WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling high intensity

  1. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-03-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse "slice" model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP_summary.html.

  2. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand

  3. Beam dynamics in high intensity cyclotrons including neighboring bunch effects: Model, implementation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Yang (杨建俊

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Space-charge effects, being one of the most significant collective effects, play an important role in high intensity cyclotrons. However, for cyclotrons with small turn separation, other existing effects are of equal importance. Interactions of radially neighboring bunches are also present, but their combined effects have not yet been investigated in any great detail. In this paper, a new particle in the cell-based self-consistent numerical simulation model is presented for the first time. The model covers neighboring bunch effects and is implemented in the three-dimensional object-oriented parallel code OPAL-cycl, a flavor of the OPAL framework. We discuss this model together with its implementation and validation. Simulation results are presented from the PSI 590 MeV ring cyclotron in the context of the ongoing high intensity upgrade program, which aims to provide a beam power of 1.8 MW (CW at the target destination.

  4. Modelling stock order flows with non-homogeneous intensities from high-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.; Korolev, Victor Yu.; Zeifman, Alexander I.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Chertok, Andrey V.; Evstafyev, Artem I.; Korchagin, Alexander Yu.

    2013-10-01

    A micro-scale model is proposed for the evolution of such information system as the limit order book in financial markets. Within this model, the flows of orders (claims) are described by doubly stochastic Poisson processes taking account of the stochastic character of intensities of buy and sell orders that determine the price discovery mechanism. The proposed multiplicative model of stochastic intensities makes it possible to analyze the characteristics of the order flows as well as the instantaneous proportion of the forces of buyers and sellers, that is, the imbalance process, without modelling the external information background. The proposed model gives the opportunity to link the micro-scale (high-frequency) dynamics of the limit order book with the macro-scale models of stock price processes of the form of subordinated Wiener processes by means of limit theorems of probability theory and hence, to use the normal variance-mean mixture models of the corresponding heavy-tailed distributions. The approach can be useful in different areas with similar properties (e.g., in plasma physics).

  5. Discrete vortex model of a Helmholtz resonator subjected to high-intensity sound and grazing flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to study the acoustical response of a Helmholtz resonator as a duct-branched acoustic absorber subjected to both high-intensity sound and grazing flow. The present model is comprised of a discrete vortex model in combination with a one-dimensional duct sound propagation model. The present work is to study the overall effect of incident sound interacting with grazing flow but putting emphasis on the nonlinear or intermediate regime where the sound intensity has a marked or non-negligible influence on the acoustic behavior of the Helmholtz resonator. The numerical results reveal that the flow field around the orifice is dominated by the evolution of the vortex sheet and the flow pattern is influenced by the ratio of the orifice flow velocity to the grazing flow velocity. When the incident sound pressure is high or the resonance occurs, the resonator shows nonlinearity, i.e., the acoustic impedance and absorption coefficient vary not only with duct flow Mach number buy also with incident frequency and incident sound pressure level.

  6. Final Report for 'Modeling Electron Cloud Diagnostics for High-Intensity Proton Accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Electron clouds in accelerators such as the ILC degrade beam quality and limit operating efficiency. The need to mitigate electron clouds has a direct impact on the design and operation of these accelerators, translating into increased cost and reduced performance. Diagnostic techniques for measuring electron clouds in accelerating cavities are needed to provide an assessment of electron cloud evolution and mitigation. Accurate numerical modeling of these diagnostics is needed to validate the experimental techniques. In this Phase I, we developed detailed numerical models of microwave propagation through electron clouds in accelerating cavities with geometries relevant to existing and future high-intensity proton accelerators such as Project X and the ILC. Our numerical techniques and simulation results from the Phase I showed that there was a high probability of success in measuring both the evolution of electron clouds and the effects of non-uniform electron density distributions in Phase II.

  7. Modeling high-intensity pulsed electric field inactivation of a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliva-Fortuny, R; Bendicho-Porta, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-11-01

    The inactivation kinetics of a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (EC 3.1.1.3.) were studied in a simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields. Samples were subjected to electric field intensities ranging from 16.4 to 27.4 kV/cm for up to 314.5 micros, thus achieving a maximum inactivation of 62.1%. The suitability of describing experimental data using mechanistic first-order kinetics and an empirical model based on the Weibull distribution function is discussed. In addition, different mathematical expressions relating the residual activity values to field strength and treatment time are supplied. A first-order fractional conversion model predicted residual activity with good accuracy (A(f) = 1.018). A mechanistic insight of the model kinetics was that experimental values were the consequence of different structural organizations of the enzyme, with uneven resistance to the pulsed electric field treatments. The Weibull model was also useful in predicting the energy density necessary to achieve lipase inactivation.

  8. An Evaluation of Subseasonal Intensity Variation of the South Asian High in the CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, W.; Ren, X.

    2017-12-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) is a vital member among the Asian summer monsoon circulations in the upper troposphere located over the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas during boreal summer. This study presents an evaluation of the characteristics of SAH's subseasonal intensity variation simulated by 18 coupled models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is used on subseasonal anomalies in 100hPa geopotential height over 20°-40°N, 35°-110°E for June, July and August from 1979 to 2005. The first EOF mode from the ERA-Interim (denoted as observation) shows a monopole pattern capturing the strengthening/weakening of SAH. The power spectrum analysis of the corresponding principal component (PC1) time series shows a period about 10-30 days. In general, all the 18 coupled models can reproduce the monopole pattern and its subseasonal oscillation to a certain extent. The four well-simulated models are: ACCESS1-3, HadGEM2-CC, MRI-CGCM3 and BNU-ESM, which EOF1 show strong positive anomalies in the 100hPa geopotential height over the SAH's region and weak negative anomalies in their north side. Lead-lag regression shows that the evolution of the EOF1 from day -12 to +3 in the above four models is also reasonably simulated. In the observation, positive rainfall band moves northward from the equatorial Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengals and the Western North Pacific to the north of Indian Peninsula, south of Tibetan Plateau and Southeast China, accompanied by the increasing intensity of SAH. In the above four models, the northward movement of anomalous rainfall band can be well reproduced. In the observation, the spatial pattern of anomalies in integrated apparent heat source and integrated apparent moisture sink resemble that of rainfall, thus corresponding to anomalous condensation heat release. The anomalous heating stimulates positive height anomalies with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation to its

  9. Finite element modeling of heating phenomena of cracks excited by high-intensity ultrasonic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhao-Jiang; Zheng Jiang; Zhang Shu-Yi; Mi Xiao-Bing; Zheng Kai

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional thermo-mechanical coupled finite element model is built up to simulate the phenomena of dynamical contact and frictional heating of crack faces when the plate containing the crack is excited by high-intensity ultrasonic pulses. In the finite element model, the high-power ultrasonic transducer is modeled by using a piezoelectric thermal-analogy method, and the dynamical interaction between both crack faces is modeled using a contact-impact theory. In the simulations, the frictional heating taking place at the crack faces is quantitatively calculated by using finite element thermal-structural coupling analysis, especially, the influences of acoustic chaos to plate vibration and crack heating are calculated and analysed in detail. Meanwhile, the related ultrasonic infrared images are also obtained experimentally, and the theoretical simulation results are in agreement with that of the experiments. The results show that, by using the theoretical method, a good simulation of dynamic interaction and friction heating process of the crack faces under non-chaotic or chaotic sound excitation can be obtained

  10. High-intensity interval training in patients with coronary heart disease: Prescription models and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A B; Boidin, Maxime; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Gayda, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as an alternative and/or complementary exercise modality to continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET) in CHD patients. However, the literature contains descriptions of many HIIT protocols with different stage durations, nature of recovery and intensities. In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of validated HIIT protocols in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and how to prescribe and use them during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. We also compare the superior and/or equivalent short- and long-term effects of HIIT versus CAET on aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, and quality of life; their efficiency, safety, and tolerance; and exercise adherence. Short interval HIIT was found beneficial for CHD patients with lower aerobic fitness and would ideally be used in initiation and improvement stages. Medium and/or long interval HIIT protocols may be beneficial for CHD patients with higher aerobic fitness, and would be ideally used in the improvement and maintenance stages because of their high physiological stimulus. Finally, we propose progressive individualized models of HIIT programs (phase II to III) for patients with CHD and how to ideally use them according to the clinical status of patients and phase of the cardiac rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical and Physical Modeling of the Response of Resonator Liners to Intense Sound and High Speed Grazing Flow, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative research program is proposed that numerically and physically models the response of resonator liners to intense sound and high speed grazing flow. The...

  12. Technical study for inflector and central region of high intensity central region model cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hongjuan; Lu Yinlong; Zhang Tianjue; Li Zhenguo; Jia Xianlu; Guan Fengping; Wang Zhenhui; Lin Jun; Lin Yuzheng

    2008-01-01

    The central region model (CRM) cyclotron is the experimental platform for the key technology study of a high intensity beam cyclotron. In thia paper we introduce the spiral inflector and central region designed for the CRM cyclotron, including the physical design, the numerical control machining and the installation precision control techniques. The shape of electrodes is complex, and machining with a strict tolerance must be done by a numerical control machine tool with the number of its axles no less that 4. The electrodes of central region were finished by using 3-axle machine tools. The size of gaps between the ground and Dee tip is very important, a special device was made to guarantee the installation precision, and the error of gaps was controlled within ±0.05 mm. (authors)

  13. Exactly solvable Ogston model of gel electrophoresis. IX. Generalizing the lattice model to treat high field intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Michel G.; Slater, Gary W.

    2002-10-01

    Traditionally, the Ogston regime is studied solely in the limit of low field intensities. This explains why the theoretical discussion has focused until now on the relative roles of the fractional volume available to the analyte and the subtleties of the gel architecture. Over the past several years, we have developed a lattice model of gel electrophoresis that has allowed us to revisit the fundamental assumptions of the standard Ogston model. In particular, we demonstrated that the fractional free volume is not the relevant parameter for gel sieving. In this article, we continue the development of this model and we generalize our mathematical approach to treat nonvanishing electric field intensities. To do so, we must revisit the way biased random walks are normally modeled by stochastic processes. Straightforward generalizations based on standard Metropolis-like schemes fail at high field intensities. Moreover, our generalization requires the complete decoupling of the spatial directions parallel and perpendicular to the field direction. We show that our novel theoretical approach makes it possible to calculate exact mobilities in the presence of lattice obstacles. Several two-dimensional examples are then studied, including one that includes topological dead ends that act like traps. In the latter case, we recover results very similar to those reported by Serwer et al. [Biopolymers 29, 1863 (1990)] on the trapping electrophoresis of charged spheres in agarose gels. In the absence of such traps, the mobility is shown to be a very weak function of the electric field, thus validating the historical neglect of the field intensity in the development of obstruction models for the Ogston sieving regime of small analytes. Finally, we describe how the present model could be improved to treat more realistic cases and we discuss the problem of the field dependence of the diffusion coefficient during electrophoresis.

  14. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Eikelder, H. M. M.; Bošnački, D.; Elevelt, A.; Donato, K.; Di Tullio, A.; Breuer, B. J. T.; van Wijk, J. H.; van Dijk, E. V. M.; Modena, D.; Yeo, S. Y.; Grüll, H.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  15. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Eikelder, H M M; Bošnački, D; Breuer, B J T; Van Wijk, J H; Van Dijk, E V M; Modena, D; Yeo, S Y; Grüll, H; Elevelt, A; Donato, K; Di Tullio, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  16. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  17. High-intensity ultrasound production of Maillard reaction flavor compounds in a cysteine-xylose model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Olivia X H; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-09-01

    Application of high intensity ultrasound has shown potential in the production of Maillard reaction odor-active flavor compounds in model systems. The impact of initial pH, sonication duration, and ultrasound intensity on the production of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) by ultrasound processing in a cysteine-xylose model system were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a modified mathematical model. Generation of selected MRPs, 2-methylthiophene and tetramethyl pyrazine, was optimal at an initial pH of 6.00, accompanied with 78.1 min of processing at an ultrasound intensity of 19.8 W cm(-2). However, identification of volatiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that ultrasound-assisted Maillard reactions generated fewer sulfur-containing volatile flavor compounds as compared to conventional heat treatment of the model system. Likely reasons for this difference in flavor profile include the expulsion of H2S due to ultrasonic degassing and inefficient transmission of ultrasonic energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulating sub-daily Intensity-Frequency-Duration curves in Australia using a dynamical high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, Gabriel A.; White, Christopher J.; Remenyi, Tomas A.; Corney, Stuart P.; Fox-Hughes, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Climate change has the potential to significantly alter the characteristics of high-intensity, short-duration rainfall events, potentially leading to more severe and more frequent flash floods. Research has shown that future changes to such events could far exceed expectations based on temperature scaling and basic physical principles alone, but that computationally expensive convection-permitting models are required to accurately simulate sub-daily extreme rainfall events. It is therefore crucial to be able to model future changes to sub-daily duration extreme rainfall events as cost effectively as possible, especially in Australia where such information is scarce. In this study, we seek to determine what the shortest duration of extreme rainfall is that can be simulated by a less computationally expensive convection-parametrizing Regional Climate Model (RCM). We examine the ability of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM), a ∼10 km high-resolution convection-parametrizing RCM, to reproduce sub-daily Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IFD) curves corresponding to two long-term observational stations in the Australian island state of Tasmania, and examine the future model projections. We find that CCAM simulates observed extreme rainfall statistics well for 3-h durations and longer, challenging the current understanding that convection-permitting models are needed to accurately model sub-daily extreme rainfall events. Further, future projections from CCAM for the end of this Century show that extreme sub-daily rainfall intensities could increase by more than 15% per °C, far exceeding the 7% scaling estimate predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron vapour pressure relationship and the 5% scaling estimate recommended by the Australian Rainfall and Runoff guide.

  19. High Resolution Global Climate Modeling with GEOS-5: Intense Precipitation, Convection and Tropical Cyclones on Seasonal Time-Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, WilliamM.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the World Modeling Summit for Climate Prediction concluded that "climate modeling will need-and is ready-to move to fundamentally new high-resolution approaches to capitalize on the seamlessness of the weather-climate continuum." Following from this, experimentation with very high-resolution global climate modeling has gained enhanced priority within many modeling groups and agencies. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) has been enhanced to provide a capability for the execution at the finest horizontal resolutions POS,SIOle with a global climate model today. Using this high-resolution, non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5, we have developed a unique capability to explore the intersection of weather and climate within a seamless prediction system. Week-long weather experiments, to mUltiyear climate simulations at global resolutions ranging from 3.5- to 14-km have demonstrated the predictability of extreme events including severe storms along frontal systems, extra-tropical storms, and tropical cyclones. The primary benefits of high resolution global models will likely be in the tropics, with better predictions of the genesis stages of tropical cyclones and of the internal structure of their mature stages. Using satellite data we assess the accuracy of GEOS-5 in representing extreme weather phenomena, and their interaction within the global climate on seasonal time-scales. The impacts of convective parameterization and the frequency of coupling between the moist physics and dynamics are explored in terms of precipitation intensity and the representation of deep convection. We will also describe the seasonal variability of global tropical cyclone activity within a global climate model capable of representing the most intense category 5 hurricanes.

  20. Model Simulation of a Localized High Intensity Heat Source Interacting with Cooled Metal Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    primary concern is the calculation of temperature changes across the fuel-to-cladding gap in pins with fuel burnups that range from 60 - 10,900 MWd/MTM...this information to the program requires experimental or calculated data of typical heat intensities due to ’hot spots, in fuel elements. Fortunately...be calculated by multiplying these experimental contact conductances by estimated worst-case temperature distributions obtained from either accident

  1. A Low Mortality, High Morbidity Reduced Intensity Status Epilepticus (RISE Model of Epilepsy and Epileptogenesis in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Modebadze

    Full Text Available Animal models of acquired epilepsies aim to provide researchers with tools for use in understanding the processes underlying the acquisition, development and establishment of the disorder. Typically, following a systemic or local insult, vulnerable brain regions undergo a process leading to the development, over time, of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Many such models make use of a period of intense seizure activity or status epilepticus, and this may be associated with high mortality and/or global damage to large areas of the brain. These undesirable elements have driven improvements in the design of chronic epilepsy models, for example the lithium-pilocarpine epileptogenesis model. Here, we present an optimised model of chronic epilepsy that reduces mortality to 1% whilst retaining features of high epileptogenicity and development of spontaneous seizures. Using local field potential recordings from hippocampus in vitro as a probe, we show that the model does not result in significant loss of neuronal network function in area CA3 and, instead, subtle alterations in network dynamics appear during a process of epileptogenesis, which eventually leads to a chronic seizure state. The model's features of very low mortality and high morbidity in the absence of global neuronal damage offer the chance to explore the processes underlying epileptogenesis in detail, in a population of animals not defined by their resistance to seizures, whilst acknowledging and being driven by the 3Rs (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of animal use in scientific procedures principles.

  2. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Hae Ri; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

  3. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hae Ri; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

  4. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Dept. of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Department of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung 25457 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  6. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: A Novel Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Berry A, Capone F, Giorgio M, Pelicci P, de Kloet E, et al . 2007. Deletion of the life span determinant p66Shc prevents age-dependent increases in...in humans. Limitations to animal research must be recognized as well. Shanks et al (78) argue that animal models are not predictive of responses in...brain injury in animals to model mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in humans. Wahab et al (95) reported that HIFU can impair neural axonal

  7. Numerical Simulation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy with Volume Model of Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Ono, Kenji; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2010-03-01

    The development of the HIFU therapy for the deeply placed cancer has been desired. On problem is the displacement of the focal point due to the inhomogeneity of human body. The objectives are to realize the appropriate phase control of an array transducer and to support the preoperative planning of HIFU therapy by the computational prediction of treatment regions. Our approach is to solve the mass and momentum equations for mixture with the equation of state of media. The heat equation with a heat source of a viscous dissipation is solved to estimate the ablation region of tissue. The ablation, i.e., the heat denaturation of protein, is modeled as a phase transition by the phase field model. The HIFU therapy with a bowl-shape array transducer for a liver cancer is simulated. As the result with a phase control, we obtain a clear focus which is closer to a target point than the focus without a phase control, when the ultrasound propagates through lib bones. In addition, the development of the ablation region is reproduced numerically.

  8. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  9. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A.; Jovanovic, M.

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  10. Impact of an El Nino forcing on intense tropical cyclones in ensemble simulations of a high-resolution nonhydrostatic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y.; Kodama, C.; Masaki, S.; Nakano, M.; Nasuno, T.; Sugi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that the El Nino-Southern Oscillation affects TC activities over the western North Pacific, and intense TCs increases during El Nino events. A global warming had been on a hiatus since 2000's. The hiatus finished in 2013 and the global warming has been accelerated since 2014. In 2015, the number of category 4 or 5 tropical cyclones (TCs) in the northern hemisphere was beyond the previous record; and an extreme El Nino event was observed. In 1997, the most extreme El Nino event has been observed. An intense TC was defined as a TC whose minimum central sea-level pressure reaches 945 hPa or less. The numbers of the intense TC between June and October are 9 in 1997 and 10 in 2015, which is archived in a best-track dataset of Japan Meteorology Agency. The average of genesis number between 1979 and 2015 was about 5.60. In both years, more intense TCs occurred than the average as the previous studies showed. In the present study, we conducted two cases of ensemble simulations which were driven by sea surface temperature observed in 1997 and 2015. Those simulation spans are 5 months, from June to October. The number of ensemble is 50 for the each case. Ensemble members were generated by altering their start date by 6 hour between 00UTC June 1 and 18UTC May 19. A nonhydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model was used in those simulations; the horizontal grid spacing was 14-km; and a cumulus convective scheme was not used. A result of the simulation shows that the number of intense TCs varies among ensemble members for the each case; one of 50 members generated intense TC of 10 (12) in 2015's (1997's) simulation, and another member generated intense TC of 1 (3). This indicates a possibility that the number of intense TCs increases not only because of El Nino but also because of internal variation in response of atmosphere to El Nino.

  11. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Novotny

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26 and mdx mice (n = 22 were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34. Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12; however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03 and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03. These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  12. Effects of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation on bone mechanical properties and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Arias Moreno, Andrés J; van Rietbergen, Bert; Ter Hoeve, Natalie D; van Diest, Paul J; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for palliative treatment of bone pain. In this study, the effects of MR-HIFU ablation on bone mechanics and modeling were investigated. A total of 12 healthy rat femurs were ablated using 10 W for 46 ± 4 s per sonication with 4 sonications for each femur. At 7 days after treatments, all animals underwent MR and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Then, six animals were euthanized. At 1 month following ablations, the remaining six animals were scanned again with MR and SPECT/CT prior to euthanization. Thereafter, both the HIFU-treated and contralateral control bones of three animals from each time interval were processed for histology, whereas the remaining bones were subjected to micro-CT (μCT), three-point bending tests, and micro-finite element (micro-FE) analyses. At 7 days after HIFU ablations, edema formation around the treated bones coupled with bone marrow and cortical bone necrosis was observed on MRI and histological images. SPECT/CT and μCT images revealed presence of bone modeling through an increased uptake of (99m)Tc-MDP and formation of woven bone, respectively. At 31 days after ablations, as illustrated by imaging and histology, healing of the treated bone and the surrounding soft tissue was noted, marked by decreased in amount of tissue damage, formation of scar tissue, and sub-periosteal reaction. The results of three-point bending tests showed no significant differences in elastic stiffness, ultimate load, and yield load between the HIFU-treated and contralateral control bones at 7 days and 1 month after treatments. Similarly, the elastic stiffness and Young's moduli determined by micro-FE analyses at both time intervals were not statistically different. Multimodality imaging and histological data illustrated the presence of HIFU-induced bone damage at the cellular level, which activated the

  13. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for hydrological modelling of changes in flood risk during high-intensity rainfall events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    areas at different geographical locations within Europe, and to be applicable for cities with diverse morphologies and dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. Detailed data on urban land cover changes can be used to examine the diverse environmental impacts of past and present urbanisation......This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of medium resolution (MR) remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces (IS) for urban land cover change analysis. Landsat-based vegetation indices (VI) are found to provide fairly accurate measurements of sub-pixel imperviousness for urban......, including the importance of such changes for the exposure of cities towards the occurrence and impacts of climate extremes like high-intensity rainfall events....

  14. A clinical prediction model to identify patients at high risk of hemodynamic instability in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, Cristhian; Conroy, Bryan; Xu-Wilson, Minnan; Newth, Christopher; Inwald, David; Frassica, Joseph

    2017-11-20

    Early recognition and timely intervention are critical steps for the successful management of shock. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict requirement for hemodynamic intervention in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU); thus, clinicians can direct their care to patients likely to benefit from interventions to prevent further deterioration. The model proposed in this study was trained on a retrospective cohort of all patients admitted to a tertiary PICU at a single center in the United States, and validated on another retrospective cohort of all patients admitted to the PICU at a single center in the United Kingdom. The PICU clinical information system database (Intellivue Clinical Information Portfolio, Philips, UK) was interrogated to collect physiological and laboratory data. The model was trained using a variant of AdaBoost, which learned a set of low-dimensional classifiers, each of which was age adjusted. A total of 7052 patients admitted to the US PICU was used for training the model, and a total of 970 patients admitted to the UK PICU was used for validation. On the training/validation datasets, the model showed better prediction of hemodynamic intervention (area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) = 0.81/0.81) than systolic blood pressure-based (AUCROC = 0.58/0.67) or shock index-based (AUCROC = 0.63/0.65) models. Both of these models were age adjusted using the same classifier. The proposed model reliably predicted the need for hemodynamic intervention in PICU patients and provides better classification performance when compared to systolic blood pressure-based or shock index-based models alone. This model could readily be built into a clinical information system to identify patients at risk of hemodynamic instability.

  15. Re-examining data-intensive surface water models with high-resolution topography derived from unmanned aerial system photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Tyler, S.

    2017-12-01

    Small, unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are quickly becoming a cost-effective and easily deployable tool for high spatial resolution environmental sensing. Land surface studies from sUAS imagery have largely focused on accurate topographic mapping, quantifying geomorphologic changes, and classification/identification of vegetation, sediment, and water quality tracers. In this work, we explore a further application of sUAS-derived topographic mapping to a two-dimensional (2-d), depth-averaged river hydraulic model (Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphological Evolution of Channels, FaSTMECH) along a short, meandering reach of East River, Colorado. On August 8, 2016, we flew a sUAS as part of the Center for Transformative Environmental Monitoring Programs with a consumer-grade visible camera and created a digital elevation map ( 1.5 cm resolution; 5 cm accuracy; 500 m long river corridor) with Agisoft Photoscan software. With the elevation map, we created a longitudinal water surface elevation (WSE) profile by manually delineating the bank-water interface and river bathymetry by applying refraction corrections for more accurate water depth estimates, an area of ongoing research for shallow and clear river systems. We tested both uncorrected and refraction-corrected bathymetries with the steady-state, 2-d model, applying sensitivities for dissipation parameters (bed roughness and eddy characteristics). Model performance was judged from the WSE data and measured stream velocities. While the models converged, performance and insights from model output could be improved with better bed roughness characterization and additional water depth cross-validation for refraction corrections. Overall, this work shows the applicability of sUAS-derived products to a multidimensional river model, where bathymetric data of high resolution and accuracy are key model input requirements.

  16. Cyclotrons for high-intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the important physical and technological aspects of cyclotrons for the acceleration of high-intensity beams. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of beam loss mechanisms and extraction schemes.

  17. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type......±5%) and lean tissue mass (+1.4±0.5%) only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73±19% and 86±27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively. Conclusion High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...

  18. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-01-01

    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  19. Failure to Validate a Multivariable Clinical Prediction Model to Identify Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Patients at High Risk for Candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brian T; Ross, Rachael K; Roilides, Emmanuel; Palazzi, Debra L; Abzug, Mark J; Hoffman, Jill A; Berman, David M; Prasad, Priya A; Localio, A Russell; Steinbach, William J; Vogiatzi, Lambrini; Dutta, Ankhi; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    2016-12-01

    We attempted to validate a previously derived clinical prediction rule for candidemia in the pediatric intensive care unit. This multicenter case control study did not identify significant association of candidemia with most of the previously identified predictors. Additional study in larger cohorts with other predictor variables is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Frozen lattice and absorptive model for high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy: A comparison study in terms of integrated intensity and atomic column position measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alania, M; Lobato, I; Van Aert, S

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, both the frozen lattice (FL) and the absorptive potential (AP) approximation models are compared in terms of the integrated intensity and the precision with which atomic columns can be located from an image acquired using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The comparison is made for atoms of Cu, Ag, and Au. The integrated intensity is computed for both an isolated atomic column and an atomic column inside an FCC structure. The precision has been computed using the so-called Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), which provides a theoretical lower bound on the variance with which parameters can be estimated. It is shown that the AP model results into accurate measurements for the integrated intensity only for small detector ranges under relatively low angles and for small thicknesses. In terms of the attainable precision, both methods show similar results indicating picometer range precision under realistic experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the relative effectiveness of high-intensity and low-intensity models of behaviour change communication interventions for abortion care-seeking in Bihar and Jharkhand, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn; Pearson, Erin; Warvadekar, Janardan; Khan, Danish U; Batra, Sangeeta

    2017-02-24

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a high-intensity model (HIM) and a low-intensity model (LIM) of behaviour change communication interventions in Bihar and Jharkhand states of India designed to improve women's knowledge and usage of safe abortion services, as well as the dose effect of intervention exposure. We conducted two cross-sectional household surveys among married women aged 15-49 years in intervention and comparison districts. Difference-in-difference models were used to assess the efficacy of the intervention, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Although both intervention types improved abortion knowledge, the HIM intervention was more effective in improving comprehensive knowledge about abortion. In particular, there were improvements in knowledge on legality of abortion (AOR=2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9) and nearby sources of safe abortion care (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3). Higher level of exposure to abortion-related messages was related to more accurate knowledge about abortion within both intervention groups. Evidence was mixed on changes in abortion care-seeking behaviour. More work is needed to ensure that women seek safe abortion services in lieu of informal services that may be more likely to lead to postabortion complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, M.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.P. [Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.T. [Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  3. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h. An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS, an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05 and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  4. High Intensity Performance of the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L. A.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Roser, T.; Smith, K. S.; VanAsselt, W.; Zhang, S. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS provides 24 GeV protons for a multi-user program of fixed-target high energy physics experiments, such as the study of extremely rare Kaon decays. Up to 7 x 10 13 protons are slowly extracted over 2.2 seeds each 5.1 seconds. The muon storage ring of the g-2 experiment is supplied with bunches of 7 x 10 12 protons. Since the completion of the 1.9 GeV Booster synchrotron and installation of a new high-power rf system and transition jump system in the AGS various modes of operation have been explored to overcome space charge limits and beam instabilities at these extreme beam intensities. Experiments have been done using barrier cavities to enable accumulation of debunched beam in the AGS as a potential path to significantly higher intensities. We report on the present understanding of intensity limitations and prospects for overcoming them

  5. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bosgra, J.; Bosgra, J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly

  6. Development and internal validation of prediction models for biochemical failure and composite failure after focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound for local radiorecurrent prostate cancer : Presentation of risk scores for individual patient prognoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Max; Kanthabalan, Abi; Shah, Taimur T; McCartan, Neil; Moore, Caroline M.; Arya, Manit; van der Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Hindley, Richard G.; Emberton, Mark; Ahmed, Hashim U

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Patient selection for focal salvage remains difficult. Therefore, we developed and internally validated prediction models for biochemical failure (BF) and a composite endpoint (CE) following focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. Materials

  7. Intensive treatment models and coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence exists concerning the optimal treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and the effect on traditional outcomes. The aim was to investigate whether optimal treatment models have an effect on the level of use of coercion and on traditional outcomes...... and on client satisfaction. Integrated Treatment had fewer bed-days, more patients living in non-supervised accommodation, and better score on quality of life. No differences were found as to the use of coercion. This study adds to the evidence that intensified treatment models are superior to standard...

  8. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  9. Intensive treatment models and coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence exists concerning the optimal treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and the effect on traditional outcomes. The aim was to investigate whether optimal treatment models have an effect on the level of use of coercion and on traditional outcomes. ...

