's area, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

  10. Linguistic Models at the Crossroads of Agents, Learning and Formal Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor BECERRA-BONACHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reviewing the most relevant linguistic applications developed in the intersection between three different fields: machine learning, formal language theory and agent technologies. On the one hand, we present some of the main linguistic contributions of the intersection between machine learning and formal languages, which constitutes a well-established research area known as Grammatical Inference. On the other hand, we present an overview of the main linguistic applications of models developed in the intersection between agent technologies and formal languages, such as colonies, grammar systems and eco-grammar systems. Our goal is to show how interdisciplinary research between these three fields can contribute to better understand how natural language is acquired and processed.

  11. Development of clinical contents model markup language for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yoon

    2012-09-01

    To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. CCML HAS THE FOLLOWING STRENGTHS: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems.

  12. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  13. Models of language: towards a practice-based account of information in natural language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade-Lotero, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Edgar Andrade-Lotero onderzocht twee modellen van taalkundige informatie. Hij richt zich met name op de filosofische vooronderstellingen van deze modellen. Eén van deze modellen is afkomstig uit de formele semantiek; het andere model is gebaseerd op een specifiek onderzoek naar de rol van tekens in

  14. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. A Metadata Model for E-Learning Coordination through Semantic Web Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming to develop a metadata model for e-learning coordination based on semantic web languages. A survey of e-learning modes are done initially in order to identify content such as phases, activities, data schema, rules and relations, etc. relevant for a coordination model. In this respect, the study looks into the…

  16. A Blended Learning Model for Teaching Reading in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkour, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a blended learning model to be used in Egyptian schools when teaching reading classes in English as a foreign language. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the Egyptian context and describes the target learners. The second part describes the suggested blended learning model, which is…

  17. Assembly language program design used in model DD80 multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiziang, Wei; Ying, Chen; Xide, Zhao

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes the structures, features, flowcharts and design considerations of assembly language program used in Model DD80 (FH1920) multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer. On the Model TRS-80 (I) microcomputer with DD80 multifunction interface this program can be used in spectrum data acquisition, spectrum live display and some spectrum data processing.

  18. Modelling the phonotactic structure of natural language words with simple recurrent networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoianov, [No Value; Nerbonne, J; Bouma, H; Coppen, PA; vanHalteren, H; Teunissen, L

    1998-01-01

    Simple Recurrent Networks (SRN) are Neural Network (connectionist) models able to process natural language. Phonotactics concerns the order of symbols in words. We continued an earlier unsuccessful trial to model the phonotactics of Dutch words with SRNs. In order to overcome the previously reported

  19. The assembly language program design used in model DD80 multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yiziang; Chen Ying; Zhao Xide

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the structures, features, flowcharts and design considerations of assembly language program used in Model DD80 (FH1920) multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer. On the Model TRS-80 (I) microcomputer with DD80 multifunction interface this program can be used in spectrum data acquisition, spectrum live display and some spectrum data processing

  20. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: a model for language competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; Miguel, Maxi San

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system size scaling analysis shows, on the one hand, that the probability of language extinction vanishes exponentially for increasing system sizes and, on the other hand, that the time scale of survival of the non-trivial dynamical metastable states increases linearly with the size of the system. Thus, non-trivial dynamical coexistence is the only possible outcome for large enough systems. Finally, we show how this coexistence is characterized by one of the languages becoming clearly predominant while the other one becomes increasingly confined to ‘ghetto-like’ structures: small groups of bilingual speakers arranged in triangles, with a strong preference for the minority language, and using it for their intra-group interactions while they switch to the predominant language for communications with the rest of the population. (paper)

  1. Modelling gesture use and early language development in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, Stacy S; Mead, Danielle L; Swineford, Lauren; Thurm, Audrey

