An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping
2003-01-01
By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.
Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies
Ozogány, Katalin
2014-01-01
A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...
The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bambang Sukma Wijaya
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in adverti-sing, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, De-sire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the deve-lopment of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest develop-ments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adop-ted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.
Inverse neutrino mass hierarchy in a flavour GUT model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antusch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Gross, Christian, E-mail: christian.gross@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Maurer, Vinzenz, E-mail: vinzenz.maurer@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Sluka, Constantin, E-mail: constantin.sluka@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2014-02-15
We construct a supersymmetric SU(5)×A{sub 4} flavour GUT model in which an inverse neutrino mass hierarchy is realised without fine-tuning of parameters. The model shares some properties with the normal hierarchy model which we presented in (arXiv:1305.6612) – in particular the relation θ{sub 13}{sup PMNS}≃θ{sub C}/√(2). Besides these shared features, there are also important differences, mainly due to the different neutrino sector. These differences not only change the predictions in the lepton sector, but also in the quark sector, and will allow to discriminate between the two models using the results of present and future experiments. From a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit we find that the inverse hierarchy model is in excellent agreement with the present experimental data.
Inverse neutrino mass hierarchy in a flavour GUT model
Antusch, Stefan; Maurer, Vinzenz; Sluka, Constantin
2014-01-01
We construct a supersymmetric SU(5) x A_4 flavour GUT model in which an inverse neutrino mass hierarchy is realised without fine-tuning of parameters. The model shares some properties with the normal hierarchy model which we presented in arXiv:1305.6612 - in particular the relation theta_13^PMNS = theta_C / sqrt(2). Besides these shared features, there are also important differences, mainly due to the different neutrino sector. These differences not only change the predictions in the lepton sector, but also in the quark sector, and will allow to discriminate between the two models using the results of present and future experiments. From a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit we find that the inverse hierarchy model is in excellent agreement with the present experimental data.
Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim
2014-01-01
ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated...
Evaluating Modeling Sessions Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Ssebuggwawo, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Proper, H.A.
2008-01-01
In this paper, which is methodological in nature, we propose to use an established method from the field of Operations Research, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in the integrated, stakeholder- oriented evaluation of enterprise modeling sessions: their language, pro- cess, tool (medium), and pr
A Bayesian Generative Model for Learning Semantic Hierarchies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roni eMittelman
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy [18], which was also used to organize the images in the ImageNet [11] dataset, in which the category count approaches the human capacity. Still, for the human visual system, the form of the hierarchy must be discovered with minimal use of supervision or innate knowledge. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian generative model for learning such domain hierarchies, based on semantic input. Our model is motivated by the super-subordinate organization of domain labels and concepts that characterizes WordNet, and accounts for several important challenges: maintaining context information when progressing deeper into the hierarchy, learning a coherent semantic concept for each node, and modeling uncertainty in the perception process.
A Bayesian generative model for learning semantic hierarchies.
Mittelman, Roni; Sun, Min; Kuipers, Benjamin; Savarese, Silvio
2014-01-01
Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy (Fellbaum, 1998), which was also used to organize the images in the ImageNet (Deng et al., 2009) dataset, in which the category count approaches the human capacity. Still, for the human visual system, the form of the hierarchy must be discovered with minimal use of supervision or innate knowledge. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian generative model for learning such domain hierarchies, based on semantic input. Our model is motivated by the super-subordinate organization of domain labels and concepts that characterizes WordNet, and accounts for several important challenges: maintaining context information when progressing deeper into the hierarchy, learning a coherent semantic concept for each node, and modeling uncertainty in the perception process.
Hierarchies of Models: Toward Understanding Planetary Nebulae
Knuth, Kevin H.; Hajian, Arsen R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
Stars like our sun (initial masses between 0.8 to 8 solar masses) end their lives as swollen red giants surrounded by cool extended atmospheres. The nuclear reactions in their cores create carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which are transported by convection to the outer envelope of the stellar atmosphere. As the star finally collapses to become a white dwarf, this envelope is expelled from the star to form a planetary nebula (PN) rich in organic molecules. The physics, dynamics, and chemistry of these nebulae are poorly understood and have implications not only for our understanding of the stellar life cycle but also for organic astrochemistry and the creation of prebiotic molecules in interstellar space. We are working toward generating three-dimensional models of planetary nebulae (PNe), which include the size, orientation, shape, expansion rate and mass distribution of the nebula. Such a reconstruction of a PN is a challenging problem for several reasons. First, the data consist of images obtained over time from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and spectra obtained from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). These images are of course taken from a single viewpoint in space, which amounts to a very challenging tomographic reconstruction. Second, the fact that we have two disparate and orthogonal data types requires that we utilize a method that allows these data to be used together to obtain a solution. To address these first two challenges we employ Bayesian model estimation using a parameterized physical model that incorporates much prior information about the known physics of the PN. In our previous works we have found that the forward problem of the comprehensive model is extremely time consuming. To address this challenge, we explore the use of a set of hierarchical models, which allow us to estimate increasingly more detailed sets of model parameters. These hierarchical models of increasing complexity are akin
Causal structure and hierarchies of models.
Hoover, Kevin D
2012-12-01
Economics prefers complete explanations: general over partial equilibrium, microfoundational over aggregate. Similarly, probabilistic accounts of causation frequently prefer greater detail to less as in typical resolutions of Simpson's paradox. Strategies of causal refinement equally aim to distinguish direct from indirect causes. Yet, there are countervailing practices in economics. Representative-agent models aim to capture economic motivation but not to reduce the level of aggregation. Small structural vector-autoregression and dynamic stochastic general-equilibrium models are practically preferred to larger ones. The distinction between exogenous and endogenous variables suggests partitioning the world into distinct subsystems. The tension in these practices is addressed within a structural account of causation inspired by the work of Herbert Simon's, which defines cause with reference to complete systems adapted to deal with incomplete systems and piecemeal evidence. The focus is on understanding the constraints that a structural account of causation places on the freedom to model complex or lower-order systems as simpler or higher-order systems and on to what degree piecemeal evidence can be incorporated into a structural account.
Two Expanding Integrable Models of the Geng-Cao Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiurong Guo
2014-01-01
interesting results. In the paper, we will deduce two kinds of expanding integrable models of the Geng-Cao (GC hierarchy by constructing different 6-dimensional Lie algebras. One expanding integrable model (actually, it is a nonlinear integrable coupling reduces to a generalized Burgers equation and further reduces to the heat equation whose expanding nonlinear integrable model is generated. Another one is an expanding integrable model which is different from the first one. Finally, the Hamiltonian structures of the two expanding integrable models are obtained by employing the variational identity and the trace identity, respectively.
Hierarchy-Based Team Software Process Simulation Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
According to the characteristic of Team Software Process (TSP), it adopts a hierarchy-based model combined discrete event model with system dynamics model. This model represents TSP as form of two levels, the inner level embodies the continuity of the software process, the outer embodies the software development process by phases, and the structure and principle of the model is explained in detail, then formalization description of the model is offered. At last, an example is presented to demonstrate the simulation process and result. This model can simulate team software process from various angles, supervise and predict the software process. Also it can make the management of software development become more scientific and improve the quality of software.
A Model of Quark and Lepton Mixing and Mass Hierarchy
Barr, S M
2015-01-01
It is shown that an idea proposed in 1996 that relates in a qualitatively correct way the inter-family mass hierarchies of the up quarks, down quarks, charged leptons, and neutrinos, can be combined with a predictive scheme recently proposed for relating quark mixing and neutrino mixing. In the resulting model, the entire flavor structure of the quarks and leptons is expressible in terms of two "master matrices": a diagonal matrix that gives the inter-family mass ratios, and an off-diagonal matrix that controls all flavor mixing.
The hierarchy problem of the electroweak standard model revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-05-15
A careful renormalization group analysis of the electroweak Standard Model reveals that there is no hierarchy problem in the SM. In the broken phase a light Higgs turns out to be natural as it is self-protected and self-tuned by the Higgs mechanism. It means that the scalar Higgs needs not be protected by any extra symmetry, specifically super symmetry, in order not to be much heavier than the other SM particles which are protected by gauge- or chiral-symmetry. Thus the existence of quadratic cutoff effects in the SM cannot motivate the need for a super symmetric extensions of the SM, but in contrast plays an important role in triggering the electroweak phase transition and in shaping the Higgs potential in the early universe to drive inflation as supported by observation.
Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC; Ross, Timothy J. [UNM
2010-10-15
Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.
A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength.
Rauschenberger, John; And Others
1980-01-01
In this study of 547 high school graduates, Alderfer's and Maslow's need hierarchy theories were expressed in Markov chain form and were subjected to empirical test. Both models were disconfirmed. Corroborative multiwave correlational analysis also failed to support the need hierarchy concept. (Author/IRT)
An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection: Model Development and Application
Al Qubaisi, Amal; Badri, Masood; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Dhaheri, Hamad; Yang, Guang; Al Rashedi, Asma; Greer, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights and to develop a school performance system commonly called school inspections. Design/methodology/approach: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model uses pairwise comparisons and a measurement scale to generate the…
A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength.
Rauschenberger, John; And Others
1980-01-01
In this study of 547 high school graduates, Alderfer's and Maslow's need hierarchy theories were expressed in Markov chain form and were subjected to empirical test. Both models were disconfirmed. Corroborative multiwave correlational analysis also failed to support the need hierarchy concept. (Author/IRT)
An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection: Model Development and Application
Al Qubaisi, Amal; Badri, Masood; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Dhaheri, Hamad; Yang, Guang; Al Rashedi, Asma; Greer, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights and to develop a school performance system commonly called school inspections. Design/methodology/approach: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model uses pairwise comparisons and a measurement scale to generate the…
An Analytical Hierarchy Process Model for the Evaluation of College Experimental Teaching Quality
Yin, Qingli
2013-01-01
Taking into account the characteristics of college experimental teaching, through investigaton and analysis, evaluation indices and an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytical hierarchy process method, and the evaluation indices have been given reasonable weights. An…
Inexpensive Videodisc for Proficiency: A Teaching Model Based on Bruner's Learning Hierarchy
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Richard Sutherland; Richard Knight
1987-01-01
.... The theoretical underpinnings for this model are provided by Bruner's learning hierarchy consisting of the iconic, enactive, and symbolic stages, which are related to the steps of the teaching model...
Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy
Alexandrov, A
2014-01-01
In this paper we claim that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.
Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexandrov, A. [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg,Albertstrasse 19, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Mathematics Institute, University of Freiburg,Eckerstrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); ITEP,Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-03-09
In this paper we conjecture that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.
Consumer’s trust in Internet shopping: a modelling proposal based on the standard learning hierarchy
MARIO PÉREZ RONCHEL; Francisco J. Martínez López; MANUEL ORTIGUEIRA SÁNCHEZ
2006-01-01
This paper is placed on the framework of studies focused on analyzing the consumers’ buying behaviour on the Internet. We have based on adapting the hierarchy-of-effects model (standard learning hierarchy), in order to theoretically propose a conceptual model explaining how consumers’ beliefs —i.e. design, interaction speed, social benefits, and privacy— and attitudes toward the Internet as a communication medium can be plausible determinants of trusting in Internet shopping. Furthermore, our...
Modeling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Rezai, O
2014-10-01
Full Text Available of object features Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience www.frontiersin.org October 2014 | Volume 8 | Article 132 | 1 COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE Rezai et al. Shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping (Borra et al., 2008). AIP also contains other... of depth and its first and second spatial derivatives. CIP has been proposed to encode these variables (Orban et al., 2006), and they have been the basis for several experimental studies of CIP responses (Sakata et al., Frontiers in Computational...
Hungry Volterra equation, multi boson KP hierarchy and Two Matrix Models
Hisakado, M
1998-01-01
We consider the hungry Volterra hierarchy from the view point of the multi boson KP hierarchy. We construct the hungry Volterra equation as the ``fractional '' BT. We also study the relations between the (discrete time) hungry Volterra equation and two matrix models. From this point of view we study the reduction from (discrete time) 2d Toda lattice to the (discrete time) hungry Volterra equation.
A generalized SHGI integrable hierarchy and its expanding integrable model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Yu-Feng
2004-01-01
An anti-symmetric loop algebra A2 is constructed. It follows that an integrable system is obtained by use of Tu's scheme. The eminent feature of this integrable system is that it is reduced to a generalized Schrodinger equation, the well-known heat-conduction equation and a Gerdjkov-Ivanov (GI) equation. Therefore, we call it a generalized SHGI hierarchy. Next, a new high-dimensional subalgebra G of the loop algebra A2 is constructed. As its application, a new expanding integrable system with six potential functions is engendered.
A Three-Family Standard-like Orientifold Model Yukawa Couplings and Hierarchy
Cvetic, M; Shiu, G; Cvetic, Mirjam; Langacker, Paul; Shiu, Gary
2002-01-01
We discuss the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings in a supersymmetric three family Standard-like string Model. The model is constructed by compactifying Type IIA string theory on a Z_2 x Z_2 orientifold in which the Standard Model matter fields arise from intersecting D6-branes. When lifted to M theory, the model amounts to compactification of M-theory on a G_2 manifold. While the actual fermion masses depend on the vacuum expectation values of the multiple Higgs fields in the model, we calculate the leading worldsheet instanton contributions to the Yukawa couplings and examine the implications of the Yukawa hierarchy.
Time Hierarchies and Model Reduction in Canonical Non-linear Models
Löwe, Hannes; Kremling, Andreas; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto
2016-01-01
The time-scale hierarchies of a very general class of models in differential equations is analyzed. Classical methods for model reduction and time-scale analysis have been adapted to this formalism and a complementary method is proposed. A unified theoretical treatment shows how the structure of the system can be much better understood by inspection of two sets of singular values: one related to the stoichiometric structure of the system and another to its kinetics. The methods are exemplified first through a toy model, then a large synthetic network and finally with numeric simulations of three classical benchmark models of real biological systems. PMID:27708665
A Game-Theoretical Winner and Loser Model of Dominance Hierarchy Formation.
Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne
2016-06-01
Many animals spend large parts of their lives in groups. Within such groups, they need to find efficient ways of dividing available resources between them. This is often achieved by means of a dominance hierarchy, which in its most extreme linear form allocates a strict priority order to the individuals. Once a hierarchy is formed, it is often stable over long periods, but the formation of hierarchies among individuals with little or no knowledge of each other can involve aggressive contests. The outcome of such contests can have significant effects on later contests, with previous winners more likely to win (winner effects) and previous losers more likely to lose (loser effects). This scenario has been modelled by a number of authors, in particular by Dugatkin. In his model, individuals engage in aggressive contests if the assessment of their fighting ability relative to their opponent is above a threshold [Formula: see text]. Here we present a model where each individual can choose its own value [Formula: see text]. This enables us to address questions such as how aggressive should individuals be in order to take up one of the first places in the hierarchy? We find that a unique strategy evolves, as opposed to a mixture of strategies. Thus, in any scenario there exists a unique best level of aggression, and individuals should not switch between strategies. We find that for optimal strategy choice, the hierarchy forms quickly, after which there are no mutually aggressive contests.
Large N expansions and Painleve hierarchies in the Hermitian matrix model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Gabriel; Alonso, Luis Martinez [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Medina, Elena, E-mail: galvarez@fis.ucm.es [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)
2011-07-15
We present a method to characterize and compute the large N formal asymptotics of regular and critical Hermitian matrix models with general even potentials in the one-cut and two-cut cases. Our analysis is based on a method to solve continuum limits of the discrete string equation which uses the resolvent of the Lax operator of the underlying Toda hierarchy. This method also leads to an explicit formulation, in terms of coupling constants and critical parameters, of the members of the Painleve I and Painleve II hierarchies associated with one-cut and two-cut critical models, respectively.
Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E
2015-01-01
Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20-30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is a
Systemic testing on Bradley-Terry model against nonlinear ranking hierarchy.
Shev, Aaron; Fujii, Kevin; Hsieh, Fushing; McCowan, Brenda
2014-01-01
We take a system point of view toward constructing any power or ranking hierarchy onto a society of human or animal players. The most common hierarchy is the linear ranking, which is habitually used in nearly all real-world problems. A stronger version of linear ranking via increasing and unvarying winning potentials, known as Bradley-Terry model, is particularly popular. Only recently non-linear ranking hierarchy is discussed and developed through recognition of dominance information contents beyond direct dyadic win-and-loss. We take this development further by rigorously arguing for the necessity of accommodating system's global pattern information contents, and then introducing a systemic testing on Bradley-Terry model. Our test statistic with an ensemble based empirical distribution favorably compares with the Deviance test equipped with a Chi-squared asymptotic approximation. Several simulated and real data sets are analyzed throughout our development.
Minimal models from W-constrained hierarchies via the Kontsevich-Miwa transform
Gato-Rivera, Beatriz
1992-01-01
A direct relation between the conformal formalism for 2d-quantum gravity and the W-constrained KP hierarchy is found, without the need to invoke intermediate matrix model technology. The Kontsevich-Miwa transform of the KP hierarchy is used to establish an identification between W constraints on the KP tau function and decoupling equations corresponding to Virasoro null vectors. The Kontsevich-Miwa transform maps the $W^{(l)}$-constrained KP hierarchy to the $(p^\\prime,p)$ minimal model, with the tau function being given by the correlator of a product of (dressed) $(l,1)$ (or $(1,l)$) operators, provided the Miwa parameter $n_i$ and the free parameter (an abstract $bc$ spin) present in the constraints are expressed through the ratio $p^\\prime/p$ and the level $l$.
On Hierarchy, Charge Universality, and 4D Effective Theory in Randall-Sundrum Models
Benson, K
2004-01-01
We present a variant formulation of the Randall-Sundrum model which solves both the hierarchy and charge universality problems. We first critique the rationale for hierarchy solution and 4D effective interactions in the Randall-Sundrum model. We note its asymmetric treatment of matter and gravity in the warped braneworld background, leaving uncalibrated the particle scale; as well as its unconventional spatial attribution of integrated 4D effective gravity. Matter and massless gravitons both localize when branes form to warp spacetime; thus consistent accounting of induced 4D physics must track both particle and Planck scales through brane formation. We perform such self-consistent tracking in the warped Randall-Sundrum background, by treating matter as intrinsically extradimensional, on par with gravity, with a unified mass scale. We find this definite, self-consistent theory solves two major problems: the effective 4D theory shows robust hierarchy solution, and preserves charge universality. Our unified 5D ...
Derivations of fractal models of city hierarchies using entropy-maximization principle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A pair of models of fractal recursion on city hierarchy, fm=f1r1-mf and Pm=P1rm-1p, are derived using entropy-maximizing methods, and the relationship of inverse proportion between the number (fm) of cities at a given level of the urban hierarchy and the average population size (Pm) of the fm cities is established, i.e fm∝1/P. It is demonstrated that the underlying rationale of both the scale law of city rank-size distribution and the Zipf dimension value in standard state (dz=lnrp/lnrf=1) rests with maximization of information entropy of city hierarchies.
The Applicability of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model to Saudi Organisations
Fallatah, Rodwan Hashim Mohammed; Saudi Arabia Ministry of Higher Education
2015-01-01
One of the most influential and often quoted content theories of human motivation is Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow’s theory is based on an assumption that all humans are motivated by a hierarchy of needs that are fundamental and universal. While many studies have attested to the wide relevance and applicability of this model, some other legitimate studies have argued that the theory is limited in terms of its universal applicability because of its Anglo-Saxon monoculture orienta...
IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process
Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.
2012-11-01
Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.
A class of integrable expanding model for the coupled AKNS-Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Hong-Xiang; Xu Xi-Xiang
2005-01-01
An isospectral problem is established by means of a sub-algebra of loop Lie algebra (A)1, from which the coupled AKNS-Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchy is derived. Subsequently, the integrable expanding model, i.e. integrable coupling,is constructed through enlarging the corresponding loop algebra into the loop Lie algebra (A)2.
Semiclassical expansions in the Toda hierarchy and the Hermitian matrix model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso, L MartInez [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Medina, E [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)
2007-11-23
An iterative algorithm for determining a type of solutions of the dispersionful 2-Toda hierarchy characterized by string equations is developed. This type includes the solution which underlies the large-N limit of the Hermitian matrix model in the one-cut case. It is also shown how the double scaling limit can be naturally formulated in this scheme.
Gene function classification using Bayesian models with hierarchy-based priors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neal Radford M
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate whether annotation of gene function can be improved using a classification scheme that is aware that functional classes are organized in a hierarchy. The classifiers look at phylogenic descriptors, sequence based attributes, and predicted secondary structure. We discuss three Bayesian models and compare their performance in terms of predictive accuracy. These models are the ordinary multinomial logit (MNL model, a hierarchical model based on a set of nested MNL models, and an MNL model with a prior that introduces correlations between the parameters for classes that are nearby in the hierarchy. We also provide a new scheme for combining different sources of information. We use these models to predict the functional class of Open Reading Frames (ORFs from the E. coli genome. Results The results from all three models show substantial improvement over previous methods, which were based on the C5 decision tree algorithm. The MNL model using a prior based on the hierarchy outperforms both the non-hierarchical MNL model and the nested MNL model. In contrast to previous attempts at combining the three sources of information in this dataset, our new approach to combining data sources produces a higher accuracy rate than applying our models to each data source alone. Conclusion Together, these results show that gene function can be predicted with higher accuracy than previously achieved, using Bayesian models that incorporate suitable prior information.
A Hierarchy of Linear Threshold Models for the Spread of Political Revolutions on Social Networks
Lang, John C
2015-01-01
We study a linear threshold agent-based model (ABM) for the spread of political revolutions on social networks using empirical network data. We propose new techniques for building a hierarchy of simplified ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models that aim to capture essential features of the ABM, including effects of the actual networks, and give insight in the parameter regime transitions of the ABM. We relate the ABM and the hierarchy of models to a population-level compartmental ODE model that we proposed previously for the spread of political revolutions [1], which is shown to be mathematically consistent with the proposed ABM and provides a way to analyze the global behaviour of the ABM. This consistency with the linear threshold ABM also provides further justification a posteriori for the compartmental model of [1]. Extending concepts from epidemiological modelling, we define a basic reproduction number $R_0$ for the linear threshold ABM and apply it to predict ABM behaviour on empirical networ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuichi Yamashita
2008-11-01
Full Text Available It is generally thought that skilled behavior in human beings results from a functional hierarchy of the motor control system, within which reusable motor primitives are flexibly integrated into various sensori-motor sequence patterns. The underlying neural mechanisms governing the way in which continuous sensori-motor flows are segmented into primitives and the way in which series of primitives are integrated into various behavior sequences have, however, not yet been clarified. In earlier studies, this functional hierarchy has been realized through the use of explicit hierarchical structure, with local modules representing motor primitives in the lower level and a higher module representing sequences of primitives switched via additional mechanisms such as gate-selecting. When sequences contain similarities and overlap, however, a conflict arises in such earlier models between generalization and segmentation, induced by this separated modular structure. To address this issue, we propose a different type of neural network model. The current model neither makes use of separate local modules to represent primitives nor introduces explicit hierarchical structure. Rather than forcing architectural hierarchy onto the system, functional hierarchy emerges through a form of self-organization that is based on two distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties ("multiple timescales". Through the introduction of multiple timescales, continuous sequences of behavior are segmented into reusable primitives, and the primitives, in turn, are flexibly integrated into novel sequences. In experiments, the proposed network model, coordinating the physical body of a humanoid robot through high-dimensional sensori-motor control, also successfully situated itself within a physical environment. Our results suggest that it is not only the spatial connections between neurons but also the timescales of neural activity that act as important mechanisms
Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun
2008-11-01
It is generally thought that skilled behavior in human beings results from a functional hierarchy of the motor control system, within which reusable motor primitives are flexibly integrated into various sensori-motor sequence patterns. The underlying neural mechanisms governing the way in which continuous sensori-motor flows are segmented into primitives and the way in which series of primitives are integrated into various behavior sequences have, however, not yet been clarified. In earlier studies, this functional hierarchy has been realized through the use of explicit hierarchical structure, with local modules representing motor primitives in the lower level and a higher module representing sequences of primitives switched via additional mechanisms such as gate-selecting. When sequences contain similarities and overlap, however, a conflict arises in such earlier models between generalization and segmentation, induced by this separated modular structure. To address this issue, we propose a different type of neural network model. The current model neither makes use of separate local modules to represent primitives nor introduces explicit hierarchical structure. Rather than forcing architectural hierarchy onto the system, functional hierarchy emerges through a form of self-organization that is based on two distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties ("multiple timescales"). Through the introduction of multiple timescales, continuous sequences of behavior are segmented into reusable primitives, and the primitives, in turn, are flexibly integrated into novel sequences. In experiments, the proposed network model, coordinating the physical body of a humanoid robot through high-dimensional sensori-motor control, also successfully situated itself within a physical environment. Our results suggest that it is not only the spatial connections between neurons but also the timescales of neural activity that act as important mechanisms leading to functional
Mathematical hierarchies and biology
Mirkin, Boris; Roberts, Fred S; Roberts, Fred S; Rzhetsky, Andrey
1997-01-01
The mathematical approach to the study of hierarchies presents the theoretical basis for many important areas of current scientific investigation. Biology has benefited from this research and has also stimulated the mathematical study of hierarchies. This collection presents papers devoted to theoretical, algorithmical, and application issues related to (1) reconstructing hierarchies (trees or ranking) from (dis)similarity or entity-to-character data, (2) using hierarchies for modeling evolution and other processes, and (3) combining (gene) trees. The papers in this volume provide a contemporary sample of many new results in hierarchy theory with applications in biology, psychology, data analysis, and systems engineering. Features: Mathematical treatment of hierarchies in several interconnected frameworks: set systems, linear subspaces, graph objects, and tree metrics. The relationship of hierarchies to many issues of current application-from learning robots to wavelets to intron evolution to the evolution ...
Convectively Aggregated Structures Across a Hierarchy of Models
Silvers, Levi; Dipankar, Anurag; Hohenegger, Cathy
2015-04-01
Convective clouds are among the most interesting and poorest understood atmospheric phenomena. This study explores the interaction between deep convection and the lower troposphere with a focus on the coupling of deep convection to the lower tropospheric clouds, water vapor, and relative humidity. We are particularly interested in the controlling factors of the cloud amount and cloud size at cloud base across various model set-ups. In particular we seek to determine how the generation of large convective structures depends on the characteristics of the lower troposphere and parameterization choices. Our experiments are analyzed by comparing the mean state, the probability distribution functions of particular quantities, and snapshots in time of the spatial distribution of cloud related fields. It is shown that the formation of aggregated convective structures depends on the different model setups. Experiments performed using an NWP model (ICON-NWP) and two cloud-resolving models (ICON-LES and UCLA-LES) are compared. The ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) model is used to provide a unified modeling framework in which both the NWP and CRM versions use the same dynamical core but different physics packages. This allows for a fair comparison between the GCM and CRM and leads to a better understanding of both. To check the robustness of the CRM results we also compare the ICON experiments with the UCLA-LES model. The initial analysis looks at the ICON-NWP and both CRM experiments with a uniform domain size of (1800 km)2 and doubly periodic boundary conditions to determine some of the fundamental differences between the models. The NWP experiment has an effective resolution of 13.5 km while the CRM's have resolutions in the range of 5 km. We run the NWP experiments with the full suit of physics parameterizations as well as with the convection turned off. Further sensitivity studies are then made to isolate some of the key characteristics of the convection in each model
Applying Hierarchy Model to Routing and Scheduling Operations in Postal Logistics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Postal departments are actively taking part in e-commerce, of which logistics is a key joint. Computerized routing and scheduling of postal transportation operations offers significant potential for cost decreases and productivity gains. Routing and scheduling hierarchy model is initially built and demonstrated in detail on the basis of statements of specific requirements of postal logistics in this paper, and the realized software is proved to be practical and reliable.
Improving Statistical Language Model Performance with Automatically Generated Word Hierarchies
McMahon, J; Mahon, John Mc
1995-01-01
An automatic word classification system has been designed which processes word unigram and bigram frequency statistics extracted from a corpus of natural language utterances. The system implements a binary top-down form of word clustering which employs an average class mutual information metric. Resulting classifications are hierarchical, allowing variable class granularity. Words are represented as structural tags --- unique $n$-bit numbers the most significant bit-patterns of which incorporate class information. Access to a structural tag immediately provides access to all classification levels for the corresponding word. The classification system has successfully revealed some of the structure of English, from the phonemic to the semantic level. The system has been compared --- directly and indirectly --- with other recent word classification systems. Class based interpolated language models have been constructed to exploit the extra information supplied by the classifications and some experiments have sho...
St-Maurice, Justin D; Burns, Catherine M
2017-07-28
Health care is a complex sociotechnical system. Patient treatment is evolving and needs to incorporate the use of technology and new patient-centered treatment paradigms. Cognitive work analysis (CWA) is an effective framework for understanding complex systems, and work domain analysis (WDA) is useful for understanding complex ecologies. Although previous applications of CWA have described patient treatment, due to their scope of work patients were previously characterized as biomedical machines, rather than patient actors involved in their own care. An abstraction hierarchy that characterizes patients as beings with complex social values and priorities is needed. This can help better understand treatment in a modern approach to care. The purpose of this study was to perform a WDA to represent the treatment of patients with medical records. The methods to develop this model included the analysis of written texts and collaboration with subject matter experts. Our WDA represents the ecology through its functional purposes, abstract functions, generalized functions, physical functions, and physical forms. Compared with other work domain models, this model is able to articulate the nuanced balance between medical treatment, patient education, and limited health care resources. Concepts in the analysis were similar to the modeling choices of other WDAs but combined them in as a comprehensive, systematic, and contextual overview. The model is helpful to understand user competencies and needs. Future models could be developed to model the patient's domain and enable the exploration of the shared decision-making (SDM) paradigm. Our work domain model links treatment goals, decision-making constraints, and task workflows. This model can be used by system developers who would like to use ecological interface design (EID) to improve systems. Our hierarchy is the first in a future set that could explore new treatment paradigms. Future hierarchies could model the patient as a
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Karen L. Milheim
2012-01-01
.... Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs model as a conceptual framework, the paper examines how student needs can be addressed at various levels in online courses, from basic needs to the ultimate goal of self-actualization...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xiaodong; LI Yingzi; ZHANG Zhiqiang
2007-01-01
Aiming at the levels of collaborative degree in web-based product development,a collaboration hierarchy model of this product development is developed in this paper.Based on the model,the affecting factors on collaboration levels are analyzed systematically from many aspects,such as technology,organization and business.A gap analysis method is studied in detail,and is applied in a real project.The application shows that it can solve the diverse problems of collaborative product development effectively,and help enterprises find out the critical factors that affect the collaboration.
Consumer’s trust in Internet shopping: a modelling proposal based on the standard learning hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MARIO PÉREZ RONCHEL
2006-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is placed on the framework of studies focused on analyzing the consumers’ buying behaviour on the Internet. We have based on adapting the hierarchy-of-effects model (standard learning hierarchy, in order to theoretically propose a conceptual model explaining how consumers’ beliefs —i.e. design, interaction speed, social benefits, and privacy— and attitudes toward the Internet as a communication medium can be plausible determinants of trusting in Internet shopping. Furthermore, our model poses that consumers’ overall opinions regarding with in-home shopping might also exert an influence on their evaluations about the Internet as a communication medium and, specially, as a shopping medium. The proposed conceptual model is supported by a deep and specific literature review. The relationships contained in the model have been estimated by means of structural equation modelling. Results confirm that this approach based on the cognitive information processing is valid to model consumers’ shopping behaviour on the Internet.Finally, several academic reflections, as well as a set of managerial implications based on the questions analyzed, are put forward..
The Role of Hierarchy in Response Surface Modeling of Wind Tunnel Data
DeLoach, Richard
2010-01-01
This paper is intended as a tutorial introduction to certain aspects of response surface modeling, for the experimentalist who has started to explore these methods as a means of improving productivity and quality in wind tunnel testing and other aerospace applications. A brief review of the productivity advantages of response surface modeling in aerospace research is followed by a description of the advantages of a common coding scheme that scales and centers independent variables. The benefits of model term reduction are reviewed. A constraint on model term reduction with coded factors is described in some detail, which requires such models to be well-formulated, or hierarchical. Examples illustrate the consequences of ignoring this constraint. The implication for automated regression model reduction procedures is discussed, and some opinions formed from the author s experience are offered on coding, model reduction, and hierarchy.
A hierarchy of simple hyperbolic two-fluid models for bubbly flows
Drui, Florence; Kokh, Samuel; Massot, Marc
2016-01-01
With the objective of modeling both separate and disperse two-phase flows, we use in this paper a methodology for deriving two-fluid models that do not assume any flow topology. This methodology is based on a variational principle and on entropy dissipation requirement. Some of the models that are such derived and studied are already known in the contexts of the description of separate-or disperse-phase flows. However, we here propose an arrangement of these models into a hierarchy based on their links through relaxation parameters. Moreover, the models are shown to be compatible with the description of a monodisperse bubbly flow and, within this frame, the relaxation parameters can be identified. This identification is finally verified and discussed through comparisons with experimental measures of sound dispersion and with dispersion relations of a reference model for bubbly media.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alba Sandyra Bezerra Lopes
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The motion estimation is the most complex module in a video encoder requiring a high processing throughput and high memory bandwidth, mainly when the focus is high-definition videos. The throughput problem can be solved increasing the parallelism in the internal operations. The external memory bandwidth may be reduced using a memory hierarchy. This work presents a memory hierarchy model for a full-search motion estimation core. The proposed memory hierarchy model is based on a data reuse scheme considering the full search algorithm features. The proposed memory hierarchy expressively reduces the external memory bandwidth required for the motion estimation process, and it provides a very high data throughput for the ME core. This throughput is necessary to achieve real time when processing high-definition videos. When considering the worst bandwidth scenario, this memory hierarchy is able to reduce the external memory bandwidth in 578 times. A case study for the proposed hierarchy, using 32×32 search window and 8×8 block size, was implemented and prototyped on a Virtex 4 FPGA. The results show that it is possible to reach 38 frames per second when processing full HD frames (1920×1080 pixels using nearly 299 Mbytes per second of external memory bandwidth.