  10. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max, versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max and sedentary behaviour (SED, in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p=0.001, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.028, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.045. Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p=0.035, reduced plasma LDL (p=0.001, triglycerides (p=0.029, and total cholesterol (p=0.002, increased plasma albumin (p=0.047, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.005, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.048. These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  11. Funneling in LANL high intensity linac designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Subrata

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos design approach to Accelerator driven transmutation applications is based on high power proton linacs. Most of the accelerators that have been studied have one important element in common. That component is a funnel, where beams from two separate but identical front end linac systems are merged to form a collinear beam of twice the initial beam intensity. The nominal linac design for Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) consists of an ion source-injector/Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ)/Drift Tube Linac (DTL) combination operating at 350 MHz. The output beam at 20 MeV from each of the DTLs is then funneled to a single high energy linac operating at 700 MHz which accelerates the beam to 800 MeV. In this paper, we present the rationale behind the choice of funneling to achieve higher beam intensity, a beam dynamics design, and simulation results through the funnel section, together with the present experimental status of funneling

  12. Funneling in LANL high intensity linac designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos design approach to Accelerator driven transmutation applications is based on high power proton linacs. Most of the accelerators that have been studied have one important element in common. That component is a funnel, where beams from two separate but identical front end linac systems are merged to form a collinear beam of twice the initial beam intensity. The nominal linac design for Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) consists of an ion source-injector/Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ)/Drift Tube Linac (DTL) combination operating at 350 MHz. The output beam at 20 MeV from each of the DTLs is then funneled to a single high energy linac operating at 700 MHz which achieve higher beam intensity, a beam dynamics design, and simulation results through the funnel section, together with the present experimental status of funneling

  13. ARRONAX, a high intensity cyclotron in Nantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Guertin, A.; Martino, J. [Nantes Univ., SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 (France); Barbet, J.; Chatal, J.F. [Nantes Univ., Dept. de Recherche en Cancerologie, Inserm, U601, 44 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A cyclotron named ARRONAX is being built in Nantes (France). It is mainly devoted to radiochemistry and nuclear medicine research and will be operational during the last quarter of 2008. This machine will accelerate both protons and {alpha}-particles at high energy (up to 70 MeV) and high intensity (2 simultaneous proton beams with intensity up to 350 {mu}A). In nuclear medicine, these characteristics will allow the cyclotron to produce a large variety of radionuclides on a regular schedule and in sufficient amount to perform clinical trials. A priority list of 12 radioisotopes, which contains isotopes for therapeutic use as well as for PET imaging, has been established by an international scientific committee. In radiochemistry, a vertical pulsed {alpha}-beam will allow fundamental studies of radiolysis in aqueous media, which is of great interest for radiobiology and for nuclear waste management. (authors)

  14. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Sant’Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Cunha, Amanda Carneiro da; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Marquezan, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated ...

  15. The high intensity neutron source FRANZ

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Frankfurt neutron source of Stern Gerlach Zentrum FRANZ is currently under construction at the University of Frankfurt. At FRANZ, a high intensity neutron beam in the keV energy region will be produced by bombarding a $^7$Li target with a proton beam of several mA. These unprecedented high neutron fluxes will allow a number of neutron induced cross section measurements for the first time. Measurements can be performed by the time-of-flight and by the activation technique.

  16. Effects of High-Intensity Swimming on Lung Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in a Murine Model of DEP-Induced Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo C M Ávila

    Full Text Available Studies have reported that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs induces lung inflammation and increases oxidative stress, and both effects are susceptible to changes via regular aerobic exercise in rehabilitation programs. However, the effects of exercise on lungs exposed to DEP after the cessation of exercise are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity swimming on lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to DEP concomitantly and after exercise cessation. Male Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: Control (n = 12, Swimming (30 min/day (n = 8, DEP (3 mg/mL-10 μL/mouse (n = 9 and DEP+Swimming (n = 8. The high-intensity swimming was characterized by an increase in blood lactate levels greater than 1 mmoL/L between 10th and 30th minutes of exercise. Twenty-four hours after the final exposure to DEP, the anesthetized mice were euthanized, and we counted the number of total and differential inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF, measured the lung homogenate levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, INF-ϫ, IL-10, and IL-1ra using ELISA, and measured the levels of glutathione, non-protein thiols (GSH-t and NPSH and the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the lung. Swimming sessions decreased the number of total cells (p<0.001, neutrophils and lymphocytes (p<0.001; p<0.05 in the BALF, as well as lung levels of IL-1β (p = 0.002, TNF-α (p = 0.003, IL-6 (p = 0.0001 and IFN-ϫ (p = 0.0001. However, the levels of IL-10 (p = 0.01 and IL-1ra (p = 0.0002 increased in the swimming groups compared with the control groups, as did the CAT lung levels (p = 0.0001. Simultaneously, swimming resulted in an increase in the GSH-t and NPSH lung levels in the DEP group (p = 0.0001 and p<0.002. We concluded that in this experimental model, the high-intensity swimming sessions decreased the lung inflammation and oxidative stress status during DEP-induced lung

  17. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  18. Design of high intensity laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Jun; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Momota, Sadao; Shibuya, Shinji; Takeuchi, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) is the method that can extract intense and highly charged ions from laser ablation plasma. This DPIS can replace traditional ion sources such as ECR and EIBS in cancer therapy instrument and other instruments for research purpose because of its smaller size and easier operation. In this work, we report design of the laser ion source for DPIS that has been intended to use for practical application of heavy-ion accelerator. Special attention is paid on mechanism to supply heavy-ion beams stably with long mean time between maintenance. (author)

  19. High-intensity, focused ultrasonic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1988-01-01

    machines marketed by companies in Germany and France, in particular. Two main types of ESWL systems are prevailing, the spark gap-based and the piezoelectric disk-based systems. This paper is introduced by a brief reconsideration of the features of pressure waves in water produced by an electrical...... distribution, etc. involving nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption in the high-intensity focused ultrasonic fields produced by an ellipsoid as well as a spherical cap focusing geometry. Data from the development of an ESWL of the piezoelectric disk type are reported including demands to transducers...

  20. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  1. Resolving Tropical Cyclone Intensity in Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. A.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, global weather forecast models and global climate models have begun to depict intense tropical cyclones, even up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. In light of the limitation of horizontal resolution in such models, the author performs calculations, using the extended Best Track data for Atlantic tropical cyclones, to estimate the ability of models with differing grid spacing to represent Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity statistically. Results indicate that, under optimistic assumptions, models with horizontal grid spacing of one fourth degree or coarser should not produce a realistic number of category 4 and 5 storms unless there are errors in spatial attributes of the wind field. Furthermore, the case of Irma (2017) is used to demonstrate the importance of a realistic depiction of angular momentum and to motivate the use of angular momentum in model evaluation.

  2. Forward modeling of gyrosynchrotron intensity perturbations by sausage modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznikova, V. E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Antolin, P.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the observable radio signatures of the fast sausage standing wave, we examine gyrosynchrotron (GS) emission modulation using a linear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and instrumental resolution on perturbations of the GS intensity are analyzed for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was unimportant. Our finding contradicts previous predictions made with simpler models: an in-phase variation of intensity between low (f < f peak ) and high (f > f peak ) frequencies is found for the low-density model and an anti-phase variation for the base model in the case of a viewing angle of 45°. The spatially inhomogeneous character of the oscillating emission source and the spatial resolution of the model are found to have a significant effect on the resulting intensity.

  3. Differential Effect of Soy Isoflavones in Enhancing High Intensity Radiotherapy and Protecting Lung Tissue in a Pre-Clinical Model of Lung Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Gilda G.; Singh-Gupta, Vinita; Hoogstra, David J.; Abernathy, Lisa; Rakowski, Joseph; Yunker, Christopher K.; Rothstein, Shoshana E.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Gadgeel, Shirish; Konski, Andre A.; Lonardo, Fulvio; Joiner, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy of locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer is limited by radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis. We have further investigated the role of soy isoflavones to improve the effect of a high intensity radiation and reduce lung damage in a pre-clinical lung tumor model. Methods Human A549 NSCLC cells were injected i.v. in nude mice to generate a large tumor burden in the lungs. Mice were treated with lung irradiation at 10 Gy and with oral soy. The therapy effect on the tumor cells and surrounding lung tissue was analyzed on lung sections stained with H&E, Ki-67 and Masson’s Trichrome. Pneumonitis and vascular damage were evaluated by measurements of alveolar septa and immunofluorescent staining of vessel walls. Results Combined soy and radiation caused a significantly stronger inhibition of tumor progression compared to each modality alone in contrast to large invasive tumor nodules seen in control mice. At the same time, soy reduced radiation injury in lung tissue by decreasing pneumonitis, fibrosis and protecting alveolar septa, bronchioles and vessels. Conclusions These studies demonstrate a differential effect of soy isoflavones on augmenting tumor destruction induced by radiation while radioprotecting normal lung tissue and support using soy to alleviate radiotoxicity in lung cancer. PMID:24021346

  4. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone: evaluation of acute findings with MR and CT imaging in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknor, Matthew D; Rieke, Viola; Do, Loi; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M; Saeed, Maythem

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate hyperacute (guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) in a swine bone model as a function of sonication number and energy. Experimental procedures received approval from the local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. MRgHIFU was used to create distal and proximal ablations in the right femur of eight pigs. Each target was dosed with four or six sonications within similar volumes. The energy dosed to the distal target was higher (419 ± 19 J) than the proximal target (324 ± 17 J). The targeted femur and contralateral control were imaged before and after ablation using MR at 3T. Qualitative changes in signal on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and T1-weighted postcontrast images were assessed. Ablation dimensions were calculated from postcontrast MRI. The 64-slice CT images were also obtained before and after ablation and qualitative changes were assessed. MRgHIFU bone ablation size measured on average 8.5 × 21.1 × 16.2 mm (transverse × craniocaudal × anteroposterior). Interestingly, within similar prescribed volumes, increasing the number of sonications from 4 to 6 increased the depth of the intramedullary hypoenhanced zone from 2.9 mm to 6.5 mm (P bone. Unlike CT, T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced MR demonstrated the hyperacute structural changes in the femur and surrounding soft tissue. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  6. High-intensity deuteron linear accelerator (FMIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm 3 at a neutron flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s, and 500 cm 3 at a flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10 to 20 years of operation

  7. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Cunha, Amanda Carneiro da; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Marquezan, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated to orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study is to discuss HILT applications in orthodontic treatment. This study describes the use of HILT in surgical treatments such as gingivectomy, ulotomy, ulectomy, fiberotomy, labial and lingual frenectomies, as well as hard tissue and other dental restorative materials applications. Despite the many applications for lasers in Orthodontics, they are still underused by Brazilian practitioners. However, it is quite likely that this demand will increase over the next years - following the trend in the USA, where laser therapies are more widely used.

  8. A High Intensity Hadron Facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    We have present one of several possibilities for the evolution of the AGS complex into a high intensity hadron facility. One could consider other alternatives, such as using the AGS as the Collector and constructing a new 9-30 GeV machine. We believe the most responsible scenario must minimize the cost and downtime to the ongoing physics program. With a stepwise approach, starting with the Booster, the physics program can evolve without a single major commitment in funds. At each step an evaluation of the funds versus physics merit can be made. As a final aside, each upgrade at the AGS and Booster is presently being implemented to support an interleaved operation of both protons and ions. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  9. The Adolescent Intensive Management Team: an intensive outreach mental health service for high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assan, Ben; Burchell, Peter; Chia, Andrew; Coffey, Catherine; Floreani, Sophie; Weir, Jennifer; Hammond, Sabine Wingenfeld; Woods, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the Adolescent Intensive Management (AIM) team at the Austin Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS), a unique model of intensive outreach service with high-risk and difficult-to-engage adolescents, and describe the profile of clients referred to it. This study used a retrospective review of clients' data, collected through file audit, over a 12-month period. The result of the study showed that a 100% retention rate of adolescents with complex social, emotional and mental health needs is possible in a flexible and multi-system approach to service provision. Clients referred to the CAMHS' AIM team displayed a pattern of multiple risk factors and comorbidities. Low caseload of 8-10 clients per clinician allowed flexibility and a level of intensity to make any necessary changes in service provision to better suit the client's needs. The majority of clients showed improvement in functioning following intervention by the team.

  10. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Logani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform.

  11. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, T.R.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo-Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrzycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T.Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López-Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L.J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J.J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J.S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  12. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  13. The effects of a 2 week modified high intensity interval training program on the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, N; Kenno, K A; Milne, K J

    2014-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) induces similar metabolic adaptations to traditional steady state aerobic exercise training. Until recently, most HIIT studies have examined maximum efforts in healthy populations. The current study aimed to examine the effects of a 2 week modified HIIT program on the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). It was hypothesized that HIIT would improve HOMA-IR. Nine individuals with T2D (age=40.2±9.7 y; BMI=33.9±5.3; fasting plasma glucose [FPG]=8.7±2.9 mmol/L; HbA1C=7.3±1.2%; [mean±SD]) performed 6 individualized training sessions of HIIT (4x30 seconds at 100% of estimated maximum workload followed by 4 minutes of active rest) over 2 weeks. HOMA-IR was calculated from FPG and serum insulin and compared against a prior 2 week baseline period. Blood glucose was reduced immediately after each HIIT session (PHOMA-IR were unchanged after training. However, 6 of the 9 individuals exhibited reduced HOMA-IR values after the training period and there was a significant negative correlation between HOMA-IR value prior to training and change in HOMA-IR after HIIT. These observations tend to support the positive health benefits of HITT for individuals with T2D reported in recently published data using a modified HIIT protocol. However, they suggest that the magnitude of the disease should be assessed when examining the effects of exercise interventions in individuals with T2D.

  14. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franzotti Sant’Anna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated to orthodontic treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to discuss HILT applications in orthodontic treatment. Methods: This study describes the use of HILT in surgical treatments such as gingivectomy, ulotomy, ulectomy, fiberotomy, labial and lingual frenectomies, as well as hard tissue and other dental restorative materials applications. Conclusion: Despite the many applications for lasers in Orthodontics, they are still underused by Brazilian practitioners. However, it is quite likely that this demand will increase over the next years - following the trend in the USA, where laser therapies are more widely used.

  15. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Edgecock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ^{+} and μ^{-} beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  16. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  17. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces performance and metabolic adaptations that resemble 'all-out' sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ˟ 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ˟ 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key pointsGiven the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations.The results demonstrate that a practical low-volume HIT program is effective for improving metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble many of the same performance gains occurred in all-out SIT protocol.

  18. A Statistical Model for Energy Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaneh Issapour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach to improve scientific literacy in regards to global warming and climate change is using a simulation as part of a science education course. The simulation needs to employ scientific analysis of actual data from internationally accepted and reputable databases to demonstrate the reality of the current climate change situation. One of the most important criteria for using a simulation in a science education course is the fidelity of the model. The realism of the events and consequences modeled in the simulation is significant as well. Therefore, all underlying equations and algorithms used in the simulation must have real-world scientific basis. The "Energy Choices" simulation is one such simulation. The focus of this paper is the development of a mathematical model for "Energy Intensity" as a part of the overall system dynamics in "Energy Choices" simulation. This model will define the "Energy Intensity" as a function of other independent variables that can be manipulated by users of the simulation. The relationship discovered by this research will be applied to an algorithm in the "Energy Choices" simulation.

  19. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.; Shanks, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Miscellaneous laboratory tests (most of them on cyanide residues) were undertaken to supplement on-site pilot-plant work on wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Initially, the main concern was with blockage of the matrix, and consideration was given to the use of a reverse-flushing system. The laboratory tests on this system were encouraging, but they were not of sufficiently long duration to be conclusive. The velocity of the pulp through the matrix is important, because it determines the capacity of the separator and the recovery obtainable. Of almost equal importance is the magnetic load, which affects the velocity of the pulp and the recovery. Typically, a recovery of 51 per cent of the uranium was reduced to one of 40 per cent as the magnetic load was increased from 25 to 100 g/l, while the pulp velocity decreased from 62 to 36 mm/s. There was some indication that, for the same pulp velocity, lower recoveries are obtained when free-fall feeding is used. Some benefit was observed in the application of WHIMS to coarsely ground ore; from a Blyvooruitzicht rod-mill product, 25 per cent of the total uranium was recovered when only 29 per cent of the rod-mill product (the finest portion) was treated. A similar recovery was made from 43 per cent of the rod-mill product from Stilfontein; a second stage of treatment after regrinding raised the overall recovery of uranium to 76,4 per cent. Recoveries of 55 and 42 per cent of the uranium were obtained in tests on two flotation tailings from Free State Geduld. In a determination of the mass magnetic susceptibilities of the constituents in a typical concentrate obtained by WHIMS, it was found that some 20 per cent of the magnetic product had a susceptibility of less than 5,4 X 10 -6 e.m.u. but contained 38 per cent of the uranium recovered by WHIMS. A few tests were conducted on different types of matrix. A matrix of spaced horizontal rods is recommended for possible future consideration [af

  20. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  1. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  2. Economies of scale in British intensive care units and combined intensive care/high dependency units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philip; Rapoport, John; Edbrooke, David

    2004-04-01

    To estimate the relationship between size of intensive care unit and combined intensive care/high dependency units and average costs per patient day. Retrospective data analysis. Multiple regression of average costs on critical care unit size, controlling for teaching status, type of unit, occupancy rate and average length of stay. Seventy-two United Kingdom adult intensive care and combined intensive care/high dependency units submitting expenditure data for the financial year 2000-2001 as part of the Critical Care National Cost Block Programme. None. The main outcome measures were total cost per patient day and the following components: staffing cost, consumables cost and clinical support services costs. Nursing Whole Time Equivalents per patient day were recorded. The unit size variable has a negative and statistically significant ( peconomies of scale in planning intensive care and combined intensive care/high dependency units.

  3. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerigk, F.

    2006-01-01

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  4. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F.

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  5. Effects of High-Intensity Swimming on Lung Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in a Murine Model of DEP-Induced Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Leonardo C M; Bruggemann, Thayse R; Bobinski, Franciane; da Silva, Morgana Duarte; Oliveira, Regiane Carvalho; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; de Souza, Luiz Felipe; Dafre, Alcir; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Bonorino, Kelly Cattelan; Hizume Kunzler, Deborah de C

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) induces lung inflammation and increases oxidative stress, and both effects are susceptible to changes via regular aerobic exercise in rehabilitation programs. However, the effects of exercise on lungs exposed to DEP after the cessation of exercise are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity swimming on lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to DEP concomitantly and after exercise cessation. Male Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: Control (n = 12), Swimming (30 min/day) (n = 8), DEP (3 mg/mL-10 μL/mouse) (n = 9) and DEP+Swimming (n = 8). The high-intensity swimming was characterized by an increase in blood lactate levels greater than 1 mmoL/L between 10th and 30th minutes of exercise. Twenty-four hours after the final exposure to DEP, the anesthetized mice were euthanized, and we counted the number of total and differential inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), measured the lung homogenate levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, INF-ϫ, IL-10, and IL-1ra using ELISA, and measured the levels of glutathione, non-protein thiols (GSH-t and NPSH) and the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the lung. Swimming sessions decreased the number of total cells (pswimming groups compared with the control groups, as did the CAT lung levels (p = 0.0001). Simultaneously, swimming resulted in an increase in the GSH-t and NPSH lung levels in the DEP group (p = 0.0001 and pswimming sessions decreased the lung inflammation and oxidative stress status during DEP-induced lung inflammation in mice.

  6. Is high-intensity exercise better than moderate-intensity exercise for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, P

    2013-11-01

    This viewpoint debates the state-of-the-art research focusing on the optimal intensity of the exercise programs for inducing a sustained weight or fat-mass loss in overweight/obese people. In our demanding society, the most attractive messages in the popular press are those promising the best results in a short time. This might explain the emphasis given by media to those scientific articles that report the efficacy on weight loss of exercise programs by their shorter duration and higher intensity. However, in the literature on overweight or obese people, there is little conclusive evidence for more favorable effects with high-intensity training than with continuous moderate-intensity exercise on body weight or fat mass loss. Since both exercise protocols have been demonstrated as useful to reduce body weight, the decision on the intensity of exercise prescription should be individualized and based on outcomes different from fat or weight loss. In this regard, there are pro and contra arguments for the prescription of high-intensity aerobic exercise in obese people. Among the pro arguments, is the demonstration that, in several studies, high-intensity training appears to induce superior improvements in aerobic fitness. Among the contra arguments to prescribe high-intensity exercise is the demonstration that prescribing a higher-intensity exercise decreases adherence and results in the completion of less exercise. Thus, a successful exercise program should be proposed at a moderate intensity and a low perceived effort because obese subjects who have low self-efficacy, poor mood status, and are not familiar with high-intensity workouts could easily drop out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of high intensity beam handling system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed the new counter experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS) in order to handle high intensity primary proton beams of up to 1x10 3 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1x10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the construction of the new hall. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beams will be reported. (author)

  8. Intensity ratio measurements for density sensitive lines of highly charged Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Safdar, E-mail: safdaruetian@gmail.com; Shimizu, Erina [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University (Japan); Hara, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Tetsuya [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI) (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: n-nakamu@ils.uec.ac.jp [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Intensity ratio of density sensitive emission lines emitted from Fe ions in the extreme ultraviolet region is important for astrophysics applications. We report high-resolution intensity ratio measurements for Fe ions performed at Tokyo EBIT laboratory by employing a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer. The experimental intensity ratios of Fe X and Fe XII are plotted as a function of electron density for different electron beam currents. The experimental results are compared with the predicted intensity ratios from the model calculations.

  9. Periods of High Intensity Solar Proton Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Thomas M.; Adams, James H.; Dietrich, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis is presented for times during a space mission that specified solar proton flux levels are exceeded. This includes both total time and continuous time periods during missions. Results for the solar maximum and solar minimum phases of the solar cycle are presented and compared for a broad range of proton energies and shielding levels. This type of approach is more amenable to reliability analysis for spacecraft systems and instrumentation than standard statistical models.

  10. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, Elena A., E-mail: kayee@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Gutta, Narendra Babu, E-mail: gnbabu.aiims@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien, E-mail: monettes@mskcc.org [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Gulati, Amitabh, E-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org; Loh, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffreyloh@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesiology-Critical Care (United States); Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan, E-mail: srimaths@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Ezell, Paula C., E-mail: paula.ezell@intusurg.com [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerj@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org; Maybody, Majid, E-mail: maybodym@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  11. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra

  12. Final focus system for high intensity beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Henestroza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The neutralized transport experiment (NTX at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final-focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final-focus scenario in a heavy ion fusion driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r_{s} at a given distance (f from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  13. High harmonic generation in H and HD by intense femtosecond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... We have argued that for these conditions the harmonic generation due to the transitions in the electronic ... (XUV) or soft X-ray range and generation of very high-energy attosecond (as) pulses have been widely ... for different intensities and wavelengths of linearly polarized intense short laser pulses.

  14. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  15. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  16. ORBIT : BEAM DYNAMICS CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH - INTENSITY RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLMES, J.A.; DANILOV, V.; GALAMBOS, J.; SHISHLO, A.; COUSINEAU, S.; CHOU, W.; MICHELOTTI, L.; OSTIGUY, F.; WEI, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK the introduction of a treatment magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  17. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  18. Apparatus for controlled mixing in a high intensity mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, Z.; Gupta, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for controlled mixing of a mixable material in a high intensity mixer. The system enables instantaneous, precise and continual monitoring of a batch in a high intensity mixer which heretofore could not be achieved. The process comprises the steps of feeding a batch of material into a high intensity mixer, agitating the batch in the mixer, monitoring batch temperature separately from mixer temperature and discharging the batch from the mixer when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level. The apparatus includes means for monitoring batch temperature in a high intensity mixer separately from mixer temperature, and means responsive to the batch temperature to discharge the batch when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level

  19. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  20. Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-05-01

    This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons.

  1. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  2. High-Power, High-Intensity Laser Propagation and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Turbulence leads to an increase in spreading of the laser beam spot size, sR . In addition, turbulence leads to wandering of the laser beam centroid... SR is the increase in spot size (spreading), where  /)( sw RRR  . x R Rwander RST yspot size 20 Figure 13 shows the laser intensity...Ting and G. Joyce, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2146 (1988). 55. T.M. Antonsen and P. Mora , Phys. Fluids B5, 1440 (1993). 56. P. Sprangle, J. Krall

  3. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 {pi} mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  4. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) electromagnetic noise. Initially, the diode detector output signal could not be recorded due to the high noise level persisting in the ambiance. It was found that the HPM pulse can be ...

  5. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) ...

  6. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator. (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting– receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few ...

  7. Kaon physics with a high-intensity proton driver

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, A; Ceccucci, Augusto; Chizhov, M V; D'Ambrosio, G; Dorokhov, A E; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Gómez, M E; Hurth, Tobias; Isidori, Gino; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lola, S; Zuber, K

    2004-01-01

    We study opportunities for future high-precision experiments in kaon physics using a high-intensity proton driver, which could be part of the front-end of a muon storage ring complex. We discuss in particular the rare decays $K_L\\to\\pi^0\

  8. Restoration of MRI data for intensity non-uniformities using local high order intensity statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidemetriou, Stathis; Studholme, Colin; Mueller, Susanne; Weiner, Michael; Schuff, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    MRI at high magnetic fields (>3.0 T) is complicated by strong inhomogeneous radio-frequency fields, sometimes termed the “bias field”. These lead to non-biological intensity non-uniformities across the image. They can complicate further image analysis such as registration and tissue segmentation. Existing methods for intensity uniformity restoration have been optimized for 1.5 T, but they are less effective for 3.0 T MRI, and not at all satisfactory for higher fields. Also, many of the existing restoration algorithms require a brain template or use a prior atlas, which can restrict their practicalities. In this study an effective intensity uniformity restoration algorithm has been developed based on non-parametric statistics of high order local intensity co-occurrences. These statistics are restored with a non-stationary Wiener filter. The algorithm also assumes a smooth non-uniformity and is stable. It does not require a prior atlas and is robust to variations in anatomy. In geriatric brain imaging it is robust to variations such as enlarged ventricles and low contrast to noise ratio. The co-occurrence statistics improve robustness to whole head images with pronounced non-uniformities present in high field acquisitions. Its significantly improved performance and lower time requirements have been demonstrated by comparing it to the very commonly used N3 algorithm on BrainWeb MR simulator images as well as on real 4 T human head images. PMID:18621568

  9. The generation of high-quality, intense ion beams by ultra-intense lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, M; Audebert, Patrick; Blazevic, A; Brambrink, E; Cowan, T E; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, J C; Geissel, M; Hegelich, M; Karsch, S; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J; Ruhl, H; Schlegel, T; Stephens, R B

    2002-01-01

    Intense beams of protons and heavy ions have been observed in ultra-intense laser-solid interaction experiments. Thereby, a considerable fraction of the laser energy is transferred to collimated beams of energetic ions (e.g. up to 50 MeV protons; 100 MeV fluorine), which makes these beams highly interesting for various applications. Experimental results indicate a very short-pulse duration and an excellent beam quality, leading to beam intensities in the TW range. To characterize the beam quality and its dependence on laser parameters and target conditions we performed experiments using the 100 TW laser system at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses at the Ecole Polytechnique, France, with focused intensities exceeding 10 sup 1 sup 9 W cm sup - sup 2. We found a strong dependence on the target rear surface conditions allowing to tailor the ion beam by an appropriate target design. We also succeeded in the generation of heavy ion beams by suppressing the proton amount at the target surface. We wi...

  10. High-intensity light-emitting diode vs fluorescent tubes for intensive phototherapy in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbiny, Hanan S; Youssef, Doaa M; Sherbini, Ahmad S; El-Behedy, Rabab; Sherief, Laila M

    2016-05-01

    Special blue fluorescent tubes are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) as the most effective light source for lowering serum bilirubin. A high-intensity light-emitting diode ('super LED') could render intensive phototherapy more effective than the above conventional methods. This study compared the efficacy and safety of a high-intensity light-emitting diode bed vs conventional intensive phototherapy with triple fluorescent tube units as a rescue treatment for severe unconjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. This was a randomised, prospective trial. Two hundred jaundiced neonates ≥ 35 weeks gestation who met the criteria for intensive phototherapy as per AAP guidelines were randomly assigned to be treated either with triple fluorescent tube units (group 1, n = 100) or a super LED bed (group 2, n = 100). The outcome was the avoidance of exchange transfusion by successful control of hyperbilirubinaemia. Statistically significant higher success rates of intensive phototherapy were achieved among neonates treated with super LED (group 2) than in those treated conventionally (group 1) (87% vs 64%, P = 0.003). Significantly higher 'bilirubin decline' rates were reported in both haemolytic and non-haemolytic subgroups treated with the super LED bed compared with a similar sub-population in the conventionally treated group. Comparable numbers of neonates in both groups developed rebound jaundice (8% vs 10% of groups 1 and 2, respectively). Side-effects were mild in both groups, but higher rates of hyperthermia (12% vs 0%, P = 0.03), dehydration (8% vs 2%, P = 0.26) and skin rash (39% vs 1%, P = 0.002) were reported in the fluorescent tubes-treated group compared with the LED group. Super LED is a safe rescue treatment for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and its implementation may reduce the need for exchange transfusion.

  11. Design alternatives for beam halo monitors in high intensity accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, H; Corsini, R; Lefèvre, T; Schulte, Daniel; Tecker, F A; Welsch, C P

    2005-01-01

    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Optical transition radiation (OTR) provides an interesting opportunity for linear real-time measurements of the transverse beam profile with a resolution which has been so far at best in the some μm range. However, the dynamic range of standard OTR systems is typically limited and needs to be improved for its application for halo measurements. In this contribution, the existing OTR system as it is installed in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is analyzed and the contribution of each component to the final image quality discussed. Finally, possible halo measurement techniques based on OTR are pres...

  12. Production and Studies of Photocathodes for High Intensity Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H

    2000-01-01

    For short, high-intensity electron bunches, alkali-tellurides have proved to be a reliable photo-cathode material. Measurements of lifetimes in an rf gun of the CLIC Test Facility II at field strengths greater than 100 MV/m are presented. Before and after using them in this gun, the spectral response of the CS-Te and Rb-Te cathodes were determined with the help of an optical parametric oscillator. The behaviour of both materials can be described by Spicer's 3-step model. Whereas during the use the threshold for photo-emission in Cs-Te was shifted to higher proton energies, that of Rb-Te did not change. Our latest investigations on the stoichiometric ratio of the components are shown. The preparation of the photo-cathodes was monitored with 320 nm wavelength light , with the aim of improving the measurement sensitivity. The latest results on the protection of Cs-Te cathode surfaces with CsBr against pollution are summarized. New investigations on high mean current production are presented.,

  13. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bakule, Pavel [STFC, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yokoyama, Koji [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  14. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-α-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Bakule, Pavel; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-01

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-α (Ly-α) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-α generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-α radiation generation can achieve a value of ˜5×10-4 which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  15. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisé, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Dey, Adwitia; Jiang, Mao; Lacefield, James C; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM exercise (DX). Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9-17 mM) through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY), including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  16. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Grisé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C, sedentary T1DM (D, control exercise (CX, or T1DM exercise (DX. Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9–17 mM through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY, and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY, including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  17. Calculation of intensity of high energy muon groups observed deep underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilov, Y. N.; Dedenko, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    The intensity of narrow muon groups observed in Kolar Gold Field (KGF) at the depth of 3375 m.w.e. was calculated in terms of quark-gluon strings model for high energy hadron - air nuclei interactions by the method of direct modeling of nuclear cascade in the air and muon propagation in the ground for normal primary cosmic ray composition. The calculated intensity has been found to be approx. 10 to the 4 times less than one observed experimentally.