    2017-09-01

    Nonverbal communication abilities, including gesture use, are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about how common gestures may influence or be influenced by other areas of development. To examine the relationships between gesture, fine motor and language in young children with ASD compared with a comparison group using multiple measures and methods in a structural equation modelling framework. Participants included 110 children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group of 87 children (that included children with developmental delays (DD) or typical development (TD)), from 12 to 48 months of age. A construct of gesture use as measured by the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Caregiver Questionnaire (CQ) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), as well as fine motor from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was examined using second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A series of structural equation models then examined concurrent relationships between the aforementioned latent gesture construct and expressive and receptive language. A series of hierarchical regression analyses was run in a subsample of 36 children with ASD with longitudinal data to determine how gesture factor scores predicted later language outcomes. Across study groups, the gesture CFA model with indicators of gesture use from both the CQ (parent-reported) and ADOS (direct observation), and measures of fine motor provided good fit with all indicators significantly and strongly loading onto one gesture factor. This model of gesture use, controlling for age, was found to correlate strongly with concurrent expressive and receptive language. The correlations between gestures and concurrent language were similar in magnitude in both the ASD and non-ASD groups. In the longitudinal subsample of children with ASD, gestures at time 1 predicted later receptive (but not

  2. A model for Social Communication And Language Evolution and Development (SCALED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Bambini, Valentina

    2014-10-01

    In humans, brain connectivity implements a system for language and communication that spans from basic pre-linguistic social abilities shared with non-human primates to syntactic and pragmatic functions particular to our species. The arcuate fasciculus is a central connection in this architecture, linking regions devoted to formal aspects of language with regions involved in intentional and social communication. Here, we outline a new anatomical model of communication that incorporates previous neurofunctional accounts of language with recent advances in tractography and neuropragmatics. The model consists of five levels, from the representation of informative actions and communicative intentions, to lexical/semantic processing, syntactic analysis, and pragmatic integration. The structure of the model is hierarchical in relation to developmental and evolutionary trajectories and it may help interpreting clinico-anatomical correlation in communication disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. FORMAL MODELLING OF BUSINESS RULES: WHAT KIND OF TOOL TO USE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lovrenčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Business rules are today essential parts of a business system model. But presently, there are still various approaches to, definitions and classifications of this concept. Similarly, there are also different approaches in business rules formalization and implementation. This paper investigates formalization using formal language in association with easy domain modelling. Two of the tools that enable such approach are described and compared according to several factors. They represent ontology modelling and UML, nowadays widely used standard for object-oriented modelling. A simple example is also presented.

  4. Structural Group-based Auditing of Missing Hierarchical Relationships in UMLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying(Helen); Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James

    2009-01-01

    The Metathesaurus of the UMLS was created by integrating various source terminologies. The inter-concept relationships were either integrated into the UMLS from the source terminologies or specially generated. Due to the extensive size and inherent complexity of the Metathesaurus, the accidental omission of some hierarchical relationships was inevitable. We present a recursive procedure which allows a human expert, with the support of an algorithm, to locate missing hierarchical relationships. The procedure starts with a group of concepts with exactly the same (correct) semantic type assignments. It then partitions the concepts, based on child-of hierarchical relationships, into smaller, singly rooted, hierarchically connected subgroups. The auditor only needs to focus on the subgroups with very few concepts and their concepts with semantic type reassignments. The procedure was evaluated by comparing it with a comprehensive manual audit and it exhibits a perfect error recall. PMID:18824248

  5. A method of LED free-form tilted lens rapid modeling based on scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yidan

    2017-10-01

    According to nonimaging optical principle and traditional LED free-form surface lens, a new kind of LED free-form tilted lens was designed. And a method of rapid modeling based on Scheme language was proposed. The mesh division method was applied to obtain the corresponding surface configuration according to the character of the light source and the desired energy distribution on the illumination plane. Then 3D modeling software and the Scheme language programming are used to generate lens model respectively. With the help of optical simulation software, a light source with the size of 1mm*1mm*1mm in volume is used in experiment, and the lateral migration distance of illumination area is 0.5m, in which total one million rays are computed. We could acquire the simulated results of both models. The simulated output result shows that the Scheme language can prevent the model deformation problems caused by the process of the model transfer, and the degree of illumination uniformity is reached to 82%, and the offset angle is 26°. Also, the efficiency of modeling process is greatly increased by using Scheme language.