A framework for Islamic advertising: Using Lavidge and Steiner’s hierarchy of effects model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aida Binti Mokhtar
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Lavidge and Steiner’s (1961 hierarchy of effects model has strengths in its pragmatism and clarity. It outlines the series of steps consumers take with the purchase of products being the final step. The steps are related to the cognitive, affective and conative components of psychology. Advertisers could use advertising and other marketing communication tools to spur consumers up the steps of the model. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Lavidge and Steiner model from the Islamic perspective and produce a framework of Islamic advertising. This aim arose from the targeting of the growing Muslim market by several advertising campaigns. It also arose from previous research studies that have recommend advertisers be sensitive to the Islamic beliefs of the Muslim target audience in producing effective advertising messages. The model therefore requires an Islamic dimension to guide the production of effective advertisements for Muslims.
Cell reprogramming modelled as transitions in a hierarchy of cell cycles
Hannam, Ryan; Annibale, Alessia; Kühn, Reimer
2017-10-01
We construct a model of cell reprogramming (the conversion of fully differentiated cells to a state of pluripotency, known as induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs) which builds on key elements of cell biology viz. cell cycles and cell lineages. Although reprogramming has been demonstrated experimentally, much of the underlying processes governing cell fate decisions remain unknown. This work aims to bridge this gap by modelling cell types as a set of hierarchically related dynamical attractors representing cell cycles. Stages of the cell cycle are characterised by the configuration of gene expression levels, and reprogramming corresponds to triggering transitions between such configurations. Two mechanisms were found for reprogramming in a two level hierarchy: cycle specific perturbations and a noise induced switching. The former corresponds to a directed perturbation that induces a transition into a cycle-state of a different cell type in the potency hierarchy (mainly a stem cell) whilst the latter is a priori undirected and could be induced, e.g. by a (stochastic) change in the cellular environment. These reprogramming protocols were found to be effective in large regimes of the parameter space and make specific predictions concerning reprogramming dynamics which are broadly in line with experimental findings.
Multi-agent Based Hierarchy Simulation Models of Carrier-based Aircraft Catapult Launch
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Weijun; Qu Xiangju; Guo Linliang
2008-01-01
With the aid of multi-agent based modeling approach to complex systems,the hierarchy simulation models of carrier-based aircraft catapult launch are developed.Ocean,carrier,aircraft,and atmosphere are treated as aggregation agents,the detailed components like catapult,landing gears,and disturbances are considered as meta-agents,which belong to their aggregation agent.Thus,the model with two layers is formed i.e.the aggregation agent layer and the meta-agent layer.The information communication among all agents is described.The meta-agents within one aggregation agent communicate with each other directly by information sharing,but the meta-agents,which belong to different aggregation agents exchange their information through the aggregation layer fast,and then perceive it from the sharing environment,that is the aggregation agent.Thus,not only the hierarchy model is built,but also the environment perceived by each agent is specified.Meanwhile,the problem of balancing the independency of agent and the resource consumption brought by real-time communication within multi-agent system (MAS) is resolved.Each agent involved in carrier-based aircraft catapult launch is depicted,with considering the interaction within disturbed atmospheric environment and multiple motion bodies including carrier,aircraft,and landing gears.The models of reactive agents among them are derived based on tensors,and the perceived messages and inner frameworks of each agent are characterized.Finally,some results of a simulation instance are given.The simulation and modeling of dynamic system based on multi-agent system is of benefit to express physical concepts and logical hierarchy clearly and precisely.The system model can easily draw in kinds of other agents to achieve a precise simulation of more complex system.This modeling technique makes the complex integral dynamic equations of multibodies decompose into parallel operations of single agent,and it is convenient to expand,maintain,and reuse
An extension of heat hierarchy
Wang, Joe S.
2014-01-01
We propose a formally completely integrable extension of heat hierarchy based on the space of symmetries isomorphic to the Weyl algebra $\\mathcal{A}_1$. The extended heat hierarchy will be the basic model for the analysis of the extension of KP hierarchy, and other integrable equations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jun; Yang, Rongjia; Chen, Bohai, E-mail: litianshiiiii@163.com, E-mail: yangrj08@gmail.com, E-mail: bchenphy@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Hebei University, No. 180, Wusi East Road, Baoding, 071002 China (China)
2014-12-01
We apply the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations to discriminate modified Chaplygin gas (MCG), generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), superfluid Chaplygin gas (SCG), purely kinetic k-essence (PKK), and ΛCDM model. We plot the evolutional trajectories of these models in the Statefinder plane and in the composite diagnostic plane. We find that GCG, MCG, SCG, PKK, and ΛCDM can be distinguished well from each other at the present epoch by using the composite diagnostic (ε(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 5}). Using other combinations, such as (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sup (1)}{sub 4}), (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sub 5}), (ε(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 3}), and (ε(z), S{sub 4}), some of these five dark energy models cannot be distinguished.
Li, Jun; Yang, Rongjia; Chen, Bohai
2014-12-01
We apply the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations to discriminate modified Chaplygin gas (MCG), generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), superfluid Chaplygin gas (SCG), purely kinetic k-essence (PKK), and ΛCDM model. We plot the evolutional trajectories of these models in the Statefinder plane and in the composite diagnostic plane. We find that GCG, MCG, SCG, PKK, and ΛCDM can be distinguished well from each other at the present epoch by using the composite diagnostic {epsilon(z), S(1)5}. Using other combinations, such as {S(1)3, S(1)4}, {S(1)3, S5}, {epsilon(z), S(1)3}, and {epsilon(z), S4}, some of these five dark energy models cannot be distinguished.
Realistic D-Brane Models on Warped Throats: Fluxes, Hierarchies and Moduli Stabilization
Cascales, J F G; Quevedo, Fernando; Uranga, Angel M
2004-01-01
We describe the construction of string theory models with semirealistic spectrum in a sector of (anti) D3-branes located at an orbifold singularity at the bottom of a highly warped throat geometry, which is a generalisation of the Klebanov-Strassler deformed conifold. These models realise the Randall-Sundrum proposal to naturally generate the Planck/electroweak hierarchy in a concrete string theory embedding, and yielding interesting chiral open string spectra. We describe examples with Standard Model gauge group (or left-right symmetric extensions) and three families of SM fermions, with correct quantum numbers including hypercharge. The dilaton and complex structure moduli of the geometry are stabilised by the 3-form fluxes required to build the throat. We describe diverse issues concerning the stabilisation of geometric Kahler moduli, like blow-up modes of the orbifold singularities, via D term potentials and gauge theory non-perturbative effects, like gaugino condensation. This local geometry, once embedd...
Effective model hierarchies for dynamic and static classical density functional theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majaniemi, S [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, PO Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Provatas, N [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S-4L7 (Canada); Nonomura, M, E-mail: maj@fyslab.hut.f [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)
2010-09-15
The origin and methodology of deriving effective model hierarchies are presented with applications to solidification of crystalline solids. In particular, it is discussed how the form of the equations of motion and the effective parameters on larger scales can be obtained from the more microscopic models. It will be shown that tying together the dynamic structure of the projection operator formalism with static classical density functional theories can lead to incomplete (mass) transport properties even though the linearized hydrodynamics on large scales is correctly reproduced. To facilitate a more natural way of binding together the dynamics of the macrovariables and classical density functional theory, a dynamic generalization of density functional theory based on the nonequilibrium generating functional is suggested.
Hierarchy of correlations for the Ising model in the Majorana representation
Gómez-León, Álvaro
2017-08-01
We study the quantum Ising model in D dimensions with the equation-of-motion technique and the Majorana representation for spins. The decoupling scheme used for the Green's functions is based on the hierarchy of correlations in position space. To lowest order, this method reproduces the well-known mean field phase diagram and critical exponents. When correlations between spins are included, we show how the appearance of thermal fluctuations and magnons strongly affects the physical properties. In one dimension and for B =0 we demonstrate that, to first order in correlations, thermal fluctuations completely destroy the ordered phase. For nonvanishing transverse field we show that the model exhibits different behavior than its classical counterpart, especially near the quantum critical point. We discuss the connection with the Dyson's equation formalism and the explicit form of the self-energies.
A New Hierarchy of Phylogenetic Models Consistent with Heterogeneous Substitution Rates.
Woodhams, Michael D; Fernández-Sánchez, Jesús; Sumner, Jeremy G
2015-07-01
When the process underlying DNA substitutions varies across evolutionary history, some standard Markov models underlying phylogenetic methods are mathematically inconsistent. The most prominent example is the general time-reversible model (GTR) together with some, but not all, of its submodels. To rectify this deficiency, nonhomogeneous Lie Markov models have been identified as the class of models that are consistent in the face of a changing process of DNA substitutions regardless of taxon sampling. Some well-known models in popular use are within this class, but are either overly simplistic (e.g., the Kimura two-parameter model) or overly complex (the general Markov model). On a diverse set of biological data sets, we test a hierarchy of Lie Markov models spanning the full range of parameter richness. Compared against the benchmark of the ever-popular GTR model, we find that as a whole the Lie Markov models perform well, with the best performing models having 8-10 parameters and the ability to recognize the distinction between purines and pyrimidines. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.
Extended hierarchy equation of motion for the spin-boson model.
Tang, Zhoufei; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Gong, Zhihao; Wang, Haobin; Wu, Jianlan
2015-12-14
An extended hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM) is proposed and applied to study the dynamics of the spin-boson model. In this approach, a complete set of orthonormal functions are used to expand an arbitrary bath correlation function. As a result, a complete dynamic basis set is constructed by including the system reduced density matrix and auxiliary fields composed of these expansion functions, where the extended HEOM is derived for the time derivative of each element. The reliability of the extended HEOM is demonstrated by comparison with the stochastic Hamiltonian approach under room-temperature classical ohmic and sub-ohmic noises and the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree theory under zero-temperature quantum ohmic noise. Upon increasing the order in the hierarchical expansion, the result obtained from the extended HOEM systematically converges to the numerically exact answer.
Convolution symmetries of integrable hierarchies, matrix models and $\\tau$-functions
Harnad, J
2009-01-01
Generalized convolution symmetries of integrable hierarchies of KP-Toda and 2KP-Toda type have the effect of multiplying the Fourier coefficients of the Baker-Akhiezer function by a specified sequence of constants. The induced action on the associated fermionic Fock space is diagonal in the standard orthonormal base determined by occupation sites and labeled by partitions. The coefficients in the single and double Schur function expansions of the associated $\\tau$-functions, which are the Pl\\"ucker coordinates of a decomposable element, are multiplied by the corresponding diagonal factors. Applying such transformations to matrix integrals, we obtain new matrix models of externally coupled type which are also KP-Toda or 2KP-Toda $\\tau$-functions. More general multiple integral representations of tau functions are similarly obtained, as well as finite determinantal expressions for them.
Diagnosing ΛHDE model with statefinder hierarchy and fractional growth parameter
Zhou, LanJun; Wang, Shuang
2016-07-01
Recently, a new dark energy model called ΛHDE was proposed. In this model, dark energy consists of two parts: cosmological constant Λ and holographic dark energy (HDE). Two key parameters of this model are the fractional density of cosmological constant ΩΛ0, and the dimensionless HDE parameter c. Since these two parameters determine the dynamical properties of DE and the destiny of universe, it is important to study the impacts of different values of ΩΛ0 and c on the ΛHDE model. In this paper, we apply various DE diagnostic tools to diagnose ΛHDE models with different values of ΩΛ0 and c; these tools include statefinder hierarchy {S 3 (1) , S 4 (1) }, fractional growth parameter ɛ, and composite null diagnostic (CND), which is a combination of {S 3 (1) , S 4 (1) } and ɛ. We find that: (1) adopting different values of ΩΛ0 only has quantitative impacts on the evolution of the ΛHDE model, while adopting different c has qualitative impacts; (2) compared with S 3 (1) , S 4 (1) can give larger differences among the cosmic evolutions of the ΛHDE model associated with different ΩΛ0 or different c; (3) compared with the case of using a single diagnostic, adopting a CND pair has much stronger ability to diagnose the ΛHDE model.
Predicting Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Modes with a Climate Modeling Hierarchy -- Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael Ghil, UCLA; Andrew W. Robertson, IRI, Columbia Univ.; Sergey Kravtsov, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Padhraic Smyth, UC Irvine
2006-08-04
The goal of the project was to determine midlatitude climate predictability associated with tropical-extratropical interactions on interannual-to-interdecadal time scales. Our strategy was to develop and test a hierarchy of climate models, bringing together large GCM-based climate models with simple fluid-dynamical coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere models, through the use of advanced probabilistic network (PN) models. PN models were used to develop a new diagnostic methodology for analyzing coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in large climate simulations made with the NCAR Parallel Climate Model (PCM), and to make these tools user-friendly and available to other researchers. We focused on interactions between the tropics and extratropics through atmospheric teleconnections (the Hadley cell, Rossby waves and nonlinear circulation regimes) over both the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and the ocean’s thermohaline circulation (THC) in the Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that variations in the strength of the THC alter sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic, and that the latter influence the atmosphere in high latitudes through an atmospheric teleconnection, feeding back onto the THC. The PN model framework was used to mediate between the understanding gained with simplified primitive equations models and multi-century simulations made with the PCM. The project team is interdisciplinary and built on an existing synergy between atmospheric and ocean scientists at UCLA, computer scientists at UCI, and climate researchers at the IRI.
Aratyn, H; Pacheva, S
1996-01-01
This paper provides a systematic description of the interplay between a specific class of reductions denoted as \\cKPrm ($r,m \\geq 1$) of the primary continuum integrable system -- the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili ({\\sf KP}) hierarchy and discrete multi-matrix models. The relevant integrable \\cKPrm structure is a generalization of the familiar $r$-reduction of the full {\\sf KP} hierarchy to the $SL(r)$ generalized KdV hierarchy ${\\sf cKP}_{r, 0}$. The important feature of \\cKPrm hierarchies is the presence of a discrete symmetry structure generated by successive Darboux-Bãcklund (DB) transformations. This symmetry allows for expressing the relevant tau-functions as Wronskians within a formalism which realizes the tau-functions as DB orbits of simple initial solutions. In particular, it is shown that any DB orbit of a ${\\sf cKP}_{r,1}$ defines a generalized 2-dimensional Toda lattice structure. Furthermore, we consider the class of truncated {\\sf KP} hierarchies ({\\sl i.e.}, those defined via Wilson-Sato dressing op...
A simple model of generating fermion mass hierarchy in N=1 supersymmetric 6D SO(10) GUT
Haba, N; Haba, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro
2003-01-01
We suggest simple models which produce the suitable fermion mass hierarchies and flavor mixing angles based on the 6 dimensional N=1 supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theory compactified on a $T^2/(Z_2 \\times Z_2')$ orbifold. We introduce 6D and 5D matter fields, which contains the 1st and 2nd generation matter fields as the zero modes, respectively. The 3rd generation matter fields are located on a 4D brane. The Yukawa couplings for bulk fields are suppressed by volume factors from extra dimensions. The suitable fermion mass hierarchies and flavor mixings are generated by the volume suppression factors.
Diagnosing $\\Lambda$HDE model with statefinder hierarchy and fractional growth parameter
Zhou, Lanjun
2016-01-01
Recently, a new dark energy model called $\\Lambda$HDE was proposed. In this model, dark energy consists of two parts: cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ and holographic dark energy (HDE). Two key parameters of this model are the fractional density of cosmological constant $\\Omega_{\\Lambda0}$, and the dimensionless HDE parameter $c$. Since these two parameters determine the dynamical properties of DE and the destiny of universe, it is important to study the impacts of different values of $\\Omega_{\\Lambda0}$ and $c$ on the $\\Lambda$HDE model. In this paper, we apply various DE diagnostic tools to diagnose $\\Lambda$HDE models with different values of $\\Omega_{\\Lambda0}$ and $c$; these tools include statefinder hierarchy \\{$S_3^{(1)}, S_4^{(1)}$\\}, fractional growth parameter $\\epsilon$, and composite null diagnostic (CND), which is a combination of \\{$S_3^{(1)}, S_4^{(1)}$\\} and $\\epsilon$. We find that: (1) adopting different values of $\\Omega_{\\Lambda0}$ only has quantitative impacts on the evolution of the $\\Lam...
Fusion hierarchies, T-systems and Y-systems of logarithmic minimal models
Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Rasmussen, Jorgen
2014-01-01
A Temperley-Lieb (TL) loop model is a Yang-Baxter integrable lattice model with nonlocal degrees of freedom. On a strip of width N, the evolution operator is the double-row transfer tangle D(u), an element of the TL algebra TL_N(beta) with loop fugacity beta=2cos(lambda). Similarly on a cylinder, the single-row transfer tangle T(u) is an element of the enlarged periodic TL algebra. The logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p') comprise a subfamily of the TL loop models for which the crossing parameter lambda=(p'-p)pi/p' is parameterised by coprime integers 02 takes the form of functional relations for D(u) and T(u) of polynomial degree p'. These derive from fusion hierarchies of commuting transfer tangles D^{m,n}(u) and T^{m,n}(u) where D(u)=D^{1,1}(u) and T(u)=T^{1,1}(u). The fused transfer tangles are constructed from (m,n)-fused face operators involving Wenzl-Jones projectors P_k on k=m or k=n nodes. Some projectors P_k are singular for k>p'-1, but we argue that D^{m,n}(u) and T^{m,n}(u) are well defined for all...
From CP Phases to Yukawa Textures: Maximal Yukawa Hierarchies in Minimal Seesaw Models
Rink, Thomas
2016-01-01
The type-I seesaw mechanism involving only two right-handed neutrinos represents a minimal model to account for the observed masses and mixings in the Standard Model neutrino sector. This model features four real parameters that cannot be fully fixed by the current data: two CP-violating phases, delta and sigma, as well as one complex parameter, z, that is experimentally inaccessible at low energies. We perform a systematic scan of this model over the complex z plane, addressing the following question: Suppose delta and sigma should be measured at particular values in the future---what are then the conceivable maximal hierarchies in the neutrino Yukawa matrix that are still consistent with all observations? In this sense, our analysis generalizes previous studies of the type-I seesaw mechanism with two right-handed neutrinos that assume exact texture zeros in the neutrino Yukawa matrix. As we are able to demonstrate, relaxing the assumption of exact texture zeros, significantly enlarges the range of possible ...
Ozogány, Katalin; Vicsek, Tamás
2015-02-01
Gregarious animals need to make collective decisions in order to keep their cohesiveness. Several species of them live in multilevel societies, and form herds composed of smaller communities. We present a model for the development of a leadership hierarchy in a herd consisting of loosely connected sub-groups (e.g. harems) by combining self organization and social dynamics. It starts from unfamiliar individuals without relationships and reproduces the emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network that promotes an effective spreading of the decisions from more capable individuals to the others, and thus gives rise to a beneficial collective decision. Our results stemming from the model are in a good agreement with our observations of a Przewalski horse herd (Hortobágy, Hungary). We find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in Przewalski horses corresponds to an optimal network in this approach regarding common success, and that the observed and modeled harem size distributions are close to a lognormal.
Open topological strings and integrable hierarchies: Remodeling the A-model
Brini, Andrea
2011-01-01
We set up, purely in A-model terms, a novel formalism for the global solution of the open and closed topological A-model on toric Calabi-Yau threefolds. The starting point is to build on recent progress in the mathematical theory of open Gromov-Witten invariants of orbifolds; we interpret the localization formulae as relating D-brane amplitudes to closed string amplitudes perturbed with twisted masses through an analogue of the "loop insertion operator" of matrix models. We first generalize this form of open/closed string duality to general toric backgrounds in all chambers of the stringy Kaehler moduli space; secondarily, we display a neat connection of the (gauged) closed string side to tau functions of 1+1 Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies, and exploit it to provide an effective computation of open string amplitudes. In doing so, we also provide a systematic treatment of the change of flat open moduli induced by a phase transition in the closed moduli space. We test our proposal in detail by providing an ...
Estimation of friction parameters in gravity currents by data assimilation in a model hierarchy
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A. Wirth
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is the last in a series of three investigating the friction laws and their parametrisation in idealised gravity currents in a rotating frame. Results on the dynamics of a gravity current (Wirth, 2009 and on the estimation of friction laws by data assimilation (Wirth and Verron, 2008 are combined to estimate the friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws in non-hydrostatic numerical simulations of gravity current dynamics, using data assimilation and a reduced gravity shallow water model.
I demonstrate, that friction parameters and laws in gravity currents can be estimated using data assimilation. The results clearly show that friction follows a linear Rayleigh law for small Reynolds numbers and the estimated value agrees well with the analytical value obtained for non-accelerating Ekman layers. A significant and sudden departure towards a quadratic drag law at an Ekman layer based Reynolds number of around 800 is shown, in agreement with classical laboratory experiments. The drag coefficient obtained compare well to friction values over smooth surfaces. I show that data assimilation can be used to determine friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws and that it is a powerful tool in systematically connection models within a model hierarchy.
Estimation of friction parameters in gravity currents by data assimilation in a model hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Wirth
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is the last in a series of three investigating the friction laws and their parametrisation in idealised gravity currents in a rotating frame. Results on the dynamics of a gravity current (Wirth, 2009 and on the estimation of friction laws by data assimilation (Wirth and Verron, 2008 are combined to estimate the friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws in non-hydrostatic numerical simulations of gravity current dynamics, using data assimilation and a reduced gravity shallow water model.
I demonstrate, that friction parameters and laws in gravity currents can be estimated using data assimilation. The results clearly show that friction follows a linear Rayleigh law for small Reynolds numbers and the estimated value agrees well with the analytical value obtained for non-accelerating Ekman layers. A significant and sudden departure towards a quadratic drag law at an Ekman layer based Reynolds number of around 800 is shown, in agreement with classical laboratory experiments. The drag coefficient obtained compares well to friction values over smooth surfaces. I show that data assimilation can be used to determine friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws and that it is a powerful tool in systematically connecting models within a model hierarchy.
Voigt, Aiko
2017-04-01
Climate models project that global warming will lead to substantial changes in the position of the extratropical jet streams. Yet, many quantitative aspects of such jet stream changes remain uncertain among models, and recent work has indicated a potentially important role of cloud radiative interactions. Here, I will investigate how cloud-radiative changes impact the extratropical circulation response using a hierarchy of global atmosphere models. I will first focus on aquaplanet setups with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), which reproduce the model spread found in realistic simulations with interactive SSTs. Simulations with two CMIP5 models MPI-ESM and IPSL-CM5A and prescribed clouds show that half of the circulation response can be attributed to cloud changes. The rise of tropical high-level clouds and the upward and poleward movement of midlatitude high-level clouds lead to poleward jet shifts. High-latitude low-level cloud changes shift the jet poleward in one model but not in the other. The impact of clouds on the jet operates via the atmospheric radiative forcing that is created by the cloud changes and is qualitatively reproduced in a dry Held-Suarez model, although the latter is too sensitive because of its simplified treatment of diabatic processes. I will then show that the aquaplanet results also hold when the models are used in a realistic setup that includes continents and seasonality. Finally, I will juxtapose these prescribed-SST simulations with interactive-SST simulations. This will allow for a comparison of the circulation impacts of atmospheric and surface cloud-radiative changes.
Hayashi, Tomohiko; Yasuda, Satoshi; Škrbić, Tatjana; Giacometti, Achille; Kinoshita, Masahiro
2017-09-01
Taking protein G with 56 residues for a case study, we investigate the mechanism of protein folding. In addition to its native structure possessing α-helix and β-sheet contents of 27% and 39%, respectively, we construct a number of misfolded decoys with a wide variety of α-helix and β-sheet contents. We then consider a hierarchy of 8 different models with increasing level of detail in terms of the number of entropic and energetic physical factors incorporated. The polyatomic structure is always taken into account, but the side chains are removed in half of the models. The solvent is formed by either neutral hard spheres or water molecules. Protein intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and protein-solvent H-bonds (the latter is present only in water) are accounted for or not, depending on the model considered. We then apply a physics-based free-energy function (FEF) corresponding to each model and investigate which structures are most stabilized. This special approach taken on a step-by-step basis enables us to clarify the role of each physical factor in contributing to the structural stability and separately elucidate its effect. Depending on the model employed, significantly different structures such as very compact configurations with no secondary structures and configurations of associated α-helices are optimally stabilized. The native structure can be identified as that with lowest FEF only when the most detailed model is employed. This result is significant for at least the two reasons: The most detailed model considered here is able to capture the fundamental aspects of protein folding notwithstanding its simplicity; and it is shown that the native structure is stabilized by a complex interplay of minimal multiple factors that must be all included in the description. In the absence of even a single of these factors, the protein is likely to be driven towards a different, more stable state.
Delegated Contracting and Corporate Hierarchies
Choe, Chongwoo; Park, In-Uck
2004-01-01
In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make decisions that set directions for the organization, employ subordinates and contract with external suppliers. This paper explains when such delegation of authority can be optimal, using a model of a firm with three parties: the principal, the manager and the worker. In centralization with two two-tier hierarchies, the principal designs contracts for both agents. In delegation with a three-tier hierarchy, the prin...
Reuter, H.; Jopp, F.; Blanco-Moreno, J. M.; Damgaard, C.; Matsinos, Y.; DeAngelis, D.L.
2010-01-01
A continuing discussion in applied and theoretical ecology focuses on the relationship of different organisational levels and on how ecological systems interact across scales. We address principal approaches to cope with complex across-level issues in ecology by applying elements of hierarchy theory and the theory of complex adaptive systems. A top-down approach, often characterised by the use of statistical techniques, can be applied to analyse large-scale dynamics and identify constraints exerted on lower levels. Current developments are illustrated with examples from the analysis of within-community spatial patterns and large-scale vegetation patterns. A bottom-up approach allows one to elucidate how interactions of individuals shape dynamics at higher levels in a self-organisation process; e.g., population development and community composition. This may be facilitated by various modelling tools, which provide the distinction between focal levels and resulting properties. For instance, resilience in grassland communities has been analysed with a cellular automaton approach, and the driving forces in rodent population oscillations have been identified with an agent-based model. Both modelling tools illustrate the principles of analysing higher level processes by representing the interactions of basic components.The focus of most ecological investigations on either top-down or bottom-up approaches may not be appropriate, if strong cross-scale relationships predominate. Here, we propose an 'across-scale-approach', closely interweaving the inherent potentials of both approaches. This combination of analytical and synthesising approaches will enable ecologists to establish a more coherent access to cross-level interactions in ecological systems. ?? 2010 Gesellschaft f??r ??kologie.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen
2016-01-01
is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can......This article focuses on employee participation in organisational action research (OAR), presenting three examples of OAR in one private and two public organisations in Denmark, respectively. Each of these examples shows how participatory hierarchies between employees and between them and action...... researchers are constructed in OAR projects, leading in these cases to the exclusion of silent pedagogues, elderly foremen, and a critical employee. Based on these examples, the article has three mutually connected purposes, an empirical, theoretical, and methodological purpose. First, the empirical purpose...
Hierarchy problem and the cosmological constant in a five-dimensional Brans-Dicke brane world model
Smolyakov, Mikhail N
2010-01-01
We discuss a new solution, admitting the existence of dS_{4} branes, in five-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory. It is shown that, due to a special form of a bulk scalar field potential, for certain values of the model parameters the effective cosmological constant can be made small on the brane, where the hierarchy problem of gravitational interaction is solved. We also discuss new stabilization mechanism which is based on the use of auxiliary fields.
HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP MODEL
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Chun Meng Tang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly competitive. To maintain the current user base and continue to attract new users, how should social networking sites design their sites? Marketers spend a fairly large percent of their marketing budget on social media marketing. To formulate an effective social media strategy, how much do marketers understand the users of social networking sites? Learning from website evaluation studies, this study intends to provide some answers to these questions by examining how university students decide between two popular social networking sites, Facebook and Twitter. We first developed an analytic hierarchy process (AHP model of four main selection criteria and 12 sub-criteria, and then administered a questionnaire to a group of university students attending a course at a Malaysian university. AHP analyses of the responses from 12 respondents provided an insight into the decision-making process involved in students’ selection of social networking sites. It seemed that of the four main criteria, privacy was the top concern, followed by functionality, usability, and content. The sub-criteria that were of key concern to the students were apps, revenue-generating opportunities, ease of use, and information security. Between Facebook and Twitter, the students thought that Facebook was the better choice. This information is useful for social networking site designers to design sites that are more relevant to their users’ needs, and for marketers to craft more effective
GIS-based flood risk model evaluated by Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP)
Sukcharoen, Tharapong; Weng, Jingnong; Teetat, Charoenkalunyuta
2016-10-01
Over the last 2-3 decades, the economy of many countries around the world has been developed rapidly but it was unbalanced development because of expecting on economic growth only. Meanwhile it lacked of effective planning in the use of natural resources. This can significantly induce climate change which is major cause of natural disaster. Hereby, Thailand has also suffered from natural disaster for ages. Especially, the flood which is most hazardous disaster in Thailand can annually result in the great loss of life and property, environment and economy. Since the flood management of country is inadequate efficiency. It is unable to support the flood analysis comprehensively. This paper applied Geographic Information System and Multi-Criteria Decision Making to create flood risk model at regional scale. Angthong province in Thailand was used as the study area. In practical process, Fuzzy logic technique has been used to improve specialist's assessment by implementing with Fuzzy membership because human decision is flawed under uncertainty then AHP technique was processed orderly. The hierarchy structure in this paper was categorized the spatial flood factors into two levels as following: 6 criteria (Meteorology, Geology, Topography, Hydrology, Human and Flood history) and 8 factors (Average Rainfall, Distance from Stream, Soil drainage capability, Slope, Elevation, Land use, Distance from road and Flooded area in the past). The validity of the pair-wise comparison in AHP was shown as C.R. value which indicated that the specialist judgment was reasonably consistent. FAHP computation result has shown that the first priority of criteria was Meteorology. In addition, the Rainfall was the most influencing factor for flooding. Finally, the output was displayed in thematic map of Angthong province with flood risk level processed by GIS tools. The map was classified into: High Risk, Moderate Risk and Low Risk (13.20%, 75.58%, and 11.22% of total area).
Fermion Family Generation, Mass and Charge Hierarchies from 10D Matter-Gauge Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rojas, M. [DEX, Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil); Andrade, M.A. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coletto, L.P. [CEFET-RJ UnED-Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Matheus-Valle, J.L. [DF-ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Assis, L.P.G. De; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [CBPF-LAFEX, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: The aim of this work is to study massless and source less field theories in higher dimensions, particularly in D=5+5 and D=1+9, can lead to an interpretation of massive Majorana and Dirac spinors in D=1+3. From higher dimension gauge field formulation we do verify the behavior of the remained dimension to the mass and the sources in D=1+3. By adopting suitable representations of the Dirac matrices in higher dimensions as the vector fields, we pursue the investigation of which higher dimensional space-times and which mass-shell relation concerning massless Dirac equations in higher dimensions may induce massive spinors and gauge fields in D=1+3. Starting off from Majorana-Weyl massless spinors written in the Weyl representation for the Dirac matrices, we remark some peculiar facts, as a duality type of symmetry in the decomposition of space-time that yields two families of equivalent D=1+4 or D=2+3 massive spinors, with symmetric disjoint sets of space-time coordinates. These symmetries yield to the degeneracy of the mass spectrum of the lower space-time spinor model. We explore a matrix representation of the spinor fields and the relation to their decomposition/reduction. So, the proposal in our approach might allow to understand the origin of a fourth, or higher, generation of fermionic particles in lower dimensions. Furthermore, the decomposition of the higher space-time as we advocate here yields a pattern of mass and charge generation for the families of reduced fermionic particles. The mass and charge hierarchies present in the particle spectrum is traced back to the D=5+5 reduced-form Abelian and non-Abelian gauge field coupling. (author)
New integrable lattice hierarchies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Zhu Zuonong [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain) and Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: znzhu2@yahoo.com.cn
2006-01-23
In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula.
ELEMENTS OF CONTROL OVER HIERARCHIE SYSTEMS WITH ASSUMED HIERARCHY
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Kushnir N. V.