  18. Modeling pairwise dependencies in precipitation intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vrac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In statistics, extreme events are classically defined as maxima over a block length (e.g. annual maxima of daily precipitation or as exceedances above a given large threshold. These definitions allow the hydrologist and the flood planner to apply the univariate Extreme Value Theory (EVT to their time series of interest. But these strategies have two main drawbacks. Firstly, working with maxima or exceedances implies that a lot of observations (those below the chosen threshold or the maximum are completely disregarded. Secondly, this univariate modeling does not take into account the spatial dependence. Nearby weather stations are considered independent, although their recordings can show otherwise.

    To start addressing these two issues, we propose a new statistical bivariate model that takes advantages of the recent advances in multivariate EVT. Our model can be viewed as an extension of the non-homogeneous univariate mixture. The two strong points of this latter model are its capacity at modeling the entire range of precipitation (and not only the largest values and the absence of an arbitrarily fixed large threshold to define exceedances. Here, we adapt this mixture and broaden it to the joint modeling of bivariate precipitation recordings. The performance and flexibility of this new model are illustrated on simulated and real precipitation data.

  19. High signal intensity of fat on fast spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio; Yamazaki, Masaru; Hongoh, Takaharu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ishikuro, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    The fast spin echo (FSE) technique of producing T 2 -weighted images in greatly reduced imaging times has recently been used for routine clinical study. FSE images show contrast that is very similar in most tissues to that of conventional SE images. However, fat shows a high signal intensity that is influenced by j-coupling and the magnetization transfer effect. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the higher signal intensity of fat is different among MRI systems and to examine the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer on the high signal intensity of fat on FSE. The contrast in signal intensity between fat and water was measured for various echo train lengths (ETL) with and without multislicing on FSE using a contrast phantom. Measurements were obtained with four different MRI systems. In addition, the effective T 2 values of fat were calculated for the above conditions. Results indicated that contrast for fat and water was reduced with increased ETL and by using multislicing and was different among the four MRI systems. The effective T 2 values of fat were extended for increased ETL and were not dependent on multislicing. They also differed among the four MRI systems. The extent of effective T 2 values was affected by j-coupling. In this study, it was indicated that the degree of the high signal intensity of fat on FSE differed for different MRI systems. In addition, the reasons for the high signal intensity of fat on FSE were related to the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer. (author)

  20. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  1. Performance of highway bridges during high intensity earthquakes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of highway bridges during high intensity earthquakes. ... Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT ... The earthquake incurred tremendous damage to infrastructure mostly highway bridges and buildings caused by fault ruptures, near-fault strong motion and inadequate unseating prevention mechanism. Damage to ...

  2. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  3. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  4. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  5. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty active but not sprint-trained male subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: creatine plus protein-carbohydrate formula (CRF); creatine only (CRE); and control (CON). All groups were exposed to the same high-intensity sprint exercise programme, 3 times per week for 30 days. Main outcome measures.

  6. The high intensity approximation applied to multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1980-08-01

    It is shown that the most commonly used high intensity approximations as applied to ionization by strong electromagnetic fields are related. The applicability of the steepest descent method in these approximations, and the relation between them and first-order perturbation theory, are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  8. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  9. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  10. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder

  11. Modeling the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality in a typical highly intensive agricultural small watershed, Dongting lake basin, south central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqing; Liu, Liming; Ji, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality is critically important for estimating pollution potential and reducing pollution risk. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality at both spatial and temporal scales. The study took place in the Jinjing River watershed in 2010; seven landscape types and four water quality pollutions were chosen as analysis parameters. Three different buffer areas along the river were drawn to analyze the relationship as a function of spatial scale. The results of a Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis suggest that "source" landscape, namely, tea gardens, residential areas, and paddy lands, have positive effects on water quality parameters, while forests exhibit a negative influence on water quality parameters because they represent a "sink" landscape and the sub-watershed level is identified as a suitable scale. Using the principal component analysis, tea gardens, residential areas, paddy lands, and forests were identified as the main landscape index. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality for each season. The results demonstrate that both landscape composition and configuration affect water quality. In summer and winter, the landscape metrics explained approximately 80.7 % of the variance in the water quality variables, which was higher than that for spring and fall (60.3 %). This study can help environmental managers to understand the relationships between landscapes and water quality and provide landscape ecological approaches for water quality control and land use management.

  12. Forward Modeling of Gyrosynchrotron Intensity Perturbations by Sausage Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikova, V. E.; Antolin, P.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2014-04-01

    To determine the observable radio signatures of the fast sausage standing wave, we examine gyrosynchrotron (GS) emission modulation using a linear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and instrumental resolution on perturbations of the GS intensity are analyzed for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was unimportant. Our finding contradicts previous predictions made with simpler models: an in-phase variation of intensity between low (f f peak) frequencies is found for the low-density model and an anti-phase variation for the base model in the case of a viewing angle of 45°. The spatially inhomogeneous character of the oscillating emission source and the spatial resolution of the model are found to have a significant effect on the resulting intensity.

  13. Remote Sensing and Modeling of Cyclone Monica near Peak Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Durden

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyclone Monica was an intense Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone of 2006. Although no in situ measurements of Monica’s inner core were made, microwave, infrared, and visible satellite instruments observed Monica before and during peak intensity through landfall on Australia’s northern coast. The author analyzes remote sensing measurements in detail to investigate Monica’s intensity. While Dvorak analysis of its imagery argues that it was of extreme intensity, infrared and microwave soundings indicate a somewhat lower intensity, especially as it neared landfall. The author also describes several numerical model runs that were made to investigate the maximum possible intensity for the observed environmental conditions; these simulations also suggest a lower intensity than estimates from Dvorak analysis alone. Based on the evidence from the various measurements and modeling, the estimated range for the minimum sea level pressure at peak intensity is 900 to 920 hPa. The estimated range for the one-minute averaged maximum wind speed at peak intensity is 72 to 82 m/s. These maxima were likely reached about 24 hours prior to landfall, with some weakening occurring afterward.

  14. Applications of super - high intensity lasers in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, R.; Hakola, A.; Santala, M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-plasma interactions arising when a super intense ultrashort laser pulse impinges a solid target creates intense partly collimated and energy resolved photons, high energy electron and protons and neutrons. In addition the plasma plume can generate huge magnetic and electric fields. Also ultra short X-ray pulses are created. We have participated in some of such experiments at Rutherford and Max-Planck Institute and assessed the applications of such kind as laser-driven accelerators. This paper discusses applications in nuclear engineering (neutron sources, isotope separation, fast ignition and transmutation, etc). In particular the potential for extreme time resolution and to partial energy resolution are assessed

  15. rf coaxial couplers for high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, J.J.; Knapp, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Two rf coaxial couplers that are particularly suitable for intertank connection of the disk-and-washer accelerating structure for use in high-intensity linear accelerators have been developed. These devices have very high coupling to the accelerating structure and very low rf power loss at the operating frequency, and they can be designed for any relative particle velocity β > 0.4. Focusing and monitoring devices can be located inside these couplers

  16. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS)...

  17. High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    With the development of intense (>1019 W cm‑2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm‑2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.

  18. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of π 0 in the neutral beam, are converted to e + e - pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator

  19. Monitoring of intense neuromuscular blockade in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias V; Donatsky, Anders M; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-01-01

    .15 min after injection. We established a pig model for monitoring intense NMB with surface stimulation electrodes and acceleromyography. We verified total relaxation of the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles at the PTC 0-1 by suction test and with surface electromyography. This pig model is suitable...... for studies with experimental abdominal surgery with monitoring of intense NMB, and where relaxation of the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles are required....

  20. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.

    1987-01-01

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various 192 Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from 192 Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable

  1. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  2. Additive Intensity Regression Models in Corporate Default Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    2013-01-01

    We consider additive intensity (Aalen) models as an alternative to the multiplicative intensity (Cox) models for analyzing the default risk of a sample of rated, nonfinancial U.S. firms. The setting allows for estimating and testing the significance of time-varying effects. We use a variety...... of model checking techniques to identify misspecifications. In our final model, we find evidence of time-variation in the effects of distance-to-default and short-to-long term debt. Also we identify interactions between distance-to-default and other covariates, and the quick ratio covariate is significant....... None of our macroeconomic covariates are significant....

  3. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  4. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,ω). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating

  5. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-01-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented

  6. Spectral and photopic studies for high intensity discharge (HID lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Elmageed A.-E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting sources such as High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID are common in these days. This research is focusing on the relation between the spectral power distribution and luminous efficiency function V(λ, which describes the average spectral sensitivity of human visual perception of brightness. The most useable HID lamps inside Egyptian markets are high pressure mercury (HPM, high pressure sodium (HPS and metal halide (MH. A set up based on single monochromator and integrating sphere for relative spectral power distribution and absolute luminous flux measurements are used, respectively. The accompanied standard uncertainties with the measurements are evaluated.

  7. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  8. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  9. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy: an Overview for Radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choi, Dong Il [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Min Joo [College of Medicine, Cheju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy is a novel, emerging, therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves, propagated through tissue media, as carriers of energy. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation as well as hemostasis, thrombolysis and targeted drug/gene delivery. However, the application of this technology still has many drawbacks. It is expected that current obstacles to implementation will be resolved in the near future. In this review, we provide an overview of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy from the basic physics to recent clinical studies with an interventional radiologist's perspective for the purpose of improving the general understanding of this cutting-edge technology as well as speculating on future developments

  10. Low and high intensity beam monitoring and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Lietti, D.; Bolognini, D.; Colombo, J.; Hasan, S.; Mattera, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Prest, M.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.

    Several detector types have been designed and assembled in order to monitor charged particle beams in a wide range of intensities: silicon microstrip detectors for high precision tracking (spatial resolution better than 5 μm), a scintillating fiber tracker with multianode photomultiplier readout for coarse but fast monitoring, a microstrip silicon detector readout by a counting ASIC to monitor very high intensity beams. These detectors and their readout electronics have been characterized at the BTF (Beam Test Facility) of the INFN National Laboratories of Frascati and used on the H8 line at the CERN SPS as tracking media for the data taking of the H8RD22 collaboration. The paper describes the results obtained in terms of spatial resolution and maximum counting rates.

  11. BEAM HALO FORMATION IN HIGH-INTENSITY BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDOTOV, A.V.

    2005-03-18

    Studies of beam halo became unavoidable feature of high-intensity machines where uncontrolled beam loss should be kept to extremely small level. For a well controlled stable beam such a loss is typically associated with the low density halo surrounding beam core. In order to minimize uncontrolled beam loss or improve performance of an accelerator, it is very important to understand what are the sources of halo formation in a specific machine of interest. The dominant mechanisms are, in fact, different in linear accelerators, circular machines or Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL). In this paper, we summarize basic mechanisms of halo formation in high-intensity beams and discuss their application to various types of accelerators of interest, such as linacs, rings and ERL.

  12. Pulsed Power Applications in High Intensity Proton Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Ducimetière, Laurent; Fowler, Tony; Kawakubo, Tadamichi; Mertens, Volker; Sandberg, Jon; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    The pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

  13. Entrepreneurship in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Patrizia V.; Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle

    The paper investigates key factors influencing the establishment and early growth of high-tech and knowledge-intensive new firms in Denmark. Particular attention is paid to the human and social variables affecting the creation, survival, and growth of such firms. The establishment and subsequent ...... framework combining theories of human and social capital. Secondary aspects addressed in the research project are questions of male vs. female entrepreneurship, internationalisation-globalisation, and business success/failure....

  14. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiren Chou

    2003-01-01

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R and D program is included in an appendix

  15. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCCIO, A.; D'IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package

  16. Numerical methods for simulation of high-intensity hadron synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, Alfredo U.; D'Imperio, Nicholas; Malitsky, Nikolay

    2006-01-01

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high-intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space-charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as standalone or as part of the Unified Accelerator Libraries (UAL) package

  17. Numerical methods for simulation of high-intensity hadron synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, Alfredo U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, C-AD Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: luccio@bnl.gov; D' Imperio, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Laboratory, C-AD Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Malitsky, Nikolay [Brookhaven National Laboratory, C-AD Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high-intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space-charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as standalone or as part of the Unified Accelerator Libraries (UAL) package.

  18. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUCCIO, A.; D' IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

    2005-09-12

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

  19. Magnetoresistance oscillations induced by high-intensity terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, T.; Kvon, Z. D.; Dmitriev, I. A.; Kozlov, D. A.; Jentzsch, B.; Schneider, M.; Schell, L.; Bel'kov, V. V.; Bayer, A.; Schuh, D.; Bougeard, D.; Kuczmik, T.; Oltscher, M.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    We report on observation of pronounced terahertz radiation-induced magnetoresistivity oscillations in AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron systems, the terahertz analog of the microwave induced resistivity oscillations (MIRO). Applying high-power radiation of a pulsed molecular laser we demonstrate that MIRO, so far observed at low power only, are not destroyed even at very high intensities. Experiments with radiation intensity ranging over five orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 104W/cm 2 reveal high-power saturation of the MIRO amplitude, which is well described by an empirical fit function I /(1+I /Is) β with β ˜1 . The saturation intensity Is is of the order of tens of watts per square centimeter and increases by a factor of 6 by increasing the radiation frequency from 0.6 to 1.1 THz. The results are discussed in terms of microscopic mechanisms of MIRO and compared to nonlinear effects observed earlier at significantly lower excitation frequencies.

  20. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  1. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  2. Brief Report: Application of Proposed Model of Decreasing Reinforcement Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautilli, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    LaBlanc, Hagopian, Malieri, and Poling (2002) proposed a model for decreasing reinforcement intensity in clinical practice. This paper applies that model to the fading of a point system for a nine-year-old boy who displayed escape behavior around nightly homework assignments. Using a hanging criterion design, the author was able to track the…

  3. Removing Known SPS Intensity Limitations for High Luminosity LHC Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Bohl, Thomas; Cruikshank, Paul; Goddard, Brennan; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Lasheen, Alexandre; Perez Espinos, Jaime; Repond, Joël; Salvant, Benoit; Vollinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In preparation of the SPS as an LHC injector its impedance was significantly reduced in 1999 - 2000. A new SPS impedance reduction campaign is planned now for the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC project, which requires bunch intensities twice as high as the nominal one. One of the known intensity limitations is a longitudinal multi-bunch instability with a threshold 3 times below this operational intensity. The instability is presently cured using the 4th harmonic RF system and controlled emittance blow-up, but reaching the HL-LHC parameters cannot be assured without improving the machine impedance. Recently the impedance sources responsible for this instability were identified and implementation of their shielding and damping is foreseen during the next long shutdown (2019 - 2020) in synergy with two other important upgrades: amorphous carbon coating of (part of) the vacuum chamber against the e-cloud effect and rearrangement of the 200 MHz RF system. In this paper the strategy of impedance reduction is presented t...

  4. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  5. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, E. Milo

    1994-12-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate.

  6. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  7. Effects of high-intensity interval training on canoeing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ta; Lee, Mien-Mien; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Chan, Kuei-Hui

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 peak), and power at VO 2 peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes. The training programme involved training on a canoeing ergometer three times per week for four weeks. HIIT consisted of seven 2 min canoeing bouts at an intensity of 90% VO 2 peak separated by 1 min of rest. The MICT group was trained at an intensity of 65% VO 2 peak continuously for 20 min. After four weeks of training, performance in the 200-m distance test and the power at VO 2 peak significantly improved in the HIIT group; performance in the 500 m and 1000 m distances and CV significantly improved in the MICT group. However, all variables were not significantly different between groups. It is concluded that HIIT for four weeks is an effective training strategy for improvement of short-distance canoeing performance. In contrast, MICT improves middle-distance canoeing performances and aerobic capacity.

  8. Electron cloud instability in high intensity proton rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ohmi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An e^{-}p instability has been observed in some proton rings. The instability, which causes beam loss, limits the performance of the ring. The instability may be serious for 3 and 50 GeV proton storage rings in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. We study the e^{-}p instability in several high intensity proton storage rings operated in the world. This work informs J-PARC of the necessity to cure the instability, for example, by applying a TiN coating on the chamber surface.

  9. Investigation on Beam Dynamics Design of High-Intensity RFQs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, C

    2004-01-01

    Recently various potential uses of high-intensity beams bring new opportunities as well as challenges to RFQ accelerator research because of the new problems arising from the strong space-charge effects. Unconventional concepts of beam dynamics design, which surround the choice of basic parameters and the optimization of main dynamics parameters’ variation along the machine, are illustrated by the designing Peking University (PKU) Deuteron RFQ. An efficient tool of LANL RFQ Design Codes for beam dynamics simulation and analysis, RFQBAT, is introduced. Some quality criterions are also presented for evaluating design results.

  10. Plasma-Immersion Formation of High-Intensity Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, A. I.; Anan'in, P. S.; Dektyarev, S. V.; Sivin, D. O.; Shevelev, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    For the first time, the possibility of forming high-intensity beams of low-energy metal and gas ions is demonstrated experimentally. The use of a hybrid system for ion-beam formation including plasmaimmersion extraction and ion acceleration and their subsequent ballistic focusing in an equipotential space with neutralization of the space charge of the beam made possible the pulse-periodic formation of titanium and nitrogen ion beams with an ion-current density of more than 1 A/cm2 and a pulsed power density of 2.6 kW/cm2.

  11. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 109-113 ISSN 0029-5922. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : high-intensity laser * implantation * material modification Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  12. High Voltage Staircase Drive Circuit for Triggered High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Keisuke; Okada, Jumpei; Nakamura, Kotaro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    In triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, cavitation clouds are produced by extremely high intensity trigger pulses and enhance the effect of following heating waves. The ultrasound intensity must be quickly changed from that for trigger pulses to that for heating waves before cavitation clouds vanish. We newly designed and constructed a class D amplifier based on a staircase voltage drive concept, which has the capability of outputting high voltage waves for trigger pulses and continuous waves for heating waves and the capability of fast switching between the two modes. Its efficacy was confirmed by an experiment with a BSA containing polyacrylamide gel.

  13. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  14. Injection and capture simulations for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Lessner, E.; Symon, K.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    1994-01-01

    The injection and capture processes in a high intensity, rapid cycling, proton synchrotron are simulated by numerical integration. The equations of motion suitable for rapid numerical simulation are derived so as to maintain symplecticity and second-order accuracy. By careful bookkeeping, the authors can, for each particle that is lost, determine its initial phase space coordinates. They use this information as a guide for different injection schemes and rf voltage programming, so that a minimum of particle losses and dilution are attained. A fairly accurate estimate of the space charge fields is required, as they influence considerably the particle distribution and reduce the capture efficiency. Since the beam is represented by a relatively coarse ensemble of macro particles, the authors study several methods of reducing the statistical fluctuations while retaining the fine structure (high intensity modulations) of the beam distribution. A pre-smoothing of the data is accomplished by the cloud-in-cell method. The program is checked by making sure that it gives correct answers in the absence of space charge, and that it reproduces the negative mass instability properly. Results of simulations for stationary distributions are compared to their analytical predictions. The capture efficiency for the rapid-cycling synchrotron is analyzed with respect to variations in the injected beam energy spread, bunch length, and rf programming

  15. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  16. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  17. TT40 Damage during 2004 High Intensity SPS Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    During high intensity extraction on 25/10/04 an incident occurred in which the vacuum chamber of the TT40 magnet QTRF4002 was badly damaged. The beam was a 450 GeV full LHC injection batch of 3.4 1013 p+ in 288 bunches, and was extracted from SPS LSS4 with the wrong trajectory. Prior to the fatal extraction, problems had occurred over several hours during the setting-up, with beam-induced noise causing the extraction septum interlock to trip the power convertor, and also with the bumped beam position interlock. Deficiencies in the extraction setting-up process, in the interlocking and in the operational procedures used for the high-intensity test were contributing factors. In this note the incident causes are identified, the details reconstructed from the logged data, and the damage to the vacuum chamber analysed. The remedial measures which have already been taken are explained, and further recommendations made concerning the interlocking system performance and tests, as well as the operational procedures wh...

  18. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables, such as m......The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables......, such as muscle fibre type composition and power reserve, relate to endurance time. Twenty males underwent testing to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), power output corresponding to 90% of VO(2max) at 80 rpm (W90), FCPR at W90, percentage of slow twitch muscle fibres (% MHC I), maximal leg power......, and endurance time at W90 with FCPR-25, FCPR, and FCPR+25. Power reserve was calculated as the difference between applied power output at a given pedalling rate and peak crank power at this same pedalling rate. W90 was 325 (47) W. FCPR at W90 was 78 (11) rpm, resulting in FCPR-25 being 59 (8) rpm and FCPR+25...

  19. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.D.; Donets, E.E.; Syresin, E.M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5x10 9 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  2. Further Evaluation of a Brief, Intensive Teacher-Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Garro, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Nine certified special education teachers participating in an intensive 5-day summer training program were taught a relatively large number of specific skills in two areas (preference assessment and…

  3. Increased collection efficiency of LIFI high intensity electrodeless light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; DeVincentis, Marc; Duelli, Markus; Gilliard, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Recently, RF driven electrodeless high intensity light sources have been implemented successfully in the projection display systems for HDTV and videowall applications. This paper presents advances made in the RF waveguide and electric field concentrator structures with the purpose of reducing effective arc size and increasing light collection. In addition, new optical designs are described that further improve system efficiency. The results of this work demonstrate that projection system light throughput is increased relative to previous implementations and performance is optimized for home theater and other front projector applications that maintain multi-year lifetime without re-lamping, complete spectral range, fast start times and high levels of dynamic contrast due to dimming flexibility in the light source system.

  4. Overview of High Intensity Linac Programs in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a boost in the support by the European Union (EU) of accelerator research in Europe. Provided they coordinate their efforts and define common goals and strategies, laboratories and institutions from the member states can receive a financial support reaching 50% of the total project cost. In the field of High Intensity Linacs, the EU has already supported the EURISOL initiative for nuclear physics, which this year is applying for funding of a Design Study, and the development of linacs for Waste Transmutation. More recently, an initiative for high-energy physics has been approved, which includes a programme for the development of pulsed linac technologies. The coordination and synergy imposed by the EU rules increase the benefit of the allocated resources. Combined with the ongoing internal projects in the partner laboratories, these European initiatives represent a strong effort focussed towards the development of linac technologies. This paper summarises the requests from the various E...

  5. Effect of high intensive football match on selected physiological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINAY PAWAR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out the effect of high intensive football match on selected physiologicalvariables. For this purpose 20 male football players with the mean age 24.6 ± 1.74 year were acted as a subject.Oral body temperature, body weight & blood pressure were the selected as physiological variables, which weremeasured by digital thermometer, weight machine and digital blood pressure. All the data were collected fifteenminute prior and instantly after the end of the match. Paired “t” was used as a statically tool which revealedthat there were statistical significant was observed in all the selected physiological variables. The obtained “t”value for oral body temperature was 9.18, for body weight 7.12, for diastolic blood pressure 8.17 & for systolicblood pressure 8.88 was found between all the physiological variables before and after the high intensivefootball match.

  6. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-01-08

    The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereas the efficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  7. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  8. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ 2 , where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  9. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  10. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T.

    1997-11-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs.

  11. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male ( n = 33) and female ( n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO 2peak ): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L -1 ) was changed ( P > 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  12. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  13. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Hybrid simulation models for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00473067

    Data-intensive systems are used to access and store massive amounts of data by combining the storage resources of multiple data-centers, usually deployed all over the world, in one system. This enables users to utilize these massive storage capabilities in a simple and efficient way. However, with the growth of these systems it becomes a hard problem to estimate the effects of modifications to the system, such as data placement algorithms or hardware upgrades, and to validate these changes for potential side effects. This thesis addresses the modeling of operational data-intensive systems and presents a novel simulation model which estimates the performance of system operations. The running example used throughout this thesis is the data-intensive system Rucio, which is used as the data man- agement system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. Existing system models in literature are not applicable to data-intensive workflows, as they only consider computational workflows or make assumpti...

  15. High Intensity Effects in the SNS Accumulator Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A.; Shishlo, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  16. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  17. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina

    2017-04-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  18. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-12-15

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculated intensity of high-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Back, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The flux, energy and angular distributions of high-energy neutrons produced by in-flight spallation and fission of a 400 MeV/A 238 U beam and by the break-up of a 400 MeV/A deuteron beam are calculated. In both cases very intense secondary neutron beams are produced, peaking at zero degrees, with a relatively narrow energy spread. Such secondary neutron beams can be produced with the primary beams from the proposed rare isotope accelerator driver linac. The break-up of a 400 kW deuteron beam on a liquid-lithium target can produce a neutron flux of >10 10 neutrons/cm 2 /s at a distance of 10 m from the target

  20. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  1. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Variale

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  2. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M.A.; Gary, C.K.; Harris, J.L.; Fuller, M.J.; Cremer, J.T.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Kwan, J.W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1E10 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  3. Fast Acting Optical Forces From Far Detuned, High Intensity Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Hua, Xiang; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-05-01

    We are exploring fast acting, strong optical forces from standing wave light fields with high intensity and large detuning δ >> γ , where γ is the transition linewidth. We observe these fast acting forces on a time scale of a few times the excited state lifetime τ ≡ 1 / γ thus an atom may experience at most one or two spontaneous emission events. The dipole force is typically considered when the Rabi frequency Ω transverse velocity distribution of a beam of 23S He after a chosen interaction time with a perpendicular standing wave detuned from the 23S -->33P transition near 389 nm. The distribution shows velocity resonance effects that persist over a large range of Ω. We also simulate the experiment numerically using the Optical Bloch Equations and the results are consistent with our measurements. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Education GAANN

  4. Segmentation and intensity estimation of microarray images using a gamma-t mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jangsun; Son, Young Sook; McLachlan, Geoffrey J

    2007-02-15

    use of the bivariate t distribution for the foreground intensity provides a model that is less sensitive to extreme observations; (5) as a consequence of the aforementioned properties, it allows segmentation to be undertaken for a wide range of spot shapes, including doughnut, sickle shape and artifacts. We apply our method for gridding, segmentation and estimation to cDNA microarray real images and artificial data. Our method provides better segmentation results in spot shapes as well as intensity estimation than Spot and spotSegmentation R language softwares. It detected blank spots as well as bright artifact for the real data, and estimated spot intensities with high-accuracy for the synthetic data. The algorithms were implemented in Matlab. The Matlab codes implementing both the gridding and segmentation/estimation are available upon request. Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. What IAPT CBT High-Intensity Trainees Do After Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liness, Sheena; Lea, Susan; Nestler, Steffen; Parker, Hannah; Clark, David M

    2017-01-01

    The UK Department of Health Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative set out to train a large number of therapists in cognitive behaviour therapies (CBT) for depression and anxiety disorders. Little is currently known about the retention of IAPT CBT trainees, or the use of CBT skills acquired on the course in the workplace after training has finished. This study set out to conduct a follow-up survey of past CBT trainees on the IAPT High Intensity CBT Course at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), one of the largest IAPT High Intensity courses in the UK. Past trainees (n = 212) across 6 cohorts (2008-2014 intakes) were contacted and invited to participate in a follow-up survey. A response rate of 92.5% (n = 196) was achieved. The vast majority of IAPT trainees continue to work in IAPT services posttraining (79%) and to practise CBT as their main therapy modality (94%); 61% have become CBT supervisors. A minority (23%) have progressed to other senior roles in the services. Shortcomings are reported in the use of out-of-office CBT interventions, the use of disorder-specific outcome measures and therapy recordings to inform therapy and supervision. Past trainees stay working in IAPT services and continue to use CBT methods taught on the course. Some NICE recommended treatment procedures that are likely to facilitate patients' recovery are not being routinely implemented across IAPT services. The results have implications for the continued roll out of the IAPT programme, and other future large scale training initiatives.

  6. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  7. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  8. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He + and mixed p, H 2+ , H 3+ beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was designed to perform

  9. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program

  10. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  11. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  12. Pulmonary Vein Isolation by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Antz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI using radiofrequency current (RFC ablation is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. The shortcomings of the RFC technology (technically challenging, long procedure times, complications steadily kindle the interest in new energy sources and catheter designs. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU has the ability to precisely focus ultrasound waves in a defined area with a high energy density. HIFU balloon catheters (BC positioned at the PV ostia appear to be an ideal tool to transmit the ablation energy in a circumferential manner to the PV ostia and may therefore bear substantial advantage over conventional ablation catheters in PVI procedures. In clinical trials the HIFU BC has shown promising success rates similar to RFC catheter ablation for PVI in patients with AF. However, procedure times are still long and serious complications have been observed. Therefore, it may be a valuable alternative to the conventional techniques in selected patients but further clinical trials have to be initiated.

  13. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  14. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  15. Weight loss, dietary carbohydrate modifications, and high intensity, physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, C A; Hickner, R C; Scott, J R; Costill, D L; Gould, D

    1990-08-01

    Well trained subjects (N = 12) were studied before and after losing approximately 6% of body weight to determine whether physical performance could be maintained while consuming a hypocaloric, high percentage carbohydrate diet. During a 4-d period of weight loss, subjects were randomly assigned to a high carbohydrate (HC) or low carbohydrate (LC) diet. A crossover design was used; subjects were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) weight loss on both diets for a 6-min bout of high intensity arm cranking, weight, skinfold thickness, and profile of mood states (POMS). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glycerol concentrations were analyzed for resting blood samples, while lactate, pH, and base excess were analyzed for blood samples drawn at rest and 1, 3, and 5 min after arm cranking. A three-way ANOVA of sprint work revealed a weight loss effect, a diet by weight loss interaction, and an order by diet by weight loss interaction (P less than 0.05). Total sprint work (mean +/- SE) PRE and POST HC was 37.7 +/- 2.1 kJ and 37.4 +/- 2.2 kJ, respectively. Sprint work was higher for PRE LC vs POST LC, with mean values of 37.4 +/- 2.1 kJ and 34.4 +/- 2.2 kJ, respectively. Post-arm cranking lactate was significantly higher PRE compared to POST for both HC and LC. Post-exercise blood pH was lower (P less than 0.05) at PRE vs POST, with no diet effect. Regardless of the diet, POMS variables tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion were significantly elevated from PRE to POST; vigor was significantly lower.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Rainfall intensity characteristics at coastal and high altitude stations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a given amount of rain occurs is important because heavier rainfall leads to greater runoff, greater soil erosion and less infiltration into the water table. A knowledge of rainfall intensity therefore becomes. Keywords. Rainfall intensity; Kerala; cumulative distribution. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 116, No. 5, October 2007, pp. 451–463.