  6. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  7. Implications of Multimodal Learning Models for foreign language teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Farías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review article approaches the topic of information and communications technologies from the perspective of their impact on the language learning process, with particular emphasis on the most appropriate designs of multimodal texts as informed by models of multimodal learning. The first part contextualizes multimodality within the fields of discourse studies, the psychology of learning and CALL; the second, deals with multimodal conceptions of reading and writing by discussing hypertextuality and literacy. A final section outlines the possible implications of multimodal learning models for foreign language teaching and learning.

  8. Model-Based GUI Testing Using Uppaal at Novo Nordisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Ulrik H.; Illum, Jacob; Larsen, Kim G.; Petersen, Michael A.; Skou, Arne

    This paper details a collaboration between Aalborg University and Novo Nordiskin developing an automatic model-based test generation tool for system testing of the graphical user interface of a medical device on an embedded platform. The tool takes as input an UML Statemachine model and generates a test suite satisfying some testing criterion, such as edge or state coverage, and converts the individual test case into a scripting language that can be automatically executed against the target. The tool has significantly reduced the time required for test construction and generation, and reduced the number of test scripts while increasing the coverage.

  9. VMQL: A Visual Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In large scale model based development, analysis level models are more like knowledge bases than engineering artifacts. Their effectiveness depends, to a large degree, on the ability of domain experts to retrieve information from them ad hoc. For large scale models, however, existing query...

  10. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.

  12. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  13. Design and implementation of the system of importing data of nuclear analysis experiment based on UML technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yanguang; Yu Chuansong; Ma Mei; Sun Gongxing

    2004-01-01

    There are some problems that Excel data importing to database for our scientific data processing, we introduce a method how to use UML and XML technology design and implementation our system. Because XML technology have flexible data exchange mechanism, so it is appropriate to do it, and it is easy for use that the system of importing data of nuclear analysis experiment has a web browser GUI. Our paper emphasis on the software design method and UML design cases. (authors)

  14. Language Learners or New Speakers: The Transfer of the Breton Diwan Immersion Education Model to the Lower Sorbian Witaj Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołowy-Rybińska Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses several aspects of immersion and bilingual education systems in Brittany, France and in Lower Lusatia, Germany. Their role in the process of becoming a new speaker of a minority language is exemplified by the Diwan immersion education model in Brittany and the Witaj project in Lower Lusatia concerning the Sorbian people. Taking into consideration the different sociolinguistic situation of both groups, the level and reasons for language shift, the existing language policy in France and in Germany, both educational models are presented. I analyze some factors that influence the possible success or failure of these two models, such as: the linguistic environments, teaching systems, the roles of teachers, the minority language attitudes of pupils, their language practices, the availability of extracurricular activities in the minority language, and the existence of different types of communities of practice. All these factors influence pupils’ language choices and practices. Not all language learners will use a minority language in the future, since it depends on the conscious decision of each person. The distinction between language learners and minority language new speakers can thus be justified.

  15. Designing Interaction Spaces for Rich Internet Applications with UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Stage, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for designing rich internet applications. The design process uses results from an object-oriented analysis and employs interaction spaces as the basic abstraction mechanism. State diagrams are employed as refinements of interaction spaces and task models...

  16. Advanced Systems Design with Java, UML and MDA

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Model Driven Architecture is a significant evolution of the object-oriented approach to system development. This book describes the factors involved in designing and constructing large systems, illustrating the design process through a series of examples, including a Scrabble player, a jukebox using web streaming, a security system, and others.

  17. On the impact of layout quality to understanding UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    previous research considered them in isolation only. In this paper, we report the results of a series of controlled experiments using compound layouts on requirements analysis models. With very high significance, we find a notable impact of the layout quality measured by different aspects of cognitive load....

  18. A language-based approach to modelling and analysis of Twitter interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Alessandro; Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    More than a personal microblogging site, Twitter has been transformed by common use to an information publishing venue, which public characters, media channels and common people daily rely on for, e.g., news reporting and consumption, marketing, and social messaging. The use of Twitter...... in a cooperative and interactive setting calls for the precise awareness of the dynamics regulating message spreading. In this paper, we describe Twitlang, a language for modelling the interactions among Twitter accounts. The associated operational semantics allows users to precisely determine the effects...... of their actions on Twitter, such as post, reply-to or delete tweets. The language is implemented in the form of a Maude interpreter, Twitlanger, which takes a language term as an input and explores the computations arising from the term. By combining the strength of Twitlanger and the Maude model checker...

