HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L
2009-01-29
A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of
Discrete element modelling of granular materials
Van Baars, S.
1996-01-01
A new model is developed by the author, which does not use the equations of motion but the equations of equilibrium to describe granular materials. The numerical results show great similarities with reality and can generally be described by an advanced Mohr-Coulomb model. However, many contacts betw
A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects
Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad
2017-06-01
The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.
Pore-scale Modelling of Capillarity in Swelling Granular Materials
Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Sweijen, T.; Nikooee, E.; Chareyre, B.
2015-12-01
Capillarity in granular porous media is a common and important phenomenon in earth materials and industrial products, and therefore has been studied extensively. To model capillarity in granular porous media, one needs to go beyond current models which simulate either two-phase flow in porous media or mechanical behaviour in granular media. Current pore-scale models for two-phase flow such as pore-network models are tailored for rigid pore-skeletons, even though in many applications, namely hydro-mechanical coupling in soils, printing, and hygienic products, the porous structure does change during two-phase flow. On the other hand, models such as Discrete Element Method (DEM), which simulate the deformable porous media, have mostly been employed for dry or saturated granular media. Here, the effects of porosity change and swelling on the retention properties was studied, for swelling granular materials. A pore-unit model that was capable to construct the capillary pressure - saturation curve was coupled to DEM. Such that the capillary pressure - saturation curve could be constructed for varying porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The study material was super absorbent polymer particles, which are capable to absorb water 10's to 200 times their initial weight. We have simulated quasi-static primary imbibition for different porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The results reveal a 3 dimensional surface between capillary pressure, saturation, and porosity, which can be normalized by means of the entry pressure and the effective water saturation to a unique curve.
DEM modeling of flexible structures against granular material avalanches
Lambert, Stéphane; Albaba, Adel; Nicot, François; Chareyre, Bruno
2016-04-01
This article presents the numerical modeling of flexible structures intended to contain avalanches of granular and coarse material (e.g. rock slide, a debris slide). The numerical model is based on a discrete element method (YADE-Dem). The DEM modeling of both the flowing granular material and the flexible structure are detailed before presenting some results. The flowing material consists of a dry polydisperse granular material accounting for the non-sphericity of real materials. The flexible structure consists in a metallic net hanged on main cables, connected to the ground via anchors, on both sides of the channel, including dissipators. All these components were modeled as flexible beams or wires, with mechanical parameters defined from literature data. The simulation results are presented with the aim of investigating the variability of the structure response depending on different parameters related to the structure (inclination of the fence, with/without brakes, mesh size opening), but also to the channel (inclination). Results are then compared with existing recommendations in similar fields.
Implicit integration of plasticity models for granular materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahadi, A.; Krenk, Steen
2003-01-01
A stress integration algorithm for granular materials based on fully implicit integration with explicit updating is presented. In the implicit method the solution makes use of the gradient to the potential surface at the final stress state which is unknown. The final stress and hardening parameters...... are determined solving the non-linear equations iteratively so that the stress increment fulfills the consistency condition. The integration algorithm is applicable for models depending on all the three stress invariants and it is applied to a characteristic state model for granular material. Since tensile...... of the integration algorithm are illustrated by simulating both drained and undrained triaxial tests on sand. The algorithm is developed in a standard format which can be implemented in several general purpose finite element codes. It has been implemented as an ABAQUS subroutine, and a traditional geotechnical...
Computer modelling of granular material microfracturing
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Malan, DF
1995-08-15
Full Text Available Microscopic observations indicate that intra- and transgranular fracturing are ubiquitous processes in the damage of rock fabrics. Extensive modelling of intergranular fracturing has been carried out previously using the distinct-element approach...
Properties of granular analogue model materials: A community wide survey
Klinkmüller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Rosenau, M.; Kemnitz, H.