  17. Precision Modeling of Solar Energetic Particle Intensity and Anisotropy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Wechakama, M.; Khumlumlert, T.

    2006-12-01

    A focused transport equation for solar energetic particles is sufficiently complex that simple analytic approximations are generally inadequate, but the physics is sufficiently well established to permit precise numerical modeling of high energy particle observations at various distances from the Sun. We demonstrate how observed profiles of intensity and anisotropy vs. time can be quantitatively fit to determine an optimal injection profile at the Sun, scattering mean free path λ, and magnetic configuration. For several ground level enhancements (GLE) of solar energetic particles at energies ~ 1 GeV, the start time of injection has been determined to 1 or 2 minutes. In each case this start time coincides, within that precision, to the soft X-ray peak time, when the flare's primary energy release has ended. This is not inconsistent with acceleration at a coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock, though the rapid timescale is challenging to understand. For the GLE of 2005 January 20, λ decreases substantially over ~ 10 minutes, which is consistent with concepts of proton-amplified waves. The GLE of 2000 July 14 is properly fit only when a magnetic bottleneck beyond Earth is taken into account, a feature later confirmed by NEAR observations. The long-standing puzzle of the 1989 October 22 event can now be explained by simultaneous injection of relativistic solar particles along both legs of a closed interplanetary magnetic loop, while other reasonable explanations fail the test of quantitative fitting. The unusually long λ (confirming many previous reports) and a low turbulent spectral index hint at unusual properties of turbulence in the loop. While the early GLE peak on 2003 October 28 remains a mystery, the main peak's strong anisotropy is inconsistent with a suggestion of injection along the far leg of a magnetic loop; quantitative fitting fails because of reverse focusing during Sunward motion. With these modeling capabilities, one is poised to take full

  18. Distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazard assessment of shallow landslides represents an important aspect of land management in mountainous areas. Among all the methods proposed in the literature, physically based methods are the only ones that explicitly includes the dynamic factors that control landslide triggering (rainfall pattern, land-use. For this reason, they allow forecasting both the temporal and the spatial distribution of shallow landslides. Physically based methods for shallow landslides are based on the coupling of the infinite slope stability analysis with hydrological models. Three different grid-based distributed hydrological models are presented in this paper: a steady state model, a transient "piston-flow" wetting front model, and a transient diffusive model. A comparative test of these models was performed to simulate landslide occurred during a rainfall event (27–28 June 1997 that triggered hundreds of shallow landslides within Lecco province (central Southern Alps, Italy. In order to test the potential for a completely distributed model for rainfall-triggered landslides, radar detected rainfall intensity has been used. A new procedure for quantitative evaluation of distributed model performance is presented and used in this paper. The diffusive model results in the best model for the simulation of shallow landslide triggering after a rainfall event like the one that we have analysed. Finally, radar data available for the June 1997 event permitted greatly improving the simulation. In particular, radar data allowed to explain the non-uniform distribution of landslides within the study area.

  19. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Telis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months’ follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon.

  20. Physiological changes during low- and high-intensity noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukácsovits, J; Carlucci, A; Hill, N; Ceriana, P; Pisani, L; Schreiber, A; Pierucci, P; Losonczy, G; Nava, S

    2012-04-01

    In a physiological randomised cross-over study performed in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive disease patients, we assessed the short-term effects of two settings of noninvasive ventilation. One setting was aimed at maximally reducing arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a,CO(2))) (high-intensity (Hi) noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV)): mean ± SD 27.6 ± 2.1 cmH(2)O of inspiratory positive airway pressure, 4 ± 0 cmH(2)O of expiratory positive airway pressure and respiratory rate of 22 breaths · min(-1). The other was performed according to the usual parameters used in earlier studies (low-intensity (Li)-NPPV): 17.7 ± 1.6 cmH(2)O of inspiratory positive airway pressure, 4 ± 0 cmH(2)O of expiratory positive airway pressure and respiratory rate of 12 breaths · min(-1). Both modes of ventilation significantly improved gas exchange compared with spontaneous breathing (SB), but to a greater extent using Hi-NPPV (P(a,CO(2)) 59.3 ± 7.5, 55.2 ± 6.9 and 49.4 ± 7.8 mmHg for SB, Li-NPPV and Hi-NPPV, respectively). Similarly, Hi-NPPV induced a greater reduction in the pressure-time product of the diaphragm per minute from 323 ± 149 cmH(2)O · s · min(-1) during SB to 132 ± 139 cmH(2)O · s · min(-1) during Li-NPPV and 40 ± 69 cmH(2)O · s · min(-1) during Hi-NPPV, while in nine out of 15 patients, it completely abolished SB activity. Hi-NPPV also induced a marked reduction in cardiac output (CO) measured noninvasively with a Finometer PRO (Finapres Medical Systems BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) compared with Li-NPPV. We conclude that while Hi-NPPV is more effective than Li-NPPV in improving gas exchange and in reducing inspiratory effort, it induces a marked reduction in CO, which needs to be considered when Hi-NPPV is applied to patients with pre-existing cardiac disease.

  1. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  2. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  3. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1991-05-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol

  4. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  5. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  6. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  7. In-Season High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Conditioning In High School Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    HOWARD, NEAL; STAVRIANEAS, STASINOS

    2017-01-01

    Soccer is characterized by high aerobic demands interspersed with frequent bursts of anaerobic activity. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered a viable alternative to traditional endurance conditioning and offers the additional time-saving benefits of anaerobic training. We hypothesized that HIIT will compare favorably to traditional (aerobic-based) soccer conditioning over the course of a high school soccer season. Junior varsity soccer players were split into control (CON, n...

  8. Leadership challenges for Joint Force commanders during the transition from a high-intensity to a low-intensity conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Boe, Ole; Bergh, Johan; Johansen, Rino Bandlitz

    2017-01-01

    A Joint Force Commander (JFC) leading military joint operations faces several complex challenges. The purpose of this article is to investigate some of the challenges a Joint Force Commander may face when a conflict changes character from being a high-intensity conflict to becoming a low-intensity conflict. Sources of evidence: In connection with command and control, especially issues concerning different cultures and the understanding of this can be the biggest challenge for a Joint Force Co...

  9. APPLICATION OF UAL TO HIGH INTENSITY BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MALITSKY, N.; FEDOTOV, A.V.; WEI, J.

    2002-01-01

    The SNS Ring off-line parallel simulation environment based on the Unified Accelerator Libraries (UAL) has been implemented and used for extensive full-scale beam dynamics studies arising in high-intensity rings. The paper describes the structure of this environment and its application to the development and analysis of the SNS accumulator ring beam loss model including a complex combination of several physical effects

  10. APPLICATION OF UAL TO HIGH INTENSITY BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MALITSKY,N.; FEDOTOV,A.V.; WEI,J.

    2002-06-03

    The SNS Ring off-line parallel simulation environment based on the Unified Accelerator Libraries (UAL) has been implemented and used for extensive full-scale beam dynamics studies arising in high-intensity rings. The paper describes the structure of this environment and its application to the development and analysis of the SNS accumulator ring beam loss model including a complex combination of several physical effects.

  11. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  12. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uraniumand other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Galloway, Michelle L.; Loew, Timothy J.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Rodriguez, Ingrid Castro; Todd, Damon S.

    2007-11-15

    The next generation, superconducting ECR ion source VENUS(Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) started operation with 28GHzmicrowave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world recordion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e mu A of O6+, 200 e mu A of U33+or U34+, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e mu A of Ar18+, 270e mu A of Ar16+, 28 e mu A of Xe35+ and 4.9 e mu A of U47+ have beenproduced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to theserecord intensities is given and the production of high intensity uraniumbeams is discussed in more detail.

  13. WE-EF-BRA-12: Magnetic Resonance- Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Localized Ablation of Head and Neck Tissue Structures: A Feasibility Study in An Animal Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partanen, A [Philips Healthcare, Andover, Massachusets (United States); Ellens, N; Noureldine, S; Tufano, R [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Burdette, E [Acoustic MedSystems Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is feasible in the head and neck [1]. This study aims to expand upon these findings to assess the feasibility of treatment planning and monitoring via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance using a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform. Methods: Two 31 kg pigs were anaesthetized, shaved, and positioned prone on the HIFU table (Sonalleve, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). The necks were acoustically coupled to the integrated transducer using gel pads and degassed water. MR imaging verified acoustic coupling and facilitated target selection in the thyroid and thymus. Targets were thermally ablated with 130–200 W of acoustic power over a period of 16 s at a frequency of 1.2 MHz while being monitored through real-time, multi-planar MR-thermometry. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was used to assess treatment efficacy. Post-treatment, animals were euthanized and sonicated tissues were harvested for histology assessment. Results: MR-thermometry, post-contrast-imaging, and gross pathology demonstrated that the system was capable of causing localized thermal ablation in both the thyroid and the thymus without damaging the aerodigestive tract. In one animal, superficial bruising was observed in the ultrasound beam path. Otherwise, there were no adverse events. Analysis of the tissue histology found regions of damage consistent with acute thermal injury at the targeted locations. Conclusion: It is feasible to use a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform for extracorporeal ablation of porcine head and neck tissues. MR guidance and thermometry are sufficient to target and monitor treatment in the thyroid region, despite the presence of the inhomogeneous aerodigestive tract. Further study is necessary to assess efficacy and survival using a tumor model, and to examine what modifications should be made to the transducer positioning system and associated patient positioning aids to adapt it for clinical head and neck targets

  14. The emittances and brightnesses of high-intensity negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; McConnell, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The emittances of high-intensity ion beams extracted from cesium sputter negative ion sources equipped with cylindrical and ellipsoidal solid tungsten and spiral-wound tantalum (General Ionex Corporation, Model 860), and cesium surface ionizers have been measured for several ion species, including 12 C - , 28 Si - , 58 Ni - , and 197 Au - . While certain sets of data from the ellipsoidal and cylindrical geometry ionizer sources suggest a moderate growth in emittance with increasing negative ion beam intensity I over the range of intensities investigated (5 ≤ 1 ≤ 60 μA) of perhaps 20%, not all data exhibit this dependence, especially those from the Model 860 source. As well, no evidence of an emittance dependence on ion mass of a monotonic nature was found. The emittances of ion beams at the 80% intensity level from the Model 860 source are found to be higher on the average by factors of 1.8 and 1.7, respectively, than those from sources equipped with ellipsoidal and cylindrical geometry cesium surface ionizers

  15. HIGH-INTENSITY EFFECTS IN THE LONGITUDINAL MOTION OF STORED PARTICLE BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1973-02-01

    A brief review is given of the various self-field phenomena associated with the longitudinal motion of particles in storage rings. Although there are some high-intensity phenomena for which the coupling of longitudinal and transverse motion is essential, such as, for example, the headtail effect; the great majority of high-intensity phenomena primarily involve either longitudinal or transverse degrees of freedom. In this review, we restrict our attention to phenomena which are essentially longitudinal in nature. It is convenient to consider separately the behavior of unbunched (coasting) and bunched (external RF system in operation) beams. Detailed experimental information on coasting beams has been obtained on the ISR, on the (old) CERN electron model CESAR, and on electron ring accelerators. All high-energy electron storage rings have bunched beams and, of course, so do synchrotrons, so that there are a large number of sources of experimental information about the longitudinal motion of bunched beams.

  16. Beam Dynamics Studies for High-Intensity Beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082016; Benedikt, Michael

    With the discovery of the Higgs boson, the existence of the last missing piece of the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) was confirmed. However, even though very elegant, this theory is unable to explain, for example, the generation of neutrino masses, nor does it account for dark energy or dark matter. To shed light on some of these open questions, research in fundamental particle physics pursues two complimentary approaches. On the one hand, particle colliders working at the high-energy frontier, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), located in Geneva, Switzerland, are utilized to investigate the fundamental laws of nature. Alternatively, fixed target facilities require high-intensity beams to create a large flux of secondary particles to investigate, for example, rare particle decay processes, or to create neutrino beams. This thesis investigates limitations arising during the acceleration of high-intensity beams at the CERN Proton Synchrotro...

  17. Perception of Breakfast Ingestion Enhances High Intensity Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Stephen A; Dickinson, Kathryn; Bergin-Taylor, Kurt; Dee, Reagan; Kay, Jack; James, Lewis J

    2017-09-27

    To examine the effect on short duration, high intensity cycling time trial performance when a semi-solid breakfast containing carbohydrate or a taste and texture matched placebo is ingested 90 minutes pre-exercise compared to a water control. Thirteen well trained cyclists (25 ± 8 years, 71.1 ± 5.9 kg, 1.76 ± 0.04 m, 383 ± 46 W max , VO 2peak 4.42 ± 0.53 L·min -1 ) performed three experimental trials examining breakfast ingestion 90 minutes before a 10 minute steady state cycle (60% W max ) and a ~20 minute time trial (to complete a workload target of 376 ± 36 kJ). Subjects consumed either water (WAT), a semi-solid carbohydrate breakfast (2 g carbohydrate·kg -1 body mass; CHO) or a taste and texture matched placebo (PLA). Blood lactate and glucose concentrations were measured periodically throughout the rest and exercise periods. The time trial was completed quicker in CHO (1120 ± 69 s; P=0.006) and PLA (1112 ± 50 s; P=0.030) compared to WAT (1146 ± 74 s). Ingestion of carbohydrate caused an increase in blood glucose concentration throughout the rest period in CHO (peak at 30 minutes rest: 7.37 ± 1.10 mmol·l -1 ; Pcycling. A short duration cycling time trial was completed quicker when subjects perceived that they consumed breakfast (PLA or CHO) 90 minutes prior to the start of exercise. The improvement in performance is likely attributable to a psychological rather than physiological effect.

  18. Relativistic Electron Acceleration by Surface Plasma Waves in the High Intensity Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Cerchez, Mirela; Swantusch, Marco; Aurand, Bastian; Prasad, Rajendra; Andreev, Alexander; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    High field plasmonics is one of the new research fields which has synergetically benefited from the advances in laser technology. The availability of radiation fields of intensities exceeding 1018 W/cm2 brought plasmonics into a new regime where relativistic and nonlinear effects start to dominate the dynamics of the surface plasma waves (SPWs). Moreover, surface plasma waves are a very efficient route to transfer the laser energy to the secondary sources including laser driven particle and radiation beams and to control and optimize the physical properties of these sources. We present here experimental evidence of a novel regime of the SPWs excitation by ultra-high intensity laser field (I>1020 W/cm2) on grating targets and its effect on high energy surface electron acceleration. The peak of the electron emission was detected at a laser incidence angle of 45°. The results indicate new conditions for resonant excitation of SPWs since in the limit of the linear regime (moderate intensities of 1019 W/cm2 and step preplasma profile), the resonance angle is predicted at 30°. 2D PIC simulations and a novel analytical model confirm the experimental data and reveal that, at laser intensities above 1020W/cm2, nonlinearities induced by the preplasma condition and relativistic effects change the SPWs resonance.

  19. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The High Luminosity Challenge: potential and limitations of High Intensity High Brightness in the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Maria, R; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Bartosik, H; Benedetto, E; Bruce, R; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Cerutti, F; Damerau, H; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gorini, B; Hanke, K; Iadarola, G; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Métral, E; Mikulec, B; Mounet, N; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Sterbini, G; Todesco, E; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; Valishev, A

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and high-brightness beams are key ingredients to maximize the LHC integrated luminosity and to exploit its full potential. This contribution describes the optimization of beam and machine parameters to maximize the integrated luminosity as seen by the LHC experiments, by taking into account the expected intensity and brightness reach of LHC itself and its injector chain as well as the capabilities of the detectors for next run and foreseen upgrade scenarios.

  1. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C 6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C 6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  2. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  3. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each

  4. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance...... in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group....

  5. Precipitation intensity probability distribution modelling for hydrological and construction design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshinchanov, Georgy; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of rainfall intensity are important for many purposes, including design of sewage and drainage systems, tuning flood warning procedures, etc. Those estimates are usually statistical estimates of the intensity of precipitation realized for certain period of time (e.g. 5, 10 min., etc) with different return period (e.g. 20, 100 years, etc). The traditional approach in evaluating the mentioned precipitation intensities is to process the pluviometer's records and fit probability distribution to samples of intensities valid for certain locations ore regions. Those estimates further become part of the state regulations to be used for various economic activities. Two problems occur using the mentioned approach: 1. Due to various factors the climate conditions are changed and the precipitation intensity estimates need regular update; 2. As far as the extremes of the probability distribution are of particular importance for the practice, the methodology of the distribution fitting needs specific attention to those parts of the distribution. The aim of this paper is to make review of the existing methodologies for processing the intensive rainfalls and to refresh some of the statistical estimates for the studied areas. The methodologies used in Bulgaria for analyzing the intensive rainfalls and produce relevant statistical estimates: - The method of the maximum intensity, used in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology to process and decode the pluviometer's records, followed by distribution fitting for each precipitation duration period; - As the above, but with separate modeling of probability distribution for the middle and high probability quantiles. - Method is similar to the first one, but with a threshold of 0,36 mm/min of intensity; - Another method proposed by the Russian hydrologist G. A. Aleksiev for regionalization of estimates over some territory, improved and adapted by S. Gerasimov for Bulgaria; - Next method is considering only

  6. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  7. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  8. Underutilization of high-intensity statin therapy after hospitalization for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Kent, Shia T; Brown, Todd M; Farkouh, Michael E; Levitan, Emily B; Yun, Huifeng; Sharma, Pradeep; Safford, Monika M; Kilgore, Meredith; Muntner, Paul; Bittner, Vera

    2015-01-27

    National guidelines recommend use of high-intensity statins after hospitalization for coronary heart disease (CHD) events. This study sought to estimate the proportion of Medicare beneficiaries filling prescriptions for high-intensity statins after hospital discharge for a CHD event and to analyze whether statin intensity before hospitalization is associated with statin intensity after discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries between 65 and 74 years old. Beneficiaries were included in the analysis if they filled a statin prescription after a CHD event (myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) in 2007, 2008, or 2009. High-intensity statins included atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg. Among 8,762 Medicare beneficiaries filling a statin prescription after a CHD event, 27% of first post-discharge fills were for a high-intensity statin. The percent filling a high-intensity statin post-discharge was 23.1%, 9.4%, and 80.7%, for beneficiaries not taking statins pre-hospitalization, taking low/moderate-intensity statins, and taking high-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Compared with beneficiaries not on statin therapy pre-hospitalization, multivariable adjusted risk ratios for filling a high-intensity statin were 4.01 (3.58-4.49) and 0.45 (0.40-0.52) for participants taking high-intensity and low/moderate-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Only 11.5% of beneficiaries whose first post-discharge statin fill was for a low/moderate-intensity statin filled a high-intensity statin within 365 days of discharge. The majority of Medicare beneficiaries do not fill high-intensity statins after hospitalization for CHD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Dst Forecast Models for Intense Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun-Young; Moon, Y.-J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Lee, D.-H.

    2012-01-01

    We have compared six disturbance storm time (Dst) forecast models using 63 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst Dst data and the predicted Dst during the geomagnetic storm period as well as the difference of the value of minimum Dst (Delta Dst(sub min)) and the difference in the absolute value of Dst minimum time (Delta t(sub Dst)) between the observed and the predicted. As a result, we found that the model by Temerin and Li gives the best prediction for all parameters when all 63 events are considered. The model gives the average values: the linear correlation coefficient of 0.94, the RMS error of 14.8 nT, the Delta Dst(sub min) of 7.7 nT, and the absolute value of Delta t(sub Dst) of 1.5 hour. For further comparison, we classified the storm events into two groups according to the magnitude of Dst. We found that the model of Temerin and Lee is better than the other models for the events having 100 Dst Dst <= 200 nT.

  10. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  11. High energy bremsstrahlung in an intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlessinger, L.; Wright, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The cross section for bremsstrahlung emission and absorption by electrons in an intense laser field has been calculated in the Born approximation for the electron-ion potential. Typical numerical results are presented as a function of the ratio of the electron guiver energy to its energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the electron energy. The intense field correction factor for the rate of bremsstrahlung emission and absorption for electrons with a Boltzmann distribution of energies has been calculated. Numerical results for the correction factor are presented for the Boltzmann case as a function of the ratio of the electron quiver energy to its thermal energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the thermal energy. For typical laser fusion parameters, this correction factor which is the ratio of the thermal bremsstrahlung emission rate in the intense laser field to the rate at zero field can be quite significant. For a laser of wavelength 1.06 μm at an intensity of 3 x 10 15 w/cm 2 and an electron temperature of 1 keV, the correction factor varies from 0.98 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 100 V to greater than 5 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 10 keV

  12. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tesla transformer acts as a source of intense electromagnetic noise during the operation of the KALI-1000 pulse power system. After the copper mesh anode flange, there is an axial virtual cathode oscillator chamber (length 25 cm, diameter 25 cm) for microwave generation. The IREB is injected to the VIRCATOR chamber ...

  13. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  14. IT Business Value Model for Information Intensive Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Gastaud Maçada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have highlighted the capacity Information Technology (IT has for generating value for organizations. Investments in IT made by organizations have increased each year. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the IT Business Value for Information Intensive Organizations (IIO - e.g. banks, insurance companies and securities brokers. The research method consisted of a survey that used and combined the models from Weill and Broadbent (1998 and Gregor, Martin, Fernandez, Stern and Vitale (2006. Data was gathered using an adapted instrument containing 5 dimensions (Strategic, Informational, Transactional, Transformational and Infra-structure with 27 items. The instrument was refined by employing statistical techniques such as Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis through Structural Equations (first and second order Model Measurement. The final model is composed of four factors related to IT Business Value: Strategic, Informational, Transactional and Transformational, arranged in 15 items. The dimension Infra-structure was excluded during the model refinement process because it was discovered during interviews that managers were unable to perceive it as a distinct dimension of IT Business Value.

  15. Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; York, R.L.; McConnell, J.R.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-01-01

    The requirement for higher intensity H - ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H - ion source and the rebuilding of the original H - injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H - beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H - beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H - injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H - beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985. (orig.)

  16. Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; York, R.L.; McConnell, J.R.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-04-01

    The requirement for higher intensity H - ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H - ion source and the rebuilding of the original H - injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H - beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H - beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H - injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H - beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985

  17. Single-Image Shadow Removal Using 3D Intensity Surface Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Zhen, Rui; Yan, Jiaxing; Ge, Yunfeng

    2017-09-11

    Shadow removal from a single image is a challenging problem, whose solution is proposed in this study using 3D intensity surface modeling. Due to the high-order textural content in the original images, a direct modeling of the intensity surface of shadow image is difficult. In this study, image decomposition technology is used as an edge-preserving filter to remove the textural detail while keeping the local-smoothness pattern of image intensity surface. Using 3D modeling, a proper intensity surface of illumination in shadow region can be obtained based on that corresponding to the same texture in the non-shadow one. Thus, the intensity surface of shadow region can be compensated with a respective shadow-removal. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in the aspect of single-image shadow removal. In contrast to the alternative methods, it is not limited by additional assumptions or conditions; moreover, it can deal with the non-uniform and curved surface shadows, and is applicable to the shadow regions consisting of different types of textures.

  18. Study on low intensity aeration oxygenation model and optimization for shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Ding, Zhibin; Ding, Jian; Wang, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Aeration/oxygenation is an effective measure to improve self-purification capacity in shallow water treatment while high energy consumption, high noise and expensive management refrain the development and the application of this process. Based on two-film theory, the theoretical model of the three-dimensional partial differential equation of aeration in shallow water is established. In order to simplify the equation, the basic assumptions of gas-liquid mass transfer in vertical direction and concentration diffusion in horizontal direction are proposed based on engineering practice and are tested by the simulation results of gas holdup which are obtained by simulating the gas-liquid two-phase flow in aeration tank under low-intensity condition. Based on the basic assumptions and the theory of shallow permeability, the model of three-dimensional partial differential equations is simplified and the calculation model of low-intensity aeration oxygenation is obtained. The model is verified through comparing the aeration experiment. Conclusions as follows: (1)The calculation model of gas-liquid mass transfer in vertical direction and concentration diffusion in horizontal direction can reflect the process of aeration well; (2) Under low-intensity conditions, the long-term aeration and oxygenation is theoretically feasible to enhance the self-purification capacity of water bodies; (3) In the case of the same total aeration intensity, the effect of multipoint distributed aeration on the diffusion of oxygen concentration in the horizontal direction is obvious; (4) In the shallow water treatment, reducing the volume of aeration equipment with the methods of miniaturization, array, low-intensity, mobilization to overcome the high energy consumption, large size, noise and other problems can provide a good reference.

  19. Complex data modeling and computationally intensive methods for estimation and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Secchi, Piercesare; Advances in Complex Data Modeling and Computational Methods in Statistics

    2015-01-01

    The book is addressed to statisticians working at the forefront of the statistical analysis of complex and high dimensional data and offers a wide variety of statistical models, computer intensive methods and applications: network inference from the analysis of high dimensional data; new developments for bootstrapping complex data; regression analysis for measuring the downsize reputational risk; statistical methods for research on the human genome dynamics; inference in non-euclidean settings and for shape data; Bayesian methods for reliability and the analysis of complex data; methodological issues in using administrative data for clinical and epidemiological research; regression models with differential regularization; geostatistical methods for mobility analysis through mobile phone data exploration. This volume is the result of a careful selection among the contributions presented at the conference "S.Co.2013: Complex data modeling and computationally intensive methods for estimation and prediction" held...

  20. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.H., E-mail: zhangxiaohu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yuan, Y.J.; Yin, X.J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, H.; Li, Z.S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-11

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  1. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  2. Volumetric intensity dependence on the formation of molecular and atomic ions within a high intensity laser focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Lynne; Ledingham, Kenneth W D; McKenna, Paul; McCanny, Thomas; Shimizu, Seiji; Yang, Jiamin M; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Varju, Katalin; Johnsson, Per; Mauritsson, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of atomic and molecular ionization in intense, ultra-short laser fields is a subject which continues to receive considerable attention. An inherent difficulty with techniques involving the tight focus of a laser beam is the continuous distribution of intensities contained within the focus, which can vary over several orders of magnitude. The present study adopts time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with a high intensity (8 x 10(15) Wcm(-2)), ultra-short (20 fs) pulse laser in order to investigate the ionization and dissociation of the aromatic molecule benzene-d1 (C(6)H(5)D) as a function of intensity within a focused laser beam, by scanning the laser focus in the direction of propagation, while detecting ions produced only in a "thin" slice (400 and 800 microm) of the focus. The resultant TOF mass spectra varies significantly, highlighting the dependence on the range of specific intensities accessed and their volumetric weightings on the ionization/dissociation pathways accessed.

  3. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 20 minutes, three times weekly, for 6 weeks. After each session, diaphragm thickness was measured using ultrasonography. The diaphragm asymmetry ratio and diaphragm thickening ratio were standardized using a formula. [Results] After intervention, the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly differed among the three groups, and the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly increased in the control group. A significant increase was identified in the diaphragm thickening ratio within the progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training groups. [Conclusion] Progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training decreased the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients; this effect, in turn, increased the diaphragm thickening ratio in stroke patients. The two interventions examined here should be selectively applied to individuals in the clinical field.

  4. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie; Ferrer, Ludovic; Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ( 67 Cu, 47 Sc) or alpha ( 211 At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ( 64 Cu, 124 I, 44 Sc), or that can be generator-produced ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ( 44 Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas 86 Y, 52 Fe, 55 Co, 76 Br or 89 Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.) 5

  5. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie [SUBATECH, Universite de Nantes, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, La Chantrerie, 4, rue A. Kastler, BP 20722, Nantes (France); Ferrer, Ludovic [Universite de Nantes, Departement de Recherche en Cancerologie, Inserm, Nantes (France); Rene Gauducheau Cancer Center, Nantes (France); Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois [Universite de Nantes, Departement de Recherche en Cancerologie, Inserm, Nantes (France)

    2008-07-15

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ({sup 67}Cu, {sup 47}Sc) or alpha ({sup 211}At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ({sup 64}Cu, {sup 124}I, {sup 44}Sc), or that can be generator-produced ({sup 82}Rb, {sup 68}Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ({sup 44}Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas {sup 86}Y, {sup 52}Fe, {sup 55}Co, {sup 76}Br or {sup 89}Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.)

  6. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ferid; Ferrer, Ludovic; Guertin, Arnaud; Carlier, Thomas; Michel, Nathalie; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-François

    2008-07-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ((67)Cu, (47)Sc) or alpha ((211)At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ((64)Cu, (124)I, (44)Sc), or that can be generator-produced ((82)Rb, (68)Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ((44)Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas (86)Y, (52)Fe, (55)Co, (76)Br or (89)Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs.

  7. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  8. A metastatistical approach to modelling extreme hurricane intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Marani, Marco; Scaioni, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Estimating the probability of occurrence of extreme hurricane intensities is significant in a vast number of fields and plays a crucial role in hurricane risk assessment. The method typically employed for these analyses applies traditional Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to fit the Generalize Extreme Value Distribution (GEVD) to hurricane maximum wind speed. In this framework, an asymptotic regime or a Poisson occurrence process are assumed to derive the GEVD, which is fitted using values over a high threshold or yearly maxima. However, the relative rarity of hurricanes implies that the number of events per year is not nearly sufficient for this asymptotic hypothesis to be valid, and the selection of a subset of the events drastically reduces the amount of information used. To overcome this limitation, we apply an alternative approach based on the Metastatistical Extreme Value Distribution (MEVD) to extreme hurricane intensity analyses. The derivation of the MEVD relaxes the limiting assumption of the traditional EVT, by taking into account the distribution of the entire range of recorded event magnitudes, rather than just the distributional tail. Taking advantage of this method, we can use the entire observational set, including hurricanes with relatively lower intensities, with clear statistical advantages. We comparatively assess the MEVD and the classical EVT quantile estimation uncertainties using the 130-year long Maximum Sustained Wind (MSW) speed time series for all hurricanes in the north Atlantic basin obtained from the National Hurricane Center (Atlantic HURDAT2). The parameters of the GEVD are estimated using a range of methods to ensure an optimal estimator is found. The MEVD is fitted assuming a Generalize Pareto Distribution (GPD) for the "ordinary" values of MSW over 5- to 10-year blocks using Probability Weighted Moments (PWM). The statistical tests are performed by dividing the dataset (of length L) into two distinct parts: S years for calibration and

  9. Development and application of high power and high intensity ion beam sources at NPI, Tomsk, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchikov, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    High - current ion beams have become a powerful tool for improving the surface properties of different materials. The prospects of wide commercial use of such beams for material treatment is not only due to the possibility of improving their properties, but, also for economic expediency. To achieve a high throughput and reduce the cost on ion beam material treatment, ion beams of high average and pulsed power are necessary. This paper gives an overview of work on generation of pulsed and repetitively pulsed beams of ion beams with currents ranging from fractions of an ampere to several tens of kA and with pulse duration from several tens of nanoseconds to several hundreds of microseconds. A number of different methods of materials surface properties modification using high power and intense ion beam and plasma are considered. (author)

  10. Risk of retina damage from high intensity light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, V.A.; Romanchuk, K.G.