  19. Cell layer level generalized dynamic modeling of a PEMFC stack using VHDL-AMS language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Blunier, Benjamin; Miraoui, Abdellatif; El-Moudni, Abdellah [Transport and Systems Laboratory (SeT) - EA 3317/UTBM, University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, Rue Thierry Mieg, 90000 Belfort (France)

    2009-07-15

    A generalized, cell layer scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack dynamic model is presented using VHDL-AMS (IEEE standard Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language-Analog and Mixed-Signal Extensions) modeling language. A PEMFC stack system is a complex energy conversion system that covers three main energy domains: electrical, fluidic and thermal. The first part of this work shows the performance and the advantages of VHDL-AMS language when modeling such a complex system. Then, using the VHDL-AMS modeling standards, an electrical domain model, a fluidic domain model and a thermal domain model of the PEMFC stack are coupled and presented together. Thus, a complete coupled multi-domain fuel cell stack 1-D dynamic model is given. The simulation results are then compared with a Ballard 1.2 kW NEXA fuel cell system, and show a great agreement between the simulation and experimentation. This complex multi-domain VHDL-AMS stack model can be used for a model based control design or a Hardware-In-the-Loop application. (author)

  20. Semantically-Rigorous Systems Engineering Modeling Using Sysml and OWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Steven; Rouquette, Nicolas F.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has found wide acceptance as a standard graphical notation for the domain of systems engineering. SysML subsets and extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to define conventions for expressing structural, behavioral, and analytical elements, and relationships among them. SysML-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, and have been used for diverse projects in military aerospace, scientific exploration, and civil engineering. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has found wide acceptance as a standard notation for knowledge representation. OWL-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, as well as auxiliary assets such as reasoners and application programming interface libraries, etc. OWL has been applied to diverse projects in a wide array of fields. While the emphasis in SysML is on notation, SysML inherits (from UML) a semantic foundation that provides for limited reasoning and analysis. UML's partial formalization (FUML), however, does not cover the full semantics of SysML, which is a substantial impediment to developing high confidence in the soundness of any conclusions drawn therefrom. OWL, by contrast, was developed from the beginning on formal logical principles, and consequently provides strong support for verification of consistency and satisfiability, extraction of entailments, conjunctive query answering, etc. This emphasis on formal logic is counterbalanced by the absence of any graphical notation conventions in the OWL standards. Consequently, OWL has had only limited adoption in systems engineering. The complementary strengths and weaknesses of SysML and OWL motivate an interest in combining them in such a way that we can benefit from the attractive graphical notation of SysML and the formal reasoning of OWL. This paper describes an approach to achieving that combination.

  1. Language Recognition Using Latent Dynamic Conditional Random Field Model with Phonological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinoot Boonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language recognition (SLR has been of increasing interest in multilingual speech recognition for identifying the languages of speech utterances. Most existing SLR approaches apply statistical modeling techniques with acoustic and phonotactic features. Among the popular approaches, the acoustic approach has become of greater interest than others because it does not require any prior language-specific knowledge. Previous research on the acoustic approach has shown less interest in applying linguistic knowledge; it was only used as supplementary features, while the current state-of-the-art system assumes independency among features. This paper proposes an SLR system based on the latent-dynamic conditional random field (LDCRF model using phonological features (PFs. We use PFs to represent acoustic characteristics and linguistic knowledge. The LDCRF model was employed to capture the dynamics of the PFs sequences for language classification. Baseline systems were conducted to evaluate the features and methods including Gaussian mixture model (GMM based systems using PFs, GMM using cepstral features, and the CRF model using PFs. Evaluated on the NIST LRE 2007 corpus, the proposed method showed an improvement over the baseline systems. Additionally, it showed comparable result with the acoustic system based on i-vector. This research demonstrates that utilizing PFs can enhance the performance.

  2. Human processor modelling language (HPML): Estimate working memory load through interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, J.; Scheben, C.