2016-08-01
We report the material properties of 26 granular analogue materials used in 14 analogue modelling laboratories. We determined physical characteristics such as bulk density, grain size distribution, and grain shape, and performed ring shear tests to determine friction angles and cohesion, and uniaxial compression tests to evaluate the compaction behaviour. Mean grain size of the materials varied between c. 100 and 400 μm. Analysis of grain shape factors shows that the four different classes of granular materials (14 quartz sands, 5 dyed quartz sands, 4 heavy mineral sands and 3 size fractions of glass beads) can be broadly divided into two groups consisting of 12 angular and 14 rounded materials. Grain shape has an influence on friction angles, with most angular materials having higher internal friction angles (between c. 35° and 40°) than rounded materials, whereas well-rounded glass beads have the lowest internal friction angles (between c. 25° and 30°). We interpret this as an effect of intergranular sliding versus rolling. Most angular materials have also higher basal friction angles (tested for a specific foil) than more rounded materials, suggesting that angular grains scratch and wear the foil. Most materials have an internal cohesion in the order of 20-100 Pa except for well-rounded glass beads, which show a trend towards a quasi-cohesionless (C < 20 Pa) Coulomb-type material. The uniaxial confined compression tests reveal that rounded grains generally show less compaction than angular grains. We interpret this to be related to the initial packing density after sifting, which is higher for rounded grains than for angular grains. Ring-shear test data show that angular grains undergo a longer strain-hardening phase than more rounded materials. This might explain why analogue models consisting of angular grains accommodate deformation in a more distributed manner prior to strain localisation than models consisting of rounded grains.
Modelling of Granular Materials Using the Discrete Element Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ullidtz, Per
1997-01-01
With the Discrete Element Method it is possible to model materials that consists of individual particles where a particle may role or slide on other particles. This is interesting because most of the deformation in granular materials is due to rolling or sliding rather that compression...... of the grains. This is true even of the resilient (or reversible) deformations. It is also interesting because the Discrete Element Method models resilient and plastic deformations as well as failure in a single process.The paper describes two types of calculations. One on a small sample of angular elements...... subjected to a pulsating (repeated) biaxial loading and another of a larger sample of circular element subjected to a plate load. Both cases are two dimensional, i.e. plane strain.The repeated biaxial loading showed a large increase in plastic strain for the first load pulse at a given load level...
Editorial: Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials
Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Einav, Itai
2015-01-01
This is the editorial for the special issue on “Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials” in the journal on Computational Particle Mechanics (CPM). The issue aims to provide an opportunity for physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and computational scientists to discuss
Constitutive model development for flows of granular materials
Chialvo, Sebastian
Granular flows are ubiquitous in both natural and industrial processes. When com- posed of dry, noncohesive particles, they manifest three different flow regimes---commonly referred to as the quasistatic, inertial, and intermediate regimes---each of which exhibits its own dependences on solids volume fraction, shear rate, and particle-level properties. The differences in these regimes can be attributed to microscale phenomena, with quasistatic flows being dominated by enduring, frictional contacts between grains, inertial flows by grain collisions, and intermediate flows by a combination of the two. Existing constitutive models for the solids-phase stress tend to focus on one or two regimes at a time, with a limited degree of success; the same is true of models for wall-boundary conditions for granular flows. Moreover, these models tend not to be based on detailed particle-level flow data, either from experiment or simulation. Clearly, a comprehensive modeling framework is lacking. The work in this thesis aims to address these issues by proposing continuum models constructed on the basis of discrete element method (DEM) simulations of granular shear flows. Specifically, we propose (a) a constitutive stress model that bridges the three dense flow regimes, (b) an modified kinetic-theory model that covers both the dense and dilute ends of the inertial regime, and (c) a boundary-condition model for dense, wall-bounded flows. These models facilitate the modeling of a wide range of flow systems of practical interest and provide ideas for further model development and refinement.
Modelling density segregation in flowing bidisperse granular materials
Xiao, Hongyi; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.
2016-07-01
Preventing segregation in flowing granular mixtures is an ongoing challenge for industrial processes that involve the handling of bulk solids. A recent continuum-based modelling approach accurately predicts spatial concentration fields in a variety of flow geometries for mixtures varying in particle size. This approach captures the interplay between advection, diffusion and segregation using kinematic information obtained from experiments and/or discrete element method (DEM) simulations combined with an empirically determined relation for the segregation velocity. Here, we extend the model to include density-driven segregation, thereby validating the approach for the two important cases of practical interest. DEM simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-two-dimensional-bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density-driven segregation velocity on local shear rate and particle concentration. The model yields theoretical predictions of segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios and flow rates. Matching experiments reproduce the segregation patterns and quantitative segregation profiles obtained in both the simulations and the model, thereby demonstrating that the modelling approach captures the essential physics of density-driven segregation in granular heap flow.