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of control over dynamic hierarchy system. The model was proposed for dealing with systems with assumed order in the technical problem of predicting destructions depending onto the amount of defects on different scale levels. The problem of the closest to a certain point of shelf life of hierarchy system is solved. The example of approach control during the given time is given. The problem concerns mathematic programming. Formulation of multi-parameter vector optimization criteria (improvement with its own hierarchy and the formal exercise of multi-criteria optimization of the model parameters. The research can achieve clarity about the conditions under which the structure is preserved. Managing sustainable development system with a given level of the hierarchy for the technical systems can only be achieved in keeping
Wu, Jun; Tian, Xiaogang; Tang, Ya; Zhao, Yujie; Hu, Yandi; Fang, Zili
2010-07-01
Comprehensive evaluation of the water environment for effective water quality management is complicated by a considerable number of factors and uncertainties. It is difficult to combine micro-evaluation with the macro-evaluation process. To effectively eliminate the subjective errors of the traditional analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a new modeling approach--the analytic hierarchy process and grey target theory (AHP-GTT) systematic model--is presented in this study to evaluate water quality in a certain watershed. A case study of applying the AHP-GTT systematic model to the evaluation and analysis of the water environment was conducted in the Yibin section of the Yangtze River, China. The micro-evaluation is based on defining the weights of indices of the water quality (IWQ) of each water cross-section, while the macro-evaluation is based on calculating the comprehensive indices of water environmental quality and analyzing the tendency of the water environment of each cross-section. The results indicated that the Baixi and Shuidongmen sections are seriously polluted areas, with the tendencies of becoming worse. Also, the key IWQs of these two cross-sections are 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of permanganate, respectively.
Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
2013-12-01
Fifty years ago, Mednick [Psychological Review, 69 (1962) 220] proposed an elaborate model that aimed to explain how creative ideas are generated and why creative people are more likely to have creative ideas. The model assumes that creative people have flatter associative hierarchies and as a consequence can more fluently retrieve remote associative elements, which can be combined to form creative ideas. This study aimed at revisiting Mednick's model and providing an extensive test of its hypotheses. A continuous free association task was employed and association performance was compared between groups high and low in creativity, as defined by divergent thinking ability and self-report measures. We found that associative hierarchies do not differ between low and high creative people, but creative people showed higher associative fluency and more uncommon responses. This suggests that creativity may not be related to a special organization of associative memory, but rather to a more effective way of accessing its contents. The findings add to the evidence associating creativity with highly adaptive executive functioning.
Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.
2013-01-01
The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice proteins interacting with attractive surfaces are studied by means of Wang-Landau sampling. Three benchmark HP sequences (48mer, 67mer, and 103mer) are considered with different types of surfaces, each of which attract either all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. The diversity of folding behavior in dependence of surface strength is discussed. Analyzing the combined patterns of various structural observables, such as, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of surface contacts, together with the specific heat, we are able to identify generic categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also infer a connection between these transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratio of the surface attractive strength to the interchain attraction among H monomers. The validity of our proposed classification scheme is reinforced by the analysis of additional benchmark sequences. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for HP proteins interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.
F C Pan, Frank
2014-03-01
Nurses have long been relied as the major labor force in hospitals. Featured with complicated and highly labor-intensive job requirement, multiple pressures from different sources was inevitable. Success in identifying stresses and accordingly coping with such stresses is important for job performance of nurses, and service quality of a hospital. Purpose of this research is to identify the determinants of nurses' capabilities. A modified Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted. Overall, 105 nurses from several randomly selected hospitals in southern Taiwan were investigated to generate factors. Ten experienced practitioners were included as the expert in the AHP to produce weights of each criterion. Six nurses from two regional hospitals were then selected to test the model. Four factors are then identified as the second level of hierarchy. The study result shows that the family factor is the most important factor, and followed by the personal attributes. Top three sub-criteria that attribute to the nurse's stress-coping capability are children's education, good career plan, and healthy family. The practical simulation provided evidence for the usefulness of this model. The study suggested including these key determinants into the practice of human-resource management, and restructuring the hospital's organization, creating an employee-support system as well as a family-friendly working climate. The research provided evidence that supports the usefulness of AHP in identifying the key factors that help stabilizing a nursing team.
Supersymmetry of Affine Toda Models as Fermionic Symmetry Flows of the Extended mKdV Hierarchy
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David M. Schmidtt
2010-05-01
Full Text Available We couple two copies of the supersymmetric mKdV hierarchy by means of the algebraic dressing technique. This allows to deduce the whole set of (N,N supersymmetry transformations of the relativistic sector of the extended mKdV hierarchy and to interpret them as fermionic symmetry flows. The construction is based on an extended Riemann-Hilbert problem for affine Kac-Moody superalgebras with a half-integer gradation. A generalized set of relativistic-like fermionic local current identities is introduced and it is shown that the simplest one, corresponding to the lowest isospectral times t_{±1} provides the supercharges generating rigid supersymmetry transformations in 2D superspace. The number of supercharges is equal to the dimension of the fermionic kernel of a given semisimple element E in ^g which defines both, the physical degrees of freedom and the symmetries of the model. The general construction is applied to the N=(1,1 and N=(2,2 sinh-Gordon models which are worked out in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank F C Pan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Nurses have long been relied as the major labor force in hospitals. Featured with complicated and highly labor-intensive job requirement, multiple pressures from different sources was inevitable. Success in identifying stresses and accordingly coping with such stresses is important for job performance of nurses, and service quality of a hospital. Purpose of this research is to identify the determinants of nurses' capabilities.A modified Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was adopted. Overall, 105 nurses from several randomly selected hospitals in southern Taiwan were investigated to generate factors. Ten experienced practitioners were included as the expert in the AHP to produce weights of each criterion. Six nurses from two regional hospitals were then selected to test the model.Four factors are then identified as the second level of hierarchy. The study result shows that the family factor is the most important factor, and followed by the personal attributes. Top three sub-criteria that attribute to the nurse's stress-coping capability are children's education, good career plan, and healthy family. The practical simulation provided evidence for the usefulness of this model.The study suggested including these key determinants into the practice of human-resource management, and restructuring the hospital's organization, creating an employee-support system as well as a family-friendly working climate. The research provided evidence that supports the usefulness of AHP in identifying the key factors that help stabilizing a nursing team.
Information slows down hierarchy growth.
Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A
2014-06-01
We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2003-01-01
. Finally, it must be possible to write generic code that works on every hierarchy derived from the hierarchy for which it was written. This paper presents a language design that supports such a notion of higher-order hierarchies. It has been implemented in context of a full-fledged, statically typed...... be possible to create hierarchies incrementally based on existing hierarchies, such that commonalities are expressed via reuse, not duplication. Second, the hierarchies must themselves be organized into hierarchies, such that their relationships are made explicit and can be exploited in a type safe manner...... language....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schweickardt, Gustavo [Instituto de Economia Energetica, Fundacion Bariloche, Centro Atomico Bariloche - Pabellon 7, Av. Bustillo km 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Miranda, Vladimiro [INESC Porto, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto and FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)
2009-07-15
This work presents a model to evaluate the Distribution System Dynamic De-adaptation respecting its planning for a given period of Tariff Control. The starting point for modeling is brought about by the results from a multi-criteria method based on Fuzzy Dynamic Programming and on Analytic Hierarchy Processes applied in a mid/short-term horizon (stage 1). Then, the decision-making activities using the Hierarchy Analytical Processes will allow defining, for a Control of System De-adaptation (stage 2), a Vector to evaluate the System Dynamic Adaptation. It is directly associated to an eventual series of inbalances that take place during its evolution. (author)
Schölzel-Dorenbos, C.J.M.; Meeuwsen, E.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To make an inventory of needs assessment instruments in dementia, to explore the interaction between unmet needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to relate these to the conceptual model of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs in order to design a dementia-specific model. METHODS: Na
Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.
2013-01-01
Fifty years ago, Mednick ["Psychological Review", 69 (1962) 220] proposed an elaborate model that aimed to explain how creative ideas are generated and why creative people are more likely to have creative ideas. The model assumes that creative people have flatter associative hierarchies and as a consequence can more fluently retrieve…
Schölzel-Dorenbos, C.J.M.; Meeuwsen, E.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To make an inventory of needs assessment instruments in dementia, to explore the interaction between unmet needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to relate these to the conceptual model of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs in order to design a dementia-specific model. METHODS:
Schölzel-Dorenbos, C.J.M.; Meeuwsen, E.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To make an inventory of needs assessment instruments in dementia, to explore the interaction between unmet needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to relate these to the conceptual model of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs in order to design a dementia-specific model. METHODS: Na
Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.
2013-01-01
Fifty years ago, Mednick ["Psychological Review", 69 (1962) 220] proposed an elaborate model that aimed to explain how creative ideas are generated and why creative people are more likely to have creative ideas. The model assumes that creative people have flatter associative hierarchies and as a consequence can more fluently retrieve…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. E A. Oghojafor
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The aviation industry in Africa‟s most populous nation has been experiencing an explosive growth in recent years with older domestic operators fighting competing new players. The expansion has given Nigerians a wider choice of airlines, many of them flying with new or recently refurbished aircraft, which have helped reverse the country‟s situation for air safety in the wake of a spate of crashes six years ago. This paper applied the Analytic Hierarchy Process to identify the determinants of customers‟ satisfaction in the Nigerian aviation industry. To achieve this aim, a sample of 100 customers were drawn from among customers (air passengers at the Muritala Mohammed Airport 2 in Lagos, Nigeria, using convenience sampling and snowballing techniques. The quantitative approach was used to analysed the data obtained by using descriptive statistics and the Expert Choice 2000 a software designed to analyse AHP data. Findings show that customers of the aviation industry players derived their satisfaction when operators respond quickly to their requests and provides information in relation to their flights. Although there is little relative preference in terms of customers‟ satisfaction regarding the services provided by the aviation operators in Nigeria, customers‟ satisfaction is derived essentially from how the operators handle their ticketing and reservation services.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Hong; YI Guodong; TAN Jianrong; LIU Zhenyu
2008-01-01
Collision avoidance decision-making models of multiple agents in virtual driving environ- ment are studied. Based on the behavioral characteristics and hierarchical structure of the collision avoidance decision-making in real life driving, delphi approach and mathematical statistics method are introduced to construct pair-wise comparison judgment matrix of collision avoidance decision choices to each collision situation. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to establish the agents' collision avoidance decision-making model. To simulate drivers' characteristics, driver factors are added to categorize driving modes into impatient mode, normal mode, and the cautious mode. The results show that this model can simulate human's thinking process, and the agents in the virtual environment can deal with collision situations and make decisions to avoid collisions without intervention. The model can also reflect diversity and uncertainty of real life driving behaviors, and solves the multi-objective, multi-choice ranking priority problem in multi-vehicle collision scenarios. This collision avoidance model of multi-agents model is feasible and effective, and can provide richer and closer-to-life virtual scene for driving simulator, reflecting real-life traffic environment more truly, this model can also promote the practicality of driving simulator.
Information slows down hierarchy growth
Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Minano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Holyst, Janusz A
2013-01-01
We consider models of a growing tree with the growth process driven by the rules of tournament selection, where a new node is attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (closest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information about the network topology that is available for new nodes. Two cases are considered: the constant tournament (CT) model where the number of tournament participants is constant throughout the tree evolution, and the proportional tournament (PT) model where it is grows proportionally to the actual tree size. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge in the tree but the birth time of the hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster with level number. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level (just below the root) grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi log-periodical...
一种改进的RBAC角色层次模型%An Improved Role Hierarchy Model for Role Based Access Control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余敏; 余文森
2004-01-01
介绍一种基于角色的访问控制模型,分析了RBAC96中的角色层次模型和私有权限问题,并指出Sandhu's解决方案的不足.提出了一种改进的角色层次模型用于改善RBAC96,并提出一些新的概念,比如:公有权限、私有权限和继承范围.在新的角色层次模型中,上级角色从下级角色继承公有权限,但不继承私有权限.新的角色层次模型对相同的角色层次关系的描述比RBAC96更简单和易于理解,且适合应用于具有更多、更复杂的角色层次关系,比如:操作系统,DBMS,分布式应用等.%In this paper, we introduce the role - based access control model, analyse the role hierarchy model and the problem of private permissions in RBAC96, and point out the disadvantage of Sandhu's solution. An improved role hierarchy model is introduced against the drawback of RBAC96; some new concepts such as public permission, private permission and scope of inheritance are presented in the model. In the role hierarchy model, the senior role inherits public permissions from junior role but not private permissions. Thus a new role hierarchy model is for mulated. It is simpler and more comprehensible tOdescribe the same role relationships in the improved model than the RBAC96. It will be flexible and suitable in large- scale role hierarchies, such as operating systems, DBMS, distributed applications, etc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sykes, R.I.; Lewellen, W.S.; Parker, S.F.; Henn, D.S.
1989-01-01
The Second Order Closure Integrated Puff Model (SCIPUFF) is the intermediate resolution member of a hierarchy of models. It simulates the expected values of plume concentration downwind of a fossil-fueled power plant stack, along with an estimate of the variation around this value. To represent the turbulent atmosphere surrounding the plume compatibly with available meteorological data, a second order closure sub-model is used. SCIPUFF represents the plume by a series of Gaussian puffs, typically 10 seconds apart; plume growth is calculated by a random walk phase combined with plume expansion calculated from the volume integrals of the equations used in the Stack Exhaust Model (SEM), the highest resolution model. Meteorological uncertainty is accounted for by means of extra dispersion terms. SCIPUFF was tested against more than 250 hours of plume data including both a level site and a moderately complex terrain site; approximately 200 samplers were used. Model predictions were evaluated by comparing the measured ground level concentration distribution to that simulated by the model. Further, the simulated and actual distributions of deviations between simulated or observed and expected values were compared. The predicted distributions were close to the measured ones. The overall results from SCIPUFF were similar to those from the lowest resolution model, SCIMP. The advantage of SCIPUFF is its flexibility for including future improvements. When combined with a suitable mesoscale model, SCIPUFF may be able to simulate plume dispersion beyond the 50 km limit of other available models. The ability to cover a wide range of time and space scales in a single calculation is another valuable feature. 3 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.
Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Esau, I.
2013-03-01
Here we advance the physical background of the energy- and flux-budget turbulence closures based on the budget equations for the turbulent kinetic and potential energies and turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy, and a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time scale. The closure is designed for stratified geophysical flows from neutral to very stable and accounts for the Earth's rotation. In accordance with modern experimental evidence, the closure implies the maintaining of turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at {Ri ≪ 1} typical of boundary-layer flows and characterized by the practically constant turbulent Prandtl number Pr T; and "weak turbulence" at Ri > 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri (which implies very strong suppression of the heat transfer compared to the momentum transfer). For use in different applications, the closure is formulated at different levels of complexity, from the local algebraic model relevant to the steady-state regime of turbulence to a hierarchy of non-local closures including simpler down-gradient models, presented in terms of the eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity, and a general non-gradient model based on prognostic equations for all the basic parameters of turbulence including turbulent fluxes.
The Moyal Momentum algebra applied to (theta)-deformed 2d conformal models and KdV-hierarchies
Boulahoual, A
2002-01-01
The properties of the Das-Popowicz Moyal momentum algebra that we introduce in hep-th/0207242 are reexamined in details and used to discuss some aspects of integrable models and 2d conformal field theories. Among the results presented, we setup some useful convention notations which lead to extract some non trivial properties of the Moyal momentum algebra. We use the particular sub-algebra sl(n)-{Sigma}_{n}^{(0,n)} to construct the sl(2)-Liouville conformal model and its sl(3)-Toda extension. We show also that the central charge, a la Feigin-Fuchs, associated to the spin-2 conformal current of the (theta)-Liouville model is given by c(theta)=1+24.theta^{2}. Moreover, the results obtained for the Das-Popowicz Mm algebra are applied to study systematically some properties of the Moyal KdV and Boussinesq hierarchies generalizing some known results. We discuss also the primarity condition of conformal $w_{\\theta}$-currents and interpret this condition as being a dressing gauge symmetry in the Moyal momentum space...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anirut Pipatprapa
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Currently, the environment and sustainability are important topics for every industry. The food industry is particularly complicated in this regard because of the dynamic and complex character of food products and their production. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to investigate which factors are suitable for evaluating the environmental performance of Thailand’s food industry. A first-stage questionnaire survey was conducted with 178 managers in the food industry that obtained a certificate from the Department of Industrial Work of Thailand to synthesize the performance measurement model and the significance of the relationship between the indicators. A second-stage questionnaire measured 18 experts’ priorities regarding the criteria and sub-factors involved in the different aspects and assessment items regarding environmental performance. SEM showed that quality management, market orientation, and innovation capability have a significantly positive effect on environmental performance. The FAHP showed that the experts were most concerned about quality management, followed by market orientation and innovation capability; the assessment items for quality policy, quality assurance, and customer orientation were of the most concern. The findings of this study can be referenced and support managerial decision making when monitoring environmental performance.
Hierarchial mark-recapture models: a framework for inference about demographic processes
Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.
2004-01-01
The development of sophisticated mark-recapture models over the last four decades has provided fundamental tools for the study of wildlife populations, allowing reliable inference about population sizes and demographic rates based on clearly formulated models for the sampling processes. Mark-recapture models are now routinely described by large numbers of parameters. These large models provide the next challenge to wildlife modelers: the extraction of signal from noise in large collections of parameters. Pattern among parameters can be described by strong, deterministic relations (as in ultrastructural models) but is more flexibly and credibly modeled using weaker, stochastic relations. Trend in survival rates is not likely to be manifest by a sequence of values falling precisely on a given parametric curve; rather, if we could somehow know the true values, we might anticipate a regression relation between parameters and explanatory variables, in which true value equals signal plus noise. Hierarchical models provide a useful framework for inference about collections of related parameters. Instead of regarding parameters as fixed but unknown quantities, we regard them as realizations of stochastic processes governed by hyperparameters. Inference about demographic processes is based on investigation of these hyperparameters. We advocate the Bayesian paradigm as a natural, mathematically and scientifically sound basis for inference about hierarchical models. We describe analysis of capture-recapture data from an open population based on hierarchical extensions of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. In addition to recaptures of marked animals, we model first captures of animals and losses on capture, and are thus able to estimate survival probabilities w (i.e., the complement of death or permanent emigration) and per capita growth rates f (i.e., the sum of recruitment and immigration rates). Covariation in these rates, a feature of demographic interest, is explicitly
Exploiting prior knowledge in Intelligent Assistants - Combining relational models with hierarchies
Natarajan, Sriraam; Tadepalli, Prasad; Fern, Alan
2008-01-01
Statitsical relational models have been successfully used to model static probabilistic relationships between the entities of the domain. In this talk, we illustrate their use in a dynamic decison-theoretic setting where the task is to assist a user by inferring his intentional structure and taking appropriate assistive actions. We show that the statistical relational models can be used to succintly express the system's prior knowledge about the user's goal-subgoal structure...
Inexpensive Videodisc for Proficiency: A Teaching Model Based on Bruner's Learning Hierarchy.
Sutherland, Richard; Knight, Richard
1987-01-01
Describes a German language class in which a videodisk player is used to enhance oral proficiency. The basis for this model of instruction and the structuralist theory of learning developed by Jerome Bruner are discussed. The teaching steps of the model as applied to foreign language instruction are presented. (Author/LMO)
Inexpensive Videodisc for Proficiency: A Teaching Model Based on Bruner's Learning Hierarchy.
Sutherland, Richard; Knight, Richard
1987-01-01
Describes a German language class in which a videodisk player is used to enhance oral proficiency. The basis for this model of instruction and the structuralist theory of learning developed by Jerome Bruner are discussed. The teaching steps of the model as applied to foreign language instruction are presented. (Author/LMO)
Building a traceable climate model hierarchy with multi-level emulators
Tran, Giang T.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Sóbester, András; Toal, David J. J.; Holden, Philip B.; Marsh, Robert; Challenor, Peter; Edwards, Neil R.
2016-04-01
To study climate change on multi-millennial timescales or to explore a model's parameter space, efficient models with simplified and parameterised processes are required. However, the reduction in explicitly modelled processes can lead to underestimation of some atmospheric responses that are essential to the understanding of the climate system. While more complex general circulations are available and capable of simulating a more realistic climate, they are too computationally intensive for these purposes. In this work, we propose a multi-level Gaussian emulation technique to efficiently estimate the outputs of steady-state simulations of an expensive atmospheric model in response to changes in boundary forcing. The link between a computationally expensive atmospheric model, PLASIM (Planet Simulator), and a cheaper model, EMBM (energy-moisture balance model), is established through the common boundary condition specified by an ocean model, allowing for information to be propagated from one to the other. This technique allows PLASIM emulators to be built at a low cost. The method is first demonstrated by emulating a scalar summary quantity, the global mean surface air temperature. It is then employed to emulate the dimensionally reduced 2-D surface air temperature field. Even though the two atmospheric models chosen are structurally unrelated, Gaussian process emulators of PLASIM atmospheric variables are successfully constructed using EMBM as a fast approximation. With the extra information gained from the cheap model, the multi-level emulator of PLASIM's 2-D surface air temperature field is built using only one-third the amount of expensive data required by the normal single-level technique. The constructed emulator is shown to capture 93.2 % of the variance across the validation ensemble, with the averaged RMSE of 1.33 °C. Using the method proposed, quantities from PLASIM can be constructed and used to study the effects introduced by PLASIM's atmosphere.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jun-hui; GAN Lian-jun
2007-01-01
An assessment index model was established to evaulate the benefit of the Three-Gorges Reservoir migration through the analytical hierarchy process. Totally 43 indicators were selected to assess the impact of migration on the economic, social and ecological environmental aspects of the migration communities, with the data of the indicators of the years 1992, 1998, 2002 which represented the period of premigration, the end of the first phase migration and the end of the second phase migration, respectively. The evaluation matrix is sufficiently consistent, with a consistency ratio CR equal to 0.086 3. The assessment turned out a benefit value for the economic subsystem in the year 2004 larger than triple the value in the year 1992, indicating a remarkable economic growth in the Reservoir area. The constantly increasing value for the social subsystem reflects the stable social situations. There is a slight decline in the assessment outcome of the ecological subsystem for the year 1998, which implies enviromental conservation was given insufficient importance during that period. On the whole, the implementation of the migration project is favorable to the Reservoir region, as confirmed by the stably increasing overall evaluation value from 42.22% in 1992 to 68.81% in 2002. However, there is still much room to improve from the status quo to the target criteria.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moedjiono Moedjiono
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In the field of services, customer satisfaction is a very important factor and determine the success of an enterprise. In the field of outsourcing, customer satisfaction indicator is the labor required delivery in a timely manner and has a level of quality in accordance with the terms proposed by the customer. To provide the best talent to customers, team recruitment and selection must perform a series of tests with a variety of methods to match the criteria of office given by the user with the criteria owned candidates and in order to support growth in graduation rates force a partner at the stage of user approval. For this purpose, the authors conducted a study with the method of observation, interviews, document reviews the candidate recruitment process, so as to provide recommendations for candidates with the highest quality delivery to the user at the stage of approval. The author put forward a model of decision support that is supported by the method of profile matching and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in problem solving. The final results of this study can be used to support a decision in order to improve the effectiveness of the delivery of quality candidates, increase customer satisfaction, lower costs and improve gross operational margin of the company.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moedjiono Moedjiono
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In the field of services, customer satisfaction is a very important factor and determine the success of an enterprise. In the field of outsourcing, customer satisfaction indicator is the labor required delivery in a timely manner and has a level of quality in accordance with the terms proposed by the customer. To provide the best talent to customers, team recruitment and selection must perform a series of tests with a variety of methods to match the criteria of office given by the user with the criteria owned candidates and in order to support growth in graduation rates force a partner at the stage of user approval. For this purpose, the authors conducted a study with the method of observation, interviews, document reviews the candidate recruitment process, so as to provide recommendations for candidates with the highest quality delivery to the user at the stage of approval. The author put forward a model of decision support that is supported by the method of profile matching and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in problem solving. The final results of this study can be used to support a decision in order to improve the effectiveness of the delivery of quality candidates, increase customer satisfaction, lower costs and improve gross operational margin of the company.
Laurie, Karen L.; Guarnaccia, Teagan A.; Carolan, Louise A.; Yan, Ada W. C.; Aban, Malet; Petrie, Stephen; Cao, Pengxing; Heffernan, Jane M.; McVernon, Jodie; Mosse, Jennifer; Kelso, Anne; McCaw, James M.; Barr, Ian G.
2015-01-01
Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that, following infection with influenza virus, there is a short period during which a host experiences a lower susceptibility to infection with other influenza viruses. This viral interference appears to be independent of any antigenic similarities between the viruses. We used the ferret model of human influenza to systematically investigate viral interference. Methods. Ferrets were first infected then challenged 1–14 days later with pairs of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), and influenza B viruses circulating in 2009 and 2010. Results. Viral interference was observed when the interval between initiation of primary infection and subsequent challenge was virus specific and occurred between antigenically related and unrelated viruses. Coinfections occurred when 1 or 3 days separated infections. Ongoing shedding from the primary virus infection was associated with viral interference after the secondary challenge. Conclusions. The interval between infections and the sequential combination of viruses were important determinants of viral interference. The influenza viruses in this study appear to have an ordered hierarchy according to their ability to block or delay infection, which may contribute to the dominance of different viruses often seen in an influenza season. PMID:25943206
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de la Puente, Alejandro [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)
2012-05-01
In this work, I present a generalization of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with an explicit μ-term and a supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield, as a route to alleviating the little hierarchy problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I analyze two limiting cases of the model, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield. The small and large limits of this mass parameter are studied, and I find that I can generate masses for the lightest neutral Higgs boson up to 140 GeV with top squarks below the TeV scale, all couplings perturbative up to the gauge unification scale, and with no need to fine tune parameters in the scalar potential. This model, which I call the S-MSSM is also embedded in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scheme. I find that even with a minimal embedding of the S-MSSM into a gauge mediated scheme, the mass for the lightest Higgs boson can easily be above 114 GeV, while keeping the top squarks below the TeV scale. Furthermore, I also study the forward-backward asymmetry in the t¯t system within the framework of the S-MSSM. For this purpose, non-renormalizable couplings between the first and third generation of quarks to scalars are introduced. The two limiting cases of the S-MSSM, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield is analyzed, and I find that in the region of small singlet supersymmetric mass a large asymmetry can be obtained while being consistent with constraints arising from flavor physics, quark masses and top quark decays.
Markov-CA model using analytical hierarchy process and multiregression technique
Omar, N. Q.; Sanusi, S. A. M.; Hussin, W. M. W.; Samat, N.; Mohammed, K. S.
2014-06-01
The unprecedented increase in population and rapid rate of urbanisation has led to extensive land use changes. Cellular automata (CA) are increasingly used to simulate a variety of urban dynamics. This paper introduces a new CA based on an integration model built-in multi regression and multi-criteria evaluation to improve the representation of CA transition rule. This multi-criteria evaluation is implemented by utilising data relating to the environmental and socioeconomic factors in the study area in order to produce suitability maps (SMs) using an analytical hierarchical process, which is a well-known method. Before being integrated to generate suitability maps for the periods from 1984 to 2010 based on the different decision makings, which have become conditioned for the next step of CA generation. The suitability maps are compared in order to find the best maps based on the values of the root equation (R2). This comparison can help the stakeholders make better decisions. Thus, the resultant suitability map derives a predefined transition rule for the last step for CA model. The approach used in this study highlights a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating land-use and land-cover changes in Kirkuk city, Iraq owing changes in the structures of governments, wars, and an economic blockade over the past decades. The present study asserts the high applicability and flexibility of Markov-CA model. The results have shown that the model and its interrelated concepts are performing rather well.
ADOP in closed form for a hierarchy of multi-frequency single-baseline GNSS models
Odijk, D.; Teunissen, P.J.G.
2008-01-01
Successful carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high-precision positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP) is a well-known scalar measure which can be used to infer the strength of the GNSS model for carrier phase ambiguity reso
Towards successful electronic commerce strategies : a hierarchy of three management models
Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.
1999-01-01
Although only few managers deny the potential of the Internet, many are struggling with the question how their company can best exploit electronic commerce. Managers need tools that guide them in their quest for effective Web applications. In this paper, we present three models that provide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elaheh Hooshmand
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Background The purpose of implementing a system such as Clinical Governance (CG is to integrate, establish and globalize distinct policies in order to improve quality through increasing professional knowledge and the accountability of healthcare professional toward providing clinical excellence. Since CG is related to change, and change requires money and time, CG implementation has to be focused on priority areas that are in more dire need of change. The purpose of the present study was to validate and determine the significance of items used for evaluating CG implementation. Methods The present study was descriptive-quantitative in method and design. Items used for evaluating CG implementation were first validated by the Delphi method and then compared with one another and ranked based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP model. Results The items that were validated for evaluating CG implementation in Iran include performance evaluation, training and development, personnel motivation, clinical audit, clinical effectiveness, risk management, resource allocation, policies and strategies, external audit, information system management, research and development, CG structure, implementation prerequisites, the management of patients’ non-medical needs, complaints and patients’ participation in the treatment process. The most important items based on their degree of significance were training and development, performance evaluation, and risk management. The least important items included the management of patients’ non-medical needs, patients’ participation in the treatment process and research and development. Conclusion The fundamental requirements of CG implementation included having an effective policy at national level, avoiding perfectionism, using the expertise and potentials of the entire country and the coordination of this model with other models of quality improvement such as accreditation and patient safety.
Ferrnion Mass Hierarchies in Singlet-Extended Minimal-Supersymmetric-Standard-Model Quivers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Salah Eddine Ennadifi; Adil Belhaj; El Hassan Saidi
2011-01-01
In the context of type-ⅡA orientifold compactifications,we discuss the fermion masses in a two-singlet-extended minimal-supersymmetric-standard-model four-stack quiver with U(3) × Sp(1) × U(1) × U(1) gauge symmetry.The corresponding effective superpotential exhibits hierarchical coupling term scales giving a partial solution to the fermion masses problem.Using the known data with upper bound neutrino masses mvτ ＜～ 2 eV,we estimate the relevant scales for the model.It has been shown that important particle physics can be realized in type-Ⅱ superstring models by using the mechanism of intersecting D-branes in orientifold compactifications.[1-6] In such compactifications,the gauge groups arise from stacks of D-branes that fill four-dimensional spacetime and wrap the three-cycles in the internal Calabi-Yau threefold.However,matter fields arise at the intersection of two different D-brane stacks in internal space and their multiplicity is given by the topological intersection numbers of the respective three-cycles.Their interactions are subject to restrictions of additional global U(1)'s exhibited by orientifold compactifications.[7-10] Stringy effects have a crucial role in this regard,as they give corrections to the superpotential by inducing the missing couplings relevant for fermion masses.This method provides an acceptable effective low energy description reproducing the standard model or some extensions.[11,12]%In the context of type-IIA orientifold compactifications, we discuss the fermion masses in a two-singlet-extended minimal-supersymmetric-standard-model four-stack quiver with U(3)×Sp(1)×U(1)×U(1) gauge symmetry. The corresponding effective superpotential exhibits hierarchical coupling term scales giving a partial solution to the fermion masses problem. Using the known data with upper bound neutrino masses mvτ≤2 eV, we estimate the relevant scales for the model.
Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies
Kazarian, M.; Lando, S.
2015-01-01
We give a review of modern approaches to constructing formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics, whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to constructing efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are given.
Quark masses without Yukawa hierarchies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia-Canal, C. [Plata Univ. Nacional, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); Ponce, W.A. [Antioquia Univ., Instituto de Fisica, Colombia La (Argentina)
2005-12-15
A model based on the local gauge group SU(3){sub c}*SU(3){sub L}*U(1){sub X} without particles with exotic electric charges is shown to be able to provide the quark mass spectrum and their mixing, by means of universal see-saw mechanisms, avoiding a hierarchy in the Yukawa coupling constants. (authors)
An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modeling of the CMS Detector Control System
Ling Hwong, Yi
2010-01-01
The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviors and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and c...
Matsutani, S
1997-01-01
In this article, I have investigated statistical mechanics of a non-stretched elastica in two dimensional space using path integral method. In the calculation, the MKdV hierarchy naturally appeared as the equations including the temperature fluctuation.I have classified the moduli of the closed elastica in heat bath and summed the Boltzmann weight with the thermalfluctuation over the moduli. Due to the bilinearity of the energy functional,I have obtained its exact partition function.By investigation of the system,I conjectured that an expectation value at a critical point of this system obeys the Painlevé equation of the first kind and its related equations extended by the KdV hierarchy.Furthermore I also commented onthe relation between the MKdV hierarchy and BRS transformationin this system.
Existence of Hierarchies and Human's Pursuit of Top Hierarchy Lead to Power Law
Yu, Shuiyuan; Liu, Haitao
2016-01-01
The power law is ubiquitous in natural and social phenomena, and is considered as a universal relationship between the frequency and its rank for diverse social systems. However, a general model is still lacking to interpret why these seemingly unrelated systems share great similarity. Through a detailed analysis of natural language texts and simulation experiments based on the proposed 'Hierarchical Selection Model', we found that the existence of hierarchies and human's pursuit of top hierarchy lead to the power law. Further, the power law is a statistical and emergent performance of hierarchies, and it is the universality of hierarchies that contributes to the ubiquity of the power law.
Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models
McCusker, Kelly E.