    1980-05-01

    The risk of thermal damage to the retina of the eye by exposure to excesive light intensities from continuous and pulsed man-made sources is discussed. The probability of injury increases, the larger the radiant power absorbed by the retina and the smaller the size of the retinal image of the source. A method of estimating the temperature increase of the immediately affected area of the retina is presented. The time constants involved are also briefly considered. Using numerical values from literature for the relevant parameters of the eye, threshold values for a variety of conditions can be established. Below these values little risk of retina damage should exist. The degree of hazard when these values are exceeded depends upon the circumstances. A case study of a welding accident showed good agreement between the conclusions of the theoretical analysis and clinical findings.

  11. Transverse feedback: high intensity operation, AGC, IGC, lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    The transverse damper system (ADT) plays an important role in the preservation of the beam transverse emittance and for damping of oscillations driven by the coupled bunch instability. An overview of the ADT system will be presented with an emphasis on the important feedback loop parameters as they change from injection through the ramp into collision. The dedicated setting - up procedure required for the different bunch intensities and bunch spacings will be explained. During the 2011 run the injection and abort gap cleaning became operational at injection energy. Preparations for cleaning at 3.5 TeV as well as batch selective transverse blow - up were completed and preliminarily tested. Plans for 2012 include study and potential improvement of the system impulse response to improve the 'selectivity' of the cleaning and blow - up facility. The ADT also provides bunch - by - bunch observation, which was extensively used during the run and MDs, and will be further upgraded during the next year.

  12. High intensity proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS -- An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1997-01-01

    The AGS accelerator complex is into its third year of 60+ x 10 12 (teraproton = Tp) per cycle operation. The hardware making up the complex as configured in 1997 is briefly mentioned. The present level of accelerator performance is discussed. This includes beam transfer efficiencies at each step in the acceleration process, i.e. losses; which are a serious issue at this intensity level. Progress made in understanding beam behavior at the Linac-to-Booster (LtB) injection, at the Booster-to-AGS (BtA) transfer as well as across the 450 ms AGS accumulation porch is presented. The state of transition crossing, with the gamma-tr jump is described. Coherent effects including those driven by space charge are important at all of these steps

  13. New initiatives on lepton flavor violation and neutrino oscillation with high intense muon and neutrino sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Yoshitaka; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2002-01-01

    The area of physics involving muons and neutrinos has become exciting in particle physics. Using their high intensity sources, physicists undertake, in various ways, extensive searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as tests of supersymmetric grand unification (SUSY-GUT) and precision measurements of the muon and neutrino properties, which will in future extend to ambitious studies such as determination of the three-generation neutrino mixing matrix elements and CP violation in the lepton sector. The physics of this field is advancing, with potential improvements of the source

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  15. Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2017-08-01

    This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Annual mean precipitation, hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and wet and dry extreme indices are analyzed to identify the robust behavior of hydroclimatic change in response to enhanced emission scenarios using high-resolution (12.5 km) and long-term (1981-2100) daily precipitation. Ensemble projections exhibit increased hydroclimatic intensity across the entire domain and under both the RCP scenarios. However, a geographical pattern with predominantly intensified HY-INT does not fully emerge in the mean precipitation change because HY-INT is tied to the changes in the precipitation characteristics rather than to those in the precipitation amount. All projections show an enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation, which lead to a possible shift in hydroclimatic regime prone to an increase of both wet and dry extremes. In general, projections forced by the RCP8.5 scenario tend to produce a much stronger response than do those by the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the temperature increase under the RCP4.5 scenario is sufficiently large to induce significant changes in hydroclimatic intensity, despite the relatively uncertain change in mean precipitation. Likewise, the forced responses of HY-INT and the two extreme indices are more robust than that of mean precipitation, in terms of the statistical significance and model agreement.

  16. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  17. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  18. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  19. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  20. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Dudey, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The invention described provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then ''boil off'' or evaporate a neutron

  1. High intensity bunch length instabilities in the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.; Bane, K.; Corredoura, P.; Decker, F.J.; Judkins, J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Siemann, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The SLC damping rings function to provide low emittance, short bunches for injection into the linac. As the beam intensity in the rings was raised, as part of the SLC luminosity improvement program, the authors observed a threshold above which beam jitter would occur in the linac. Frequent machine trips, caused by beam loss on some bunches, were associated with the jitter. These erratic open-quotes flierclose quotes pulses were traced to extraction phase errors from the damping rings. This paper covers the diagnosis of this condition and the observations of the transient bunch length instability phenomena. The evidence of this turbulent (microwave) bunch length instability is seen in both time domain and in frequency domain measurements. The instability has been dubbed the open-quotes sawtoothclose quotes because of the characteristic time dependent nature of the phase and bunch length signals. It is present in both the SLC electron and positon damping rings at about the same threshold of 3x10 10 particles per bunch

  2. Bone remodeling after MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation: evaluation with MR imaging, CT, Na(18)F-PET, and histopathologic examination in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknor, Matthew D; Rieke, Viola; Seo, Youngho; Horvai, Andrew E; Hawkins, Randall A; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M; Saeed, Maythem

    2015-02-01

    To serially monitor bone remodeling in the swine femur after magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation with MR imaging, computed tomography (CT), sodium fluorine 18 (Na(18)F)-positron emission tomography (PET), and histopathologic examination, as a function of sonication energy. Experimental procedures received approval from the local institutional animal care and use committee. MR imaging-guided HIFU was used to create distal and proximal ablations in the right femurs of eight pigs. The energy used at the distal target was higher (mean, 419 J; range, 390-440 J) than that used at the proximal target (mean, 324 J; range, 300-360 J). Imaging was performed before and after ablation with 3.0-T MR imaging and 64-section CT. Animals were reevaluated at 3 and 6 weeks with MR imaging (n = 8), CT (n = 8), Na(18)F-PET (n = 4), and histopathologic examination (n = 4). Three-dimensional ablation lengths were measured on contrast material-enhanced MR images, and bone remodeling in the cortex was measured on CT images. Ablation sizes at MR imaging 3 and 6 weeks after MR imaging-guided HIFU ablation were similar between proximal (low-energy) and distal (high-energy) lesions (average, 8.7 × 21.9 × 16.4 mm). However, distal ablation lesions (n = 8) demonstrated evidence of subperiosteal new bone formation at CT, with a subtle focus of new ossification at 3 weeks and a larger focus of ossification at 6 weeks. New bone formation was associated with increased uptake at Na(18)F-PET in three of four animals; this was confirmed at histopathologic examination in four of four animals. MR imaging-guided HIFU ablation of bone may result in progressive remodeling, with both subcortical necrosis and subperiosteal new bone formation. This may be related to the use of high energies. MR imaging, CT, and PET are suitable noninvasive techniques to monitor bone remodeling after MR imaging-guided HIFU ablation. © RSNA, 2014.

  3. Bone Remodeling after MR Imaging–guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation: Evaluation with MR Imaging, CT, Na18F-PET, and Histopathologic Examination in a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Viola; Seo, Youngho; Horvai, Andrew E.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Saeed, Maythem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To serially monitor bone remodeling in the swine femur after magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation with MR imaging, computed tomography (CT), sodium fluorine 18 (Na18F)–positron emission tomography (PET), and histopathologic examination, as a function of sonication energy. Materials and Methods Experimental procedures received approval from the local institutional animal care and use committee. MR imaging–guided HIFU was used to create distal and proximal ablations in the right femurs of eight pigs. The energy used at the distal target was higher (mean, 419 J; range, 390–440 J) than that used at the proximal target (mean, 324 J; range, 300–360 J). Imaging was performed before and after ablation with 3.0-T MR imaging and 64-section CT. Animals were reevaluated at 3 and 6 weeks with MR imaging (n = 8), CT (n = 8), Na18F-PET (n = 4), and histopathologic examination (n = 4). Three-dimensional ablation lengths were measured on contrast material–enhanced MR images, and bone remodeling in the cortex was measured on CT images. Results Ablation sizes at MR imaging 3 and 6 weeks after MR imaging–guided HIFU ablation were similar between proximal (low-energy) and distal (high-energy) lesions (average, 8.7 × 21.9 × 16.4 mm). However, distal ablation lesions (n = 8) demonstrated evidence of subperiosteal new bone formation at CT, with a subtle focus of new ossification at 3 weeks and a larger focus of ossification at 6 weeks. New bone formation was associated with increased uptake at Na18F-PET in three of four animals; this was confirmed at histopathologic examination in four of four animals. Conclusion MR imaging–guided HIFU ablation of bone may result in progressive remodeling, with both subcortical necrosis and subperiosteal new bone formation. This may be related to the use of high energies. MR imaging, CT, and PET are suitable noninvasive techniques to monitor bone remodeling after MR imaging

  4. High-intensity geomagnetic field 'spike' observed at ca. 3000 cal BP in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Mark D.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Waters, Michael R.; Lundelius, Ernest; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions of the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have found extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity at ca. 3000 yr cal BP. These observations have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been preserved in metallurgical slag and fired, mud brick walls. We present a new, fully oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 yr from Hall's Cave, Texas, whose complete, >3.8 m thick sedimentary sequence spans from the present to 16 , 850 ± 110 RC yr BP (Modern to 20,600 cal BP). Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are negligible to non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from a previously excavated stratigraphic section. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 15 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrates, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, starting ca. 3000 yr ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years. This record presents well-dated evidence, obtained using conventional techniques, for the existence of a geomagnetic intensity spike in North America that is contemporaneous with the

  5. Periodicity in a intensity dependent Haynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Freitas, Dagoberto da; Roversi, J.A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings (JCM) is the most simple and fundamental model describing the interaction between electromagnetic field and the matter, where a two-level atom is coupled, under the rotating wave approximation, to a quantized field mode. Recently Matsuo, studying the origin of the Q function partitioning in terms of the field density matrix, has separated the effect of the initial atomic state on the Q function clockwise (Cw), counter-clockwise (Ccw) and non rotating (N R) components. Matsuo shows that the inversion of the atomic state population is directly related to the N R component of the density matrix, and is independent of the clockwise and counter-clockwise components. Using the same procedure, we study the case where the atom-field coupling constant depends on the field intensity. We investigate some basic aspects of the field interaction, initially in coherent state, with a two-level atom. The collapse, revival and purity of the atomic state were analysed together with time evolution of the Q function and her partitioning in clockwise, counterclockwise and non-rotating components

  6. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advertisement. Advertising for any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that does not comply with... mercury and that is contained within an outer envelope. (2) Advertisement means any catalog, specification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. 1040...

  7. The influence of basketball dribbling on repeated high-intensity intermittent runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the Yo-Yo IE2 test could reflect the repeatability of high-intensity intermittent basketball dribbling performance, while dribbling skills may have different influences on high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity in adolescent players at different ages.

  8. Non-Invasive Targeted Peripheral Nerve Ablation Using 3D MR Neurography and MRI-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU): Pilot Study in a Swine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Merel; Staruch, Robert M; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; van den Bosch, Maurice A; Burns, Dennis K; Chhabra, Avneesh; Chopra, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been proposed for noninvasive treatment of neuropathic pain and has been investigated in in-vivo studies. However, ultrasound has important limitations regarding treatment guidance and temperature monitoring. Magnetic resonance (MR)-imaging guidance may overcome these limitations and MR-guided HIFU (MR-HIFU) has been used successfully for other clinical indications. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing 3D MR neurography to identify and guide ablation of peripheral nerves using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Volumetric MR-HIFU was used to induce lesions in the peripheral nerves of the lower limbs in three pigs. Diffusion-prep MR neurography and T1-weighted images were utilized to identify the target, plan treatment and immediate post-treatment evaluation. For each treatment, one 8 or 12 mm diameter treatment cell was used (sonication duration 20 s and 36 s, power 160-300 W). Peripheral nerves were extracted < 3 hours after treatment. Ablation dimensions were calculated from thermal maps, post-contrast MRI and macroscopy. Histological analysis included standard H&E staining, Masson's trichrome and toluidine blue staining. All targeted peripheral nerves were identifiable on MR neurography and T1-weighted images and could be accurately ablated with a single exposure of focused ultrasound, with peak temperatures of 60.3 to 85.7°C. The lesion dimensions as measured on MR neurography were similar to the lesion dimensions as measured on CE-T1, thermal dose maps, and macroscopy. Histology indicated major hyperacute peripheral nerve damage, mostly confined to the location targeted for ablation. Our preliminary results indicate that targeted peripheral nerve ablation is feasible with MR-HIFU. Diffusion-prep 3D MR neurography has potential for guiding therapy procedures where either nerve targeting or avoidance is desired, and may also have potential for post

  9. [The definition of chemiluminescence intensity in experimental model of premature senescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavishnikova, S A; Arutiunian, A V; Ryzhak, G A

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic possibilities of chemiluminescence's intensity research for premature senescence prognosis are described in this article. The definition of chemiluminescence's intensity enables to reveal the individuals stable to processes of premature senescence in the model of acute radiation.

  10. [Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Low Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanov, Y M; Kiryanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    Non-drug correction of reparative bone tissue regeneration in different pathological states - one of the most actual problems of modern medicine. Our aim was to conduct morphological analysis of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency and low intensity on reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis in fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis. A controlled nonrandomized study was carried out. In the experiment conducted on rats we modeled tibial fracture with reposition and fixation of the bone fragments both in control and experimental groups. In the animals of the experimental group the fracture zone was exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency. Exposure simulation was performed in the control group. The operated bones were examined using radiography, light and electronic microscopy, X-ray electronic probe microanalysis. It has been established that electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency sessions in fracture treatment stimulate secretory activity and degranulation of mast cells, produce microcirculatory bed vascular permeability increase, endotheliocyte migration phenotype expression, provide endovascular endothelial outgrowth formation, activate reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis while fracture reparation becomes the one of the primary type. The full periosteal, intermediary and intraosteal bone union was defined in 28 days. Among the therapeutic benefits of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency in fracture treatment we can detect mast cell secretorv activity stimulation and endovascular anziozenesis activation.

  11. JOLT: A Highly Directive, Very Intensive, Impulse-Like Radiator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baum, Carl E; Baker, W. L; Prather, W. D; Lehr, J. M; O'Loughlin, J. P; Giri, D. V; Smith, I. D; Altes, Robert; Fockler, James; McLemore, Donald; Abdalla, M. D; Skipper, M. C

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) systems that radiate very high-level transient waveforms and exhibit operating bandwidths of over two decades are now in demand for a number of applications Such systems are known to radiate impulse...

  12. Simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound lesions in presence of boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, Anthony; Yon, Sylvain; Letort, Véronique; Lafitte, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablations are particularly difficult to simulate due to the complexity of the involved phenomena. In particular, boiling has a strong influence on the lesion shape. Thus, it must be accounted for if it happens during the pulses to be modeled. However, no acoustic model enables the simulation of the resulting wave scattering. Therefore, we propose an equivalent model for the heat deposition pattern in the presence of boiling. Firstly, the acoustic field is simulated with k-Wave and the heat source term is calculated. Then, a thermal model is designed, including the equivalent model for boiling. It is rigorously calibrated and validated through the use of diversified ex vivo and in vivo data, including usually unexploited data types related to the bubble clouds. The proposed model enabled to efficiently simulate unitary pulses properties, including the sizes of the lesions, their morphology, the boiling onset time, and the influence of the boiling onset time on the lesions sizes. In this article, the whole procedure of model design, calibration, and validation is discussed. In addition to depicting the creative use of data, our modeling approach focuses on the understanding of the mechanisms influencing the shape of the lesion. Further work is required to study the influence of the remaining bubble clouds in the context of pulse groups.

  13. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  14. Acoustic agglomeration of fine particles based on a high intensity acoustical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Zeng, Xinwu; Tian, Zhangfu

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic agglomeration (AA) is considered to be a promising method for reducing the air pollution caused by fine aerosol particles. Removal efficiency and energy consuming are primary parameters and generally have a conflict with each other for the industry applications. It was proved that removal efficiency is increased with sound intensity and optimal frequency is presented for certain polydisperse aerosol. As a result, a high efficiency and low energy cost removal system was constructed using acoustical resonance. High intensity standing wave is generated by a tube system with abrupt section driven by four loudspeakers. Numerical model of the tube system was built base on the finite element method, and the resonance condition and SPL increase were confirmd. Extensive tests were carried out to investigate the acoustic field in the agglomeration chamber. Removal efficiency of fine particles was tested by the comparison of filter paper mass and particle size distribution at different operating conditions including sound pressure level (SPL), and frequency. The experimental study has demonstrated that agglomeration increases with sound pressure level. Sound pressure level in the agglomeration chamber is between 145 dB and 165 dB from 500 Hz to 2 kHz. The resonance frequency can be predicted with the quarter tube theory. Sound pressure level gain of more than 10 dB is gained at resonance frequency. With the help of high intensity sound waves, fine particles are reduced greatly, and the AA effect is enhanced at high SPL condition. The optimal frequency is 1.1kHz for aerosol generated by coal ash. In the resonace tube, higher resonance frequencies are not the integral multiplies of the first one. As a result, Strong nonlinearity is avoided by the dissonant characteristic and shock wave is not found in the testing results. The mechanism and testing system can be used effectively in industrial processes in the future.

  15. A Statistical Cyclone Intensity Prediction (SCIP) model for the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been proposed. The model is developed applying multiple linear regression technique. The model ... Keywords. Tropical cyclone; intensity prediction; multiple linear regression; regression coefficient; statistical model. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117, No. ... posed a simple empirical model for predicting the intensity of tropical cyclones ...

  16. Transportation of high intensity beam to the high resolution caves of VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, P.S.; Shoor, Bivas; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    Presently at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata light heavy ion beams are delivered to the user's target in high intensity (HI) caves through its three beam lines which are at an angle of 0 degree (Channel 1), 15 degree (Channel 2) and 35 degree (Channel 3) with respect to zero channel. For Channel 2 or Channel 3, the extracted beam is transported through the zero channel and then bend right by energizing the switching magnet (SWM) as per requirement. The extracted beam goes straight to channel 1 when SWM is off. Channel l beam can be bent left by an analyzing magnet (AM) to transport the beam to the high-resolution (HR) beam line. Alpha beam was transported through this line to the target in HR cave 2 in dispersive mode

  17. [Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high T c superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect

  18. High intensity electromagnetic field gerenation using a transportable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A reverberation chamber can create very high field strength with moderate input power. Existing chambers are making use of a paddle wheel to change the resonant modes in the chamber. A transportable reverberation chamber with vibrating walls will be presented. Inside this Vibrating Intrinsic

  19. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  20. High harmonic generation in H and HD by intense femtosecond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... We have argued that for these conditions the harmonic generation due to the transitions in the electronic ... (XUV) or soft X-ray range and generation of very high-energy attosecond (as) pulses have been widely ..... [3] Y Liang, S Augst, S L Chin, Y Beaudoin and M Chaker, J. Phys. B 27, 5119 (1994).

  1. Clinical Results after High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Fonteyne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC can be treated with high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and long-term androgen deprivation (AD. In this paper we report on (i late toxicity and (ii biochemical (bRFS and clinical relapse-free survival (cRFS of this combined treatment. Methods. 126 patients with high-risk PC (T3-4 or PSA >20 ng/mL or Gleason 8–10 and ≥24 months of followup were treated with high-dose IMRT and AD. Late toxicity was recorded. Biochemical relapse was defined as PSA nadir +2 ng/mL. Clinical relapse was defined as local failure or metastases. Results. The incidence of late grade 3 gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity was 2 and 6%, respectively. Five-year bRFS and cRFS were 73% and 86% respectively. AD was a significant predictor of bRFS (P=0.001 and cRFS (P=0.01. Conclusion. High-dose IMRT and AD for high-risk PC offers excellent biochemical and clinical control with low toxicity.

  2. High-intensity laser diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Jungquist, R.; Stoeckl, C.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a new high-energy peta-watt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from < 1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy peta-watt laser at full energy. (authors)

  3. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Buchheit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1 was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1 and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1 were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8 and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8 in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8. Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7; conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2. In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity.

  4. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (pinterval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (pinterval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High-intensity pulsed beam source with tunable operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevskiy, A. V.; Kanaev, G. G.; Ezhov, V. V.; Shamanin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The report presents the design of an electron and an ion pulsed accelerator. The powerful high-voltage pulse generator of the accelerator and the vacuum bushing insulator is able to change the polarity of the output voltage. The low-inductance matching transformer provides an increase in the DFL output impedance by 4 times. The generator based on a high voltage pulse transformer and a pseudo spark switch is applied for DFL charging. The high-impedance magnetically insulated focusing diode with Br magnetic field and the “passive” anode was used to realize the ion beam generation mode. The plasma is formed on the surface of the anode caused by an electrical breakdown at the voltage edge pulse; as a result, the carbon ion and proton beam is generated. This beam has the following parameters: the current density is about 400 A/cm2 (in focus): the applied voltage is up to 450 kV. The accelerator is designed for the research on the interaction of the charged particle pulsed beams with materials and for the development of technological processes of a material modification.

  6. Production of high intensity electron bunches for the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    This thesis describes the design and performance of a high intensity electron injecfor for the SLAC Linear Collider. Motivation for the collider and the specifications for the injector are discussed. An analytic theory of the bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields is discussed in the limit of low space charge and small signal. The design and performance of SLAC's main injector are described to illustrate a successful application of this theory. The bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields are then discussed in the limit of high space charge and large signal, and a description of the design of the collider injector follows. In the limit of high space charge forces and large rf signals, the beam dynamics are considerably more complex and numerical simulations are required to predict particle motion. A computer code which models the longitudinal dynamics of electrons in the presence of space charge and rf fields is described. The results of the simulations, the resulting collider injector design and the various components which make up the collider injector are described. These include the gun, subharmonic bunchers, traveling-wave buncher and velocity-of-light accelerator section. Finally, the performance of the injector is described including the beam intensity, bunch length, transverse emittance and energy spectrum. While the final operating conditions differ somewaht from the design, the performance of the collider injector is in good agreement with the numerical simulations and meets all of the collider specifications. 28 refs

  7. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-01-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10 8 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion

  8. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  9. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  10. High Energy K(alpha) Radiography Using High-intensity, Short-pulse Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H; Izumi, N; Key, M H; King, J A; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Snavely, R A; Tabak, M; Town, R J; Wickersham, J E; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Theobald, W; Chambers, D M; Eagelton, R; Goldsack, T; Clarke, R J; Heathcote, R; Giraldez, E; Nikroo, A; Steinman, D A; Stephens, R B; Zhang, B B

    2005-11-16

    We have performed experiments using Callisto, the Vulcan 100 TW and the Vulcan Petawatt high intensity lasers to understand the characteristics of high energy, K{alpha} x-ray sources and to implement workable radiography solutions at 20-100 keV. Our measurements show that the K{alpha} size from a simple foil target is larger than 60 {micro}m, far larger than the experiment resolution requirement. The total K{alpha} yield is independent of target thicknesses verifying that refluxing plays a major role in photon generation. Smaller radiating volumes emit brighter K{alpha} radiation. 1-D radiography experiments using small-edge-on foils resolved 10 {micro}m features with high contrast. We tested a variety of small volume 2-D point sources such as cones, wires, and embedded wires, measuring photon yields and comparing our measurements with predictions from hybrid-PIC LSP simulations. In addition to high-energy, high-resolution backlighters, future experiments will also need imaging detectors and diagnostic tools that are workable in the 20-100 keV energy range. An initial look at some of these detector issues is also presented.

  11. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  12. Ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms by intense electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, J.; Mittleman, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    A previous theory of atomic transition in ultrastrong electromagnetic fields is applied to the problem of the ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms. The magnitude of the fields necessary for the validity of the theory is greatly reduced by using excited hydrogen in the initial state, and the requirement of only multiphoton ionization limits the application to low frequency (microwave) fields. The requirement can probably be satisfied with currently available equipment. A result of the calculation is that the average number of photons absorbed is twice the minimum number. (U.S.)

  13. Future of high intensity accelerators in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1977-08-01

    A possible application for a high mean current, intermediate-energy proton linear accelerator is the ''electrical breeding'' of fuel for nuclear electrical power stations. The possible role of the spallation breeder in the context of a Canadian nuclear power economy and its relationship to nuclear fuel resources are discussed. The production of fissile material using the spallation process in a target containing actinide elements appears desirable and feasible from engineering and economic considerations. Current development work in Canada and some of the outstanding problems are discussed. (author)

  14. Highly charged ions generated with intense laser beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Peřina, Vratislav; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Szydlowski, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 205, - (2003), s. 355-359 ISSN 0168-583X. [International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter /5./. Taormina-Giardini Naxos, 22.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-00053; IAEA(XE) 11535/RO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * highly charged ions * ion implantation * windowless electron multiplier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  15. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  16. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  17. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  18. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, A; Impey, R; Podaima, W; Agarwal, A; Anderson, M; Armstrong, P; Fransham, K; Gable, I; Harris, D; Leavett-Brown, C; Paterson, M; Sobie, R J; Vliet, M

    2012-01-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  19. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  20. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  1. Complex Data Modeling and Computationally Intensive Statistical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovan, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    The last years have seen the advent and development of many devices able to record and store an always increasing amount of complex and high dimensional data; 3D images generated by medical scanners or satellite remote sensing, DNA microarrays, real time financial data, system control datasets. The analysis of this data poses new challenging problems and requires the development of novel statistical models and computational methods, fueling many fascinating and fast growing research areas of modern statistics. The book offers a wide variety of statistical methods and is addressed to statistici

  2. Linear System Models for Ultrasonic Imaging: Intensity Signal Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K; Zhu, Yang; Bahramian, Sara; Insana, Michael F

    2017-04-01

    Despite a great deal of work characterizing the statistical properties of radio frequency backscattered ultrasound signals, less is known about the statistical properties of demodulated intensity signals. Analysis of intensity is made more difficult by a strong nonlinearity that arises in the process of demodulation. This limits our ability to characterize the spatial resolution and noise properties of B-mode ultrasound images. In this paper, we generalize earlier results on two-point intensity covariance using a multivariate systems approach. We derive the mean and autocovariance function of the intensity signal under Gaussian assumptions on both the object scattering function and acquisition noise, and with the assumption of a locally shift-invariant pulse-echo system function. We investigate the limiting cases of point statistics and a uniform scattering field with a stationary distribution. Results from validation studies using simulation and data from a real system applied to a uniform scattering phantom are presented. In the simulation studies, we find errors less than 10% between the theoretical mean and variance, and sample estimates of these quantities. Prediction of the intensity power spectrum (PS) in the real system exhibits good qualitative agreement (errors less than 3.5 dB for frequencies between 0.1 and 10 cyc/mm, but with somewhat higher error outside this range that may be due to the use of a window in the PS estimation procedure). We also replicate the common finding that the intensity mean is equal to its standard deviation (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio = 1) for fully developed speckle. We show how the derived statistical properties can be used to characterize the quality of an ultrasound linear array for low-contrast patterns using generalized noise-equivalent quanta directly on the intensity signal.

  3. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Bradford J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.; Yanof, J.; Bauer, C.; Kruecker, J.; Seip, R.

    2006-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  4. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bradford J.; Yanof, J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kruecker, J.; Bauer, C.; Seip, R.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.

    2006-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  5. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using...... the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate......OBJECTIVES: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review...

  6. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Pascal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. Methods 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder elevation. RPE was reported, productivity (drawings per min measured, and bipolar surface electromyography (EMG recorded from the dominant upper trapezius during pauses and sessions of computer work. Repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests was applied for the statistical analyses. Results The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular trapezius part during the subsequent pause from computer work (p Conclusion Since a preceding high intensity shoulder elevation did not impose a negative impact on perceived effort, productivity or upper trapezius activity during computer work, implementation of high intensity contraction during computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a

  7. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, such as wollastonite, zirconium silicate, and alumino-silicate melts were successfully done indicating that plasma melting has potential application beyond glass. Experimental results were generated that show the high quality of plasma-melted fiberglass compositions, such as E-glass, can result in good fiberizing performance. Fiberizing performance and tensile strength data were achieved during the project to support this conclusion. High seed counts are a feature of the current lab scale melter and must be dealt with via other means, since fining work was outside the scope of this project.

  8. A 3 GHz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Dehler, M; Godot, J C

    1996-01-01

    For the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) at CERN a new rf gun with a laser driven photocathode is under construction. The new rf gun will replace the present 11/2 cell gun and will consist of 21/2 cells accelerating the beam to a momentum of 7.0 MeV/c with an electric field strength of 100 MV/m. The strong space-charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches are contained by radial and longitudinal rf focusing in the gun. The rf gun under construction has been optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating rf structure and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 21/2 cell gun. The beam loading of the rf gun, by a train of 48 bunches with 21 nC charge each, causes a strong energy decay accompanied by an increase of the flight time for the bunches with lower energy. These effects can be corrected by slightly shifting the acceleration frequency of the gun. The experimental results...

  9. High-intensity light-ion beam research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Colombant, D.G.; Barker, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    High-brightness proton beams (.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm 2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of GT 10 TW/cm 2 rad 2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equitorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA-II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominately azimuthally-symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about .25 MA/cm 2 . Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>= 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport, plasma-filled, magnetic-focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  10. High Performance Data Transfer for Distributed Data Intensive Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chin [Zettar Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Cottrell, R ' Les' A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hanushevsky, Andrew B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kroeger, Wilko [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yang, Wei [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We report on the development of ZX software providing high performance data transfer and encryption. The design scales in: computation power, network interfaces, and IOPS while carefully balancing the available resources. Two U.S. patent-pending algorithms help tackle data sets containing lots of small files and very large files, and provide insensitivity to network latency. It has a cluster-oriented architecture, using peer-to-peer technologies to ease deployment, operation, usage, and resource discovery. Its unique optimizations enable effective use of flash memory. Using a pair of existing data transfer nodes at SLAC and NERSC, we compared its performance to that of bbcp and GridFTP and determined that they were comparable. With a proof of concept created using two four-node clusters with multiple distributed multi-core CPUs, network interfaces and flash memory, we achieved 155Gbps memory-to-memory over a 2x100Gbps link aggregated channel and 70Gbps file-to-file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  11. A study of daily variation in cosmic ray intensity during high/low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion are adequately explained by the corotational concept. This concept supports the mean diurnal .... and fluctuations are responsible for the depression of CR intensity during high- speed solar wind events [28]. .... a depression of cosmic ray intensity in the garden hose (0900 h) direction; this is due to occurrence of solar ...