Modeling liquefaction of water saturated granular material under undrained cyclic shearing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Juhua Zhang
2005-01-01
The tendency of particles in a water-saturated granular mass to re-arrange into a denser state during cyclic shearing under pressure results in an increase in pore water pressure. The increase in the pore water pressure causes a reduction in the inner particle contact forces, and in turn easier re-arrangement of the particles. Eventually, the material loses its shear strength, partially or almost completely. In this paper, a general three-dimensional continuum mechanics model is presented for the deformation of granular materials.A physically based model is also presented for characterization of liquefaction of the water saturated granular material under undrained cyclic shearing. The model incorporates the fabric of the granular mass, which develops as the frictional granular mass is deformed in shear. It includes the coupling between shearing and excess pore water pressure. The model parameters are estimated, based on the results of cyclic shearing experiments on large hollow cylindrical samples of silica sand. Basically, the calculation results utilizing this model can embody liquefaction phenomena of the water saturated granular material under undrained cyclic shearing.
Behringer, Robert P.
2015-01-01
Granular materials are one of a class of materials which undergo a transition from mechanically unstable to mechanically stable states as key system parameters change. Pioneering work by Liu and Nagel and O'Hern et al. focused on models consisting of frictionless grains. In this case, density, commonly expressed in terms of the packing fraction, ϕ, is of particular importance. For instance, O'Hern et al. found that there is a minimum ϕ =ϕJ, such that below this value there are no jammed states, and that above this value, all stress-isotropic states are jammed. Recently, simulations and experiments have explored the case of grains with friction. This case is more subtle, and ϕ does not play such a simple role. Recently, several experiments have shown that there exists a range of relatively low ϕ's such that at the same ϕ it is possible to have jammed, unjammed, and fragile states in the sense of Cates et al. This review discusses some of this recent work, and contrasts the cases of jamming for frictionless and frictional granular systems.
A visco-elasto-plastic model for granular materials under simple shear conditions
Redaelli, I.; di Prisco, C.; Vescovi, Dalila
2016-01-01
The numerical simulation of rapid landslides is quite complex mainly because constitutive models capable of simulating the mechanical behaviour of granular materials in the pre-collapse and post-collapse regimes are still missing. The goal of this paper is to introduce a constitutive model capable
A visco-elasto-plastic model for granular materials under simple shear conditions
Redaelli, I.; Prisco, di C.; Vescovi, D.
2016-01-01
The numerical simulation of rapid landslides is quite complex mainly because constitutive models capable of simulating the mechanical behaviour of granular materials in the pre-collapse and post-collapse regimes are still missing. The goal of this paper is to introduce a constitutive model capable o
Elasto-plastic constitutive modeling for granular materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭芳乐; 李建中
2004-01-01
Based on the modified plastic strain energy approach, an elasto-plastic constitutive modeling for sand was proposed. The hardening function between the modified plastic strain energy and a stress parameter was presented, which was independent of stress history and stress paths. The proposed model was related to an isotropically work-hardening and softening, non-associated and elasto-plastic material description. It is shown that the constitutive modeling, the inherent and stress system-induced cross-anisotropic elasticity is also considered. The constitutive model is capable of simulating the effects on the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path, pressure level and anisotropic strength.
1992-02-04
Eartquake Engineering, Chang, C.S., Chang, Y. and Kabir, M.G. (1991b), "Micromechanics Modelling for the Stress-Strain-Strength Behavior of Granular Materials...Principal Stress on the Strength of Sand," Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Mexico
Modeling size segregation of granular materials: the roles of segregation, advection and diffusion
Fan, Yi; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M
2014-01-01
Predicting segregation of granular materials composed of different-sized particles is a challenging problem. In this paper, we develop and implement a theoretical model that captures the interplay between advection, segregation, and diffusion in size bidisperse granular materials. The fluxes associated with these three driving factors depend on the underlying kinematics, whose characteristics play key roles in determining particle segregation configurations. Unlike previous models for segregation, our model uses parameters based on kinematic measures from discrete element method simulations instead of arbitrarily adjustable fitting parameters, and it achieves excellent quantitative agreement with both experimental and simulation results when applied to quasi-two-dimensional bounded heaps. The model yields two dimensionless control parameters, both of which are only functions of physically control parameters (feed rate, particle sizes, and system size) and kinematic parameters (diffusion coefficient, flowing l...
Bulldozing of granular material
Sauret, A; Caulfield, C P; McElwaine, J N
2014-01-01
We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface shape of the dune for a range of rotation rates, initial volumes and radial positions, for four granular materials, ranging from glass spheres to irregularly shaped sand. The evolution of the dune can be separated into two phases: a rapid initial adjustment to a state of quasi-steady avalanching perpendicular to the blade, followed by a much slower phase of lateral spreading and radial migration. The quasi-steady avalanching sets up a well-defined perpendicular profile with a nearly constant slope. This profile can be scale...