Global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is causing negative impacts on diverse ecological and human systems around the globe, and these impacts are projected to worsen as climate continues to warm. In the absence of meaningful greenhouse gas emissions reductions, new strategies have been proposed to engineer the climate, with the aim of preventing further warming and avoiding associated climate impacts. We investigate one such strategy here, falling under the umbrella of `solar radiation management', in which sulfate aerosols are injected into the stratosphere. We use a global climate model with a coupled mixed-layer depth ocean and with a fully-coupled ocean general circulation model to simulate the stabilization of climate by balancing increasing carbon dioxide with increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations. We evaluate whether or not severe climate impacts, such as melting Arctic sea ice, tropical crop failure, or destabilization of the West Antarctic ice sheet, could be avoided. We find that while tropical climate emergencies might be avoided by use of stratospheric aerosol injections, avoiding polar emergencies cannot be guaranteed due to large residual climate changes in those regions, which are in part due to residual atmospheric circulation anomalies. We also find that the inclusion of a fully-coupled ocean is important for determining the regional climate response because of its dynamical feedbacks. The efficacy of stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections, and solar radiation management more generally, depends on its ability to be maintained indefinitely, without interruption from a variety of possible sources, such as technological failure, a breakdown in global cooperation, lack of funding, or negative unintended consequences. We next consider the scenario in which stratospheric sulfate injections are abruptly terminated after a multi- decadal period of implementation while greenhouse gas emissions have continued unabated
The Analytical Hierarchy Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfod, Michael Bruhn
2007-01-01
The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....
The Analytical Hierarchy Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfod, Michael Bruhn
2007-01-01
The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....
Normalization of Class Hierarchy in Databases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李天柱; 肖计田; 等
1996-01-01
In complex object oriented databases,the purpose of introducing class hierarchy is to express ISA semantics,to realize inheriting and to reuse schema definition codes.The schema defintition and schema evolution,based on the partial order of lattice,often cause the loss o information inheriting and the redundance of schema definition.Based on the fullness of the inheritance shown by class hierarchy,three normal forms of class hierarchy are given in this paper,and a general algorithm of normalization of class hierarchy is presented,following the Boolean algebra model of class hierarchy.The loss of information inheritance can be avoided when they are applied to schema design and schema evolution.
Detectability of ranking hierarchies in directed networks
Letizia, Elisa; Lillo, Fabrizio
2016-01-01
Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimizes a score function, termed agony. This function penalizes the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the detectability of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Hierarchical Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterize the detectability threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit.
The Star Height Hierarchy Vs. The Variable Hierarchy
Belkhir, Walid
2009-01-01
The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hie...
Leavitt, Harold J
2003-03-01
Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.
Springer, Kristen S; George, Steven Z; Robinson, Michael E
2016-08-01
Previous studies have not examined the assessment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) and pain-related anxiety from a fear avoidance model through the use of motion-capture software and virtual human technologies. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of an interactive, technologically based hierarchy that can be used to assess patients with pain and pain-related anxiety. We enrolled 30 licensed physical therapists and 30 participants with CLBP. Participants rated 21 video clips of a 3-D animated character (avatar) engaging in activities that are typically feared by patients with CLBP. The results of the study indicate that physical therapists found the virtual hierarchy clips acceptable and depicted realistic patient experiences. Most participants with CLBP reported at least 1 video clip as being sufficiently anxiety-provoking for use clinically. Therefore, this study suggests a hierarchy of fears can be created out of 21 virtual patient video clips paving the way for future clinical use in patients with CLBP. This report describes the development of a computer-based virtual patient system for the assessment of back pain-related fear and anxiety. Results show that people with back pain as well as physical therapists found the avatar to be realistic, and the depictions of behavior anxiety- and fear-provoking. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.
2015-01-01
Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...
Scholzel-Dorenbos, Carla J M; Meeuwsen, Els J; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M
2010-01-01
To make an inventory of needs assessment instruments in dementia, to explore the interaction between unmet needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to relate these to the conceptual model of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs in order to design a dementia-specific model. Narrative review of literature on (measures of) needs of patients and caregivers and HRQoL determinants important in dementia. Relating these needs to individual goal setting instruments and Maslow's Hierarchy of needs model. The Camberwell Assessment of Needs for the Elderly (CANE) turns out to be a valid tool to assess needs of dementia patients, suitable for research and clinical use. The Carers' Needs Assessment for Dementia (CNA-D) is a valid instrument to assess needs of caregivers. Patients identified significantly fewer needs than (in)formal caregivers. The most important needs, that also determine large part of HRQoL, are need for information; support with regard to symptoms of dementia; social contact and company; and for health monitoring and safety. Goal attainment scaling in dementia is an important but not yet valid outcome measure, with only few data on feasibility in dementia patients. There are several instruments to assess needs of dementia patients and caregivers. Domains of unmet needs and HRQoL overlap. The Hierarchy Model of Needs in Dementia (HMND) offers a new theoretical framework to address the interplay between meeting of needs and improvement of HRQoL in dementia. By identifying unmet needs in dementia-research and focussing on unmet needs in dementia-care, much can be done to improve HRQoL.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gergely Tibély
Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of
Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2013-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover
Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2013-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search
Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies
Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.
2015-06-01
This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
An intelligent geographic information system (GIS) has to handle various types and huge volumes of geoscience-related knowledge as well as enormous amounts of data and information. More recent attention concentrates on collection,represen-tation,management,and usage of knowledge. This article presents a three-tier hi-erarchy for geoscience knowledge in a GIS. The first tier is for knowledge of data. It includes knowledge of feature objects definition,data structure,data model,and relations among data as well as rules,restrictions,and regulations about data. The second tier is for knowledge of processing. It describes analysis models,data processing procedures,workflows,and conditions. The third tier contains knowl-edge of a GIS for the public sector. This tier provides knowledge to people on how to access this GIS and what the GIS can do. The three-tier hierarchy of knowledge in a GIS provides an understandable and practical category frame to handle geo-science knowledge. One of the advantages of this hierarchy is that it separates system resource consumption into different stages so it can avoid exhausting the system at peak times when the GIS handles a complex,large task.
Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem
Blinov, Nikita
2016-01-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi
2000-09-14
We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Staroverov, Viktor N., E-mail: vstarove@uwo.ca [Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ryabinkin, Ilya G. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada)
2014-05-14
We describe a method for constructing a hierarchy of model potentials approximating the functional derivative of a given orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functional with respect to electron density. Each model is derived by assuming a particular relationship between the self-consistent solutions of Kohn–Sham (KS) and generalized Kohn–Sham (GKS) equations for the same functional. In the KS scheme, the functional is differentiated with respect to density, in the GKS scheme—with respect to orbitals. The lowest-level approximation is the orbital-averaged effective potential (OAEP) built with the GKS orbitals. The second-level approximation, termed the orbital-consistent effective potential (OCEP), is based on the assumption that the KS and GKS orbitals are the same. It has the form of the OAEP plus a correction term. The highest-level approximation is the density-consistent effective potential (DCEP), derived under the assumption that the KS and GKS electron densities are equal. The analytic expression for a DCEP is the OCEP formula augmented with kinetic-energy-density-dependent terms. In the case of exact-exchange functional, the OAEP is the Slater potential, the OCEP is roughly equivalent to the localized Hartree–Fock approximation and related models, and the DCEP is practically indistinguishable from the true optimized effective potential for exact exchange. All three levels of the proposed hierarchy require solutions of the GKS equations as input and have the same affordable computational cost.
Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
2013-01-01
Fifty years ago, Mednick [Psychological Review, 69 (1962) 220] proposed an elaborate model that aimed to explain how creative ideas are generated and why creative people are more likely to have creative ideas. The model assumes that creative people have flatter associative hierarchies and as a consequence can more fluently retrieve remote associative elements, which can be combined to form creative ideas. This study aimed at revisiting Mednick’s model and providing an extensive test of its hypotheses. A continuous free association task was employed and association performance was compared between groups high and low in creativity, as defined by divergent thinking ability and self-report measures. We found that associative hierarchies do not differ between low and high creative people, but creative people showed higher associative fluency and more uncommon responses. This suggests that creativity may not be related to a special organization of associative memory, but rather to a more effective way of accessing its contents. The findings add to the evidence associating creativity with highly adaptive executive functioning. PMID:24532853
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewellen, W.S.; Sykes, R.I.; Parker, S.F.; Henn, D.S.; Seaman, N.L.; Stauffer, D.R.; Warner, T.T.
1989-02-01
An existing mesoscale model (the Penn State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model) was extended for use with a PUFF-type plume model. By including a fine-mesh 2 km nested-grid and the assimilation of 4-dimensional data, horizontally variable hourly-average meteorological conditions can be simulated up to 300 km downwind of stack emissions in complex terrain. In 4 days of tests (32 90-minute periods) against meteorological observations obtained in moderately complex terrain, wind-speed uncertainties are usually less than 3.3 m/s, and direction errors are less than 40/degree/ for winds less than 1 m/s. The performance of this model was also compared on 3 days (20 hours) with a locally homogeneous meteorological data assimilation model when both were coupled to a new second order closure integrated puff model (SCIPUFF). Use of the new mesoscale model slightly reduced the deviations between simulated and observed concentrations of SF/sub 6/ tracer, even within 50 km. At distances longer than 50 km (not tested) it is expected that use of the mesoscale model would further improve dispersion simulations. 8 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs.
Marra, Dario; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Marco
2016-01-01
This book presents methodologies for optimal design of control and diagnosis strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems. A key feature of the methodologies presented is the exploitation of modelling tools that balance accuracy and computational burden.
Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks
Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás
2012-01-01
Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477
The Hierarchy Solution to the LHC Inverse Problem
Gainer, James S; Park, Myeonghun
2015-01-01
Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of ...
The hierarchy solution to the LHC inverse problem
Gainer, James S.; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun
2015-06-01
Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of sparticles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina
2015-01-01
We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... hierarchies between 2008 and 2011. We employ regression analysis of microlevel data on the allocation of decision authority between formal and real authority, and further on the organization design of 761 decision tasks within a hierarchy. Our findings show how the specialization of decision...
Rethinking the waste hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)
2005-03-01
There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)
Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2014-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...
Güntert, Manuel
2008-01-01
This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...
Berger, A. G.; McDonald, A. J.; Riha, S. J.
2008-12-01
In an agricultural landscape, water use is tightly linked to the dynamics of canopy development. When weeds are present, the plant community may develop leaf area faster than crop monocultures and several hierarchies of plants may be formed. The position of each individual plant within these hierarchies depends on the spatial arrangement of the plants, the initial sizes, and the availability of resources as determined by management, soil properties, weather, and competition. Together, these factors establish a highly dynamic system with nonlinear responses to the availability of resources (e.g. soil water) that is reflected in high levels of site and regional variability in crop yield losses due to weed interference. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual based model of plant competition to evaluate dynamic outcomes of crop-weed interactions and implications for water use. The model simulates the growth of individual plants using the light interception algorithms of the forest model MAESTRA, and estimates photosynthesis through the Farquhar-vonCaemmerer method. Transpiration and photosynthesis are coupled through stomatal conductance. Maximum stomatal conductance is determined by the photosynthetic demand for CO2, but under water stress, actual transpiration per plant is used to estimate stomatal conductance and then the actual rate of photosynthesis. We also used a novel approach to estimate profile water uptake, scaling the root zone of influence (volume of soil exploited by each individual plant) to plant biomass. Additive field experiments with maize in monoculture and in combination with high-density stands of a common annual weed species (A. theophrasti M.) were established to test model performance. Despite exceptionally dry conditions in the field in some years, we found no evidence that the maize-weed mixtures had less total soil water or different rates of water extraction through the profile than the maize monocrop. Furthermore, time series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rimbun Sumarsono
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This study is aimed to knowing Structuring the sub element of Institutional System of Beef Cattle Industry, The methods used for data collection is by distributing questionnaires, interviews with experts and literature studies. Results of questionnaires and interviews with experts used to construct a hierarchy of election strategy Beef Cattle industry development. Preparation of hierarchy elections industrial development strategy Beef Cattle using AHP technique The formulation of a model institutional system Beef Cattle industry development with key elements in the element's goal is to realize a strong institutional element is the need for government support, elements of the perpetrator is a trader. While the key elements in the benchmarks is the increasing diversification of products Beef Cattle, element of constraint is the weak institutional system, lack of government support for industrial development Beef Cattle and the lack of guidance to the Breeders. For elements of the desired changes to the industrial development Beef Cattle is the formation of an independent group of cattle at the planting site Beef Cattle
Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies
2014-01-01
Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108
Forness, Steven R.
1973-01-01
Reinforcement hierarchy implies movement along a continuum from top to bottom, from primitive levels of reinforcement to more sophisticated levels. Unless it is immediately obvious that a child cannot function without the use of lower-order reinforcers, we should approach him as though he responds to topmost reinforcers until he demonstrates…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Naschie, M.S. [King Abdullah Al Saud Institute of Nano and Advanced Technologies, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: Chaossf@aol.com
2008-08-15
The notions of the order of a symmetry group may be extended to that of an average, non-integer order. Building on this extension, it can be shown that the five classical exceptional Lie symmetry groups could be extended to a hierarchy, the total sum of which is four times {alpha}-bar{sub 0}=137+k{sub 0} of the electromagnetic field. Subsequently it can be shown that all known and conjectured physical fields may be derived by E-infinity transfinite scaling transformation. Consequently E{sub 8}E{sub 8} exceptional Lie symmetry groups manifold, the SL(2,7){sub c} holographic modular curve boundary {gamma}(7), Einstein-Kaluza gravity R{sup (n=4)} and R{sup (n=5)} as well as the electromagnetic field are all topological transformations of each other. It is largely a matter of mathematical taste to choose E{sub 8} or the electromagnetic field associated with {alpha}-bar{sub 0} as derived or as fundamental. However since E{sub 8} has been extensively studied by the founding father of group theory and has recently been mapped completely, it seems beneficial to discuss at least high energy physics starting from the largest of the exceptional groups.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sachin Kumar Chhetri
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning.
Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.
2001-01-01
Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...
Hierarchies in Dependence Logic
Durand, Arnaud
2011-01-01
We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xin-Yue; ZHAO Qiu-Lan
2009-01-01
Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rationed type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.
Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengduo Shan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.
Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy
Zhengduo Shan; Hongwei Yang; Baoshu Yin
2014-01-01
With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.
Genus-zero Whitham hierarchies in conformal-map dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez-Alonso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luism@fis.ucm.es; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)
2006-10-26
A scheme for solving quasiclassical string equations is developed to prove that genus-zero Whitham hierarchies describe the deformations of planar domains determined by rational conformal maps. This property is applied in normal matrix models to show that deformations of simply-connected supports of eigenvalues under changes of coupling constants are governed by genus-zero Whitham hierarchies.
The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Koufogiannakis
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people
Aburas, Maher Milad; Ho, Yuek Ming; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ash'aari, Zulfa Hanan
2017-07-01
The creation of an accurate simulation of future urban growth is considered one of the most important challenges in urban studies that involve spatial modeling. The purpose of this study is to improve the simulation capability of an integrated CA-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model using CA-MC based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and CA-MC based on Frequency Ratio (FR), both applied in Seremban, Malaysia, as well as to compare the performance and accuracy between the traditional and hybrid models. Various physical, socio-economic, utilities, and environmental criteria were used as predictors, including elevation, slope, soil texture, population density, distance to commercial area, distance to educational area, distance to residential area, distance to industrial area, distance to roads, distance to highway, distance to railway, distance to power line, distance to stream, and land cover. For calibration, three models were applied to simulate urban growth trends in 2010; the actual data of 2010 were used for model validation utilizing the Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Kappa coefficient methods Consequently, future urban growth maps of 2020 and 2030 were created. The validation findings confirm that the integration of the CA-MC model with the FR model and employing the significant driving force of urban growth in the simulation process have resulted in the improved simulation capability of the CA-MC model. This study has provided a novel approach for improving the CA-MC model based on FR, which will provide powerful support to planners and decision-makers in the development of future sustainable urban planning.
Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.
Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others
1992-01-01
This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…
Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.
Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others
1992-01-01
This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…
Hierarchies of Inefficient Kernelizability
Hermelin, Danny; Sołtys, Karolina; Wahlström, Magnus; Wu, Xi
2011-01-01
The framework of Bodlaender et al. (ICALP 2008) and Fortnow and Santhanam (STOC 2008) allows us to exclude the existence of polynomial kernels for a range of problems under reasonable complexity-theoretical assumptions. However, there are also some issues that are not addressed by this framework, including the existence of Turing kernels such as the "kernelization" of Leaf Out Branching(k) into a disjunction over n instances of size poly(k). Observing that Turing kernels are preserved by polynomial parametric transformations, we define a kernelization hardness hierarchy, akin to the M- and W-hierarchy of ordinary parameterized complexity, by the PPT-closure of problems that seem likely to be fundamentally hard for efficient Turing kernelization. We find that several previously considered problems are complete for our fundamental hardness class, including Min Ones d-SAT(k), Binary NDTM Halting(k), Connected Vertex Cover(k), and Clique(k log n), the clique problem parameterized by k log n.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palmkvist, Jakob, E-mail: palmkvist@ihes.fr [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 35 Route de Chartres, FR-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)
2014-01-15
We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.
Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales
Panico, Giuliano
2016-07-20
One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.
Dark energy and the hierarchy problem
Chen, P
2007-01-01
The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (~10^{19}GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ~10^{16} between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at \\~10^{-3}eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass...
Self-organization of divided hierarchy
Odagaki, Takashi; Kitada, Keigo; Omizo, Kenta; Fujie, Ryo
2015-03-01
There are two types of extreme form of hierarchy, one is the plutonomy where small fraction of winners and losers and many people in the middle class appear and the other a divided hierarchy where half of population become winners and the remaining half become losers. We study the emergence of the divided hierarchy in a model society which consists of bellicose individuals who always try to fight and fight with the strongest neighbor and pacific individuals who always try not to fight and when necessary fight with the weakest neighbor. In our model society, (1) individuals make random walk on a square lattice, (2) when two individuals encounter they fight each other and (3) the winner deprives wealth from the loser. By a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that there are two transitions when the population density is increased; one is a transition from the egalitarian society to a hierarchical society I where winners, losers and middle classes coexist and the other is a transition from the hierarchical society I to a hierarchical society II where winners and losers exist but no middle classes exist, that is the divided hierarchy. We also show that clusters consisting mostly of bellicose individuals appear in the hierarchical society I.
基于层次树模型的Deep Web数据提取方法%Retrieving Deep Web Data Based on Hierarchy Tree Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田建伟; 李石君
2011-01-01
While the Web provides a platform for information search and dissemination, massive information is hidden behind in the query restricted Web databases, which makes it difficult to obtain these high-quality data records. The current research on Deep Web search has focused on crawling the Deep Web data via Web interfaces with keywords queries. However, these keywords-based methods have inherent limitations because of the multi-attributes and top-k features of the Deep Web. This poses a great challenge for Web information search and retrieval. To address this problem, we propose an approach for siphoning structured data based on hierarchy tree, which can retrieve all the data non-repeatedly in the hidden databases. Firstly, we model the hidden database as a hierarchy tree. Under this theoretical framework, data retrieving is transformed into a traversing problem in the hierarchy tree. Secondly, we also propose techniques to narrow the query space and obtain the attribute values by sorting the attributes according to the ascending order. Thirdly, we leverage the mutual information to measure the attribute values dependency. Based on the attribute values dependency, we narrow the traversal space by using heuristic rule to guide the traversal process.Finally, we conduct extensiveexperiments over real Deep Web sites and controll databases to illustrate the coverage and efficiency of our techniques.%网络在成为信息查询和发布平台的同时,海量的信息隐藏在查询受限的Web数据库中,使得人们无法有效地获取这些高质量的数据记录.传统的Deep Web搜索研究主要集中在通过关键字接口获取Web数据库内容.但是,由于Deep Web具有多属性和top-k的特点,基于关键字的方法具有固有的缺点,这就为Deep Web查询和检索带来了挑战.为了解决这个问题,提出了一种基于层次树的Deep Web数据获取方法,该方法可以无重复和完整地提取Web数据库中的数据记录.该方法首先
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.
Frame, Douglas
1996-01-01
Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…
Loewner equations and dispersionless hierarchies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takebe, Takashi [Department of Mathematics, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8610 (Japan); Teo, Lee-Peng [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Zabrodin, Anton [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Kosygina str. 4, 119991 Moscow, Russia and ITEP, Bol. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-09-15
Using the Hirota representation of dispersionless dKP and dToda hierarchies, we show that the chordal Loewner equations and radial Loewner equations respectively serve as consistency conditions for one-variable reductions of these integrable hierarchies. We also clarify the geometric meaning of this result by relating it to the eigenvalue distribution of normal random matrices in the large N limit.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.
Frame, Douglas
1996-01-01
Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…
Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies
Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun
2006-01-01
We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.
Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies
Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Mariño, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun
2006-01-01
We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using -algebra symmetries which encode the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how an A-model topological string on P1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodney G. Tsiko
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.
Rhew, Kiyon; Han, Nayoung; Cho, Keun-Tae; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Oh, Jung Mi
2017-08-30
Drug therapy plays a critical role in most chronic diseases. Effectiveness of pharmaceutical care services in the improvement of clinical, social, or economic outcomes has been scientifically proven through numerous studies. In South Korea, to optimize and standardize pharmaceutical care for patients with chronic metabolic diseases, the development of a pharmaceutical care service model is needed. To determine the priority of diseases in developing pharmaceutical care service models, analytic hierarchny process (AHP)analysis was used. A survey questionnaire standardized with detailed evaluation areas and an index, to ensure sufficient understanding and identical standards of evaluators, was designed. It was prepared for pair-wise comparisons of individual criteria of candidate diseases. Medical specialists and pharmacists who have clinical experience and expertise in chronic metabolic diseases or at least 10 years of experience in pharmacy practice were recruited. They responded to a survey consisting of nine sections by using the pair-wise comparison method. A total of seven candidate diseases were selected for prioritization. Diabetes mellitus was given the highest score of 0.2695, cardiovascular disease (0.2598) being the next, followed by chronic kidney disease (0.2000), and cerebrovascular diseases (0.1087). The criteria were weighted as follows: disease characteristics (0.4964), patient-oriented care (0.3649), and improvement in services (0.1386). Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease were found to have high priority in developing a pharmaceutical care service model in South Korea. In the future, further research for the development and application of pharmaceutical care services models for different types of diseases is required. .
Xin Xu; Viswanath Venkatesh; Kar Yan Tam; Se-Joon Hong
2010-01-01
We develop and test a model of migration and use of platforms to explain consumers' reactions to the newest generation of an information and communication technology platform. We draw from information systems and consumer behavior research on adoption and use of technologies, and adapt and incorporate the construct of complementarity from macrolevel research on platform leadership, network effects, and innovation ecosystems. We conceptualize complementarities between the hardware and software...
Robledo, Alberto
2012-11-01
We show that the full features of the dynamics towards the Feigenbaum attractor, present in all low-dimensional maps with a unimodal leading component, form a hierarchical construction with modular organization that leads to a clear-cut emergent property. This well-known nonlinear model system combines a simple and precise definition, an intricate nested hierarchical dynamical structure, and emergence of a power-law dynamical property absent in the exponential-law that governs the dynamics within the modules. This classic nonlinear system is put forward as a working example for complex collective behavior.
Nishiyama, Yoshihiro
2017-03-01
The (2 + 1)-dimensional q = 3 Potts model was simulated with the exact diagonalization method. In the ordered phase, the elementary excitations (magnons) are attractive, forming a series of bound states in the low-energy spectrum. We investigate the low-lying spectrum through a dynamical susceptibility, which is readily tractable with the exact diagonalization method via the continued-fraction expansion. As a result, we estimate the series of (scaled) mass gaps, m 2 , 3 , 4 /m1 (m1: single-magnon mass), in proximity to the transition point.
Arias, Victor B.; Nuñez, Daniel E.; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Ponce, Fernando P.; Arias, Benito
2016-01-01
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria assume that the 18 symptoms carry the same weight in an Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and bear the same discriminatory capacity. However, it is reasonable to think that symptoms may differ in terms of severity and even in the reliability with they represent the disorder. To test this hypothesis, the aim of this study was to calibrate in a sample of Spanish children (age 4–7; n = 784) a scale for assessing the symptoms of ADHD proposed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV-TR within the framework of Item Response Theory. Samejima’s Graded Response Model was used as a method for estimating the item difficulty and discrimination parameters. The results showed that ADHD subscales (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity / Impulsivity) had good psychometric properties and had also a good fit to the model. However, relevant differences between symptoms were observed at the level of severity, informativeness and reliability for the assessment of ADHD. This finding suggests that it would be useful to identify the symptoms that are more important than the others with regard to diagnosing ADHD. PMID:27736911
A Lecture on the Hierarchy Problem and Gravity
Dvali, G
2013-01-01
In this lecture we shall briefly review some motivations for physics beyond the Standard Model. We focus our attention on the hierarchy problem and discuss the role of gravity in defining and solving this problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yılmaz GÖKŞEN
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Production factors include labour, capital, nature and technology in traditional organization management. Nowadays, creativity, innovation and ability can be added to these. Competition is intense both in private and public sectors. Workforce can be said to be the main source enriching the organization and making it complex. What makes the organizational powerful is that talented personnel can make new ideas to be productive by using their creativity. From this point of view workforce productivity is important parameter in organizational efficiency. Workforce productivity in organizations where there are too many employees is primarily related to employ the personnel in a right position. The appointment of employees to work in accordance with their capabilities increase efficiency. This situation makes the structure of the workforce and make the organization be capable of competing with the rivals. The Assignment model of the type of linear programming models is a mathematical method used to match the right person for the right job. The coefficients of the variables in the objective function of the assignment model constitute potential contributions of employees. Factors that make contributions in different types of jobs are different and expert opinion is needed for the evaluation of these factors. In this study, more than 1000 people who work for Dokuz Eylul University as drivers, food handlers, technicians, office workers, securities and servants are taken into consideration. Gender, level of education, the distance from working place, marital status, number of children and tenure of these employees have been included in the analysis. Analytical hierarchy process which is a method of multi-criteria decision-making model has been preferred as a method. Specific criteria have been determined for each occupational group depending on this method. Later, weighted average for these criteria in question have been found. With these values belonging
Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María I Cordero
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.
Low-energy supersymmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies
Gherghetta, Tony; Poppitz, E R; Gherghetta, Tony; Jungman, Gerard; Poppitz, Erich
1995-01-01
In models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking, an anomalous Abelian horizontal gauge symmetry can simultaneously explain the fermion mass hierarchy and the values of the \\mu and B terms. We construct an explicit model where the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism at the string scale. We show that with our charge assignments, the breaking of the horizontal symmetry generates the correct order of magnitude and correct hierarchy for all Yukawa couplings.
Hamiltonian Structure of PI Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanehisa Takasaki
2007-03-01
Full Text Available The string equation of type (2,2g+1 may be thought of as a higher order analogue of the first Painlevé equation that corresponds to the case of g = 1. For g > 1, this equation is accompanied with a finite set of commuting isomonodromic deformations, and they altogether form a hierarchy called the PI hierarchy. This hierarchy gives an isomonodromic analogue of the well known Mumford system. The Hamiltonian structure of the Lax equations can be formulated by the same Poisson structure as the Mumford system. A set of Darboux coordinates, which have been used for the Mumford system, can be introduced in this hierarchy as well. The equations of motion in these Darboux coordinates turn out to take a Hamiltonian form, but the Hamiltonians are different from the Hamiltonians of the Lax equations (except for the lowest one that corresponds to the string equation itself.
Hierarchies of Predominantly Connected Communities
Hamann, Michael; Wagner, Dorothea
2013-01-01
We consider communities whose vertices are predominantly connected, i.e., the vertices in each community are stronger connected to other community members of the same community than to vertices outside the community. Flake et al. introduced a hierarchical clustering algorithm that finds such predominantly connected communities of different coarseness depending on an input parameter. We present a simple and efficient method for constructing a clustering hierarchy according to Flake et al. that supersedes the necessity of choosing feasible parameter values and guarantees the completeness of the resulting hierarchy, i.e., the hierarchy contains all clusterings that can be constructed by the original algorithm for any parameter value. However, predominantly connected communities are not organized in a single hierarchy. Thus, we develop a framework that, after precomputing at most $2(n-1)$ maximum flows, admits a linear time construction of a clustering $\\C(S)$ of predominantly connected communities that contains ...
Lin, Teng-Chiao; Ho, Hui-Ping; Chang, Ching-Ter
2014-01-01
With the widespread use of the Internet, adopting e-learning systems in courses has gradually become more and more important in universities in Taiwan. However, because of limitations of teachers' time, selecting suitable online IT tools has become very important. This study proposes an analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-multi-choice goal…
Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy
Jain, Rajesh Kumar
2012-01-01
The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tolstrup Christensen, Lene
2015-01-01
corporatisation. This layered set-up provided the state with a double governance grip that drove marketisation until 2011. However, the SOE as a hybrid created ripple effects between the market and the hierarchy that hampered the marketisation. The hierarchical governance turned towards centralisation and market....... It presents a case on how hybridity is altered and evolves in SOEs as a hybrid mode of governance between hierarchy and market in marketisation and how this can lead to re-centralisation....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Payam Farhadi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: Improving productivity is one of the most important strategies for social-economic development. Human resources are known as the most important resources in the organizations′ survival and success. Aims: To determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity using the ACHIEVEa model from the nurses′ perspective and then prioritize them from the perspective of head nurses using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. Settings and Design: Iran, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals in 2012. Materials and Methods: This was an applied, cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study conducted in two phases. In the first phase, to determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity from nurses′ perspective, 110 nurses were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Required data were collected using the Persian version of Hersey and Goldsmith′s Human Resource Productivity Questionnaire. In the second phase, in order to prioritize the factors affecting human resource productivity based on the ACHIEVE model using AHP technique, pairwise comparisons matrices were given to the 19 randomly selected head nurses to express their opinions about those factors relative priorities or importance. Statistical Analysis Used: Collected data and matrices in two mentioned phases were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and some statistical tests including Independent-Samples T-Test and Pearson Correlation coefficient, as well as, Super Decisions software (Latest Beta. Results: The human resource productivity had significant relationships with nurses′ sex (P = 0.008, marital status (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.001, and all questionnaire factors (P < 0.05. Nurses′ productivity from their perspective was below average (44.97 7.43. Also, the priorities of factors affecting the productivity of nurses based on the ACHIEVE model from the head nurses′ perspective using AHP technique, from the
Herschlag, Gregory J; Mitran, Sorin; Lin, Guang
2015-06-21
We develop a hierarchy of approximations to the master equation for systems that exhibit translational invariance and finite-range spatial correlation. Each approximation within the hierarchy is a set of ordinary differential equations that considers spatial correlations of varying lattice distance; the assumption is that the full system will have finite spatial correlations and thus the behavior of the models within the hierarchy will approach that of the full system. We provide evidence of this convergence in the context of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples. Lower levels within the hierarchy that consider shorter spatial correlations are shown to be up to three orders of magnitude faster than traditional kinetic Monte Carlo methods (KMC) for one-dimensional systems, while predicting similar system dynamics and steady states as KMC methods. We then test the hierarchy on a two-dimensional model for the oxidation of CO on RuO2(110), showing that low-order truncations of the hierarchy efficiently capture the essential system dynamics. By considering sequences of models in the hierarchy that account for longer spatial correlations, successive model predictions may be used to establish empirical approximation of error estimates. The hierarchy may be thought of as a class of generalized phenomenological kinetic models since each element of the hierarchy approximates the master equation and the lowest level in the hierarchy is identical to a simple existing phenomenological kinetic models.
Mass Hierarchy of Collisional Energy Loss
Kolevatov, Rodion
2008-01-01
Collisional parton energy loss is revisited within a simple model assuming incoherent elastic scattering of on-shell projectile partons on partonic constituents of the QGP with HTL screening. The thermal motion of plasma particles is carefully taken into account. Results on $dE/dx$ are found to be consistent with other authors. There is a significant discrepancy in the energy loss pattern for the cases with thermal motion on and off, which illustrates the importance of taking the kinematics into account exactly. The dependence on the mass of the partons forming the plasma is included in the calculations and its influence on the collisional energy loss is studied. The mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss is found to have a strong dependence on the mass introduced for plasma particles. Due to difference in the mass hierarchy with radiative energy loss, the collisional one when included increases the relative suppression of heavy quarks compared to light quarks.
Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.
2013-01-01
Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...
Quark masses and their hierarchies
Ida, M.
1987-12-01
Electroweak symmetry breaking is attributed to dynamical generation of quark masses. Quarks q (and leptons l) are assumed to be produced by hypercolor confinement of preons at an intermediate scale Λ hc. Hierarchies observed in the q mass spectra can be explained by a BCS mechanism if the color interaction is enough asymptotically free and if residual ones emerging by the confinement are medium strong. The former assumption claims that N≦4, where N is the family number of q and l. Dynamical equations to determine q masses and mixings are given, but they require knowledge on the physics at Λ hc. A phenomenological approach is also made on the basis of an SU(7)× SU(7) chiral preon model with N=4. The mass ratio m t/ mb is related to ( m c/ m s)ηB with η B≃1.1 and m t'/ mb' to ( m u/ m d)ηA with η A≃1.4. In this scheme the fourth down quark is the heaviest (˜ 110 GeV) and contributes dominantly to F 2, where F is the Fermi scale.
