WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling heavy metal

  1. Modeling Heavy Metal Removal in Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    1976 a,b,c) and Pettersson (1976) treated heavy metals uptake according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics ( Lehninger , 1975), discussed later in detail...copper kinetics equation as used in this modeling effort is presented below, after Lehninger (1975): dv_ dV, Ca (5) dt dt C.+K, where: v = rate of copper...the bulk solution, Cb, using either the Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal or Eadie-Hofstee graphical methods ( Lehninger , 1975). Nielsen (1976 b) used

  2. Modeling of Heavy Metal Transformation in Soil Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, Kira; Nikovskaya, Galina N.

    2017-04-01

    The intensification of industrial activity leads to an increase in heavy metals pollution of soils. In our opinion, sludge from biological treatment of municipal waste water, stabilized under aerobic-anaerobic conditions (commonly known as biosolid), may be considered as concentrate of natural soil. In their chemical, physical and chemical and biological properties these systems are similar gel-like nanocomposites. These contain microorganisms, humic substances, clay, clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds, and so on involved into heteropolysaccharides matrix. It is known that microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of different nature substances in soil and its health maintenance. The regularities of transformation of heavy metal compounds in soil ecosystem were studied at the model of biosolid. At biosolid swelling its structure changing (gel-sol transition, weakening of coagulation contacts between metal containing nanoparticles, microbial cells and metabolites, loosening and even destroying of the nanocomposite structure) can occur [1, 2]. The promotion of the sludge heterotrophic microbial activities leads to solubilization of heavy metal compounds in the system. The microbiological process can be realized in alcaligeneous or acidogeneous regimes in dependence on the type of carbon source and followed by the synthesis of metabolites with the properties of flocculants and heavy metals extragents [3]. In this case the heavy metals solubilization (bioleaching) in the form of nanoparticles of hydroxycarbonate complexes or water soluble complexes with oxycarbonic acids is observed. Under the action of biosolid microorganisms the heavy metals-oxycarbonic acids complexes can be transformed (catabolised) into nano-sizing heavy metals- hydroxycarbonates complexes. These ecologically friendly complexes and microbial heteropolysaccharides are able to interact with soil colloids, stay in the top soil profile, and improve soil structure due

  3. Modelling heavy metal and phosphorus balances for farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, A.N.; Schulin, R.

    2003-01-01

    Accounting for agricultural activities such as P fertilization in regional models of heavy metal accumulation provides suitable sustainable management strategies to reduce nutrient surpluses and metal inputs in agricultural soils. Using the balance model PROTERRA-S, we assessed the phosphorus ( P),

  4. ' HEAVY METALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish. ... The outcome effect 15 impairment of carbohydrate metabolism, which caused fish ..... of pesticides, heavy metal, detergent and petroleum.

  5. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal so

  6. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste : modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of mun

  7. Stockhome: A Spreadsheet Model of Urban Heavy Metal Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedbrant, J. [Linkoeping University, Department of Water and Environmental Studies (Sweden)], E-mail: johhe@ikp.liu.se

    2001-05-15

    Computer models for analysis,visualising and decision support in environmental research have become increasingly popular. The Stockhome project, where the urban metabolism of heavy metals in Stockholm was studied, resulted in a database with historical data of the use of goods containing cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr),copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni)and zinc (Zn). A spreadsheet model was developed to study flows and stocks of the metal consumption process and emissions. The model indicates uncertainties of the data, societal aspects such as field of use and rights of disposition of the goods. By considering goods as the drivers of the emissions, the model would be well suited for policy support.

  8. Modeling Heavy Metal Sorption Kinetics Using Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Friesen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are commonly regarded as environmentally aggressive and hazardous to human health. Among the different metals, lead plays an important economic role due to its large use in the automotive industry, being an essential component of batteries. Different approaches have been reported in the literature aimed at lead removal, and among them a very successful one considers the use of water hyacinths for sorption-based operation. The modeling of the metal sorption kinetics is a fundamental step towards in-depth studies and proper separation equipment design and optimization. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, which is based on the successful use of derivatives of arbitrary order. This paper reports the modeling of the kinetics of lead sorption by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes using a fractional calculus. A general procedure on error analysis is also employed to prove the actual fractional nature of the proposed model by the use of parametric variance analysis, which was carried out using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix. The joint parameter confidence regions were generated, allowing to successfully show the fractional nature of the model and the sorption process.

  9. Heavy metal pollution model of tailings and the pollution simulation by visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song; WU Chao; YANG Fu-qiang; BAO Rui-xue

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of whole mining process in metal mines,it was pointed out that the investigation of the heavy metal pollution of railings should be taken as an important project for a metal mine.Combined with the anlysis of the characteristics of tailings,it is found that the transformation of the heavy metal dissolution process,the heavy metal ions migration with groundwater and the heavy metal transport in porous media are three key aspects.Accordingly,the models of heavy metal pollution were established with providing boundary conditions.Depending upon a case of Tonglushan Copper Mine tailings and its relevant area from Google maps',a three-dimensional grid view of the tailings was set up.By application of Fluent software,the contaminated process of the heavy metal pollutants in the tailings was shown through digital visualization pattern.

  10. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  11. Heavy metals intake by cultured mushrooms growing in model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2013-10-01

    Micro element and heavy metal contents of mushrooms were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was seen an increase in the heavy metal contents (except Cu and Zn) of the mushrooms until the second dose. A decrease was seen in heavy metal intake of the mushroom in the application of the third dose. The highest accumulation occurred from the upper soils treated with the second dose. Amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, which were accumulated in the mushroom after the application of this dose, were detected as 5.7, 23.1, 75.7, 62.8 and 99.3 ppm, respectively.

  12. NUMERICAL MODELING OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTANT TRANSPORT-TRANSFORMATION IN FLUVIAL RIVERS:A REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. L. HUANG; Z. H. WAN; P. SMITH

    2007-01-01

    A detailed discussion of existing three kinds of mathematical models of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation in fluvial rivers is presented, with an emphasis on the mathematical model of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics. The imperfection of two kinds of mathematical models, that is, mathematical model of chemical thermodynamic equilibrium and that of chemical reaction kinetics, and the shortcoming of existing mathematical models of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics are pointed out. Furthermore, the structure of mathematical model of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics in fluvial rivers is suggested. Equations in the mathematical model of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics in fluvial rivers will be discussed in the following paper.

  13. Constitutive modelling of a tungsten heavy metal alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, P.

    2003-09-01

    The dynamic mechanical behaviour of a tungsten heavy metal alloy (WHA) with potential use as a kinetic energy penetrator is investigated. Mechanical properties related to tensile loading are measured at strain rates up to 400 s^{-1} and at temperatures from 20 ^{circ}C to about 500 ^{circ}C. From the experimental data parameters for the constitutive equations developed by Johnson and Cook (J&C) as well as Zerilli and Armstrong (Z&A) are determined. From the extracted models isothermal and adiabatic flow stress curves are calculated and compared to experiments. At high strain rates or high temperatures the J&C model deviates about 5-10% from experimental results, while the Z&A model shows a better agreement with the collected data. It should be emphasised that the Z&A model used in this work is developed for materials with body centred crystals whereas the WHA is a composite with both face centredand body centred crystals.

  14. Interpretation of heavy metal speciation in sequential extraction using geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Yanshan; Weng, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Environmental context Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide environmental concern, and the risk depends not only on their total concentration, but also on their chemical speciation. Based on state-of-the-art geochemical modelling, we pinpoint the heavy metal pools approached by the widely used seq

  15. Mechanism Analysis and Propagation Model of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Topsoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-wei Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to further research on the polluting condition and spreading features of heavy metals in urban surface soil, this study makes statistical analysis on indexes of 8 heavy metal concentrations. Then Are GIS geo-statistical analyst was used for Kriging interpolation of each kind of heavy metal concentration before figuring out the spatial distribution. Firstly, heavy metal contamination was analyzed by single-element pollution evaluation and multi-element pollution evaluation, before rationality analysis. Then, correlation extents between heavy polluting metals were calculated in each region by rationality analysis, leading to the correlations between the heavy metals. Finally, based on propagating features of different heavy metals, propagation models in water and atmosphere were established. Additionally, according to heavy metal distribution map, distribution point of high concentration was searched. With the assumption of the number of pollution source, theoretical concentration of sample point could be figured out, after the superposition of pollution intensity using propagation model based on data of the distribution points. Thus, the optimization model was established for locating the pollution source by minimizing the difference between theoretical value and actual value.

  16. Equations and their physical interpretation in numerical modeling of heavy metals in fluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the previous work on the transport-transformation of heavy metal pollutants in fluvial rivers, this paper presented the formulation of a two-dimensional model to describe heavy metal transport-transformation in fluvial rivers by considering basic principles of environmental chemistry, hydraulics, mechanics of sediment transport and recent developments along with three very simplified test cases. The model consists of water flow governing equations, sediment transport governing equations, transport-transformation equation of heavy metal pollutants, and convection-diffusion equations of adsorption-desorption kinetics of particulate heavy metal concentrations on suspended load, bed load and bed sediment. The heavy metal transport-transformation equation is basically a mass balance equation, which demonstrates how sediment transport affects transport-transformation of heavy metals in fluvial rivers. The convection-diffusion equations of adsorption-desorption kinetics of heavy metals, being an extension of batch reactor experimental results and a major advancement of the previous work, take both physical transport, i.e. convection and diffusion and chemical reactions, i.e. adsorption-desorption into account. Effects of sediment transport on heavy metal transport-transformation were clarified through three examples. Specifically, the transport-transformation of heavy metals in a steady, uniform and equilibrium sediment-laden flow was calculated by applying this model, and results were shown to be rational. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation indicated that the transport-transformation of heavy metals in sediment-laden flows with clay-enriched riverbed possesses not only the generality of common tracer pollutants, but also characteristics of transport-transformation induced by sediment motion. Future work will be conducted to present validation/application of the model with available data.

  17. Modeling of sediment and heavy metal transport in Taihu Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; SHEN Chao; WANG Pei-fang; QIAN Jin; HOU Jun; LIU Jia-jia

    2013-01-01

    With the current rapid economic growth,heavy metal pollution has become one of the key issues in the Taihu Lake.Although heavy metal pollution levels and distributions of the Taihu Lake have previously been described,an effective model to describe the transport process of heavy metals between the water column and sediment bed for this lake is not available.It is known that heavy metals in the water column can be related to the resuspension of sediment in the lake bed.In this study,we set up a coupled model of relating hydrodynamics,sediment and heavy metals based on Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC),and applied it to Taihu Lake,China.For calibration and validation of the model,we employed two series of field sampling data taken all over Taihu Lake during April and July of 2009.The results show that the hydrodynamics simulations of the coupled model agree with the observations reasonably well and the sediment and heavy metal model shows similar variation trends during the simulation.Our results indicate that the model can be used for simulating the sediment and heavy metal transport process in the Taihu Lake and here we provide an effective tool for water quality management at small time scales.

  18. Modelling the extra and intracellular uptake and discharge of heavy metals in Fontinalis antipyretica transplanted along a heavy metal and pH contamination gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: bfjafe@usc.es; Vazquez, M.D. [Area de Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Lopez, J. [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Carballeira, A. [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    Samples of the aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were transplanted to different sites with the aim of characterizing the kinetics of the uptake and discharge of heavy metals in the extra and intracellular compartments. The accumulation of metals in extracellular compartments, characterized by an initial rapid accumulation, then a gradual slowing down over time, fitted perfectly to a Michaelis-Menten model. The discharge of metals from the same compartment followed an inverse linear model or an inverse Michaelis-Menten model, depending on the metal. In intracellular sites both uptake and discharge occurred more slowly and progressively, following a linear model. We also observed that the acidity of the environment greatly affected metal accumulation in extracellular sites, even when the metals were present at relatively high concentrations, whereas the uptake of metals within cells was much less affected by pH. - The kinetics of uptake and discharge of heavy metals, in different cellular locations, were studied in transplanted aquatic mosses.

  19. Thlaspi caerulescens, an attractive model species to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves Leite de Assunção, A.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Studying heavy metal hyperaccumulation is becoming more and more interesting for ecological, evolutionary, nutritional, and environmental reasons. One model species, especially in the era of high throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics technologies, would be very

  20. Empirical modeling of heavy metal extraction by EDDS from single-metal and multi-metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Theo C M; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ng, Kelvin T W; Lo, Irene M C

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of using biodegradable EDDS (S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) for metal extraction has drawn increasing attention in recent years. In this study, an empirical model, which utilized the initial metal distribution in soils and a set of parameter values independently determined from sequential extraction, was developed for estimating the time-dependent heavy metal extraction by EDDS from single-metal and multi-metal contaminated soils. The model simulation provided a satisfactory description of the experimental results of the 7-d extraction kinetics of Cu, Zn, and Pb in both artificially contaminated and field-contaminated soils. Thus, independent and prior assessment of extraction efficiency would be available to facilitate the engineering applications of EDDS. Furthermore, a simple empirical equation using the initial metal distribution was also proposed to estimate the extraction efficiency at equilibrium. It was found that, for the same type of soils, higher extraction efficiency was achieved in multi-metal contaminated soils than in single-metal contaminated soils. The differences were 4-9%, 9-16%, and 21-31% for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, probably due to the larger proportion of exchangeable and carbonate fractions of sorbed Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. EDDS-promoted mineral dissolution, on the other hand, was more significant in multi-metal contaminated soils as a result of the higher EDDS concentration applied to the soils of higher total metal content.

  1. Modeling phytoextraction of heavy metals at multiply contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdiloo, Habib

    2009-01-01

    Soils and waters contaminated with heavy metals pose a major environmental and human health problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Phytoextraction offers a reasonable technology which uses plants to extract the heavy metals from soils. However, the effectiveness of this new method needs to be demonstrated by means of mathematical modeling. The phytoextraction models also are needed to manage the contaminated soils. A thorough literature review indic...

  2. Model systems to unravel the molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in the ericoid mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghino, Stefania; Martino, Elena; Perotto, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    Ericoid mycorrhizal plants dominate in harsh environments where nutrient-poor, acidic soil conditions result in a higher availability of potentially toxic metals. Although metal-tolerant plant species and ecotypes are known in the Ericaceae, metal tolerance in these plants has been mainly attributed to their association with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms underlying plant protection by the fungal symbiont are poorly understood, whereas some insights have been achieved regarding the molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in the fungal symbiont. This review will briefly introduce the general features of heavy metal tolerance in mycorrhizal fungi and will then focus on the use of "omics" approaches and heterologous expression in model organisms to reveal the molecular bases of fungal response to heavy metals. Functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed the identification of several ericoid mycorrhizal fungi genes (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, metal transporters, and DNA damage repair proteins) that may contribute to metal tolerance in a metal-tolerant ericoid Oidiodendron maius isolate. Although a powerful system, the use of the yeast complementation assay to study metal tolerance in mycorrhizal symbioses has limitations. Thus, O. maius has been developed as a model system to study heavy metal tolerance mechanisms in mycorrhizal fungi, thanks to its high metal tolerance, easy handling and in vitro mycorrhization, stable genetic transformation, genomics, transcriptomic and proteomic resources.

  3. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  4. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazza, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, IDEPA (CONICET - UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procedes et Materiaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu Cedex (France); Soria, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, IDEPA (CONICET - UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Laboratoire Procedes et Materiaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  5. Heavy Metal Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  6. Spatially distributed modeling of sediment and associated heavy metal transport on regional and catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen; Käpermann, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Achievements of new legislations, as EU-Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), require great efforts in order to reduce the yields of sediment and sediment attached heavy metals of surface water bodies. In this regard planning authorities strongly need comparable assessments on regional scale, which enables predictions on the level of measures. The study aims to identify the main sediment delivery areas in the German federal state of Saxony (18400 km²) and to locate pass over points of sediment and associated heavy metals into surface waters. Applying the process based EROSION 3D simulation model spatially distributed (20 m grid cell) estimates of sediment and particle attached heavy metal inputs are realized on regional and catchment scale related to three land use scenarios and a 10years rainfall event. Concerning these calculations it has to be considered, that this substances are predominantly attached to the fine-grained soil particles. The selective nature of soil erosion causes a preferentially transport of this fine particles while less contaminated larger particles remain on site. Consequently heavy metals are enriched in the eroded sediment compared to the origin soil. Hence it is essential that EROSION 3D provides the particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand) of transported sediments. Regarding heavy metal input calculations from sediment inputs, heavy metal contents of particle size classes has to be known. For this purpose particle size separates of erosion susceptible soils are analyzed. Comprehensive heavy metal contents of origin top soils are interpolated via kriging using available monitoring data. The regional scaled simulations identify the Saxon loess belt as the main affected region of sediment inputs. Since particle attached heavy metal transport to surface waters is strongly related to sediment delivery, the streams of this region suffer from considerable inputs. Compared to empirical estimates, the results of this study suggest that

  7. Influence of heavy metals on the activity of oxidoreductases in soil (model experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Legostayeva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated action of industrial pollutants on biochemical activity of soils under condition of model experiment was determined. The influence of heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead, manganese on dehydrogenase activity was explored. The metals’ inhibition activity on the enzymatic activity was found. Zinc and copper are most toxic for dehydrogenase activity and manganese is the less toxic metal.

  8. Modelling the extra and intracellular uptake and discharge of heavy metals in Fontinalis antipyretica transplanted along a heavy metal and pH contamination gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J A; Vázquez, M D; López, J; Carballeira, A

    2006-01-01

    Samples of the aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were transplanted to different sites with the aim of characterizing the kinetics of the uptake and discharge of heavy metals in the extra and intracellular compartments. The accumulation of metals in extracellular compartments, characterized by an initial rapid accumulation, then a gradual slowing down over time, fitted perfectly to a Michaelis-Menten model. The discharge of metals from the same compartment followed an inverse linear model or an inverse Michaelis-Menten model, depending on the metal. In intracellular sites both uptake and discharge occurred more slowly and progressively, following a linear model. We also observed that the acidity of the environment greatly affected metal accumulation in extracellular sites, even when the metals were present at relatively high concentrations, whereas the uptake of metals within cells was much less affected by pH.

  9. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL. Part II: Leaching characteristics and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produced organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. Following a gross assessment of heavy metals in the community soils (see Part I of this two-part series), leaching tests were performed on specific soils to elucidate heavy metal-associated mineral fractions and general leachability. Leaching experiments, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TLCP) and column tests, and sequential extractions, illustrated the low leachability of metals in East St. Louis soils. The column leachate results were modeled using a formulation developed for fly ash leaching. The importance of instantaneous dissolution was evident from the model. By incorporating desorption/adsorption terms into the source term, the model was adapted very well to the time-dependent heavy metal leachate concentrations. The results demonstrate the utility of a simple model to describe heavy metal leaching from contaminated soils.

  10. Modeling of heavy metal salt solubility using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria in complex aqueous systems involving a heavy metal cation (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+) and one or more ions for which Extended UNIQUAC parameters have been published previously are modeled using the Extended UNIQUAC model. Model parameters are determined...... on the basis of a data bank with more than 4, 000 experimental data points for binary and ternary aqueous systems. The parameters are generally valid in the temperature range from the freezing point to the boiling point of the respective solutions....

  11. Modeling Adsorption Kinetics (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    My talk will focus on modeling the kinetics of the adsorption and filtering process using differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. The models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group which is conducting research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration through biomass such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant.

  12. A New Competitive Adsorption Isothermal Model of Heavy Metals in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Wen-Bo; YI Ai-Hua; ZHANG Zeng-Qiang; TANG Ci-Lai; ZHANG Xing-Chang; GAO Jin-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A new competitive adsorption isothermal model (CAIM) was developed for the coexistent and competitive binding of heavy metals to the soil surface.This model extended the earlier adsorption isothermal models by considering more than one kind of ion adsorption on the soil surface.It was compared with the Langmuir model using different conditions,and it was found that CAIM,which was suitable for competitive ion adsorption at the soil solid-liquid surface,had more advantages than the Langmuir model.The new competitive adsorption isothermal model was used to fit the data of heavy metal (Zn and Cd) competitive adsorption by a yellow soil at two temperatures.The results showed that CAIM was appropriate for the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on the soil surface at different temperatures.The fitted parameters of CAIM had explicit physical meaning.The model allowed for the calculation of the standard molar Gibbs free energy change,the standard molar enthalpy change,and the standard molar entropy change of the competitive adsorption of the heavy metals,Zn and Cd,by the yellow soil at two temperatures using the thermodynamic equilibrium constants.

  13. Appraisal of heavy metals in groundwater in Chennai city using a HPI model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajil Kumar, P J; Davis Delson, P; Thomas Babu, P

    2012-10-01

    Heavy metal contamination in Chennai city was evaluated using a heavy metal pollution index (HPI) model in conjunction with the spatial distribution maps. Metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the groundwater were determined using standard methods and the resultant data was utilized in the development of a HPI model. The metal concentrations showed a dominance in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd respectively. About 14.3 % of the samples (n = 2), exhibited high HPI (>38) and the highest value, HPI = 97.55, has been recorded from Thiruvanmiyur area. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between metals such as Cd and Cr (r = 0.606), Cd and Cu (r = 0.601), Cr and Cu (r = 0.464) and Pb and Zn (r = 0.416), suggested their common origin. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals and the HPI suggested that the SW region, especially Adyar and Thiruvanmiyur regions are highly contaminated with the metals. Industrialisation and improper waste dumping were identified as the major cause for the accumulation of metals in the groundwater of Chennai city.

  14. Mechanism Analysis and Propagation Model of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Topsoil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-wei Wang; Yuan-biao Zhang; Zi-yue Chen; Ke-jia Li; Jia-lin Hu; Yu-jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    In order to further research on the polluting condition and spreading features of heavy metals in urban surface soil, this study makes statistical analysis on indexes of 8 heavy metal concentrations. Then Are GIS geo-statistical analyst was used for Kriging interpolation of each kind of heavy metal concentration before figuring out the spatial distribution. Firstly, heavy metal contamination was analyzed by single-element pollution evaluation and multi-element pollution evaluation, before rat...

  15. The use of heavy metal top soil concentrations for the validation of overbank floodplain sedimentation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Olaf; Rode, Michael; Schulz, Marcus

    2010-05-01

    In floodplains of lowland rivers, the transport, sedimentation, and remobilization of fine sediments is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, it is often difficult to validate sediment transport models due to the lack of appropriate data. The objective of this study is to show that heavy metal concentrations in the top soil (upper 15 cm) of a highly polluted floodplain are related to the deposition of fine sediments and thus can be used to assess the plausibility of a two-dimensional (2D) hydraulic and sediment transport model. In a floodplain, heavy metals are bonded to fine sediments, and the deposition of heavy metals originates from a long history of floods. Heavy metal concentrations can be used as a time-integrated indicator of sedimentation, if during a defined period of heavy metal contamination the total deposition of fine sediments is less than a defined topsoil sampling depth. We provided evidence for this hypothesis studying a 45km²-floodplain of River Mulde (Germany). For the assessment of heavy metal top soil concentrations, 126 samples were available. Hydraulics, sedimentation patterns, and concentrations of particle-bonded pollutants were calculated with a 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model (TELEMAC 2D). The calibration of critical velocities of sedimentation and erosion of the model was based on sediment trap exposures during a flood event with a ten-year recurrence interval (Schulz et al. 2009). The calculated sedimentation of the calibrated model was subdivided into three classes: low sedimentation ( 1mm). Heavy metal concentrations of the floodplain soil were classified according to these simulated spatially distributed sedimentation classes. The analysis of the measured and modelled values clearly showed that the mean values of the classified concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) were increasing with increasing simulated sedimentation rates. Cd and Zn showed the clearest correlation between top

  16. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils: An experimental and modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.J.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the leaching of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) from eight contaminated soils over a wide range of pH (pH 0.4-12) using an original approach based on batch pH-static leaching experiments in combination with selective chemical extractions and geochemical modeling.

  17. A stochastic empirical model for heavy-metal balnces in Agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, A.N.; Steiger, von B.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Schulin, R.

    2001-01-01

    Mass flux balancing provides essential information for preventive strategies against heavy-metal accumulation in agricultural soils that may result from atmospheric deposition and application of fertilizers and pesticides. In this paper we present the empirical stochastic balance model, PROTERRA-S,

  18. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils: An experimental and modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.J.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the leaching of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) from eight contaminated soils over a wide range of pH (pH 0.4-12) using an original approach based on batch pH-static leaching experiments in combination with selective chemical extractions and geochemical modeling.

  19. Efficiently Evaluating Heavy Metal Urban Soil Pollution Using an Improved Entropy-Method-Based Topsis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Han, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Urban soil pollution is evaluated utilizing an efficient and simple algorithmic model referred to as the entropy method-based Topsis (EMBT) model. The model focuses on pollution source position to enhance the ability to analyze sources of pollution accurately. Initial application of EMBT to urban soil pollution analysis is actually implied. The pollution degree of sampling point can be efficiently calculated by the model with the pollution degree coefficient, which is efficiently attained by first utilizing the Topsis method to determine evaluation value and then by dividing the evaluation value of the sample point by background value. The Kriging interpolation method combines coordinates of sampling points with the corresponding coefficients and facilitates the formation of heavy metal distribution profile. A case study is completed with modeling results in accordance with actual heavy metal pollution, proving accuracy and practicality of the EMBT model.

  20. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils: an experimental and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Joris J; Meeussen, Johannes C L; Comans, Rob N J

    2004-08-15

    In this paper, we characterize the leaching of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) from eight contaminated soils over a wide range of pH (pH 0.4-12) using an original approach based on batch pH-static leaching experiments in combination with selective chemical extractions and geochemical modeling. The leached concentrations of the heavy metals are generally much lower than the total concentrations and show a strong pH dependency, resulting in "V-shaped" leaching curves with orders of magnitude changes in solution concentrations. The "multisurface" model used incorporates adsorption to dissolved and solid organic matter (NICA-Donnan), iron/aluminum (hydr)oxide (generalized two-layer model) and clay (Donnan model). These models were applied without modifications, and only the standard set of binding constants and parameters was used (i.e., without any fitting). The model predictions of heavy metal leaching are generally adequate and sometimes excellent. Results from speciation calculations are consistent with the well-recognized importance of organic matter as the dominant reactive solid phase in soils. The observed differences between soils with respect to element speciation in the solid phase correspond to the relative amounts of the reactive surfaces present in the soils. In the solution phase, complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM) are predominant over most of the pH range. Free metal ions (Me2+) are generally the dominant species below pH 4. The combination of the experimental and modeling approach as used in this study is shown to be promising because it leads to a more fundamental understanding of the pH-dependent leaching processes in soils. The "multisurface" modeling approach, with the selected sorption models, is shown to be able to adequately predict the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils over a wide range of conditions, without any fitting of parameters.

  1. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    i 2N E ihhhhh1112h MEmhhhhEEEohhhhE I.’....momo 111111111’-20 LA ’Ll2. AFWL-TR-86-37 AFWL-TR- 86-37 oT C ,l C ’-’ N HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 0nI...Secwrit CkasmfcationJ HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Reisfield, Renata; and Eyal, Mrek 13. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114...glasses containing about 50 mole% of ZrF4 [which can be replaced by HfF 4 or TIF 4 (Refs. 1-3) or heavy metal fluorides based on PbF2 and on 3d-group

  2. Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Mobility of Heavy Metals in Soil Contaminated With Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimoh ABDULFATAI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at developing a model equation that can predict the mobility of heavy metal in the soil contaminated with sewage sludge. The model equation was developed and represented by the expression below... The developed equation was then simulated using MathCAD 2000 professional software. The experimental and model results obtained from the simulation of the developed equation were compared numerically and graphically. It was observed that there are reasonable levels of agreement between the two results. The model revealed close fitting when compared with the experimental results. This is further substantiated through the result of the correlation coefficient analysis that was found to be unity for the experiment. Thus, the model developed can be considered as a good representation of the phenomenon of mobility of heavy metals in the soil.

  3. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  4. BIOACCUMULATION DYNAMICS OF HEAVY METALS IN Oreochromis nilotycus: PREDICTED THROUGH A BIOACCUMULATION MODEL CONSTRUCTED BASED ON BIOTIC LIGAND MODEL (BLM)

    OpenAIRE

    Noegrohati, Sri

    2010-01-01

    In estuarine ecosystem, sediments are not only functioning as heavy metal scavenger, but also as one of potential sources for heavy metals to the ecosystem. Due the capability of aquatic organisms to accumulate heavy metals, there is possibility of heavy metals to exert their toxic effect towards the organisms and other organisms positioned in higher trophic level, such as fish, and further to human beings. To understand the different processes of heavy metal bioaccumulation in a dynamic mann...

  5. Investigating heavy-metal hyperaccumulation using Thlaspi caerulescens as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Matthew J; Kochian, Leon V

    2008-07-01

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plant species are plants that are endemic to metalliferous soils and are able to tolerate and accumulate metals in their above-ground tissues to very high concentrations. One such hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, has been widely studied for its remarkable properties to tolerate toxic levels of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and sometimes nickel (Ni) in the soil, and accumulate these metals to very high levels in the shoot. The increased awareness regarding metal-hyperaccumulating plants by the plant biology community has helped spur interest in the possible use of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils, a process known as phytoremediation. Hence, there has been a focus on understanding the mechanisms that metal-hyperaccumulator plant species such as Thlaspi caerulescens employ to absorb, detoxify and store metals in order to use this information to develop plants better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this review, an overview of the findings from recent research aimed at better understanding the physiological mechanisms of Thlaspi caerulescens heavy-metal hyperaccumulation as well as the underlying molecular and genetic determinants for this trait will be discussed. Progress has been made in understanding some of the fundamental Zn and Cd transport physiology in T. caerulescens. Furthermore, some interesting metal-related genes have been identified and characterized in this plant species, and regulation of the expression of some of these genes may be important for hyperaccumulation. Thlaspi caerulescens is a fascinating and useful model system not only for studying metal hyperaccumulation, but also for better understanding micronutrient homeostasis and nutrition. Considerable future research is still needed to elucidate the molecular, genetic and physiological bases for the extreme metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation exhibited by plant species such as T. caerulescens.