Modeling the Collisional-Plastic Stress Transition for Bin Discharge of Granular Material
Pannala, Sreekanth; Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.; Benyahia, Sofiane; Syamlal, Madhava; O'Brien, Thomas J.
2009-06-01
We propose a heuristic model for the transition between collisional and frictional/plastic stresses in the flow of granular material. Our approach is based on a physically motivated, nonlinear `blending' function that produces a weighted average of the limiting stresses, depending on the local void fraction in the flow field. Previously published stress models are utilized to describe the behavior in the collisional (Lun et al., 1984) and quasi-static limits (Schaeffer, 1987 and Syamlal et al.., 1993). Sigmoidal and hyperbolic tangent functions are used to mimic the observed smooth yet rapid transition between the collisional and plastic stress zones. We implement our stress transition model in an open-source multiphase flow solver, MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges, www.mfix.org) and demonstrate its application to a standard bin discharge problem. The model's effectiveness is illustrated by comparing computational predictions to the experimentally derived Beverloo correlation. With the correct choice of function parameters, the model predicts bin discharge rates within the error margins of the Beverloo correlation and is more accurate than one of the alternative granular stress models proposed in the literature. Although a second granular stress model in the literature is also reasonably consistent with the Beverloo correlation, we propose that our alternative blending function is likely to be more adaptable to situations with more complex solids properties (e.g., `sticky' solids).
Modeling the Collisional-Plastic Stress Transition for Bin Discharge of Granular Material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Benyahia, S. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Syamlal, M. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); O' Brien, T. J. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)
2009-01-01
We propose a heuristic model for the transition between collisional and frictional/plastic stresses in the flow of granular material. Our approach is based on a physically motivated, nonlinear blending function that produces a weighted average of the limiting stresses, depending on the local void fraction in the flow field. Previously published stress models are utilized to describe the behavior in the collisional (Lun et al., 1984) and quasi-static limits (Schaeffer, 1987 and Syamlal et al., 1993). Sigmoidal and hyperbolic tangent functions are used to mimic the observed smooth yet rapid transition between the collisional and plastic stress zones. We implement our stress transition model in an opensource multiphase flow solver, MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges, www.mfix.org) and demonstrate its application to a standard bin discharge problem. The model s effectiveness is illustrated by comparing computational predictions to the experimentally derived Beverloo correlation. With the correct choice of function parameters, the model predicts bin discharge rates within the error margins of the Beverloo correlation and is more accurate than one of the alternative granular stress models proposed in the literature. Although a second granular stress model in the literature is also reasonably consistent with the Beverloo correlation, we propose that our alternative blending function is likely to be more adaptable to situations with more complex solids properties (e.g., sticky solids).
Modeling of state parameter and hardening function for granular materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭芳乐; 李建中
2004-01-01
A modified plastic strain energy as hardening state parameter for dense sand was proposed, based on the results from a series of drained plane strain tests on saturated dense Japanese Toyoura sand with precise stress and strain measurements along many stress paths. In addition, a unique hardening function between the plastic strain energy and the instantaneous stress path was also presented, which was independent of stress history. The proposed state parameter and hardening function was directly verified by the simple numerical integration method. It is shown that the proposed hardening function is independent of stress history and stress path and is appropriate to be used as the hardening rule in constitutive modeling for dense sand, and it is also capable of simulating the effects on the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path for dense sand.
Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu
2002-01-01
Dynamical behavior of steady granular flow is investigated numerically in the inelastic hard sphere limit of the soft sphere model. We find distinctively different limiting behaviors for the two flow regimes, i.e., the collisional flow and the frictional flow. In the collisional flow, the hard sphere limit is straightforward; the number of collisions per particle per unit time converges to a finite value and the total contact time fraction with other particles goes to zero. For the frictional...
Modeling granular material flows: The angle of repose, fluidization and the cliff collapse problem
Holsapple, Keith A.
2013-07-01
I discuss theories of granular material flows, with application to granular flows on the earth and planets. There are two goals. First, there is a lingering belief of some that the standard continuum plasticity Mohr-Coulomb and/or Drucker-Prager models are not adequate for many large-scale granular flow problems. The stated reason for those beliefs is the fact that the final slopes of the run-outs in collapse, landslide problems, and large-scale cratering are well below the angle of repose of the material. That observation, combined with the supposition that in those models flow cannot occur with slopes less than the angle of repose, has led to a number of researchers suggesting a need for lubrication or fluidization mechanisms and modeling. That issue is investigated in detail and shown to be false. A complete analysis of slope failures according to the Mohr-Coulomb model is presented, with special attention to the relations between the angle of repose and slope failures. It is shown that slope failure can occur for slope angles both larger than and smaller than the angle of repose. Second, to study the details of landslide run-outs, finite-difference continuum code simulations of the prototypical cliff collapse problem, using the classical plasticity models, are presented, analyzed and compared to experiments. Although devoid of any additional fluidization models, those simulations match experiments in the literature extremely well. The dynamics of this problem introduces additional important features relating to the run-out and final slope angles. The vertical free surface begins to fall at the initial 90° and flow continues to a final slope less than 10°. The detail in the calculation is examined to show why flow persists at slope angles that appear to be less than the angle of repose. The motions include regions of solid-like, fluid-like, and gas-like flows without invoking any additional models.
Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning
2016-04-01
Microstructural properties are essential to characterize the mechanics of loose and cohesive granular materials such as snow. In particular, mechanical properties and physical processes of porous media are often related to the volume fraction ν. Low-density microstructures typically allow for considerable structural diversity at a given volume fraction, leading to uncertainties in modeling approaches using ν-based parametrizations only. We have conducted discrete element simulations of cohesive granular materials with initial configurations which are drawn from Baxter's sticky hard sphere (SHS) model. This method allows to control independently the initial volume fraction ν and the average coordination number Z. We show that variations in elasticity and strength of the samples can be fully explained by the initial contact density C = νZ over a wide range of volume fractions and coordination numbers. Hence, accounting for the contact density C allows to resolve the discrepancies in particle based modeling between samples with similar volume fractions but different microstructures. As an application, we applied our method to the microstructure of real snow samples which have been imaged by micro-computed tomography and reconstructed using the SHS model. Our new approach opens a promising route to evaluate snow physical and mechanical properties from field measurements, for instance using the Snow Micro Penetrometer (SMP), by linking the penetration resistance to the contact density.
Continuum modeling of segregation for tridisperse granular materials in developing chute flow
Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul; Lueptow, Richard
2015-11-01
Predicting segregation and mixing of size polydisperse granular material is a challenging problem and is relevant to many industrial applications. We develop and implement a continuum-based theoretical model that captures the effects of segregation, diffusion and advection on size tridisperse granular flow in developing quasi-two-dimensional chute flow. Unlike segregation models that rely on arbitrary fitting parameters, our model uses parameters based on kinematics measured using discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The model depends on both the Péclet number, Pe, which we defined as the ratio of the segregation rate to the diffusion rate, and the relative segregation strength between particle species. At large Pe, segregation dominates and chute flow consists of distinct stratified regions of small(bottom), medium(center) and large (top) particles, whereas at small Pe, diffusion dominates, which results in a well mixed flow. As relative segregation strength between any two particle species is increased, the segregation between them becomes quicker. However, as relative segregation strength between them is decreased, they remain mixed with each other. Preliminary results from DEM simulations support our theoretical model.
Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu
2003-02-01
Dynamical behavior of steady granular flow is investigated numerically in the inelastic hard-sphere limit of the soft-sphere model. We find distinctively different limiting behaviors for the two flow regimes, i.e., the collisional flow and the frictional flow. In the collisional flow, the hard-sphere limit is straightforward; the number of collisions per particle per unit time converges to a finite value and the total contact time fraction with other particles goes to zero. For the frictional flow, however, we demonstrate that the collision rate diverges as the power of the particle stiffness so that the time fraction of the multiple contacts remains finite even in the hard-sphere limit, although the contact time fraction for the binary collisions tends to zero.
Fracture of granular materials composed of arbitrary grain shapes: A new cohesive interaction model
Neveu, A.; Artoni, R.; Richard, P.; Descantes, Y.
2016-10-01
Discrete Element Methods (DEM) are a useful tool to model the fracture of cohesive granular materials. For this kind of application, simple particle shapes (discs in 2D, spheres in 3D) are usually employed. However, dealing with more general particle shapes allows to account for the natural heterogeneity of grains inside real materials. We present a discrete model allowing to mimic cohesion between contacting or non-contacting particles whatever their shape in 2D and 3D. The cohesive interactions are made of cohesion points placed on interacting particles, with the aim of representing a cohesive phase lying between the grains. Contact situations are solved according to unilateral contact and Coulomb friction laws. In order to test the developed model, 2D unixial compression simulations are performed. Numerical results show the ability of the model to mimic the macroscopic behavior of an aggregate grain subject to axial compression, as well as fracture initiation and propagation. A study of the influence of model and sample parameters provides important information on the ability of the model to reproduce various behaviors.