Lepton mass hierarchy from the quark mass hierarchy in the light of the quark Technicolor Dynamics
Sauli, Vladimir
2013-01-01
We explore the possibility that all electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) comes from the strong dynamics of Technicolor while these are the only quarks which receive masses through Technicolor dynamics. We assume the leptons are not embedded in a representation of Extended Technigroup. In this paper we suggest a model where the leptons receive their masses through the loop corrections which includes at least one closed quark loop. For this purpose we introduce model based on private family SU(2) scalar two doublets which interact very weakly with the Standard Model(SM) fermions and which do not condense at tree level. Assuming quark/lepton universality of suggested Yukawa interactions the model becomes strongly predictive and we calculate mass contributions to the all known SM lepton gauge eigenstates. Up to not yet explored mixing, the model suggests that the lepton mass hierarchy comes from the quark mass hierarchy. Within a single universal Yukawa coupling the absolute values of masses for neutrino family e...
Zhao, Nan
2017-01-01
The origin of winter Northern Hemispheric low-frequency variability (hereafter, LFV) is regarded to be related to the coupled earth-atmosphere system characterized by the interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain ranges. On the other hand, observed LFV usually appears as transitions among multiple planetary-scale flow regimes of Northern Hemisphere like NAO + , AO +, AO - and NAO - . Moreover, the interaction between synoptic-scale eddies and the planetary-scale disturbance is also inevitable in the origin of LFV. These raise a question regarding how to incorporate all these aspects into just one framework to demonstrate (1) a planetary-scale dynamics of interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain ranges can really produce LFV, (2) such a dynamics can be responsible for the existence of above multiple flow regimes, and (3) the role of interaction with eddy is also clarified. For this purpose, a hierarchy of low-order stochastic dynamical models of the coupled earth-atmosphere system derived empirically from different timescale ranges of indices of Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific/North American (PNA), and length of day (LOD) and related probability density function (PDF) analysis are employed in this study. The results seem to suggest that the origin of LFV cannot be understood completely within the planetary-scale dynamics of the interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain ranges, because (1) the existence of multiple flow regimes such as NAO+, AO+, AO- and NAO- resulted from processes with timescales much longer than LFV itself, which may have underlying dynamics other than topography-jet stream interaction, and (2) we find LFV seems not necessarily to come directly from the planetary-scale dynamics of the interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain, although it can produce similar oscillatory behavior. The feedback/forcing of synoptic-scale eddies on the planetary
Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai
2014-05-01
, were chosen. As measures of validation for the fit of the model, we have used AUROC value, cross-validation estimates of predictive accuracy and the percent of mapping units correctly classified. For the same sample, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was applied for landslide susceptibility assessment, using 7 predictors (slope angle, slope aspect, plan and profile curvature, distance to river network, distance to roads, and land use). The validation of the LR and AHP approaches was assessed using the inventories with active landslides for 1978 and 2010 situations. For estimating the level of replicability of the results, an extra-domain sample it was used, situated in the vicinity of the first area, having the same size (90 km2). For the extra-domain area, the same weights obtained for LR approach and the same predictors and weights assigned for the AHP approaches, were used in the modelling. The extra-domain resulted AUROC values are closed with the ones from the original area, but there is small variance, a decrease by 0.07% for LR and by 0.05% for AHP approach. These results allow us to consider that applying both quantitative (LR) and semi-quantitative (AHP) methods for landslide susceptibility assessment at medium scale, in regions with high level of geomorphologic uniformity, such as monoclinic areas, could be applied with good results. Using these two methods for an extra-domain area, we can assess the sensitivity of the input covariates. Also, two maps showing the differences between the two models of landslide susceptibility, both for the first and for the extra-domain sample, were carried out and interpreted.
Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?
Alsallakh, Bilal; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu
2017-08-29
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.
A Bayesian Sampler for Optimization of Protein Domain Hierarchies
2014-01-01
Abstract The process of identifying and modeling functionally divergent subgroups for a specific protein domain class and arranging these subgroups hierarchically has, thus far, largely been done via manual curation. How to accomplish this automatically and optimally is an unsolved statistical and algorithmic problem that is addressed here via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Taking as input a (typically very large) multiple-sequence alignment, the sampler creates and optimizes a hierarchy by adding and deleting leaf nodes, by moving nodes and subtrees up and down the hierarchy, by inserting or deleting internal nodes, and by redefining the sequences and conserved patterns associated with each node. All such operations are based on a probability distribution that models the conserved and divergent patterns defining each subgroup. When we view these patterns as sequence determinants of protein function, each node or subtree in such a hierarchy corresponds to a subgroup of sequences with similar biological properties. The sampler can be applied either de novo or to an existing hierarchy. When applied to 60 protein domains from multiple starting points in this way, it converged on similar solutions with nearly identical log-likelihood ratio scores, suggesting that it typically finds the optimal peak in the posterior probability distribution. Similarities and differences between independently generated, nearly optimal hierarchies for a given domain help distinguish robust from statistically uncertain features. Thus, a future application of the sampler is to provide confidence measures for various features of a domain hierarchy. PMID:24494927
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)
2016-01-28
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.
Inequality matters: classroom status hierarchy and adolescents' bullying.
Garandeau, Claire F; Lee, Ihno A; Salmivalli, Christina
2014-07-01
The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (defined as within-group variation in individual status) and how they are related to bullying, a widespread form of aggression in schools. Data from 11,296 eighth- and ninth-graders (mean age = 14.57, 50.6 % female) from 583 classes in 71 schools were used to determine the direction of the association between classroom degree of status hierarchy and bullying behaviors, and to investigate prospective relationships between these two variables over a 6-month period. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that higher levels of classroom status hierarchy were concurrently associated with higher levels of bullying at the end of the school year. Higher hierarchy in the middle of the school year predicted higher bullying later in the year. No evidence was found to indicate that initial bullying predicted future hierarchy. These findings highlight the importance of a shared balance of power in the classroom for the prevention of bullying among adolescents.
Assessment of Personal Goal Hierarchies.
Wadsworth, Marlene; Ford, Donald H.
1983-01-01
Developed a new method for measuring goal hierarchies, called the Adult Intentional and Motivational Systems Chart, by interviewing 53 men and constructing a system summarizing their goals. Results suggested the continued use of the chart for research on self-direction and adult development as well as intervention. (LLL)
Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.
Brookman, David M.
1989-01-01
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…
The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.
Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff
2016-06-01
Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.
Dressing Technique for Intermediate Hierarchies
Holod, P.; Pakuliak, S.
1994-01-01
A generalized AKNS systems introduced and discussed recently in \\cite{dGHM} are considered. It was shown that the dressing technique both in matrix pseudo-differential operators and formal series with respect to the spectral parameter can be developed for these hierarchies.
Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.
Brookman, David M.
1989-01-01
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…
The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henok Mengistu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.
The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henok Mengistu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.
Research on Management Hierarchy Model of the Complex Social Large System%复杂社会大系统的管理层次结构模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韦东方; 丁祎
2014-01-01
针对传统管理理论在复杂社会大系统管理方面的问题和不足，阐述和分析复杂社会大系统的内涵与特征，提出四个层次的复杂社会大系统管理结构模型，包括基础层、架构层、过程层和技术层，重点研究作为复杂社会大系统管理核心的基础层中管理基因的内涵和形式；最后，对复杂社会大系统管理研究与实践的重点和方向进行总结与展望。%To solve the inadequacies that traditional management ideas and methods showed in complex social large system management,the definition and characteristics of complex social large system are described. And a four hierarchy manage-ment model is established. They are basic layer,architecture layer,process layer and skill layer. The connotation and style of the management gene of the basic layer which is the core layer in complex social large system management model are de-scribed in detail. Finally,emphasis and directions for the deep research on the related problem of the human - simulated management hierarchy model are introduced.
Memory-Scalable GPU Spatial Hierarchy Construction.
Qiming Hou; Xin Sun; Kun Zhou; Lauterbach, C; Manocha, D
2011-04-01
Recent GPU algorithms for constructing spatial hierarchies have achieved promising performance for moderately complex models by using the breadth-first search (BFS) construction order. While being able to exploit the massive parallelism on the GPU, the BFS order also consumes excessive GPU memory, which becomes a serious issue for interactive applications involving very complex models with more than a few million triangles. In this paper, we propose to use the partial breadth-first search (PBFS) construction order to control memory consumption while maximizing performance. We apply the PBFS order to two hierarchy construction algorithms. The first algorithm is for kd-trees that automatically balances between the level of parallelism and intermediate memory usage. With PBFS, peak memory consumption during construction can be efficiently controlled without costly CPU-GPU data transfer. We also develop memory allocation strategies to effectively limit memory fragmentation. The resulting algorithm scales well with GPU memory and constructs kd-trees of models with millions of triangles at interactive rates on GPUs with 1 GB memory. Compared with existing algorithms, our algorithm is an order of magnitude more scalable for a given GPU memory bound. The second algorithm is for out-of-core bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) construction for very large scenes based on the PBFS construction order. At each iteration, all constructed nodes are dumped to the CPU memory, and the GPU memory is freed for the next iteration's use. In this way, the algorithm is able to build trees that are too large to be stored in the GPU memory. Experiments show that our algorithm can construct BVHs for scenes with up to 20 M triangles, several times larger than previous GPU algorithms.
Preferred hierarchy scales from the product landscape
Songlin Lv; Zheng Sun; Lina Wu
2014-01-01
The product landscape method has been recently proposed to solve hierarchy problems such as the cosmological constant problem. We suggest that the parameter distribution on logarithmic scales should be used as a benchmark for hierarchy, and the preferred hierarchy scales can be obtained from the distribution peak. It is shown that generating hierarchy from purely product distribution is very inefficient. To achieve a reasonably acceptable efficiency, other effects such as accumulation of weak...
Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies
Burroughs, N J; Hollowood, Timothy J; Miramontes, J L
1992-01-01
We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical $W$-algebras, which arise as the second Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the $W_n^{(l)}$ algebras.
Reductions of Lower Triangular Toda Hierarchies
Helminck, G.F.; Mishina, Marina G.; Polenkova, Svetlana V.
2007-01-01
Deforming commutative algebras in the lower triangular (ℤ×ℤ)-matrices yields lower triangular Toda hierarchies and their associated nonlinear equations. Like for their counterpart in the ring of pseudodifferential operators, the KP-hierarchy, one also has for these hierarchies a geometric picture:
Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Friederici, Angela D
2013-01-01
The lateral prefrontal cortex is known to be organized by cognitive hierarchies following a posterior-to-anterior gradient. Here we test whether this model applies across different cognitive domains by varying levels of cognitive hierarchy in first language, second language and non-language domains. These domains vary in their degree of automaticity with first language being the most automatic. For second language/non-language a clear gradient pattern of activation depending on the level of hierarchy is observed in the prefrontal cortex with the highest level of hierarchy recruiting its most anterior region, whereas for first language the highest level of hierarchy recruits its most posterior region. Moreover, second language/non-language and first language differ in the structural connectivity of their underlying networks. The current data strongly suggest that functional segregation of the prefrontal cortex is determined by cognitive hierarchy and the degree of automaticity.
Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Lester, David
2013-08-01
Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).
The stochastic integrable AKNS hierarchy
Arnaudon, Alexis
2015-01-01
We derive a stochastic AKNS hierarchy using geometrical methods. The integrability is shown via a stochastic zero curvature relation associated with a stochastic isospectral problem. We expose some of the stochastic integrable partial differential equations which extend the stochastic KdV equation discovered by M. Wadati in 1983 for all the AKNS flows. We also show how to find stochastic solitons from the stochastic evolution of the scattering data of the stochastic IST. We finally expose som...
KP hierarchy for Hodge integrals
Kazarian, M.
2008-01-01
Starting from the ELSV formula, we derive a number of new equations on the generating functions for Hodge integrals over the moduli space of complex curves. This gives a new simple and uniform treatment of certain known results on Hodge integrals like Witten's conjecture, Virasoro constrains, Faber's lambda_g conjecture etc. Among other results we show that a properly arranged generating function for Hodge integrals satisfies the equations of the KP hierarchy.
A multi-hierarchy model for role-based control%基于角色的多级访问控制模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈林; 阳富民; 胡贯荣
2002-01-01
在基于角色的访问控制 (role-based access control,RBAC)模型的基础上提出了一种基于角色的多级访问控制模型RBMHAC(role-based multi-hierarchy access control).该模型引入"域"的概念来模拟现实世界中的等级管理体制,通过对"域"用户的安全管理来有效地实现多级安全管理.RBMHAC模型能提供更加完善的访问控制策略,对角色的管理也更加方便高效.
Memory Hierarchy Sensitive Graph Layout
Roy, Amitabha
2012-01-01
Mining large graphs for information is becoming an increasingly important workload due to the plethora of graph structured data becoming available. An aspect of graph algorithms that has hitherto not received much interest is the effect of memory hierarchy on accesses. A typical system today has multiple levels in the memory hierarchy with differing units of locality; ranging across cache lines, TLB entries and DRAM pages. We postulate that it is possible to allocate graph structured data in main memory in a way as to improve the spatial locality of the data. Previous approaches to improving cache locality have focused only on a single unit of locality, either the cache line or virtual memory page. On the other hand cache oblivious algorithms can optimise layout for all levels of the memory hierarchy but unfortunately need to be specially designed for individual data structures. In this paper we explore hierarchical blocking as a technique for closing this gap. We require as input a specification of the units...
Instability-induced hierarchy in bipedal locomotion
Ohgane, Kunishige; Ueda, Kei-Ichi
2008-05-01
One of the important features of human locomotion is its instant adaptability to various unpredictable changes of physical and environmental conditions. This property is known as flexibility. Modeling the bipedal locomotion system, we show that initial-state coordination by a global variable which encodes the attractor basins of the system can yield flexibility. This model is based on the following hypotheses: (i) the walking velocity is a global variable, and (ii) the leg posture at the beginning of the stance phase is the initial state of the gait. Moreover, we confirm these hypotheses. We investigate the regions near the neutral states between walking and falling phases using numerical experiments and demonstrate that global variables can be defined as the dominant unstable directions of the system dynamics near the neutral states. We propose the concept of an “instability-induced hierarchy.” In this hierarchy, global variables govern other variables near neutral states; i.e., they become elements of a higher level.
Hierarchy in directed random networks: analytical and numerical results
Mones, Enys
2012-01-01
In recent years, the theory and application of complex networks has been quickly developing in a markable way due to the increasing amount of data from real systems and to the fruitful application of powerful methods used in statistical physics. Many important characteristics of social or biological systems can be described by the study of their underlying structure of interactions. Hierarchy is one of these features that can be formulated in the language of networks. In this paper we present the analytic results on the hierarchical properties of random network models with zero correlations and also investigate the effects of different type of correlations. The behavior of hierarchy is different in the absence and the presence of the giant components. We show that the hierarchical structure can be drastically different if there are one-point correlations in the network. We also show numerical results suggesting that hierarchy does not change monotonously with the correlations and there is an optimal level of ...
Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis
Cimiano, P; Staab, S; 10.1613/jair.1648
2011-01-01
We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector representing syntactic dependencies which are automatically acquired from the text corpus with a linguistic parser. On the basis of this context information, FCA produces a lattice that we convert into a special kind of partial order constituting a concept hierarchy. The approach is evaluated by comparing the resulting concept hierarchies with hand-crafted taxonomies for two domains: tourism and finance. We also directly compare our approach with hierarchical agglomerative clustering as well as with Bi-Section-KMeans as an instance of a divisive clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of using different measures wei...
Gravitational inflaton decay and the hierarchy problem
Watanabe, Yuki
2007-01-01
We study implications of the large-N species solution to the hierarchy problem, proposed by G. Dvali, for reheating of the universe after inflation. Dvali's proposal contains additional N~10^{32} Z_2-conserved quantum fields beyond the Standard Model particles with mass ~1 TeV, which weaken gravity by a factor of 1/N, and thus explain the hierarchy between the Plank scale and the electroweak scale. We show that, in this scenario, the decay rates of inflaton fields through gravitational decay channels are enhanced by a factor of N, and thus they decay into N species of the quantum fields very efficiently, in the limit that quantum gravity effects are unimportant for the gravitational decay rate. In order not to over-reheat the universe, inflaton mass, vacuum expectation value of inflaton, or non-minimal gravitational coupling should be tightly fine-tuned. Our conclusion holds even when the gravitational decay is prohibited by some symmetry of the theory; the universe may still be over-reheated via annihilation...
Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌
2015-01-01
Eﬃcient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and eﬃcient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.
Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need
King-Hill, Sophie
2015-01-01
This paper intends to provide a critique of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need, a psychological model that often goes unquestioned within the education sector. Examples will be given of the authors own professional practice and experience in relation to the Hierarchy of Need (HON) and discussed in terms of the critique. The paper concludes that whilst some elements of the HON may be useful in education it does have some serious flaws that also need to be considered when applying this to practice. Thi...
A (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Hierarchy and its Integrable Couplings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huanhe Dong
2007-01-01
Under the frame of the (2+1)-dimensional zero curvature equation and Tu model,the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one. Moreover, a class of integrable coupling system for dispersive long wave hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional multi-component integrable system will be investigated.
Balasubramonian, Rajeev
2011-01-01
A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocat
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈芬; 王晓东; 章联军; 彭宗举; 严迪群
2016-01-01
针对目前高校IT专业DSP（Digital Signal Processing）课程群技术革新快、知识覆盖面广、课程难度大、综合性实践环节缺失等问题，探索了“能力本位教育”理念下进阶式分层培养的DSP课程群教学改革。构建了分层能力目标导向的 DSP 课程教学体系和实践能力培养体系，明确了各能力层级的教学任务和能力培养目标。尝试了工程素养融合培养的教学模式改革，探索应用了行业真实项目驱动下的 PBL 教学法、线上线下混合式教学法改革。教学实践结果表明，DSP课程群改革具有一定成效，学生创新意识与工程应用能力提升显著，得到行业用人单位的认可。%This paper aims to consider the teaching reform of DSP curriculum group oriented by abilities training based on hierarchy model in the perspective of Competency Based Education (CBE) to tackle the pressing issues of IT major students in universities, such as the rapid DSP technology innovation, wide and difficult literacy in curriculum group, and inadequate abilities training of DSP technology. It focuses on the construction of the DSP curriculum group system and the practical ability training system to be goal-oriented by abilities training based on hierarchy model for IT majors students. The sub-goals of abilities training and the teaching tasks of each ability level are divided clearly, to cultivate students’ DSP applied abilities and engineering quality. Driven by real industrial projects, teaching methods of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Blended Teaching online and offline is explored. The reform of DSP curriculum group for IT major students based on the hierarchy abilities training has been proven to effectively improve graduates’ innovation skills and DSP engineering applied abilities recognized by peers and employers.
Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.
Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel
2015-10-01
In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.
Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras
Toppan, F
1994-01-01
Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.
‘If you are good, I get better’: the role of social hierarchy in perceptual decision-making
Pannunzi, Mario; Ayneto, Alba; Deco, Gustavo; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria
2014-01-01
So far, it was unclear if social hierarchy could influence sensory or perceptual cognitive processes. We evaluated the effects of social hierarchy on these processes using a basic visual perceptual decision task. We constructed a social hierarchy where participants performed the perceptual task separately with two covertly simulated players (superior, inferior). Participants were faster (better) when performing the discrimination task with the superior player. We studied the time course when social hierarchy was processed using event-related potentials and observed hierarchical effects even in early stages of sensory-perceptual processing, suggesting early top–down modulation by social hierarchy. Moreover, in a parallel analysis, we fitted a drift-diffusion model (DDM) to the results to evaluate the decision making process of this perceptual task in the context of a social hierarchy. Consistently, the DDM pointed to nondecision time (probably perceptual encoding) as the principal period influenced by social hierarchy. PMID:23946003
Dynamic fuzzy hierarchy analysis for evaluation of professionalization degree
Jin, Lin; Min, Luo; Ma, Jingxi
2016-06-01
This paper presents the model of dynamic fuzzy hierarchy analysis for evaluation of professionalization degree, as a combination of the dynamic fuzzy theory and the AHP, which can show the changes and trends of the value of each index of professionalization.
Extending the applicability of the analytic hierarchy process
Huizingh, K.R.E.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.
1997-01-01
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has often been used to support decisions that only have to be made once. in this study, we explore whether the AHP can be applied to repetitive decision-making. We suggest a variant of the process to elicit implicit decision models that evaluate alternatives not
Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia
Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans
Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur
Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia
Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans
2015-01-01
Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidire
Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy
Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban
2015-01-01
Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…
Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy
Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban
2015-01-01
Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈时佶; 罗振东
2013-01-01
根据图书馆的图书借阅状况，利用层次分析法建立图书利用率模型，给出图书利用率的计算公式，从而给出图书的使用效果估测，为管理者对图书投资和采购提供决策。%According to the library's book lending conditions, a use ratio model of books is established by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a calculation formula of books use rate is given. Thus, the use effect estimates of books is provided so that it can offer managers decisions for investment and purchasing books.
An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe
1999-01-01
We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this en...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....
An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe
1998-01-01
We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....
Truncation identities for the small polaron fusion hierarchy
Grabinski, André M
2012-01-01
We study a one-dimensional lattice model of interacting spinless fermions. This model is integrable for both periodic and open boundary conditions, the latter case includes the presence of Grassmann valued non-diagonal boundary fields breaking the bulk U(1) symmetry of the model. Starting from the embedding of this model into a graded Yang-Baxter algebra an infinite hierarchy of comuting transfer matrices is constructed by means of a fusion procedure. For certain values of the coupling constant related to anisotropies of the underlying vertex model taken at roots of unity this hierarchy is shown to truncate giving a finite set of functional equations for the spectrum of the transfer matrices. For generic coupling constants the spectral problem is formulated in terms of a TQ-equation which can be solved by Bethe ansatz methods for periodic and diagonal open boundary conditions. Possible approaches for the solution of the model with generic non-diagonal boundary fields are discussed.
Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro G. Ferreira
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.
2016-03-18
We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Structural hierarchy governs fibrin gel mechanics.
Piechocka, Izabela K; Bacabac, Rommel G; Potters, Max; Mackintosh, Fred C; Koenderink, Gijsje H
2010-05-19
Fibrin gels are responsible for the mechanical strength of blood clots, which are among the most resilient protein materials in nature. Here we investigate the physical origin of this mechanical behavior by performing rheology measurements on reconstituted fibrin gels. We find that increasing levels of shear strain induce a succession of distinct elastic responses that reflect stretching processes on different length scales. We present a theoretical model that explains these observations in terms of the unique hierarchical architecture of the fibers. The fibers are bundles of semiflexible protofibrils that are loosely connected by flexible linker chains. This architecture makes the fibers 100-fold more flexible to bending than anticipated based on their large diameter. Moreover, in contrast with other biopolymers, fibrin fibers intrinsically stiffen when stretched. The resulting hierarchy of elastic regimes explains the incredible resilience of fibrin clots against large deformations.
Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation
Ferreira, Pedro G; Ross, Graham G
2016-01-01
We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty
Amoroso, Richard L.
2010-12-01
For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M̂4±C4 with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.
Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation
Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2016-12-01
We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through -1/12 ςϕ2 R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Optimal Organizational Hierarchies: Source Coding: Disaster Relief
Murthy, G Rama
2011-01-01
ulticasting is an important communication paradigm for enabling the dissemination of information selectively. This paper considers the problem of optimal secure multicasting in a communication network captured through a graph (optimal is in an interesting sense) and provides a doubly optimal solution using results from source coding. It is realized that the solution leads to optimal design (in a well defined optimality sense) of organizational hierarchies captured through a graph. In this effort two novel concepts : prefix free path, graph entropy are introduced. Some results of graph entropy are provided. Also some results on Kraft inequality are discussed. As an application Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network is utilized as a model of structured Mobile Adhoc network for utility in Disaster Management. Several new research problems that naturally emanate from this research are summarized.
Intersection Theory, Integrable Hierarchies and Topological Field Theory
Dijkgraaf, Robbert
1992-01-01
In these lecture notes we review the various relations between intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, integrable hierarchies of KdV type, matrix models, and topological quantum field theories. We explain in particular why matrix integrals of the type considered by Kontsevich naturally appear as tau-functions associated to minimal models. Our starting point is the extremely simple form of the string equation for the topological (p,1) models, where the so-called Baker-Akhi...
Application of Fuzzy QFD to Aircraft Top Hierarchy Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Jian-xi; SONG Bi-feng; LIU Dong-xia
2004-01-01
In this paper, based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method, the Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (FQFD) theory and the step-by-step hierarchy structure in aircraft top decision design are studied. The fuzzy model for computing competitive factor in evaluation is presented.The decision of key technologies for improving the performance and affordability of a fixed-wing aircraft is studied using the model, and the result proves the feasibility of this model.
On (not) overcoming our history of hierarchy: Complexities of university/school collaboration
Carlone, Heidi B.; Webb, Sandra M.
2006-05-01
Science educators have recently begun to enact and study new, collaborative forms of professional development. Yet, few recognize that doing so requires contesting historical meanings of university-school collaboration and professional development, both of which may operate to sustain a hierarchy model of collaboration. The hierarchy model maintains the flow of information and knowledge from universities to teachers to students. In science education, the hierarchy model may be strengthened by science's own history of hierarchy. This study describes the authors' attempt to contest the hierarchy model by facilitating a collaborative planning project with elementary teachers. Critical discourse analysis is used as the primary theoretical and methodological tool to (1) explain how the hierarchy model was shaped by and shaped the group's actions, interactions, and identities; (2) explain the complexities of collaboration by moving beyond deficit-based explanations (e.g., blaming individuals or organizational structures); (3) offer theoretical and methodological approaches for understanding better the nature of collaboration and practical solutions for those attempting to challenge the history of hierarchy. In focusing on how meaning is made in interaction, the authors demonstrate how language and interaction are inextricably bound with history and culture.
Yukawa Hierarchies From Extra Dimensions With Small FCNC
Lillie, Benjamin Huntington
2003-01-01
We investigate a class of extra dimensional models where all of the Standard Model fermions are localized to a single fixed point in an $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold, and each species is localized with an exponential wavefunction with a different width. We show that this naturally generates Yukawa hierarchies of the size present in the Standard Model, and we find a set of model parameters that reproduces the observed masses and mixings to experimental accuracy. In addition, the dominant constraints, arising from flavor changing neutral currents, are shown to restrict the compactification scale to be $1/R \\ge 2-5 \\tev$, which is a much less stringent constraint than in similar extra dimensional models of the Yukawa hierarchy.
A descending hierarchy of reflection principles
Visser, A.
2008-01-01
This paper can best be viewed as a portrait in miniature of a fascinating structure: a. descending hierarchy of reflection principles. Ascending hierarchies of reflection principles are amply studied, e.g. in Feferman's great paper Transfinite Recursive Progressions of Axiomatic Theories (Feferman[l
Ordinal ultrafilters versus P-hierarchy
Starosolski, Andrzej
2012-01-01
An earlier paper, entitled "P-hierarchy on $\\beta\\omega$", investigated the relations between ordinal ultrafilters and the so-called P-hierarchy. This study is continued in the present paper and focuses on the aspects of characterization of classes of finite index, existence, generic existence and the Rudin-Keisler-order.
A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy
Groves, David L.; And Others
1975-01-01
Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)
A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy
Groves, David L.; And Others
1975-01-01
Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)
Hierarchy of Modular Graph Identities
D'Hoker, Eric
2016-01-01
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analy...
A hierarchy of Poisson brackets
Pavelka, Michal; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav
2015-01-01
The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in passages from more to less detailed (i.e. more macroscopic) descriptions. In particular, we investigate the passage from mechanics of particles (in its Liouville representation) to the reversible kinetic theory and the passage from the reversible kinetic theory to the reversible fluid mechanics. From the physical point of view, the investigation includes binary mixtures and two-point formulations suitable for describing turbulent flows. From the mathematical point of view, we reveal the Lie algebra structure involved in the p...
Hierarchy measure for complex networks
Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás
2012-01-01
Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks...
Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?
Macphail, Kieran
2013-10-01
A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi
2010-01-01
This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.
The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong; Tian, Kelei; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi
2010-01-01
This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.
Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Waalewijn, Wouter J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). ITFA; Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group
2016-01-15
Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET{sub +}, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET{sub +} additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N-jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the most general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.
Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between Jets
Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.
2016-08-01
Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET+, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET+ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e + e - → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N -jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.
Restructuring Large Data Hierarchies for Scientific Query Tools
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, M
2005-02-08
Today's large-scale scientific simulations produce data sets tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. The DataFoundry project is developing querying and analysis tools for these data sets. The Approximate Ad-Hoc Query Engine for Simulation Data (AQSIM) uses a multi-resolution, tree-shaped data structure that allows users to place runtime limits on queries over scientific simulation data. In this AQSIM data hierarchy, each node in the tree contains an abstract model describing all of the information contained in the subtree below that node. AQSIM is able to create the data hierarchy in a single pass. However, the nodes in the hierarchy frequently have low node fanout, which leads to inefficient I/O behavior during query processing. Low node fanout is a common problem in tree-shaped indices. This paper presents a set of one-pass tree ''pruning'' algorithms that efficiently restructure the data hierarchy by removing inner nodes, thereby increasing node fanout. As our experimental results show, the best approach is a combination of two algorithms, one that focuses on increasing node fanout and one that attempts to reduce the maximum tree height.
Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.
Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel
2015-12-22
Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.
Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.
Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian
2011-11-01
The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos
Chiu, S H; Lai, Kwang-Chang
2013-01-01
The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from the core-collpse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative and model-independent interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to the neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed.
Informatization tools (means of study effectiveness checking based on hierarchy system of tasks
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Сергей Викторович Криволапов
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Study effectiveness checking system, based on tasks hierarchy system is considered in this article. Introduced performance score model, can not only helps along time saving and teacher's work facilitation but gives more objective appraisal of student's knowledge.
Diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy
Cui, Shawn X.; Gottesman, Daniel; Krishna, Anirudh
2017-01-01
The Clifford hierarchy is a set of gates that appears in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation, but its precise structure remains elusive. We give a complete characterization of the diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy for prime-dimensional qudits. They turn out to be pmth roots of unity raised to polynomial functions of the basis state to which they are applied, and we determine which level of the Clifford hierarchy a given gate sits in based on m and the degree of the polynomial.
Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.
Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James
2012-07-19
The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).
UC hierarchy and monodromy preserving deformation
Tsuda, Teruhisa
2010-01-01
The UC hierarchy is an extension of the KP hierarchy, which possesses not only an infinite set of positive time evolutions but also that of negative ones. Through a similarity reduction we derive from the UC hierarchy a class of the Schlesinger systems including the Garnier system and the sixth Painleve equation, which describes the monodromy preserving deformations of Fuchsian linear differential equations with certain spectral types. We also present a unified formulation of the above Schlesinger systems as a canonical Hamiltonian system whose Hamiltonian functions are polynomials in the canonical variables.
Hierarchy and information in feedforward networks
Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Solé, Ricard
2010-01-01
In this paper we define a hierarchical index for feedforward structures taking, as the starting point, three fundamental concepts underlying hierarchy: order, predictability and pyramidal structure. Our definition applies to the so called causal graphs, i.e., connected, directed acyclic graphs in which the arrows depict a direct causal relation between two elements defining the nodes. The estimator of hierarchy is obtained by evaluating the complexity of causal paths against the uncertainty in recovering them from a given end point. This naturally leads us to a definition of mutual information which, properly normalized and weighted through the layered structure of the graph, results in suitable index of hierarchy with strong theoretical grounds.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余本功; 汪柳; 郭凤艺
2014-01-01
Rapid application and development of cloud services bring new technological innovations in the Internet era, as well as many security issues which attract widespread attention. From the perspective of enterprises to implement cloud services, this paper summarized four influencing factors which are the security issues of platform facilities, operational safety, operations management, and legal factors. On this basis, an evaluation model for enterprise cloud security was proposed, and the Gray Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process ( GFAHP) was used. Finally, an example was offered to specifically clarify and evaluate the model.%从企业实施云服务项目角度，总结得出影响云服务安全的四大因素，即平台设施、运行安全、运营管理以及法律法规因素。在此基础上构建企业云服务安全评价模型，并利用灰色模糊层次分析法（ GFAHP）对模型进行综合评价。最后通过一个实例进行具体阐明与评价。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘亚亚
2016-01-01
2014年中国举办了万众瞩目的南京青奥会。为了定量评价2014年南京青奥会的影响力，依据层次分析法建立数学模型。首先以南京青奥会与新加坡青奥会参加的国家数、参赛运动员数、投入资金等指标构建评价指标矩阵。然后用判断矩阵来确定各指标的权重。最后，通过所建立的模型，计算出两届青奥会的影响力并进行比较分析。%In 2014,the Second Youth Olympic Games was held in Nanjing,China.In order to give a quantitative evaluation to analyze its influence, a mathematical model is established through the analytic hierarchy process. An evaluation index matrix was built by comparing the number of countries,athletes and the investment index between Nanjing and Singapore Youth Olympic Games. And then, the weight of each index is determined by the judgment matrix. Finally, through the established model, the Youth Olympic Games influence is calculated and compared.