  6. A particulate model of solid waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining combustion and heavy metal vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazza, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, UE Neuquen (CONICET - UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procedes Materiaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France)

    2009-11-15

    This study aims to develop a particulate model combining solid waste particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from burning particles during MSW incineration in a fluidized bed. The original approach for this model combines an asymptotic combustion model for the carbonaceous solid combustion and a shrinking core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization. A parametric study is presented. The global metal vaporization process is strongly influenced by temperature. Internal mass transfer controls the metal vaporization rate at low temperatures. At high temperatures, the chemical reactions associated with particle combustion control the metal vaporization rate. A comparison between the simulation results and experimental data obtained with a laboratory-scale fluid bed incinerator and Cd-spiked particles shows that the heavy metal vaporization is correctly predicted by the model. The predictions are better at higher temperatures because of the temperature gradient inside the particle. Future development of the model will take this into account. (author)

  7. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  8. Application of synthetic principal component analysis model to mine area farmland heavy metal pollution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-lu; WU Chao; WANG Wei-jun

    2008-01-01

    Referring to GB5618-1995 about heavy metal pollution, and using statistical analysis SPSS, the major pollutants of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution were identified by variable clustering analysis. Assessment and classification were done to the mine area farmland heavy metal pollution situation by synthetic principal components analysis (PCA). The results show that variable clustering analysis is efficient to identify the principal components of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution. Sort and clustering were done to the synthetic principal components scores of soil sample, which is given by synthetic principal components analysis. Data structure of soil heavy metal contaminations, relationships and pollution level of different soil samples are discovered. The results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution quality assessed and classified with synthetic component scores reflect the influence of both the major and compound heavy metal pol-lutants. Identification and assessment results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution can provide reference and guide to propose control measures of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution and focus on the key treatment region.

  9. Hard rock, heavy metal, metal

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Le terme générique metal désigne une multitude de genres et de sous-genres musicaux issus de l’appariement du hard rock et du heavy metal. Il résulte d’une agrégation sémantique consécutive de l’érosion et de l’interpénétration de ces termes au cours des années 1980. Leurs modèles canoniques, respectivement représentés par les groupes Led Zeppelin et Black Sabbath, se sont progressivement dilués sous l’effet d’une filiation particulièrement effervescente et féconde : black, thrash, doom, prog...

  10. Quantifying missing annual emission sources of heavy metals in the United Kingdom with an atmospheric transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dore, Anthony J., E-mail: todo@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom); Hallsworth, Stephen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom); McDonald, Alan G. [Scottish Environment Protection Agency (United Kingdom); Werner, Małgorzata; Kryza, Maciej [Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, University of Wrocław (Poland); Abbot, John [Ricardo-AEA, Didcot (United Kingdom); Nemitz, Eiko [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom); Dore, Christopher J. [Aether Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Malcolm, Heath; Vieno, Massimo; Reis, Stefan; Fowler, David [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    An atmospheric chemical transport model was adapted to simulate the concentration and deposition of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc) in the United Kingdom. The model showed that wet deposition was the most important process for the transfer of metals from the atmosphere to the land surface. The model achieved a good correlation with annually averaged measurements of metal concentrations in air. The correlation with measurements of wet deposition was less strong due to the complexity of the atmospheric processes involved in the washout of particulate matter which were not fully captured by the model. The measured wet deposition and air concentration of heavy metals were significantly underestimated by the model for all metals (except vanadium) by factors between 2 and 10. These results suggest major missing sources of annual heavy metal emissions which are currently not included in the official inventory. Primary emissions were able to account for only 9%, 21%, 29%, 21%, 36%, 7% and 23% of the measured concentrations for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. A likely additional contribution to atmospheric heavy metal concentrations is the wind driven re-suspension of surface dust still present in the environment from the legacy of much higher historic emissions. Inclusion of two independent estimates of emissions from re-suspension in the model was found to give an improved agreement with measurements. However, an accurate estimate of the magnitude of re-suspended emissions is restricted by the lack of measurements of metal concentrations in the re-suspended surface dust layer. - Highlights: • Concentrations and deposition of 9 heavy metals in the UK were simulated. • Modelled data were well correlated to measured concentrations and deposition. • The model greatly underestimated metal deposition and air concentrations. • Under-estimation was attributed to wind-driven re-suspension of surface dust.

  11. Genome assembly and annotation of Arabidopsis halleri, a model for heavy metal hyperaccumulation and evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskine, Roman V; Paape, Timothy; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Akama, Satoru; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2016-09-27

    The self-incompatible species Arabidopsis halleri is a close relative of the self-compatible model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The broad European and Asian distribution and heavy metal hyperaccumulation ability make A. halleri a useful model for ecological genomics studies. We used long-insert mate-pair libraries to improve the genome assembly of the A. halleri ssp. gemmifera Tada mine genotype (W302) collected from a site with high contamination by heavy metals in Japan. After five rounds of forced selfing, heterozygosity was reduced to 0.04%, which facilitated subsequent genome assembly. Our assembly now covers 196 Mb or 78% of the estimated genome size and achieved scaffold N50 length of 712 kb. To validate assembly and annotation, we used synteny of A. halleri Tada mine with a previously published high-quality reference assembly of a closely related species, Arabidopsis lyrata. Further validation of the assembly quality comes from synteny and phylogenetic analysis of the HEAVY METAL ATPASE4 (HMA4) and METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN1 (MTP1) regions using published sequences from European A. halleri for comparison. Three tandemly duplicated copies of HMA4, key gene involved in cadmium and zinc hyperaccumulation, were assembled on a single scaffold. The assembly will enhance the genomewide studies of A. halleri as well as the allopolyploid Arabidopsis kamchatica derived from A. lyrata and A. halleri. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  13. 重金属生物吸附的吸附模型%Adsorption models for heavy metal biosorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑成; 虞启明; 尹平和

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal biosorption is an effective process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions.Equilibrium isotherms obtained experimentally are usually correlated empirically with commonly used adsorption models, without considering the underlying mechanisms of biosorption.Commonly used models for correlating biosorption isotherm data are briefly reviewed and the use of the adsorption models in correlating the desorption processes is analysed.A set of biosorption/desorption experiments for a marine alga derived biosorbent are carried out to test the use of the adsorption models in the desorption process.Experimental data indicate that the amount of the heavy metal ions desorbed from the biomass could not be calculated with the adsorption models.This suggests that the empirical use of adsorption models in the correlation may not be valid when the reversibility of the biosorption equlibrium in the desorption process needs to be considered.Therefore, mechanism based biosorption models are needed for better correlation of equilibrium isotherm data.

  14. Level Decreasing Kinetics Model of Heavy Metal Contents in the Coal Stockpile Wastewater with Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdianasari Rusdianasari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is one of methods used to treat wastewater in the coal stockpile without using coagulants. Characteristics of wastewater observed are heavy metals (Fe and Mn and pH.  The decrease in the heavy metals content and the increase in the pH of this wastewater treatment process will then be proposed in the adsorption kinetics model. The influence of  variations in currents and processing time were observed. The time variation of the adsorption process were 60 to 120 minutes with current variations from 1.3 to 3.0 Ampere at a fixed 12 voltages. The results obtained that the Fe content could be decreased to 0.03 ppm at 90 minutes while the content of Mn was decreased to 0.01 ppm at the same time. The increase in pH (7.11 was achieved when applying 2.5 A current at 90 minutes process time. The results obtained from the electrocoagulation method was then proposed in the model of the Langmuir isotherm adsorption kinetics and Freundlich isotherm.

  15. Disorders of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  16. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  17. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  18. A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: materials, performances, chemistry, and modeling simulation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinsong; Chen, J Paul

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metals contamination has become a global issue of concern due to their higher toxicities, nature of non-biodegradability, high capabilities in bioaccumulation in human body and food chain, and carcinogenicities to humans. A series of researches demonstrate that biosorption is a promising technology for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Algae serve as good biosorbents due to their abundance in seawater and fresh water, cost-effectiveness, reusability and high metal sorption capacities. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent findings on performances, applications and chemistry of algae (e.g., brown, green and red algae, modified algae and the derivatives) for sequestration of heavy metals. Biosorption kinetics and equilibrium models are reviewed. The mechanisms for biosorption are presented. Biosorption is a complicated process involving ion-exchange, complexation and coordination. Finally the theoretical simulation tools for biosorption equilibrium and kinetics are presented so that the readers can use them for further studies.

  19. Novel kinetic model of the removal of divalent heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by natural clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Mina; Rajic, Nevenka; Obradovic, Bojana

    2012-09-30

    Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using zeolites is widely described by pseudo-second order kinetics although this model may not be valid under all conditions. In this work, we have extended approaches used for derivation of this model in order to develop a novel kinetic model that is related to the ion exchange mechanism underlying sorption of metal ions in zeolites. The novel model assumed two reversible steps, i.e. release of sodium ions from the zeolite lattice followed by bonding of the metal ion. The model was applied to experimental results of Cu(II) sorption by natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolitic tuff at different initial concentrations and temperatures and then validated by predictions of ion exchange kinetics of other divalent heavy metal ions (i.e. Mn(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)). Model predictions were in excellent agreements with experimental data for all investigated systems. In regard to the proposed mechanism, modeling results implied that the sodium ion release rate was constant for all investigated metals while the overall rate was mainly determined by the rate of heavy metal ion bonding to the lattice. In addition, prediction capabilities of the novel model were demonstrated requiring one experimentally determined parameter, only.

  20. Genome assembly and annotation ofArabidopsis halleri, a model for heavy metal hyperaccumulation and evolutionary ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Briskine, Roman V; Paape, Timothy; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Akama, Satoru; Sese, Jun; Kentaro K. Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    The self-incompatible species Arabidopsis halleri is a close relative of the self-compatible model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The broad European and Asian distribution and heavy metal hyperaccumulation ability makes A. halleri a useful model for ecological genomics studies.We used long-insert mate-pair libraries to improve the genome assembly of the A. halleri ssp.gemmifera Tada mine genotype (W302) collected from a site with high contamination by heavy metals in Japan. After five rounds of ...

  1. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  2. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF.

  3. Effects of three heavy metals on the bacteria growth kinetics. A bivariate model for toxicological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rial, Diego; Vazquez, Jose Antonio; Murado, Miguel Anxo [Instituto de Investigacions Marinas (CSIC), Vigo (ES). Grupo de Reciclado y Valorizacion de Materiales Residuales (REVAL)

    2011-05-15

    The effects of three heavy metals (Co, Ni and Cd) on the growth kinetics of five bacterial strains with different characteristics (Pseudomonas sp., Phaeobacter sp. strain 27-4, Listonella anguillarum, Carnobacterium piscicola and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. lysis) were studied in a batch system. A bivariate model, function of time and dose, is proposed to describe simultaneously all the kinetic profiles obtained by incubating a microorganism at increasing concentrations of individual metals. This model combines the logistic equation for describing growth, with a modification of the cumulative Weibull's function for describing the dose-dependent variations of growth parameters. The comprehensive model thus obtained - which minimizes the effects of the experimental error - was statistically significant in all the studied cases, and it raises doubts about toxicological evaluations that are based on a single growth parameter, especially if it is not obtained from a kinetic equation. In lactic acid bacteria cultures (C. piscicola and L. mesenteroides), Cd induced remarkable differences in yield and time course of characteristic metabolites. A global parameter is defined (ED{sub 50,{tau}}: dose of toxic chemical that reduces the biomass of a culture by 50% compared to that produced by the control at the time corresponding to its semi maximum biomass) that allows comparing toxic effects on growth kinetics using a single value. (orig.)

  4. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  5. Quantifying missing annual emission sources of heavy metals in the United Kingdom with an atmospheric transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Anthony J; Hallsworth, Stephen; McDonald, Alan G; Werner, Małgorzata; Kryza, Maciej; Abbot, John; Nemitz, Eiko; Dore, Christopher J; Malcolm, Heath; Vieno, Massimo; Reis, Stefan; Fowler, David

    2014-05-01

    An atmospheric chemical transport model was adapted to simulate the concentration and deposition of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc) in the United Kingdom. The model showed that wet deposition was the most important process for the transfer of metals from the atmosphere to the land surface. The model achieved a good correlation with annually averaged measurements of metal concentrations in air. The correlation with measurements of wet deposition was less strong due to the complexity of the atmospheric processes involved in the washout of particulate matter which were not fully captured by the model. The measured wet deposition and air concentration of heavy metals were significantly underestimated by the model for all metals (except vanadium) by factors between 2 and 10. These results suggest major missing sources of annual heavy metal emissions which are currently not included in the official inventory. Primary emissions were able to account for only 9%, 21%, 29%, 21%, 36%, 7% and 23% of the measured concentrations for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. A likely additional contribution to atmospheric heavy metal concentrations is the wind driven re-suspension of surface dust still present in the environment from the legacy of much higher historic emissions. Inclusion of two independent estimates of emissions from re-suspension in the model was found to give an improved agreement with measurements. However, an accurate estimate of the magnitude of re-suspended emissions is restricted by the lack of measurements of metal concentrations in the re-suspended surface dust layer.

  6. A Drosophila model for toxicogenomics: Genetic variation in susceptibility to heavy metal exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic factors that give rise to variation in susceptibility to environmental toxins remain largely unexplored. Studies on genetic variation in susceptibility to environmental toxins are challenging in human populations, due to the variety of clinical symptoms and difficulty in determining which symptoms causally result from toxic exposure; uncontrolled environments, often with exposure to multiple toxicants; and difficulty in relating phenotypic effect size to toxic dose, especially when symptoms become manifest with a substantial time lag. Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model that enables genome-wide studies for the identification of allelic variants that contribute to variation in susceptibility to environmental toxins, since the genetic background, environmental rearing conditions and toxic exposure can be precisely controlled. Here, we used extreme QTL mapping in an outbred population derived from the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel to identify alleles associated with resistance to lead and/or cadmium, two ubiquitous environmental toxins that present serious health risks. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with variation in resistance to both heavy metals as well as SNPs associated with resistance specific to each of them. The effects of these SNPs were largely sex-specific. We applied mutational and RNAi analyses to 33 candidate genes and functionally validated 28 of them. We constructed networks of candidate genes as blueprints for orthologous networks of human genes. The latter not only provided functional contexts for known human targets of heavy metal toxicity, but also implicated novel candidate susceptibility genes. These studies validate Drosophila as a translational toxicogenomics gene discovery system.

  7. Modeling and mapping of critical loads for heavy metals in Kunshan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; Shi, Yaxing; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-11-01

    The assessment of critical loads of metals in soil can be used as an important tool for evaluation and for risk precaution of future inputs of metal in order to avoid the occurrence of heavy metal pollution and its long-term risks for people. In this study, critical loads of Cd, Cu, and Pb in farming and non-farming areas of Kunshan were calculated based on three main effects. Two of these effects, limit value of daily metals dose and different environmental water quality criteria are new ways to calculate the critical content of heavy metals. The mean value of critical loads decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd when calculated using mass balance effects, child health risk effects, and adult health risk effects. Critical loads were highest in the areas near construction land, areas of low critical load were scattered throughout the city. The areal proportion of critical load exceedance is greatest for Pb based on mass balance effects, followed by Cu based on water quality effects, and Cd based on mass balance effects. Exceedances only occurred in 6% and 3% of farming areas for water quality effects for Cd and Pb when compared critical load values to the input fluxes in the Yangtze River delta. However, for these metals, values were up to 83% and 100%, respectively, based on mass balance effects. Exceedances completely covered non-farming areas for each effect for Pb. Most exceedances occurred in the north and south of the city in non-farming areas. Spatially explicit critical loads of heavy metals based on the different effects can serve as a reference for controlling the emissions of heavy metals effectively and meeting the demands of different management objectives.

  8. Model for the study of the impact of atmospheric heavy metals on soil microbial biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionni, M.; Benedetti, A. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy); Riccardi, C.; Villarini, M. [Istituto Superiore per la Sicurezza e la Prevenzione del Lavoro, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    In the Castelporziano (Rome) protected area the inputs of atmospheric heavy metals on the soil-plant system were evaluated by the analysis of stem-flowing water from Quercus ilex L. The heavy metals detected in the soil under the canopies exhibited higher concentrations near to the tree trunks, highlighting the tree's capacity to concentrate such polluting substances. Microbial biomass, its specific respiration and the biomass calculated as a percentage of total soil organic matter, were utilised as indicators of the state of the soil and consequently also its quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. [Italian] Nell'area protetta di Castelporziano (Roma) e' stato valutato l'apporto dei metalli pesanti di origine atmosferica al sistema suolo-pianta analizzando le acque dilavanti di alberi d'alto fusto (Quercus ilex L.). I metalli pesanti rilevati nel suolo sottochioma presentano una piu' alta concentrazione in prossimita' del fusto, evidenziando la capacita' dell'albero di concentrare tali inquinanti. La biomassa microbica, la sua respirazione specifica e la biomassa espressa come percentuale della sostanza organica totale del suolo, sono state utilizzate quali indicatori dello stato del suolo, quindi della sua qualita', rispetto alla contaminazione da metalli pesanti.

  9. A Simplified Model to Estimate the Concentration of Inorganic Ions and Heavy Metals in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemêncio Nhantumbo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model that uses only pH, alkalinity, and temperature to estimate the concentrations of major ions in rivers (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3−, SO42−, Cl−, and NO3− together with the equilibrium concentrations of minor ions and heavy metals (Fe3+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Pb2+, and Zn2+. Mining operations have been increasing, which has led to changes in the pollution loads to receiving water systems, meanwhile most developing countries cannot afford water quality monitoring. A possible solution is to implement less resource-demanding monitoring programs, supported by mathematical models that minimize the required sampling and analysis, while still being able to detect water quality changes, thereby allowing implementation of measures to protect the water resources. The present model was developed using existing theories for: (i carbonate equilibrium; (ii total alkalinity; (iii statistics of major ions; (iv solubility of minerals; and (v conductivity of salts in water. The model includes two options to estimate the concentrations of major ions: (1 a generalized method, which employs standard values from a world-wide data base; and (2 a customized method, which requires specific baseline data for the river of interest. The model was tested using data from four monitoring stations in Swedish rivers with satisfactory results.

  10. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The

  11. Assessment of relative bioavailability of heavy metals in soil using in vivo mouse model and its implication for risk assessment compared with bioaccessibility using in vitro assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Liang, Siyun; Li, Ning; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2016-10-01

    There is limited study to simultaneously determine the relative bioavailability of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr(VI), and Ni in soil samples. In the present study, the bioaccessibility of heavy metals using in vitro assay was compared with the relative bioavailability of heavy metals using in vivo mouse model. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals ranged from 9.05 ± 0.97 % (Cr) to 42.8 ± 3.52 % (Cd). The uptake profile of heavy metals in soil and solution samples in mouse revealed that the uptake kinetics could be fitted to a two-compartment model. The relative bioavailability of heavy meals ranged from 34.8 ± 7.0 % (Ni) to 131 ± 20.3 % (Cu). Poor correlation between bioaccessibility and relative bioavailability of heavy metals was observed (r (2) = 0.11, p > 0.05). The relative bioavailability of heavy metals was significantly higher than the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (p < 0.05). The present study indicated that the in vitro digestion method should be carefully employed in risk assessment.

  12. MINTEQ modeling for evaluating the leaching behavior of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; JIANG Jianguo; CHEN Maozhe

    2008-01-01

    At present, all kinds of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization technology has been reported and successfully applied in many countries. However, leaching procedures are very different that the technologies lack uniform standard, and it is even impossible to predict the long-term stabilization. Geochemical model can explain the environmental stabilization based on chemical phase and thermodynamic crystal structure, and it is also able to guide the development of environment-friendly stabilization technology and choosing of chemical agents. Both experiment analysis and geochemical modeling were used to study the correlation between leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash and variation of pH. Dissolution/precipitation mechanism was applied in the simulation. The result indicated that the pH-dependent leaching behavior predicted by Visual MINTEQ is well in agreement with the result of pH-dependent test. pH value of leachate can significantly change the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash. The leaching behavior of heavy metals for Pb and Cd is controlled by dissolution/precipitation mechanism, whereas for Zn and Ni, it is effected by surface adsorption reaction over a special extent of pH value.

  13. MINTEQ modeling for evaluating the leaching behavior of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Maozhe

    2008-01-01

    At present, all kinds of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization technology has been reported and successfully applied in many countries. However, leaching procedures are very different that the technologies lack uniform standard, and it is even impossible to predict the long-term stabilization. Geochemical model can explain the environmental stabilization based on chemical phase and thermodynamic crystal structure, and it is also able to guide the development of environment-friendly stabilization technology and choosing of chemical agents. Both experiment analysis and geochemical modeling were used to study the correlation between leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash and variation of pH. Dissolution/precipitation mechanism was applied in the simulation. The result indicated that the pH-dependent leaching behavior predicted by Visual MINTEQ is well in agreement with the result of pH-dependent test. pH value of leachate can significantly change the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash. The leaching behavior of heavy metals for Pb and Cd is controlled by dissolution/precipitation mechanism, whereas for Zn and Ni, it is effected by surface adsorption reaction over a special extent of pH value.

  14. Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, T.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected

  15. Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, T.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected

  16. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.

    1982-09-01

    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  17. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  18. Bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soils cannot be predicted by a single model in two adjacent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Fen; Wei, Chaoyang; Liang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a single model could be used to predict the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soils in two adjacent areas and to determine the feasibility of using existing data sets of total metal concentrations and soil property parameters (e.g., pH, total organic carbon, and soil texture) when predicting heavy metal bioaccessibility. A total of 103 topsoil samples were collected from two adjacent areas (Baotou and Bayan Obo). A total of 76 samples were collected from Baotou, and 27 were collected from Bayan Obo. The total and bioaccessible concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were measured following complete composite acid digestion and a simple bioaccessibility extraction test. The average total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 8.95, 27.53, 28.40, and 79.50 mg/kg, respectively, in Baotou and 18.12, 30.75, 38.09, and 87.62 mg/kg in Bayan Obo. Except for As, these values were similar in both areas. The average bioaccessible heavy metal concentrations (Bio-HMs) for each target HM were also similar. In Baotou, the average Bio-HM values for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 1.16, 3.76, 16.31, and 16.10 mg/kg, respectively, and 1.26, 2.51, 14.31, and 8.68 mg/kg in Bayan Obo. However, the relative bioaccessibilities for each HM in Baotou were greater than those in Bayan Obo, with mean values for Pb, Zn, Cu, and As of 57, 20, 17, and 12 %, respectively, in Baotou and 40, 11, 9, and 8 % in Bayan Obo. In both areas, prediction models were successfully created using heavy metal concentrations and soil physicochemical parameters; however, models of the same target element differed between the areas, which indicated that a common model for both sites does not exist. Bio-HMs were highly affected by soil properties, which were found to differ between the adjacent areas. In addition, soil properties with large variations played major roles in the predictive models. This study highlights the importance

  19. Combining a finite mixture distribution model with indicator kriging to delineate and map the spatial patterns of soil heavy metal pollution in Chunghua County, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Cheng, Bai-You; Shyu, Guey-Shin; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the natural background, anthropogenic background and distribution of contamination caused by heavy metal pollutants in soil in Chunghua County of central Taiwan by using a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM). The probabilities of contaminated area distribution are mapped using single-variable indicator kriging and multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) with the FMDM cut-off values and regulation thresholds for heavy metals. FMDM results indicate that Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn can be individually fitted by a mixture model representing the background and contamination distributions of the four metals in soil. The FMDM cut-off values for contamination caused by the metals are close to the regulation thresholds, except for the cut-off value of Zn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve validates that indicator kriging and MVIK with FMDM cut-off values can reliably delineate heavy metals contamination, particularly for areas lacking background information and high heavy metal concentrations in soil.

  20. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Acute toxicity of heavy metals is a rare phenomenon in nature but the intake of sub-‐lethal doses over an extended ... protein (14-40 %), potassium, iron, calcium, sodium .... Lead and chromium were not ..... combined treatments of nickel and.

  1. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  2. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  3. Population-level consequences of spatially heterogeneous exposure to heavy metals in soil: An individual-based model of springtails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meli, Mattia; Auclerc, Apolline; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soil with toxic heavy metals poses a major threat to the environment and human health. Anthropogenic sources include smelting of ores, municipal wastes, fertilizers, and pesticides. In assessing soil quality and the environmental and ecological risk of contamination with heavy...... metals, often homogeneous contamination of the soil is assumed. However, soils are very heterogeneous environments. Consequently, both contamination and the response of soil organisms can be assumed to be heterogeneous. This might have consequences for the exposure of soil organisms...... and for the extrapolation of risk from the individual to the population level. Therefore, to explore how soil contamination of different spatial heterogeneity affects population dynamics of soil invertebrates, we developed a spatially explicit individual-based model of the springtail, Folsomia candida, a standard test...

  4. Modeling of amphoteric heavy metals solubility in stabilized/solidified steel foundry dust

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Olmo, Ignacio; Lasa Díaz, María Cristina; Lavín Castañeda, María Ángeles; Irabien Gulías, José Ángel

    2009-01-01

    The influence of pH on the leaching of metals from waste materials can be described by geochemical and empirical models. These equations may be integrated into dynamic leaching models in order to describe the longterm behavior of waste-derived forms or they can be used to predict the concentration of metals in equilibrium leaching tests at a given pH. The aim of this work is to describe the equilibrium concentration of the main metals (Zn, Pb, and Cr) contained in untreated and stabilized/sol...

  5. Modelling natural attenuation of heavy-metal groundwater contamination in the Selebi-Phikwe mining area, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Kgomanyane, J.

    2008-04-01

    Seepage from a tailings dam is the major source of groundwater pollution in the Selebi-Phikwe area, where mining of sulphidic nickel-copper-cobalt ore started in 1973 and will continue until 2014. The seepage water has a pH in the range of 1.7-2.8 and is strongly enriched in SO4 2- (5,680 g/L) and heavy metals (6,230 μg/L Ni, 1,860 μg/L Cu and 410 μg/L Co). The fracture aquifer affected by pollution from the dam exhibits a remarkable capacity of heavy-metal sorption. Most of the Ni, Cu and Co is scavenged at less than 500 m distance downgradient from the polluting source, whereas SO4 2- is not immobilized significantly. The heavy-metal sorption process is assumed to be due to surface complexation, which is supported by a relatively high groundwater pH (in the range of 6.2-7.8 at >200 m distance from the tailings dam). The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the sorption process can be incorporated into a realistic three-dimensional reactive-transport groundwater model that is implicitly charge-balanced. The simulations are performed with the PHAST1.2 program, which is based on the HST3D flow and transport code and the hydrochemical PHREEQC2.12 code.

  6. Investigation and risk assessment modeling of As and other heavy metals contamination around five abandoned metal mines in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ahn, Joo Sung; Ko, Ilwon; Lee, Cheol-Hyo

    2005-04-01

    Tailings, agricultural soils, vegetables and groundwater samples were collected from abandoned metal mines (Duckum, Dongil, Dongjung, Myoungbong and Songchun mines) in Korea. Total concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to investigate the contamination level. Several digestion methods (Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), 0.1 N/1 N HCl) and sequential extraction analysis for mine tailings were conducted to examine the potential leachability of As and heavy metals from the tailings. The order of urgent remediation for the studied mines based on the risk assessment and remedial goals was suggested. The Songchun mine tailings were most severely contaminated by As and heavy metals. Total concentrations of As and Pb in the tailings were 38,600-58,700 mg/kg (av. 47,400 mg/kg) and 11,800-16,800 mg/kg (av. 14,600 mg/kg), respectively. Agricultural soils having high As concentrations were found at the all mines. Average concentrations of Cd in the vegetables exceeded the normal value at all mines areas, while As only at the Dongjung, Myoungbong, and Songchun mine area. One groundwater sample each from the Dongil and Myoungbong mines, and 4 groundwater samples from the Songchun mine had values above 10 mug/L of As concentration. The TCLP method revealed that only Pb in the Songchun tailings, 6.49 mg/L, exceeded the regulatory level (5 mg/L). Employing the 1-N HCl digestion method, the concentration of As in the Songchun mine tailings, 4,250 mg/kg, was up to 3,000 times higher than its Korean countermeasure standard. Results from the sequential extraction of As in the tailings showed that the easily releasable fraction in the Myoungbong and Songchun mine tailings was more than 30% and the residual fraction was less than 40%. Based on results showing the exposure health risk employing the hazard quotient and cancer risk of As, Cd and Zn, the Dongil mine needs the most

  7. A Random-Walk-Model for heavy metal particles in natural waters; Ein Random-Walk-Modell fuer Schwermetallpartikel in natuerlichen Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollschlaeger, A.

    1996-12-31

    The presented particle tracking model is for the numerical calculation of heavy metal transport in natural waters. The Navier-Stokes-Equations are solved with the Finite-Element-Method. The advective movement of the particles is interpolated from the velocities on the discrete mesh. The influence of turbulence is simulated with a Random-Walk-Model where particles are distributed due to a given probability function. Both parts are added and lead to the new particle position. The characteristics of the heavy metals are assigned to the particules as their attributes. Dissolved heavy metals are transported only by the flow. Heavy metals which are bound to particulate matter have an additional settling velocity. The sorption and the remobilization processes are approximated through a probability law which maintains the proportionality ratio between dissolved heavy metals and those which are bound to particulate matter. At the bed heavy metals bound to particulate matter are subjected to deposition and erosion processes. The model treats these processes by considering the absorption intensity of the heavy metals to the bottom sediments. Calculations of the Weser estuary show that the particle tracking model allows the simulation of the heavy metal behaviour even under complex flow conditions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das vorgestellte Partikelmodell dient zur numerischen Berechnung des Schwermetalltransports in natuerlichen Gewaessern. Die Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen werden mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente geloest. Die advektive Bewegung der Teilchen ergibt sich aus der Interpolation der Geschwindigkeiten auf dem diskreten Netz. Der Einfluss der Turbulenz wird mit einem Random-Walk-Modell simuliert, bei dem sich die Partikel anhand einer vorgegebenen Wahrscheinlichkeitsfunktion verteilen. Beide Bewegungsanteile werden zusammengefasst und ergeben die neue Partikelposition. Die Eigenschaften der Schwermetalle werden den Partikeln als Attribute zugeordnet. Geloeste Schwermetalle

  8. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilakova, Aneta; Balintova, Magdalena; Holub, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia) with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  9. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrilakova Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  10. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  11. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  12. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  13. Modeling of the distribution of heavy metals and trace elements in argan forest soil and parts of argan tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Boulmane, Mohamed; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Guillaume, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of heavy metals and trace elements from argan forest soil into the wood, leaves, almonds, and argan oil was studied. Analyzed metals were: chromium, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium. Correlations linking different behaviors of the studied heavy metals and trace elements observed by multidimensional analysis were attributed to partial-spatial variations. Whereas the RV-coefficient of wood, leaf, almond and oil groups was high, the soil group correlated poorly with the other groups.

  14. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. ... in intensive research aiming at understanding metal interactions in soil and their removal in an efficient way. ... This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal ...

  15. Health Risk Assessment using in vitro digestion model in assessing bioavailability of heavy metal in rice: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N A; Praveena, S M; Aris, A Z; Hashim, Z

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.

  16. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Petrilakova Aneta; Balintova Magdalena; Holub Marian

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results o...