Bruno, Luigi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Gentile, Francesco
2016-01-01
The promise of nanotechnology lies in the possibility of engineering matter on the nanoscale and creating technological interfaces that, because of their small scales, may directly interact with biological objects, creating new strategies for the treatment of pathologies that are otherwise beyond the reach of conventional medicine. Nanotechnology is inherently a multiscale, multiphenomena challenge. Fundamental understanding and highly accurate predictive methods are critical to successful manufacturing of nanostructured materials, bio/mechanical devices and systems. In biomedical engineering, and in the mechanical analysis of biological tissues, classical continuum approaches are routinely utilized, even if these disregard the discrete nature of tissues, that are an interpenetrating network of a matrix (the extra cellular matrix, ECM) and a generally large but finite number of cells with a size falling in the micrometer range. Here, we introduce a nano-mechanical theory that accounts for the-non continuum nature of bio systems and other discrete systems. This discrete field theory, doublet mechanics (DM), is a technique to model the mechanical behavior of materials over multiple scales, ranging from some millimeters down to few nanometers. In the paper, we use this theory to predict the response of a granular material to an external applied load. Such a representation is extremely attractive in modeling biological tissues which may be considered as a spatial set of a large number of particulate (cells) dispersed in an extracellular matrix. Possibly more important of this, using digital image correlation (DIC) optical methods, we provide an experimental verification of the model.
Micro-macro transition and simplified contact models for wet granular materials
Roy, Sudeshna; Singh, Abhinendra; Luding, Stefan; Weinhart, Thomas
2016-11-01
Wet granular materials in a quasistatic steady-state shear flow have been studied with discrete particle simulations. Macroscopic quantities, consistent with the conservation laws of continuum theory, are obtained by time averaging and spatial coarse graining. Initial studies involve understanding the effect of liquid content and liquid properties like the surface tension on the macroscopic quantities. Two parameters of the liquid bridge contact model have been identified as the constitutive parameters that influence the macroscopic rheology (i) the rupture distance of the liquid bridge model, which is proportional to the liquid content, and (ii) the maximum adhesive force, as controlled by the surface tension of the liquid. Subsequently, a correlation is developed between these microparameters and the steady-state cohesion in the limit of zero confining pressure. Furthermore, as second result, the macroscopic torque measured at the walls, which is an experimentally accessible parameter, is predicted from our simulation results with the same dependence on the microparameters. Finally, the steady- state cohesion of a realistic non-linear liquid bridge contact model scales well with the steady-state cohesion for a simpler linearized irreversible contact model with the same maximum adhesive force and equal energy dissipated per contact.
Panien, Marion; Schreurs, Guido; Pfiffner, Adrian
2006-09-01
The mechanical behaviour of several dry granular materials is investigated through ring-shear tests, grain characterisation, and simple analogue experiments analysed by X-ray computed tomography. An improved knowledge of granular materials is essential to determine their suitability as analogues for upper crustal rocks in experimental models and to compare analogue and numerical experiments. The ring-shear tests show that the granular materials have an elastic/frictional plastic behaviour with strain-hardening preceding failure at peak strength, followed by strain softening until a dynamic-stable value is reached. This is similar to the behaviour exhibited by experimentally deformed rocks. The physical characteristics of the grains determine the amount of diffuse deformation before failure, the percentage of strain softening and act on the thickness of the shear zones before broadening. Initial shear zone width in extensional and contractional experiments is between 11 and 16 times the mean grain size. The angle of internal friction defining one of the mechanical properties of granular materials and thus fault dip is not only related to physical characteristics of the grains and to the handling technique used (e.g. sieving or pouring), but also to the overburden and to the experimental setup used.
Mechanical properties of wet granular materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fournier, Z; Geromichalos, D; Herminghaus, S; Kohonen, M M; Mugele, F; Scheel, M; Schulz, M; Schulz, B; Schier, Ch; Seemann, R; Skudelny, A
2005-03-09
We elaborate on the impact of liquids upon the mechanical properties of granular materials. We find that most of the experimental and simulation results may be accounted for by a simple model assuming frictionless, spherical grains, with a hysteretic attractive interaction between neighbouring grains due to capillary forces.
Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods
Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.
2017-04-01
In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.
Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods
Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.
2016-01-01
In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.
Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials
Hill, James M
2005-01-01
Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.