    2007-01-01

    To operate machines over their user interface may cause high load on human's working memory. This load can decrease performance in the working task significantly if this task is a cognitive challenging one, e. g. diagnosis. With the »Human Processor Modelling Language« (HPML) the interaction activity can be modelled with a directed graph. From such models a condensed indicator value for working memory load can be estimated. Thus different user interface solutions can get compared with respect...

  3. Computational Modeling for Language Acquisition: A Tutorial With Syntactic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa S; Sprouse, Jon

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing prominence of computational modeling in the acquisition research community, we present a tutorial on how to use computational modeling to investigate learning strategies that underlie the acquisition process. This is useful for understanding both typical and atypical linguistic development. We provide a general overview of why modeling can be a particularly informative tool and some general considerations when creating a computational acquisition model. We then review a concrete example of a computational acquisition model for complex structural knowledge referred to as syntactic islands. This includes an overview of syntactic islands knowledge, a precise definition of the acquisition task being modeled, the modeling results, and how to meaningfully interpret those results in a way that is relevant for questions about knowledge representation and the learning process. Computational modeling is a powerful tool that can be used to understand linguistic development. The general approach presented here can be used to investigate any acquisition task and any learning strategy, provided both are precisely defined.

  4. Aproximación Basada en UML para el Diseño y Codificación Automática de Plataformas Robóticas Manipuladoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Estévez

    2017-01-01

    robótica de servicios en la que un robot manipulador antropomórfico realiza la tarea de seguimiento de un objeto en movimiento. Este segundo caso de estudio se ejecuta sobre ROS. Abstract: Today, robotics manipulator is a crucial discipline in modern production industrial facilities and in a near future; it will also be decisive in the human quotidian society. Consequently, currently there is a growing demand of applications with arm-based robots with requirements such as: reutilization, flexibility and adaptability. Unfortunately, there is a lack of standardization of hardware and software platforms, so the satisfaction of these requirements is too difficult. In this sense, there is a necessity of a methodology that guides along application design, implementation as well as the execution of the software systems. This work, explores the advantages of Model Driven Engineering (MDE for the design and development of applications performed by manipulator robots. In fact, an UML based approach is proposed that supports the design of robotic tasks and an automatic code generation for the most spread robotic communication Middlewares has been also developed. More specifically, the target code generation for OROCOS and ROS communication Middlewares has been detailed. Finally, two case studies have been presented one for industrial field and the other for service sector. The former runs on OROCOS and the latter on ROS. Palabras clave: Robots manipuladores, UML, MDE-Model Driven Engineering, ROS-Robotic Operating System-, OROCOS – Open Robot Control Software-, Keywords: Manipulator robots, UML-Unified Modeling Language, MDE-Model Driven Engineering, ROS-Robotic Operating System, OROCOS- Open Robot Control Software

  5. SBRML: a markup language for associating systems biology data with models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Joseph O; Spasić, Irena; Paton, Norman W; Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Research in systems biology is carried out through a combination of experiments and models. Several data standards have been adopted for representing models (Systems Biology Markup Language) and various types of relevant experimental data (such as FuGE and those of the Proteomics Standards Initiative). However, until now, there has been no standard way to associate a model and its entities to the corresponding datasets, or vice versa. Such a standard would provide a means to represent computational simulation results as well as to frame experimental data in the context of a particular model. Target applications include model-driven data analysis, parameter estimation, and sharing and archiving model simulations. We propose the Systems Biology Results Markup Language (SBRML), an XML-based language that associates a model with several datasets. Each dataset is represented as a series of values associated with model variables, and their corresponding parameter values. SBRML provides a flexible way of indexing the results to model parameter values, which supports both spreadsheet-like data and multidimensional data cubes. We present and discuss several examples of SBRML usage in applications such as enzyme kinetics, microarray gene expression and various types of simulation results. The XML Schema file for SBRML is available at http://www.comp-sys-bio.org/SBRML under the Academic Free License (AFL) v3.0.