  17. Applications of stochastic models and geostatistical analyses to study sources and spatial patterns of soil heavy metals in a metalliferous industrial district of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Buqing; Liang, Tao, E-mail: liangt@igsnrr.ac.cn; Wang, Lingqing; Li, Kexin

    2014-08-15

    An extensive soil survey was conducted to study pollution sources and delineate contamination of heavy metals in one of the metalliferous industrial bases, in the karst areas of southwest China. A total of 597 topsoil samples were collected and the concentrations of five heavy metals, namely Cd, As (metalloid), Pb, Hg and Cr were analyzed. Stochastic models including a conditional inference tree (CIT) and a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM) were applied to identify the sources and partition the contribution from natural and anthropogenic sources for heavy metal in topsoils of the study area. Regression trees for Cd, As, Pb and Hg were proved to depend mostly on indicators of anthropogenic activities such as industrial type and distance from urban area, while the regression tree for Cr was found to be mainly influenced by the geogenic characteristics. The FMDM analysis showed that the geometric means of modeled background values for Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Cr were close to their background values previously reported in the study area, while the contamination of Cd and Hg were widespread in the study area, imposing potentially detrimental effects on organisms through the food chain. Finally, the probabilities of single and multiple heavy metals exceeding the threshold values derived from the FMDM were estimated using indicator kriging (IK) and multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK). The high probabilities exceeding the thresholds of heavy metals were associated with metalliferous production and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals transported from the urban and industrial areas. Geostatistics coupled with stochastic models provide an effective way to delineate multiple heavy metal pollution to facilitate improved environmental management. - Highlights: • Conditional inference tree can identify variables controlling metal distribution. • Finite mixture distribution model can partition natural and anthropogenic sources. • Geostatistics with stochastic models

  18. Heavy metals in plants and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiping

    2003-01-01

    In some cases, soil, water and food are heavily polluted by heavy metals in China. To use plants to remediate heavy metal pollution would be an effective technique in pollution control. The accumulation of heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in removing pollutants should be understood in order to implement phytoremediation, which makes use of plants to extract, transfer and stabilize heavy metals from soil and water. The information has been compiled from Chinese publications stemming mostly from the last decade, to show the research results on heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in controlling heavy metal pollution, and to provide a general outlook of phytoremediation in China. Related references from scientific journals and university journals are searched and summarized in sections concerning the accumulation of heavy metals in plants, plants for heavy metal purification and phytoremediation techniques. Plants can take up heavy metals by their roots, or even via their stems and leaves, and accumulate them in their organs. Plants take up elements selectively. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the plant depends on the plant species, element species, chemical and bioavailiability, redox, pH, cation exchange capacity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and secretion of roots. Plants are employed in the decontamination of heavy metals from polluted water and have demonstrated high performances in treating mineral tailing water and industrial effluents. The purification capacity of heavy metals by plants are affected by several factors, such as the concentration of the heavy metals, species of elements, plant species, exposure duration, temperature and pH. Phytoremediation, which makes use of vegetation to remove, detoxify, or stabilize persistent pollutants, is a green and environmentally-friendly tool for cleaning polluted soil and water. The advantage of high biomass productive and easy disposal makes plants most useful to remediate

  19. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  20. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  1. Biomolecules for removal of heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-02-23

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to review research work and patents related to adsorption through biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, lignin etc. and bio-sorption by biological material that are used for heavy metal removal. Biomolecules are cost effective and there have been significant progresses in the remediation of heavy metals but, still there are some problems that need to be rectified for its application at industrial processes.

  2. Coupling scales for modelling heavy metal vaporization from municipal solid waste incineration in a fluid bed by CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, José, E-mail: jose.soria@probien.gob.ar [Institute for Research and Development in Process Engineering, Biotechnology and Alternative Energies (PROBIEN, CONICET – UNCo), 1400 Buenos Aires St., 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Gauthier, Daniel; Flamant, Gilles [Processes, Materials and Solar Energy Laboratory (PROMES-CNRS, UPR 8521), 7 Four Solaire Street, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Rodriguez, Rosa [Chemical Engineering Institute, National University of San Juan, 1109 Libertador (O) Avenue, 5400 San Juan (Argentina); Mazza, Germán [Institute for Research and Development in Process Engineering, Biotechnology and Alternative Energies (PROBIEN, CONICET – UNCo), 1400 Buenos Aires St., 8300 Neuquén (Argentina)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A CFD two-scale model is formulated to simulate heavy metal vaporization from waste incineration in fluidized beds. • MSW particle is modelled with the macroscopic particle model. • Influence of bed dynamics on HM vaporization is included. • CFD predicted results agree well with experimental data reported in literature. • This approach may be helpful for fluidized bed reactor modelling purposes. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) in fluidized bed is a very interesting technology mainly due to high combustion efficiency, great flexibility for treating several types of waste fuels and reduction in pollutants emitted with the flue gas. However, there is a great concern with respect to the fate of heavy metals (HM) contained in MSW and their environmental impact. In this study, a coupled two-scale CFD model was developed for MSWI in a bubbling fluidized bed. It presents an original scheme that combines a single particle model and a global fluidized bed model in order to represent the HM vaporization during MSW combustion. Two of the most representative HM (Cd and Pb) with bed temperatures ranging between 923 and 1073 K have been considered. This new approach uses ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 as the modelling platform for the simulations along with a complete set of self-developed user-defined functions (UDFs). The simulation results are compared to the experimental data obtained previously by the research group in a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator. The comparison indicates that the proposed CFD model predicts well the evolution of the HM release for the bed temperatures analyzed. It shows that both bed temperature and bed dynamics have influence on the HM vaporization rate. It can be concluded that CFD is a rigorous tool that provides valuable information about HM vaporization and that the original two-scale simulation scheme adopted allows to better represent the actual particle behavior in a fluid bed incinerator.

  3. Modelling suspended-sediment propagation and related heavy metal contamination in floodplains: a parameter sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostache, R.; Hissler, C.; Matgen, P.; Guignard, C.; Bates, P.

    2014-09-01

    Fine sediments represent an important vector of pollutant diffusion in rivers. When deposited in floodplains and riverbeds, they can be responsible for soil pollution. In this context, this paper proposes a modelling exercise aimed at predicting transport and diffusion of fine sediments and dissolved pollutants. The model is based upon the Telemac hydro-informatic system (dynamical coupling Telemac-2D-Sysiphe). As empirical and semiempirical parameters need to be calibrated for such a modelling exercise, a sensitivity analysis is proposed. An innovative point in this study is the assessment of the usefulness of dissolved trace metal contamination information for model calibration. Moreover, for supporting the modelling exercise, an extensive database was set up during two flood events. It includes water surface elevation records, discharge measurements and geochemistry data such as time series of dissolved/particulate contaminants and suspended-sediment concentrations. The most sensitive parameters were found to be the hydraulic friction coefficients and the sediment particle settling velocity in water. It was also found that model calibration did not benefit from dissolved trace metal contamination information. Using the two monitored hydrological events as calibration and validation, it was found that the model is able to satisfyingly predict suspended sediment and dissolve pollutant transport in the river channel. In addition, a qualitative comparison between simulated sediment deposition in the floodplain and a soil contamination map shows that the preferential zones for deposition identified by the model are realistic.

  4. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  5. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  6. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention was paid

  7. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  8. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  9. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  10. Combining a finite mixture distribution model with indicator kriging to delineate and map the spatial patterns of soil heavy metal pollution in Chunghua County, central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Yupin, E-mail: yplin@ntu.edu.t [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng Baiyou [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China); Shyu, G.-S. [Department of Environmental Management, Tungnan University, 152, Section 3, PeiShen Road, ShenKeng, Taipei 222, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-K. [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    This study identifies the natural background, anthropogenic background and distribution of contamination caused by heavy metal pollutants in soil in Chunghua County of central Taiwan by using a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM). The probabilities of contaminated area distribution are mapped using single-variable indicator kriging and multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) with the FMDM cut-off values and regulation thresholds for heavy metals. FMDM results indicate that Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn can be individually fitted by a mixture model representing the background and contamination distributions of the four metals in soil. The FMDM cut-off values for contamination caused by the metals are close to the regulation thresholds, except for the cut-off value of Zn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve validates that indicator kriging and MVIK with FMDM cut-off values can reliably delineate heavy metals contamination, particularly for areas lacking background information and high heavy metal concentrations in soil. - Effectively determine pollution threshold and map contaminated areas.

  11. Deriving the Characteristic Scale for Effectively Monitoring Heavy Metal Stress in Rice by Assimilation of GF-1 Data with the WOFOST Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Liu, Xiangnan; Jin, Ming; Ding, Chao; Jiang, Jiale; Wu, Ling

    2016-03-07

    Accurate monitoring of heavy metal stress in crops is of great importance to assure agricultural productivity and food security, and remote sensing is an effective tool to address this problem. However, given that Earth observation instruments provide data at multiple scales, the choice of scale for use in such monitoring is challenging. This study focused on identifying the characteristic scale for effectively monitoring heavy metal stress in rice using the dry weight of roots (WRT) as the representative characteristic, which was obtained by assimilation of GF-1 data with the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model. We explored and quantified the effect of the important state variable LAI (leaf area index) at various spatial scales on the simulated rice WRT to find the critical scale for heavy metal stress monitoring using the statistical characteristics. Furthermore, a ratio analysis based on the varied heavy metal stress levels was conducted to identify the characteristic scale. Results indicated that the critical threshold for investigating the rice WRT in monitoring studies of heavy metal stress was larger than 64 m but smaller than 256 m. This finding represents a useful guideline for choosing the most appropriate imagery.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the emission of heavy metals into water bodies from building materials derived from production waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time industrial waste is considered to be an alternative to primary natural resources when producing construction materials and products. The use of industrial waste in the construction branch allows reducing ecological load on the environment and population as a result of reducing the amount of unrecyclable waste and reducing the use of primary natural resources. Though when involving waste products as raw material in the preparation of building materials there occur environmental risks of anthropogenic impact increase on the environment. These risks are related to possible emission of heavy metals from construction materials in use. The article describes a tool which allows predicting this issue, depending on the acidity of the medium, the residence time of the material in the environment. The experimental data obtained in determining the migration activity of metals from cement concretes to aqueous solutions served as the basis for the mathematical model. The proposed model allows us to make a prediction of anthropogenic impact on the environment and commensurate this impact with the possibility of assimilation of the environment area where the building materials are applied. This will allow conducting an effective assessment of the created and applied technologies of waste disposal, taking into account the operating conditions of the materials produced.

  13. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal*

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Jin, Jian; He, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitr...

  14. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Root mass ratio: index derived by assimilation of synthetic aperture radar and the improved World Food Study model for heavy metal stress monitoring in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Jin, Ming; Wu, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic assessment of heavy metal contamination in crops is essential for food security and the farmland ecological environment. A new index for monitoring heavy metal stress based on the assimilation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and the crop growth model is performed. The improved World Food Study (WOFOST) model was used in this study, which is embedded with two stress factors to improve the accuracy of assimilation. Biomass (BM) values retrieved by SAR data were assimilated into the improved WOFOST model to simulate dry weight of rice roots (WRT), and the root mass ratio (RMR, WRT/BM) was calculated as an index for monitoring heavy metal stress. SAR shows enormous potential for monitoring crop growth status in cloudy area. Compared with other physiological indices, RMR could weaken the weight change of rice caused by other background factors. In the temporal scale, RMR showed a faster significant decrease when the stress was greater. The spatial distribution of RMR and the stress factors exhibited good consistency. These results suggest that RMR derived from the assimilation method based on SAR data and the improved WOFOST model is effective for dynamically monitoring the rice growth status in cloudy regions under heavy metal stress.

  16. Heavy Metal Adsorption onto Kappaphycus sp. from Aqueous Solutions: The Use of Error Functions for Validation of Isotherm and Kinetics Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sayedur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption process is a promising technology for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastes and effluents using low-cost and effective biosorbents. In the present study, adsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ onto dried biomass of red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The experimental data were evaluated by four isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich and four kinetic models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. Functional groups in the biomass involved in metal adsorption process were revealed as carboxylic and sulfonic acids and sulfonate by Fourier transform infrared analysis. A total of nine error functions were applied to validate the models. We strongly suggest the analysis of error functions for validating adsorption isotherm and kinetic models using linear methods. The present work shows that the red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. can be used as a potentially low-cost biosorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Further study is warranted to evaluate its feasibility for the removal of heavy metals from the real environment.

  17. Heavy Metal Adsorption onto Kappaphycus sp. from Aqueous Solutions: The Use of Error Functions for Validation of Isotherm and Kinetics Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Sayedur; Sathasivam, Kathiresan V

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption process is a promising technology for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastes and effluents using low-cost and effective biosorbents. In the present study, adsorption of Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) onto dried biomass of red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The experimental data were evaluated by four isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) and four kinetic models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models). The adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. Functional groups in the biomass involved in metal adsorption process were revealed as carboxylic and sulfonic acids and sulfonate by Fourier transform infrared analysis. A total of nine error functions were applied to validate the models. We strongly suggest the analysis of error functions for validating adsorption isotherm and kinetic models using linear methods. The present work shows that the red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. can be used as a potentially low-cost biosorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Further study is warranted to evaluate its feasibility for the removal of heavy metals from the real environment.

  18. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. From conceptual model to remediation: bioavailability, a key to clean up heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Pedron, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    Processes of metal bioavailability in the soil To know the bioavailability processes at site specific levels is essential to understand in detail the risks associated with pollution, and to support the decision-making process, i.e. description of the conceptual model and choice of clean up technologies. It is particularly important to assess how chemical, physical and biological processes in the soil affect the reactions leading to adsorption, precipitation or release of contaminants. The measurement of bioavailability One of the main difficulties in the practical application of the bioavailability concept in soil remediation is the lack of consensus on the method to be used to measure bioavailability. The best strategy is to apply a series of tests to assess bioavailability, since no applicable method is universally valid under all conditions. As an example, bioavailability tests for phytotechnology application should consider two distinct aspects: a physico-chemical driven solubilization process and a physiologically driven uptake process. Soil and plant characteristics strongly influence bioavailability. Bioavailability as a tool in remediation strategies Bioavailability can be used at all stages in remediation strategies: development of the conceptual model, evaluation of risk assessment, and selection of the best technology, considering different scenarios and including different environmental objectives. Two different strategies can be followed: the reduction and the increase of bioavailability. Procedures that reduce bioavailability aim to prevent the movement of pollutants from the soil to the living organisms, essentially by: i) removal of the labile phase of the contaminant, i.e. the fraction which is intrinsic to the processes of bioavailability (phytostabilization); ii) conversion of the labile fraction into a stable fraction (precipitation or adsorption); iii) increase of the resistance to mass transfer of the contaminants (inertization). Procedures

  20. Efficacy of Locust Beans Husk Char in Heavy Metal Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Ademola Ayodeji Ajayi-Banji; Temitayo Ewemoje; Adeniyi Ajimo

    2016-01-01

    Most solid waste management schemes minimally consider low concentration biodegradable agricultural waste management, though the environmental impact of this waste category is significant over a time frame. The column-mode study seeks to address the issue by suggesting potential utilisation of post-harvest waste for heavy metal sequestering. Locust beans husk char of 100 and 200 g was employed to inspect removal efficiency, isotherm and kinetic models of some heavy metals at 30, 60, 90, 120 a...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF SEDIMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Fosu lagoon, Heavy metal, Enrichment, Pollution ... Both anthropogenic pressures and natural processes account for degradation in surface water ... only play an important role in river water pollution but can also provide a ...

  2. 202 197 Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: The heavy metal and microbial contaminants levels were evaluated in a commercial polyherbal product ... fungal toxins such as aflatoxins, pesticides and synthetic ... natural products is that 'natural' equals safe.

  3. THE IMPACT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temitope

    Toxicity levels of heavy metals depend on the type, its ... sectors (food and processing sector) accounted for nearly ... Groundwater accounts for about 98% of the world's ... footpaths and a few major roads, with an uneven distribution of ...

  4. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF LAKE VICTORIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam,. P. O. Box ... parameters. The study ..... chemical wastes containing heavy metals and organochlorides. During ... In Mwanza South, samples were collected near a fish processing industry,.

  5. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  6. Adsorption of multi-heavy metals Zn and Cu onto surficial sediments: modeling and adsorption capacity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Meng; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Improved multiple regression adsorption models (IMRAMs) was developed to estimate the adsorption capacity of the components [Fe oxides (Fe), Mn oxides (Mn), organic materials (OMs), residuals] in surficial sediments for multi-heavy metal Zn and Cu. IMRAM is an improved version over MRAM, which introduces a computer program in the model developing process. As MRAM, Zn(Cu) IMRAM, and Cu(Zn) IMRAM again confirmed that there is significant interaction effects that control the adsorption of compounded Zn and Cu, which was neglected by additional adsorption model. The verification experiment shows that the relative deviation of the IMRAMs is less than 13%. It is revealed by the IMRAMs that Mn, which has the greatest adsorption capability for compounded Zn and Cu (54.889 and 161.180 mg/l, respectively), follows by interference adsorption capacity of Fe/Mn (-1.072 and -24.591 mg/l respectively). Zn and Cu influence each other through different mechanisms. When Zn is the adsorbate, compounded Cu mainly affects the adsorption capacities of Fe/Mn and Fe/Mn/OMs; while when Cu is the adsorbate, compounded Zn mainly exerts its effect on Mn, Fe/Mn, and Mn/OMs. It also shows that the compounded Zn or Cu weakened the interference adsorption of Fe/Mn, and meanwhile, strengthened the interference adsorption of Mn/OMs.

  7. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth′s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

  8. Application of stochastic models in identification and apportionment of heavy metal pollution sources in the surface soils of a large-scale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-16

    As heavy metals occur naturally in soils at measurable concentrations and their natural background contents have significant spatial variations, identification and apportionment of heavy metal pollution sources across large-scale regions is a challenging task. Stochastic models, including the recently developed conditional inference tree (CIT) and the finite mixture distribution model (FMDM), were applied to identify the sources of heavy metals found in the surface soils of the Pearl River Delta, China, and to apportion the contributions from natural background and human activities. Regression trees were successfully developed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, and Hg in 227 soil samples from a region of over 7.2 × 10(4) km(2) based on seven specific predictors relevant to the source and behavior of heavy metals: land use, soil type, soil organic carbon content, population density, gross domestic product per capita, and the lengths and classes of the roads surrounding the sampling sites. The CIT and FMDM results consistently indicate that Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr in the surface soils of the PRD were contributed largely by anthropogenic sources, whereas As, Ni, and Hg in the surface soils mostly originated from the soil parent materials.

  9. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  10. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  11. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... inorganic products, generating heat as a metabolic waste product. Heavy metal ..... Potencial Bioremediation Agent in Compost Material Contaminated with Heavy .... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals and their salts in ...

  12. Solubility of deposited airborne heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Sibel C.; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-09-01

    Toxic effects of heavy metals in water and soil environments are important. Quantifying the heavy metal concentrations and their solubilities in dry and wet deposition samples is part of atmospheric research. Soluble fractions of the deposited air pollutants are important in food chain mechanisms as heavy metals may cause ecotoxic impacts. In this study, the solubilities of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni were investigated in deposition samples for total, dissolved, and suspended fractions after collection in a surrogate, water-surface sampler in Izmir, Turkey, during October 2003 to June 2004. To find overall solubility of each metal in dry and wet deposition samples, concentrations in soluble and suspended phases of aqueous solutions were analyzed separately. Ratios between total and dissolved forms and the metals in the same forms were analyzed and evaluated statistically. It was found that the deposited metal fluxes were significantly correlated in wet deposition with the highest correlation between Cd and Pb in the soluble and total forms. Comparatively smaller correlations were found between these metal fluxes in dry deposition samples. Results of this study showed the importance of metal pollution, especially ecotoxic properties of heavy metals in wet deposition far more than dry deposition.

  13. Plant transporters involved in heavy metal homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Podar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions (predominately manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc havean array of catalytic and regulatory roles in the growth and development of all living organisms.However, an excess of these metal ions can also be toxic to any life form and therefore every cell andwhole organism needs to maintain the concentration of these essential nutrient metals within a narrowrange: a process known as metal homeostasis. Heavy metal ions are taken up into cells by selectivetransporters and as they cannot be degraded, the “desired” levels of metal ions are achieved by anumber of strategies that involve: chelation, sequestration and export out of the cell. Cation DiffusionFacilitators (CDF is a large family of transporters involved in maintaining the cytosolic metalconcentration. They transport different heavy metal divalent ions, but exhibit main affinity for zinc, ironand manganese. Metal Tolerance Proteins (MTPs are a subfamily of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDFfamily found in plants. There has been much interest in these heavy metal transporters in order toprovide an insight into plant metal homeostasis, which has significant implications in human health andphytoremediation. Although data regarding the CDFs/MTPs mechanism is gathering there is still littleinformation with respect to metal selectivity determinants.

  14. The Influence of Biomass Ash on the Migration of Heavy Metals in the Flooded Soil Profile - Model Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    also washed out from flood sediments by precipitation when the flood recedes. This paper presents the results of research on the effects of fertilization with ash from incineration or pyrolysis of biomass on the migration process of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, Mn in the arable layer of soil. It has been shown that the metals in the flood sediment migrate actively in the soil profile what leads to the enrichment of the soils, also in the case of the soil fertilization with biomass ash.

  15. The Influence of Biomass Ash on the Migration of Heavy Metals in the Flooded Soil Profile - Model Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielczuk Tomasz; Rosik-Dulewska Czesława; Kochanowska Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Soils that have been exposed to flood waters can be heavily polluted by inorganic and organic compounds. They are mainly compounds which appear in dissolved or suspended form flowing together with heavily laden floodwater, as well as compounds created as a result of reactions in the soil profile, mostly due to anaerobic transformation of organic matter. Heavy metals brought with flood waters are absorbed by the soil and also washed out from flood sediments by precipitation when the flood r...

  16. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamier, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals in air, soil, and water are global problems that are a growing threat to the environment. Trace metal determination is currently done by expensive separation techniques which include inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and cold vapor...

  17. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic an

  18. Dendroremediation of heavy metal polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Oreja, J A; Rozas, M A; Alkorta, I; Garbisu, C

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common and harmful pollutants reaching the soil ecosystem all over the world. Phytoextraction is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, highly promising phytotechnology for the remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. To overcome the so-called 'Achilles' heel' of phytoextraction, namely, the long time needed for effective remediation, this phytotechnology should be combined with other profit-making activities such as forestry or bioenergy production. Dendroremediation, or the use of trees to clean up polluted soil and water, appears of great potential for metal phytoextraction, especially when using fast-growing tree species, for example, willows (Salix sp. pl.) and poplars (Populus sp. pl.). Most important, the ecologic and environmental risks of dispersing heavy metals into the ecosystems by dendroremediation strategies should be minimized by selecting the right tree species, properly managing/disposing the polluted plant material, or a combination of both options.

  19. Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rama; Rai, J P N

    2010-03-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymatically synthesized peptides known to involve in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation, which have been measured in plants grown at high heavy metal concentrations, but few studies have examined the response of plants even at lower environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species enabling molecular biological studies to untangle the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis and its regulation. The present paper embodies review on recent advances in structure of PCs, their biosynthetic regulation, roles in heavy metal detoxification and/or accumulation, and PC synthase gene expression for better understanding of mechanism involved and to improve phytoremediation efficiency of plants for wider application.

  20. Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vymazal, J.

    1984-12-31

    The utilization of periphyton for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn) have been determined during four hours exposure. In addition the influence of humic substances on heavy metals uptake has been determined. Uptake of all metals increased during four hours exposure but not in the same way. Some metals were removed continuously (Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn), other metals were removed more rapidly during the first hour or first two hours of exposure and then only slight removal continued (Cu, Pb, Cd, Co). Uptake of Zn was rather unambiguous. Results of these experiments suggest that the course of uptake for individual metals could be similar for most periphyton algae. It was established that humic substances significantly reduce heavy metals uptake. The highest decrease of uptake was observed in Cu, Cr, Co and Cd. The results of model experiments are being tested in a pilot scale with respect to the demands of engineering practice. (J.R.)

  1. Heavy metal music meets complexity and sustainability science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds a bridge between heavy metal music, complexity theory and sustainability science to show the potential of the (auditory) arts to inform different aspects of complex systems of people and nature. The links are described along different dimensions. This first dimension focuses on the scientific aspect of heavy metal. It uses complex adaptive systems theory to show that the rapid diversification and evolution of heavy metal into multiple subgenres leads to a self-organizing and resilient socio-musicological system. The second dimension builds on the recent use of heavy metal as a critical thinking model and educational tool, emphasizing the artistic component of heavy metal and its potential to increase people's awareness of environmental sustainability challenges. The relationships between metal, complexity theory and sustainability are first discussed independently to specifically show mechanistic links and the reciprocal potential to inform one domain (science) by the other (metal) within these dimensions. The paper concludes by highlighting that these dimensions entrain each other within a broader social-cultural-environmental system that cannot be explained simply by the sum of independent, individual dimensions. Such a unified view embraces the inherent complexity with which systems of people and nature interact. These lines of exploration suggest that the arts and the sciences form a logical partnership. Such a partnership might help in endeavors to envision, understand and cope with the broad ramifications of sustainability challenges in times of rapid social, cultural, and environmental change.

  2. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  3. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  4. [Application of classical isothermal adsorption models in heavy metal ions/ diatomite system and related problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Wu, Qing-Ding; Wang, Ping; Li, Ke-Lin; Lei, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Wei-Li

    2013-11-01

    In order to fully understand adsorption nature of Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ onto natural diatomite, and to find problems of classical isothermal adsorption models' application in liquid/solid system, a series of isothermal adsorption tests were conducted. As results indicate, the most suitable isotherm models for describing adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ onto natural diatomite are Tenkin, Tenkin, Langmuir, Tenkin, Freundlich and Freundlich, respectively, the adsorption of each ion onto natural diatomite is mainly a physical process, and the adsorption reaction is favorable. It also can be found that, when using classical isothermal adsorption models to fit the experimental data in liquid/solid system, the equilibrium adsorption amount q(e) is not a single function of ion equilibrium concentration c(e), while is a function of two variables, namely c(e) and the adsorbent concentration W0, q(e) only depends on c(e)/W(0). Results also show that the classical isothermal adsorption models have a significant adsorbent effect, and their parameter values are unstable, the simulation values of parameter differ greatly from the measured values, which is unhelpful for practical use. The tests prove that four-adsorption-components model can be used for describing adsorption behavior of single ion in nature diatomite-liquid system, its parameters k and q(m) have constant values, which is favorable for practical quantitative calculation in a given system.

  5. 城市表层土壤重金属污染分析模型%Topsoil Heavy Metal Pollution Analysis Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙少龙; 蔡宏强; 王冲

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a mathematical model to analyse the topsoil pollution by heavy metals. Firstly, we use Matlab to get a scatter diagram to show the heavy metal contaminations in soil and the spatial distribution of the con- centration of the heavy metal elements. And then the most polluted areas are spotted by using the Nemerow pollution index and principal component analysis method. Finally a mathematical model by integrating the gray - disaster model and the regression model is set up to forecasting the evolution of the geological enviroment.%本文先利用Matlab做出各种重金属元素浓度的空间分布图,初步得到土壤重金属污染的状况。接着用内梅罗污染指数法定量的确定土壤重金属污染最严重的地区,并用主成分分析法进行了验证。最后利用灰色一灾变与回归预测的组合模型解决了地质环境的演变问题。

  6. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  7. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  8. Heavy Metals Resisting Gravity in White Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    Spectral lines of heavy metals, identified in high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the DO-type white dwarf RX J0503.9–2854 (RE 0503–289), allow precise abundance determinations of these species by means of advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar-atmosphere models – provided that reliable atomic data is available. Such analyses of Zn (atomic number Z = 30), Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Mo (42), Kr (36), Zr (40), Xe (54), and Ba (56) have recently shown that, without exception, their abundances are unexpectedly strongly supersolar (up to about 5 dex). This is much higher than predicted by recent asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis calculations. Thus, the interplay of gravitational settling and radiative levitation may play an important role for their photospheric prominence.

  9. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

    2007-01-01

    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  10. Modelling 10-year trends of PM10 and related toxic heavy metal concentrations in four cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2010-07-15

    Ambient concentrations of PM(10) were measured weekly twice at 3 sites in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai during 1998-2007. Concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe, Pb and Cr have been analyzed once in every month. Trend analyses of PM(10) and heavy metals of four mega cities, indicate that PM(10) and heavy metals show decreasing trend. The statistical tests applied for this purpose i.e., t-test adjusted for seasonality and SK test, provide similar conclusions. The inferences obtained are that at two sites in Mumbai, PM(10) levels have shown improvement at the rate of 2 and 3 microg m(-3) yr(-1); in Chennai, PM(10) levels have decreased at the rate of 2.5, 2 and 5 microg m(-3) yr(-1) during the period 1998-2007. In Delhi, Ni, Fe and Pb levels declined at the rate of 1, 29 and 12 ng m(-3) yr(-1); in Mumbai Zn, Ni, Fe and Cr have decreased at the rate of 51, 2, 62 and 0.7 ng m(-3) yr(-1); in Kolkata, the levels of Ni, Pb and Cr declined at the rate of 2, 11 and 1 ng m(-3) yr(-1); and in Chennai Ni, Fe and Cr have shown improvement at the rate of 1, 38 and 1 ng m(-3) yr(-1) in this period. During the last 10 years, many interventions have been undertaken such as, changes in fuel quality, better vehicle technologies, improved industrial fuel mix, shifting of industries outside the city limits, resulting in improvement of urban air quality.

  11. Evaluation of soil heavy metal pollution based on GCM_CB model%基于GCM_CB模型的土壤重金属污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何厅厅; 赵艳玲; 李建华; 付馨; 王亚云; 曾纪勇

    2012-01-01

    Grey clustering method has been applied to the evaluation of soil heavy metal pollution.However,in the process of drawing clustering weights,this method only considers the heavy metal concentration and ignors its biotoxicity index which is an important indicator to measure the toxicity intensity of the heavy metal.In order to reflect the pollution levels of soil heavy metal more objectively and accurately,biotoxicity index was introduced into the clustering weights to build the GCM_CB soil heavy metal pollution evaluation model.Soil heavy metal data of 10 areas in eastern China were estimated,appraised and compared with other results evaluated by common evaluation methods.The conclusion is that the majority results are basically same except for sample 4 and sample 9.Their pollution level is changed from level I to level II for the element Hg with high toxicity,which improves the sensitivity of the evaluation method and makes it more coincided with the actual soil contamination of the area.%灰色聚类法已经运用于土壤重金属污染评价中,然而此法在确定聚类权重时仅考虑重金属浓度,忽略了衡量重金属毒性强弱的重要指标生物毒性指数。为了更客观和准确地反映土壤重金属的污染程度,将生物毒性指数引入到聚类指标权重中,构建GCM_CB(grey clustering method_concentration and biotoxicity)土壤重金属污染评价模型。通过对华东某地区的10个区域土壤重金属污染进行分析评价,并与常用评价方法对比研究,表明:其多数样点的评价结果基本一致,但针对样品4和样品9中的元素Hg,因其强毒性,使得评价等级由I级定为II级,从而提高了评价方法的灵敏度,更加符合该区域的实际土壤污染情况。

  12. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  13. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  14. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed.