Pulling rigid bodies through granular material
Kubik, Ryan; Dressaire, Emilie
2016-11-01
The need for anchoring systems in granular materials such as sand is present in the marine transportation industry, e.g. to layout moorings, keep vessels and docks fixed in bodies of water, build oil rigs, etc. The holding power of an anchor is associated with the force exerted by the granular media. Empirical evidence indicates that the holding power depends on the size and shape of the anchoring structure. In this model study, we use a two-dimensional geometry in which a rigid body is pulled through a granular media at constant velocity to determine the drag and lift forces exerted by a granular medium on a moving object. The method allows measuring the drag force and recording the trajectory of the rigid object through the sand. We systematically vary the size and geometry of the rigid body, the properties of the granular medium and the extraction speed. For different initial positions of a cylindrical object pulled horizontally through the medium, we record large variations in magnitude of the drag and a significant lift force that pulls the object out of the sand.
Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.
1999-01-01
Electrostatic forces strongly influence the behavior of granular materials in both dispersed (cloud) systems and semi-packed systems. These forces can cause aggregation or dispersion of particles and are important in a variety of astrophysical and planetary settings. There are also many industrial and commercial settings where granular matter and electrostatics become partners for both good and bad. This partnership is important for human exploration on Mars where dust adheres to suits, machines, and habitats. Long-range Coulombic (electrostatic) forces, as opposed to contact-induced dipoles and van der Waals attractions, are generally regarded as resulting from net charge. We have proposed that in addition to net charge interactions, randomly distributed charge carriers on grains will result in a dipole moment regardless of any net charge. If grains are unconfined, or fluidized, they will rotate so that the dipole always induces attraction between grains. Aggregates are readily formed, and Coulombic polarity resulting from the dipole produces end-to-end stacking of grains to form filamentary aggregates. This has been demonstrated in USML experiments on Space Shuttle where microgravity facilitated the unmasking of static forces. It has also been demonstrated in a computer model using grains with charge carriers of both sign. Model results very closely resembled micro-g results with actual sand grains. Further computer modeling of the aggregation process has been conducted to improve our understanding of the aggregation process, and to provide a predictive tool for microgravity experiments slated for Space Station. These experiments will attempt to prove the dipole concept as outlined above. We have considerably enhanced the original computer model: refinements to the algorithm have improved the fidelity of grain behavior during grain contact, special attention has been paid to simulation time steps to enable establishment of a meaningful, quantitative time axis
Modeling Granular Materials as Compressible Non-Linear Fluids: Heat Transfer Boundary Value Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.
2006-01-01
We discuss three boundary value problems in the flow and heat transfer analysis in flowing granular materials: (i) the flow down an inclined plane with radiation effects at the free surface; (ii) the natural convection flow between two heated vertical walls; (iii) the shearing motion between two horizontal flat plates with heat conduction. It is assumed that the material behaves like a continuum, similar to a compressible nonlinear fluid where the effects of density gradients are incorporated in the stress tensor. For a fully developed flow the equations are simplified to a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed where the effects of various dimensionless numbers representing the effects of heat conduction, viscous dissipation, radiation, and so forth are presented.
Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries
Marks, Benjy; Sandnes, Bjornar; Dumazer, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jon Alm; Måløy, Knut Jørgen
2015-06-01
In both nature and the laboratory, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.
Svendsen, B.; Hutter, K.; Laloui, L.
This work deals with the thermodynamic formulation of constitutive models for materials whose quasi-static behaviour is governed by internal friction, e.g., dry granular materials. The process of internal friction is represented here phenomenologically with the help of a second-order, symmetric-tensor-valued internal variable. A general class of models for the evolution of this variable is considered, including as special cases a hypoelastic-like form for this relation as well as the hypoplastic form of Kolymbas (1991). The thermodynamic formulation is carried out in the context of the Müller-Liu entropy principle. Among other things, it is shown that for the hypoelastic-type models, a true equilibrium inelastic Cauchy stress exists. On the other hand, such a stress does not exist for the hypoplastic model due to its rate-independence and incremental non-linearity. With the help of a slight generalization of the notion of thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., to thermodynamic ``quasi-equilibrium,'' however, such a Cauchy stress can be formulated for the hypoplastic model. As it turns out, this quasi-equilibrium for the Cauchy stress represents a thermodynamic generalization of the so-called quasi-static stress postulated for example by Goddard (1986) in the context of his viscoplastic model for a frictional-dissipative, and in particular for granular, materials.
Mathematical models of granular matter
Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale
2008-01-01
Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.
Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements
Araya, A.A.