  12. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables and the VO2 response. METHODS: Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2-max: 72.4±8.0·mL/min/kg, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO): 432±31 W...

  13. Overnight fasting compromises exercise intensity and volume during sprint interval training but improves high-intensity aerobic endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tasuku; Toghi Eshghi, Saeed R; Liubaoerjijin, Yilina; Kennedy, Michael; Myette-Côté, Etienne; Fletcher, Kevin; G Boulé, Normand

    2018-04-04

    The combined effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and exercising in the fasted state are unknown. We compared the effects of SIT with exogenous carbohydrate supplementation (SITCHO) and SIT following overnight fast (SITFast) on aerobic capacity (peak oxygen consumption: V̇ O2peak) and high-intensity aerobic endurance (time-to-exhaustion at 85% V̇ O2peak [T85%]). Twenty male cyclists were randomized to SITCHO and SITFast. Both groups performed 30-second all-out cycling followed by 4-minute active recovery 3 times per week for 4 weeks, with the number of sprint bouts progressing from 4 to 7. Peak power output (PPO) and total mechanical work were measured for each sprint interval bout. The SITCHO group performed exercise sessions following breakfast and consumed carbohydrate drink during exercise, whereas the SITFast group performed exercise sessions following overnight fast and consumed water during exercise. Before and after training, V̇ O2peak and T85% were assessed. Blood glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations were measured during T85%. Overall PPO and mechanical work were lower in SITFast than SITCHO (3664.9 vs. 3871.7 Joules/kg; p=0.021 and 10.6 vs. 9.9 Watts/kg; p=0.010, respectively). Post- training V̇ O2peak did not differ between groups. Baseline-adjusted post-training T85% was longer in SITFast compared to SITCHO (19.7 ± 3.0 vs. 16.6 ± 3.0 minutes, ANCOVA p=0.038) despite no changes in circulating energy substrates or hormones. Our results suggest that SITFast compromises exercise intensity and volume but still can have a greater impact on the ability to sustain high-intensity aerobic endurance exercise compared to SITCHO.

  14. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  15. Can high-intensity exercise be more pleasant?: attentional dissociation using music and video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Karageorghis, Costas I; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

    2014-10-01

    Theories suggest that external stimuli (e.g., auditory and visual) may be rendered ineffective in modulating attention when exercise intensity is high. We examined the effects of music and parkland video footage on psychological measures during and after stationary cycling at two intensities: 10% of maximal capacity below ventilatory threshold and 5% above. Participants (N = 34) were exposed to four conditions at each intensity: music only, video only, music and video, and control. Analyses revealed main effects of condition and exercise intensity for affective valence and perceived activation (p attention (p music-only and music-and-video conditions led to the highest valence and enjoyment scores during and after exercise regardless of intensity. Findings indicate that attentional manipulations can exert a salient influence on affect and enjoyment even at intensities slightly above ventilatory threshold.

  16. Time Integrated Soft X-ray Imaging in High Intensity Laser Experiments (thesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2009 marks a significant achievement and the dawn of a new era in high intensity laser research with the final commissioning of all 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF is a department of energy (DOE) funded project more than 10 years in the making located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The following research was done as one of many preliminary experiments done to prepare for these historic events. The primary focus of the experimental campaign this paper addresses is to test and develop a thermal x-radiation source using a short pulse laser. This data is hoped to provide information about the thermal transport mechanisms important in the development of prediction models in High Energy Density (HED) science. One of several diagnostics fielded was a soft x-ray imager (SXRI) which is detailed in this paper. The SXRI will be used to measure the relative size of the heated region and also the relative level of specific x-ray emissions among several shot and target configurations. The laser system used was the Titan laser located in the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Titan uses the JLF Janus Nd:glass laser west frontend system with a Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) in place of the nanosecond oscillator. The system is capable of producing laser intensities of over a petawatt with several tens of joules delivered in the beam.

  17. ORBIT: A code for collective beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Danilov, V.; Galambos, J.; Shishlo, A.; Cousineau, S.; Chou, W.; Michelotti, L.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Wei, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection, including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK; the introduction of a treatment of magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  18. ORBIT: A Code for Collective Beam Dynamics in High-Intensity Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. A.; Danilov, V.; Galambos, J.; Shishlo, A.; Cousineau, S.; Chou, W.; Michelotti, L.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Wei, J.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection, including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK; the introduction of a treatment of magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings.

  19. ORBIT: A CODE FOR COLLECTIVE BEAM DYNAMICS IN HIGH INTENSITY RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLMES, J.A.; DANILOV, V.; GALAMBOS, J.; SHISHLO, A.; COUSINEAU, S.; CHOU, W.; MICHELOTTI, L.; OSTIGUY, J.F.; WEI, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection, including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK, the introduction of a treatment of magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  20. Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field and thermal treatments on a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Estela, C; Giner, J; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martin, O

    2002-01-01

    Milk and dairy products may contain microorganisms capable of secreting lipases that cause sensory defects and technological problems in the dairy industry. In this study, the effects of thermal and high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments on an extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, suspended in a simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF) have been evaluated. Heat treatments applied were up to 30 min from 50 to 90 degrees C. HIPEF treatments were carried out using pilot plant facilities in a batch or continuous flow mode, where treatment chambers consisted of parallel and coaxial configuration, respectively. Samples were subjected to up to 80 pulses at electric field intensities ranging from 16.4 to 37.3 kV/cm. This resulted in a lipase that was quite resistant to heat and also to HIPEF. High (75 degrees C-15 s) and low pasteurization treatments (63 degrees C-30 min) led to inactivations of 5 and 20%, respectively. Using the batch-mode HIPEF equipment, a 62.1% maximum activity depletion was achieved after 80 pulses at 27.4 kV/cm. However, when HIPEF treatments were applied in the continuous flow mode, an inactivation rate of just 13% was achieved, after applying 80 pulses at 37.3 kV/cm and 3.5 Hz. The results of both heat and HIPEF treatments on enzyme inactivation were adjusted with good agreement to a first-order kinetic model (R2 > 62.3%).

  1. Virtual coaching for the high-intensity training of a powerlifter following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard; Adams, Jenny; Qin, Huanying; Bilbrey, Tim; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old powerlifter in Tennessee learned about the sport-specific, high-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training available in Dallas, Texas, and contacted the staff by phone. He was recovering from quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and had completed several weeks of traditional cardiac rehabilitation in his hometown, but the exercise program no longer met his needs. He wanted help in returning both to his normal training regimen and to powerlifting competition but was unable to attend the Dallas program in person. An exercise physiologist with the program devised a virtual coaching model in which the patient was sent a wrist blood pressure cuff for self-monitoring and was advised about exercises that would not harm his healing sternum, even as the weight loads were gradually increased. After 17 weeks of symptom-limited, high-intensity training that was complemented by phone and e-mail support, the patient was lifting heavier loads than he had before CABG. At a powerlifting competition 10 months after CABG, he placed first in his age group. This case report exemplifies the need for alternative approaches to the delivery of cardiac rehabilitation services.

  2. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S; Rossi, Fabrício E; Cholewa, Jason M; Campos, Eduardo Z; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO 2max ) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO 2max ). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L -1 , p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p < 0.001). Both exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p < 0.005), but higher values were observed in the High-Intensity exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, over the same distance, Moderate-Intensity and High-Intensity exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO 2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses.

  3. A Comparative Study of Spectral Auroral Intensity Predictions From Multiple Electron Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Guy; Michell, Robert; Samara, Marilia; Hampton, Donald; Hecht, James; Solomon, Stanley; Jahn, Jorg-Micha

    2018-01-01

    It is important to routinely examine and update models used to predict auroral emissions resulting from precipitating electrons in Earth's magnetotail. These models are commonly used to invert spectral auroral ground-based images to infer characteristics about incident electron populations when in situ measurements are unavailable. In this work, we examine and compare auroral emission intensities predicted by three commonly used electron transport models using varying electron population characteristics. We then compare model predictions to same-volume in situ electron measurements and ground-based imaging to qualitatively examine modeling prediction error. Initial comparisons showed differences in predictions by the GLobal airglOW (GLOW) model and the other transport models examined. Chemical reaction rates and radiative rates in GLOW were updated using recent publications, and predictions showed better agreement with the other models and the same-volume data, stressing that these rates are important to consider when modeling auroral processes. Predictions by each model exhibit similar behavior for varying atmospheric constants, energies, and energy fluxes. Same-volume electron data and images are highly correlated with predictions by each model, showing that these models can be used to accurately derive electron characteristics and ionospheric parameters based solely on multispectral optical imaging data.

  4. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-02-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal's neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Numerical modeling of an intense precipitation event and its associated lightning activity over northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharoulis, I.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Tegoulias, I.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates an intense precipitation event and its lightning activity that affected northern Greece and primarily Thessaloniki on 15 July 2014. The precipitation measurement of 98.5 mm in 15 h at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki set a new absolute record maximum. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the event took place in an environment that could support deep thunderstorm activity. The development of this intense event was associated with significant low-level convergence and upper-level divergence even before its triggering and a positive vertical gradient of relative vorticity advection. The high resolution (1.667 km × 1.667 km) non-hydrostatic WRF-ARW numerical weather prediction model was used to simulate this intense precipitation event, while the Lightning Potential Index was utilized to calculate the potential for lightning activity. Sensitivity experiments suggested that although the strong synoptic forcing assumed primary role in the occurrence of intense precipitation and lightning activity, their spatiotemporal variability was affected by topography. The application of the very fine resolution topography of NASA Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission improved the simulated precipitation and the calculated lightning potential.

  6. Experimental study of proton acceleration with ultra-high intensity, high contrast laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flacco, A.

    2008-07-01

    This thesis reports experimental work in the domain of laser-matter interaction to study the production of energetic proton beams. The ion beams accelerated by laser have been increasing in quality, in energy and in repeatability as laser technology keeps improving. The presence of the pedestal before the high peak laser pulse introduces many unknowns in the accelerating conditions that are created on the front and on the rear surface of the target. The first part of the experimental activities is focused to a better comprehension and the experimental validation of the interaction of a 'pedestal-like', moderate intensity, laser pulse on Aluminum targets. The developed interferometric technique proved to be reliable and produced a complete set of maps of the early stages of the plasma expansion. The reflectometry experiment stresses the importance of the quality of the metallic targets and underlines some obscure points on the behaviour of the rear surface of the illuminated foil. For instance the reflectometry measurements on the thicker targets are significantly different from what is foreseen by the simulations about the timescale of the shock break out. In the second part, the XPW laser pulse is used in ion acceleration from thin metal foils. The laser and target parameters are varied to put in evidence the dependence of the ion beam to the experimental condition. In conclusion I can say that first, during the variation of the target thickness, an optimum is put in evidence. Secondly, the correlation between the laser pulse duration and the proton cutoff energy is qualitatively different between thicker (15 μm) and thinner (1.5 μm, 3 μm) targets. For the first, an optimal pulse duration exists while for the seconds, no variation is found - in the searched space - from the monotonic decreasing of the cutoff energy with the peak intensity. The experimental results put however in evidence some points that are not completely understood. (A.C.)

  7. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina

    2009-01-01

    -up. INTERVENTION: Supervised exercise comprising high intensity cardiovascular and resistance training, relaxation and body awareness training, massage, nine hours weekly for six weeks in addition to conventional care, compared with conventional care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: European Organization for Research...

  8. Work in progress at the North Area High Intensity Facility (NAHIF)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Installation of the H10, high intensity pion beamto the forst experiment NA10, showing, in particular, a pair of 5 m long, toroidally-magnetized muon collimators (or 'scrapers') designed to defocus negative muons around the negative pion beam.

  9. A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.H.; Minakawa, M.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

  10. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette K; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction...... on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. METHODS: 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder....... RESULTS: The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular) trapezius...

  11. Photocathode fatigue of L-24 PM head due to high intensity light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.F.

    1980-01-08

    The sensitivity of radiation detectors which utilizes photomultipliers was determined after exposing the multiplier phototubes to high intensity light pulses. Test results found that generally less than a 5% change was found. (FS)

  12. High intensity radiated field external environments for civil aircraft operating in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NAWCAD Patuxent River, Maryland, was tasked by the FAA to determine the High Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) levels for civil aircraft operating in the U.S. The electromagnetic field survey will apply to civil aircraft seeking FAA certification under...

  13. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  14. High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) versus TENS and NSAIDs in low back pain: clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zati, Allesandro; Fortuna, Damiano; Valent, A.; Filippi, M. V.; Bilotta, Teresa W.

    2004-09-01

    Low back pain, caused by lumbar disc herniation, is prevalently treated with a conservative approach. In this study we valued the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT), compared with accepted therapies such as TENS and NSAIDs. Laser therapy obtained similar results in the short term, but better clinical effect over time than TENS and NSAIDs. In conclusion high intensity laser therapy appears to be a interesting new treatment, worthy of further research.

  15. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Y; Harada, Y; Ikeno, K

    2002-01-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics.

  16. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mette K; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Olsen, Henrik B; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2009-08-10

    Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder elevation. RPE was reported, productivity (drawings per min) measured, and bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) recorded from the dominant upper trapezius during pauses and sessions of computer work. Repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests was applied for the statistical analyses. The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular) trapezius part during the subsequent pause from computer work (p shoulder elevation did not impose a negative impact on perceived effort, productivity or upper trapezius activity during computer work, implementation of high intensity contraction during computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a pause with preceding high intensity contraction requires further investigation before high

  17. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  18. Comparison of High-Intensity Laser Therapy and Ultrasound Treatment in the Patients with Lumbar Discopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Boyraz, Ismail; Yildiz, Ahmet; Koc, Bunyamin; Sarman, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of high intensity laser and ultrasound therapy in patients who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation and who were capable of performing physical exercises. 65 patients diagnosed with lumbar disc were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 received 10 sessions of high intensity laser to the lumbar region, Group 2 received 10 sessions of ultrasound, and Group 3 received medical therapy...

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  20. Associations of Low- and High-Intensity Light Activity with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bethany; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Sethi, Parneet; Carson, Valerie; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, J O; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-10-01

    Light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) accounts for much of adults' waking hours (≈40%) and substantially contributes to overall daily energy expenditure. Encompassing activity behaviors of low intensity (standing with little movement) to those of higher intensity (slow walking), LIPA is ubiquitous, yet little is known about how associations with health may vary depending on its intensity. We examined the associations of objectively assessed LIPA (categorized as either low LIPA [LLPA] or high LIPA [HLPA]) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured in 4614 US adults (47 ± 17 yr) who participated in the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles. Multiple linear regression analyses examined the associations of three accelerometer-derived physical activity (SD increment per day) intensity categories (LLPA, 100-761 counts per minute; HLPA, 762-1951 counts per minute; moderate-intensity physical activity [MPA], 1952-5724 counts per minute; vigorous-intensity physical activity [VPA], ≥5725 counts per minute) with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and medical confounders. All intensities of physical activity were beneficially associated with waist circumference, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, fasting insulin, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity (P activity intensities showed significant associations with systolic blood pressure (LLPA), body mass index, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, and 2-h plasma glucose (HLPA, MPA, and VPA). Generally, effect size increased with intensity of physical activity. Overall, further adjustment for waist circumference attenuated associations with MPA and VPA to a greater extent than associations with LLPA and HLPA. The cross-sectional findings provide novel evidence for the potential benefits of increasing both LLPA and HLPA. They further reinforce the

  1. High versus Low Intensity Summer Treatment for ADHD Delivered at Secondary School Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Coxe, Stefany J; Campez, Mileini; Morley, Candance; Olson, Sandra; Hidalgo-Gato, Nick; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Greiner, Andrew; Coles, Erika K; Page, Timothy; Pelham, William E

    2018-01-01

    Spikes in symptom severity are noted for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at the transitions to middle and high school that are attributed to developmental maladjustment. This study evaluated the effectiveness of high-intensity (HI; 412 hr, $4,373 per participant) versus low-intensity (LI; 24 hr, $97 per participant) skills-based summer intervention delivered to adolescents with ADHD by local school district staff. Participants were 325 ethnically diverse rising sixth and ninth graders with ADHD randomized to HI versus LI (n = 218) or recruited into an untreated comparison group (n = 107). Group × Time 1-year outcome trajectories were compared using linear mixed models. Both interventions possessed high fidelity and were viewed by families as enjoyable and beneficial. Youth attendance was higher for HI (~80%) versus LI (~45%). Parent training attendance was uniform across groups (~50%). Parent and student attendance did not impact trajectories. Primary benefits of HI over LI were to note taking (d = .50), parent contingency management (d = .43), and parent-rated ADHD symptoms (d = .40-.46; ninth grade only). Secondary analyses suggested that HI may produce additional benefits compared to no treatment for home organization skills (HI vs. untreated d = .54), parent-teen conflict (HI vs. untreated d = .39), and grade point average (HI vs. untreated d = .47, ninth grade only). Summer HI treatment was superior to LI in engagement and uptake of certain skills. However, the extent to which these medium benefits on a limited number of outcomes justify high costs compared to LI remains an open question. Delivering treatment during the summer instead of school year may limit generalizability.

  2. The experiences of high intensity therapists delivering cognitive behavioural therapy to people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Hayley; Chinn, Deborah; Gannon, Kenneth; Scior, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) should be able to access the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, currently a main provider of mainstream mental health services in England. IAPT offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to individuals experiencing mental health problems, although its effectiveness for people with ID, when delivered within IAPT, is unclear. Ten high-intensity therapists took part in semi-structured interviews, analysed using thematic analysis, regarding their experiences of delivering CBT to people with ID in IAPT. The rigidity of the IAPT model appears to offer a poor fit with the needs of people with ID. Therapists appeared uncertain about how to modify CBT and highlighted training and service development needs. Findings suggest barriers to accessing IAPT largely remain unaddressed where people with ID are concerned. Services may need to reconsider what constitutes appropriate reasonable adjustments to ensure equitable access. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available can be drawn. • A methodology for rock-scene segmentation that com- bines intensity and range image analysis to reduce the effects of texture and color density variations is presented. • Post-processing in the form of outlier rejection... to the environment under imaging: poor lighting; color density and texture variations. Lighting conditions have been controlled through the elimination of natural lighting and proper design of syn- thetic lighting [3]. We present a methodology that avoids...

  4. PIMS—A simple and robust accelerating structure for high intensity proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, F

    2009-01-01

    A π-mode structure (PIMS) is investigated for an application in a high duty cycle, high intensity proton Linac. Motivated by the objective to employ a simple and robust accelerating structure at a resonance frequency of 352 MHz for the high energy part of Linac4 (100–160 MeV), the normal conducting LEP cavity is restudied and its design is adopted for a medium application. The geometry of the accelerating cell is optimised, the necessary cell-to-cell coupling coefficient is analysed and a novel solution for the shape of the coupling slots is discussed. Simulation results are compared to measurement results obtained from three 3-cell cold models and one 7-cell cold model. The method of tuning the resonance frequency of individual cells is presented and the tuning of end cells is explained in detail. An adjustable wave guide coupler is used to power the cavities, and we present the design process for this device. The behaviour of the PIMS to dynamical changes—as observed during the filling process of the c...

  5. High-Intensity Interval Training Interventions in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddolls, William T B; McNarry, Melitta A; Stratton, Gareth; Winn, Charles O N; Mackintosh, Kelly A

    2017-11-01

    Whilst there is increasing interest in the efficacy of high-intensity interval training in children and adolescents as a time-effective method of eliciting health benefits, there remains little consensus within the literature regarding the most effective means for delivering a high-intensity interval training intervention. Given the global health issues surrounding childhood obesity and associated health implications, the identification of effective intervention strategies is imperative. The aim of this review was to examine high-intensity interval training as a means of influencing key health parameters and to elucidate the most effective high-intensity interval training protocol. Studies were included if they: (1) studied healthy children and/or adolescents (aged 5-18 years); (2) prescribed an intervention that was deemed high intensity; and (3) reported health-related outcome measures. A total of 2092 studies were initially retrieved from four databases. Studies that were deemed to meet the criteria were downloaded in their entirety and independently assessed for relevance by two authors using the pre-determined criteria. From this, 13 studies were deemed suitable. This review found that high-intensity interval training in children and adolescents is a time-effective method of improving cardiovascular disease biomarkers, but evidence regarding other health-related measures is more equivocal. Running-based sessions, at an intensity of >90% heart rate maximum/100-130% maximal aerobic velocity, two to three times a week and with a minimum intervention duration of 7 weeks, elicit the greatest improvements in participant health. While high-intensity interval training improves cardiovascular disease biomarkers, and the evidence supports the effectiveness of running-based sessions, as outlined above, further recommendations as to optimal exercise duration and rest intervals remain ambiguous owing to the paucity of literature and the methodological limitations of

  6. High-intensity erotic visual stimuli de-activate the primary visual cortex in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu K; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the pictures or movies. However, in case the volunteers perform demanding non-visual tasks, the primary visual cortex becomes de-activated, although the amount of incoming visual sensory information is the same. Do low- and high-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies, produce similar de-activation of the primary visual cortex? Brain activation/de-activation was studied by Positron Emission Tomography scanning of the brains of 12 healthy heterosexual premenopausal women, aged 18-47, who watched neutral, low- and high-intensity erotic film segments. We measured differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the primary visual cortex during watching neutral, low-intensity erotic, and high-intensity erotic film segments. Watching high-intensity erotic, but not low-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies resulted in strong de-activation of the primary (BA 17) and adjoining parts of the secondary visual cortex. The strong de-activation during watching high-intensity erotic film might represent compensation for the increased blood supply in the brain regions involved in sexual arousal, also because high-intensity erotic movies do not require precise scanning of the visual field, because the impact is clear to the observer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Moderate volume of high relative training intensity produces greater strength gains compared with low and high volumes in competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Badillo, Juan José; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 3 volumes of heavy resistance, average relative training intensity (expressed as a percentage of 1 repetition maximum that represented the absolute kilograms lifted divided by the number of repetitions performed) programs on maximal strength (1RM) in Snatch (Sn), Clean & Jerk (C&J), and Squat (Sq). Twenty-nine experienced (>3 years), trained junior weightlifters were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 groups: low-intensity group (LIG; n = 12), moderate-intensity group (MIG; n = 9), and high-intensity group (HIG; n = 8). All subjects trained for 10 weeks, 4-5 days a week, in a periodized routine using the same exercises and training volume (expressed as total number of repetitions performed at intensities equal to or greater than 60% of 1RM), but different programmed total repetitions at intensities of >90-100% of 1RM for the entire 10-week period: LIG (46 repetitions), MIG (93 repetitions), and HIG (184 repetitions). During the training period, MIG and LIG showed a significant increase (p strength gains in the MIG than in HIG or LIG. There were no significant differences between LIG and HIG training volume-induced strength gains. All the subjects in HIG were unable to fully accomplish the repetitions programmed at relative intensities greater than 90% of 1RM. The present results indicate that short-term resistance training using moderate volumes of high relative intensity tended to produce higher enhancements in weightlifting performance compared with low and high volumes of high relative training intensities of equal total volume in experienced, trained young weightlifters. Therefore, for the present population of weightlifters, it may be beneficial to use the MIG training protocol to improve the weightlifting program at least in a short-term (10 weeks) cycle of training.

  8. Analysis of Schistosomiasis haematobium infection prevalence and intensity in Chikhwawa, Malawi: an application of a two part model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, Michael G; Ngwira, Bagrey; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2013-01-01

    Urinary Schistosomiasis infection, a common cause of morbidity especially among children in less developed countries, is measured by the number of eggs per urine. Typically a large proportion of individuals are non-egg excretors, leading to a large number of zeros. Control strategies require better understanding of its epidemiology, hence appropriate methods to model infection prevalence and intensity are crucial, particularly if such methods add value to targeted implementation of interventions. We consider data that were collected in a cluster randomized study in 2004 in Chikhwawa district, Malawi, where eighteen (18) villages were selected and randomised to intervention and control arms. We developed a two-part model, with one part for analysis of infection prevalence and the other to model infection intensity. In both parts of the model we adjusted for age, sex, education level, treatment arm, occupation, and poly-parasitism. We also assessed for spatial correlation in the model residual using variogram analysis and mapped the spatial variation in risk. The model was fitted using maximum likelihood estimation. The study had a total of 1642 participants with mean age of 32.4 (Standard deviation: 22.8), of which 55.4 % were female. Schistosomiasis prevalence was 14.2 %, with a large proportion of individuals (85.8 %) being non-egg excretors, hence zero-inflated data. Our findings showed that S. haematobium was highly localized even after adjusting for risk factors. Prevalence of infection was low in males as compared to females across all the age ranges. S. haematobium infection increased with presence of co-infection with other parasite infection. Infection intensity was highly associated with age; with highest intensity in school-aged children (6 to 15 years). Fishing and working in gardens along the Shire River were potential risk factors for S. haematobium infection intensity. Intervention reduced both infection intensity and prevalence in the intervention

  9. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  10. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin...

  11. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (pperformance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  13. Self-Consistent simulations of High-Intensity Beams and E-Clouds with WARP POSINST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Friendman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new, comprehensive set of simulation tools aimed at modeling the interaction of intense ion beams and electron clouds (e-clouds). The set contains the 3-D accelerator PIC codeWARP and the 2-D ''slice'' ecloud code POSINST, as well as a merger of the two, augmented by new modules for impact ionization and neutral gas generation. The new capability runs on workstations or parallel supercomputers and contains advanced features such as mesh refinement, disparate adaptive time stepping, and a new ''drift-Lorentz'' particle mover for tracking charged particles in magnetic fields using large time steps. It is being applied to the modeling of ion beams (1 MeV, 180 mA, K+) for heavy ion inertial fusion and warm dense matter studies, as they interact with electron clouds in the High-Current Experiment (HCX). In earlier papers, we described the capabilities and presented recent simulation results with detailed comparisons against the HCX experiment, as well as their application (in a different regime) to the modeling of e-clouds in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We concentrate here on the description of the implementation of the ''quasi-static'' mode of operation, for comparison with other codes, and introduce a new consideration on the estimate of computing time between the quasi-static and the fully self-consistent modes

  14. High-intensity exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and markers of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Brendan; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Patrick; Frenneaux, Michael P; Gray, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Regular exercise can reduce the risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). Although moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate postprandial TAG (triacylglycerol), high-intensity intermittent exercise might be a more effective method to improve health. We compared the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise and 30 min of brisk walking on postprandial TAG, soluble adhesion molecules and markers of oxidative stress. Nine men each completed three 2-day trials. On day 1, subjects rested (control), walked briskly for 30 min (walking) or performed 5×30 s maximal sprints (high-intensity). On day 2, subjects consumed a high-fat meal for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TAG, glucose, insulin, ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular adhesion molecule-1), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances), protein carbonyls and β-hydroxybutyrate. On day 2 of the high-intensity trial, there was a lower (Ppostprandial TAG and markers of oxidative stress after the consumption of a high-fat meal.

  15. A numerical and experimental investigation of the performance of sound intensity probes at high frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Cutanda, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    1998-01-01

    The high-frequency performance of a p-p intensity probe with a solid spacer between the two microphones is examined. It is shown theoretically and verified experimentally that with a spacer length that equals the diameter of the microphones, the finite difference error is almost perfectly cancell...... by a cavity resonance. It is concluded that the usable frequency range of sound intensity probes can be doubled with this configuration....

  16. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, O Peter

    2013-01-01

    O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief ...

  17. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least...... substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration...... of the generated compound. Other proccesses including plasma like exhaust gas cleaning, pollution control, odor removal, fuel conversion, sterilization, and oxidation can also be enhanced...

  18. HIGH INTENSITY PHYSICAL TRAINING EXERCISE PROGRAM IN IMPROVING BREAST CANCER RELATED FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intsar S. Wake

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is a prevalent disease that requires intense and prolonged treatments. Because of improved detection and treatment options, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased, greatly increasing the number of survivors who are living with the disease and its side effects. Fatigue is one of the most common debilitating symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. It is a persistent feeling of exhaustion and decreased physical and mental capacity unrelieved by rest or sleep. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the effect of high intensity physical training exercise program in improving breast cancer related fatigue. Methods: Forty six patients suffering from breast cancer related fatigue, were randomly divided into two groups of equal number. Exercise group (E; received high intensity physical training program while Control group (C received usual medical care and kept their habitual activity. The intensity of fatigue and quality of life score were measured at the beginning and after eight weeks of treatment. Results: Results of the study showed that there was significant reduction of fatigue after eight weeks in exercise (E group more than control group with the percentage of improvement was 53%, 2% respectively. As regard to QOL measurements, there was significant increase of QOL score after treatment in exercise (E group more than control group with the percentage of improvement was 43%, 3% respectively. Conclusion: High intensity physical exercise program may have beneficial effects in reduction of fatigue intensity and thereby improving quality of life in breast cancer patient.

  19. MODELLING OF SHORT DURATION RAINFALL (SDR INTENSITY EQUATIONS FOR ERZURUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan ŞENOCAK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to develop a rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF equation for some return periods at Erzurum rainfall station. The maximum annual rainfall values for 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes are statistically analyzed for the period 1956 – 2004 by using some statistical distributions such as the Generalized Extreme Values (GEV, Gumbel, Normal, Two-parameter Lognormal, Three-parameter Lognormal, Gamma, Pearson type III and Log-Pearson type III distributions. ?2 goodness-of-fit test was used to choose the best statistical distribution among all distributions. IDF equation constants and coefficients of correlation (R for each emprical functions are calculated using nonlinear estimation method for each return periods (T = 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 years. The most suitable IDF equation is observed that ( B max i (t = A/ t + C , except for T=100 years, because of the highest coefficients of correlation.