  15. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  16. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FORAGE GRASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Łukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimation of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd in forage grasses from the area of Podlasie Province based on the bioaccumulation factor. In the soil samples the pH, organic carbon content and CEC were determined. Determination of heavy metals contents in plant and soil material was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils were characterized mainly by acidic reaction, high cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. The content of heavy metals in studied forage grasses did not exceed the polish regulations related to plant usage for feeding purposes, except the lead content in seven samples. Coefficients of variation for particular heavy metals content in studied forage grasses were as follows: Pb - 37%, Ni - 63%, Cu - 30%, Zn - 34%, Cd - 48%. The highest bioaccumulation factor was found for nickel and grass from the village Remieńkiń (11.54, while the lowest for cadmium and grass from the village Jemieliste (0.04.

  17. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  18. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  19. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  20. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  1. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. ... of the plants. A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been compiled to provide a wide applicability of ...

  2. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  3. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  4. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  5. Heavy metals in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, G.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, University Park, PA (United States); Fosmire, G.J. [Dept. of Nutrition, University Park, PA (United States); Bellis, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Concentration (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) in soil and wildlife at the Palmerton zinc smelter site in eastern Pennsylvania were determined 6 yr after zinc smelting was terminated in 1980. Levels of the four metals were higher in litter (01 and 02 horizon) than in soil (A1 horizon), and the metals were at or near levels when the smelters were still in operation. Levels of metals in sod weft highest at sites close to the smelters and decreased as distances from the smelters increased. The relation of decreasing amounts of metals in body tissues with increasing distance from the smelters also held true for amphibians and mammals. An exception to this relation was higher level of Cu in red-lacked salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) captured {approx}17 km downwind than those captured {approx}12 km downwind. Levels of Zn, Pb, and Co in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were not different (P >0.05) among sites. Cadmium in kidneys in white-footed mice exceeded 10 mg&& which is reportedly considered an indication of environmental contamination. Levels of Cd in kidneys and liver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Palmerton were five times higher than those for white-tailed deer collected 180 km southwest of Palmerton in southcentral Pennsylvania. The abnormal amounts of metals in the tissues of terrestrial vertebrates, and the absence or low abundance of wildlife at Palmerton indicated that ecological processes within 5 km of the smelters were markedly influenced 6 yr after zinc smelting was discontinued. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  7. 土壤重金属复合污染整体模型研究%Study on the Heavy Metal Combined Pollution Model in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 王志忠; 肖国光

    2014-01-01

    在重金属迁移建模研究成果的基础上,考虑土壤对重金属的吸附特性,推导出土壤重金属复合污染物迁移转化整体模型。为求解该模型,分别引进 Langmuir 等温竞争吸附模型与土壤水分迁移模型。最后,以重金属 Zn 和 Cd 为例,数值模拟其在土壤中的垂向迁移过程,并利用 MATLAB 画出相关图形。%Based on the previous achievements and considering the soil’s adsorption characteristics of heavy metal,this paper proposed an overall migration model of heavy metal compound contaminants in soil.In order to solve the problem,the Langmuir isotherm competitive adsorption model and water migration model in soil were applied.Finally,an numerical simula-tion example of Zn and Cd was shown as heavy metal’s vertical migration in soil and displayed by MATLAB.

  8. Use of Sapropel for Removal of Heavy Metals from Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rūta Birgėlaitė; Vaidotas Valskys; Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2016-01-01

    ... composition of sapropel research is very few. The article deals with silicon sapropel as a sorbent is able to absorb heavy metals from the solution depending on the time and the concentration of heavy metals in the solution...

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Heavy metal contamination, roadside soils, enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution load index ... The objectives of the present work were to: (1) Assess heavy metal ..... the basis of Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser.

  10. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W

    2010-09-01

    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  11. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-07-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueli; Davis, Allen P

    2007-01-01

    Key to managing heavy metals in bioretention is to understand their fates in bioretention facilities. In this study, pot prototypes filled with bioretention media were built to simulate the conditions of natural growth of plants. Synthetic runoff with different heavy metal loadings (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) was periodically applied. Metal accumulations in tissues of grasses -Panicum virgatum, Kentucky-31, and Bromus ciliatus, were investigated after 230d of growth and multiple runoff treatment events. After 183d of periodic runoff application, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd with low and high loadings had the same trends in the plant tissues, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, following the trend of the input metal concentrations. The fates of input metals were 88-97% captured in soil media, 2.0-11.6% not captured by bioretention media, and 0.5-3.3% accumulated in plants. Compared to the metals retained by the soil, the percentages of input metals taken up by plants were relatively low due to the low plant biomass produced in this study. Greater biomass density would be required for the vegetation to have a valuable impact in prolonging the lifetime of a bioretention cell.

  13. Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, Esa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores melodic and harmonic features of heavy metal, and while doing so, explores various methods of music analysis; their applicability and limitations regarding the study of heavy metal music. The study is built on three general hypotheses according to which 1) acoustic characteristics play a significant role for chord constructing in heavy metal, 2) heavy metal has strong ties and similarities with other Western musical styles, and 3) theories and analytical methods of Wester...

  14. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Amouei A.1 PhD,; Tashakkorian H.1 PhD,; Naghipour D.2 PhD,; Mohammadi P.3 MSc

    2015-01-01

    Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild a...

  15. Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, C N; Yong, R N; Gibbs, B F

    2001-07-30

    Batch washing experiments were used to evaluate the feasibility of using biosurfactants for the removal of heavy metals from sediments. Surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and sophorolipid from Torulopsis bombicola were evaluated using a metal-contaminated sediment (110mg/kg copper and 3300mg/kg zinc). A single washing with 0.5% rhamnolipid removed 65% of the copper and 18% of the zinc, whereas 4% sophorolipid removed 25% of the copper and 60% of the zinc. Surfactin was less effective, removing 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and zeta potential measurements were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by the surfactants. It was then postulated that metal removal by the biosurfactants occurs through sorption of the surfactant on to the soil surface and complexation with the metal, detachment of the metal from the soil into the soil solution and hence association with surfactant micelles. Sequential extraction procedures were used on the sediment to determine the speciation of the heavy metals before and after surfactant washing. The carbonate and oxide fractions accounted for over 90% of the zinc present in the sediments. The organic fraction constituted over 70% of the copper. Sequential extraction of the sediments after washing with the various surfactants indicated that the biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin could remove the organically-bound copper and that the sophorolipid could remove the carbonate and oxide-bound zinc. Therefore, heavy metal removal from sediments is feasible and further research will be conducted.

  16. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.

  17. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb). They are natural ... Heavy metals poisoning could result for instance, from drinking water contamination ... The high level of pollution caused by heavy metals and their .... measures need to be taken in order to prevent future heavy metal pollution. References.

  18. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  19. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  20. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  1. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  2. Molecular Modeling of Acidic Treated PSTM-3T Polymer for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions by Experimental and Computational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsagdorj Narantsogt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesized poly[N,N′-bis(3-silsesquioxanilpropyl-thiocarbamide] (PSTM-3T was used and the surface morphology and microstructure of it were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS. The molecular structure change of the PSTM-3T polymer of the PSTM-3T after treatment by acidic solution with different pHs was revealed using FT-IR experiments and ab initio calculations with density functional theory method. The sorption efficiency of the heavy metal ions depends on the molecular structure change of PSTM-3T after treatment of different pH aqueous solutions. After the treatment of acidic solution (pH = 2 of PSTM-3T, the polymer formed the tautomer state to increase the sorption efficiency for chromate ion. For the increment of pH value for acidic solution, the PSTM-3T polymer was dissociated to increase the sorption efficiency for copper ion.

  3. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred [University of California, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail: wilfred@engr.ucr.edu

    2005-10-15

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted.

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  5. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  6. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  7. Heavy metal transfer from atmosphere to plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, J.; Guillard, E.; Tissut, M.; Gaude, T.; Ravanel, P.

    2003-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination due to traffic was studied in the water basin of the Aiguebelette lake (Savoie, France) in the alpine chain. It is surrounded by mountains and crossed by a highway on a 6-km-distance. Contamination of lichens, mosses, barks and dead leaves litters were submitted to a comparative study. The quantities of six metals (Pb, Al, Cd, Zn, Mn, Ni) were estimated in each of these materials. Except for Al which was highly concentrated in Xanthoria parietina and to a lesser extent in mosses, all the matrices accumulated the metals in a relatively similar way. The hyperaccumulation factor varied from 2 to 258, depending on the sampling point on the studied metal and on the matrix. Bark represented a long-term accumulator and contained more lead than the other matrices. In the studied water basin, a specific atmospheric movement allowed to distribute the contaminants far away from the highway, especially on the west slope of the highest mountain.

  8. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi.

  9. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  10. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIRIĆ, Ivan; KOS, Ivica; Ante KASAP; Fran PETKOVIĆ; Držaić, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing.,). Completely developed and mature ...

  11. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results.

  12. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  13. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800℃ for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  14. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Heavy and Trace Metals in Fingernails of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAHAB

    reference to the harmful effects of cadmium, mercury ... metalloid such as arsenic, regardless of density ... Heavy metal poisoning could results for instance, from ... metals from the samples or depositing metals on them. ... prevent foaming.

  16. Heavy metal sorption by marine algae and algal by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandau, E. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Sandau, P. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Pulz, O. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Zimmermann, M. [Technische Hochschule Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie und Biotechnik

    1996-12-31

    All the oceans are plentiful with marine algae. Non-viable marine macroalgae are able to adsorb heavy metal ions. Compared with other biosorbents, such as fungi, bacteria, yeasts and microalgae, they have the advantage of being easily available, cheap and having high heavy metal sorption capacities. The by-products of marine phaeophyceae are even more cost-effective heavy metal biosorbers. Experiments of heavy metal sorption using non-viable Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum and algal by-products were carried out to investigate the factors influencing and optimizing the heavy metal biosorption. The pH value, biomass concentration, heavy metal concentration, heavy metal species, competing ions, algal varieties and time were the most decisive parameters. The sorption isotherms showed increasing sorption capacities and decreasing sorption efficiencies with an increase in the initial heavy metal concentration. Sorption kinetics of different metals were established. Biomass concentration influenced the sorption efficiencies very much, but reduced the sorption capacity per g biomass. The pH value controlled the sorption (pH 3-7) and desorption (pH 1-2) decisively. Beside heavy metal contaminated model waters, actual industrial effluents were treated successfully by algal sorbents in batch experiments and continuous column tests. Transmission electron micrographs of different contaminated and untreated algal specimens are available. (orig.)

  17. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  18. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  19. Environmental impact of heavy metal pollution in natural aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tayab, Muhammad Rehan

    1991-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The distribution of heavy metals between soil and soil solutions is a key issue in evaluating the environmental impact of long term applications of heavy metals to land. Contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported by many workers. Metal adsorption is affected by many factors, including soil pH, clay mineralogy, abundance of oxides and organic matter, soil composition and solution...

  20. Protective effect of Aronia melanocarpa polyphenols against cadmium-induced disorders in bone metabolism: a study in a rat model of lifetime human exposure to this heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Rogalska, Joanna; Galazyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Jurczuk, Maria; Roszczenko, Alicja; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-03-05

    It was investigated, in a female rat model of low and moderate lifetime human exposure to cadmium (Cd), whether polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberry; AMP) may offer protection from this heavy metal-induced disorders in bone metabolism. For this purpose, numerous indices of bone formation (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin) and resorption (carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) in the serum and/or distal femur epiphysis (trabecular bone region), as well as bone mineral status (volumetric bone mineral density of the femur and content of mineral components, including calcium, in the bone tissue at the distal femur epiphysis) were evaluated in female Wistar rats that received a 0.1% aqueous extract of AMP, as the only drinking fluid (prepared from lyophilized extract by Adamed Consumer Healthcare), and/or Cd in diet (1 and 5mg/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months. Examination of the phytochemical profile of the aronia extract revealed high content of polyphenols (612.40 ± 3.33 mg/g), including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Among detected compounds anthocyanins were identified as dominating. The exposure to Cd, dose- and duration-dependently, enhanced resorption and inhibited formation of the bone tissue resulting in its decreased mineralization. The administration of AMP under the exposure to 1 and 5 mgCd/kg diet provided important protection from this heavy metal-induced disturbances in the bone turnover and changes in the bone mineral status, and the beneficial impact of polyphenols resulted from their independent action and interaction with Cd. These findings suggest that consumption of Aronia melanocarpa polyphenols may play a role in prevention against female skeleton damage due to chronic exposure to Cd and that chokeberry represents the good natural plant candidate for further investigations of its prophylactic use

  1. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  2. Magnetotactic bacteria. Promising biosorbents for heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong [Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Chengdu (China). Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. (orig.)

  3. HEAVY FERMIONS. Strange metal without magnetic criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takahiro; Kuga, Kentaro; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Coleman, Piers; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2015-07-31

    A fundamental challenge to our current understanding of metals is the observation of qualitative departures from Fermi liquid behavior. The standard view attributes such non-Fermi liquid phenomena to the scattering of electrons off quantum critical fluctuations of an underlying order parameter. Although the possibility of non-Fermi liquid behavior isolated from the border of magnetism has long been speculated, no experimental confirmation has been made. Here, we report on the observation of a strange metal region away from a magnetic instability in an ultrapure single crystal. In particular, we show that the heavy-fermion superconductor β-YbAlB4 forms a possible phase with strange metallic behavior across an extensive pressure regime, distinctly separated from a high-pressure magnetic quantum phase transition by a Fermi liquid phase.

  4. Removal of heavy metals by hybrid electrocoagulation and microfiltration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi; Vinduja, V; Balasubramanian, N

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation of the performance of electrocoagulation (EC), followed by the microfiltration process for heavy metal removal in synthetic model waste water containing Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions. Effects of initial concentration, current density and pH on metal removal were analysed to optimize the EC process. The optimized EC process was then integrated with dead-end microfiltration (MF) and was found that the hybrid process was capable of 99% removal of heavy metals. The cake layer formed over the membrane by the hybrid process was analysed through scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size analysis of the sludge formed during EC was done to investigate the fouling caused during the process.

  5. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  6. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  7. The Confluence of Heavy Metal Biooxidation and Heavy Metal Resistance: Implications for Bioleaching by Extreme Thermoacidophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Wheaton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme thermoacidophiles (Topt > 65 °C, pHopt < 3.5 inhabit unique environments fraught with challenges, including extremely high temperatures, low pH, as well as high levels of soluble metal species. In fact, certain members of this group thrive by metabolizing heavy metals, creating a dynamic equilibrium between biooxidation to meet bioenergetic needs and mechanisms for tolerating and resisting the toxic effects of solubilized metals. Extremely thermoacidophilic archaea dominate bioleaching operations at elevated temperatures and have been considered for processing certain mineral types (e.g., chalcopyrite, some of which are recalcitrant to their mesophilic counterparts. A key issue to consider, in addition to temperature and pH, is the extent to which solid phase heavy metals are solubilized and the concomitant impact of these mobilized metals on the microorganism’s growth physiology. Here, extreme thermoacidophiles are examined from the perspectives of biodiversity, heavy metal biooxidation, metal resistance mechanisms, microbe-solid interactions, and application of these archaea in biomining operations.

  8. A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jin-Fen; Lin, Rong-Gen; Ma, Li

    2000-09-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  9. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION BY MARINE ALGAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  10. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  12. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    significant negative impact on the water quality. Key words: Heavy ... fish, and for such in-stream uses as recreation, ... adverse effects of pollutants such as heavy metals is ... through Kebbi State and flows through to the Atlantic Ocean. The.

  13. The use of dialdehyde starch derivatives in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Para, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Products of the reaction between dialdehyde starch and Y-NH2 compounds (e.g. semicarbazide or hydrazine) are effective ligands for metal ions. The usefulness of these derivatives was tested in the experiment, both in terms of the immobilization of heavy metal ions in soil and the potential application in phytoextraction processes. The experimental model comprised maize and the ions of such metals as: Zn(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II). The amount of maize yield, as well as heavy metal content and uptake by the aboveground parts and roots of maize, were studied during a three-year pot experiment. The results of the study indicate the significant impact of heavy metals on reduced yield and increased heavy metal content in maize. Soil-applied dialdehyde starch derivatives resulted in lower yields, particularly disemicarbazone (DASS), but in heavy metal-contaminated soils they largely limited the negative impact of these metals both on yielding and heavy metal content in plants, particularly dihydrazone (DASH). It was demonstrated that the application of dihydrazone (DASH) to a soil polluted with heavy metals boosted the uptake of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd from the soil, hence there is a possibility to use this compound in the phytoextraction of these metals from the soil. Decreased Ni uptake was also determined, hence the possibility of using this compound in the immobilization of this metal. The study showed that dialdehyde starch disemicarbazone was ineffective in the discussed processes.

  14. Synoptic evaluation of modelled and bioindicated atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in forests; Synoptische Auswertung modellierter atmosphaerischer Eintraege von Schwermetallen und deren Indikation durch Biomonitore in Waeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Stefan; Schroeder, Winfried [Vechta Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Fries, Caroline [PlanWerk - Buero fuer oekologische Fachplanungen, Nidda (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Heavy metals (HM) concentrations in moss, leaves and needles and organic surface soil layers, derived from the European Moss Survey, the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) and the ICP Forests were compared with those from deposition modelling by use of LOTOS-EUROS (LE) and EMEP/MSCE-HM in terms of their spatial patterns and temporal trends. The total atmospheric deposition differs considerably between the two models. HM concentrations in biomonitors (moss, leaves, and needles) were found to be predominantly higher correlated to deposition modelled by LE compared to EMEP. For Cd, strongest correlations could be found between deposition data calculated by LE and concentrations in moss (Europe, geostatistically estimated) and in needles (Germany). Regarding Pb, the coefficients of correlation came out to be the highest for EMEP deposition and measured element concentrations in moss (Europe) as well as for LE deposition and needles from ICP Forests Level II (Germany) and, respectively, leaves from ESB (Germany).

  15. Speciation of heavy metal ions as influenced by interactions with montmorillonite, Al hydroxide polymers and citrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    Clay minerals, metal-hydroxides and organic matter can bind metal ions; moreover they also interact with each other. These mutual interactions influence the metal binding to a significant extent. In this study, the speciation of the heavy metal ions Zn and Ph was investigated in model systems consis

  16. Heavy metals in equine biological components

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Verônica de Souza; Maurício Paulo Ferreira Fontes; Raphael Bragança Alves Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the blood (Pb, Ni and Cd), serum (Cu and Zn) and hair (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn) of horses raised in non-industrial and industrial areas (with steel mill), and to verify the possibility to use these data as indicators of environmental pollution. The samples were collected during summer and winter, aiming to verify animal contamination related to environment and season of the year. Copper and Zn contents determin...

  17. Determination of heavy metals in fish scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nováková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes from measurements of amount of selected elements in the fish scales of common carp are presented. Concentrations in the scales were identified and differences between storage of heavy metals in exposed and covered part of scale were studied. The spatial distribution of elements on the fish scale´s surface layer was measured by Laser Ablation–Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS. The average amount of elements in the dissolved scales was quantified by ICP–MS. The fine structure of fish scales was visualized by phase–contrast Synchrotron radiation (SR microradiography.

  18. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...... and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes. An exponential correlation was found between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished....... The heavy metal gradients from a secondary smelter in one of these sub-areas were steepest in soil compared with lichens and bryophytes....

  19. [Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution by edible fungi: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Fei; Hu, Liu-Jie; Liao, Dun-Xiu; Su, Shi-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Ke; Zhang, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Bioremediation is the method of using organisms and their derivatives to absorb heavy metals from polluted environment, with the characteristics of low cost, broad sources, and no secondary pollution. Heavy metals enrichment by edible fungi is an important research focus of bioremediation, because it can decrease the eco-toxicity of heavy metals via the uptake by edible fungi, and thereby, take a definite role in heavy metal remediation. This paper reviewed the research progress on the enrichment of heavy metal copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, and chromium by edible fungi and the possible enrichment mechanisms, and prospected the development and applications of heavy metal enrichment by edible fungi in the management of polluted environment.

  20. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  1. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  2. A Better Method for Evaluating Heavy Metal Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Janet

    2002-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, and even trace amounts of some, can be harmful to both plants and animals. The toxicity of heavy metal contamination, however, is highly dependent on the chemical form of the metal in question. Metals that are bound in particles or to organic (carbon-containing) compounds are less toxic than dissolved free ions, less toxic meaning that the metals are less readily available for uptake by marine organisms.

  3. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  4. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. The heavy metals are highly toxic and are non-biodegradable, therefore they must be removed from the polluted streams in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental quality standards. Removal of heavy metals can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. Conventional methods typically involve the use of processes such as coag...

  5. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. The heavy metals are highly toxic and are non-biodegradable, therefore they must be removed from the polluted streams in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental quality standards. Removal of heavy metals can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. Conventional methods typically involve the use of processes such as coag...

  6. Collective Motion of Moshers at Heavy Metal Concerts

    CERN Document Server

    Silverberg, Jesse L; Sethna, James P; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the highly energized collective motion of attendees at heavy metal concerts. We find these extreme social gatherings generate similarly extreme behaviors: a disordered gas-like state called a mosh pit and an ordered vortex-like state called a circle pit. Both phenomena are reproduced in flocking simulations demonstrating that human collective behavior is consistent with the predictions of simplified models.

  7. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, J. F. P

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through test and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. The chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, an increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slag samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-through test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5 % (Ca and 1% (other elements.

    Este articulo contiene los resultados obtenidos en ensayos de lixiviación de escorias de acero (horno electrico y cuchara ejecutados siguiendo la metodologia de flujo dinámico así como el ensayo normalizado DIN 38414-S4. El primer ensayo intenta simular el comportamiento de lixiviación de las escorias en vertedero. Para las escorias ensayadas se han complementado los ensayos con el análisis químico de los lixiviados y se ha verificado un aumento de la liberación de metales pesados. El ensayo DIN 38414-S4 se ha utilizado para evaluar la lixiviación por agua de metales pesados, en muestras de escorias originales. Despues de un año de ensayos, se han observado niveles muy bajos de lixiviación. Los elementos mas lixiviados han sido calcio y magnesio. No obstante, en los ensayos de flujo dinámico, el calcio y el magnesio lixiviados de las escorias sólidas era menor de 0,5% y el resto de los otros metales era inferior a 0,1%. Los lixiviados obtenidos con el ensayo DIN 38414-S4 presentan, como era de esperar, valores

  8. Heavy metal screening in compounds feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are generally classified as basic groups of pollutants that are now a days found in different environmental compartments. This is quite a large group of contaminants, which have different characteristics, effects on the environment and sources of origin. For environment pose the greatest risks, especially heavy metals produced by anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the health and vitality of organisms and natural environmental conditions. Livestock nutrition is among the main factors which affect not only the deficiency of livestock production and quality of food of animal origin, but they are also a factor affecting the safety and wholesomeness and the animal health. Compound feeds is characterized as a mixture of two or more feed grain. Containing organic, inorganic nutrients and specifically active compound feed meet the nutritional requirements of a given kind and age category of animals. They are used mainly in the diet of pigs, poultry, but also the nutrition of cattle, sheep, horses and other animal categories. The basic ingredients are cereals in proportion of 60-70 %. The aim of this thesis was to analyze the content of hazardous elements (copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury in 15 samples of compound feeds and then evaluating their content in comparison with maximum limits laid down by Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic and Regulation Commission (EC.

  9. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2014-06-02

    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clocchiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Michel, A.; Gaudry, A.; Moskura, M.

    2003-05-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of heavy metals were measured continuously in the Paris area. The dry depositions were collected on quartz fiber filters, after comparison between clogging capacities and blank levels on commercial filters. Rain was collected in a polyethylene gauge. Two transplanted biomonitors, the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri, and the pleurocarpeous moss Scleropodium purum, were exposed simultaneously. These two common biomonitors have been used in previous passive biomonitoring campaigns [Galsomies 1999, Grasso 1999]. This work attempts to produce data on heavy metal exposure of this populated area near Paris, and to compare these two cryptogamic species behaviour. The results on bioaccumulation were compared to those given by a previous work in Italy [Bargagli, 2002] comparing the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Parmelia caperata. In our study, the transplanted lichens were exposed in different conditions: to the rain or protected from rain, in vertical, horizontal or oblique position. Dry (filters) and wet (rain) depositions and biomonitors were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) for more than 30elements [Ayrault, 2001]. The individual particle composition (on filters and cryptogams) was determined by nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and electron microprobe. The lichens displayed different accumulation rates, depending on exposition conditions. In particular, the inclination influenced the bulk concentrations in the lichen. Relation was made between fluxes and concentration accumulated by the biomonitors. The enrichment factors were spectacular for some elements, e.g. lead.

  11. Bioremediation of Toxic Heavy Metals: A Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover, these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development. Remedy: Bioremediation is the 'green' imperative technique for the heavy metal removal without creating secondary metabolites in the ecosystem. The metabolic potential of several bacterial, algal, fungal as well as plant species has the efficiency to exterminate the heavy metals from the contaminated sites. Different strategies like bioaccumulation, biosorption, biotransformation, rhizofilteration, bioextraction and volatilization are employed for removal of heavy metals by the biological species. Bioremediation approach is presenting a splendid alternate for conventional expensive and inefficient methods for the heavy metal removal. The patents granted on the bioremediation of toxic heavy metals are summarized in the present manuscript which supported the applicability of bioremediation technique at commercial scale. However, the implementation of the present information and advanced research are mandatory to further explore the concealed potential of biological species to resume the originality of the environment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Adsorption of heavy metal in freeway by asphalt block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals are toxic, persistent, and carcinogenic in freeway. Various techniques are available for the removal of heavy metals from waste water among soils during freeway including ion-exchange, membrane filtration, electrolysis, coagulation, flotation, and adsorption. Among them, bio-sorption processes are widely used for heavy metal and other pollutant removal due to its sustainable, rapid and economic. In this paper, heavy metal removal facilitated by adsorption in plants during freeway was illustrated to provide concise information on exploring the adsorption efficiency.

  13. Determination of heavy metal toxicity of finished leather solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ahmet

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the toxicity in leather products of heavy metals known to be detrimental to the ecosystem. Heavy metal concentrations in leather samples were identified with ICP-OES, and toxicity was determined using a MetPLATE bioassay. Chromium and aluminium were found to constitute 98% of the total concentration of heavy metals in finished leather tanned with chromium and aluminium salts, while in some vegetable-tanned leather, zirconium was the only heavy metal identified. The average inhibition values for chromium, aluminium and vegetable tanned leather were 98.08%, 97.04% and 62.36%, respectively.

  14. Research on Distribution Pattern of Heavy Metals in Yanzhou Coalfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-zhu; YANG Feng-jie; CHENG Jian-guang; Wang Cui-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution brings extensive concerns since 1940s. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution on the farmland of Yanzhou coalfield, 216 soil samples and 54 combined samples were collected. Lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, zinc, and nickel contained in both topsoil and deep soil were analyzed using atomic absorbent spectrometry analyzer (AAS). Fuzzy clustering method was used in data processing. And fuzzy synthetic assessment was applied to assess the soil contamination by heavy metals. The result shows that Yanzhou coalfield has been polluted by the heavy metals to some extent.

  15. Heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are released into environment from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Aquatic ecosystems are normally at the receiving end and in many cases, with lakes as intermediaries.Lacustrine sediments are important sinks for heavy metals and play a significant role in enrichment and remobilization of heavy metals in aquatic systems. Therefore, characteristics of heavy metal in lacustrine sediments become one of the important issues in environmental sciences. Progress in heavy metal research of lake sediments since late 1980s is reviewed comprehensively in this paper from over 100. The Highlights are placed on the establishment of aquatic sediment quality guidelines, references chemical speciation of heavy metals, heavy metal transport mechanisms in lakes, and high-resolution study of lake borehole cores.Meanwhile, suggestions for heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment in the future are proposed, including such issues as using integrated approaches to assess aquatic ecosystem, modern lake dynamic process,high-resolution evolutionary sequence and spatial differentiation of environments and international lake database, which should be referential to the promotion of research on heavy metal in aquatic system.

  16. Peltier effect in normal metal-insulator-heavy fermion metal junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, A. V.; Rowe, D. M.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Kuznetsova, L. A.; Min, Gao

    2003-04-01

    A theoretical study has been undertaken of the Peltier effect in normal metal-insulator-heavy fermion metal junctions. The results indicate that, at temperatures below the Kondo temperature, such junctions can be used as electronic microrefrigerators to cool the normal metal electrode and are several times more efficient in cooling than the normal metal-heavy fermion metal junctions.

  17. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  18. Efficacy of Locust Beans Husk Char in Heavy Metal Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Ayodeji Ajayi-Banji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most solid waste management schemes minimally consider low concentration biodegradable agricultural waste management, though the environmental impact of this waste category is significant over a time frame. The column-mode study seeks to address the issue by suggesting potential utilisation of post-harvest waste for heavy metal sequestering. Locust beans husk char of 100 and 200 g was employed to inspect removal efficiency, isotherm and kinetic models of some heavy metals at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min contact time. Elemental composition of the biosorbent was investigated using the SEM-EDX machine. The results obtained depict that over 85% aluminium and nickel removal was achieved at 150 min detention time. The Freundlich isotherm well described most of the sorbates sorption (R2 ≥ 0.91. The sorption rate equally fitted into the second-order pseudo kinetic model (R2 ≥ 0.88. Ion exchange took place during the sorption. Locust beans husk has promising adsorption potential in heavy metal ions removal from fouled surface water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.4.13081

  19. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria. ... metals from soil, water or air and retain them ... Administration (OSHA), European Union .... Heavy Metals from Wastewater using ... Biotechnology 5 (12): 1167-1176. 2.

  20. Studies on Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil-Plant System: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiyan; Sun Xiangyang

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in soil-plant system is of major environmental concern on a world scale and in China in par-ticular with the rapid development of industry. The heavy metal pollution status in soil-plant system in China, the research progresson the bioavailability of heavy metals (affecting factors, extraction methods, free-ion activity model, adsorption model, multivariateregression model, Q-I relationship, and compound pollution), and soil remediation are reviewed in the paper. Future research andmonitoring is also discussed.

  1. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  2. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  3. Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G; Patlolla, Anita K; Sutton, Dwayne J

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least 5 times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. They are also classified as human carcinogens (known or probable) according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. PMID:22945569

  4. Interaction of soil heavy metal pollution with industrialisation and the landscape pattern in Taiyuan city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Su, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaoting; Pei, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies indicated that industrialization and urbanization caused serious soil heavy metal pollution from industrialized age. However, fewer previous studies have conducted a combined analysis of the landscape pattern, urbanization, industrialization, and heavy metal pollution. This paper was aimed at exploring the relationships of heavy metals in the soil (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn) with landscape pattern, industrialisation, urbanisation in Taiyuan city using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis included correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent-sample T test, and principal component analysis (PCA). Geographic information system (GIS) was also applied to determine the spatial distribution of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution maps showed that the heavy metal pollution of the soil was more serious in the centre of the study area. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the correlations among heavy metals were significant, and industrialisation could significantly affect the concentrations of some heavy metals. Landscape diversity showed a significant negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations. The PCA showed that a two-factor model for heavy metal pollution, industrialisation, and the landscape pattern could effectively demonstrate the relationships between these variables. The model explained 86.71% of the total variance of the data. Moreover, the first factor was mainly loaded with the comprehensive pollution index (P), and the second factor was primarily loaded with landscape diversity and dominance (H and D). An ordination of 80 samples could show the pollution pattern of all the samples. The results revealed that local industrialisation caused heavy metal pollution of the soil, but such pollution could respond negatively to the landscape pattern. The results of the study could provide a basis for agricultural, suburban, and urban planning.