  6. An ontology model for nursing narratives with natural language generation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yul Ha; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Jeon, Eunjoo; Lee, Joo Yun; Jo, Soo Jung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an ontology model to generate nursing narratives as natural as human language from the entity-attribute-value triplets of a detailed clinical model using natural language generation technology. The model was based on the types of information and documentation time of the information along the nursing process. The typesof information are data characterizing the patient status, inferences made by the nurse from the patient data, and nursing actions selected by the nurse to change the patient status. This information was linked to the nursing process based on the time of documentation. We describe a case study illustrating the application of this model in an acute-care setting. The proposed model provides a strategy for designing an electronic nursing record system.

  7. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  8. Abs: a high-level modeling language for cloud-aware programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCloud technology has become an invaluable tool to the IT business, because of its attractive economic model. Yet, from the programmers’ perspective, the development of cloud applications remains a major challenge. In this paper we introduce a programming language that allows Cloud

  9. Using the SIOP Model to Promote the Acquisition of Language and Science Concepts with English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Canges, Rebecca; Francis, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report findings from research through the Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (CREATE), a National Research and Development Center. In our study we examined the efficacy of a model of instruction for English learners, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)…

  10. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  11. Fast N-Gram Language Model Look-Ahead for Decoders With Static Pronunciation Prefix Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Decoders that make use of token-passing restrict their search space by various types of token pruning. With use of the Language Model Look-Ahead (LMLA) technique it is possible to increase the number of tokens that can be pruned without loss of decoding precision. Unfortunately, for token passing

  12. OER "Produsage" as a Model to Support Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Teresa; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Language education faculty face myriad challenges in finding teaching resources that are suitable, of high quality, and allow for the modifications needed to meet the requirements of their course contexts and their learners. The article elaborates the grassroots model of "produsage" (a portmanteau of "production" and…

  13. Action and Language Mechanisms in the Brain: Data, Models and Neuroinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, James J.; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kemmerer, David; MacWhinney, Brian; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Oztop, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding – separately or together – neurocomputational models and empirical data that serve systems and cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24234916

  14. Evaluation of Rule-based Modularization in Model Transformation Languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the base of the relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  15. Rule-based modularization in model transformation languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the basis of relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  16. Action and Language Mechanisms in the Brain: Data, Models and Neuroinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbib, Michael A.; Bonaiuto, James J.; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding - separately or together - neurocomputational models and empirical ...

  17. An object-oriented language-database integration model: The composition filters approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Vural, Sinan; Vural, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model, based on so-called object-composition filters, that uniformly integrates database-like features into an object-oriented language. The focus is on providing persistent dynamic data structures, data sharing, transactions, multiple views and associative access,

  18. Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling to Examine Factors Predicting English Language Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Karen; ElAtia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM), this study aimed to identify factors such as ESL/ELL/EAL status that would predict students' reading performance in an English language arts exam taken across Canada. Using data from the 2007 administration of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) along with the accompanying surveys for students and…

  19. A Model of Motivation for Extensive Reading in Japanese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Burgh-Hirabe, Ryoko; Feryok, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that extensive reading (ER) has a positive influence on affect. Recent studies suggest that motivation for ER changes. This is in line with recent developments in second language (L2) motivation research that have highlighted the complex and dynamic nature of L2 motivation. This study presents a model of complex and…

  20. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  1. NDEA FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTITUTE PROGRAMS--THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW EDUCATIONAL MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AXELROD, JOSEPH

    FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTITUTE PROGRAMS, HAVING ADOPTED A STRUCTURE OUTSIDE OF THE DOMINANT MODEL IN EDUCATION, HIGHLIGHT WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE ESTABLISHED HIGHER EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND GIVE CLUES AS TO HOW IT MAY BE IMPROVED. THESE INSTITUTE PROGRAMS OFFER A PERSONALIZED ATMOSPHERE, WITH CURRICULAR UNITY, WHERE LEARNING IS MORE OF A GROUP ACTIVITY,…

  2. An Object-Oriented Language-Database Integration Model: The Composition-Filters Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Vural, S.; Vural, Sinan; Lehrmann Madsen, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model, based on so-called object-composition filters, that uniformly integrates database-like features into an object-oriented language. The focus is on providing persistent dynamic data structures, data sharing, transactions, multiple views and associative access,