Hierarchies in Dictionary Definition Space
Picard, Olivier; Harnad, Stevan; Marcotte, Odile; Chicoisne, Guillaume; Gargouri, Yassine
2009-01-01
A dictionary defines words in terms of other words. Definitions can tell you the meanings of words you don't know, but only if you know the meanings of the defining words. How many words do you need to know (and which ones) in order to be able to learn all the rest from definitions? We reduced dictionaries to their "grounding kernels" (GKs), about 10% of the dictionary, from which all the other words could be defined. The GK words turned out to have psycholinguistic correlates: they were learned at an earlier age and more concrete than the rest of the dictionary. But one can compress still more: the GK turns out to have internal structure, with a strongly connected "kernel core" (KC) and a surrounding layer, from which a hierarchy of definitional distances can be derived, all the way out to the periphery of the full dictionary. These definitional distances, too, are correlated with psycholinguistic variables (age of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, oral and written frequency) and hence perhaps with th...
Hierarchy of modular graph identities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2016-11-09
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.
Structural hierarchy of autism spectrum disorder symptoms: an integrative framework.
Kim, Hyunsik; Keifer, Cara M; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Lerner, Matthew D; Gadow, Kenneth D
2017-02-14
In an attempt to resolve questions regarding the symptom classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous research generally aimed to demonstrate superiority of one model over another. Rather than adjudicating which model may be optimal, we propose an alternative approach that integrates competing models using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying symptom structure of ASD. The study sample comprised 3,825 individuals, consecutive referrals to a university hospital developmental disabilities specialty clinic or a child psychiatry outpatient clinic. This study analyzed DSM-IV-referenced ASD symptom statements from parent and teacher versions of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R. A series of exploratory structural equation models was conducted in order to produce interpretable latent factors that account for multivariate covariance. Results indicated that ASD symptoms were structured into an interpretable hierarchy across multiple informants. This hierarchy includes five levels; key features of ASD bifurcate into different constructs with increasing specificity. This is the first study to examine an underlying structural hierarchy of ASD symptomatology using the bass-ackwards method. This hierarchy demonstrates how core features of ASD relate at differing levels of resolution, providing a model for conceptualizing ASD heterogeneity and a structure for integrating divergent theories of cognitive processes and behavioral features that define the disorder. These findings suggest that a more coherent and complete understanding of the structure of ASD symptoms may be reflected in a metastructure rather than at one level of resolution. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
The Relationship between Incentives to Learn and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Wu, Wenling
This paper empirically explores lots of students in college for their hierarchy of needs and incentives to learn, and finds the linear relationship between them. With the survey, it's be found that there are some kinds of factors influence the students needs order. The paper gives several diagrams to show these important factors which affect the college students' hierarchy of needs most. The paper also finds the change of the student' hierarchy of needs will affect the variety of incentives to learn. Then the paper develops a model for qualitative analyze this relationship. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the model. With this model the correct and useful methods can be easily selected for students to incentive according to their types of hierarchy of needs.
Investigating a Hierarchy of Students’ Interpretations of Graphs
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Kazuhiro Aoyama
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The ability to analyse qualitative information from quantitative information, and/or to create new information from qualitative and quantitative information is the key task of statistical literacy in the 21st century. Although several studies have focussed on critical evaluation of statistical information, this aspect of research has not been clearly conceptualised as yet. This paper presents a hierarchy of the graphical interpretation component of statistical literacy. 175 participants from different educational levels (junior high school to graduate students responded to a questionnaire and some of them were also interviewed. The SOLO Taxonomy was used for coding the students’ responses and the Rasch model was used to clarify the construction of the hierarchy. Five different levels of interpretations of graphs were identified: Idiosyncratic, Basic graph reading, Rational/Literal, Critical, and Hypothesising and Modelling. These results will provide guidelines for teaching statistical literacy.
A centerless Virasoro algebra of master symmetries for the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy
Haine, Luc
2011-01-01
We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy admits a centerless Virasoro algebra of master symmetries in the sense of Fuchssteiner. An explicit expression for these symmetries is given in terms of a generalization of the Cantero, Moral and Vel\\'azquez (CMV) matrices (which can also be used to formulate the hierarchy itself) and their action on the tau-functions of the hierarchy is described. The use of the CMV matrices, in contrast with Hessenberg matrices, turns out to be crucial for obtaining a Lax pair representation of the master symmetries. As an application, a new and transparent derivation of the Virasoro constraints satisfied by the unitary matrix model is presented.
Green Degree Comprehensive Evaluation of Elevator Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process
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Lizhen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The green design of the elevator has many characteristics which contains many factors and the combination of qualitative and quantitative. In view of the fuzzy problem of evaluation index information, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model are combined to evaluate the green degree of elevator. In this method, the weights of the indexes are calculated by using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to calculate the weights of each level. The feasibility will be defined of using green degree evaluation of elevator system as an example to verify the method.
Integrable Couplings of the Coupled Burgers Hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIATie-Cheng; CHENXiao-Hong; CHENDeng-Yuan; ZHANGYu-Feng
2004-01-01
In this letter, a new loop algebra G is constructed, from which a new isospectral problem is established. It follows that integrable couplings of the well-known coupled Burgers hierarchy are obtained.
Cities, Wages, and the Urban Hierarchy
Juan D. Soto; Dusan Paredes
2014-01-01
We present evidence regarding the unequal spatial distribution of population in the north and south of Chile which implies that even when geographical distances to the main urban center are similar, the distances in a context of urban hierarchy are completely di?erent. Given this economic geography, we postulate that Central Place Theory provides a better understanding for the study of city size wage gap in Chile. In order to test our hypothesis, we construct ?ve tiers of urban hierarchy usin...
The double scaling limit method in the Toda hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Alonso, L [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Medina, E [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)
2008-08-22
Critical points of semiclassical expansions of solutions to the dispersionful Toda hierarchy are considered and a double scaling limit method of regularization is formulated. The analogues of the critical points characterized by the strong conditions in the Hermitian matrix model are analysed and the property of doubling of equations is proved. A wide family of sets of critical points is introduced and the corresponding double scaling limit expansions are discussed.
Long, Yan; Xu, Guobin; Ma, Chao; Chen, Liang
2016-06-01
Water transfer projects are important for realizing reasonable allocation of water resources, but once a water pollution accident occurs during such a project, the water environment is exposed to enormous risks. Therefore, it is critical to determine an appropriate emergency control system (ECS) for sudden water pollution accidents that occur in water transfer projects. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with the coordinated development degree model (CDDM) was used to develop the ECS. This ECS was developed into two parts, including the emergency risk assessment and the emergency control. Feasible emergency control targets and control technology were also proposed for different sudden water pollution accidents. A demonstrative project was conducted in the Fangshui to Puyang channel, which is part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Emergency Water Supply Project (BSP) in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-SNWTP) in China. However, we could not use an actual toxic soluble pollutant to validate our ECS, so we performed the experiment with sucrose to test the ECS based on its concentration variation. The relative error of peak sucrose concentration was less than 20 %.
Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.
Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri
2014-12-24
Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by
Richardson, D.E.
1993-01-01
This dissertation presents a model for spatial and thematic digital generalization. To do so, the development of digital generalization over the last thirty years is first reviewedThe approach to generalization taken in this research differs from other existing works as it tackles the task from a da
The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs
Norscia, Ivan
2015-01-01
Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris) from the Berenty forest (Madagascar). They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1) by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI) on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2) by calculating normalized David’s scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3) by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4) by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest) levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile, allows intergroup
The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Norscia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris from the Berenty forest (Madagascar. They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1 by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2 by calculating normalized David’s scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3 by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4 by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile
The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs.
Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta
2015-01-01
Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris) from the Berenty forest (Madagascar). They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1) by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI) on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2) by calculating normalized David's scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3) by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4) by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest) levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile, allows intergroup
Factorization and Resummation for Generic Hierarchies between Jets
Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Waalewijn, Wouter J
2016-01-01
Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET$_+$, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET$_+$ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlat...
Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.
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Cedric Boeckx
Full Text Available This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i the (biological problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric' variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.
Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.
Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina
2013-01-01
This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric') variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.
A hierarchy of cosmic compact objects - without black holes
Hansson, J
2006-01-01
We make the case for the existence of a, hitherto unknown and unobserved, hierarchy of ever more compact cosmic objects in the universe. This hypothesis is based on i) the assumption of "elementary" particle sub-constituents on several levels below the presently known, inspired by Glashow's "blooming desert", ii) the existence of nearly scale-invariant density fluctuations in the early universe, e.g. as predicted by inflationary models, iii) our own previous theoretical work showing that a class of objects considerably more compact than previously thought possible in astrophysics can exist. We also give several independent arguments strongly pointing towards the non-existence of black holes. Some brief suggestions on observational signals due to the hierarchy, both in collected astronomical data and in possible future observations, concludes the paper.
Scales and hierarchies in warped compactifications and brane worlds
De Wolfe, O; Wolfe, Oliver De; Giddings, Steven B.
2003-01-01
Warped compactifications with branes provide a new approach to the hierarchy problem and generate a diversity of four-dimensional thresholds. We investigate the relationships between these scales, which fall into two classes. Geometrical scales, such as thresholds for Kaluza-Klein, excited string, and black hole production, are generically determined soley by the spacetime geometry. Dynamical scales, notably the scale of supersymmetry breaking and moduli masses, depend on other details of the model. We illustrate these relationships in a class of solutions of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual fluxes. After identifying the geometrical scales and the resulting hierarchy, we determine the gravitino and moduli masses through explicit dimensional reduction, and estimate their value to be near the four-dimensional Planck scale. In the process we obtain expressions for the superpotential and Kahler potential, including the effects of warping. We identify matter living on certain branes to be effectivel...
Huang, Yanhong; Xu, Honglei; Tu, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Huang, Min
2016-01-01
In this paper, the common errors in medical devices test reports are classified and analyzed. And then the main 11 influence factors for these inspection report errors are summarized. The hierarchy model was also developed and verified by presentation data using MATLAB. The feasibility of comprehensive weights quantitative comparison has been analyzed by using the analytic hierarchy process. In the end, this paper porspects the further research direction.
Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.
Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry
2014-10-01
The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship.
Cognitive Hierarchy Theory and Two-Person Games
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Carlos Gracia-Lázaro
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive hierarchy theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian beauty contests and entry games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-player-two-action games and establish an algorithm to find the players’ strategies according to the cognitive hierarchy approach. We show that the snowdrift game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: (i any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter, its class; (ii they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off’s space. Finally, we propose a model based on an evolutionary dynamics that captures the main features of the cognitive hierarchy theory.
Hierarchy of the low-lying excitations for the (2+1-dimensional q=3 Potts model in the ordered phase
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Yoshihiro Nishiyama
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The (2+1-dimensional q=3 Potts model was simulated with the exact diagonalization method. In the ordered phase, the elementary excitations (magnons are attractive, forming a series of bound states in the low-energy spectrum. We investigate the low-lying spectrum through a dynamical susceptibility, which is readily tractable with the exact diagonalization method via the continued-fraction expansion. As a result, we estimate the series of (scaled mass gaps, m2,3,4/m1 (m1: single-magnon mass, in proximity to the transition point.
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Valencia-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Resumen: El imaginario o modelo religioso barroco representaba un universo mental capaz de ofrecer una concepción global del mundo y de la sociedad, de contornos bien definidos. Entre sus elementos recurrentes figuran los tres aquí estudiados: primero, la importancia concedida al ceremonial, en favor de una religiosidad externa y ritualizada que reafirmaba el papel indispensable de los sacerdotes; segundo, la visión negativa que el catolicismo emite sobre la mujer, conceptuada como un ser inferior; finalmente, la relación entre el discurso eclesiástico y el sistema jerárquico de la sociedad, al que el modelo religioso contribuye a legitimar. Tales mensajes se analizan a través de cinco obras de la época. = Abstract: The imaginary or Baroque religious model represented a mental universe capable to offer a global conception of the world and the society with well-defined outlines. Among its recurrent elements are the three treated here; first: the importance given to the ceremonial in favour of an external and ritualized religiosity that reaffirmed the essential role of priests; second: the negative view of Catholicism about the woman, seen as a lower human being; finally, the relationship between the ecclesiastical speech and the hierarchical system of the society, that the religious model contributes to legitimize. Such messages are analyzed through five works of the period.
M.E. Schouten (Maartje)
2016-01-01
markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other ne
M.E. Schouten (Maartje)
2016-01-01
markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
辛曼玉
2011-01-01
为对港口物流企业进行全面、客观的绩效评价,从可持续发展的角度出发,从物流硬件水平、物流管理与服务水平以及物流对社会的贡献率等3个方面构建港口物流绩效评价的指标体系,将突变级数法与可拓学相结合建立双层决策系统模型.应用该模型对我国7个沿海港口2005年的港口物流绩效进行评价,评价结果与这几个港口的实际发展情况基本相符.%In order to evaluate the performance of port logistics enterprises comprehensively and objectively , from the perspective of sustainable development, an index system for the evaluation of port logistics performance is constructed from three aspects including hardware level of logistics, logistics management and service level, and contribution of logistics to society, and a double-hierarchy model of decision-making system is established by combining catastrophe progression method with extenics. The model is employed to evaluate the port logistics performance in 2005 for seven coastal ports in China, and the evaluation results are in consistent with the practical development of the ports.
The network motif architecture of dominance hierarchies.
Shizuka, Daizaburo; McDonald, David B
2015-04-01
The widespread existence of dominance hierarchies has been a central puzzle in social evolution, yet we lack a framework for synthesizing the vast empirical data on hierarchy structure in animal groups. We applied network motif analysis to compare the structures of dominance networks from data published over the past 80 years. Overall patterns of dominance relations, including some aspects of non-interactions, were strikingly similar across disparate group types. For example, nearly all groups exhibited high frequencies of transitive triads, whereas cycles were very rare. Moreover, pass-along triads were rare, and double-dominant triads were common in most groups. These patterns did not vary in any systematic way across taxa, study settings (captive or wild) or group size. Two factors significantly affected network motif structure: the proportion of dyads that were observed to interact and the interaction rates of the top-ranked individuals. Thus, study design (i.e. how many interactions were observed) and the behaviour of key individuals in the group could explain much of the variations we see in social hierarchies across animals. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of dominance hierarchies across all animal systems, and demonstrate that network analysis provides new avenues for comparative analyses of social hierarchies.
Making Sense of the Abstraction Hierarchy in the Power Plant Domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Morten
2003-01-01
The paper discusses the abstraction hierarchy proposed by Rasmussen [(1986) Information processing and human-machine interaction, North-Holland] for design of human-machine interfaces for supervisory control. The purpose of the abstraction hierarchy is to represent a work domain by multiple levels...... of means-end and part-whole abstractions. It is argued in the paper that the abstraction hierarchy suffers from both methodological and conceptual problems. A cluster of selected problems are analyzed and illustrated by concrete examples from the power plant domain. It is concluded that the semantics...... in the model-building process. It is also pointed out that attempts to clarify the semantics of the abstraction hierarchy will invariably reduce the range of work domains where it can be applied....
Intersection Theory, Integrable Hierarchies and Topological Field Theory
Dijkgraaf, R
1992-01-01
In these lecture notes we review the various relations between intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, integrable hierarchies of KdV type, matrix models, and topological quantum field theories. We explain in particular why matrix integrals of the type considered by Kontsevich naturally appear as tau-functions associated to minimal models. Our starting point is the extremely simple form of the string equation for the topological (p,1) models, where the so-called Baker-Akhiezer function is given by a (generalized) Airy function.
Does the hierarchy problem set the seesaw scale?
Kuchimanchi, Ravi
2014-01-01
We find that minimizing the number of fine tuning relations in non-supersymmetric models can determine the scales at which gauge symmetries beyond the standard model must break. We show that B-L gauge symmetry of the minimal left-right symmetric model breaks at a scale 10^{15} GeV or higher, determined by the hierarchy problem and small quark mass ratios, provided parameters that break chiral or $\\mu-$symmetries are not fine-tuned. This provides the raison d'etre for the seesaw scale ~ 10^{15}GeV indicated by neutrino experiments.
Varying and inverting the mass hierarchy in collisional energy loss
Kolevatov, Rodion
2008-01-01
Heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the LHC give access to the medium-induced suppression patterns of heavy-flavored single inclusive hadron spectra at high transverse momentum. This opens novel opportunities for a detailed characterization of the medium produced in the collision. In this note, we point out that the capacity of a QCD medium to absorb the recoil of a partonic projectile is an independent signature, which may differ for different media at the same density. In particular, while the mass hierarchy (i.e., the projectile mass dependence) of radiative energy loss depends solely on a property of the projectile, the mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss depends significantly on properties of the medium. By varying these properties in a class of models, we find that the mass hierarchy of collisional parton energy loss can be modified considerably and can even be inverted, compared to that of radiative parton energy loss. This may help to disentangle the relative strengths of radiative and collision...
Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.
Lerch, Mathias
2016-01-01
The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.
Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects
He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng
2016-11-01
Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11404090, and 11674026), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2015205189), the Hebei Education Department Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. QN2014022), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China.
Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies
Sun, Guangyu
2014-01-01
This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc. The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.” The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification; hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs. · Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...
Energy and area efficient hierarchy multiplier architecture based on Vedic mathematics and GDI logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohan Shoba
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Hierarchy multiplier is attractive because of its ability to carry the multiplication operation within one clock cycle. The existing hierarchical multipliers occupy more area and also results in more delay. Therefore, in this paper, a method to reduce the computation delay of hierarchy multiplier by employing CslA and Binary to Excess 1 Converter (BEC is proposed. The use of BEC eliminates the n/4 number of adders, existing in the conventional addition scheme, where n denotes the multiplier input width. As the area of the hierarchy multiplier is determined by its base multiplier, the base multiplier is realized with the proposed Vedic multiplier, which has small area and operates with less delay than the conventional multipliers. In addition, the reduction of power consumption in the hierarchy multiplier can be ensured by implementing the designed multiplier with full swing Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic. The performances of the proposed and the existing multipliers are evaluated by Cadence SPICE simulator using 45 nm technology model. From the simulation results, the performance parameters namely, delay and power consumption are calculated. Further, the area is measured from the corresponding layout for the same technology model. It is examined from the results that the proposed multiplier operates with 17% lesser power delay product than the recently reported hierarchy multiplier. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed to understand the robustness of the proposed hierarchy multiplier.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁海林; 刘树枫
2001-01-01
房地产开发项目的市场定位决策是项目投资决策至关重要的一个环节，有效的市场定位是决定开发企业获得更大的投资效益和投资风险性较小的前提和基础.本文结合项目实例，提出了层次分析模型在市场定位决策中的基本思路和操作方法，这不仅能够对房地产开发商及投资决策者有一定的参考价值，而且能够对房地产开发企业投资决策科学化、规范化、专业化起到促进作用.%Decision for market location is the key link in real estate development project investment and effective market location is the premiss and foundation which euables enterprise to obtain more investment benefet and less investment risk. This paper, connected with real project, has presented the basic ideas and operation method for analyzing hierarchy model used in decision of market location. It's not only useful for the real estate developing businessmen and investing decision makers, but also promotes the rationalization, standardization and specialization in the decision making of investment for real estate enterprise.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈莹; 张爱英
2013-01-01
Graduates in the Job are the hot issue of social concern .Committed to solving this problem , the arti-cle introduces Maslow ’ s hierarchy of needs theory , using standardized methods of analysis , establishing decision-making model of University students’ labor supply.The study’s results will provide a theoretical basis to employ-ment policy.Studies obtained:the use of incentives to meet the needs of individual high -level, will dilute the de-mand for low-level expectations , and help to reduce labor costs .%大学生就业难是全社会持续关注的焦点，为加强对该问题的深入分析，以马斯洛的需求层次论为出发点，运用规范分析方法，通过对建立大学生劳动供给决策模型的研究，为扩大大学生就业提供理论支撑。在对现期劳动供给和延期劳动供给两种类型的大学生劳动供给决策模型分析后认为，运用激励手段满足个人高层次的需求，会淡化低层次需求的期望值，有助于降低用工成本。
Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clarissa De Antoni
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.
The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer.
Oakes, Samantha R; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J
2014-11-01
Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and regulation of the mammary cellular hierarchy and we describe the development of the concepts that have guided our investigations. We outline recent advances in in vivo lineage tracing that is now challenging many of our assumptions regarding the behavior of mammary stem cells, and we show how understanding these cellular lineages has altered our view of breast cancer.
Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy
Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James
2012-01-01
The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632
CAUSAL INFERENCE WITH A GRAPHICAL HIERARCHY OF INTERVENTIONS.
Shpitser, Ilya; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen
2016-12-01
Identifying causal parameters from observational data is fraught with subtleties due to the issues of selection bias and confounding. In addition, more complex questions of interest, such as effects of treatment on the treated and mediated effects may not always be identified even in data where treatment assignment is known and under investigator control, or may be identified under one causal model but not another. Increasingly complex effects of interest, coupled with a diversity of causal models in use resulted in a fragmented view of identification. This fragmentation makes it unnecessarily difficult to determine if a given parameter is identified (and in what model), and what assumptions must hold for this to be the case. This, in turn, complicates the development of estimation theory and sensitivity analysis procedures. In this paper, we give a unifying view of a large class of causal effects of interest, including novel effects not previously considered, in terms of a hierarchy of interventions, and show that identification theory for this large class reduces to an identification theory of random variables under interventions from this hierarchy. Moreover, we show that one type of intervention in the hierarchy is naturally associated with queries identified under the Finest Fully Randomized Causally Interpretable Structure Tree Graph (FFRCISTG) model of Robins (via the extended g-formula), and another is naturally associated with queries identified under the Non-Parametric Structural Equation Model with Independent Errors (NPSEM-IE) of Pearl, via a more general functional we call the edge g-formula. Our results motivate the study of estimation theory for the edge g-formula, since we show it arises both in mediation analysis, and in settings where treatment assignment has unobserved causes, such as models associated with Pearl's front-door criterion.
Integrable couplings of a generalized AKNS hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张玉峰; 张鸿庆; 闫庆友
2002-01-01
A generalized AKNS isospectral problem where the trace of corresponding spectral matrix is not zero, is transformed to a new isospectral problem where the trace of the resulting matrix is zero, by using transformation of Lax pairs, and these two spectral problems lead to the same hierarchy of equations. The authors started from the transformed spectral problem and constructed a new loop algebra which has not appeared before, and obtained the integrable coupling of the generalized AKNS hierarchy. Specially, the integrable couplings of the KdV equation and MKdV equation are obtained.
An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe
1998-01-01
We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...
Merlin, Tracy; Weston, Adele; Tooher, Rebecca
2009-06-11
In 1999 a four-level hierarchy of evidence was promoted by the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia. The primary purpose of this hierarchy was to assist with clinical practice guideline development, although it was co-opted for use in systematic literature reviews and health technology assessments. In this hierarchy interventional study designs were ranked according to the likelihood that bias had been eliminated and thus it was not ideal to assess studies that addressed other types of clinical questions. This paper reports on the revision and extension of this evidence hierarchy to enable broader use within existing evidence assessment systems. A working party identified and assessed empirical evidence, and used a commissioned review of existing evidence assessment schema, to support decision-making regarding revision of the hierarchy. The aim was to retain the existing evidence levels I-IV but increase their relevance for assessing the quality of individual diagnostic accuracy, prognostic, aetiologic and screening studies. Comprehensive public consultation was undertaken and the revised hierarchy was piloted by individual health technology assessment agencies and clinical practice guideline developers. After two and a half years, the hierarchy was again revised and commenced a further 18 month pilot period. A suitable framework was identified upon which to model the revision. Consistency was maintained in the hierarchy of "levels of evidence" across all types of clinical questions; empirical evidence was used to support the relationship between study design and ranking in the hierarchy wherever possible; and systematic reviews of lower level studies were themselves ascribed a ranking. The impact of ethics on the hierarchy of study designs was acknowledged in the framework, along with a consideration of how harms should be assessed. The revised evidence hierarchy is now widely used and provides a common standard against which to initially
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李娟; 薛永端; 徐丙垠; 高厚磊; 孙波
2013-01-01
现有模型误差分析方法准确度低，借鉴层次分析法的思想，提出一种电力系统暂态模型评价方法。该评价方法以暂态响应中各正弦分量的幅值、频率、相位和衰减因子作为评价指标，对暂态响应中各正弦分量的模拟准确度进行评价，然后通过各正弦分量评价结果的线性加权实现电力系统暂态模型的总体评价。最后利用仿真验证了该评价方法的正确性与可行性。该方法合理地利用了暂态信号由若干正弦信号相互叠加的特点，更适用于电力系统暂态分析，且该方法采用定性与定量相结合的方式确定各指标的相对权重，在保证了评价方法客观性的同时提高了该方法的适用性。%Referring to the thought of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a new method to assess power system transient models is proposed to remedy the defect of low accuracy in existing methods for model error analysis. Taking the amplitudes, frequencies, phases and attenuation factors of sinusoidal components in the transient response as assessment indices, the proposed method assesses the simulation accuracies of sinusoidal components in transient response, and through linear weighting of assessed results of sinusoidal components the overall assessment of power system transient model is implemented. The feasibility and validity of the proposed method are verified by simulation results. In the proposed method the feature that transient signal is composed of superposed sinusoidal signals is reasonably utilized, so it is more suitable to power system transient analysis and in this method the relative weights of indices are determined by AHP, the applicability of the proposed method is improved while the objectivity of the assessment method is ensured.
Truncation identities for the small polaron fusion hierarchy
Grabinski, André M.; Frahm, Holger
2013-04-01
We study a one-dimensional lattice model of interacting spinless fermions. This model is integrable for both periodic and open boundary conditions; the latter case includes the presence of Grassmann valued non-diagonal boundary fields breaking the bulk U(1) symmetry of the model. Starting from the embedding of this model into a graded Yang-Baxter algebra, an infinite hierarchy of commuting transfer matrices is constructed by means of a fusion procedure. For certain values of the coupling constant related to anisotropies of the underlying vertex model taken at roots of unity, this hierarchy is shown to truncate giving a finite set of functional equations for the spectrum of the transfer matrices. For generic coupling constants, the spectral problem is formulated in terms of a functional (or TQ-)equation which can be solved by Bethe ansatz methods for periodic and diagonal open boundary conditions. Possible approaches for the solution of the model with generic non-diagonal boundary fields are discussed.
Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept. T30; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik und Physikalisches Inst.; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-12-15
We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)
Integrable hierarchies of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation
Nugmanova, G.; Azimkhanova, A.
2016-08-01
In this paper we consider the coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system. From compatibility conditions we obtain the form of matrix operators. After using a gauge transformation, obtained a new type of Lax representation for the hierarchy of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation, which is equivalent to the gauge coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system.
Geometrical hierarchy and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.
1987-06-04
A four-dimensional gauge theory, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally, is obtained by dimensionally reducing a pure gauge theory over a compact coset space S/R. We show, using an explicit example, that a hierarchy of the scales in the coset space can change the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the four-dimensional gauge theory.
The FO^2 alternation hierarchy is decidable
Kufleitner, Manfred
2012-01-01
We consider the two-variable fragment FO^2[<] of first-order logic over finite words. Numerous characterizations of this class are known. Th\\'erien and Wilke have shown that it is decidable whether a given regular language is definable in FO^2[<]. From a practical point of view, as shown by Weis, FO^2[<] is interesting since its satisfiability problem is in NP. Restricting the number of quantifier alternations yields an infinite hierarchy inside the class of FO^2[<]-definable languages. We show that each level of this hierarchy is decidable. For this purpose, we relate each level of the hierarchy with a decidable variety of finite monoids. Our result implies that there are many different ways of climbing up the FO^2[<]-quantifier alternation hierarchy: deterministic and co-deterministic products, Mal'cev products with definite and reverse definite semigroups, iterated block products with J-trivial monoids, and some inductively defined omega-term identities. A combinatorial tool in the process o...
Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation
Kato, Shigeo
2014-01-01
This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…
Integrating partonomic hierarchies in anatomy ontologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Yiya
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomy ontologies play an increasingly important role in developing integrated bioinformatics applications. One of the primary relationships between anatomical tissues represented in such ontologies is part-of. As there are a number of ways to divide up the anatomical structure of an organism, each may be represented by more than one valid partonomic (part-of hierarchy. This raises the issue of how to represent and integrate multiple such hierarchies. Results In this paper we describe a solution that is based on our work on an anatomy ontology for mouse embryo development, which is part of the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP. The paper describes the basic conceptual aspects of our approach and discusses strengths and limitations of the proposed solution. A prototype was implemented in Prolog for evaluation purposes. Conclusion With the proposed name set approach, rather than having to standardise hierarchies, it is sufficient to agree on a suitable set of basic tissue terms and their meaning in order to facilitate the integration of multiple partonomic hierarchies.
The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking
Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith
1995-01-01
Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...
Sociality, hierarchy, health comparative biodemography: a collection of papers
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Weinstein, Maxine; Lane, Meredith A
2014-01-01
"Sociality, Hierarchy, Health: Comparative Biodemography is a collection of papers that examine cross-species comparisons of social environments with a focus on social behaviors along with social hierarchies and connections...
Fluxes, hierarchies, and metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruemmer, F.
2008-02-06
This thesis concerns topics both in low-energy effective field theories from type IIB superstring flux compactifications and in four-dimensional, rigidly supersymmetric gauge theories. We introduce flux compactifications with so-called ''warped throat'' regions, which lead to large hierarchies of scales in the effective four-dimensional theory. The correspondence between a particular such throat and a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum-like model is established. We shown how certain string-theoretic features of the compactification, such as moduli stabilization by fluxes or the presence of an unstabilized Kaehler modulus, are incorporated in the five-dimensional picture. The KKLT construction for metastable de Sitter vacua is reviewed, as well as some possible modifications involving spontaneous F-term supersymmetry breaking. For KKLT-like models with their hidden sector localized inside a throat, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector is investigated. We review the mechanism of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, and show that there can be additional equally important gravity-mediated contributions. We finally turn to the ISS model of metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four dimensions, and present a renormalizable extension which generates a large hierarchy naturally. We also recapitulate how the ISS model may be obtained from a type IIB superstring model. (orig.)
Improving Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: New Approach to needs hierarchy
Babak Nemati
2013-01-01
In this article Maslow's hierarchy of needs is reviewed with two viewpoints: critical and supportive. We try to extract and classify the relevant subject related to the research content after studying and analysis of documents. Thus, because of their common characters, the needs that have been cited from some scientists could be gathered and make some new levels.The new Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been presented in this research and we added three levels EPISTEMOLOGY, LOG and EROS (Freedo...
The concept of hierarchy in general systems theory.
Gasparski, W
1994-01-01
The paper reviews main ideas related to the concept of hierarchy as they are discussed in contemporary general systems theory. After presenting a dictionary definition of the concept, the author examines the intuitive idea of hierarchy quoting Mario Bunge's notion of level structure. Then relationship between two other concepts: a system and a hierarchy is characterised on the bases of Bowler's, Bunge's again, Klir's, and the author's studies. Finally, the paper is concluded that hierarchy is not an otological concept but epistemological one.
Dispersionless and multicomponent BKP hierarchies with quantum torus symmetries
Li, Chuanzhong
2017-09-01
In this article, we will construct the additional perturbative quantum torus symmetry of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy based on the W∞ infinite dimensional Lie symmetry. These results show that the complete quantum torus symmetry is broken from the BKP hierarchy to its dispersionless hierarchies. Further a series of additional flows of the multicomponent BKP hierarchy will be defined and these flows constitute an N-folds direct product of the positive half of the quantum torus symmetries.
Shan, Xin; Yu, Xinghe; Clift, Peter D.; Wang, Tianyi; Tan, Chengpeng; Jin, Lina
2016-09-01
Ground-penetrating radar and trenching studies of a barrier spit on the north shore of Huangqihai Lake were made, that reveal important implications for the coastal washover barrier boundary hierarchy and interpretations of this depositional record. A four-fold hierarchy bounding-surface model, representing different levels of impact and genesis, is defined. Each level of the hierarchy is enclosed by a distinct kind of surface characterized by different ground-penetrating radar reflection features, sedimentary characteristics (color, grain size, sorting, rounding and sedimentary structures) and origin. We suggest that this hierarchical model can be applied to any coastal washover barrier deposits.
Calculable mass hierarchies and a light dilaton from gravity duals
Elander, Daniel; Piai, Maurizio
2017-09-01
In the context of gauge/gravity dualities, we calculate the scalar and tensor mass spectrum of the boundary theory defined by a special 8-scalar sigma-model in five dimensions, the background solutions of which include the 1-parameter family dual to the baryonic branch of the Klebanov-Strassler field theory. This provides an example of a strongly-coupled, multi-scale system that yields a parametrically light mass for one of the composite scalar particles: the dilaton. We briefly discuss the implications of these findings towards identifying a satisfactory solution to both the big and little hierarchy problems of the electro-weak theory.
Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yan
2007-01-01
A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed.Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.
Basic Studies of Learning Hierarchies in School Subjects. Final Report.
Gagne, Robert M.