  5. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  6. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  7. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  8. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  9. Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

    2012-12-01

    The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment.

  10. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy. Metals and ... evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals .... levels of liver GSH and activities of AST and ALT in. Table 1: pH .... been observed previously in rats treated with aflatoxin.

  11. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Karen R.; Westefeld, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among high school students. Results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be sign of increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggests that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial…

  12. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  13. A Process for Making Bulk Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invention relates to the preparation of glasses, and, in particular, relates to the preparation of heavy metal fluoride glasses with...reproducible high optical qualities. Considerable effort has been expended to develop heavy metal fluoride glasses ( HMFG ) as a viable family of infrared

  14. Heavy Metal Toxicity in Bioremediation: Microbial Cultures and Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This research employed a variety of microscopy and spread plating techniques to observe the effects of heavy metal treatments on a toluene-selected...of bacteria and offered new techniques for potential heavy metal toxicity measurements as well as differentiation methods.

  15. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digestion, and the contents of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic ... In addition, toxic heavy metals in plants could be influenced ... deformities, could be caused by heavy metal poisoning, including Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Sn, and Sb poisoning [4,5]. ..... body harm and prevention. Qinghai ...

  16. Heavy Metal Biosorption Sites Studies of Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Aihong; WANG Xian; DENG Yongzhi; CHEN Lidan

    2005-01-01

    The role played by the functional groups of Laminaria japonica treated by methanol and formaldehyde in biosorption of the heavy metals was investigated.Infrared spectroscopy analysis and biosorption experiments show that both carboxyl and amino groups join in the sorption; chemical treatment decreased the biosorption efficiency of the heavy metals.

  17. Removal of Heavy Metals in Effluent by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting LI; Xia LI; Bing Ru ZHANG; Qing Hua OUYANG

    2004-01-01

    The silicate colloids with an average diameter 100 nm, were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TES), NH4OH (30%) and then modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane ( APS). The colloids can adsorb heavy metals such as Pb and Cr in effluent and after adsorption the colloids can be separated by coagulation of aluminum sulfate. The removal of heavy metals is up to 99%.

  18. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  19. Balance of heavy metals in the Volga River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur'yakova, A. N.

    2011-08-01

    The results of many years of geochemical research of aquatic landscapes are presented. Data on the average annual and seasonal concentrations of heavy metals in water and suspended sediments are given. Factors of migration and accumulation of elements in aquatic landscapes are discussed. Masses of heavy metals annually incoming and accumulated in the Volga River delta were calculated.

  20. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, an appropriate in vitro model to study heavy metals induced carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn-hee; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to arsenic (III) and chromium VI (Cr(VI)) have been confirmed to cause lung cancer. Mechanisms of these metals-induced carcinogenesis are still under investigation. Selection of cell lines to be used is essential for the mechanistic studies. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells are the cells to be utilized by most of scientists. However, due to p53 missense mutation (CCG → TCG) at codon 47 and the codon 72 polymorphism (CGC → CCC) in BEAS-2B cells, its usage has frequently been questioned. The present study has examined activity and expression of 53 and its downstream target protein p21 upon acute or chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic and Cr(VI). The results show that short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) was able to activate both p53 and p21. Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to these two metals caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. In arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells reductions in p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 were observed, while the total p53 protein level remained the same compared to those in passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit elevated p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation at Ser15, but reduced phosphorylation at Ser392 and total p53 protein level compared to passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were elevated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells. These results demonstrate that p53 is able to respond to exposure of arsenic or Cr(VI), suggesting that BEAS-2B cells are an appropriate in vitro model to investigate arsenic or Cr(VI) induced lung cancer. PMID:26091798

  1. Effect of heavy metals on, and handling by, the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Olivier; Jacquillet, Grégory; Tauc, Michel; Cougnon, Marc; Poujeol, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and platinum (Pt) are a major environmental and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, these non-essential elements are toxic at very low doses and non-biodegradable with a very long biological half-life. Thus, exposure to heavy metals is potentially harmful. Because of its ability to reabsorb and accumulate divalent metals, the kidney is the first target organ of heavy metal toxicity. The extent of renal damage by heavy metals depends on the nature, the dose, route and duration of exposure. Both acute and chronic intoxication have been demonstrated to cause nephropathies, with various levels of severity ranging from tubular dysfunctions like acquired Fanconi syndrome to severe renal failure leading occasionally to death. Very varied pathways are involved in uptake of heavy metals by the epithelium, depending on the form (free or bound) of the metal and the segment of the nephron where reabsorption occurs (proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and terminal segments). In this review, we address the putative uptake pathways involved along the nephron, the mechanisms of intracellular sequestration and detoxification and the nephropathies caused by heavy metals. We also tackle the question of the possible therapeutic means of decreasing the toxic effect of heavy metals by increasing their urinary excretion without affecting the renal uptake of essential trace elements. We have chosen to focus mainly on Cd, Hg and Pb and on in vivo studies.

  2. Bioindication of a surplus of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W H; Verkleij, J A; Vooijs, R

    1983-09-01

    A survey of the methods of boindication of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems and their effectiveness for predicting the consequences of environmental stress on organisms is presented. Two main inputs of heavy metals for terrestrial ecosystems have been considered: airborne and soil-borne.Airborne metals can be monitored due to physical adsorption on plant surfaces or due to chemical exchange processes in cell walls. Active biomonitoring widely uses both aspects, however, without predictive values.Meaningful bioindication of soilborne heavy metals can only be achieved by passive monitoring. Due to the different functions of heavy metals in organisms-micronutrients and trace elements-the knowledge of natural background values is important, considering the qualitative aspects of metals in the soil. In exceptional situations morphological and anatomical changes of plant organs will facilitate bioindication; in every case chemical analysis of the concentration of heavy metals is an essential part of the monitoring program.A long-term exposure of organisms to heavy metals will influence the genetic structure of populations. Therefore measurement of heavy metal tolerance of plants has to be a standard procedure in monitoring programs.

  3. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  4. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

  5. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...... for both catchments low and no correlations between PAH concentrations in the pond and toxicity were found....

  6. Influence of heavy metal pollution on lichens and bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.N.; Robitaille, G.; LeBlanc, F.

    1977-05-01

    A close correlation was observed between metal accumulation levels and phytosociological and physiological changes produced in lichens and bryophytes in a sulfur dioxide and heavy metal polluted area around a copper smelter in Murdochville, Canada. This observation has prompted a discussion of some of the past and present research on ecology, phytosociology, and physiology of lichens and bryophytes with respect to heavy metal pollution. Hopefully this will lead to a better understanding of the use of these plants in the diagnosis of heavy metal pollution. Data are received on the accumulation of Ba, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in certain mosses and their corresponding substrates.

  7. 620 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS, pH AND EC IN EFFLUENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Heavy metal contents from effluent run-off, neighboring Holeta River, and adjacent soils around ... use of agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), ... environmental degradation and ecological .... the glass electrode in VWR Scientific Model.

  8. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.

    2014-01-01

    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. PMID:25184144

  9. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Said Mohamed Daboor; Amany Mohamed Haroon; Neven Abd Elfatah Esmael; Slah Ibrahem Hanona

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment) were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+, Pb2+and Fe2+single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+>Pb2+>Fe2+ ) was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe2+and Pb2+adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  10. Differential responses of sweetpotato peroxidases to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2010-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of damage in plants exposed to different types of environmental stress, including heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants can disrupt many cellular functions and plant growth. To assess the contribution of oxidative stress to heavy metal toxicity in plants, young sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas) were treated with increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn, and grown in half Murashige and Skoog nutrient solution culture. Plant growth was significantly inhibited and internal metal content was increased in a dose-dependent manner for each metal. The generation of H(2)O(2) in leaves and fibrous roots correlated positively with metal dose. The specific activity of peroxidases (PODs) in fibrous roots was markedly enhanced by metal treatment, whereas in leaves, activity was low and only slightly affected by metal treatment. Analysis of 13 POD genes revealed differential expression of PODs in response to heavy metals. Several genes for acidic PODs (swpa2, swpa3 and swpa4) and basic PODs (swpb1, swpb3 and swpab4) were strongly expressed under all metal treatment conditions in leaves or fibrous roots. The expression of swpa1 was increased in leaves and fibrous roots by Cd and Cu treatment, whereas swpb5 expression was reduced by all metals in fibrous roots. These results indicate that increased H(2)O(2) levels in response to heavy metal stress are closely linked to an improved antioxidant defense capability mediated by POD.

  11. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, an appropriate in vitro model to study heavy metals induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youn-hee; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu

    2015-09-15

    Occupational and environmental exposure to arsenic (III) and chromium VI (Cr(VI)) have been confirmed to cause lung cancer. Mechanisms of these metals carcinogenesis are still under investigation. Selection of cell lines to be used is essential for the studies. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells are the cells to be utilized by most of scientists. However, due to p53 missense mutation (CCG → TCG) at codon 47 and the codon 72 polymorphism (CGC → CCC) in BEAS-2B cells, its usage has frequently been questioned. The present study has examined activity and expression of 53 and its downstream target protein p21 upon acute or chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic and Cr(VI). The results show that short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) was able to activate both p53 and p21. Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to these two metals caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. In arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells reductions in p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 were observed, while the total p53 protein level remained the same compared to those in passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit elevated p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation at Ser15, but reduced phosphorylation at Ser392 and total p53 protein level compared to passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were elevated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells. These results demonstrate that p53 is able to respond to exposure of arsenic or Cr(VI), suggesting that BEAS-2B cells are an appropriate in vitro model to investigate arsenic or Cr(VI) induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) activates p53 and p21. • Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) causes cell transformation and tumorigenesis. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit

  12. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  13. Effects of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Ozbolat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the elements that can be toxic even at low concentrations. It is often used as a group name for metals and semimetals (metalloids that have been associated with contamination and potential toxicity or ecotoxicity. Heavy metals are toxic to human health. Because it cannot be discarded with (kidney, liver intestine, skin, lung without special support from most of the body's normal excretion routes Therefore, a large part of the heavy metals accumulate in biological organisms. As a result of the accumulation of these metals that are focused within living things, when they have reached the effective dose severe diseases (such as autism neurological, thyroid and infertility even can cause death. In this review information about the properties and effects of some heavy metals that affects human health have been provided.. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 502-521

  14. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod R; Gupta, Rakhi; Gajghate, Daulat Ghilagi; Wate, Satish R

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals released from different sources in urban environment get adsorbed on respirable particulate matter less than 10 μm in size (PM(10)) and are important from public health point of view causing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the ambient air quality monitoring was carried out to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM(10) and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM(10) fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM(10) was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during nighttime also. Six heavy metals were analyzed and were observed to occur in the order Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in 2006, similar to the trend in other metro cities in India. Lead and Nickel were observed to be within the stipulated standards. Poor correlation coefficient (R(2)) between lead and PM(10) indicated that automobile exhaust is not the source of metals to air pollution. Commercial and industrial activity as well as geological composition may be the potential sources of heavy metal pollution. Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.

  15. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. Results. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Conclusions. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  16. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by sawdust adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BULUT Yasemin; TEZ Zeki

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption of lead, cadmium and nicel from aqueous solution by sawdust of walnut was investigated. The effect of contact time,initial metal ion concentration and temperature on metal ions removal has been studied. The equilibrium time was found to be of the order of 60 min. Kinetics fit pseudo first-order, second-order and intraparticle diffusion models, hence adsorption rate constants were calculated. The adsorption data of metal ions at temperatures of 25, 45 and 60C have been described by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as energy, entropy and enthalpy changes for the adsorption of heavy metal ions have also been computed and discussed. Ion exchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for binding divalent metal ions to the walnut sawdust. The selectivity order of the adsorbent is Pb(Ⅱ)≈Cd(Ⅱ)>Ni(Ⅱ). From these results, it can be concluded that the sawdust of walnut could be a good adsorbent for the metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  17. Speciation of heavy metals in River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, F.A.; Weng, L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical speciation of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in River Rhine was studied by measuring free ion concentration and distribution in nanoparticles, and by comparing the measurement with speciation modeling. Concentrations of free metal ions were determined in situ using Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). T

  18. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Anita [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Mody, Kalpana [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)]. E-mail: khmody@csmcri.org; Jha, Bhavanath [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here.

  19. Phytoremediation: structural characteristics of plants under heavy metal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Otradovcová, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The environmental pollution by heavy metals has been becoming currently a big problem. The contents of these metals in soils and water increase, particular in consequence of human activities particularly in developed countries. Local contaminations are problematic in our country, too. Soil contamination by heavy metals negatively affects agricultural production and food chains in nature. It may have an adverse impact to human health. The general public is interested in possibilities of removi...

  20. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golnaz Karimi; Parisa Ziarati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of d...

  1. CFD simulations in heavy liquid metal flows for square lattice bare rod bundle geometries with a four parameter heat transfer turbulence model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manservisi, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.manservisi@unibo.it; Menghini, Filippo, E-mail: filippo.menghini3@unibo.it

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Turbulent heat transfer with a κ–ϵ–κ{sub θ}–ϵ{sub θ} turbulence model is investigated. • Numerical simulations with different pitch-to-diameter ratios are performed. • The results are compared with SED model and a few available experimental correlations. - Abstract: The study of heat transfer in heavy liquid metals has gained more attention in the last several years due to their applications in new advanced nuclear reactors. These fluids are characterized by low Prandtl numbers and a peculiar heat transfer that cannot be accurately reproduced with standard turbulence approximations, such as the Simple Eddy Diffusivity model (SED), commonly used in commercial codes. In this paper we report the results obtained for the SED and a more advanced κ–ϵ–κ{sub θ}–ϵ{sub θ} four parameter turbulence model for simulations in square lattice bare rod bundle geometries with different pitch-to-diameter ratios. We compare these numerical results with the available experimental data and correlations for the prediction of the Nusselt number.

  2. Simulation of changes in heavy metal contamination in farmland soils of a typical manufacturing center through logistic-based cellular automata modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Menglong; Wang, Qi; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

    2016-01-01

    A customized logistic-based cellular automata (CA) model was developed to simulate changes in heavy metal contamination (HMC) in farmland soils of Dongguan, a manufacturing center in Southern China, and to discover the relationship between HMC and related explanatory variables (continuous and categorical). The model was calibrated through the simulation and validation of HMC in 2012. Thereafter, the model was implemented for the scenario simulation of development alternatives for HMC in 2022. The HMC in 2002 and 2012 was determined through soil tests and cokriging. Continuous variables were divided into two groups by odds ratios. Positive variables (odds ratios >1) included the Nemerow synthetic pollution index in 2002, linear drainage density, distance from the city center, distance from the railway, slope, and secondary industrial output per unit of land. Negative variables (odds ratios soil pH, and distance from bodies of water. Categorical variables, including soil type, parent material type, organic content grade, and land use type, also significantly influenced HMC according to Wald statistics. The relative operating characteristic and kappa coefficients were 0.91 and 0.64, respectively, which proved the validity and accuracy of the model. The scenario simulation shows that the government should not only implement stricter environmental regulation but also strengthen the remediation of the current polluted area to effectively mitigate HMC.

  3. Identification of Thlaspi caerulescens genes that may be involved in heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance. Characterization of a novel heavy metal transporting ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V

    2004-11-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant species that is able to accumulate extremely high levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in its shoots (30,000 microg g(-1) Zn and 10,000 microg g(-1) Cd), and has been the subject of intense research as a model plant to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance and as a source of genes for developing plant species better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we report on the results of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) complementation screen aimed at identifying candidate heavy metal tolerance genes in T. caerulescens. A number of Thlaspi genes that conferred Cd tolerance to yeast were identified, including possible metal-binding ligands from the metallothionein gene family, and a P-type ATPase that is a member of the P1B subfamily of purported heavy metal-translocating ATPases. A detailed characterization of the Thlaspi heavy metal ATPase, TcHMA4, demonstrated that it mediates yeast metal tolerance via active efflux of a number of different heavy metals (Cd, Zn, lead [Pb], and copper [Cu]) out of the cell. However, in T. caerulescens, based on differences in tissue-specific and metal-responsive expression of this transporter compared with its homolog in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we suggest that it may not be involved in metal tolerance. Instead, we hypothesize that it may play a role in xylem loading of metals and thus could be a key player in the hyperaccumulation phenotype expressed in T. caerulescens. Additionally, evidence is presented showing that the C terminus of the TcHMA4 protein, which contains numerous possible heavy metal-binding His and Cys repeats residues, participates in heavy metal binding. When partial peptides from this C-terminal domain were expressed in yeast, they conferred an extremely high level of Cd tolerance and Cd hyperaccumulation. The possibilities for enhancing the metal

  4. Identification of Thlaspi caerulescens Genes That May Be Involved in Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulation and Tolerance. Characterization of a Novel Heavy Metal Transporting ATPase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V.

    2004-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant species that is able to accumulate extremely high levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in its shoots (30,000 μg g−1 Zn and 10,000 μg g−1 Cd), and has been the subject of intense research as a model plant to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance and as a source of genes for developing plant species better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we report on the results of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) complementation screen aimed at identifying candidate heavy metal tolerance genes in T. caerulescens. A number of Thlaspi genes that conferred Cd tolerance to yeast were identified, including possible metal-binding ligands from the metallothionein gene family, and a P-type ATPase that is a member of the P1B subfamily of purported heavy metal-translocating ATPases. A detailed characterization of the Thlaspi heavy metal ATPase, TcHMA4, demonstrated that it mediates yeast metal tolerance via active efflux of a number of different heavy metals (Cd, Zn, lead [Pb], and copper [Cu]) out of the cell. However, in T. caerulescens, based on differences in tissue-specific and metal-responsive expression of this transporter compared with its homolog in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we suggest that it may not be involved in metal tolerance. Instead, we hypothesize that it may play a role in xylem loading of metals and thus could be a key player in the hyperaccumulation phenotype expressed in T. caerulescens. Additionally, evidence is presented showing that the C terminus of the TcHMA4 protein, which contains numerous possible heavy metal-binding His and Cys repeats residues, participates in heavy metal binding. When partial peptides from this C-terminal domain were expressed in yeast, they conferred an extremely high level of Cd tolerance and Cd hyperaccumulation. The possibilities for enhancing the metal tolerance

  5. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  6. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  7. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.* PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild amaranth was investigated in alkaline (pH=8 and acidic (pH=5 soils and also using three substances such as EDTA, ammonium citrate and phosphate. The concentrations of these metals in leachate were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry method. Findings Lead, cadmium and zinc levels in leachate in treatments with plants were less than unplanted ones. The concentrations of these metals in the produced leachate of treatments with acidic soils were higher than those with alkaline soils. In the treatments of soil polluted with additives, treatments containing ammonium phosphate and EDTA had the lowest and highest concentrations of heavy metals, respectively. Concentrations of these metals in treatments without plants were higher than those with plants. Conclusion Increasing of soil pH is effective on stabilization of heavy metals in soil. Ammonium phosphate plays an important role in stabilizing and EDTA and ammonium citrate increase the mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium in soil and groundwater.

  8. Feasibility of anaerobic digested corn stover as biosorbent for heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Wan, Zheng-qiang; Yue, Zheng-bo; Wu, Jian; Chen, Tian-hu

    2013-03-01

    Anaerobic digested (AD) corn stover collected from a lab-scale reactor was used as bioadsorbent to remove the heavy metal in aqueous solution. Effects of contact time and initial heavy metal concentrations on the removal process of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacities of AD corn stover obtained from Langmuir isotherm models were 83.3 and 50.0mg/g for Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was also used to investigate the surface characteristic of raw and heavy metal loaded AD corn stover.

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be

  10. Bio-recovery of non-essential heavy metals by intra- and extracellular mechanisms in free-living microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Jorge D; Sánchez-Thomas, Rosina; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for recovery of non-essential and essential heavy metals from wastewater bodies and soils by using and enhancing their accumulating and/or leaching abilities. This review analyzes the variety of different mechanisms developed mainly in bacteria, protists and microalgae to accumulate heavy metals, being the most relevant those involving phytochelatin and metallothionein biosyntheses; phosphate/polyphosphate metabolism; compartmentalization of heavy metal-complexes into vacuoles, chloroplasts and mitochondria; and secretion of malate and other organic acids. Cyanide biosynthesis for extra-cellular heavy metal bioleaching is also examined. These metabolic/cellular processes are herein analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic and metabolic levels to provide mechanistic basis for developing genetically engineered microorganisms with greater capacities and efficiencies for heavy metal recovery, recycling of heavy metals, biosensing of metal ions, and engineering of metalloenzymes.

  11. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  12. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae.

  13. HEAVY METAL LOADS IN THE SOIL OF DEBRECEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNDOR SZEGEDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy metal content of the soils have been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the forested area of the Nagyerd were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, Calcium- Carbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds, recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

  14. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  15. Mathematics Model in Source Identification of Soil Heavy Metals%土壤中重金属污染源辨识的数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤天任; 宋诗韵; 王军

    2012-01-01

    建立了基于坐标旋转下高斯分布函数的土壤表层重金属污染物点源扩散模型,并利用MATLAB中的非线性极小拟合方法得到模型参数,进而求得污染源的具体位置.以2011年高教社杯全国大学生数学建模竞赛A题数据为例,计算结果表明,旋转后的高斯分布函数拟合精度显著提高,从而为准确探究污染源及位置提供了新的途径.%The paper is concerned with establishing the model about the spread of heavy metal pollutants based on revolving Gaussian distribution function. The parameters in the model are obtained through a nonlinear fitting method in MATLAB in order to find out the location of the pollution sources. Take data in CUMCM-2011 Part A as an example, result shows that the model of revolving Gaussian distribution has high precision of fitting. Thus a new way is provided with locating the pollution sources.

  16. Removal of heavy metals through adsorption using sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The removal of four heavy metals i.e. Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn from their aqueous solutions, using ordinary sand as an adsorbent, was studied at 20oC. The amount of metal adsorbed to form monolayer on sand(am), obtained from Langmuir isotherm, exhibited the preference of metals for sand in the order Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn. The heavy metal-sand adsorption phenomena can be illustrated on the basis of the interaction between surface functional group of silicates (sand) and the metal ions. It is deduced that sand can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater (containing low conc. of metals), especially in the developing countries.

  17. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Dianchi Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ren-Ying; YANG Hao; ZHOU Zhi-Gao; L(U) Jun-Jie; SHAO Xiao-Hua; JIN Feng

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of heavy metals in sediments can help in understanding potential hazards of heavy metals.The present study analyzed total concentrations and fractions of selected heavy metals(Cd,Cr,Cu,Pb,and Zn)in surfaca sediments from Dianchi Lake,Yunnan Province,China,as well as factors that may affect distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.Total concentrations of the heavy metals decreased in the order Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd.These heavy metals,except Cr,were much higher than their background levels,indicating that Dianchi Lake was polluted by Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu.Cadmium occurred mainly as the non-residual fraction(sum of the HOAc-soluble,reducible,and oxidizable fractions)(97.6%),and Zn(55.7%)was also predominantly found in the non-residual fraction.In contrast,most of the Cr(88.5%),Pb(81.8%),and Cu(59.2%)occurred in the residual fraction.Correlation analysis showed that total heavy metal concentrations,organic matter and reducible Fe were the main factors affecting the distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.In the Waihai section of Dianchi Lake (comprising 97%of the lake area),the concentrations of Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu in the non-residual fraction were significantly lower(P≤0.01 or 0.05)than those of the Caohai section (3% of the lake area).This indicated that potential heavy metal hazards in the Caohai section were greater than the Waihai section.

  18. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  19. Airborne heavy metals over Europe: emissions, long-range transport and deposition fluxes to natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the processes by which airborne heavy metals are transported from the main emission areas in Europe and become subject to deposition and absorption into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with subsequent transport and transformation within the biotic and abiotic media that comprise these ecosystems. Results from numerical simulation models capable of simulating long-range transport of heavy metals over Europe together with measurement data of heavy metal concentrations in air and precipitation and the corresponding dry and wet deposition fluxes are reported. European wide inventories of anthropogenic heavy metal emissions based on location and capacity of their dominating source categories such as fossil fuel burning in power plants, industrial and residential combustion, waste incineration and road traffic are briefly described. Emission reduction scenarios with respect to introduction of lead free gasoline are outlined. The critical gaps of knowledge on heavy metals in the atmosphere are identified focusing on uncertainties associated with emission fluxes in Eastern Europe and the scarcity of measurement data in that area. Future research is needed to estimate the effects of emission reductions on deposition fluxes of heavy metals to sensitive ecosystems such as forested areas in Europe is recommended. Special emphasis is placed on mercury, lead and cadmium which have been defined within the European convention on long-range transboundary air pollution of the United Nations-Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE) to be the priority heavy metals of concern. (orig.)

  20. Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Dennis; Duarte, Bernardo; Paiva, Filipa; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João

    2016-09-01

    The permanent presence of microplastics in the marine environment is considered a global threat to several marine animals. Heavy metals and microplastics are typically included in two different classes of pollutants but the interaction between these two stressors is poorly understood. During 14 days of experimental manipulation, we examined the adsorption of two heavy metals, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), leached from an antifouling paint to virgin polystyrene (PS) beads and aged polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fragments in seawater. We demonstrated that heavy metals were released from the antifouling paint to the water and both microplastic types adsorbed the two heavy metals. This adsorption kinetics was described using partition coefficients and mathematical models. Partition coefficients between pellets and water ranged between 650 and 850 for Cu on PS and PVC, respectively. The adsorption of Cu was significantly greater in PVC fragments than in PS, probably due to higher surface area and polarity of PVC. Concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly on PVC and PS over the course of the experiment with the exception of Zn on PS. As a result, we show a significant interaction between these types of microplastics and heavy metals, which can have implications for marine life and the environment. These results strongly support recent findings where plastics can play a key role as vectors for heavy metal ions in the marine system. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of monitoring marine litter and heavy metals, mainly associated with antifouling paints, particularly in the framework of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  1. Temperature Sensitive Optical Phenomena in Heavy Metal Halide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-08

    Heavy - metal halides such as Pb!2 and HgI2 exhibit a strongly tempera- ture dependent absorption edge at visible frequencies. The shift in the absorption...AOb9 537 ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL ANAHEIM CA ELECTRONICS RESEAR—— ETC FIG L u G TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE OPTICAL PHENOMENA IN HEAVY METAL HALIDE F—— ETC (U...PHENOMENA IN HEAVY METAL HALIDE F — ET C( U) ,JAN 79 J D MC*LLEN, D M HEINZ. F S STEARNS DAAK7O— 77—C—01 6 5 UNCLASSIFIED C79 1501 _ _ U SB

  2. The influence of heavy metals on soil microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution was to ascertain an influence of heavy metals on quantitative and qualitative composition of soil microflora. Our experiment was directed to quantitative isolation of culturable bacteria from individual soil samples and to the comparison of the amounts and colony morphology of the isolates from various soil samples. These soil samples were characteristic by a difference in pH, heavy metals and humus contents. Despite the differences between individual soil samples, the most of bacterial isolates were represented by Bacillus genus (especially Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides which belongs to the heavy metal resistant bacterial kinds.

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of Heavy Metals Biosorption by Two Macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽丹; 王宪; 徐鲁荣; 钱爱红

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamic process of two macroalgae, Sargassumfusiforme and Lamin aria japonica, absorbing heavy metal ions Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+, has been studied. The result indicates that the absorption isotherms of these two macroalgae clearly accord with the Landmuir adsorption model. The absorptive processes of S. fusiforme and L. japonica for Cu2+ are endothermal, and at 35 ℃, the adsorption heat of these two algae is 59.5 kJ/mol and 76.8 kJ/mol respectively. Temperature could affect the algae's adsorption capacity. Their adsorption capacity increases with temperature ( 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ ).

  4. Heavy Metals Stimulate Human LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Roy-Engel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available L1 and Alu elements are among the most active retroposons (mobile elements in the human genome. Several human diseases, including certain forms of breast cancer and leukemia, are associated with L1 and Alu insertions in functionally important areas of the genome. We present data demonstrating that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, can stimulate L1 retrotransposition in a tissue culture system using two different types of assays. The response to these agents was equivalent when using a cell line with a stably integrated L1 vector (genomic or a by introducing the L1 vector by transient transfection (episomal of the cell. Reproducible results showed that mercury (HgS, cadmium (CdS, and nickel (NiO increase the activity of L1 by an average of three (3 fold p<0.001. This observation is the first to link several carcinogenic agents with the increased retrotransposition activity of L1 as an alternate mechanism of generating genomic instability contributing to the process of carcinogenesis. Our results demonstrate that mobile element activation must be considered as one of the mechanisms when evaluating genomic damage/instability in response to environmental agents.

  5. Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Mayumi; Minamisawa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Takai, Nobuharu

    2004-09-08

    We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and 6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples.

  6. Nano sized carbonized waste biomass for heavy metal ion remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Garima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of agricultural waste material with approach to enhance the heavy metal remediation properties by carbonizing the biomass at nano size particles has been explored in present investigation from aqueous solutions. In this study the lignocellulosic, nitrogenous agricultural waste biomass Delbergia sissoo pods (DSP has been tried for sequestering of Cd (II, Pb (II and Ni (II metal ions from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were performed for removal of targeted metal ions keeping in consideration the preliminary affecting parameters such as effect of adsorption dose, pH, initial metal ion concentration, stirring speed and contact time. The sorption studies were analyzed by using, Freundlic isotherm and Langmuir isotherm models. The kinetics of the process was evaluated by pseudo pseudo-first order and pseudo second order kinetic models. Studies reveal that the equilibrium was achieved with in 30 min of the contact time at optimized parameters. Analytical studies of biosorbent were done by means of FT-IR, SEM and XRD. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of construction waste for heavy metals from urban stormwater runoff☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlong Wang; Pingping Zhang; Liqiong Yang; Tao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater runoff has become an important source of surface water pollution. Bioretention, a low impact devel-opment measure in urban stormwater management, has been proven to be effective in the removal of pol utants from stormwater runoff, with appropriate bioretention media. In this study, construction wastes were selected as bioretention media to remove heavy metals from stormwater runoff. Static and dynamic adsorption batch exper-iments were carried out to investigate the adsorption of heavy metals in simulated stormwater runoff system with construction wastes in different particle sizes. The experimental results show that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model characterizes the adsorption process and the adsorption equilibrium data are wel described by Freundlich isotherm model. The construction wastes used can remove heavy metals from stormwater runoff effectively, with their average removal rates al more than 90%. The particle size of construction wastes greatly influences the equilibrium time, rate and adsorption capacity for heavy metals.