  20. In-Season High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Conditioning In High School Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Neal; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2017-01-01

    Soccer is characterized by high aerobic demands interspersed with frequent bursts of anaerobic activity. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered a viable alternative to traditional endurance conditioning and offers the additional time-saving benefits of anaerobic training. We hypothesized that HIIT will compare favorably to traditional (aerobic-based) soccer conditioning over the course of a high school soccer season. Junior varsity soccer players were split into control (CON, n=16) and experimental (HIIT, n=16) groups for the 10-week study. The HIIT group performed 4-6 "all-out" sprints lasting 30s each, with 4.5 minute recovery, 3 times a week. The CON group performed endurance running for the same duration. The groups did not differ in any other aspect of their training. Participants completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (IR1), a 40-yard dash, vertical jump, Illinois agility test, and a sit-and-reach test, in two different testing sessions (pre/post season). Both HIIT and CON groups exhibited significant increase in IR1 test performance with time (741.6±307.6m vs. 1067.6±356.8m, p 40-yard dash over time (5.48±0.36s vs. 5.21±0.16s, p <0.004). While there was a difference in vertical jump between the pre and post tests for the HIIT group (42.20±7.04cm vs. 47.87±750cm respectively, p <0.019), no such effect was observed in the CON group. In contrast, there were differences in the agility test only for the CON group over time (16.67±0.76s vs. 16.15±0.49s, p <0.001). There were no differences in the flexibility test between groups. Our results indicate that HIIT offers similar endurance improvements to more traditional soccer training.

  1. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  2. Predictive models for pressure ulcers from intensive care unit electronic health records using Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprag, Pacharmon; Newton, Cheryl; Vermillion, Brenda; Hyun, Sookyung; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu

    2017-07-05

    We develop predictive models enabling clinicians to better understand and explore patient clinical data along with risk factors for pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients from electronic health record data. Identifying accurate risk factors of pressure ulcers is essential to determining appropriate prevention strategies; in this work we examine medication, diagnosis, and traditional Braden pressure ulcer assessment scale measurements as patient features. In order to predict pressure ulcer incidence and better understand the structure of related risk factors, we construct Bayesian networks from patient features. Bayesian network nodes (features) and edges (conditional dependencies) are simplified with statistical network techniques. Upon reviewing a network visualization of our model, our clinician collaborators were able to identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. We present a three-stage framework for predictive analysis of patient clinical data: 1) Developing electronic health record feature extraction functions with assistance of clinicians, 2) simplifying features, and 3) building Bayesian network predictive models. We evaluate all combinations of Bayesian network models from different search algorithms, scoring functions, prior structure initializations, and sets of features. From the EHRs of 7,717 ICU patients, we construct Bayesian network predictive models from 86 medication, diagnosis, and Braden scale features. Our model not only identifies known and suspected high PU risk factors, but also substantially increases sensitivity of the prediction - nearly three times higher comparing to logistical regression models - without sacrificing the overall accuracy. We visualize a representative model with which our clinician collaborators identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. Given the strong adverse effect of pressure ulcers

  3. Detection of intensity bursts using Hawkes processes: An application to high-frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaldi, Marcello; Filimonov, Vladimir; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-03-01

    Given a stationary point process, an intensity burst is defined as a short time period during which the number of counts is larger than the typical count rate. It might signal a local nonstationarity or the presence of an external perturbation to the system. In this paper we propose a procedure for the detection of intensity bursts within the Hawkes process framework. By using a model selection scheme we show that our procedure can be used to detect intensity bursts when both their occurrence time and their total number is unknown. Moreover, the initial time of the burst can be determined with a precision given by the typical interevent time. We apply our methodology to the midprice change in foreign exchange (FX) markets showing that these bursts are frequent and that only a relatively small fraction is associated with news arrival. We show lead-lag relations in intensity burst occurrence across different FX rates and we discuss their relation with price jumps.

  4. Analysis of Internet Usage Intensity in Iraq: An Ordered Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Almas Heshmati; Firas H. Al-Hammadany; Ashraf Bany-Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Intensity of Internet use is significantly influenced by government policies, people’s levels of income, education, employment and general development and economic conditions. Iraq has very low Internet usage levels compared to the region and the world. This study uses an ordered logit model to analyse the intensity of Internet use in Iraq. The results showed that economic reasons (internet cost and income level) were key cause for low level usage intensity rates. About 68% of the population ...

  5. Characterization of a proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagisaka, Akito; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Mori, Michiaki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yogo, Akifumi; Kado, Masataka; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Shu

    2007-01-01

    High-energy protons are observed with a 3 μm thick tantalum target irradiated with a high intensity laser. The maximum proton energy is ∼900 keV. The half angle of the generated proton beam (>500 keV) is about 10deg. Characterization of the proton beam will significantly contribute to the proton applications. (author)

  6. Dynamics of cavitation clouds within a high-intensity focused ultrasonic beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this experimental study, we generate a 500 kHz high-intensity focused ultrasonic beam, with pressure amplitude in the focal zone of up to 1.9 MPa, in initially quiescent water. The resulting pressure field and behavior of the cavitation bubbles are measured using high-speed digital in-line

  7. Modeling jointly low, moderate, and heavy rainfall intensities without a threshold selection

    KAUST Repository

    Naveau, Philippe

    2016-04-09

    In statistics, extreme events are often defined as excesses above a given large threshold. This definition allows hydrologists and flood planners to apply Extreme-Value Theory (EVT) to their time series of interest. Even in the stationary univariate context, this approach has at least two main drawbacks. First, working with excesses implies that a lot of observations (those below the chosen threshold) are completely disregarded. The range of precipitation is artificially shopped down into two pieces, namely large intensities and the rest, which necessarily imposes different statistical models for each piece. Second, this strategy raises a nontrivial and very practical difficultly: how to choose the optimal threshold which correctly discriminates between low and heavy rainfall intensities. To address these issues, we propose a statistical model in which EVT results apply not only to heavy, but also to low precipitation amounts (zeros excluded). Our model is in compliance with EVT on both ends of the spectrum and allows a smooth transition between the two tails, while keeping a low number of parameters. In terms of inference, we have implemented and tested two classical methods of estimation: likelihood maximization and probability weighed moments. Last but not least, there is no need to choose a threshold to define low and high excesses. The performance and flexibility of this approach are illustrated on simulated and hourly precipitation recorded in Lyon, France.

  8. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  9. On the behavior of ion implanted silicon strip detectors in high intensity low energy heavy ion beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bradfield, W; Parker, P D; Visser, D W

    2002-01-01

    In a recent investigation of the development of leakage currents in Silicon Strip Detectors used in experiments with high intensity stable beams, anomalous behavior was observed. Over a very short period of time the leakage current rose to levels that could be damaging to the detectors. A discussion of this evidence and how the problem was solved, with a viable model, will be given, leading to guidelines for use of such detectors in a stable beam environment.

  10. Markov modulated Poisson process models incorporating covariates for rainfall intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayakaran, R; Ramesh, N I

    2013-01-01

    Time series of rainfall bucket tip times at the Beaufort Park station, Bracknell, in the UK are modelled by a class of Markov modulated Poisson processes (MMPP) which may be thought of as a generalization of the Poisson process. Our main focus in this paper is to investigate the effects of including covariate information into the MMPP model framework on statistical properties. In particular, we look at three types of time-varying covariates namely temperature, sea level pressure, and relative humidity that are thought to be affecting the rainfall arrival process. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to obtain the parameter estimates, and likelihood ratio tests are employed in model comparison. Simulated data from the fitted model are used to make statistical inferences about the accumulated rainfall in the discrete time interval. Variability of the daily Poisson arrival rates is studied.

  11. Isolation and rheological properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide from tamarind kernel powder using protease enzyme and high-intensity ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poommarinvarakul, Sukhum; Tattiyakul, Jirarat; Muangnapoh, Chirakarn

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of using protease and combinations of protease and high-intensity ultrasound for high-purity, high-yield tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) production was investigated. Tamarind kernel powder (TKP) suspension was treated with protease alone at 0.16, 0.48, and 0.80 units/mL and with protease-ultrasound combinations over 3 different orders of sequence (before, simultaneous with, and after protease digestion) using combinations of 0.48 units/mL protease and high-intensity ultrasound at 25% and 50% amplitude for 15 and 30 min. The long protease digestion time could produce high-purity isolated TSP, but the polysaccharide yields were lower. The polysaccharide purity and yield were highly improved, even at a shorter protease digestion time, when the protease treatment was combined with high-intensity ultrasound. The increased amplitude level and sonication time decreased the average molecular weight of the polysaccharide. The rheological properties of the TKP and the isolated TSP, from nondestructive oscillatory measurements, demonstrated that the latter present a viscoelastic solution. The decreasing of protein content resulted in better elasticity of the solution. The power law model could be used to fit the down curve between shear rate and shear stress data. The consistency coefficient (K) increased while the flow behavior index decreased with the increased purity of the polysaccharide as a result of increasing increased digestion time, enzyme concentration, sonication power, and sonication time.

  12. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Pperformance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  13. Free mobilization and low- to high-intensity exercise in immobilization-induced muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannus, P; Jozsa, L; Järvinen, T L; Kvist, M; Vieno, T; Järvinen, T A; Natri, A; Järvinen, M

    1998-04-01

    After 3 wk of immobilization, the effects of free cage activity and low- and high-intensity treadmill running (8 wk) on the morphology and histochemistry of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. In both muscles, immobilization produced a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the mean percent area of intramuscular connective tissue (soleus: 18.9% in immobilized left hindlimb vs. 3.6% in nonimmobilized right hindlimb) and in the relative number of muscle fibers with pathological alterations (soleus: 66% in immobilized hindlimb vs. 6% in control), with a simultaneous significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the intramuscular capillary density (soleus: mean capillary density in the immobilized hindlimb only 63% of that in the nonimmobilized hindlimb) and muscle fiber size (soleus type I fibers: mean fiber size in the immobilized hindlimb only 69% of that in the nonimmobilized hindlimb). Many of these changes could not be corrected by free remobilization, whereas low- and high-intensity treadmill running clearly restored the changes toward control levels, the effect being most complete in the high-intensity running group. Collectively, these findings indicate that immobilization-induced pathological structural and histochemical alterations in rat calf muscles are, to a great extent, reversible phenomena if remobilization is intensified by physical training. In this respect, high-intensity exercise seems more beneficial than low-intensity exercise.

  14. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, L.L.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. (author)

  15. The effects of taurine on vigabatrin, high light intensity and mydriasis induced retinal toxicity in the pigmented rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Allan D; Truchot, Nathalie; Pickersgill, Nigel; Thale, Zia Irene; Rosolen, Serge G; Botteron, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to establish a model that may be used for examining the effect of Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity in pigmented rats, and subsequently examine the possible effects of taurine on the retinal toxicity. In the first part of the study, pigmented Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis, low/high light intensities (40/2000 lx) and oral administration of near-MTD (Maximum Tolerated Dose) doses (200 mg/kg/day) of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. The combination of mydriasis and high light intensity applied to Long Evans rats resulted in retinal damage that was increased by the administration of Vigabatrin. In the second part of the study Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis and high/low light intensity (40/2000 lx) while being orally administered low (30 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/kg/day) doses of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. In addition, selected groups of animals were administered taurine via the drinking water (20 mg/ml), resulting in systemic taurine concentrations of approximately threefold the endogenous concentration. The combined results of the studies demonstrate that retinal damage can be induced in pigmented animals when combining mydriasis and high light intensity. Retinal damage was functionally evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), then confirmed by histopathology. While depending on mydriasis and high light intensity, administration of Vigabatrin increased the retinal toxicity and resulted in the formation of rosette-like structures in the retina in a dose-related manner. Administration of taurine did not alleviate the Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity, as demonstrated either functionally by ERG or morphologically, although systemic concentrations of 3-fold the endogenous levels were reached, and it was thus not possible to demonstrate a protective effect of taurine in these pigmented animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Pragmatic development of a laser ion source for intense highly-charged ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Shinji; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Maruyama, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Recently, applications of high-charge-state (including fully stripped) heavy-ion beams have been attracting interest in both physics and industry. To enhance their usefulness, more intense beams are required. Cancer therapy using carbon ions is a particularly promising heavy-ion beam application. Due to advances in laser technology, the laser ion source (LIS) has become one of the most popular sources for generating highly charged and intense heavy-ion beams. The project to develop a high-intensity LIS was started on June 2009. In our project, whose ultimate goal is to apply a heavy-ion accelerator for cancer therapy, we have almost completed designing the LIS, and manufacturing will commence soon. We intend to measure the source performance by performing plasma and beam tests up until the end of March 2011. We will report the outline and a progress of the project. (author)

  17. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women.......BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health...

  18. Automated system for the determination of patterns of high-intensity LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baly, L.; Bolaño, L.; Arteche, R.; Broco, Y.; Quesada, I.; Rodríguez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of high-intensity LEDs lighting patterns is an important step for the simulation and planning of arrays of these devices configurations. Currently there are systems based on CCD cameras able to efficiently solve this problem, however the high cost of these is a limiting factor for use. Another limitation of CCD cameras, is that they are designed for light levels much lower than those produced by a high-intensity LED. In this paper we present an automated system for the determination of the intensity of LEDs based on the scan point to point patterns. The results of the analysis of a type of LED based on arrays of bars with built-in optical system is presented.

  19. Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity endurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Daniel A; Maresh, Carl M; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2007-01-01

    Significant scientific evidence documents the deleterious effects of hypohydration (reduced total body water) on endurance exercise performance; however, the influence of hypohydration on muscular strength, power and high-intensity endurance (maximal activities lasting >30 seconds but physiological demands of strength, power and high-intensity endurance couple with a lack of scientific support to argue against previous hypotheses that suggest alterations in cardiovascular, metabolic and/or buffering function represent the performance-reducing mechanism of hypohydration. On the other hand, hypohydration might directly affect some component of the neuromuscular system, but this possibility awaits thorough evaluation. A critical review of the available literature suggests hypohydration limits strength, power and high-intensity endurance and, therefore, is an important factor to consider when attempting to maximise muscular performance in athletic, military and industrial settings.

  20. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...... lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training...

  1. The 'Critical Power' Concept: Applications to Sports Performance with a Focus on Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2017-03-01

    The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs. The amount of work that can be done during exercise above CP (the so-called W') is constant but may be utilized at different rates depending on the proximity of the exercise power output to CP. Traditionally, this two-parameter CP model has been employed to provide insights into physiological responses, fatigue mechanisms, and performance capacity during continuous constant power output exercise in discrete exercise intensity domains. However, many team sports (e.g., basketball, football, hockey, rugby) involve frequent changes in exercise intensity and, even in endurance sports (e.g., cycling, running), intensity may vary considerably with environmental/course conditions and pacing strategy. In recent years, the appeal of the CP concept has been broadened through its application to intermittent high-intensity exercise. With the assumptions that W' is utilized during work intervals above CP and reconstituted during recovery intervals below CP, it can be shown that performance during intermittent exercise is related to four factors: the intensity and duration of the work intervals and the intensity and duration of the recovery intervals. However, while the utilization of W' may be assumed to be linear, studies indicate that the reconstitution of W' may be curvilinear with kinetics that are highly variable between individuals. This has led to the development of a new CP model for intermittent exercise in

  2. A simple model for post-landfall intensity changes of tropical cyclone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model selection criteria. We used Genetic Algorithms (GA) to derive empir- ical functions that explain the post-landfall cyclone intensity in terms of initial intensity, post-landfall time span and cyclone structural parameters. GA is a search heuristic that mimics the process of natural evolution such as inheritance, mutation,.

  3. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Conceição, Miguel S; Damas, Felipe R; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Berton, Ricardo P B; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Roschel, Hamilton A; Cavaglieri, Claudia R; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HRT) has been recommended to offset age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. However, part of the elderly population is often unable to exercise at high intensities. Alternatively, low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LRT-BFR) has emerged. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LRT-BFR and HRT on quadriceps muscle strength and mass in elderly. Twenty-three elderly individuals, 14 men and 9 women (age, 64.04 ± 3.81 years; weight, 72.55 ± 16.52 kg; height, 163 ± 11 cm), undertook 12 weeks of training. Subjects were ranked according to their pretraining quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) values and then randomly allocated into one of the following groups: (a) control group, (b) HRT: 4 × 10 repetitions, 70-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and (c) LRT-BFR: 4 sets (1 × 30 and 3 × 15 repetitions), 20-30% 1RM. The occlusion pressure was set at 50% of maximum tibial arterial pressure and sustained during the whole training session. Leg press 1RM and quadriceps CSA were evaluated at before and after training. A mixed-model analysis was performed, and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Both training regimes were effective in increasing pre- to post-training leg press 1RM (HRT: ∼54%, p strength gains. In summary, LRT-BFR constitutes an important surrogate approach to HRT as an effective training method to induce gains in muscle strength and mass in elderly.

  4. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese

  5. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  6. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  7. Measurements of ion energies during plasma heating of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Caneses, J.; Diem, S. J.; Green, D. L.; Isler, R. C.; Rapp, J.; Piotrowicz, P.; Beers, C. J.; Kafle, N.; Showers, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity RF plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with ion and electron heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration with the goal of delivering a plasma heat flux of 10 MW/m2 at a target. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz RF power at levels >100 kW. Additional heating is provided by ion cyclotron heating (ICH) ( 25 kW) and electron Bernstein wave (EBW) heating ( 25 kW) at 28 GHz. Measurements of the ion energy distribution with a retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) show an increase in ion energies in the edge of the plasma when ICH is applied, which is consistent with COMSOL modeling of the power deposition from the antenna. Views of the target plate with an infrared camera show an increase in the surface temperature at large radii during ICH, and these areas map back to magnetic field lines near the antenna. The change in the power deposition at the target during ICH is compared with Thomson Scattering and RFEA measurements near the target. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  8. Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

  9. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  10. Strategies for minimizing emittance growths in high intensity CW FEL injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongxiu

    1996-01-01

    We discuss beam emittance growths in high intensity CW FEL injectors due to linear and non-linear space charge fields, phase space bifurcation, skew-quad effect, longitudinal momentum modification by space charges in bends, and equipartitioning, etc. We generalize Kim's RF laser gun theory to DC laser guns. We discuss the traditional free energy theory of emittance growth. The best strategies for designing high-intensity CW FEL injectors are derived, and their application to the design analysis of the CEBAF 10 MeV DC laser gun CW FEL injector test stand is discussed

  11. The Benefits of High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) Fitness Programs for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-01-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps’ High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program are increasingly popular among military personnel. This article reviews the practical, health, body composition, and military fitness implications of HIFT exercise programs. We conclude that, given the unique benefits of HIFT, the military should consider evaluating whether these programs should be the standard for military fitness training. PMID:27849484

  12. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...... with and without ball possession is reduced during various phases of elite-standard soccer matches and the activity profiles and fatigue patterns vary among playing positions. The current findings provide valuable information about the high-intensity running patterns of a large sample of elite-standard soccer...

  13. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  14. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Bacon

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise training studies frequently show modest changes in VO2max with training and very limited responses in some subjects. By contrast, studies using interval training (IT or combined IT and continuous training (CT have reported mean increases in VO2max of up to ~1.0 L · min(-1. This raises questions about the role of exercise intensity and the trainability of VO2max. To address this topic we analyzed IT and IT/CT studies published in English from 1965-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1≥ 3 healthy sedentary/recreationally active humans <45 yrs old, 2 training duration 6-13 weeks, 3 ≥ 3 days/week, 4 ≥ 10 minutes of high intensity work, 5 ≥ 1:1 work/rest ratio, and 6 results reported as mean ± SD or SE, ranges of change, or individual data. Due to heterogeneity (I(2 value of 70, statistical synthesis of the data used a random effects model. The summary statistic of interest was the change in VO2max. A total of 334 subjects (120 women from 37 studies were identified. Participants were grouped into 40 distinct training groups, so the unit of analysis was 40 rather than 37. An increase in VO2max of 0.51 L · min(-1 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.60 L · min(-1 was observed. A subset of 9 studies, with 72 subjects, that featured longer intervals showed even larger (~0.8-0.9 L · min(-1 changes in VO2max with evidence of a marked response in all subjects. These results suggest that ideas about trainability and VO2max should be further evaluated with standardized IT or IT/CT training programs.

  15. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HR peak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HR peak . Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  16. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  18. Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100 G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  19. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B.; Lee, E.P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  20. Photolysis of phosphodiester bonds in plasmid DNA by high intensity UV laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croke, D.T.; Blau, Werner; OhUigin, Colm; Kelly, J.M.; McConnell, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in DNA exposed to high intensity UV laser pulses in aerated aqueous solution has been investigated using a krypton fluoride excimer laser (248 nm) and bacterial plasmid DNA. The dependence of strand breakage on fluence and intensity has been studied in detail and shows that the process is non-linear with respect to intensity. The relationship between the quantum yield for strand breakage and intensity shows that the strand breakage reaction involves two-photon excitation of DNA bases. The quantum yield rises with intensity from a lower value of 7 x 10 -5 until a maximum value of 4.5 x 10 -4 is attained at intensities of 10 11 W m -2 and above. This value is approximately fifty-fold higher than the quantum yield for strand breakage induced by exposure to low density UV irradiation (254 nm, 12 W m -2 ). DNA sequencing experiments have shown that strand breakage occurs by the specific cleavage of the phosphodiester bond which lies immediately 3' to guanine residues in the DNA, leaving some alkali-labile remnant attached to the terminal phosphate. A mechanism for DNA strand breakage which involves the generation of guanine radical cations is proposed. (author)

  1. Predictive model for SEPSIS in the intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavoisier Morais de Medeiros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a probabilistic decision model for sepsis, early diagnosis. The data contained in the medical records of 100 individuals admitted to a general ICU in a public hospital in the inland of the State of Paraiba were analyzed, in the period from March to September, 2011. The studied variables were: age, gender, initial diagnosis, minimum and maximum axillary temperature, heart and breathing rate, oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure, lactate serum levels, potassium, sodium, total count of leukocytes, bands and segs., among others. The binary logistic regression were used to determine the prediction model, and data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 19.0. 63% of the subjects were male, with a 62.5 year average age. as explanatory variables the following were considered: minimum axillary temperature, maximum axillary temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure, lactate, white blood cell count and number of bands. Through ROC curve we identified the ideal cut-off point for classifying the subjects with regard to the presence or absence of disease, which has contributed to formulating the decision-making rule for sepsis early diagnosis. The concordance degree were compared between blood culture result regarded as gold standard for infection diagnosis and the model submitted in the study using Kappa coefficient, obtaining a 0.93 concordance percentage, regarded as outstanding. It was demonstrated being possible to carry out sepsis early detection adopting statistical models as the submitted one, however, new studies with populations from different ICUs must be performed in order to provide a better casuistry, making the found results reproducible in different clinical situations.

  2. Modelling cosmic ray intensities along the Ulysses trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Ndiitwani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Time dependent cosmic ray modulation in the inner heliosphere is studied by comparing results from a 2-D, time-dependent cosmic ray transport model with Ulysses observations. A compound approach, which combines the effects of the global changes in the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude with drifts to establish a realistic time-dependence, in the diffusion and drift coefficients, are used. We show that this model results in realistic cosmic ray modulation from the Ulysses launch (1990 until recently (2004 when compared to 2.5-GV electron and proton and 1.2-GV electron and Helium observations from this spacecraft. This approach is also applied to compute radial gradients present in 2.5-GV cosmic ray electron and protons in the inner heliosphere. The observed latitude dependence for both positive and negative charged particles during both the fast latitude scan periods, corresponding to different solar activity conditions, could also be realistically computed. For this an additional reduction in particle drifts (compared to diffusion toward solar maximum is needed. This results in a realistic charge-sign dependent modulation at solar maximum and the model is also applied to predict charge-sign dependent modulation up to the next expected solar minimum.

  3. A simple model for post-landfall intensity changes of tropical cyclone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    intercepted by cyclones during the landfall is a better predictor of post-landfall intensity compared to post-landfall time span. This approach ... Post-landfall intensity; genetic algorithm; probability; TC decay rate. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, No. ... High resolution maps of land–ocean surface types can be helpful to make the first ...

  4. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  5. Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Esarey, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schroeder, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-29

    In the framework of the project “Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas” we conducted the study of ion acceleration and “flying mirrors” with high intensity lasers in order to develop sources of ion beams and high frequency radiation for different applications. Since some schemes of laser ion acceleration are also considered a good source of “flying mirrors”, we proposed to investigate the mechanisms of “mirror” formation. As a result we were able to study the laser ion acceleration from thin foils and near critical density targets. We identified several fundamental factors limiting the acceleration in the RPA regime and proposed the target design to compensate these limitations. In the case of near critical density targets, we developed a concept for the laser driven ion source for the hadron therapy. Also we studied the mechanism of “flying mirror” generation during the intense laser interaction with thin solid density targets. As for the laser-based positron creation and capture we initially proposed to study different regimes of positron beam generation and positron beam cooling. Since the for some of these schemes a good quality electron beam is required, we studied the generation of ultra-low emittance electron beams. In order to understand the fundamental physics of high energy electron beam interaction with high intensity laser pulses, which may affect the efficient generation of positron beams, we studied the radiation reaction effects.

  6. Dose rate laser simulation tests adequacy: Shadowing and high intensity effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Skorobogatov, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of laser based simulation of the flash X-ray effects in microcircuits may be corrupted mainly due to laser radiation shadowing by the metallization and the non-linear absorption in a high intensity range. The numerical joint solution of the optical equations and the fundamental system of equations in a two-dimensional approximation were performed to adjust the application range of laser simulation. As a result the equivalent dose rate to laser intensity correspondence was established taking into account the shadowing as well as the high intensity effects. The simulation adequacy was verified in the range up to 4·10 11 rad(Si)/s with the comparative laser test of a specially designed test structure

  7. High-intensity interval training in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Heje, Karen; Buch, Astrid Emile

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that high-intensity training (HIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve fitness. HIT has never been explored in neuromuscular diseases, likely because it may seem counterintuitive. A single session of high-intensity exercise has been studied without signs...... fitness (3.3 ml O2/min/kg, CI 1.2-5.5, P training effect on other outcomes. Patients preferred HIT over strength and moderate-intensity aerobic training. It may seem...... counterintuitive to perform HIT in muscular dystrophies, but this RCT shows that regular HIT is safe, efficacious, and well liked by moderately affected patients with FSHD1, which suggests that HIT is a feasible method for rehabilitating patients with FSHD1....

  8. Shot-to-shot intensity and wavefront stability of high-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, S; Williams, G O; Boutu, W; Galtier, E; Barbrel, B; Lee, H J; Nagler, B; Zastrau, U; Dovillaire, G; Lee, R W; Merdji, H; Zeitoun, Ph; Fajardo, M

    2015-05-20

    We report on the shot-to-shot stability of intensity and spatial phase of high-harmonic generation (HHG). The intensity stability is measured for each high-harmonic (HH) order with a spectrometer. Additionally, the spatial phase is measured with an XUV wavefront sensor for a single HH order measured in a single shot, which according to our knowledge was not reported before with a Hartmann wavefront sensor. Furthermore, we compare the single-shot measurement of the spatial phase with time-integrated measurements and we show that the XUV wavefront sensor is a useful tool to simultaneously optimize the spatial phase and intensity of HHG within the available HHG parameter range used in this study.

  9. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    improved by 12.6 and 18.3% post-intervention, respectively, with greater (Phigh intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability and high intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite......Elite women volleyball players (n=25; age; 19±5 yrs, height; 171±7 cm, weight; 63±10 kg; means±SD) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high intensity training group (HIT; n=13) and a control group (CON; n=12). In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT...... performed 6-10x30-s all-out running intervals separated by 3-min recovery periods 3 times per wk during a 4-wk in-season period, while CON only completed team training sessions and games. Pre and post intervention all players completed the Arrowhead Agility Test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5x30 m...

  10. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  11. Oral versus Nasal Breathing during Moderate to High Intensity Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase O. LaComb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When comparing oral breathing versus nasal breathing, a greater volume of air can be transported through the oral passageway but nasal breathing may also have benefits at submaximal exercise intensities. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine breathing efficiency during increasing levels of submaximal aerobic exercise. Methods: Nineteen individuals (males N=9, females N=10 completed a test for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and on separate days 4-min treadmill runs at increasing submaximal intensities (50%, 65%, and 80% of VO2max under conditions of oral breathing or nasal breathing. Respiratory (respiration rate [RR], pulmonary ventilation [VE], metabolic (oxygen consumption [VO2], carbon dioxide production [VCO2] and efficiency measures (ventilatory equivalents for oxygen [Veq×O2-1] and carbon dioxide [Veq×CO2-1] were obtained. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 (sex x 2 (condition x3 (intensity repeated measures ANOVA with significance accepted at p≤0.05. Results: Significant interactions existed between breathing mode and intensity such that oral breathing resulted in greater RR, VE, VO2, and VCO2 at all three submaximal intensities (p<.05.  Veq×O2-1 and Veq×CO2-1 presented findings that nasal breathing was more efficient than oral breathing during the 65% and 80% VO2max intensities (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on this analysis, oral breathing provides greater respiratory and metabolic volumes during moderate and moderate-to-high submaximal exercise intensities, but may not translate to greater respiratory efficiency. However when all variables are considered together, it is likely that oral breathing represents the more efficient mode, particularly at higher exercise intensities.

  12. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author.

  13. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set – Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author

  14. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV: A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja S H Wingenbach

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV. A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu hit rates were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the

  15. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  16. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loos

    Full Text Available European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation

  17. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  18. Aluminium Lyman ŕ group formation at high-intensity, high-energy laser-matter interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Renner, Oldřich; Rosmej, F. B.; Krouský, Eduard; Sondhauss, P.; Kalachnikov, M. P.; Nickels, P. V.; Uschmann, I.; Förster, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2001), s. 623-634 ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 055 Grant - others:CZ-DE Bilateral Cooperation in Science(XC) CZE-00-008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * x-ray spectra * absolute and relative intensities * autoionization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.493, year: 2001

  19. Numerical investigation of symmetry breaking and critical behavior of the acoustic streaming field in high-intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    For energy efficiency and material cost reduction it is preferred to drive high-intensity discharge lamps at frequencies of approximately 300 kHz. However, operating lamps at these high frequencies bears the risk of stimulating acoustic resonances inside the arc tube, which can result in low frequency light flicker and even lamp destruction. The acoustic streaming effect has been identified as the link between high frequency resonances and low frequency flicker. A highly coupled three-dimensional multiphysics model has been set up to calculate the acoustic streaming velocity field inside the arc tube of high-intensity discharge lamps. It has been found that the velocity field suffers a phase transition to an asymmetrical state at a critical acoustic streaming force. In certain respects the system behaves similar to a ferromagnet near the Curie point. It is discussed how the model allows to investigate the light flicker phenomenon. Concerning computer resources the procedure is considerably less demanding than a direct approach with a transient model. (paper)

  20. Intramedullary high intensity lesion on T2-weighted MR images in compressive cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Takashi; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Yanagi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Takeshi; Hirose, Yoshikiyo (Nagoya Daini Red Hospital (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 147 patients with compressive lesion of the cervical spinal canal. Intramedullary high intensity lesions were observed on T2-weighted or proton density spin-echo images in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (20.0%) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine (25.7%), while such signal abnormality was not found in patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Frequency of this finding was proportional to clinical severity of myelopathy and degree of spinal cord compression. The pathophysiological basis of such signal abnormality was presumed to vary from acute edema to chronic myelomalacia. In most cases showing intramedullary high intensity lesion, the spinal cord was compressed at multiple levels, but the high intensity was usually found at a signal level where the compression was maximum. There was a good correlation between the neurological level and the high intensity level on MR images. Thus, the intramedullary lesion on MR images is considered to be the main site of lesion responsible for the neurological symptoms. (author).