This study explores three areas of learning hierarchies: (1) the condition for learning in accordance with learning hierarchies; (2) the use of hierarchies in the diagnosis and learning of prerequisite intellectual skills; and (3) the conditions of learning and retention of principles. There were seven studies undertaken using elementary and…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王智鑫; 罗军; 龙胤
2012-01-01
本文根据中国保险监督管理委员会《保险公司分支机构分类监管暂行办法》和陕西省保监局《陕西省保险公司分类监管办法（征求意见稿）》，选择在陕财产保险公司二级机构2010年相关数据，运用层次分析数学模型对相关指标进行分析和评价，与陕西保监局的《陕西省保险公司分类监管办法（征求意见稿）》分析结果进行对比，以达到对财产保险公司省级分支机构监管分类方法的有效性和科学性，积极探索对其分类的新方法和新思路，为财产保险公司二级机构分类监管体系的建立和完善．提供科学的方法依据和理论参考。%Accord to Interim Measures for Classification Supervision of Insurance Company Branches issued by China Insurance Regulatory Commission and Measures for Classification Supervision of Shaanxi Provincial Insurance Companies （Consultative Draft） issued by Shaanxi Bureau of CIRC, the paper chooses data of secondary level property insurance companies in Shaanxi province in 2010, analyzes and evaluates the relevant index with analytic hierarchy model, compares the results so as to establish an efficient and scientific classification supervision on provincial property insurance companies, actively explores new measures of classification supervision, and provides a scientific theoretical reference for establishment and improvement of classification supervision system on secondary institutions of property insurance companies.
Ordered hierarchy versus scale invariance in sequence stratigraphy
Schlager, Wolfgang
2010-10-01
Sequence stratigraphy has been applied in a wide range of scales of time and space, from decimeter-thick layers formed within hours to kilometer-thick basin fills formed during hundreds of millions of years. The traditional approach to practice sequence stratigraphy in this wide range of scales is to subdivide the sediment piles into an ordered hierarchy of sequence cycles of different duration and different architecture. An alternative are scale-invariant models with fractal characteristics. Published data confirm two predictions of the ordered-hierarchy model: sequences of very short duration (200 × 106 years) are symmetrical transgressive-regressive cycles. However, the sequence record in the range of 1 × 104-200 × 106 years, the principal domain of sequence stratigraphy, shows a rather irregular succession of sequences with variable symmetry and bounded by flooding surfaces or exposure surfaces. For these time scales, scale-invariant models are a good first approximation, particularly because the evidence for scale-invariance and randomness in the stratigraphic record is strong: Frequency spectra of sea-level change as well as rates of sedimentation and rates of accommodation change plotted against length of observation span show basic trends indistinguishable from random walk. These trends, combined with scale-invariant sequence models may be the most efficient tools for across-the-board predictions on sequences and for locating islands of order in the sequence record.
A STUDY ON THE HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS
Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tadashi
Compared to the late 20th century, the Japanese construction industry has drastically changed its business methodology, outlook and approach in response to global issues and the incredible advances in technology. Such influences, non-exhaustively include the; WTO Government procurement agreement, updating conditions of tendering and contracting, client demands for cost reduction and the rapid penetration of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) into modern society. These days, the significance of controlling Quality, Cost and Time (the so-called QCT) has been recognized as an eternal-triangle by almost all countries, Government organizations and the private sector. However, as the construction industry is exposed to , and influenced by, more and more internal and external dynamic factors, continued reliance on managing and controlling QCT elements on their own is no longer adequate in meeting the growing demands and expectations, and as such control of additional management elements is now essential to avoid problems, or minimize their potential impacts should they occur. This paper utilizes the results of a survey carried out amongst construction managers and consultants in Japan and overseas to develop a spatial network that defines the interaction of management factors as a weighted graphical model. The calculated closeness centrality index of the developed management network model is adopted to identify the initialelement hierarchy, which is then further analyzed using the minimum distance of independent relationships of management elements (Warshall-Floyd algorism methodology), to identify the optimum potential hierarchy for effective construction management. A key result of the analysis is the significance of "Human Resource" in the construction industry management element hierarchy alongside the traditional QCT elements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gordoa, Pilar R. [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: andrew.pickering@urjc.es; Zhu Zuonong [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)
2006-08-15
In this article, by considering a 2 + 1 dimensional discrete non-isospectral linear problem, a new 2 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchy is constructed. It is shown that a generalization of the discrete second Painleve hierarchy can be obtained as a reduction. Other reductions include new 1 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies.
Radiatively generated hierarchy of lepton and quark masses
Hernández, A E Cárcamo; Schmidt, Ivan
2016-01-01
We propose a model for radiatively generating the hierarchy of the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses: tree-level top quark mass; 1-loop bottom, charm, tau and muon masses; 2-loop masses for the light up, down and strange quarks as well as for the electron; and 4-loop masses for the light active neutrinos. Our model is based on a softly-broken $S_{3}\\times Z_{2}$ discrete symmetry. Its scalar sector consists only of one SM Higgs doublet and three electrically neutral SM-singlet scalars. We do not need to invoke neither electrically charged scalar fields, nor an extra $SU_{2L}$ scalar doublet, nor the spontaneous breaking of the discrete group, which are typical for other radiative models in the literature. The model features a viable scalar dark matter candidate.
Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C -J David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio
2016-01-01
Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio $R$ between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in ...
Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.
Chiao, Joan Y
2010-12-01
Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche
1989-01-01
notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...
Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand
2015-01-01
the use of remote sensing. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We reveal a hierarchy of sensing modes (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing, and echolocation) where body size determines the available battery of sensing modes and where larger body size means...... a longer sensing range. The size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We characterize the governing mechanisms and theoretically...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...
Hierarchy of Scales in Language Dynamics
Blythe, Richard A
2015-01-01
Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them---much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.
Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life.
Martens, Erik A; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H; Visser, André
2015-09-22
Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. © 2015 The Author(s).
Solving moment hierarchies for chemical reaction networks
Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Smith, Eric
2017-10-01
The study of chemical reaction networks (CRN’s) is a very active field. Earlier well-known results (Feinberg 1987 Chem. Enc. Sci. 42 2229, Anderson et al 2010 Bull. Math. Biol. 72 1947) identify a topological quantity called deficiency, for any CRN, which, when exactly equal to zero, leads to a unique factorized steady-state for these networks. No results exist however for the steady states of non-zero-deficiency networks. In this paper, we show how to write the full moment-hierarchy for any non-zero-deficiency CRN obeying mass-action kinetics, in terms of equations for the factorial moments. Using these, we can recursively predict values for lower moments from higher moments, reversing the procedure usually used to solve moment hierarchies. We show, for non-trivial examples, that in this manner we can predict any moment of interest, for CRN’s with non-zero deficiency and non-factorizable steady states.
Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Giraud
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.
Homology and the hierarchy of biological systems.
Sommer, Ralf J
2008-07-01
Homology is the similarity between organisms due to common ancestry. Introduced by Richard Owen in 1843 in a paper entitled "Lectures on comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals", the concept of homology predates Darwin's "Origin of Species" and has been very influential throughout the history of evolutionary biology. Although homology is the central concept of all comparative biology and provides a logical basis for it, the definition of the term and the criteria of its application remain controversial. Here, I will discuss homology in the context of the hierarchy of biological organization. I will provide insights gained from an exemplary case study in evolutionary developmental biology that indicates the uncoupling of homology at different levels of biological organization. I argue that continuity and hierarchy are separate but equally important issues of homology. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
What does the N-point function hierarchy of the cosmological matter density field really measure?
Carron, J.; Szapudi, I.
2017-08-01
The cosmological dark matter field is not completely described by its hierarchy of N-point functions, a non-perturbative effect with the consequence that only part of the theory can be probed with the hierarchy. We give here an exact characterization of the joint information of the hierarchy within the lognormal field. The lognormal field is the archetypal example of a field where this effect occurs, and, at the same time, one of the few tractable and insightful available models to specify fully the statistical properties of the evolved matter density field beyond the perturbative regime. Non-linear growth in the Universe in that model is set letting the log-density field probability density functional evolve keeping its Gaussian shape, according to the diffusion equation in Euclidean space. We show that the hierarchy probes a different evolution equation, the diffusion equation defined not in Euclidean space but on the compact torus, with uniformity as the long-term solution. The extraction of the hierarchy of correlators can be recast in the form of a non-linear transformation applied to the field, 'wrapping', undergoing a sharp transition towards complete disorder in the deeply non-linear regime, where all memory of the initial conditions is lost.
Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential
Gönül, B
2000-01-01
We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.
INFORMATION GATHERING, DELEGATED CONTRACTING AND CORPORATE HIERARCHIES
Chongwoo Choe; In-Uck Park
2008-01-01
In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. We study when such delegation can be optimal. In centralization, the owner retains the authority, which fails to motivate the manager to acquire valuable information, leading to suboptimal decisions and inefficient incentive provision to the worker. Beneficial delegation should necessarily motivate the manager to acquire information, which is possible onl...
Context-dependent hierarchies in pigeons.
Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
2013-08-06
Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior.
Arbitrary natural effective hierarchy in a left-right Higgs theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliensis, J.
1985-12-26
I describe an ordinary Higgs model that produces naturally near its infrared fixed point an arbitrarily large ratio of vacuum expectation values, effectively a hierarchy between scales of symmetry breaking. The model has potential phenomenological relevance to left-right theories: it predicts small Wsub(L)-Wsub(R) mixing and the existence of ultralight Dirac fermions. (orig.).
Creating the fermion mass hierarchies with multiple Higgs bosons
Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin
2016-12-01
After the Higgs boson discovery, it was established that the Higgs mechanism explains electroweak symmetry breaking and generates the masses of all particles in the Standard Model, with the possible exception of neutrino masses. The hierarchies among fermion masses and mixing angles, however, remain unexplained. We propose a new class of two Higgs doublet models in which a flavor symmetry broken at the electroweak scale addresses this problem. The models are strongly constrained by electroweak precision tests and the fact that they produce modifications to Higgs couplings and flavor-changing neutral currents; they are also constrained by collider searches for extra scalar bosons. The surviving models are very predictive, implying unavoidable new physics signals at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, e.g., extra Higgs bosons with masses M <700 GeV .
Creating the fermion mass hierarchies with multiple Higgs bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin
2016-12-28
After the Higgs boson discovery, it is established that the Higgs mechanism explains electroweak symmetry breaking and generates the masses of all particles in the Standard Model, with the possible exception of neutrino masses. The hierarchies among fermion masses and mixing angles remain however unexplained. We propose a new class of two Higgs doublet models in which a flavor symmetry broken at the electroweak scale addresses this problem. The models are strongly constrained by electroweak precision tests and the fact that they produce modifications to Higgs couplings and flavor changing neutral currents; they are also constrained by collider searches for extra scalar bosons. The surviving models are very predictive, implying unavoidable new physics signals at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, e.g. extra Higgs Bosons with masses $M < 700$ GeV.
Creating the Fermion Mass Hierarchies with Multiple Higgs Bosons
Bauer, Martin; Gemmler, Katrin
2015-01-01
After the Higgs boson discovery, it is established that the Higgs mechanism explains electroweak symmetry breaking and generates the masses of all particles in the Standard Model, with the possible exception of neutrino masses. The hierarchies among fermion masses and mixing angles remain however unexplained. We propose a new class of two Higgs doublet models in which a flavor symmetry broken at the electroweak scale addresses this problem. The models are strongly constrained by electroweak precision tests and the fact that they produce modifications to Higgs couplings and flavor changing neutral currents; they are also constrained by collider searches for extra scalar bosons. The surviving models are very predictive, implying unavoidable new physics signals at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, e.g. extra Higgs Bosons with masses $M < 700$ GeV.
Statefinder hierarchy exploration of the extended Ricci dark energy
Yu, Fei; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin
2015-01-01
We apply the statefinder hierarchy plus the fractional growth parameter to explore the extended Ricci dark energy (ERDE) model, in which there are two independent coefficients $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$. By adjusting them, we plot evolution trajectories of some typical parameters, including Hubble expansion rate $E$, deceleration parameter $q$, the third and fourth order hierarchy $S_3^{(1)}$ and $S_4^{(1)}$ and fractional growth parameter $\\epsilon$, respectively, as well as several combinations of them. For the case of variable $\\alpha$ and constant $\\beta$, in the low-redshift region the evolution trajectories of $E$ are in high degeneracy and that of $q$ separate somewhat. However, the $\\Lambda$CDM model is confounded with ERDE in both of these two cases. $S_3^{(1)}$ and $S_4^{(1)}$, especially the former, perform much better. They can differentiate well only varieties of cases within ERDE except $\\Lambda$CDM in the low-redshift region. For high-redshift region, combinations $\\{S_n^{(1)},\\epsilon\\}$ can break t...
'If you are good, I get better': the role of social hierarchy in perceptual decision-making.
Santamaría-García, Hernando; Pannunzi, Mario; Ayneto, Alba; Deco, Gustavo; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria
2014-10-01
So far, it was unclear if social hierarchy could influence sensory or perceptual cognitive processes. We evaluated the effects of social hierarchy on these processes using a basic visual perceptual decision task. We constructed a social hierarchy where participants performed the perceptual task separately with two covertly simulated players (superior, inferior). Participants were faster (better) when performing the discrimination task with the superior player. We studied the time course when social hierarchy was processed using event-related potentials and observed hierarchical effects even in early stages of sensory-perceptual processing, suggesting early top-down modulation by social hierarchy. Moreover, in a parallel analysis, we fitted a drift-diffusion model (DDM) to the results to evaluate the decision making process of this perceptual task in the context of a social hierarchy. Consistently, the DDM pointed to nondecision time (probably perceptual encoding) as the principal period influenced by social hierarchy. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Consumers in Mental Health Organisations' Hierarchies.
Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda
2017-05-01
Contemporary mental health policies call for consumers to be engaged in all levels of mental health service planning, implementation, and delivery. Critical approaches to traditional healthcare hierarchies can effectively challenge barriers to better engagement with consumers in mental health organisations. This qualitative exploratory study analyses how particular strategies for consumer leadership facilitate or hinder relationships between consumers and mental health services, and how these strategies influence hierarchical structures. Fourteen participants from a range of mental health organisations were interviewed. These interviews were analysed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. The findings highlight several benefits of having consumers within mental health organisational hierarchies, and elaborate on ways that employees within mental health services can support integration of consumers into existing hierarchies. Specific barriers to consumers in hierarchies are discussed, including a lack of clarity of structures and roles within hierarchies, and resistance to consumers reaching the highest levels of leadership within organisations. Alternative hierarchical models which privilege consumers' control over resources and power are also discussed. Mental health organisations are encouraged to integrate consumer leaders into their hierarchical structures to improve their organisational offerings, their reputation, and their service innovation.
Emergence of hierarchy in cost driven growth of spatial networks
Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc
2013-01-01
One of the most important features of spatial networks such as transportation networks, power grids, Internet, neural networks, is the existence of a cost associated with the length of links. Such a cost has a profound influence on the global structure of these networks which usually display a hierarchical spatial organization. The link between local constraints and large-scale structure is however not elucidated and we introduce here a generic model for the growth of spatial networks based on the general concept of cost benefit analysis. This model depends essentially on one single scale and produces a family of networks which range from the star-graph to the minimum spanning tree and which are characterised by a continuously varying exponent. We show that spatial hierarchy emerges naturally, with structures composed of various hubs controlling geographically separated service areas, and appears as a large-scale consequence of local cost-benefit considerations. Our model thus provides the first building bloc...
Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.
Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C
2015-09-01
Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Multiple criteria inventory classification using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A systematic approach to the inventory control and classification may have a significant influence on company competitiveness. In practice, all inventories cannot be controlled with equal attention. In order to efficiently control the inventory items and to determine the suitable ordering policies for them, multi-criteria inventory classification is used. In this paper, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for multiple criteria ABC inventory classification has been proposed. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the relative weights of the attributes or criteria, and to classify inventories into different categories. To accredit the proposed model, it is implemented for the 351 raw materials of switch gear section of Energypac Engineering Limited (EEL, a large power engineering company of Bangladesh. In this approach, at first, related criteria have been selected (Unit price, last year consumption or annual demand, last use date, supplier, criticality, durability and the weights of these criteria was determined using Fuzzy AHP. Then a score to each item was assigned for each criterion as triangular fuzzy number and the final normalized weighted score of each item using fuzzy set theory is calculate. Finally, Chang’s extent analysis was used for the comparison of fuzzy numbers and the final scores are compared with each other. Then all items were classified into three classes according to their final score.
Cognitive hierarchy theory and two-person games
Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir
2016-01-01
The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian Beauty Contests and Entry Games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-players-two-actions games and establish an algorithm to find the players' strategies according to the Cognitive Hierarchy Approach. We show that the Snowdrift Game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: i) any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter -- its class, ii) they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off's space. Final...
Hierarchy in pentose sugar metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum.
Aristilde, Ludmilla; Lewis, Ian A; Park, Junyoung O; Rabinowitz, Joshua D
2015-02-01
Bacterial metabolism of polysaccharides from plant detritus into acids and solvents is an essential component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the underlying metabolic pathways can also contribute to improved production of biofuels. Using a metabolomics approach involving liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of mixtures of the cellulosic hexose sugar (glucose) and hemicellulosic pentose sugars (xylose and arabinose) in the anaerobic soil bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. Simultaneous feeding of stable isotope-labeled glucose and unlabeled xylose or arabinose revealed that,as expected, glucose was preferentially used as the carbon source. Assimilated pentose sugars accumulated in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) intermediates with minimal flux into glycolysis. Simultaneous feeding of xylose and arabinose revealed an unexpected hierarchy among the pentose sugars, with arabinose utilized preferentially over xylose. The phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) provides an alternative route of pentose catabolism in C. acetobutylicum that directly converts xylulose-5-phosphate into acetyl-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, bypassing most of the PPP. When feeding the mixture of pentose sugars, the labeling patterns of lower glycolytic intermediates indicated more flux through the PKP than through the PPP and upper glycolysis, and this was confirmed by quantitative flux modeling. Consistent with direct acetyl-phosphate production from the PKP, growth on the pentose mixture resulted in enhanced acetate excretion. Taken collectively, these findings reveal two hierarchies in clostridial pentose metabolism: xylose is subordinate to arabinose, and the PPP is used less than the PKP.
Global aspects of the renormalization group and the hierarchy problem
Patrascu, Andrei T.
2017-10-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations allowed us to precisely determine its mass being 125.09 ± 0.24 GeV. This value is intriguing as it lies at the frontier between the regions of stability and meta-stability of the standard model vacuum. It is known that the hierarchy problem can be interpreted in terms of the near criticality between the two phases. The coefficient of the Higgs bilinear in the scalar potential, m2, is pushed by quantum corrections away from zero, towards the extremes of the interval [ - MPl2, MPl2] where MPl is the Planck mass. In this article, I show that demanding topological invariance for the renormalisation group allows us to extend the beta functions such that the particular value of the Higgs mass parameter observed in our universe regains naturalness. In holographic terms, invariance to changes of topology in the bulk is dual to a natural large hierarchy in the boundary quantum field theory. The demand of invariance to topology changes in the bulk appears to be strongly tied to the invariance of string theory to T-duality in the presence of H-fluxes.
Towards a definition of the Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy: Kolmogorov and Bernoulli systems
Gomez, Ignacio; Castagnino, Mario
2014-01-01
In this paper we translate the two higher levels of the Ergodic Hierarchy [11], the Kolmogorov level and the Bernoulli level, to quantum language. Moreover, this paper can be considered as the second part of [3]. As in [3], we consider the formalism where the states are positive functionals on the algebra of observables and we use the properties of the Wigner transform [12]. We illustrate the physical relevance of the Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy with two emblematic examples of the literature: the Casati-Prosen model [13,14] and the kicked rotator [6-8].
A Little Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem: A Vector-like Generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, Peter W.; Ismail, Ahmed; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /MIT, LNS /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Saraswat, Prashant; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2012-04-06
We present a simple solution to the little hierarchy problem in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: a vectorlike fourth generation. With O(1) Yukawa couplings for the new quarks, the Higgs mass can naturally be above 114 GeV. Unlike a chiral fourth generation, a vectorlike generation can solve the little hierarchy problem while remaining consistent with precision electroweak and direct production constraints, and maintaining the success of the grand unified framework. The new quarks are predicted to lie between 300-600 GeV and will thus be discovered or ruled out at the LHC. This scenario suggests exploration of several novel collider signatures.
Research on Marketing Channel of Mobile Manufacturer Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG Hui; LI Shi-ming; LAN Yong
2006-01-01
Research on "marketing channel" of mobile attracts much attention in these years,but there're only few articles referring to how to optimize the disposition of channel resources for mobile manufacturers. Based on a typically multiplex marketing channel system of mobile manufacturer, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) structure model is established. Through the judgment matrix, simple and total hierarchy arrangement, consistent test, this paper gets the weight of each kind of marketing channel of mobile manufacturer. It provides the practical reference value for mobile manufacturers to distribute resources of marketing channels.
Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies
Phillips, Jonathan D.
2016-08-01
Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α < 1 and usually ≤ 0.6. However, algebraic connectivity decreases at a more rapid rate. Thus, the ability to infer one part of the hierarchical network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.
White Paper: Measuring the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy
Cahn, R N; Freedman, S J; Haxton, W C; Kadel, R W; Kolomensky, Yu G; Luk, K B; McDonald, P; Gann, G D Orebi; Poon, A W P
2013-01-01
This white paper is a condensation of a report by a committee appointed jointly by the Nuclear Science and Physics Divisions at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goal of this study was to identify the most promising technique(s) for resolving the neutrino mass hierarchy. For the most part, we have relied on calculations and simulations presented by the proponents of the various experiments. We have included evaluations of the opportunities and challenges for these experiments based on what is available already in the literature.
Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy
Grabowski, Janusz; de Lucas, Javier
Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.
Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy
Grabowski, Janusz
2012-01-01
Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.
Cascade Hierarchy in SUSY SU(5) GUT
Kojima, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryo
2010-01-01
We study cascade hierarchy in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. The neutrino Dirac mass matrix of the cascade form can lead to the tri-bimaximal generation mixing at the leading order in the seesaw mechanism while the down quark mass matrix of a hybrid cascade form naturally gives the CKM structure. We embed such experimentally favored mass textures into supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, which gives a relation between the down quark and charged lepton mass matrices. Related phenomenologies, such as lepton flavor violating processes and leptogenesis, are also investigated in addition to lepton mixing angles.
Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra ～Vs are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).
Supplier Selection in Dynamic Environment using Analytic Hierarchy Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prince Agarwal
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive business environment, the rapidly changing customer demands and with the advent of enterprise wide information systems, the managers are bound to think beyond the conventional business processes and devise new ways to squeeze out costs and improve the performance without compromising on the quality at the same time. Supplier evaluation and selection is one such area which determines the success of any manufacturing firm. Supplier selection is the problem wherein the company decides which vendor to select to have that strategic and operational advantage of meeting the customers’ varying demands and fight the fierce competition. This paper presents a simple model based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision makers in supplier evaluation and selection, taking into account the firm’s requirements. The article is intended to help new scholars and researchers understand the AHP model and see different facets in first sight.
Technology Staff-Development and Support Programs: Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Bailey, Gerald D.; Pownell, David
1998-01-01
Presents Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs (physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization) as a model for developing technology training and support for teachers, identifies basic technology-related needs that must be met before higher levels of technology integration can be achieved, and offers seven implications to help…
Hierarchy vs. Democracy: Two Strategies for the Management of Knowledge in Pohnpei.
Falgout, Suzanne
1992-01-01
Compares theories of knowledge and strategies for cultural transmission in Pohnpei (Micronesia) and U.S. models of education. Extensive interviews and observations demonstrate the awareness of the people of Pohnpei of the potential of U.S. education to transform their traditional chiefdom hierarchy and the content and nature of traditional…
CCS with Replication in the Chomsky Hierarchy: The Expressive Power of Divergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens; Aranda, Jesus A.; Di Giusto, Cinzia;
2007-01-01
! of models of computability strictly less expressive than Turing Machines. Namely, grammars of Types 1 (Context Sensitive Languages), 2 (Context Free Languages) and 3 (Regular Languages) in the Chomsky Hierarchy. We provide faithful encodings of Type 3 grammars. We show that it is impossible to provide...
New DLW Hierarchy of an Integrable Coupling and Its Harniltonian Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Chang; LIN Mai-Mai
2011-01-01
A type of higher-dimensional loop algebra is constructed from which an isospectral problem is established.It follows that an integrable coupling, actually an extended integrable model of the existed solitary hierarchy of equations,is obtained by taking use of the zero curvature equation, whose Hamiltonian structure is worked out by employing the constructed quadratic identity.
The Hierarchy Consistency Index: Evaluating Person Fit for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment
Cui, Ying; Leighton, Jacqueline P.
2009-01-01
In this article, we introduce a person-fit statistic called the hierarchy consistency index (HCI) to help detect misfitting item response vectors for tests developed and analyzed based on a cognitive model. The HCI ranges from -1.0 to 1.0, with values close to -1.0 indicating that students respond unexpectedly or differently from the responses…
Technology Staff-Development and Support Programs: Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Bailey, Gerald D.; Pownell, David
1998-01-01
Presents Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs (physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization) as a model for developing technology training and support for teachers, identifies basic technology-related needs that must be met before higher levels of technology integration can be achieved, and offers seven implications to help…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Frøkiær, Jørgen
].The purpose of this animal study is to investigate the organ hierarchy of brain, liver, kidney and muscle at normal and low blood flows by using dynamic positron tomography (PET-CT) during CPB. Methods CPB at different blood flows will be investigated in an experimental model of six 70 kg pigs...
The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias
2015-01-01
With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...
Hamiltonian and Godunov Structures of the Grad Hierarchy
Grmela, Miroslav; Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy; Pavelka, Michal
2016-01-01
The time evolution governed by the Boltzmann kinetic equation is compatible with mechanics and thermodynamics. The former compatibility is mathematically expressed in the Hamiltonian and Godunov structures, the latter in the structure of gradient dynamics guaranteeing the growth of entropy and consequently the approach to equilibrium. We carry all three structures to the Grad reformulation of the Boltzmann equation (to the Grad hierarchy). First, we recognize the structures in the infinite Grad hierarchy and then in several examples of finite hierarchies representing extended hydrodynamic equations. In the context of Grad's hierarchies we also investigate relations between Hamiltonian and Godunov structures.
The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias;
2015-01-01
and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...
OPTIMAL HIERARCHY STRUCTURES FOR MULTI-ATTRIBUTE-CRITERIA DECISIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Stan LIPOVETSKY
2009-01-01
A problem of a hierarchy structure optimization is considered. Hierarchical structures are widely used in the Analytic Hierarchy Process, conjoint analysis, and various other methods of multiple criteria decision making. The problem consists in finding a structure that needs a minimum number of pair comparisons for a given total number of the alternatives. For an optimal hierarchy, the minimum efforts are needed for eliciting data and synthesizing the local References across the hierarchy to get the global priorities or utilities. Special estimation techniques are developed and numerical simulations performed. Analytical and numerical results suggest optimal ways of priority evaluations for practical managerial decisions in a complex environment.
Correlating Dimensions of Inheritance Hierarchy with Complexity & Reuse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasib S. Gill
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Inheritance is the vital feature of any object oriented software which provides reuse of exiting classes for designing new classes. Higher reuse provides higher productivity and greater quality.Inheritance hierarchy is one of the very important artifacts targeted for measurement of reuse and reusability. Reuse through inheritance hierarchy can be measured from two dimensions- Depth and Breadth. Higher depth and breadth may increase complexity of software which makes the software difficult to understand and maintain. This paper aimed to correlate the depth and breadth of inheritance hierarchy with reuse and complexity of inheritance hierarchy using design oriented metrics.
When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?
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Andrés Perea
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.
An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)
2011-01-17
In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.
The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filipović Milanka
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .
Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.
White, Michael G; Cody, Patrick A; Bubser, Michael; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Mathur, Brian N
2017-04-15
The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A
2017-09-17
People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘响林; 陈庆辉; 张保才
2003-01-01
The new coupled MKdV hierarchy is obtained. By using gauge transformation,the corns trained flow, the integrable system and Lax representation for the coupled MKdVhierarchy were first corstructed from the AKNS hierarchy and then using the Laxrepresentation, the r-matrix for the constrained flow of the coupled MKdV hierarchy wasconstructed. The second set of conserved integrals of this constrained flow and theirinvolutivity were also given.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique
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Anke Iman Bouzenita
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s model of the hierarchy of needs is pervasive in many academic specialisations. After a short description of the model, this article summarises the existing criticisms. While criticism on the empirical validity of the model and its ethno-centricity are frequently mentioned in the literature, the authors of this article give special focus on the missing consideration of the spiritual aspect of human existence in Maslow’s model. The study explores reasons for the commodification of the model (i.e. the divorcing of the model from its substance and using it simply as a commodity and the non-consideration of Maslow’s later changes. Special focus is laid on the usage of this model in marketing, given its position as a field which embodies the capitalist perspective so completely through, particularly, advertising but also through the conceptualisation of people. The article describes the model’s diverse reception in Muslim academic circles. It offers an Islamic critique of both its foundations and its usage. The study concludes that attempts at harmonising the model with the higher objectives (maqāṣid of the Sharī‘ah do not do justice to either model.
Average Exceptional Lie Group Hierarchy and High Energy Physics
El Naschie, M S
2008-01-01
Starting from an invariant total dimension for an exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy, we drive all the essential characteristic and coupling constants of the fundamental interactions of physics. It is shown in a most simplistic fashion that all physical fields are various transfinite scaling transformation and topological deformation of each other. An extended standard model on the other hand turned out to be a compact sub group H of a version of E7 exceptional Lie group E7(−5) with dimH =69. Thus particle physics, electromagnetism as well as gravity and the bulk are all representable via modular spaces akin to the famous compactified version of F. Klein’s modular curve.
Selection of Fuel by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asilata M. Damle,
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Selection of fuel is a very important and critical decision one has to make. Various criteria are to be considered while selecting a fuel. Some of important criteria are Fuel Economy, Availability of fuel, Pollution from vehicle, Maintenance of the vehicle. Selection of best fuel is a complex situation. It needs a multi-criteria analysis. Earlier, the solution to the problem were found by applying classical numerical methods which took into account only technical and economic merits of the various alternatives. By applying multi-criteria tools, it is possible to obtain more realistic results. This paper gives a systematic analysis for selection of fuel by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. This is a multi-criteria decision making process. By using AHP we can select the fuel by comparing various factors in a mathematical model. This is a scientific method to find out the best fuel by making pairwise comparisons.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡春生; 蒋永穆
2011-01-01
大量研究表明,资源富集区产业转型困境与这些地区相对落后的科技、人力资本等方面的发展有关.基于此,本文通过一个"发展序"的分析框架进一步系统解释了资源富集区在这些方面的发展相对落后的原因.发展序定义为:政府总是在先重视什么、其次又重视什么的发展问题上做着选择,选择结果依次排列,就构成了发展序.据此理解,本文利用2008年数据,通过省级层面的地区分类比较,结果显示有利于产业转型的一些关键领域的发展之所以在资源富集区表现得相对落后,根本原因还在于其相对较低的生产力发展水平以及脆弱的财政能力.当前,为促进资源富集区的产业转型,应使他们的发展序向更有利于建立接续替代产业的方向变异.为此,在目前的情况下可尝试从两方面突破:一是集中关注教科,提升人力资本;二是规范政府的决策、行政和服务行为,营造良好政治环境,提升区域竞争力.%It has become aware in China that it is essential to promoting and realizing industrial transformation and eliminating the dependence on resources in resource-rich areas as much as possible. However, it is the relatively undeveloped technology, education, and human capital in resource-rich areas that have led to an unexpected result. This study made an attempt to explain the reasons why the resource-rich areas are undeveloped in these aspects by a development hierarchy.A development hierarchy can be defined as: the government is always choosing what can be benefited from first, followed by the secondary one; these choices form a development hierarchy.Based on the definition, we focused on humans and considering that the priority of the government is to satisfy people' s demands. Therefore, governmental affairs can be generally divided into five layers in order of decreasing importance, i.e., human's basic subsistence, human's basic security,human' s integrated
Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying
Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina
2014-01-01
The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (d
The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them
Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.
2010-01-01
A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…
THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS OF THE LCZ HIERARCHY BY NONLINEARIZATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Lu
2000-01-01
In this paper, we first search for the Hamiltonian structure of LCZ hierarchy by use of a trace identity. Then we determine a higher-order constraint condition between the potentials and the eigenfunctions of the LCZ spectral problem, and under this constraint condition, the Lax pairs of LCZ hierarchy are all nonlinearized into the finite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian systems in Liouville sense.
Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antje Krumnack
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term optimal hierarchy. In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.
Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input
Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando
1993-01-01
A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.
Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim;
2009-01-01
Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...
A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.
White, Charles M.
Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…
The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.
Arimoto, Akira
The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…
A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.
Clay, Rex J.
A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…
A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.
White, Charles M.
Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…
A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.
Clay, Rex J.
A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…
Integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources
2006-01-01
An integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources (dKdVHWS) is derived. Lax pair equations and bi-Hamiltonian formulation for dKdVHWS are formulated. Hodograph solution for the dispersionless KdV equation with sources (dKdVWS) is obtained via hodograph transformation. Furthermore, the dispersionless Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy with sources (dGDHWS) is presented.
Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy
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Xiuzhi Xing
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.
Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Memon, Nasrullah
to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...