  8. [Concentrations and Speciation of Dissolved Heavy Metal in Rainwater in Guiyang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhao-zhou; Li, Jun; Wang, Zhi-ru

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the pollution situation, as well as seasonal changes in characteristics and speciation of dissolved heavy metals in acid rain control zone, the concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in rainwater collected at Guiyang were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). And the speciation of dissolved heavy metals was further simulated by PHREEQC model. The results showed that the dissolved Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations were low and not higher than the national standards for drinking water quality in China. The dissolved Pd concentrations were high in fall and winter and higher than the national standards for drinking water quality in China. The Co and Ni in rainwater mainly came from the crust and there was almost no human impact. The Cu, Zn, Cd and Pd pollutions in rainwater were affected by human activity with different levels. The degrees of contamination in autumn and winter were more serious than those in spring and summer. The free metal ion species was the dominant form of dissolved heavy metal, accounting for 47.27%-95.28% of the dissolved metal in rainwater from Guiyang city. The free metal ion species was followed in abundance by Metal-Oxalate and Metal-sulfate complexes that accounted for 0.72% -51.87% and 0.50%-7.66%, respectively. The acidity of rainwater, acid type as well as content of ligand more likely controlled the distribution of dissolved heavy metal in precipitation.

  9. METALert - an emergency response system for China for heavy metals in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet; Dams, Jef; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Raymaekers, Jens; Decorte, Lieve; Raben, Ingrid; Thijssen, Chris; Zhang, Hongzhen; Dong, Jingqi; Zhang, Qianwen

    2016-04-01

    The rapid industrialisation and economic growth of China has resulted in a mirrored increase of environmental issues and threats, which make the updating of the current environmental emergency response protocols very important. Heavy metal pollution accidents with high environmental risks are happening more frequently than ever in recent years. Despite efforts made by the authorites in respect to the formulation of sound policy, efficient technical methods and regulations for dealing with appropriate responses to emergency environmental incidents related to heavy metal pollution are still lacking. METALert is a generic Emergency Response System (ERS) for accidental pollution incidents caused by key heavy metal related industries in China and developed to support China in achieving its environmental targets. The METALert tool is based on environmental models for forecasting, simulation and visualisation of dispersion of heavy metal pollution in water, air and soil. The tool contains a generic database with scenarios for accidental release of metals in typical accidents related to the five key heavy metal industries in China. The tool can calculate the impact of an accident in water, air and soil and is evaluated and demonstrated for a river basin in the Chenzhou area, an important heavy metal mining area in China. The setup of the tool, the background models and the application in Chenzhou will be presented.

  10. Comparison of 2-compartment, 3-compartment and stack designs for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...

  11. Short communication Assessment of heavy metal contamination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... Assessment of heavy metal contamination in raw milk for human consumption ... 3 University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan ..... vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in ...

  12. Phycoremediation of Wastewater: Heavy Metal and Nutrient Removal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phycoremediation is the use of algae for the removal or biotrans-formation of pollutants from wastewater. The study is a novel at-tempt to integrate nutrient (N and P removal and some heavy met-als (iron, manganese and zinc bioaccumulation from municipal wastewater using two microalgae species: Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus armatus. The Chlorella vulgaris showed higher re-moval of total nitrogen (TN both in influent and effluent waste water than Scenedesmus armatus. Nevertheless, more than 51% of total phosphorus (TP in effluent and 36% in influent wastewaters were removed by Scenedesmus armatus. More efficient microalga in heavy metal removal in influent wastewater was Scenedesmus armatus. The results showed that Chlorella vulgaris was appropriate for TN removal and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from effluent wastewater. Nevertheless, Scenedesmus armatus was highly pref-erable for heavy metals removal from influent wastewater.

  13. Heavy Metals Levels in Fish Samples from North Central Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... Most aquatic organisms are capable of accumulating heavy metals to concentrations much higher than those present in water ... of their perseverance, high toxicity and their ... levels in water, sediment and fish food organism.

  14. Growth response and heavy metals tolerance of Axonopus affinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... assayed heavy metals, suggesting a synergistic effect between this species and the rhizobacterium in response ... soils, mainly in regions of copper and gold with great ..... enhance plant biomass production in mine tailings at.

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from...

  16. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  17. Heavy metal contaminants in Malapterurus electricus (Gmeli, 1789 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the potential health risk associated with the ... The concentrations of some heavy metals, Manganese (Mn), ... unity for the fish species confirming that these fish species were safe for human consumption.

  18. Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Feng, Shaolong; Teh, Yi Chen; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-15

    Heavy metal pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide. Current methods for the detection of heavy metals require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Various microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have been developed recently as simple, cheap and disposable alternatives to conventional ones for on-site detection of heavy metals. In this review, we first summarize current development of paper-based analytical devices and discuss the selection of paper substrates, methods of device fabrication, and relevant theories in these devices. We then compare and categorize recent reports on detection of heavy metals using paper-based microfluidic devices on the basis of various detection mechanisms, such as colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical methods. To finalize, the future development and trend in this field are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    pectinatus, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas armata); (floating species: ... good tools for heavy metal pollution markers, in the biological treatment of the polluted water and in ... from water and wetlands sediments (Gulati et al., 1979).

  20. heavy metal content in some commonly consumed vegetables from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    This work reports on the levels of cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and zinc in 174 samples from eight varieties of ... Keywords: Heavy metals, Vegetables, Daily intake, Kariakoo market, Food safety ... well as crop rotation system can affect.

  1. Changes in Rheological Properties and Heavy Metal Content of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Keywords: Ash, rheological properties, heavy metal, maize yield. ... have beneficial effects on soil nutrients, soil physical conditions, soil biological .... matter yield observed in ash amended plots could be attributed to the reduction of soil pH.

  2. Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment | Baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Remediation approaches such as excavation and land fill, thermal treatment, electroreclamation and soil capping have been ...

  3. Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, P.M.B 1154, Benin City, ... and the use of vehicles for transportation release high .... indicates the toxic effect of the heavy metals on the.

  4. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Key words: Adsorption, biomass waste, heavy metal, synthetic water, leachate. INTRODUCTION ... Gadd, 1993; White et al., 1997). There is also ..... The performance of natural clay as a barrier to the diffusion of municipal ...

  5. A study on heavy metal concentration in Izmit gulf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasibe Cingilli

    2006-01-01

    Water samples taken from thirteen different stations and from three streams in İzmit Gulf where the pollution is very high have been investigated with Atomic Absorption Spectrometre for heavy metal...

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in oil-contaminated peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Savichev, A. T.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence and X-ray radiometry represent easy and simple methods to determine concentrations of heavy metals in the ash of peat soils contaminated with oil and can be applied for soil monitoring purposes. Oil spills on peat bogs produce two contamination zones differing in the composition of heavy metals. In the zone of primary contamination, the peat surface is covered by a bitumen crust with V, Ni, Sr, Ba, Ce, and La accumulating there. This zone adjoins the zone of secondary peat contamination, where heavy alkaline-earth metals (Sr, Ba) and lanthanides (Ce and La) are accumulated to a lesser extent. Biological preparations recommended for remediation of oil-contaminated peat soils should be tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals, particularly, V, Ni, and Ba that are present in the oil contaminated soils in relatively high amounts.

  7. Investigation of the origin and distribution of heavy metals around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-28

    Apr 28, 2010 ... around Ebenezer Dam, Limpopo Province, South Africa. JS Ogola1*, HR ... Concentrations of heavy metals in water around the Ebenezer Dam were found to be less than 0.01 mg/g , ..... World Health Organization, Geneva.

  8. HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION OF SOIL IN THE REGIONAL CITY PLAYGROUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Tsuzuki, Megumi; Asakura, Hiroshi

    It seems important to examine heavy metal concentration in playgrounds, to evaluate potential risk for heavy metal ingestion by children. In this study, heavy metal concentrations of soil samples in 40 playgrounds in K-city were investigated by the voltammetric method. To visualize heavy metal concentration distribution in playgrounds, free GIS software MANDARA was used. According to the comparison between the 1 N HCl dissolved concentration and the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), playgrounds in K-city may not have intake risk of lead. Even if the possibility of the risk was very low, there are differences of the intensities. As for the specific playground where concentration is high, investigating continuously may be desirable hereafter.

  9. A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste water using biosorbents. ... In recent years, many low cost sorbents such as algae, fungi bacteria and ... In this comprehensive review, the emphasis is on outlining the occurrences ...

  10. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LG

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, AL-Madinah AL- Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Accepted 19 ... Key words: Fungi, industrial wastewater, biosorption, heavy metals. ... Such treatments are.

  11. The effect of heavy metals on peroxidase from Jerusalem artichoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... EU/mg. The substrate specificity of peroxidase was investigated ... compounds, removal of phenolics from waste waters and ... Heavy metal pollution occurs in many industrial waste-.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and accumulation in plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... An auto battery manufacturing company dumped slag containing proportion of heavy metals in ... their shoot over a wide range of soil concentrations. They ... capacity of plants that grew naturally on metalliferous wastes and ...

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Vegetation around Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The mean concentrations of zinc in soil and vegetations along the transect ... wastes contributed to the levels of heavy metals in soils and vegetation. ...... Current Topics in Toxicology. Vol. ... seminar on collaborative Agricultural Research.

  14. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: Toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: Toxic effects in the catfish and its amelioration with co-contamination with glyphosate. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  15. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Key words: Pineapple, juices, jams, microbial contamination, heavy metal, Rwanda. ..... material used. This was obvious ... sterilise the product employing boiling pots and package .... that post-harvest, processing and preservation techniques.

  16. Influence of different concentration of heavy metals on the seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Some heavy metals in higher doses may cause metabolic disorders and growth inhibition for most of ... doses of these compounds affected the germination and some growth indices. ... ment causing oxidative stress both in roots and leaves.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    A relatively small group of hyperaccumulator plants is capable of sequestering heavy metals in their shoot tissues at high concentrations. In recent years, major scientific progress has been made in understanding the physiological mechanisms of metal uptake and transport in these plants. However, relatively little is known about the molecular bases of hyperaccumulation. In this paper, current progresses on understanding cellular/molecular mechanisms of metal tolerance/hyperaccumulation by plants are reviewed. The major processes involved in hyperaccumulation of trace metals from the soil to the shoots by hyperaccumulators include: (a) bioactivation of metals in the rhizosphere through root-microbe interaction; (b) enhanced uptake by metal transporters in the plasma membranes; (c) detoxification of metals by distributing to the apoplasts like binding to cell walls and chelation of metals in the cytoplasm with various ligands, such as phytochelatins, metallothioneins, metal-binding proteins; (d) sequestration of metals into the vacuole by tonoplast-located transporters. The growing application of molecular-genetic technologies led to the well understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants, and subsequently many transgenic plants with increased resistance and uptake of heavy metals were developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. Once the rate-limiting steps for uptake, translocation, and detoxification of metals in hyperaccumulating plants are identified, more informed construction of transgenic plants would result in improved applicability of the phytoremediation technology.

  18. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    nickel) by AAS. Of 15 plant species; 10, 6, 6 were hyperaccumulators, excluders and indicators for heavy ... Classification of plants according to their heavy metal content … 110 die-off. ..... vegetable plants I. Use of a filtered air growth cabinet.

  19. Removal of heavy metals from the environment by biosorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilescu, M. [Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Department of Environmental Engineering, Mangeron Blvd. 71, 6600-Iasi (Romania)

    2004-06-01

    The pollution of the environment with toxic metals is a result of many human activities, such as mining and metallurgy, and the effects of these metals on the ecosystems are of large economic and public-healthsignificance. This paper presents the features and advantages of the unconventional removal method of heavy metals - biosorption - as a part of bioremediation. Bioremediation consists of a group of applications, which involve the detoxification of hazardous substances instead of transferring them from one medium to another, by means of microbes and plants. This process is characterized as less disruptive and can be often carried out on site, eliminating the need to transport the toxic materials to treatment sites. The biosorption (sorption of metallic ions from solutions by live or dried biomass) offers an alternative to the remediation of industrial effluents as well as the recovery of metals contained in other media. Biosorbents are prepared from naturally abundant and/or waste biomass. Due to the high uptake capacity and very cost-effective source of the raw material, biosorption is a progression towards a perspective method. The mechanism by which microorganisms take up metals is relatively unclear, but it has been demonstrated that both living and non-living biomass may be utilized in biosorptive processes, as they often exhibit a marked tolerance towards metals and other adverse conditions. One of their major advantages is the treatment of large volumes of effluents with low concentrations of pollutants. Models developed were presented to determine both the number of adsorption sites required to bind each metal ion and the rate of adsorption, using a batch reactor mass balance and the Langmuir theory of adsorption to surfaces or continuous dynamic systems. Two main categories of bioreactors used in bioremediation - suspended growth and fixed film bioreactors - are discussed. Reactors with varying configurations to meet the different requirements for

  20. Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souch, C.J.; Filippelli, G.M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

  1. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  2. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; Obiora, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  3. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  4. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  5. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  6. Heavy metal music and drug abuse in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P

    1988-04-01

    A large number of adolescents in a psychiatric population, particularly those who are chemically dependent, prefer to listen to heavy metal music. Young people who do not identify with traditional values may find simple but unconventional answers to complex problems in the lyrics of this type of music. While a clearcut relationship cannot be established between heavy metal music and destructive behavior, evidence shows that such music promotes and supports patterns of drug abuse, promiscuous sexual activity, and violence.

  7. Determination of heavy metals in edible mushrooms consumed in Shahrekord

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhshi A; Sedehi M; Shakeri K

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Heavy metal pollution is a major problem in the environmental and health concerns of food. Toxic elements in the environment of mushrooms may be attracted to them, in which case the problem will create mushroom consumption. This study was aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals, manganese, chromium, iron, lead, zinc and copper in mushroom consumed in Shahrekord. Methods: This study was a cross- sectional research. 6 samples of the edible mushroom cultiv...

  8. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    OpenAIRE

    Vukojević Vanja; Sabovljević Marko; Jovanović S.

    2005-01-01

    Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators) can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils) or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals). Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia). The content of various heavy meta...

  9. Heavy metals and specific porphyrine levels in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Macedoni-Lukšič

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to determine the levels of heavy metals in blood (zinc, copper, aluminium, lead, mercury, as well as the specific porphyrin levels in the urine of patients with ASD compared with patients with other neurological disorders.Methods: The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (N = 52, average age = 6.2y and control group of children with other neurological disorders (N = 22, average age = 6.6y, matched in terms of intellectual abilities (Mann-Whitney U = 565.0, p = .595. Measurement of heavy metals in blood was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry, while the HPLC method by means of a fluorescence detector was used to test urinary porphyrin levels. Results were compared across groups using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. In addition, a generalized linear model was used to establish the impact of group membership on the blood Cu/Zn ratio.Results: In terms of heavy metal blood levels, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, compared to the control group, ASD group had significantly elevated blood Cu/Zn ratio (Wald χ2 = 6.6, df = 1, p = .010. Additionaly, no significant difference between the groups was found in terms of Uroporphyrin I, Heptacarboxyporphyrin I, Hexacarboxyporphyrin and Pentacarboxyporphyrin I. However, the levels of Coproporphyrin I and Coproporphyrin III were lower in the ASD group compared to the controls.Conclusions: Due to the observed higher Cu/Zn ratio we’d suggest that blood levels of zinc and cupper should be tested in all children with ASD and a Zn supplement should be given as needed.

  10. a Simple Interpretation of the Rice Spectral Indices Space for Assessment of Heavy Metal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Huang, F.; Liu, X. N.

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal stress will induce the change of the bio-parameters like chlorophyll, nitrogen and water content of rice. In this paper, we analyzed the traditional spectral index which has strong relationship in general with the three bio-parameters using hyperspectral data acquired by ASD. It is found that some indies do not work well when the heavy metal stress exists, however, some indies still has ability to estimate the above three bio-parameters. A new interpretation is proposed to classify the stress level based on both the physical mechanism analysis and the statistic model after we describe and discuss studies on the expression of spectral indices of rice under heavy metal stress. The 3-axes spectral indices spaces, which are constructed of 3 spectral indices sensitive to rice's chlorophyll concentration, nitrogen concentration and water concentration respectively, are used to visualize the linkage between heavy metal stress and spectrum of rice canopy.

  11. Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Nitsche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of leaf litter have to be disposed of by city administrations. This biomass has the potential for energy conversion, but contamination with pollutants can adversely affect this usage. We investigated leaf litter samples from the city of Kassel by analyzing their heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH concentrations. Leaf samples were indeed contaminated with heavy metals and PAHs and contamination was influenced by provenience and collection technique. A simple cleaning system of washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering significantly reduced heavy metal concentration. Regression models were developed for contamination with heavy metals which showed that contamination could be successfully estimated using the total ash content of the sample as a predictor, with an R2 of up to 0.77. It can be concluded that leaf litter from cities is a possible feedstock for energetic conversion, provided a cleaning step is applied.

  12. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  13. Comparison of eleven heavy metals in moringa oleifera lam. products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Limmatvapirat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  14. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available River Ganga is considered sacred by people of India for providing life sustenance to environment and ecology. Anthropogenic activities have generated important transformations in aquatic environments during the last few decades. Advancement of human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of river water for drinking and other purposes. The river water pollution due to heavy metals is one of the major concerns in most of the metropolitan cities of developing countries. These toxic heavy metals entering the environment may lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. These heavy metals are not readily degradable in nature and accumulate in the animal as well as human bodies to a very high toxic amount leading to undesirable effects beyond a certain limit. Heavy metals in riverine environment represent an abiding threat to human health. Exposure to heavy metals has been linked to developmental retardation, kidney damage, various cancers, and even death in instances of very high exposure. The following review article presents the findings of the work carried out by the various researchers in the past on the heavy metal pollution of river Ganga.

  15. Removal of Heavy Metals from Textile Wastewater using Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normala Halimoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. Textile dyes pollutants are being released to the environment at various stages of operation therefore it is necessary that the pollutants are treated before discharge using zeolite with and without alum. A study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of treatment using zeolite with and without alum for the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr in textile effluent. The concentrations of these heavy metals in the textile wastewater samples were reduced to more than 50 percent after treating with zeolite. The sequence in increasing order of removal efficiency of these heavy metals using zeolite was Cd < Pb < Cr < Cu. When the textile wastewater sample was treated using zeolite and 10 mg/L of alum, 80% of the heavy metals (Cd and Cu were removed. The most effective treatment prior to removal of heavy metals from textile wastewater sample is by using zeolite with the addition of 10 mg/L of alum as flocculants.

  16. Construction of prediction model of heavy metal pollution risk in river sediment%河流底泥沉积态重金属污染风险预测模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫垚; 冼萍; 李小明; 莫创荣; 徐英博; 唐铭; 邓国龙

    2014-01-01

    鉴于水体突发性重金属污染事故发生时底泥存在重金属污染风险不明的问题,以河流底泥中重金属浓度为研究对象,建立底泥重金属一维稳态迁移转化模型,并以广西龙江河镉污染事故底泥重金属污染风险为例进行模拟预测。结果表明:随着底泥向下游迁移,龙江河底泥镉浓度逐渐升高,距离污染源14 km处的拉浪水电站底泥镉浓度升高了55%,说明一维稳态模拟条件下龙江河镉污染事故造成的底泥重金属污染存在较重的风险。%When the sudden heavy metal water pollution accident happened, the risk of heavy metal pollution in sediment is unclear. Research on the concentration of heavy metal in sediment of river was carried out. One-dimensional steady-state migration and transformation model of heavy metal in sediment was built and Guangxi Longjiang River cadmium pollution accident was used as an example to predict the risk. Results showed that concentration of cadmium in sediment of Longjiang river in-creased gradually with sediment migrated to downstream. Concentration of cadmium in sediment of Lalang hydropower station increased by 55%, where is 14 km far from pollution source. It indicated that sediment heavy metal pollution caused by Long River cadmium pollution incident exists high risk under one-dimensional steady-state simulated condition.

  17. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

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    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  18. Heavy metals in five Sabellidae species (Annelida, Polychaeta): ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Del Pasqua, Michela; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Migoni, Danilo; Stabili, Loredana

    2017-02-01

    The present work analyzed three hard-bottom and two soft-bottom species of sabellid polychaetes to determine the content of several heavy metals in their branchial crown and body. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the hard-bottom species Branchiomma bairdi, a recent Mediterranean introduction. Differences in the metal concentrations were most notable in the high trace metal levels of the branchial crown for all the studied species. Statistical analysis showed that the Mediterranean hard-bottom species were similar each other in their heavy metal content in the body as well as in the branchial crown and appeared separated from all the other species. Arsenic and vanadium hyperaccumulation in the branchial crowns of the considered sabellid species probably acts as a deterrent for predation. The observed differences among the examined species were discussed not only at the light of habitat colonization but also in terms of the phylogeny.

  19. Soil reclamation by municipal sewage compost: Heavy metals migration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes sorption and transport phenomena of selected heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) in the superficial layer of soil and sewage sludge compost. The main aim of the study was the investigation of possibility of heavy metals contamination in soil profile reclaimed by sewage sludge compost. The column leaching test as well as the sequential Tessier extraction procedure were applied to investigate the mitigation of heavy metals. The results revealed that distribution of metals in specific Tessier fractions was the major factor influencing their transport in the investigated soils profiles. Moreover, sorption capacity of the soil sample studied was substantially greater to prevent transportation of metals into the lower horizons and groundwater.

  20. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn

  1. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn

  2. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  3. Immunotoxicology in wood mice along a heavy metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tersago, Katrien [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: katrien.tersago@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Scheirs, Jan [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vermeulen, Katrien [Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bockstaele, Dirk van[Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    We carried out an immunotoxicological field study of wood mice in three populations along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Heavy metal concentrations in liver tissue indicated that exposure to silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and lead decreased with increasing distance from a non-ferrous smelter. Host resistance to the endoparasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus decreased with increasing exposure, while the abundance of tick larvae and the nematode Syphacia stroma was unrelated to heavy metal exposure. Spleen mass was increased at the intermediate and the most polluted sites and was positively correlated with the number of H. polygyrus and tick larvae. Proportion of early apoptotic leukocytes increased towards the smelter and was positively related to cadmium exposure. Red and white blood cell counts and lysozyme activity showed no relationship with metal exposure. All together, our observations suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune function of wood mice under field conditions. - Capsule: Complex interactions among metal burden, immune response and parasite burden suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune system of wood0011 mi.

  4. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  5. Phytoremediation of heavy metals--concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hazrat; Khan, Ezzat; Sajad, Muhammad Anwar

    2013-05-01

    The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals.

  6. Biosurfactant of marine origin exhibiting heavy metal remediation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Mukherjee, Soumen; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2009-10-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of biosurfactant product isolated from a marine bacterium in removing heavy metals from heavy metal containing solutions. In this study, metal removal was biosurfactant-mediated. Efficiency of metal removal depended on the concentration of the metal as well as that of the biosurfactant. At a concentration 5x, the critical micelle concentration (CMC), almost complete removal of 100 ppm of lead and cadmium occurred. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) studies also showed metal removal at a concentration less than the CMC in contrast to earlier findings that only micelles are involved in metal removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) further substantiated these findings.

  7. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mohamed Daboor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+ , Pb2+ and Fe 2+ single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+ >Pb2+ >Fe 2+ was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe 2+ and Pb2+ adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  8. Heavy metal availability and impact on activity of soil microorganisms along a Cu/Zn contamination gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-peng; SHI Ji-yan; LIN Qi; CHEN Xin-cai; CHEN Ying-xu

    2007-01-01

    All the regulations that define a maximum concentration of metals in the receiving soil are based on total soil metal concentration. However, the potential toxicity of a heavy metal in the soil depends on its speciation and availability. We studied the effects of heavy metal speciation and availability on soil microorganism activities along a Cu/Zn contamination gradient. Microbial biomass and enzyme activity of soil contaminated with both Cu and Zn were investigated. The results showed that microbial biomass was negatively affected by the elevated metal levels. The microbial biomass-C (Cmic)/organic C (Corg) ratio was closely correlated to heavy metal stress. There were negative correlations between soil microbial biomass, phosphatase activity and NH4NO3 extractable heavy metals. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted using empirical models with the availability of Cu and Zn. We observed that 72% of the variation in phosphatase activity could be explained by the NH4NO3-extractable and total heavy metal concentration. By considering different monitoring approaches and different viewpoints, this set of methods applied in this study seemed sensitive to site differences and contributed to a better understanding of the effects of heavy metals on the size and activity of microorganisms in soils. The data presented demonstrate the relationship between heavy metals availability and heavy metal toxicity to soil microorganism along a contamination gradient.

  9. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  10. Mathematical analysis of dermal absorption rate of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkin, Izmail; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Presently 90 - 95% of children in the US wear disposable diapers before completing their toilet training at average age of 30 months. The diaper absorbs urine and liquid component from feces contaminated with excreted toxicants. In this initial study, we posit that the long contact between the diaper and the skin leads to increased dermal reabsorption of excreted body toxicants, mainly heavy metals, which are statistically associated with autism and neurodevelopmental disorder. We developed a mathematical model to analyse the increase of the level of toxicants due to dermal reabsorption after excretion. This simple kinetic model gives us the average reabsorbtion factor in the range of 1.6 to 5. The limitation of this work is that only mathematical model has been considered and it has not been verified experimentally.

  11. Experimental investigations of heat transfer and temperature fields in models simulating fuel assemblies used in the core of a nuclear reactor with a liquid heavy-metal coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Genin, L. G.; Krylov, S. G.; Novikov, A. O.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this experimental investigation is to obtain information on the temperature fields and heat transfer coefficients during flow of liquid-metal coolant in models simulating an elementary cell in the core of a liquid heavy metal cooled fast-neutron reactor. Two design versions for spacing fuel rods in the reactor core were considered. In the first version, the fuel rods were spaced apart from one another using helical wire wound on the fuel rod external surface, and in the second version spacer grids were used for the same purpose. The experiments were carried out on the mercury loop available at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National Research University's Chair of Engineering Thermal Physics. Two experimental sections simulating an elementary cell for each of the fuel rod spacing versions were fabricated. The temperature fields were investigated using a dedicated hinged probe that allows temperature to be measured at any point of the studied channel cross section. The heat-transfer coefficients were determined using the wall temperature values obtained at the moment when the probe thermocouple tail end touched the channel wall. Such method of determining the wall temperature makes it possible to alleviate errors that are unavoidable in case of measuring the wall temperature using thermocouples placed in slots milled in the wall. In carrying out the experiments, an automated system of scientific research was applied, which allows a large body of data to be obtained within a short period of time. The experimental investigations in the first test section were carried out at Re = 8700, and in the second one, at five values of Reynolds number. Information about temperature fields was obtained by statistically processing the array of sampled probe thermocouple indications at 300 points in the experimental channel cross section. Reach material has been obtained for verifying the codes used for calculating velocity and temperature fields in channels with

  12. Mechanisms of Selenium Mitigating Stress and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Si-li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se plays an important role in improving plant stress resistance, mitigating heavy metal stress and reducing heavy metal uptake. This paper reviewed mechanisms involved with Se for mitigation of heavy metal stress and accumulation. Se could alleviate heavy metals stress because of the combined physiological and biochemical effects of the relevant products, including GSH-Px which could change toxic peroxides to non-toxic substances and remove free radicals induced by heavy metals. Se could activate phytochelatins synthase and increase the amount of precursors to phytochelatin (PC, and make plant produce more PC, and form more heavy metal-PC complexes. The formation of Se-heavy metal complexes reduced the biotoxicity of heavy metals. Se could produce antagonistic effect with a variety of heavy metals, and reduce the uptake of heavy metals.

  13. Heavy metal contamination in sandy beach macrofauna communities from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Tatiana M B; Barboza, Carlos A M; Skinner, Viviane B; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Rocha, Rafael C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Valentin, Jean L; Cardoso, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated concentrations of eight heavy metals Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co and V, in tissues of representative macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches from the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The links between contamination levels and community descriptors such as diversity, evenness, density and biomass, were also investigated. Metal concentrations from macrofaunal tissues were compared to maximum permissible limits for human ingestion stipulated by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). Generalized linear models (GLM's) were used to investigate the variability in macrofauna density, richness, eveness and biomass in the seven different regions. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (n-MDS) was used to investigate the spatial pattern of heavy metal concentrations along the seven regions of Rio de Janeiro coast. Variation partitioning was applied to evaluate the variance in the community assemblage explained by the environmental variables and the heavy metal concentrations. Our data suggested high spatial variation in the concentration of heavy metals in macrofauna species from the beaches of Rio de Janeiro. This result highlighted a diffuse source of contamination along the coast. Most of the metals concentrations were under the limits established by ANVISA. The variability in community descriptors was related to morphodynamic variables, but not with metal contamination values, indicating the lack of direct relationships at the community level. Concentration levels of eight heavy metals in macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches on Rio de Janeiro coast (Brazil) were spatially correlated with anthropogenic activities such as industrialization and urbanization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...

  15. Tolerance and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Descurainia sophia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Karamooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, biosphere pollution has accelerated strongly with start of industrial revolution by toxicity of heavy metals. One of existing pollution is soil pollution. Unfortunately, soil pollution by metals is as intensive environmental stress for plant hence for human. Plants, which are able to store heavy metals in their organs, can be used for phytoremediation of polluted soils and utilization of these plants is effective for phytoremediation as a cheap and economic method. In this research, the absorption rate of Cd (II, Ni (II by Descurainia sophia was considered in hydroponic conditions. Plants were grown in Hoagland media containing different concentrations of Cd (II, Ni (II. An experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. Two weeks after treatment of plants the sample were gathered and metal concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Besides, the content of chlorophyll and proline was measured. The results showed the chlorophyll content in high concentrations of the metals (Cd (II, Ni (II was decreased in plants that were sign of pigment degradation in presence of heavy metals. Similarly, the proline content in plants was increased under stress which was sign of damage of heavy metal stress on plant and activation of defensive mechanisms in this condition. The effects of toxic concentration of nickel and cadmium on metal accumulation in these plants showed that roots were able to absorb more than shoots, which is sign of elements connection to root cell wall.

  16. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... tailings disposal, illegal mining, domestic waste disposal and many .... Waste water sample for the test work was collected ..... “Heavy Metal Contamination of Ground. Water”. ... metallurgy, waste management, pyrolysis-gasification of wastes ... of waste polymers in metal extraction processes and recycling.

  17. Biosorption of heavy metals by free and immobilised biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beolchini, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli studi de L' Aquila (Italy); Pagnanelli, F.; Toro, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Roma (Italy); Esposito, A.; Veglio, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genova (Albaro) (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    A review of the research activities carried out by the authors on biosorption of heavy metals is reported in this work. In particular, biomass characterisation, biosorption equilibrium with single metal system, biomass immobilisation in polymeric matrix and related kinetics, biosorption in membrane reactor systems are the main aspects reported in the paper. (orig.)