  1. Intramedullary high intensity lesion on T2-weighted MR images in compressive cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Takashi; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Yanagi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Takeshi; Hirose, Yoshikiyo

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 147 patients with compressive lesion of the cervical spinal canal. Intramedullary high intensity lesions were observed on T2-weighted or proton density spin-echo images in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (20.0%) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine (25.7%), while such signal abnormality was not found in patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Frequency of this finding was proportional to clinical severity of myelopathy and degree of spinal cord compression. The pathophysiological basis of such signal abnormality was presumed to vary from acute edema to chronic myelomalacia. In most cases showing intramedullary high intensity lesion, the spinal cord was compressed at multiple levels, but the high intensity was usually found at a signal level where the compression was maximum. There was a good correlation between the neurological level and the high intensity level on MR images. Thus, the intramedullary lesion on MR images is considered to be the main site of lesion responsible for the neurological symptoms. (author)

  2. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch C. Chow

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation. Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  3. When Work Matters: The Varying Impact of Work Intensity on High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer C.; Staff, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While the association between teenagers' work and academic performance continues to be debated in studies of adolescent employment, many researchers have found that "intensive" involvement in paid work increases the risk of high school dropout. It is still unclear, however, whether this relationship is spurious owing to preexisting differences in…

  4. MRI-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound of Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckel, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for completely noninvasive tumor ablation. This thesis focuses on its application for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The first part of the thesis describes the role of breast MRI for

  5. High-level fusion of depth and intensity for pedestrian classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrbach, M.; Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classification which involves a high-level fusion of depth and intensity cues. Instead of utilizing depth information only in a pre-processing step, we propose to extract discriminative spatial features (gradient orientation histograms and local

  6. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  7. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...

  8. Effects of Respiratory Muscle Warm-up on High-Intensity Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S. Thurston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise performance is partially limited by the functionality of the respiratory musculature. Training these muscles improves steady-state exercise performance. However, less is known about the efficacy of executing a respiratory muscle warm-up (RWU immediately prior to high-intensity exercise. Our study purpose was to use a practitioner-friendly airflow restriction device to investigate the effects of a high, medium, or low intensity RWU on short, high-intensity exercise and pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic function. Eleven recreationally active, males (24.9 ± 4.2 y, 178.8 ± 9.0 cm, 78.5 ± 10.4 kg, 13.4% ± 4.2% body fat cycled at 85% peak power to exhaustion (TTE following four different RWU conditions (separate days, in random order: (1 high; (2 medium; (3 low airflow inspiration restriction, or no RWU. When analyzed as a group, TTE did not improve following any RWU (4.73 ± 0.33 min. However, 10 of the 11 participants improved ≥25 s in one of the three RWU conditions (average = 47.6 ± 13.2 s, which was significantly better than (p < 0.05 the control trial (CON. Neither blood lactate nor perceived difficulty was altered by condition. In general, respiratory exchange ratios were significantly lower during the early stages of TTE in all RWU conditions. Our findings suggest RWU efficacy is predicated on identifying optimal inspiration intensity, which clearly differs between individuals.

  9. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  10. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  11. Bone metastasis treatment using magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Elevelt, Aaldert; Donato, Katia; van Rietbergen, Bert; ter Hoeve, Natalie D.; van Diest, Paul J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bone pain resulting from cancer metastases reduces a patient's quality of life. Magnetic Resonance-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising alternative palliative thermal treatment technique for bone metastases that has been tested in a few clinical studies.

  12. Spatial and spectral coherence in propagating high-intensity twin beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haderka, O.; Machulka, R.; Peřina ml., Jan; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, Sep (2015), s. 14365 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spatial and spectral coherence * high-intensity twin beams Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  13. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

  14. Increased mortality in patients with severe COPD associated with high-intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaadt, Lone; Christensen, Robin; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2016-01-01

    observed a striking mortality rate among participants who had attended the high-intensity rehabilitation courses (five deaths) compared to the standard rehabilitation (zero deaths). Four of the five deaths were COPD exacerbations. Fisher's exact test was statistically significant (P=0.046), as was a log...

  15. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...

  16. Numerical modelling of the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... An accurate numerical model to investigate the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer in two-pump fibre optical parametric amplifiers (2-P FOPAs) for low modulation frequencies is presented. Compared to other models in the field, this model takes into account the fibre loss, pump depletion as ...

  17. The Multi-state Latent Factor Intensity Model for Credit Rating Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2008-01-01

    A new empirical reduced-form model for credit rating transitions is introduced. It is a parametric intensity-based duration model with multiple states and driven by exogenous covariates and latent dynamic factors. The model has a generalized semi-Markov structure designed to accommodate many of the

  18. Prediction Models for Prolonged Intensive Care Unit Stay after Cardiac Surgery: Systematic Review and Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linda Peelen; Karel Moons; Cor Kalkman; Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; Roelof G.A. Ettema; Arno Nierich

    2010-01-01

    Several models have been developed to predict prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery. However, no extensive quantitative validation of these models has yet been conducted. This study sought to identify and validate existing prediction models for prolonged ICU length of

  19. The effect of position sources on estimated eigenvalues in intensity modeled data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, A.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Goseling, Jasper; Weber, Jos H.

    2010-01-01

    In biometrics, often models are used in which the data distributions are approximated with normal distributions. In particular, the eigenface method models facial data as a mixture of fixed-position intensity signals with a normal distribution. The model parameters, a mean value and a covariance

  20. New model for gain control of signal intensity to object distance in echolocating bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørum, Ulrik; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic calls and listen for the returning echoes to orient and localize prey in darkness. The emitted source level, SL (estimated signal intensity 10 cm from the mouth), is adjusted dynamically from call to call in response to sensory feedback as bats approach objects....... A logarithmic relationship of SL=20 log(10)(x), i.e. 6 dB output reduction per halving of distance, x, has been proposed as a model for the relationship between emitted intensity and object distance, not only for bats but also for echolocating toothed whales. This logarithmic model suggests that the approaching......=SL(max)-ae(-)(bx). In addition to providing a method for estimating maximum output, the new model also offers a tool for estimating a minimum detection distance where intensity compensation starts. We tested the new exponential model against the 'conventional' logarithmic model on data from five bat species. The new model...

  1. Model-independent curvature determination with 21cm intensity mapping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzemann, Amadeus; Bull, Philip; Clarkson, Chris; Santos, Mario G.; Spinelli, Marta; Weltman, Amanda

    2018-04-01

    Measurements of the spatial curvature of the Universe have improved significantly in recent years, but still tend to require strong assumptions to be made about the equation of state of dark energy (DE) in order to reach sub-percent precision. When these assumptions are relaxed, strong degeneracies arise that make it hard to disentangle DE and curvature, degrading the constraints. We show that forthcoming 21cm intensity mapping experiments such as HIRAX are ideally designed to carry out model-independent curvature measurements, as they can measure the clustering signal at high redshift with sufficient precision to break many of the degeneracies. We consider two different model-independent methods, based on `avoiding' the DE-dominated regime and non-parametric modelling of the DE equation of state respectively. Our forecasts show that HIRAX will be able to improve upon current model-independent constraints by around an order of magnitude, reaching percent-level accuracy even when an arbitrary DE equation of state is assumed. In the same model-independent analysis, the sample variance limit for a similar survey is another order of magnitude better.

  2. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki

    2002-12-01

    We investigate a mechanism of nonlinear phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. We need to understand and further employ some of these phenomena for our purposes. We measure self-focusing, filamentation, and the anomalous blueshift of the laser pulse. The ionization of gas with the self-focusing causes a broad continuous spectrum with blueshift. The normal blueshift depends on the laser intensity and the plasma density. We, however, have found different phenomenon. The laser spectrum shifts to fixed wavelength independent of the laser power and gas pressure above some critical power. We call the phenomenon 'anomalous blueshift'. The results are explained by the formation of filaments. An intense laser pulse can excite a laser wakefield in plasma. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 10 18 cm -3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The density distribution of the helium gas is measured with a time-resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer to search for the optimum laser focus position and timing in the gas-jet. The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency, which is useful for ultrahigh gradient particle acceleration in a compact system. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results are compared with a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI and the anomalous blueshift will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D PIC simulation we obtain the results of high quality intense electron beam acceleration. These results illuminate the possibility of a high energy and a high quality electron beam acceleration. (author)

  3. Mechanical and metabolic responses during a high-intensity circuit training workout in competitive runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Michele, R; Del Curto, L; Merni, F

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the mechanical and metabolic responses of competitive runners throughout a high-intensity circuit training (HICT) workout, designed to improve explosive strength under acute metabolic fatigue. Eight high-level endurance runners (age: 21.8±3.7 y; body mass: 61.5±5.7 kg; height: 175.2±5.2 cm; 1500-m record: 3 min 54±7 s) completed an incremental exhaustive running test to determine the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximum aerobic speed (MAS). The athletes then performed on a track a HICT workout, consisting of two identical circuits interspersed by 5-min of passive recovery. Each circuit was constituted by six 30-s dynamic or explosive strength exercises, alternated to 200-m runs (1000-m for the final run) at 90-95% of MAS. During a hopping exercise included in the circuit, and during the 1000-m run, lower limb stiffness measures were obtained from contact and flight times using a method based on the spring-mass model. Hopping stiffness was significantly lower (Pleg stiffness during running was similar (P>0.05) in the first and the second circuit (8.08±1.49 vs. 7.87±1.31 kN·m⁻¹), as well as vertical stiffness (33.56±5.25 vs. 32.16±5.45 kN·m⁻¹). The mean VO2 in the 1000-m run of the two circuits was 93.17±3.56% and 93.47±3.91% of VO2max, respectively. Despite the occurrence of acute neuromuscular fatigue throughout the workout, the runners avoided an impairment of their stiffness during running. Furthermore, the relatively high percentage of VO2max achieved indicates the HICT involves also stimuli for aerobic conditioning.

  4. Recovery of a soil under different vegetation one year after a high intensity wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on soil recovery in fragile ecosystems following high intensity wildfires are scarce. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the impact of a high intensity wildfire in an ecosystem under different vegetation (shrubland and pinewood located at Vilardevós (Galicia, NW Spain and highly susceptible to suffer soil erosion due to the steep relief and high erositivity of the rainfall. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-5 cm 1 year after the fire and soil quality was evaluated by analysis of several physical, chemical and biochemical properties measured in the fraction chemical properties > physical properties. The data also showed that the fire impact was different depending on the soil vegetation considered (shrubland and pinewood. Moreover, the data confirmed the slow soil recovery in this fragile ecosystem and, therefore, the need of adopting post-fire stabilisation and rehabilitation treatments in order to minimize the post-fire erosion and soil degradation.

  5. [Study on therapeutic dosimetry and biologic effect of high intensity focused ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemei; Xiong, Xin; Zou, Jianzhong; Li, Faqi; Ma, Ping; Wang, Zhibiao

    2009-02-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the high intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) therapeutic dosimetry and its biologic effect. In-vitro, bovine liver was immersed into 0.9% NS and degassed for application. The JC Model-focused ultrasound tumor therapeutic system was used in the experiment. The HIFU parameters were: frequency 1.6 MHz, depth 20 mm, acoustic power from 16.44 W to 196.32 W. Under each power, at radiating times from is to 20 s, bioptic specimens were obtained from all samples. The results showed when the acoustic power was equal to or higher than 179.96 W, only is of radiating is adequate to induce coagulative necrosis, and when the acoustic power was lower than 65.44 W, the radiating time to produce coagulative necrosis was about 7 s. In the range of 65.44-179.96 W, at each time when the acoustic power was set up with an increment of 16.36 W, the time to produce coagulative necrosis was 1-2 s shorter. The form of biological focal region (BFR) varied with the acoustic power and HIFU irradiation time. The size of BFR increased with the increase of HIFU irradiation dosage (acoustic power x exposure time). There is positive correlation between the size of BFR and the dosage of HIFU irradiation (y = 0.0164x(1.05591), R5 = 0.9238, P < 0.05).

  6. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I), and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations.

  7. Heightened serotonin influences contest outcome and enhances expression of high-intensity aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubak, Andrew N; Renner, Kenneth J; Swallow, John G

    2014-02-01

    The outcome of behavioral interactions between organisms can have significant fitness implications. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical importance to understand the mechanisms that modify different agonistic behaviors. Changes in central monoamines, such as serotonin (5-HT), contribute to modifying the expression of aggressive encounters in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In several invertebrate groups, neural 5-HT has been linked to heightened aggression and conflict escalation. The male stalk-eyed fly (Teleopsis dalmanni) competes with conspecifics daily over access to resources such as food and mates. Because encounters escalate in a stereotypical manner, stalk-eyed flies provide an excellent model system to study behavioral syndromes. We hypothesized that noninvasive, pharmacological augmentation of brain 5-HT by administration of the precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would increase stereotypic behavioral escalation and the probability of winning a conflict over food. Size-matched male 5-HTP-treated and untreated flies were placed in a forced-fight paradigm and their aggressive behaviors scored. Individuals with higher brain 5-HT levels had a markedly higher probability of winning the contests, displayed greater levels of high-intensity aggressive behaviors and fewer retreats. Pretreatment with 5-HTP did not significantly alter octopamine or tyramine, suggesting that central 5-HT may modulate aggression in these organisms and play a role in determining reproductive success and resource attainment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. No effect of glycogen level on glycogen metabolism during high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, Katleen; Hespel, P.; Eynde, Bart Vanden

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effect of glycogen supercompensation on glycogen breakdown, muscle and blood lactate accumulation, blood-pH, and performance during short-term high-intensity exercise. Young healthy volunteers performed two supramaximal (125% of VO2max) exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer...... and blood-lactate, and the fall in blood-pH were similar during N and CHR. In protocol 2, time to exhaustion was identical for N and CHR. It is concluded that during short-term intense exercise during which muscle glycogen availability exceeds glycogen demand, rate of glycogen breakdown, lactate...

  9. Effect of high-hydrostatic pressure and moderate-intensity pulsed electric field on plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parra, J; González-Cebrino, F; Delgado-Adámez, J; Cava, R; Martín-Belloso, O; Élez-Martínez, P; Ramírez, R

    2018-03-01

    Moderate intensity pulse electric fields were applied in plum with the aim to increase bioactive compounds content of the fruit, while high-hydrostatic pressure was applied to preserve the purées. High-hydrostatic pressure treatment was compared with an equivalent thermal treatment. The addition of ascorbic acid during purée manufacture was also evaluated. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on microorganisms, polyphenoloxidase, color and bioactive compounds of high-hydrostatic pressure, or thermal-processed plum purées made of moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated or no-moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated plums, after processing during storage. The application of moderate intensity pulse electric field to plums slightly increased the levels of anthocyanins and the antioxidant activity of purées. The application of Hydrostatic-high pressure (HHP) increased the levels of bioactive compounds in purées, while the thermal treatment preserved better the color during storage. The addition of ascorbic acid during the manufacture of plum purée was an important factor for the final quality of purées. The color and the bioactive compounds content were better preserved in purées with ascorbic acid. The no inactivation of polyphenoloxidase enzyme with treatments applied in this study affected the stability purées. Probably more intense treatments conditions (high-hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatment) would be necessary to reach better quality and shelf life during storage.

  10. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    Full Text Available We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60, 100 (MVC100 and 140 (MVC140 deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s, 20 s (P20 and 40 s (P40 post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001. MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05 and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05. High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion.

  11. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Architecture and Programming Models for High Performance Intensive Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    written in funJava, a functional programming language. • Implement selected test programs in funJava for demonstrating performance and en- ergy efficiency... Programming language The funJava programming language is a version of standard Java , restricted to a functional subset. This simple functional programming ... programs written in funJava, a functional programming language. • Implement selected test programs in funJava for demonstrating performance and energy

  13. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop

  14. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  15. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  16. Using high-fidelity simulation as a learning strategy in an undergraduate intensive care course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badir, Aysel; Zeybekoğlu, Zuhal; Karacay, Pelin; Göktepe, Nilgün; Topcu, Serpil; Yalcin, Begüm; Kebapci, Ayda; Oban, Gül

    2015-01-01

    Using high-fidelity simulations to facilitate student learning is an uncommon practice in Turkish nursing programs. The aim of the present study was to understand students' perceptions of the use of simulation in nursing courses. Subjects included 36 senior nursing students taking an intensive care course. This study revealed that high-fidelity simulation is an ideal method of promoting learning by helping students transfer theory into practice, build confidence and teamwork, and raise professional awareness.

  17. SPES: A new cyclotron-based facility for research and applications with high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M.; Campo, D.; Antonini, P.; Lombardi, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Esposito, J.; Silvestrin, L.

    2017-06-01

    In 2016, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy) started the commissioning of a new accelerator facility based on a high-power cyclotron able to deliver proton beams up to 70 MeV of energy and 700 μA current. Such a machine is the core of the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project whose main goal is to provide exotics beam for nuclear and astrophysics research and to deliver high-intensity proton beams for medical applications and neutrons generator.

  18. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hofmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour–host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  19. A parallel nonlinear adaptive enhancement algorithm for low- or high-intensity color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhigang; Sang, Nong; Hu, Xinrong

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses the problem of color image enhancement for images with low or high intensity and poor contrast (LIPC or HIPC). A parallel nonlinear adaptive enhancement (PNAE) algorithm using information from local neighborhood is presented to resolve the problem in parallel. The PNAE algorithm consists of three steps. First, a red-green-blue (RGB) color image is converted to an intensity image, then an adaptive intensity adjustment with local contrast enhancement is parallelly performed, and finally, colors are restored. The PNAE algorithm can be adjusted to control the level of enhancement on the overall lightness and the contrast achieved at the output separately. Most of the parameters used in PNAE are robust for LIPC and HIPC color image enhancement. Experimental results show that PNAE outperforms two popular methods in both computational efficiency and overall content preservation of image while improving local contrast for LIPC and HIPC image enhancement.

  20. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Butcher, M; Guinchard, M; Calviani, M; Losito, R; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, V; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, J; O'Dell, J

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and co...

  1. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Zwaska, R.; Atherton, A.; Caretta, O.; Davenne,T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Roberts, S.; Kuksenko, V.; Butcher, M.; Calviani, M.; Guinchard, M.; Losito, R.

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  2. The Merit(nTOF-11) High Intensity Liquid Mercury Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Caretta, O; Carroll, A J; Fabich, A; Graves, V B; Grudiev, A; Haug, F; Kirk, H G; Lettry, Jacques; Loveridge, P; McDonald, K T; Mokhov, N; Palm, M; Park, H; Pernegger, H; Spampinato, P T; Steerenberg, R; Striganov, S; Tsang, T

    2008-01-01

    The MERIT(nTOF-11) experiment is a proof-ofprinciple test of a target system for a high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory or a muon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast-extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of $30 × 10^{12}$ per pulse. The target system, based on a free mercury jet, is capable of intercepting a 4-MW proton beam inside a 15-T magnetic field required to capture the low energy secondary pions as the source for intense muon beams. Partice detectors installed around the target setup measure the secondary particle flux out of the target and can probe cavitation effects in the mercury jet when excited by an intense proton beam.Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented here.

  3. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, t; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, P; O'Dell, J; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, v; Butcher, M; Calviani, M; Guinchard, M; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  4. Perspectives on high-intensity interval exercise for health promotion in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bert; Weston, Kathryn L; Williams, Craig A; Barker, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity lowers future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, few children and adolescents achieve the recommended minimum amount of daily activity. Accordingly, there is virtue in identifying the efficacy of small volumes of high-intensity exercise for health benefits in children and adolescents for the primary prevention of CVD risk. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a novel overview of the available literature concerning high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) interventions in children and adolescents. Specifically, the following areas are addressed: 1) outlining the health benefits observed following a single bout of HIIE, 2) reviewing the role of HIIE training in the management of pediatric obesity, and 3) discussing the effectiveness of school-based HIIE training. In total, 39 HIIE intervention studies were included in this review. Based upon the available data, a single bout of high-intensity exercise provides a potent stimulus for favorable, acute changes across a range of cardiometabolic outcomes that are often superior to a comparative bout of moderate-intensity exercise (14 studies reviewed). HIIE also promotes improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic health status in overweight and obese children and adolescents (10 studies reviewed) and when delivered in the school setting (15 studies reviewed). We thus conclude that high-intensity exercise is a feasible and potent method of improving a range of cardiometabolic outcomes in children and adolescents. However, further work is needed to optimize the delivery of HIIE interventions in terms of participant enjoyment and acceptability, to include a wider range of health outcomes, and to control for important confounding variables (eg, changes in diet and habitual physical activity). Finally, research into the application of HIIE training interventions to children and adolescents of different ages, sexes, pubertal status, and sociocultural backgrounds is

  5. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  6. Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)

  7. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  8. Application of high power modulated intense relativistic electron beams for development of Wake Field Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This final Progress Report addresses DOE-sponsored research on the development of future high-gradient particle accelerators. The experimental and the theoretical research, which lasted three years, investigated the Two Beam Accelerator (TBA). This high-voltage-gradient accelerator was powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam (MIREB) of power >10 10 watts. This research was conceived after a series of successful experiments performed at NRL generating and using MIREBs. This work showed that an RF structure could be built which was directly powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam. This structure was then used to accelerate a second electron beam. At the end of the three year project the proof-of-principle accelerator demonstrated the generation of a high current beam of electrons with energy >60 MeV. Scaling laws needed to design practical devices for future applications were also derived

  9. Directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics from intense laser irradiated blazed grating targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-02

    Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.

  10. MIMO Intensity-Modulation Channels: Capacity Bounds and High SNR Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-10-01

    The capacity of MIMO intensity modulation channels is studied. The nonnegativity of the transmit signal (intensity) poses a challenge on the precoding of the transmit signal, which limits the applicability of classical schemes in this type of channels. To resolve this issue, capacity lower bounds are developed by using precoding-free schemes. This is achieved by channel inversion or QR decomposition to convert the MIMO channel to a set of parallel channels. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, a capacity upper bound is derived and is shown to coincide with the achievable rate of the QR decomposition based scheme at high SNR, consequently characterizing the high-SNR capacity of the channel. The high-SNR gap between capacity and the achievable rates of the channel inversion and the DC-offset SVD based schemes is also characterized. Finally, the ergodic capacity of the channel is also briefly discussed.

  11. Self-guiding of high-intensity laser pulses for laser wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstader, D.; Liu, X.

    1992-01-01

    A means of self-guiding an ultrashort and high-intensity laser pulse is demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. Its relevance to the laser wake field accelerator concept is discussed. Self-focusing and multiple foci formation are observed when a high peak power (P>100 GW), 1 μm, subpicosecond laser is focused onto various gases (air or hydrogen). It appears to result from the combined effects of self-focusing by the gas, and de-focusing both by diffraction and the plasma formed in the central high-intensity region. Quasi-stationary computer simulations show the same multiple foci behavior as the experiments. The results suggest much larger nonlinear electronic susceptibilities of a gas near or undergoing ionization in the high field of the laser pulse. Although self-guiding of a laser beam by this mechanism appears to significantly extend its high-intensity focal region, small-scale self-focusing due to beam non-uniformity is currently a limitation

  12. A comparison of the molecular mechanisms underpinning high-intensity, pulsed polychromatic light and low-intensity UV-C hormesis in tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, G.; Dickinson, Matthew; Shama, G.; Rupar, M.

    2018-01-01

    Postharvest treatment of tomato fruit with high-intensity, pulsed polychromatic light (HIPPL) has previously been shown to induce delayed ripening and disease resistance comparable to that of low-intensity UV-C (LIUV). Little, however, is known of the mechanisms underpinning postharvest HIPPL hormesis in tomato fruit. Expression of genes involved in plant hormone biosynthesis, defence, secondary metabolism and ripening were monitored 24 h post treatment (24 HPT), 10 d post treatment (10 DPT) ...

  13. Effect of high intensity pulsed electric fields and heat treatments on vitamins of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, Silvia; Espachs, Alexandre; Arántegui, Javier; Martín, Olga

    2002-02-01

    The effects of high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments at room or moderate temperature on water-soluble (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins (cholecalciferol and tocopherol) were evaluated and compared with conventional thermal treatments. Vitamin retention was determined in two different substrates, milk and simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF). Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 400 micros at field strengths from 18.3 to 27.1 kV/cm and to heat treatments of up to 60 min at temperatures from 50 to 90 degrees C. No changes in vitamin content were observed after HIPEF or thermal treatments except for ascorbic acid. Milk retained more ascorbic acid after a 400 microstreatment at 22.6 kV/cm (93.4%) than after low (63 degrees C-30 min; 49.7% retained) or high (75 degrees C-15s; 86.7% retained) heat pasteurisation treatments. Retention of ascorbic acid fitted a first-order kinetic model for both HIPEF and thermal processes. First-order constant values varied from 1.8 x 10.4 to 1.27 x 10(-3) micros(-1) for the HIPEF treatments (18.3-27.1 kV/cm) and, for thermal processing ranged from 5 x 10(-3) to 8 x 10(-2) min(-1) (50-90 degrees C). No significant differences were found between the results obtained after applying HIPEF treatments at room or moderate temperature. However, results depended on the treatment media. A beneficial effect of natural skim milk components, mainly proteins, was observed on the preservation of ascorbic acid, since skim milk retained more ascorbic acid than SMUF after HIPEF treatments.

  14. Geomagnetic intensity spike recorded in high resolution slag deposit in southern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, E.; Tauxe, L.; Levy, T. E.; Shaar, R.; Ron, H.; Najjar, M.

    2009-12-01

    In paleomagnetism, periods of high field intensity have been largely ignored in favor of the more spectacular directional changes associated with low field intensity periods of excursions and reversals. Hence, questions such as how strong the field can get and how fast changes occur are still open. In this paper we report on data obtained from an archaeometallurgical excavation in the Middle East, designed specifically for archaeomagnetic sampling. We measured 342 specimens from 72 samples collected from a 6.1 meter mound of well stratified copper production debris at the early Iron Age (12th-9th centuries BCE) site of Khirbat en-Nahas in southern Jordan. Seventeen samples spanning 200 years yielded excellent archaeointensity results that demonstrate rapid changes in field intensity in a period of overall high field values. The results display a remarkable spike in field strength, with sample means values of over 120 μT (compared to the current field strength of 44 μT). A suite of 13 radiocarbon dates intimately associated with our samples, tight control of sample location and relative stratigraphy provide tight constraints on the rate and magnitude of changes in archaeomagnetic field intensities.

  15. Using prepulsing: a useful way for increasing absorption efficiency of high intensity laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huimin; Zhang Guoping; Sheng Jiatian

    1990-01-01

    Using prepulse to irradiate target for increasing absorption efficiency of high intensity incident laser beam is considered and some theoretical simulations have been done. 1-D non-LTE radiative hydrodynamic code is used to simulate the interactions of laser beam with matter. A gaussian laser prepulse of wavelength 1.06 μm, FWHM 600 ps and peak intensity 1.5 x 10 12 W/cm 2 was used to irradiate 20 μm thick Au plate target, after 3ns a main gaussian pulse with wavelength 1.06 μm, FWHM 600 ps and peak intensity 3.0 x 10 14 W/cm 2 irradiated the expanding Au plasma. The responces of laser-produced plasma conditions are shown. By comparing with without prepulsing, under the condition of same main incident laser pulse, the absorption efficiency is increased from 0.36 to 0.60 and the laser-x-ray conversion efficiency is increased from 0.16 to 0.25. The electron temperature of hot plasma is also higher than without prepulsing, and the x-ray spectrum which is emitted from laser-produced hot plasma is harder and more intense than without prepulsing. The responces of laser-produced plasma for Fe target with prepulsing are shown as well. The conclusion is that using prepulsing is a useful way for getting high absorption laser beam

  16. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  17. Temporal variance reverses the impact of high mean intensity of stress in climate change experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Bertocci, Iacopo; Vaselli, Stefano; Maggi, Elena

    2006-10-01

    Extreme climate events produce simultaneous changes to the mean and to the variance of climatic variables over ecological time scales. While several studies have investigated how ecological systems respond to changes in mean values of climate variables, the combined effects of mean and variance are poorly understood. We examined the response of low-shore assemblages of algae and invertebrates of rocky seashores in the northwest Mediterranean to factorial manipulations of mean intensity and temporal variance of aerial exposure, a type of disturbance whose intensity and temporal patterning of occurrence are predicted to change with changing climate conditions. Effects of variance were often in the opposite direction of those elicited by changes in the mean. Increasing aerial exposure at regular intervals had negative effects both on diversity of assemblages and on percent cover of filamentous and coarsely branched algae, but greater temporal variance drastically reduced these effects. The opposite was observed for the abundance of barnacles and encrusting coralline algae, where high temporal variance of aerial exposure either reversed a positive effect of mean intensity (barnacles) or caused a negative effect that did not occur under low temporal variance (encrusting algae). These results provide the first experimental evidence that changes in mean intensity and temporal variance of climatic variables affect natural assemblages of species interactively, suggesting that high temporal variance may mitigate the ecological impacts of ongoing and predicted climate changes.

  18. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  19. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p interval training sessions and were similar (p > 0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to the higher peak

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqing Shen

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI to mild-intensity endurance training (ME, combined with a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11, CD and ME (CME, n = 8, CD and HI (CHI, n = 8, HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10, HFD and ME (HME, n = 8, and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8. All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06, as well as higher corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.09 compared with the CD groups. Exercise training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.123. Furthermore, body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P < 0.05 were lower with HI training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P < 0.01. Corticosterone level was inversely correlated with QUICKI (r = -0.38, P < 0.01. Altogether, these results indicate that HFD may elicit an exacerbated basal serum corticosterone level and thus producing a metabolic imbalance. Compared with ME training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.