  3. A Bayesian Model of Biases in Artificial Language Learning: The Case of a Word-Order Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model of learning in a general type of artificial language-learning experiment in which learners are exposed to a mixture of grammars representing the variation present in real learners' input, particularly at times of language change. The modeling goal is to formalize and quantify hypothesized…

  4. Implications of the Declarative/Procedural Model for Improving Second Language Learning: The Role of Memory Enhancement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T.; Lovelett, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-01

    The declarative/procedural (DP) model posits that the learning, storage, and use of language critically depend on two learning and memory systems in the brain: declarative memory and procedural memory. Thus, on the basis of independent research on the memory systems, the model can generate specific and often novel predictions for language. Till…

  5. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  6. Creating shared mental models: The support of visual language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Renske B.; van den Broek, Egon; Gieskes, J.F.B.; Luo, Yuhua

    Cooperative design involves multiple stakeholders that often hold different ideas of the problem, the ways to solve it, and to its solutions (i.e., mental models; MM). These differences can result in miscommunication, misunderstanding, slower decision making processes, and less chance on cooperative

  7. Introducing the Collaborative Learning Modeling Language (ColeML)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    in this area, represented by, for example, the Workflow Management Coalition (Hollingsworth, 1995) and the very widespread standard Business Process Modeling and Notation (BPMN), has been criticized on the basis of research in knowledge work processes. Inspiration for ColeML is found in this research area...

  8. Shopping Behavior Recognition using a Language Modeling Analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Shan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic understanding and recognition of human shopping behavior has many potential applications, attracting an increasing interest inthe market- ing domain. The reliability and performance of the automatic recognition system is highly in uenced by the adopted theoretical model of behavior. In

  9. A MODELING AND SIMULATION LANGUAGE FOR BIOLOGICAL CELLS WITH COUPLED MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Glazier, James A

    2017-04-01

    Biological cells are the prototypical example of active matter. Cells sense and respond to mechanical, chemical and electrical environmental stimuli with a range of behaviors, including dynamic changes in morphology and mechanical properties, chemical uptake and secretion, cell differentiation, proliferation, death, and migration. Modeling and simulation of such dynamic phenomena poses a number of computational challenges. A modeling language describing cellular dynamics must naturally represent complex intra and extra-cellular spatial structures and coupled mechanical, chemical and electrical processes. Domain experts will find a modeling language most useful when it is based on concepts, terms and principles native to the problem domain. A compiler must then be able to generate an executable model from this physically motivated description. Finally, an executable model must efficiently calculate the time evolution of such dynamic and inhomogeneous phenomena. We present a spatial hybrid systems modeling language, compiler and mesh-free Lagrangian based simulation engine which will enable domain experts to define models using natural, biologically motivated constructs and to simulate time evolution of coupled cellular, mechanical and chemical processes acting on a time varying number of cells and their environment.

  10. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) Representation in Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Lechevalier, D; Ak, R; Ferguson, M; Law, K H; Lee, Y-T T; Rachuri, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes Gaussian process regression (GPR) models presented in predictive model markup language (PMML). PMML is an extensible-markup-language (XML) -based standard language used to represent data-mining and predictive analytic models, as well as pre- and post-processed data. The previous PMML version, PMML 4.2, did not provide capabilities for representing probabilistic (stochastic) machine-learning algorithms that are widely used for constructing predictive models taking the associated uncertainties into consideration. The newly released PMML version 4.3, which includes the GPR model, provides new features: confidence bounds and distribution for the predictive estimations. Both features are needed to establish the foundation for uncertainty quantification analysis. Among various probabilistic machine-learning algorithms, GPR has been widely used for approximating a target function because of its capability of representing complex input and output relationships without predefining a set of basis functions, and predicting a target output with uncertainty quantification. GPR is being employed to various manufacturing data-analytics applications, which necessitates representing this model in a standardized form for easy and rapid employment. In this paper, we present a GPR model and its representation in PMML. Furthermore, we demonstrate a prototype using a real data set in the manufacturing domain.