  18. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    Eight heavy metals content in the dominant animal groups, soil and water in Malang and Dashui caves ... Dashui cave is situated in the urban zone of Guiyang City, Guizhou, and Guizhou Aluminum ... cient of a metal in animal suggests higher absorption capacity of ... Pb, As, Cd and Hg, respectively, while the ranking of.

  19. Extractive decontamination of heavy metals from CCA contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    contaminated soil obtained from a wood treatment factory site by four organic acids are ... that 59% As, 19% Cr and 5% Cu were potentially bio-available and mobile. ... potential industrial source of heavy metals is the wood ... by the European Union, it remains the main chemical ..... metals in soils irrigated with wastewater.

  20. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  1. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of heavy metals; Schadstoffbelastung und -belastbarkeit. Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, H.; Neumann, A.; Surkus, A.E. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    Urban soils often have high concentrations of heavy metals. This is particularly true of the technogenic substrates often found in cities and industrial and trading estates. The aim of the present project was therefore to mitigate the deficits of our present knowledge on problems relating to heavy metals in technogenic substrates. The studies presented in the following were carried out in pursuit of the following tasks: determination of the total concentration and mobility of the elements Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni in 11 lead soil profiles from technogenic substrates in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfjoerde and Halle/Saale; study of the dependence of heavy metal mobility on different soil characteristics (e.g. pH, clay, organic carbon, and total heavy metal content); recording of adsorption isotherms characterising the sorption and desorption behaviour of heavy metals; estimation of the heavy metal binding capacity of technogenic substrates following the method quoted by DVWK (1988) for heavy metals; and performance of percolation experiments on soil columns for deriving material transport parameters and of model calculations on heavy metal migration. [Deutsch] Urbane Boeden, besonders die in Staedten, Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten verbreitet lagernden technogenen Substrate, weisen oft hohe Schwermetallgehalte auf. Ziel dieses Projektes ist daher, Erkenntnisdefizite zur Schwermetallproblematik technogener Substrate zu verringern. Den nachfolgend dargestellten Untersuchungen liegt folgende Aufgabenstellung zugrunde: - Bestimmung der Gesamtgehalte und Mobilitaeten der Elemente Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn und Ni an 11 Leitprofilen aus technogenen Substraten in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfoerde und Halle/Saale, - Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit der Schwermetallmobilitaet von verschiedenen Bodenkennwerten (pH-Wert, Ton-, Corg-, Kalkgehalt, KAK, Schwermetall-Gesamtgehalt), - Aufnahme von Adsorptionsisothermen zur Kennzeichnung des Sorptions- und Desorptionsverhaltens von Schwermetallen, - Schaetzung

  2. Influence of Agriculture on Water Quality: Significance of Heavy Metals Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Nusreta Đonlagić; Amra Odobašić; Amra Bratovčić

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural activities directly influence the quality of water systems. Investigations showed that application of various agro-technical measures results with the pollution of water streams with heavy metals and other polluters. Increased concentrations of heavy metals result with intake of heavy metals and their transfer to food chains, and for that reason it is necessary to monitor the content of heavy metals regularly. Broad investigations of bio-geochemical cycling of heavy metals in the...

  3. Avoidance Reaction of Penaeus Chinensis to Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr,Zn) and Heavy Metal Mixtures (Pb-Cr, Pb-Zn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民山

    2001-01-01

    Study on the avoidance response of Penaeus chinensis to heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn) and heavy metal mixtures (Pb-Cr, Pb-Zn) is carred out using a Y-model avoidance apparatus. The concentrations calculated to induce 50% avoidance rate byPenaeus chinensis are 11.4, 33.2 and 238. 1 mg/L for Pb, Cr and Zn, respectively. Mixtures of Pb-Cr and Pb-Zn produce additive effect in the avoidance test using Penaeus chinesis. But when the mixed Pb-Zn solution has 0.5 toxic unit Pb and 0.5 toxic unit Zn, the mixture seems to have synergistic effect.

  4. Disposable cuvette test for enzymatic determination of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfbeis, O.S.; Preininger, C. [Karl-Franzens Univ., Graz (Austria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The authors report on an optical cuvette test for total heavy metals based on the inhibition of the enzyme urease by metals ions including silver(I), mercury(II), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), and cadmium(II). The enzymatic action is monitored using an optical ammonia transducer deposited on the wall of a disposable cuvette. This results in a rapid and inexpensive single-shot device for heavy metal sensing. A solution of urease and buffer is placed in the cuvette with the ammonium sensor membrane fixed on one of its walls. Enzymatic action starts after addition of a defined quantity of urea. This is indicated by the increase in the absorption of the ammonia sensor membrane whose color changes from yellow to blue. The slope of the increase in signal is the information for the un-inhibited reaction. After several minutes, the sample (containing the heavy metal) is added to the cuvette. Heavy metal ions inhibit the enzyme (by binding to the sulfhydryl groups) and cause a decrease in the slope. The ratio of slopes of un-inhibited and inhibited reactions is a direct parameter for detection and calculation total heavy metals.

  5. Heavy Metals in a Sulfidic Minespoil: Fractions and Column Leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Fractions of various heavy metals in a sulfidic minespoil were investigated. Column leaching experimentwas also conducted to simulate "acid mine drainage" (AMD) from the minespoil. The results show thatleaching of heavy metals from the minespoil was extremely significant during the initial water flushing.The amounts of heavy metals leached out dramatically reduced after leaching twice. It is worthwhile tonote that in this study, Zn, Mn, Fe, As and Ni in the first leachate exceeded the total amount of eachcorresponding water-extractable (1:5, soil:water) metal contained in the minespoil sample. This appears tosuggest that 1:5 water extraction did not allow accurate estimation of water-leachable concentrations of theabove heavy metals. This work has implications for the management of sulfidic minespoils. Acid drainageof great environmental concerns is likely to occur only during heavy rainfall events after substantial solubleand readily exchangeable acid and metals are accumulated in the minespoils. The slow-reacting fractionsother than water-soluble and readily exchangeable fractions may pose little environmental hazards. This isparticularly true for Pb, As and Ni.

  6. Biosorption of heavy metals from wastewater by biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orhan, Y.; Bueyuekguengoer, H. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Hrenovic, J. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-08-15

    In a study where the removal of heavy metals from wastewater is the primary aim, the biosorption of heavy metals onto biosolids prepared as Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized onto granular activated carbon was investigated in batch and column systems. In the batch system, adsorption equilibriums of heavy metals were reached between 20 and 50 min, and the optimal dosage of biosolids was 0.3 g/L. The biosorption efficiencies were 84, 80, 79, 59 and 42 % for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions, respectively. The rate constants of biosorption and pore diffusion of heavy metals were 0.013-0.089 min{sup -1} and 0.026-0.690 min{sup -0.5}. In the column systems, the biosorption efficiencies for all heavy metals increased up to 81-100 %. The affinity of biosorption for various metal ions towards biosolids was decreased in the order: Cr = Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Ecotoxicology of heavy metals: Liquid-phase extraction by nanosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A.; Romantsova, I.; Babkin, A.; Neskoromnaya, E.; Kucherova, A.; Kashevich, Z.

    2015-11-01

    The paper considers the problem of extreme toxicity heavy metal compounds dissolved in wastewater and liquid emissions of industrial enterprises to living organisms and environment as a whole. The possibility of increasing extraction efficiency of heavy metal ions by sorption materials was demonstrated. The porous space of the latter was modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during process of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon on metal oxide catalysts. The increasing of the sorption capacity (10-30%) and the sorption rate of nanomodified activated carbons in comparison with standard materials in the example of absorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions was proven.

  8. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  9. Parametric Analysis of a Heavy Metal Sorption Isotherm Based on Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico M. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are widely recognized as being hazardous to human health and environmentally aggressive. The literature reports different approaches for lead removal, for example, water hyacinths. Heavy metal sorption isotherm modeling represents an important tool towards the study of equilibrium conditions. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, based on derivatives of arbitrary order. Recently, a novel isotherm based on fractional calculus was proposed for lead sorption using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. This paper reports a general procedure on error analysis and its influence on parameter estimation. It was applied to mathematical models based on fractional differential equations, focusing on a heavy metal novel isotherm sorption model. Parameter variance was calculated by using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix, and joint parameter confidence regions were generated, being successfully able to show that the fractional nature of the model is statistically valid.

  10. Synthesis and Characteristics of A Novel Heavy Metal Ions Chelator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuannian; SONG Yejing; HAN Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide-urea-sulfanilamide(PUS) was prepared as a novel heavy metal ions chelator and successfully used to simultaneously remove heavy metals from wastewater effluents.The effects of reaction parameters (sodium hydroxide,material ratio,temprature and contact time) were monitored to specify the best synthesis conditions.PUS was chemically characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis).The simultaneous chelation performance of PUS towards selected heavy metals ions,Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+,Cd2+ was discussed,showing that Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+ could be better chelated.It is indicated that the synthesized PUS is a potential remediation material when used for the treatment of wastewater containing metal ions.

  11. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummelin, Matti [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)]. E-mail: matti.nummelin@helsinki.fi; Lodenius, Martin [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Tulisalo, Esa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hirvonen, Heikki [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Alanko, Timo [Statistics Finland, FIN-00022 (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators.

  12. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  13. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian; Reible, Danny

    2016-01-25

    The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, (90)Sr and (137)Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection-diffusion, adsorption-desorption, sedimentation-resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of (137)Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that (137)Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most (137)Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies.

  14. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the lo

  15. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal residues in water, fish tissue and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Key Words : Heavy metal residues , Fish tissue, Human blood, Ubeji River. ... essential metals have been found to be toxic when ... Heavy metal contamination of aquatic environments ... higher organisms, during feeding may incorporate.

  17. Heavy Metals in ToxCast: Relevance to Food Safety (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to heavy metals occurs through food contamination due to industrial processes, vehicle emissions and farming methods. Specific toxicity endpoints have been associated with metal exposures, e.g. lead and neurotoxicity; however, numerous varieties of heavy metals hav...

  18. 水稻重金属污染胁迫光谱分析模型的区域应用与验证%Regional application and verification of spectral analysis model for assessing heavy-metal stress of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 刘湘南; 刘美玲

    2012-01-01

    It is a key issue for identifying crops under heavy-metal contamination on a large scale using satellite remote sensing data based on ground-sample spectral analysis model for evaluating crops with heavy-metal stress level. In this paper, hyperspectral data and leaf chlorophyll concentration of rice, heavy-metal concentration of soil were collected from three different polluted paddies in Changchun city, Jilin province, China, at mean time, Hyperion data were obtained. Spectral indices sensitive to heavy-metal contamination were selected by multiple stepwise regressions, and BP neural network models were created to estimate chlorophyll concentrations in rice under heavy-metal stress, which indicated the level of heavy-metal contamination. It was founded that an optimum ground-sample spectral analysis model was 4-11-7-1 network architecture with logsig thansfer function, and the classification accuracy for each pollution level was 100%. Moreover, it was successful to apply the ground-sample spectral analysis model to Hyperion data, and then achieve large-scale application in monitoring rice under heavy-metal contamination, the classification accuracy for each pollution level was more than 80%. This research may provide important references for large-scale application in the spectral model for assessing rice under heavy-metal contamination.%根据样地试验建立的农作物重金属污染胁迫光谱分析模型通过卫星遥感数据进行大尺度区域应用是农作物重金属污染遥感评价必须解决的关键问题.该文以吉林长春市3块重金属污染程度不同的水稻农田样地为试验区,采集水稻冠层ASD (Analytical Spectral Devices)数据、叶片叶绿素含量和土壤重金属含量,并获取准同步的Hyperion数据,通过多元逐步回归分析筛选与重金属污染胁迫响应敏感的光谱指数,并运用BP人工神经网络模型构建其与表征重金属污染胁迫程度的叶绿素含量的数学关系模型.结

  19. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation and Toxicity with Special Reference to Microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results from their binding to the sulphydryl groups in proteins or disrupting protein structure or displacing essential elements. Metals can break the oxidative balance of the algae, inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The amount of oxidized proteins and lipids in the algal cells thus indicates the severity of the stress. Algal tolerance to heavy metal is highly dependent upon the defense response against the probable oxidative damages. Production of binding factors and proteins, exclusion of metals from cells by ion-selective transporters and excretion or compartmentalization have been suggested with regard to reducing heavy metal toxicity. However, a comprehensive description on the mechanisms underlining metal toxicity of microalgae and gaining tolerance is yet to be elaborated.

  20. Prediction of Heavy Metal Removal by Different Liner Materials from Landfill Leachate: Modeling of Experimental Results Using Artificial Intelligence Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Nurdan Gamze; Gümüşel, Emine Beril; Ozgonenel, Okan

    2013-01-01

    An intensive study has been made to see the performance of the different liner materials with bentonite on the removal efficiency of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from industrial leachate. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to display the significant levels of the analyzed liner materials on the removal efficiency. The statistical analysis proves that the effect of natural zeolite was significant by a cubic spline model with a 99.93% removal efficiency. Optimization of liner materials was achieved by minimizing bentonite mixtures, which were costly, and maximizing Cu(II) and Zn(II) removal efficiency. The removal efficiencies were calculated as 45.07% and 48.19% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, when only bentonite was used as liner material. However, 60% of natural zeolite with 40% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Cu(II) removal (95%), and 80% of vermiculite and pumice with 20% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (61.24% and 65.09%). Similarly, 60% of natural zeolite with 40% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (89.19%), and 80% of vermiculite and pumice with 20% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (82.76% and 74.89%). PMID:23844384

  1. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  2. Thermal treatment of harzardous waste for heavy metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schirmer, Matthias; Bilitewski, Bernd; Kaszás Savos, Melania

    2007-07-16

    In this study, a new method for recovering heavy metals from hazardous waste is introduced. The process is characterized by a separation of heavy metals and residues during the thermal treatment under a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere in a rotary kiln. After leaving the rotary kiln the separated heavy metals are precipitated in a hot gas ceramic filter. Using this technology, hazardous materials, both liquids and pasty hazardous waste containing heavy metals, can be treated and a product with a quasi-raw material condition can be formed. In contrast to current methods,the harmful substances should not be immobilized and disposed. In fact, a saleable product highly concentrated with heavy metals should be formed. During preliminary investigations with a solution containing sodium chromate tetrahydrate, the process was tested in a pilot plant. Here,the separation of chromium could be demonstrated with leaching tests and characterization of the filter dust. Analysis concerning the disposability of the residues had not been carried out because only the process and the characteristic of the filter dust were in the centre of attention.

  3. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AT WATER-SEDIMENT INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferronato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries. The natural and artificial water courses flowed in agricultural, urban and industrial land. The heavy metals concentration in water and sediment discriminated the human pressure on the land and their spatial distribution in sediment could predict the hazard of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. We compared the heavy metals concentrations in pore water and superficial water determined in natural rivers and artificial canals, and more pollution in artificial canals than natural rivers was found. Furthermore, the coefficient of partition (log Kd between water and sediments was calculated to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals adsorbed on the sediments. The heavy metals extracted in deionised water at equilibrium after 16 h showed higher concentrations than those determined directly on water samples.

  4. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávik Marek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the samples was performed in accordance with the general requirements set out in the tenth chapter of the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. Mercury content in biological materials were assessed by total mercury as on the AMA 254 in fresh samples. The other heavy metal content, was determined after wet mineralization (HNO3: H2O - 1: 1 using the device AAS Varian 240 FS. The contamination of the environment showed increased accumulation of heavy metals in the - studiet sheep tissues intended for consumption. Such as Hg content in the kidneys of domestic sheep exceed the limit value by 1.3 times, whereas, in the case of cadmium 3 times exceeding the limit value in meat was recordered. Exceed limit was recorded in the case of lead and copper in the liver.

  5. [Immobilization impact of different fixatives on heavy metals contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lie-shan; Zeng, Dong-mei; Mo, Xiao-rong; Lu, Hong-hong; Su, Cui-cui; Kong, De-chao

    2015-01-01

    Four kinds of amendments including humus, ammonium sulfate, lime, superphosphate and their complex combination were added to rapid immobilize the heavy metals in contaminated soils. The best material was chosen according to the heavy metals' immobilization efficiency and the Capacity Values of the fixative in stabilizing soil heavy metals. The redistributions of heavy metals were determined by the European Communities Bureau of Referent(BCR) fraction distribution experiment before and after treatment. The results were as follows: (1) In the single material treatment, lime worked best with the dosage of 2% compared to the control group. In the compound amendment treatments, 2% humus combined with 2% lime worked best, and the immobilization efficiency of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn reached 98.49%, 99.40%, 95.86%, 99.21%, respectively. (2) The order of Capacity Values was lime > humus + lime > ammonium sulfate + lime > superphosphate > ammonium sulfate + superphosphate > humus + superphosphate > humus > superphosphate. (3) BCR sequential extraction procedure results indicated that 2% humus combined with 2% lime treatment were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals, better than 2% lime treatment alone. Besides, Cd was activated firstly by 2% humus treatment then it could be easily changed into the organic fraction and residual fraction after the subsequent addition of 2% lime.

  6. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  7. Study on the mechanism of transport of heavy metals in soil in western suburb of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongyan; WANG Jinsheng; TENG Yanguo; WANG Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are paying more and more attention to the adsorption and transport of heavy metals in soil. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the characteristics of adsorption and transport of mercury in soils of different locations in the western suburb of Beijing. To characterize the adsorption mechanism of mercury in soil, adsorption isotherms were determined through a batch experiment. Soil column experiments were performed in saturated soil under steady-state flow at a specific water head. The breakthrough curves ( BTC ) for the tracer (bromine) and mercury were obtained after continuous input. Moreover, two solute transport models [ convection-dispersion equation model (CDE)and two-site non-equilibrium model (TSN) ] were used to simulate heavy metal movement in soil on a laboratory column scale. According to the simulating results, we explored which model is more adapted to simulate the movement of heavy metals in saturated soil in the western suburb of Beijing.

  8. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Wood; Caixian Tang; Franks, Ashley E.; Wuxing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediat...

  9. An optimised method for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-compartment electrodialytic cell set-up for treatment of solid materials has in many respects proven superior to other types of cells in removing heavy metals from sediments. Most notably, remediation times were shorter, energy consumption was lower and higher removal efficiencies were observed....... By employing m1ultivariate modelling and investigating additional experimental variables, the relative importance of variables effecting remediation was determined and response surfaces for heavy metal removal were calculated. Employing optimal conditions it was possible to remove targeted metals (Pb, Cu, Zn...

  10. Spatial Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution for Soils in Coimbatore, India based on universal kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. gandhimathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coimbatore is a fast growing city, Manchester of Tamil Nadu, India. In Coimbatore Industry effluents and wastes being discharged randomly on soil, river, lake and road side without any treatment. They pollute productive soil, natural water system as well as ground water. Assessment of heavy metal content in soil and wetland from various localities of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu was undertaken. Heavy metal pollution generally a non-stationary variable, the technique of universal kriging is applied in preference to ordinary kriging as the interpolation method. Topsoil samples (0-20 cm were taken at various locations with reference to latitude and longitude. The concentration of heavy metal As, Hg, and Cd were analyzed in the Atomic Absorption spectrometer. Universal Kriging model was developed with suitable empirical semivariogram model. The model having the least error was selected by comparing the observed water-table values with the values predicted by empirical semivariogram models. It was determined that the presence of As is high at SIDCO. Presence of Hg is high in Sanganur road. Presence of Cd is high at Sanganur and townhall were because of electroplating industries. The aim of this analysis is to investigate the level, causes of heavy metal contamination in soil and prediction of heavy metal at various locations in the vicinity of industries and around Coimbatore city.

  11. Separation of heavy metals from landfill leachate by reactive liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickler, W. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie und Didaktik der Chemie

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the decontamination of a model landfill leachate by simultaneous separation of heavy metals from alkaline earth metals and iron in order to obtain a leachate that can be led back to the landfill. Reactive extraction as a separation process offers the possibility of selectively separating cations, that is, of separating toxic components from less problematic ones, and also includes the possibility of electrolysis and further processes to obtain the desired metals. (orig.)

  12. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment.

  13. Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

    2003-12-01

    The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells.

  14. Theory of unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in heavy-metal/ferromagnetic-metal bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments have revealed nonlinear features of the magnetoresistance in metallic bilayers consisting of a heavy metal (HM) and a ferromagnetic metal (FM). A small change in the longitudinal resistance of the bilayer has been observed when reversing the direction of either the applied in-plane current or the magnetization. We attribute such nonlinear transport behavior to the spin-polarization dependence of the electron mobility in the FM layer acting in concert with the spin accumulation induced in that layer by the spin Hall current originating in the bulk of the HM layer. An explicit expression for the nonlinear magnetoresistance is derived based on a simple drift-diffusion model, which shows that the nonlinear magnetoresistance appears at the first order of the spin Hall angle, and changes sign when the current is reversed, in agreement with the experimental observations. We also discuss possible ways to control sign of the nonlinear magnetoresistance and to enhance the magnitude of the effect.

  15. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Morales

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR and single strand annealing (SSA, which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the "error prone" non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair.

  16. Evaluation of Surface Water Quality by Using GIS and a Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) Model in a Coal Mining Area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Twenty eight surface water samples were collected from fourteen sites of the West Bokaro coalfield, India. The concentration of Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cr, Ba, and Fe were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of seasonal fluctuations and a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. Metal concentrations were higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. The Zn, Ni, Mn, As, Se, Al, Ba, Cu, and Cr concentrations did not exceed the desirable limits for drinking water in either season. However, at many sites, concentrations of Fe were above the desirable limit of the WHO (2006) and Indian drinking water standard (BIS 2003) in both seasons. The water that contained higher concentrations of Fe would require treatment before domestic use.

  17. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation. 

  18. Volatilization of heavy metals during incineration of municipal solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-shi; S. Abanades; J.D.Lu; G.Flamant; D.Gauthier

    2004-01-01

    Incineration experiments with MSW, which had been impregnated with heavy metals, were presented toobtain information on the volatilization behavior of the elements cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) underdifferent conditions. Experiments were carried out in a bubbling fluid bed system connected to a customizedinductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy(ICP-OES) for analyzing metals in the flue gas. The resultsindicated that the combustion temperature, the gas atmosphere, and the chlorine content in the flue gas could affectthe volatilization behavior of heavy metals. In the fluidized bed combustion, a large surface area was provided by thebed sand particles, and they may act as absorbents for the gaseous ash-forming compound. Comparer with themetals Cd and Pb, the vaporization of Zn was Iow. The formation of stable compounds such as ZnO·Al2O3 couldgreatly decrease the metals volatilization. The presence of chlorine would enhance the volatilization of heavy metalsby increasing the formation of metal chlorides. However, when the oxygen content was high, the chlorinatingreaction was kinetically hindered, which heavy metals release would be delayed.

  19. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment.

  20. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  1. Inducibility of a molecular bioreporter system by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimowski, L.; Rayms-Keller, A.; Olson, K.E.; Yang, R.S.H.; Tessari, J.; Carlson, J.; Beaty, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The authors have developed a molecular bioreporter model for detecting an invertebrate response to heavy metals in streams. The bioreporter system, pMt2-luc, utilizes a Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein promoter to regulate luciferase expression in stably transformed mosquito cells.The LucC5 clone, which was isolated from pMt2-luc transformed, hygromycin-resistant C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells, demonstrated a 12-fold increase in luciferase-specific activity 48 h after exposure to 13 ppm copper (Cu). In addition to Cu, exposure of LucC5 cells to 19 ppm lead (Pb) or 3 ppm mercury (Hg) for 48 h induced luciferase expression threefold and fourfold, respectively. Exposures of up to 30 ppm arsenic (As), 8 ppm cadmium (Cd), 7 ppm chromium (Cr), or 5 ppm nickel (Ni) had no effect on luciferase induction. LucC5 cells exposed to metal mixtures of 13 ppm Cu and 19 ppm Pb yielded an additive response with a 14-fold increase in luciferase expression. When organic chemicals such as phenol (3 ppm) were mixed with 13 ppm Cu, 19 ppm Pb, or 3 ppm Hg a significant reduction in luciferase activity was noted. Additionally, atomic absorption spectroscopy suggested that two of the metals, Cu and Pb, show marked differences in accumulation within the LucC5 cell line.

  2. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  3. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  4. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul;

    2003-01-01

    that the method could be used for removal of different heavy metals from impregnated wood waste, fly ash from straw combustion, and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The best result was obtained with the wood waste where more than 80% of each of the polluting elements Cu, Cr and As was removed......A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...

  5. Deena Weinstein, Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Grassy, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    Au moment où la sociologue Deena Weinstein publie Heavy Metal : The Music and Its Culture, en 1991, le heavy metal fait l’objet de controverses très médiatisées aux États-Unis. Le procès de Judas Priest pour incitation au suicide vient de faire les gros titres, et tous les conservateurs du pays passent leurs journées à écouter des disques à l’envers, à la recherche de paroles sataniques. Le livre de Weinstein s’inspire de ce climat sulfureux qui entoure le heavy metal depuis ses débuts mais a...

  6. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUM WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ADRIANA STEFANESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to characterize the bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals by Bacillus megaterium from phosphogypsum waste. The Bacillus megaterium strain (BM30 was isolated from soil near the phosphogypsum (PG dump. For the bioaccumulation quantification produced by BM30 strain were used three experimental treatments respectively with 2, 6 and 10 gL-1 PG. Cellular biomass samples were collected punctually at ages corresponding to the three stages of the development cycle of the microorganism: exponential phase, stationary phase and decline phase and the heavy metals concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The bioaccumulation yields in cell biomass, relative to the total amount of analyte introduced in the reaction medium were between 20 - 80 %, the lowest value was recorded by Cu and highest by Mn. The study results indicated that the isolated strain near the dump PG, BM30, bioaccumulate heavy metals monitored in cell biomass in the order Cu > Fe > Zn = Mn.

  7. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  8. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecchio, A; Finoli, C; Di Simine, D; Andreoni, [No Value

    1998-01-01

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the a

  9. Competitive adsorption of heavy metal ions on peat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-rong; ZHOU Li-min; WEI Peng; ZENG Kai; WEN Chuan-xi; LAN Hui-hua

    2008-01-01

    The uptake capacities, and the adsorption kinetics, of copper, Cu(Ⅱ), nickel, Ni(Ⅱ), and cadmium, Cd(Ⅱ), on peat have been studied under static conditions. The results show that the adsorption rates are rapid: equilibrium is reached in twenty minutes. The adsorption of copper, nickel and cadmium is pH dependent over the pH range from 2 to 6. The adsorption kinetics can be excellently described by the Elovich kinetic equation. The adsorption isotherm fits a Langmuir model very well. The adsorption capacifies follow the order Cu2+>Ni2+>Cd2+ in single-component systems and the competitive adsorption capacities fall in the decreasing order Cu2+> Ni2+>Cd2+ in multi-component systems. The adsorption capacities of these three heavy metal ions on peat are consistent with their observed competitive adsorption capacities.

  10. Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (ΔzitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (ΔzitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms.

  11. Expressing a bacterial mercuric ion binding protein in plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Chein, Mei-Fang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Endo, Ginro; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2009-01-30

    A specific mercuric ion binding protein (MerP) originating from transposon TnMERI1 of Bacillus megaterium strain MB1 isolated from Minamata Bay displayed good adsorption capability for a variety of heavy metals. In this study, the Gram-positive MerP protein was expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis to create a model system for phytoremediation of heavy metals. Under control of an actin promoter, the transgenic Arabidpsis showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for mercury, cadium and lead when compared with the control plant. Results from confocal microscopy analysis also indicate that MerP was localized at the cell membrane and vesicles of plant cells. The developed transgenic plants possessing excellent metal-accumulative ability could have potential applications in decontamination of heavy metals.

  12. Evaluation of zeolites synthesized from fly ash as potential adsorbents for wastewater containing heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfeng; Li, Jiansheng; Sun, Xia; Wang, Lianjun; Sun, Xiuyun

    2009-01-01

    The pure-form zeolites (A and X) were synthesized by applying a two-stage method during hydrothermal treatment of fly ash prepared initial Cu and Zn gel. The difference of adsorption capacity of both synthesized zeolites was assessed using Cu and Zn as target heavy metal ions. It was found that adsorption capacity of zeolite A showed much higher value than that of zeolite X. Thus, attention was focused on investigating the removal performance of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution on zeolite A, comparing with zeolite HS (hydroxyl-solidate) prepared from the residual fly ash (after synthesis of pure-form zeolite A from fly ash) and a commercial grade zeolite A. Batch method was used to study the influential parameters of the adsorption process. The equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir model. The removal mechanism of metal ions followed adsorption and ion exchange processes. Attempts were also made to recover heavy metal ions and regenerate adsorbents.

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhao Sun

    Full Text Available The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  14. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  15. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  16. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šarka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, Jing; Vaněk, Tomaš

    2014-06-01

    The essential requirement for the effective phytoremediation is selection of a plant species which should be metal tolerant, with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The above mentioned criteria are met by crop plant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The response of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants to cadmium and zinc stress was followed. The impact of metal application on physiological parameters, including changes in chlorophylls contents and antioxidative enzymes activities, was followed during the stress progression. Cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. However, elevation of metal concentrations in the media promoted their transfer to the shoots. Toxic effects of metals applied at lower concentrations were less serious in the shoots in comparison with their influence to the roots. When applied at higher concentrations, transfer of the metals into the leaves increased, causing growth reduction and leading to Chl loss and metal-induced chlorosis. Moreover, higher metal levels in the roots overcame the quenching capacity of peroxidase and glutathione transferase, which was associated with reduction of their activities. Fortification of antioxidant system by addition of glutathione significantly increased the accumulation of cadmium in the roots as well as in the shoots at the highest cadmium concentration applied.

  18. Heavy Metal Pollution and Chemical Profile of Cauvery River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Abida Begum; Ramaiah, M.; Harikrishna; Irfanulla Khan; K. Veena

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of water, plankton, fish and sediment reveals that the Cauvery River water in the downstream is contaminated by certain heavy metals. Water samples have high carbonate hardness. Concentrations of all elements and ions increase in the downstream. Main ions are in the following order: Na > HCO3 >Mg > K > Ca> Cl > SO4. Heavy metal concentration in water was Cr >Cu ≈ Mn > Co > Ni > Pb > Zn, in fish muscles Cr > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb ≈ Zn, in phytoplanktens Co > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr and in ...

  19. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  20. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  1. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis. PMID:27242833

  2. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  3. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  4. The stress analysis of a heavy liquid metal pump impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X. D.; Li, X. L.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Li, C. J.; Gao, S.