Approximation Limits of Linear Programs (Beyond Hierarchies)
Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian; Steurer, David
2012-01-01
We develop a framework for approximation limits of polynomial-size linear programs from lower bounds on the nonnegative ranks of suitably defined matrices. This framework yields unconditional impossibility results that are applicable to any linear program as opposed to only programs generated by hierarchies. Using our framework, we prove that O(n^{1/2-eps})-approximations for CLIQUE require linear programs of size 2^{n^\\Omega(eps)}. (This lower bound applies to linear programs using a certain encoding of CLIQUE as a linear optimization problem.) Moreover, we establish a similar result for approximations of semidefinite programs by linear programs. Our main ingredient is a quantitative improvement of Razborov's rectangle corruption lemma for the high error regime, which gives strong lower bounds on the nonnegative rank of certain perturbations of the unique disjointness matrix.
Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior
Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W
2016-01-01
Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.
Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies
Sheinman, Oleg K
2009-01-01
We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct the hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by Lax equations and prove that those are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example we derive elliptic $A_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$ Calogero-Moser systems in frame of our approach.
Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheinman, Oleg K [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-02-28
This paper considers the theory of Lax equations with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface, proposed by Krichever in 2001. The approach here is based on new objects, the Lax operator algebras, taking into consideration an arbitrary complex simple or reductive classical Lie algebra. For every Lax operator, regarded as a map sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyurin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra, a hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by the Lax equations is constructed, and it is proved that they are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example, elliptic A{sub n}, C{sub n}, and D{sub n} Calogero-Moser systems are derived in the framework of our approach. Bibliography: 13 titles.
A new wavefunction hierarchy for interacting geminals
Limacher, Peter A.
2016-11-01
A new truncation scheme for non-orthogonal antisymmetrized products of interacting geminals (APIG) is introduced based on antisymmetrized products of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG). This wavefunction hierarchy of interacting geminals (IG) allows us to gradually increase the accuracy at which the ground state of a seniority-zero Hamiltonian can be estimated, ranging from APSG up to approximation-free APIG. Mathematical expressions for the lowest four orders (IG0, IG1, IG2, and IG3) are given explicitly and the computational cost to evaluate their transition density matrix is verified to scale only cubically with system size. Exemplary numerical calculations indicate that already a very early truncation level leads to results virtually identical to APIG.
Detecting the Neutrinos Mass Hierarchy from Cosmological Data
Xu, Lixin
2016-01-01
We propose a new parameterization to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy, namely $\\Delta=(m_3-m_1)/(m_1+m_3)$ which is dimensionless and varies in the range $[-1,1]$. Taking into account the results of neutrino oscillation experiments, $\\Delta$ is the unique parameter for determining all the masses of neutrinos, and a positive (negative) sign of $\\Delta$ denotes the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. Adopting the currently available cosmic observations, we find that the normal mass hierarchy is slightly favored, and the mass of lightest neutrino is less than $0.030$ eV for the normal mass hierarchy and $0.024$ eV for the inverted mass hierarchy at $95\\%$ confidence level.
The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias
2015-01-01
With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...
Topological Gravity, the Hierarchy Problem and Axion Physics
Almeida, C A S; Almeida, Carlos Alberto Santos; Tahim, Makarius Oliveira
2004-01-01
In the last years higher dimensional physics has won importance. Despite the Superstrings, higher dimensional effects, in measurable scales of energy (some TeV), became only possible with Randall-Sundrum's models (RS). In particular, recent studies in neutrino and axion physics have proposed new and interesting questions about neutrino mixings and new scales intermediating the Weak and Planck scales. In this work we discuss field theoretic models that in some aspects are similar to the RS models. Indeed, our models contain domain walls, solitonic-like objects that mimics the branes of the RS models. Applications are discussed ranging from topological field theories in higher dimensions until models containing D=5 space-time torsion in the RS scenario. In particular, we talk about subjects related to topological gravity, the hierarchy problem and axion physics. The topological terms studied are generalizations for $D>4$ of the axion-foton coupling in D=4. Such procedure involves naturally the Kalb-Ramond field...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈彦光
2001-01-01
A three-parameter Zipf's model,P(N)=C(N-α)-dz,is deduced out from the well-known Beckmann's model on city hierarchies, Pm=RKSm-1/(1-K)m,where C=P1［S/(S-1)］dz, α=1/(1-S), and dz=1-ln(1-K)/lnS. On the other hand,a formula on level of urbanization based on the Beckmann model, Z=KS/(K+S-1), implies that, S, the number of satellite towns around a city, ‘decreases’ along with the increase of urbanization level of a region, Z, for ( Z/ S)＜0. This paper makes a conclusion as follows: The ‘stairs’ of city-size hierarchies deriving from the central place theory will inevitably transform into the rank-size distribution with fractal nature because of urbanizational dynamics.%从基于中心地体系的Beckmann城镇等级-规模模型Pm=RKSm-1/(1-K)m出发，通过序列的对称性分析，导出三参数Zipf模型P(N)=C(N-α)-dz，证明了参数dz的分维性质(dz=1/D)以及Beckmann模型与Davis二倍数规律的等价性，进而借助基于Beckmann模型的城镇化水平公式Z=KS/(K+S-1)的单调增减性规律论证：中心地的“等级阶梯”必将向Zipf式位序-规模分布自然演化.
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René
2013-01-01
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene
2013-01-01
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…
A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermions from a stochastic mean-field approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacroix, Denis; Tanimura, Yusuke [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France); Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological University, Physics Department, Cookeville, TN (United States); Yilmaz, Bulent [Ankara University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)
2016-04-15
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-,.., N -body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for short time evolution. In that case, it gives information on the evolution time-scale close to a saddle point associated to a quantum phase-transition. For long time evolution and strong coupling, we observed that the simplified BBGKY hierarchy cannot be truncated and only the full SMF with initial sampling leads to reasonable results. (orig.)
Motivational Need Hierarchy of Employees in Public and Private Commercial Banks
Md. Hasebur Rahman; Sheikh M. Nurullah
2014-01-01
This study presents a theoretical-empirical reflection about concepts, models, and practices of Maslow’s Model of Need-Hierarchy in public and private commercial banks in Bangladesh. The empirical part of this study, comprising 130 samples, has been collected through a structured questionnaire. The study reveals that employees of commercial banks have high use of lower level needs and moderate use of upper level needs. The study also reveals employees of private commercial banks have a sligh...
Emergent Intentionality in Perception-Action Subsumption Hierarchies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Windridge
2017-08-01
Full Text Available A cognitively autonomous artificial agent may be defined as one able to modify both its external world-model and the framework by which it represents the world, requiring two simultaneous optimization objectives. This presents deep epistemological issues centered on the question of how a framework for representation (as opposed to the entities it represents may be objectively validated. In this article, formalizing previous work in this field, it is argued that subsumptive perception-action learning has the capacity to resolve these issues by (a building the perceptual hierarchy from the bottom up so as to ground all proposed representations and (b maintaining a bijective coupling between proposed percepts and projected action possibilities to ensure empirical falsifiability of these grounded representations. In doing so, we will show that such subsumptive perception-action learners intrinsically incorporate a model for how intentionality emerges from randomized exploratory activity in the form of “motor babbling.” Moreover, such a model of intentionality also naturally translates into a model for human–computer interfacing that makes minimal assumptions as to cognitive states.
Quasi-periodic Solutions to the K(-2, -2) Hierarchy
Wu, Lihua; Geng, Xianguo
2016-07-01
With the help of the characteristic polynomial of Lax matrix for the K(-2, -2) hierarchy, we define a hyperelliptic curve 𝒦n+1 of arithmetic genus n+1. By introducing the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function, the K(-2, -2) hierarchy is decomposed into Dubrovin-type differential equations. Based on the theory of hyperelliptic curve, the explicit Riemann theta function representation of meromorphic function is given, and from which the quasi-periodic solutions to the K(-2, -2) hierarchy are obtained.
The $n$-component KP hierarchy and representation theory
Kac, V G
1993-01-01
Starting from free charged fermions we give equivalent definitions of the $n\\/$-component KP hierarchy, in terms of $\\tau\\/$-functions $\\tau_\\alpha\\/$ (where $\\alpha \\in M =\\/$ root lattice of $sl_n\\/$), in terms of $n \\times n\\/$ matrix valued wave functions $W_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$, and in terms of pseudodifferential wave operators $P_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$. These imply the deformation and the zero curvature equations. We show that the 2-component KP hierarchy contains the Davey-Stewartson system and the $n\\geq3\\/$ component KP hierarchy continues the $n\\/$-wave interaction equations. This allows us to construct theis solutions.
How transportation hierarchy shapes human mobility
Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro; Barthelemy, Marc
2015-01-01
The recent availability of data allowing to monitor the position of individuals triggered a wealth of quantitative studies on human mobility. In particular, it is now believed that displacements can be described by a L\\'evy type of walk, characterized by many small movements and some rare long jumps. We show here that this view is not correct and that effective movements in urban and inter-urban areas are much simpler. We use a database containing the trajectories of $780,000$ private vehicles in Italy and an open dataset describing the temporal characteristics of the entire public transportation system in Great Britain. We observe that trips for both private and public transportation are on average accelerated as a consequence of the multilayer hierarchy of transportation infrastructures. In other terms, the speed depends on the duration of the trip, with larger speed for longer trips. This sole ingredient leads, starting from the observed exponential distribution of travel-times and velocities, to a distrib...
6D RG Flows and Nilpotent Hierarchies
Heckman, Jonathan J; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2016-01-01
With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of "conformal matter," a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent U...
Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano I. Di Domenico
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.
Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-01-01
We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P4. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton {\\tau} and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential ...
6D RG flows and nilpotent hierarchies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heckman, Jonathan J. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina,Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University,New York, NY 10027 (United States); CUNY Graduate Center, Initiative for the Theoretical Sciences,New York, NY 10016 (United States); Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy)
2016-07-15
With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of “conformal matter,” a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent UV theory.
Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu Dongyong
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth G Wloch
Full Text Available Difficulties performing a range of physical tasks of daily living have been shown to develop in older populations in a typically observed sequence, known as the hierarchy of loss. Nearly all previous research has been undertaken using populations aged over 75. This study aimed to use cross-sectional and longitudinal data to test for evidence of the hierarchy of loss from midlife onwards.The prevalence of reported difficulty undertaking 16 physical tasks in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development at age 60-64 were calculated, with Mokken scaling used to confirm the hierarchical order. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios of reporting difficulty performing tasks at the bottom of the hierarchy (i.e. feeding, washing and/or toileting at age 60-64 by reported difficulty at the top of the hierarchy (i.e. gripping, walking and/or stair climbing at age 43.At age 60-64, tasks associated with balance, strength and co-ordination, such as climbing stairs, were the first tasks participants reported difficulty with and tasks associated with upper limb mobility, such as feeding yourself, were the last. In a fully-adjusted model, participants who reported difficulty at the top of the hierarchy at age 43 were 2.85 (95% CI: 1.45-5.60 times more likely to report difficulty with tasks at the bottom of the hierarchy at age 60-64.This study presents evidence of the hierarchy of loss in a younger population than previously observed suggesting that targeted interventions to prevent functional decline should not be delayed until old age.
Wloch, Elizabeth G; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel
2016-01-01
Difficulties performing a range of physical tasks of daily living have been shown to develop in older populations in a typically observed sequence, known as the hierarchy of loss. Nearly all previous research has been undertaken using populations aged over 75. This study aimed to use cross-sectional and longitudinal data to test for evidence of the hierarchy of loss from midlife onwards. The prevalence of reported difficulty undertaking 16 physical tasks in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development at age 60-64 were calculated, with Mokken scaling used to confirm the hierarchical order. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios of reporting difficulty performing tasks at the bottom of the hierarchy (i.e. feeding, washing and/or toileting) at age 60-64 by reported difficulty at the top of the hierarchy (i.e. gripping, walking and/or stair climbing) at age 43. At age 60-64, tasks associated with balance, strength and co-ordination, such as climbing stairs, were the first tasks participants reported difficulty with and tasks associated with upper limb mobility, such as feeding yourself, were the last. In a fully-adjusted model, participants who reported difficulty at the top of the hierarchy at age 43 were 2.85 (95% CI: 1.45-5.60) times more likely to report difficulty with tasks at the bottom of the hierarchy at age 60-64. This study presents evidence of the hierarchy of loss in a younger population than previously observed suggesting that targeted interventions to prevent functional decline should not be delayed until old age.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fajun Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We generate complex integrable couplings from zero curvature equations associated with matrix spectral problems in this paper. A direct application to the WKI spectral problem leads to a novel soliton equation hierarchy of integrable coupling system; then we consider the Hamiltonian structure of the integrable coupling system. We select the U¯, V¯ and generate the nonlinear composite parts, which generate new extended WKI integrable couplings. It is also indicated that the method of block matrix is an efficient and straightforward way to construct the integrable coupling system.
Hüther, Otto; Krücken, Georg
2013-01-01
For more than 20 years, new public management (NPM) has been the guiding governance model of university reforms in Europe. One central aspect of this governance model is to strengthen the hierarchy within the universities. Recent research shows that the formal decision-making authority of university leaders and deans has increased in almost every…
Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun
2015-01-01
It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns.
Hüther, Otto; Krücken, Georg
2013-01-01
For more than 20 years, new public management (NPM) has been the guiding governance model of university reforms in Europe. One central aspect of this governance model is to strengthen the hierarchy within the universities. Recent research shows that the formal decision-making authority of university leaders and deans has increased in almost every…
Cocchi, Luca; Sale, Martin V; L Gollo, Leonardo; Bell, Peter T; Nguyen, Vinh T; Zalesky, Andrew; Breakspear, Michael; Mattingley, Jason B
2016-09-06
Within the primate visual system, areas at lower levels of the cortical hierarchy process basic visual features, whereas those at higher levels, such as the frontal eye fields (FEF), are thought to modulate sensory processes via feedback connections. Despite these functional exchanges during perception, there is little shared activity between early and late visual regions at rest. How interactions emerge between regions encompassing distinct levels of the visual hierarchy remains unknown. Here we combined neuroimaging, non-invasive cortical stimulation and computational modelling to characterize changes in functional interactions across widespread neural networks before and after local inhibition of primary visual cortex or FEF. We found that stimulation of early visual cortex selectively increased feedforward interactions with FEF and extrastriate visual areas, whereas identical stimulation of the FEF decreased feedback interactions with early visual areas. Computational modelling suggests that these opposing effects reflect a fast-slow timescale hierarchy from sensory to association areas.
A structure-based software reliability allocation using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process
Chatterjee, Subhashis; Singh, Jeetendra B.; Roy, Arunava
2015-02-01
During the design phase of a software, it is often required to evaluate the reliability of the software system. At this stage of development, one crucial question arises 'how to achieve a target reliability of the software?' Reliability allocation methods can be used to set reliability goals for individual components. In this paper, a software reliability allocation model has been proposed incorporating the user view point about various functions of a software. Proposed reliability allocation method attempts to answer the question 'how reliable should the system components be?' The proposed model will be useful for determining the reliability goal at the planning and design phase of a software project, hence making reliability a singular measure for performance evaluation. Proposed model requires a systematic formulation of user requirements and preference into the technical design and reliability of the software. To accomplish this task, a system hierarchy has been established, which combines the user's view of the system with that of the software manager and the programmer. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) has been used to derive the required model parameters from the hierarchy. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out in this paper. Finally, an example has been given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.
A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila.
Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H
2014-08-19
Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences.
Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain
Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.
2007-01-01
Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312
Spatial hierarchy and emerging typologies inside world city network
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ilya Chubarov
2015-01-01
...). Based upon the results of media- popular ‘global city rankings’ produced by several international think tanks, our calculation allowed to reveal global urban hierarchy and identify several subnetworks inside of world cities...
Neutrino mass hierarchy determination at reactor antineutrino experiments
Yang, Guang
2015-01-01
After the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ has been precisely measured by the reactor antineutrino experiments, one of the most important open questions left in neutrino physics is the neutrino mass hierarchy. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) without exploring the matter effect. The JUNO site location is optimized to have the best sensitivity for the mass hierarchy determination. JUNO will employ a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector located in a laboratory 700 meters underground. The excellent energy resolution and PMT coverage will give us an unprecedented opportunity to reach a 3-4 $\\sigma$ precision. In this paper, the JUNO detector design and simulation work will be presented. Also, RENO-50, another medium distance reactor antineutrino experiment, will do a similar measurement. With the efforts of these experiments, it is very likely that the neutrino mass hierarchy will be determined in the next 10 years.
INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS OF THE TB HIERARCHY AND ITS HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In this paper,we obtain integrable couplings of the TB hierarchy using the new subalgebra of the loop algebra A_3.Then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity.
Bidifferential Calculus Approach to AKNS Hierarchies and Their Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aristophanes Dimakis
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We express AKNS hierarchies, admitting reductions to matrix NLS and matrix mKdV hierarchies, in terms of a bidifferential graded algebra. Application of a universal result in this framework quickly generates an infinite family of exact solutions, including e.g. the matrix solitons in the focusing NLS case. Exploiting a general Miura transformation, we recover the generalized Heisenberg magnet hierarchy and establish a corresponding solution formula for it. Simply by exchanging the roles of the two derivations of the bidifferential graded algebra, we recover ''negative flows'', leading to an extension of the respective hierarchy. In this way we also meet a matrix and vector version of the short pulse equation and also the sine-Gordon equation. For these equations corresponding solution formulas are also derived. In all these cases the solutions are parametrized in terms of matrix data that have to satisfy a certain Sylvester equation.
Know Your Place: Neural Processing of Social Hierarchy in Humans
Zink, Caroline F.; Tong, Yunxia; Chen, Qiang; Bassett, Danielle S.; Stein, Jason L.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
2008-01-01
Summary Social hierarchies guide behavior in many species, including humans, where status also has an enormous impact on motivation and health. However, little is known about the underlying neural representation of social hierarchies in humans. In the present study, we identify dissociable neural responses to perceived social rank using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an interactive simulated social context. In both stable and unstable social hierarchies, viewing a superior individual differentially engaged perceptual-attentional, saliency, and cognitive systems, notably dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In the unstable hierarchy setting, additional regions were recruited related to emotional processing (amygdala), social cognition (medial prefrontal cortex), and behavioral readiness. Furthermore, social hierarchical consequences of performance were neurally dissociable and of comparable salience to monetary reward, providing a neural basis for the high motivational value of status. Our results identify neural mechanisms that may mediate the enormous influence of social status on human behavior and health. PMID:18439411
Self-organizing social hierarchies in a timid society
Odagaki, Takashi; Tsujiguchi, Masaru
2006-07-01
Emergence of hierarchies is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in a timid society where all individuals are pacifist. The self-organization of hierarchies is shown to occur in two steps as the population is increased, i.e. there are three states, one egalitarian and two hierarchical states; the transition from the egalitarian to the first hierarchical state is continuous and the transition from the first hierarchical state to the second one is discontinuous. In the first hierarchical society, all individuals belong to either middle class or losers and no winners appear. In the second hierarchical society, many winners emerge and the population of the middle class is reduced. The hierarchy in the second hierarchical society is stronger than the hierarchy in a no-preference society studied by Bonabeau et al. [Physica A 217 (1995) 373].
Optimality Conditions and Finite Convergence of Lasserre's Hierarchy
Nie, Jiawang
2012-01-01
Lasserre's hierarchy is a sequence of semidefinite relaxations for solving polynomial optimization problems globally. This paper studies the relationship between optimality conditions in nonlinear programming theory and finite convergence of Lasserre's hierarchy. Our main results are: i) Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence when the constraint qualification, strict complementarity and second order sufficiency conditions hold at every global minimizer, under the standard archimedean assumption; ii) these optimality conditions are all satisfied at every local minimizer if a finite set of polynomials, which are in the coefficients of input polynomials, do not vanish at the input data (i.e., they hold in a Zariski open set). This implies that Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence generically.
The multicomponent KP hierarchy: differential Fay identities and Lax equations
Teo, Lee Peng
2011-06-01
In this paper, we show that four sets of differential Fay identities of an N-component KP hierarchy derived from the bilinear relation satisfied by the tau function of the hierarchy are sufficient to derive the auxiliary linear equations for the wavefunctions. From this, we derive the Lax representation for the N-component KP hierarchy, which are equations satisfied by some pseudo-differential operators with matrix coefficients. Besides the Lax equations with respect to the time variables proposed in Date et al (1981 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 3806-12), we also obtain a set of equations relating different charge sectors, which can be considered as a generalization of the modified KP hierarchy proposed in Takebe (2002 Lett. Math. Phys. 59 157-72).
Improving the hierarchy sensitivity of ICAL using neural network
Ajmi, Ali; Dev, Abhish; Nizam, Mohammad; Nayak, Nitish; Sankar, S. Uma
2017-09-01
Atmospheric neutrino experiments can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for any value of δCP . The Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory can distinguish between the charged current interactions of νμ and {\\overline ν _π } by determining the charge of the produced muon. Hence it is particularly well suited to determine the hierarchy. The hierarchy signature is more prominent in neutrinos with energy of a few GeV and with pathlength of a few thousand kilometers, i.e. neutrinos whose direction is not close to horizontal. We use adaptive neural networks to identify such events with good efficiency and good purity. The hierarchy sensitivity, calculated from these selected events, is above 3σ level.
Super-Affine Hierarchies and their Poisson Embeddings
Toppan, F
1998-01-01
The link between (super)-affine Lie algebras as Poisson brackets structures and integrable hierarchies provides both a classification and a tool for obtaining superintegrable hierarchies. The lack of a fully systematic procedure for constructing matrix-type Lax operators, which makes the supersymmetric case essentially different from the bosonic counterpart, is overcome via the notion of Poisson embeddings (P.E.), i.e. Poisson mappings relating affine structures to conformal structures (in their simplest version P.E. coincide with the Sugawara construction). A full class of hierarchies can be recovered by using uniquely Lie-algebraic notions. The group-algebraic properties implicit in the super-affine picture allow a systematic derivation of reduced hierarchies by imposing either coset conditions or hamiltonian constraints (or possibly both).
Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.
Marsh, Edward
1978-01-01
Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)
Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.
Marsh, Edward
1978-01-01
Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)
Integrable Coupling of KN Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Fu-Kui; ZHANG Yu-Feng
2006-01-01
The Hamiltonian structure of the integrable couplings obtained by our method has not been solved. In this paper, the Hamiltonian structure of the KN hierarchy is obtained by making use of the quadratic-form identity.
Quantifier hierarchies over the first-Order definable tree languages
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈云付
1996-01-01
Using Boolean operations and concatenation product w.r.t special trees,quantifier hierarchies are given by way of alternate existential and universal quantifiers for the first-order definable tree languages.
Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au porphyry in ... process (Fuzzy AHP) that is the most popular multi-criteria decision-making techniques. ... for predictive Mineral prospectively mapping (MPM) for Cu -Au porphyry.
Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods
Von Schwerin, Erik
2016-01-08
I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.
On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks
Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V.; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos
2013-01-01
Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological, and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that nonadaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace, using in silico evolved networks. PMID:23898177
Hierarchy in complex systems: the possible and the actual
Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Solé, Ricard V; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos
2013-01-01
Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that non-adaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace using {\\em in silico} evolved networks.
Trust hierarchy trees applied in team management and data access
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Danilescu
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Controlling access to data and information within organizations is an important concerntoday and also our aim. This paper is based on the concept of trust, which allows access control andcontrol of actions that can be applied to data and information indocuments held in computer systems.Methods we have used are: defining trust hierarchies applied to team members, data and actions.Results we have obtained are trust policies based on trust hierarchies.
An Improved Semidefinite Programming Hierarchy for Testing Entanglement
Harrow, Aram W.; Natarajan, Anand; Wu, Xiaodi
2017-06-01
We present a stronger version of the Doherty-Parrilo-Spedalieri (DPS) hierarchy of approximations for the set of separable states. Unlike DPS, our hierarchy converges exactly at a finite number of rounds for any fixed input dimension. This yields an algorithm for separability testing that is singly exponential in dimension and polylogarithmic in accuracy. Our analysis makes use of tools from algebraic geometry, but our algorithm is elementary and differs from DPS only by one simple additional collection of constraints.
Centrally extended W$_{1+\\infty}$ and the KP hierarchy
Martínez-Moras, F; Martinez-Moras, Fernando; Mas, Javier
1994-01-01
It is well known that the centerless \\W_{1+\\infty} algebra provides a hamiltonian structure for the KP hierarchy. In this letter we address the question whether the centerfull version plays a similar r\\^ole in any related integrable system. We find that, surprisingly enough the centrally extended W_{1+\\infty} algebra yields another Poisson structure for the same standard KP hierarchy. This is proven by explicit construction of the infinitely many new hamiltonians in closed form.
Hamiltonian Structures for the Generalized Dispersionless KdV Hierarchy
Brunelli, J. C.
1996-01-01
We study from a Hamiltonian point of view the generalized dispersionless KdV hierarchy of equations. From the so called dispersionless Lax representation of these equations we obtain three compatible Hamiltonian structures. The second and third Hamiltonian structures are calculated directly from the r-matrix approach. Since the third structure is not related recursively with the first two ones the generalized dispersionless KdV hierarchy can be characterized as a truly tri-Hamiltonian system.
Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: cloud, fog and dew computing
Skala, Karolj; Davidović, Davor; Afgan, Enis; Sović, Ivan; Šojat, Zorislav
2015-01-01
The paper considers the conceptual approach for organization of the vertical hierarchical links between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is described and recognized as a new structural layer in the existing distributed computing hierarchy. In the existing computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is positioned as the ground level for the Cloud and Fog computing paradigms. Vertical, complementary, hier...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Qi-yu; LI Hui-qiang
2008-01-01
The index system, code system, and weights of indexes are established to assess the effects of green construction. The index system consists of index level, factor level and sub-factor level. The analytic hierarchy process is used to determine the weights of indexes, and the consistency test indicate that the weight assignment is reasonable. Using fuzzy synthetic judgment method, the assessment model is built, which includes factor set, weight set and conclusion set. An example is given to demonstrate the assessment procedures.
Static multiresolution grids with inline hierarchy information for cosmic ray propagation
Müller, Gero
2016-08-01
For numerical simulations of cosmic-ray propagation fast access to static magnetic field data is required. We present a data structure for multiresolution vector grids which is optimized for fast access, low overhead and shared memory use. The hierarchy information is encoded into the grid itself, reducing the memory overhead. Benchmarks show that in certain scenarios the differences in deflections introduced by sampling the magnetic field model can be significantly reduced when using the multiresolution approach.
Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-10-01
We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P^4 . We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ɛ and η are smaller than one. The value of ɛ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.
Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bizet, Nana Cabo [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and NITheP, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Zavala, Ivonne [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)
2016-10-17
We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in ℙ{sup 4}. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.66.106006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)119. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ϵ and η are smaller than one. The value of ϵ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.
The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the Guo hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Huan-He; Zhang Ning
2006-01-01
The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the multi-component Guo hierarchy, integrable coupling of Guo hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional Guo hierarchy are obtained by the quadraticform identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies.
Are we 'Nazi Germans' or 'Lazy Greeks'? Negotiating International Hierarchies in the Euro Crisis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca
2016-01-01
This chapter argues that to understand international hierarchies, we need to examine not only the type of hierarchy, but also processes of internalization of – and resistance to – hierarchies. We will then discover that many hierarchies are not simply imposed from above, but that subordinate acto...
Life, hierarchy, and the thermodynamic machinery of planet Earth.
Kleidon, Axel
2010-12-01
substantial amounts of chemical free energy which essentially skips the limitations and inefficiencies associated with the transfer of power within the thermodynamic hierarchy of the planet. This perspective allows us to view life as being the means to transform many aspects of planet Earth to states even further away from thermodynamic equilibrium than is possible by purely abiotic means. In this perspective pockets of low-entropy life emerge from the overall trend of the Earth system to increase the entropy of the universe at the fastest possible rate. The implications of the theory are discussed regarding fundamental deficiencies in Earth system modeling, applications of the theory to reconstructions of Earth system history, and regarding the role of human activity for the future of the planet.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korzen, Iørn
2015-01-01
This paper presents and discusses a description of topicality and text pragmatic prominence of nominal discourse referents based on four hierarchies. These hierarchies concern the referent with respect to (a) its identifiability (± identifiable), (b) its referentiality (e.g. deictic, specific...... incorporation of the NP designating the referent, (2) the linguistic material of anaphors linked to the NP, and (3) various phenomena linked to the possible clefting of the NP. The paper also demonstrates that the proposed model and taxonomy is very well suited as tertium comparationis in a cross-linguistic...... approach, not least in typological comparisons between for instance Romance and Germanic languages. The correlations described are viewed cross-linguistically with evidence from Italian, Danish, and English....
Truncated correlation hierarchy schemes for driven-dissipative multimode quantum systems
Casteels, Wim; Boité, Alexandre Le; Storme, Florent; Ciuti, Cristiano
2016-01-01
We present a method to describe driven-dissipative multi-mode systems by considering a truncated hierarchy of equations for the correlation functions. We consider two hierarchy truncation schemes with a global cutoff on the correlation order, which is the sum of the exponents of the operators involved in the correlation functions: a 'hard' cutoff corresponding to an expansion around the vacuum, which applies to a regime where the number of excitations per site is small; a 'soft' cutoff which corresponds to an expansion around coherent states, which can be applied for large excitation numbers per site. This approach is applied to describe the bunching-antibunching transition in the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model for photonic systems. The results have been successfully benchmarked by comparison with calculations based on the corner-space renormalization method in 1D and 2D systems. The regime of validity and strengths of the present truncation methods are critically discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Studying optimization and decision for opening electromagnetic loop networks plays an important role in planning and operation of power grids. First, the basic principle of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is introduced, and then an improved FAHP-based scheme evaluation method is proposed for decoupling electromagnetic loop networks based on a set of indicators reflecting the performance of the candidate schemes. The proposed method combines the advantages of analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. On the one hand, AHP effectively combines qualitative and quantitative analysis to ensure the rationality of the evaluation model; on the other hand, the judgment matrix and qualitative indicators are expressed with trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to make decision-making more realistic. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the application results on the real power system of Liaoning province of China.
What does the N-point function hierarchy of the cosmological matter density field really measure ?
Carron, Julien
2015-01-01
The cosmological dark matter field is not completely described by its hierarchy of $N$-point functions, a non-perturbative effect with the consequence that only part of the theory can be probed with the hierarchy. We give here an exact characterization of the joint information of the full set of $N$-point correlators of the lognormal field. The lognormal field is the archetypal example of a field where this effect occurs, and, at the same time, one of the few tractable and insightful available models to specify fully the statistical properties of the evolved matter density field beyond the perturbative regime. Nonlinear growth in the Universe in that model is set letting the log-density field probability density functional evolve keeping its Gaussian shape, according to the diffusion equation in Euclidean space. We show that the hierarchy probes a different evolution equation, the diffusion equation defined not in Euclidean space but on the compact torus, with uniformity as the long-term solution. The extract...
Trophic hierarchies illuminated via amino acid isotopic analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shawn A Steffan
Full Text Available Food web ecologists have long sought to characterize the trophic niches of animals using stable isotopic analysis. However, distilling trophic position from isotopic composition has been difficult, largely because of the variability associated with trophic discrimination factors (inter-trophic isotopic fractionation and routing. We circumvented much of this variability using compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA. We examined the (15N signatures of amino acids extracted from organisms reared in pure culture at four discrete trophic levels, across two model communities. We calculated the degree of enrichment at each trophic level and found there was a consistent trophic discrimination factor (~7.6‰. The constancy of the CSIA-derived discrimination factor permitted unprecedented accuracy in the measurement of animal trophic position. Conversely, trophic position estimates generated via bulk-(15N analysis significantly underestimated trophic position, particularly among higher-order consumers. We then examined the trophic hierarchy of a free-roaming arthropod community, revealing the highest trophic position (5.07 and longest food chain ever reported using CSIA. High accuracy in trophic position estimation brings trophic function into sharper focus, providing greater resolution to the analysis of food webs.
Relaxation oscillations and hierarchy of feedbacks in MAPK signaling
Kochańczyk, Marek; Kocieniewski, Paweł; Kozłowska, Emilia; Jaruszewicz-Błońska, Joanna; Sparta, Breanne; Pargett, Michael; Albeck, John G.; Hlavacek, William S.; Lipniacki, Tomasz
2017-01-01
We formulated a computational model for a MAPK signaling cascade downstream of the EGF receptor to investigate how interlinked positive and negative feedback loops process EGF signals into ERK pulses of constant amplitude but dose-dependent duration and frequency. A positive feedback loop involving RAS and SOS, which leads to bistability and allows for switch-like responses to inputs, is nested within a negative feedback loop that encompasses RAS and RAF, MEK, and ERK that inhibits SOS via phosphorylation. This negative feedback, operating on a longer time scale, changes switch-like behavior into oscillations having a period of 1 hour or longer. Two auxiliary negative feedback loops, from ERK to MEK and RAF, placed downstream of the positive feedback, shape the temporal ERK activity profile but are dispensable for oscillations. Thus, the positive feedback introduces a hierarchy among negative feedback loops, such that the effect of a negative feedback depends on its position with respect to the positive feedback loop. Furthermore, a combination of the fast positive feedback involving slow-diffusing membrane components with slower negative feedbacks involving faster diffusing cytoplasmic components leads to local excitation/global inhibition dynamics, which allows the MAPK cascade to transmit paracrine EGF signals into spatially non-uniform ERK activity pulses.