  11. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  12. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  13. From exemplar to grammar: a probabilistic analogy-based model of language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bod, Rens

    2009-07-01

    While rules and exemplars are usually viewed as opposites, this paper argues that they form end points of the same distribution. By representing both rules and exemplars as (partial) trees, we can take into account the fluid middle ground between the two extremes. This insight is the starting point for a new theory of language learning that is based on the following idea: If a language learner does not know which phrase-structure trees should be assigned to initial sentences, s/he allows (implicitly) for all possible trees and lets linguistic experience decide which is the "best" tree for each sentence. The best tree is obtained by maximizing "structural analogy" between a sentence and previous sentences, which is formalized by the most probable shortest combination of subtrees from all trees of previous sentences. Corpus-based experiments with this model on the Penn Treebank and the Childes database indicate that it can learn both exemplar-based and rule-based aspects of language, ranging from phrasal verbs to auxiliary fronting. By having learned the syntactic structures of sentences, we have also learned the grammar implicit in these structures, which can in turn be used to produce new sentences. We show that our model mimicks children's language development from item-based constructions to abstract constructions, and that the model can simulate some of the errors made by children in producing complex questions. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Development of the next generation code system as an engineering modeling language (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Uto, Nariaki; Kasahara, Naoto; Nagura, Fuminori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Ohira, Masanori; Kato, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    In the fast reactor development, numerical simulation using analytical codes plays an important role for complementing theory and experiment. It is necessary that the engineering models and analysis methods can be flexibly changed, because the phenamine to be investigated become more complicated due to the diversity of the needs for research. And, there are large problems in combining physical properties and engineering models in many different fields. In this study, the goal is to develop a flexible and general-purposive analysis system, in which the physical properties and engineering models are represented as a programming language or a diagrams that are easily understandable for humans and executable for computers. The authors named this concept the Engineering Modeling Language (EML). This report describes the result of the investigation for latest computer technologies and software development techniques which seem to be usable for a realization of the analysis code system for nuclear engineering as an EML. (author)

  15. Evaluation of PROforma as a language for implementing medical guidelines in a practical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earle Kenneth

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PROforma is one of several languages that allow clinical guidelines to be expressed in a computer-interpretable manner. How these languages should be compared, and what requirements they should meet, are questions that are being actively addressed by a community of interested researchers. Methods We have developed a system to allow hypertensive patients to be monitored and assessed without visiting their GPs (except in the most urgent cases. Blood pressure measurements are performed at the patients' pharmacies and a web-based system, created using PROforma, makes recommendations for continued monitoring, and/or changes in medication. The recommendations and measurements are transmitted electronically to a practitioner with authority to issue and change prescriptions. We evaluated the use of PROforma during the knowledge acquisition, analysis, design and implementation of this system. The analysis focuses on the logical adequacy, heuristic power, notational convenience, and explanation support provided by the PROforma language. Results PROforma proved adequate as a language for the implementation of the clinical reasoning required by this project. However a lack of notational convenience led us to use UML activity diagrams, rather than PROforma process descriptions, to create the models that were used during the knowledge acquisition and analysis phases of the project. These UML diagrams were translated into PROforma during the implementation of the project. Conclusion The experience accumulated during this study highlighted the importance of structure preserving design, that is to say that the models used in the design and implementation of a knowledge-based system should be structurally similar to those created during knowledge acquisition and analysis. Ideally the same language should be used for all of these models. This means that great importance has to be attached to the notational convenience of these languages, by

  16. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, MJ; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, SM; Kristensen, NR; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, MK; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, AC; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, JN; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, HB; Parra-Guillen, ZP; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, IF; Yvon, F; Milligan, PA; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  17. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  18. Pidgins and Creoles as Models of Language Change: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the interface between language change and Creole studies. Discusses the Language Bioprogram Hypothesis, the Creole continuum, Creoles and grammaticalization, theoretic syntax, creole prototypes, and second language acquisition and language change. (Author/VWL)

  19. Modeling Language and Cognition with Deep Unsupervised Learning:A Tutorial Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marco eZorzi; Marco eZorzi; Alberto eTestolin; Ivilin Peev Stoianov; Ivilin Peev Stoianov

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cog...

  20. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cog...