    2016-05-01

    Lead-based coolant reactor is a promising Generation-IV reactor. In the lead-based coolant reactor, the coolant is liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. The main pump in the reactor is a very important device. It supplies force for the coolant circulation. The liquid metal has a very large density which is about ten times of the water. Also, the viscosity of the coolant is small which is about one sixth of the water. When the pump transports heavy liquid, the blade loading is heavy. The large force can cause the failure of the blade when the fatigue stress exceeds the allowable stress. The impeller fraction is a very serious accident which is strictly prohibited in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, the numerical method is used to simulate the flow field of a heavy liquid metal pump. The SST k-w turbulent model is used in the calculation to get a more precise flow structure. The hydraulic force is obtained with the one way fluid solid coupling. The maximum stress in the impeller is analyzed. The stress in the liquid metal pump is compared with that in the water pump. The calculation results show that the maximum stress of the impeller blade increases with increase of flow rate. In the design of the impeller blade thickness, the impeller strength in large operating condition should be considered. The maximum stress of the impeller blade located in the middle and near the hub of the leading edge. In this position, the blade is easy to fracture. The maximum deformation of the impeller firstly increase with increase of flow rate and then decrease with increase of flow rate. The maximum deformation exists in the middle of the leading edge when in small flow rate and in the out radius of the impeller when in large flow rate. Comparing the stress of the impeller when transporting water and LBE, the maximum stress is almost one-tenth of that in the LBE impeller which is the same ratio of the density. The static stress in different medium is proportional to the pressure

  5. Sorption of Heavy Metal and Organic Pollutants on Modified Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhao-Fu; ZHANG Yi-Ping; WANG Guo-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Sorption characteristics of both an organic pollutant(phenol)and a heavy metal(cadmium ion)on the clay layer of a Lou soil(Eum-orthic Anthrosol in Chinese Soil Taxonomy)along with the sorption mechanism were investigated using three soil treatments:modification with a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide added at an amount equivalent to 50%and 100%of the soil CEC (50%CB and 100%CB),modification with an amphoteric surface-modifying agent dodecyldimethylbetaine(commercially known as BS-12)added at an amount equivalent to 50%and 100%of the soil CEC(50%BS and 100%BS),and an unmodified control(CK).Results showed that the BS soil treatments increased sorption of both the heavy metal Cd2+ and the organic pollutant phenol.The equilibrium sorption amount of Cd2+decreased in the order:50%BS>100%BS>CK>50%CB>100%CB,with the BS soil treatments being about 1.3 to 1.8 times higher and the CB soil treatments about 23%to 41%lower than CK.Both the single-site and two-site Langmuir models could be applied to describe the sorption of Cd2+ in each soil treatment.The equilibrium sorption amount of phenol on the soil samples decreased in the order:100%CB>50%CB>100%BS>50%BS>CK,with the CB soil treatments being 41.0 to 79.6 times higher and the BS soil treatments 4.0 to 8.3 times higher than CK.The Freundlich equation could also be used to describe the sorption characteristics of phenol.In the BS soil treatments,both an organophobic long carbon chain and hydrophilic charged groups resulted in a relatively strong sorption ability for both heavy metals and organic pollutants.In addition.the sorption ratio K,the ratio of phenol sorption amount of the modified soil to that of CK,increased initially and decreased later with the amount of phenol added,and the critical sorption ratio Kc,the peak value of the sorption ratio curve plotted against the added phenol concentration.was a good index for evaluating the sorption ability of phenol in the soil.

  6. Science Letters: Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-wei; XU Xin-hua; JIN Jian; HE Ping; LIU Yong; WANG Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitrate removal when both are removed simultaneously. Even a little amount of copper can enhance nitrate removal efficiently.Different mechanisms of these contaminants removal by iron metal were also discussed.

  7. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not.

  8. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Average topsoil metal concentrations (0-10 cm) in auto-repair workshop areas ...... States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with a carcinogenicity classification A ... Mellor, A.; Bevan, J.R. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 1999, 112, 327.

  9. Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, John Richard

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential extraction protocol is described. Two alternate approaches for assessing the environmental health risk to humans by undertaking in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (also known as the physiologically based extraction test, PBET) are considered. Finally, two acid digestion protocols that allow the pseudo-total metal content of samples to be assessed are provided.

  10. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  11. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected.

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetables from Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELJAN KASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the heavy metals in vegetables cultivated in private gardens in Bregu i Matit, an important agricultural area in the NW Albania.The plant and soil samples taken from irrigated and non-irrigated fields in this area were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, after extraction by HNO3 and H2O2.The transfer factors (TF were used to evaluate the risk of metal transfer from soil to plant and the FAO/WHO safe limits to assess the potential hazards of heavy metals to human health. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations ± standard deviation in vegetable samples were (mg kg- 1: Cu 2.98-12.90 (±3.08, Ni 4.82-35.79 (±7.68, Zn Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb. The TF values indicate that only Cd was accumulated in plants.The contents of Cd in three vegetable samples, Pb in four samples, and Cu in one sample were above the safe limits set by the FAO/WHO for heavy metals in foods and vegetables indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in the studied soils could be dangerous to human health.

  13. Heavy metal ion removal by thiol functionalized aluminum oxide hydroxide nanowhiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiyong; Baird, Lance; Zimmerman, Natasha; Yeager, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we developed a cost effective method of using thiol functionalized γ-aluminum oxide hydroxide (γ-AlOOH) filters for removing three key heavy metals from water: mercury, lead, and cadmium under non-concomitant conditions. Compared to non-thiol treated γ-AlOOH filters, the introduction of thiol functional groups greatly improved the heavy metal removal efficiency under both static and dynamic filtration conditions. The adsorption kinetics of thiol functionalized γ-AlOOH were investigated using the Lagergren first order and pseudo-second order kinetics models; whereas the isothermal adsorption behavior of these membranes was revealed through the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Heavy metal concentration was quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy, and the thiol level on γ-AlOOH surface was measured by a colorimetric assay using Ellman's reagent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to further address the surface sulfur state on the membranes after heavy metal exposure. Mechanisms for heavy metal adsorption were also discussed.

  14. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale.

  15. Contribution of individual sorbents to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    A multisurface model is used to evaluate the contribution of various sorption surfaces to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil samples at pH 3.7-6.1 with different sorbent contents. This multisurface model considers soil as a set of independent sorption surfaces, i.e. organic matter (NI

  16. 模糊数学模型在土壤重金属污染评价中的应用%Application of Fuzzy Model in Evaluation of Heavy Metal Soil Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红; 吴世洋; 李卫东; 杜晓亮; 王丽苑

    2013-01-01

    针对传统的土壤环境重金属受污染程度评价标准不统一、定性指标难以定量化的问题,建立了适用于土壤中Cd等重金属污染状况评价的模糊数学模型。应用Matlab软件的Matlab-FIS工具分析了白银市白银区附近的土壤中重金属污染情况,评价结果显示该区域土壤受到了一定程度的重金属污染,采样点中层土壤受污染程度高于表层土壤,远离工业区的土壤质量好于工业区附近的土壤。研究表明,模糊评价法可以精确地对土壤中重金属综合污染进行评价,解决了传统的单因子指数评价法存在的不足之处,比单因子指标评价法更为客观、准确。%Fuzzy model has been established which suits for Cadmium in the soil and some serious heavy metal pollution , in view of lack of unity and quantification for quantitative indicators for the evaluation standard of heavy metal pollution .Mat-lab-FIS in the Matlab model was used in analyzing the soil heavy metal polluton in Baiyin nearby .The evaluation result showed that a certain degree of soil heavy metal pollution has been suffered in this area .The degree of the contamination in the middle soil was higher than in the surface , the soil quality away from the industrial area was better than the nearby are-a.Studies also showed that ,Fuzzy evaluation method can accurately evaluate the comprehensive pollution of heavy metals in soil,which overcomed the shortcomings in the traditional single index evaluation method .It is more objective and accurate than the single factor index evaluation method .

  17. Transport and deposition of heavy metals in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Andrea; Bertler, Nancy; Neff, Peter; Edwards, Ross; Emanuelsson, Daniel; Beers, Thomas; Mayewski, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Emissions and long-range transport of toxic metals and metalloids pose a global threat to ecosystems and human health. Global industrialization occurring from the late nineteenth century releases large quantities of pollutants into the Earth's atmosphere. Despite international efforts to mitigate emissions, accumulation of metals is still observed in the most remote regions of the planet. New baseline studies are needed to determine (i) natural background concentration of pollutants, (ii) contributions of anthropogenic emissions, and (iii) potential remobilization of previously deposited metals. Constructing such records requires distinguishing source strength from transport efficiency to the recording site and accounting for local depositional effects. Here we investigate the sensitivity and representation of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Mn, Pb, Tl, and As) in the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core, a new coastal Antarctic ice core site. Concentration variability with precipitation is explored in daily surface snow samples collected over 70 days, while seasonal deposition is investigated through snow pit sampling. We find that snow sample concentrations increase with particular snow precipitation types (rime and fog) and enhanced meridional atmospheric transport to the site. Snow pit heavy metals peak in summer and also show variable intraannual peaks. Seasonal airmass modeling based on ERA Interim reanalysis data indicates a synoptic shift during the spring and summer months. We conclude that modern heavy metal concentrations are influenced by transport efficiency and scavenging behavior; and thus, time series records from RICE have the potential to provide representative data of regional changes in heavy metals.

  18. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  19. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  20. Ecological risk assessment on heavy metals in soils: Use of soil diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wei; Guo, Mingxing; Ji, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to correlate the soil spectral information to the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Hg and Fe in wheat grains. The principal components in the spectra influencing soil heavy metal bioavailability were identified and used in prediction model construction. The established soil DRIFTS-based prediction models were applied to estimate the heavy metal concentrations in wheat grains in the mid-Yangtze River Delta area. The predicted heavy metal concentrations of wheat grain were highly consistent with the measured levels by chemical analysis, showing a significant correlation (r2 > 0.72) with acceptable root mean square error RMSE. In conclusion, DRIFTS is a promising technique for assessing the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and related ecological risk.

  1. Ecological risk assessment on heavy metals in soils: Use of soil diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wei; Guo, Mingxing; Ji, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to correlate the soil spectral information to the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Hg and Fe in wheat grains. The principal components in the spectra influencing soil heavy metal bioavailability were identified and used in prediction model construction. The established soil DRIFTS-based prediction models were applied to estimate the heavy metal concentrations in wheat grains in the mid-Yangtze River Delta area. The predicted heavy metal concentrations of wheat grain were highly consistent with the measured levels by chemical analysis, showing a significant correlation (r2 > 0.72) with acceptable root mean square error RMSE. In conclusion, DRIFTS is a promising technique for assessing the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and related ecological risk. PMID:28198802

  2. Effects of heavy metal pollution on soil microbial biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass in metal-polluted soils. Laboratory and field investigations where metals were applied ass inorganic or organic salts demonstrated a significant decline in the size of s oil microbial biomass. In most of the cases, negative effects were evident at metal concentrations below the European Community's (EC) current permissible metal levels in the soil. Application of metal-enriched sludges and composts caused significant inhibition of microbial biomass at surprisingly modest concentrations of metals in the soil that were indeed smaller than those likely to decrease the growth of sensitive crop species. On the whole, relative toxicity of metals decreased in the order of Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb, but a few exceptions to this trend also existed. A significant decline in the biomass carbon to organic carbon ratio(Cmin/Corg) in metal-polluted soils indicated that this parameter can serve as a good indicator of the toxicity of metals on soil microflora. The knowledge regarding the response of soil biota to metal interactions and the factors affecting metal toxicity to soil microorganisms is still very limited and warrants further study.

  3. Heavy metal: musiikkia vai elämäntapa?

    OpenAIRE

    Rimbacher, Niko

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni on ontologinen kuvaus heavy metal – musiikista ja kulttuurista. Työssä pohditaan, mitä heavy metal on ja mitä se kuuntelijalleen merkitsee. Työssä käydään läpi myös heavy metalin historian vaiheita. Työ on toteutettu itsenäisesti ilman tilaajaa. Työssä on käytetty lähteitä dokumenttielokuvista kirjallisuuden kautta sosiaaliseen mediaan. Onko hevi vain musiikkia vai jopa elämäntavaksi kasvanut musiikki-instituutio? Tutkimuksissa kävi ilmi, että on olemassa monenlaisia hevi...

  4. Deposition of sediment and associated heavy metals on floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, floodplains have become widely acknowledged as important natural sinks for sediments and associated substances like nutrients, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals. The character of floodplains will change in the near future because of landscaping measures (excavation of secondary channels,

  5. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  6. Impact of heavy metals and PCBs on marine picoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroppo, Carmela; Stabili, Loredana; Aresta, Michele; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Synergistic/antagonistic effects of multiple contaminants in marine environments are almost completely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) and PCBs on picoplankton abundance, biomass, cell size distribution, and bacterial C production. Natural picoplankton assemblages were exposed to heavy metals (Zn or Pb), organic contaminants (PCBs, Aroclor 1260), and to a mixture of different contaminants. The results of the present study indicate that Zn addition stimulated heterotrophic growth, whereas Pb has a negative impact on heterotrophic picoplankton, particularly significant in the first 24 h. Heavy metals had no effects on the autotrophic component. The addition of Aroclor 1260 had a significant impact on abundance, biomass, and cell size of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton, and reduced significantly bacterial secondary production. Three weeks after PCB treatment, heterotrophic bacteria displayed a clear resilience, both in terms of abundance and biomass, reaching values comparable to those of the controls, but not in terms of bacterial C production. Our results indicate that picoplankton can be sensitive indicators of impact determined by heavy metals and PCBs in coastal marine systems.

  7. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the status of drinking water quality in the ... pH, and turbidity and ten heavy metals,viz., As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and ... treatment practices in the areas, which in turn have important human health ...

  8. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  9. New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barakat, M.A

    2011-01-01

    ... to its discharge to the environment. Heavy metal removal from inorganic effluent can be achieved by conventional treatment processes such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, and electrochemical removal. These processes have significant disadvantages, which are, for instance, incomplete removal, high-energy requirements, and production of toxic slud...

  10. Regional ecotoxicological hazards associated with anthropogenic enrichment of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.H.; Mol, G.; Posthuma, L.

    2011-01-01

    Regional geochemical data of heavy metals are commonly used for environmental risk assessment and management. Often these data are based on so-called total concentrations, whereas the exposure to the mobile or reactive fraction of these elements finally determines whether the exposed ecosystem is at

  11. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical...

  12. Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon contents of sediments from Ikpoba (Edo) and Ethiope (Delta) Rivers of Nigeria. ... THC contents were 6.50mg/kg (Ikpoba river) and 42.10mg/kg (Ethiope river). The organic contents ...

  13. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  14. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  15. Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths of Metalheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Attitudes and characteristics of adolescents who like heavy metal music (HMM) were explored in a study of 52 adolescents (largely White males) who liked HMM and 123 who did not in suburban Atlanta (Georgia). HMM is discussed as a reflection of, rather than a cause of, adolescent alienation. (SLD)

  16. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  17. Heavy metal analyses and nutritional composition of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... trend moisture (43.24 - 76.79 %) > carbohydrate (3.16 – 63.45 %) > protein ... In this study, these fishes are generally low in fats (lean fish), and fish ... lower than the maximum standard level reported to be 0.5 mg/kg dry weight ... The fresh water fishes showed higher concentration of heavy metals than ... Metrics Loading .

  18. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  19. Assessment of heavy metals leachability from traditional clay pots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leachate from the clay raw pulp material was initially analysed for heavy metals ... Cd, Fe and Zn. Results of this study showed that Pb, Cd and Fe were transferred ... are different from regions to region and the techniques of making them differ, ...

  20. Phenol degradation and heavy metal tolerance of Antarctic yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pablo Marcelo; Martorell, María Martha; Blaser, Mariana G; Ruberto, Lucas Adolfo Mauro; de Figueroa, Lucía Inés Castellanos; Mac Cormack, Walter Patricio

    2017-03-07

    In cold environments, biodegradation of organic pollutants and heavy metal bio-conversion requires the activity of cold-adapted or cold-tolerant microorganisms. In this work, the ability to utilize phenol, methanol and n-hexadecane as C source, the tolerance to different heavy metals and growth from 5 to 30 °C were evaluated in cold-adapted yeasts isolated from Antarctica. Fifty-nine percent of the yeasts were classified as psychrotolerant as they could grow in all the range of temperature tested, while the other 41% were classified as psychrophilic as they only grew below 25 °C. In the assimilation tests, 32, 78, and 13% of the yeasts could utilize phenol, n-hexadecane, and methanol as C source, respectively, but only 6% could assimilate the three C sources evaluated. In relation to heavy metals ions, 55, 68, and 80% were tolerant to 1 mM of Cr(VI), Cd(II), and Cu(II), respectively. Approximately a half of the isolates tolerated all of them. Most of the selected yeasts belong to genera previously reported as common for Antarctic soils, but several other genera were also isolated, which contribute to the knowledge of this cold environment mycodiversity. The tolerance to heavy metals of the phenol-degrading cold-adapted yeasts illustrated that the strains could be valuable as inoculant for cold wastewater treatment in extremely cold environments.

  1. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations in coastal sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    are dangerous for sea wild life and for human food resources. ... Key words: Marine pollution, heavy metals, coastal sediments, toxicity, Nosy Be, .... source of Cd and Pb in sediments come from ferry port ..... Water Environment in the Eastern African Region. ... marine organisms from the Northern part of the Gulf of Suez, Red.

  2. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment. Apart from the fact that cassava effluents contain high cyanide content which has adverse ... cottage industries such as cassava processing in ...... European. Soil Bureau Research Report No. 4. Office of. Official Publication of the ... irrigation using waste water on heavy metal ... Biological Sciences 7(2): 405-408.

  3. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1997-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  4. Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Heavy Metals in Household Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Erin; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Forrester, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Federal law requires public water utilities to provide biologically safe water. However, the safety of privately owned, individual water supplies such as wells, springs, and cisterns is the sole responsibility of the owner. This publication discusses the sources, testing, and treatment of heavy metals.

  5. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  6. A novel approach of utilization of the fungal conidia biomass to remove heavy metals from the aqueous solution through immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chun-Xiang; Xu, Jian; Deng, Nian-Fang; Dong, Xue-Wei; Tang, Hao; Liang, Yu; Fan, Xian-Wei; Li, You-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The biomass of filamentous fungi is an important cost-effective biomass for heavy metal biosorption. However, use of free fungal cells can cause difficulties in the separation of biomass from the effluent. In this study, we immobilized the living conidia of the heavy metal-resistant Penicillium janthinillum strain GXCR by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA) beads to remove heavy metals from an aqueous solution containing a low concentration (70 mg/L) of Cu, Pb, and Cd. The PVA-SA-conidia beads showed perfect characters of appropriate mechanical strength suitable for metal removal from the dynamic wastewater environment, an ideal settleability, easy separation from the solution, and a high metal biosorption and removal rate even after four cycles of successive sorption-desorption of the beads, overcoming disadvantages when fungal biomasses alone are used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. We also discuss the major biosorption-affecting factors, biosorption models, and biosorption mechanisms.

  7. Removal of Heavy Metals from Drinking Water by Magnetic Carbon Nanostructures Prepared from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muneeb Ur Rahman Khattak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals contamination of drinking water has significant adverse effects on human health due to their toxic nature. In this study a new adsorbent, magnetic graphitic nanostructures were prepared from watermelon waste. The adsorbent was characterized by different instrumental techniques (surface area analyzer, FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM, and TG/DTA and was used for the removal of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn from water. The adsorption parameters were determined for heavy metals adsorption using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption kinetics and effect of time, pH, and temperature on heavy metal ions were also determined. The best fits were obtained for Freundlich isotherm. The percent adsorption showed a decline at high pH. Best fit was obtained with second-order kinetics model for the kinetics experiments. The values of ΔH° and ΔG° were negative while that of ΔS° was positive. The prepared adsorbent has high adsorption capacities and can be efficiently used for the removal of heavy metals from water.

  8. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  9. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... concentration of the metals found in fish and water was less than that recommended by the World ... that have relatively high density, which are toxic and poi- sonous at ... phase is through the feeding on aquatic organisms that.

  10. Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, Delphine; Rose, Jerome; Conrod, Sandrine; Cuine, Stephane; Carrier, Patrick; Heulin, Thierry; Achouak, Wafa

    2008-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacterium widespread in the environment. S. maltophilia Sm777 exhibits innate resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, this bacterium tolerates high levels (0.1 to 50 mM) of various toxic metals, such as Cd, Pb, Co, Zn, Hg, Ag, selenite, tellurite and uranyl. S. maltophilia Sm777 was able to grow in the presence of 50 mM selenite and 25 mM tellurite and to reduce them to elemental selenium (Se0) and tellurium (Te0) respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed cytoplasmic nanometer-sized electron-dense Se0 granules and Te0 crystals. Moreover, this bacterium can withstand up to 2 mM CdCl2 and accumulate this metal up to 4% of its biomass. The analysis of soluble thiols in response to ten different metals showed eightfold increase of the intracellular pool of cysteine only in response to cadmium. Measurements by Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy indicated the formation of Cd-S clusters in strain Sm777. Cysteine is likely to be involved in Cd tolerance and in CdS-clusters formation. Our data suggest that besides high tolerance to antibiotics by efflux mechanisms, S. maltophilia Sm777 has developed at least two different mechanisms to overcome metal toxicity, reduction of oxyanions to non-toxic elemental ions and detoxification of Cd into CdS. PMID:18253487

  11. Surfactin restores and enhances swarming motility under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Dhanjal, Soniya; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-04-01

    The present work reports the importance of lipopeptide biosurfactant on swarming motility of multi-metal resistant (MMR) bacterium under heavy metal stress. The MMR bacteria strain CM100B, identified as Bacillus cereus, was isolated from the coal mine sample. The strain was able to grow and reduce several metals namely Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Pb(2+) ions which are common environmental pollutants. Presence of toxic heavy metal ions in the swarming medium significantly altered the motility of CM100B. Presence of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions inhibited development of peritrichous flagella, thus inhibiting swarming motility. However, the addition of anionic biosurfactant surfactin restored (in case of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions) or enhanced (in case of Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Mn(2+)) the swarming ability of CM100B. Zeta potential studies for determining bacterial cell surface charge indicated that surfactin provided a suitable swarming environment to bacteria even under metal stress by chelating to cationic metal ions. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was unable to restore swarming under Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ion stress. Thus, suggesting that surfactin can aid in motility not only by reducing the surface tension of swarming medium but also by binding to metal ions in the presence of metal ions stress.

  12. Heavy metals in miscarriages and stillbirths in developing nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cases of miscarriage and stillbirths due to heavy metal poisoning continue to be on the rise in developing nations. In these countries like Nigeria, the menace of miscarriage is not readily linked to heavy metal exposure. This could be as a result of insufficient scientific data available due to poor documentation and inadequate public health education on the consequences of these heavy metals on maternal health. The heavy metals mercury, lead and cadmium are toxicants which have been shown to cross the placental barrier to accumulate in fetal tissues. Methods: For this review, relevant databases were searched for original scientific reports and a total of 100 articles were retained for analysis. Required data was extracted from these studies and their methodology assessed. Results: Miscarriages and stillbirths were observed from exposure to five heavy metals namely; mercury, arsenic, lead, chromium and cadmium. These heavy metals were associated with increased incidence of miscarriages in developing nations. In Nigeria, women with history of miscarriage had blood lead levels >25 µg/dL during pregnancy with approximately 41.61% increase in miscarriage incidence. Cadmium blood level was found to be 85.96 ± 1.09 μg/dl with a 9.50% increase in miscarriage incidence in women exposed to mercury in comparison to the unexposed group. For chromium, a 1.60% increase in the incidence of miscarriage in women exposed to chromium was reported. For cadmium and arsenic, 83.93% and 5.88% increase in incidence were reported respectively. Similar data were obtained for Jamaica (mercury = 7.29 ± 9.10 μg/l, Egypt (Cadmium = 1.17%; Lead = 32.33%. Conclusion: Medical practitioners and Toxicologists involved in women health in sub-Sahara Africa SSA should consider if these heavy metals can become additional biomarkers in the diagnosis of miscarriages and stillbirths.

  13. Genetic risk assessment of acid waste water containing heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miadoková, E; Dúhová, V; Vlcková, V; Sládková, L; Sucha, V; Vlcek, D

    1999-10-01

    The mutagenic/cancerogenic potential of acid-mine water from the Slovak mining area Rudnany containing a high load of toxic metals was evaluated after its application to three model test organisms (bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and plant Vicia sativa L.). The results obtained from the modified preincubation Ames assay proved that 1000-fold diluted waste water exhibited mutagenic effect in three (TA97, TA98, TA102) of four bacterial strains. In the test on yeast the toxicity and genotoxicity increased as a function of the concentration. At the highest concentration used (0.06%) the frequency of revertants increased 6 times and convertants increased 4.5 times above the control level. In the simultaneous phytotoxicity and clastogenicity assay, concentration dependent toxicity and statistically significant clastogenicity was proved. We can conclude that heavy metals might be responsible for the genotoxic/cancerogenic potential of the test water. However, we do not entirely exclude the possibility that its genotoxicity might be promoted by its high acidity.

  14. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  15. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals onto sesame straw biochar in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in mono and multimetal forms onto sesame straw biochar (SSB). Competitive sorption of metals by SSB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities (mgg(-1)) of metals by SSB were in the order of Pb (102)≫Cd (86)≫Cr (65)>Cu (55)≫Zn (34) in the monometal adsorption isotherm and Pb (88)≫Cu (40)≫Cr (21)>Zn (7)⩾Cd (5) in the multimetal adsorption isotherm. Based on data obtained from the distribution coefficients, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models, and three-dimensional simulation, multimetal adsorption behaviors differed from monometal adsorption due to competition. Especially, during multimetal adsorption, Cd was easily exchanged and substituted by other metals. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate the heavy metal adsorption capacity of biochar in natural environments.

  16. G.I.S. Surveillance of Chronic Non-occupational Exposure to Heavy Metals as Oncogenic Risk

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    Mariana Vlad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potential oncogenic effect of some heavy metals in people occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to such heavy metals is already well demonstrated. This study seeks to clarify the potential role of these heavy metals in the living environment, in this case in non-occupational multifactorial aetiology of malignancies in the inhabitants of areas with increased prevalent environmental levels of heavy metals. Methods: Using a multidisciplinary approach throughout a complex epidemiological study, we investigated the potential oncogenic role of non-occupational environmental exposure to some heavy metals [chrome (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and arsenic (As—in soil, drinking water, and food, as significant components of the environment] in populations living in areas with different environmental levels (high vs. low of the above-mentioned heavy metals. The exposures were evaluated by identifying the exposed populations, the critical elements of the ecosystems, and as according to the means of identifying the types of exposure. The results were interpreted both epidemiologically (causal inference, statistical significance, mathematical modelling and by using a GIS approach, which enabled indirect surveillance of oncogenic risks in each population. Results: The exposure to the investigated heavy metals provides significant risk factors of cancer in exposed populations, in both urban and rural areas [χ² test (p < 0.05]. The GIS approach enables indirect surveillance of oncogenic risk in populations. Conclusions: The role of non-occupational environmental exposure to some heavy metals in daily life is among the more significant oncogenic risk factors in exposed populations. The statistically significant associations between environmental exposure to such heavy metals and frequency of neoplasia in exposed populations become obvious when demonstrated on maps using the GIS system. Environmental

  17. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  18. Identification and Quantification of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Pistacia

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    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of heavy metals are very important in pistachio nuts, because the edible nuts have an important and increasing role in human nutrition. Pistachio is one of the native nuts of Iran which contains high genetic resources, but there is insufficient information regarding nutritional properties and other elements like heavy metals. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare heavy metals contents in the kernels of various pistachio samples including; ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Sephid’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Momtaz’, ‘Ahmad Aghaei’, ‘Badami Zarand’, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (‘Baneh’, Pistacia vera ‘Sarakhs’ and chance seedling as ‘Non-grafted 1’, ‘Non-grafted 2’ and ‘Non-grafted 3’. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer (ICP was used for the determination of aluminium, chromium, nickel, copper, strontium, arsenic, cadmium and cobalt concentrations in pistachio kernels. This study showed that there were significant differences among the samples in all measured heavy metals except the arsenic, cadmium and cobalt. The content of aluminium varied from 3.22 to 9.59 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and chromium concentration from 0.60 to 1.86 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The nickel content of examined pistachio samples was found between 0.43 and 3.63 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and copper ranged from 3.20 to 12.33 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The strontium content was observed between 4.96 and 24.93 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The contents of arsenic, cadmium and cobalt not reported, because their amounts were lower than the detection limit of the applied measuring method (ICP. These data demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals in pistachios varied by cultivar.

  19. BIOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS USING BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS

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    Vijayanand.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate degradation of heavy metals in effluent waste water samples using microorganisms. The physical and chemical properties of the effluent samples were analyzed using standard methods. The soil sample collected from the heavy metal contaminated sites was subjected to serial dilution and streak-plating methods and six different strains were isolated from the samples. The activity of the isolates for hemolysis was studied on the Blood-Agar plates. The isolated strains were studied for its biochemical and morphological characteristics. The dark-blue colonies were observed by CTAB method, which confirmed the anionic bio surfactant produced by the isolate. The isolates were subjected to other screening tests like emulsification activity and oil displacement technique. These strains were used in the degradation of heavy metals present in the effluent waste water samples. The organism KDM 4 showed better degradation with 93.18% ability in reducing zinc when incubated for 72 hours and 86.36% when incubated for 24 hours in sample 3. The lead reduction was found to be 84.13% by the organism KDM3 when incubated at 37°C for 72 hours incubation. The chromium was reduced by the organism KDM 6 with 87.9% ability when incubated for 72 hours. The organisms had capacity to reduce the heavy metals depending on the factors like time and concentration of inoculum. As the time of incubation increases, more reduction was observed. The least amount of degradation was found in the organism KDM5 with only 27.08%. The percentage of reduction of heavy metals varies from one sample to another sample.

  20. Dithiocarbamate-modified starch derivatives with high heavy metal adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bo; Fan, Wen; Yi, Xiaowei; Wang, Zuohua; Gao, Feng; Li, Yijiu; Gu, Hongbo

    2016-01-20

    In this work, three types of dithiocarbamate (DTC)-modified starch derivatives including DTC starch (DTCS), DTC enzymolysis starch (DTCES) and DTC mesoporous starch (DTCMS) were developed, which showed the significant heavy metal adsorption performance. The adsorption ability of these three DTC modified starch derivatives followed the sequences: DTCMS>DTCES>DTCS. In single metal aqueous solutions, the uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto the modified starches obeyed the orders: Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(VI)>Zn(II)>Pb(II). The adsorption mechanism was proved by the chelating between DTC groups and heavy metal ions through the pH effect measurements. A monolayer adsorption of Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Cu(II) onto DTCMS was well fitted rather than the multilayer adsorption of Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of Cu(II) onto starch derivatives was found to be fit well with the pseudo-second-order model. Additionally, in the presence of EDTA, the adsorption ability and uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto these three DTC modified starch derivatives is identical with the results obtained in the absence of EDTA.