2011-01-01
This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their applica
Shear failure of granular materials
Degiuli, Eric; Balmforth, Neil; McElwaine, Jim; Schoof, Christian; Hewitt, Ian
2012-02-01
Connecting the macroscopic behavior of granular materials with the microstructure remains a great challenge. Recent work connects these scales with a discrete calculus [1]. In this work we generalize this formalism from monodisperse packings of disks to 2D assemblies of arbitrarily shaped grains. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a symmetric, divergence-free stress tensor. Using these tools, we derive, from first-principles and in a mean-field approximation, the entropy of frictional force configurations in the Force Network Ensemble. As a macroscopic consequence of the Coulomb friction condition at contacts, we predict shear failure at a critical shear stress, in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb failure condition well known in engineering. Results are compared with numerical simulations, and the dependence on the microscopic geometric configuration is discussed. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310
Weir, Graham J.; Dolby, Carl E.
1999-07-01
The rapid and uncontrolled discharge of a large-sized granular-like material from a vertical cylinder is modelled assuming a modified kinematic relationship exists between granular pressure, speed and density. Discharge is driven by the initial Janssen pressure, and a Beverloo-type equation is derived for the initial discharge. A shock occurs at the bottom of the cylinder, and another upwards travelling shock separates static and moving material. The initial discharge is non-constant, with the constant density and discharge case violating the `entropy' condition. Two sets of characteristics are found : one travelling upwards, associated with the motion of voids; and the other travelling downwards, associated with work performed by the particle pressure. Contrary to hopper models, a low density of solids is predicted about the cylinder exit. The modified kinematic model allows density waves to travel either up or down through the cylinder, but the frequency and speed of the waves is not fixed uniquely by the model. The waves exhibit a saw-tooth behaviour, with a continuously increasing magnitude in flux at the orifice, interspersed with discontinuous decreases.
Accretion Dynamics on Wet Granular Materials.
Saingier, Guillaume; Sauret, Alban; Jop, Pierre
2017-05-19
Wet granular aggregates are common precursors of construction materials, food, and health care products. The physical mechanisms involved in the mixing of dry grains with a wet substrate are not well understood and difficult to control. Here, we study experimentally the accretion of dry grains on a wet granular substrate by measuring the growth dynamics of the wet aggregate. We show that this aggregate is fully saturated and its cohesion is ensured by the capillary depression at the air-liquid interface. The growth dynamics is controlled by the liquid fraction at the surface of the aggregate and exhibits two regimes. In the viscous regime, the growth dynamics is limited by the capillary-driven flow of liquid through the granular packing to the surface of the aggregate. In the capture regime, the capture probability depends on the availability of the liquid at the saturated interface, which is controlled by the hydrostatic depression in the material. We propose a model that rationalizes our observations and captures both dynamics based on the evolution of the capture probability with the hydrostatic depression.
Advanced Granular System Modeling Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...
Microscopic study on stress-strain relation of granular materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU SiHong; YAO YangPing; SUN QiCheng; LI TieJun; LIU MinZhi
2009-01-01
A biaxial shearing test on granular materials is numerically simulated by distinct element method (DEM). The evolution of the microstructures of granular materials during isotropic compression and shearing is investigated, on which a yield function is derived. The new yield function has a similar form as the one used in the modified Cam-clay model and explains the yield characteristics of granular materials under the isotropic compression and shear process through the change of the contact distribution N(θ) defining the contacts at particle contact angle θ.
Multiscale modelling of fluid-immersed granular media
Clément, Christian Paul André René
2010-01-01
In this thesis we present numerical simulation studies of fluid-immersed granular systems using models of varying scales and complexities. These techniques are used to examine the effects of an interstitial fluid on the dynamics of dense granular beds within a number of vibrated systems. After an introduction to the field of granular materials, we present the techniques used to model both the granular dynamics and the fluid flow. We introduce various multiscale techniques to couple the mo...
Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model.
La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina
2016-12-01
In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.
Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model
La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina
2016-12-01
In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.
Localizing energy in granular materials
Przedborski, Michelle A; Sen, Surajit
2016-01-01
A device for absorbing and storing short duration impulses in an initially uncompressed one-dimensional granular chain is presented. Simply stated, short regions of sufficiently soft grains are embedded in a hard granular chain. These grains exhibit long-lived standing waves of predictable frequencies regardless of the timing of the arrival of solitary waves from the larger matrix. We explore the origins, symmetry, and energy content of the soft region and its intrinsic modes.
From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Witold Pedrycz
2015-03-01
To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.
Compaction and shear settlement of granular materials
Morland, L. W.
1993-03-01
S HEARING of granular materials causes rearrangement of the granular structure which induces irreversible volume decrease and shear strain, in addition to reversible strain. A model is presented which describes the reversible strain by a hypoelastic law, and the irreversible compaction and shear by evolutionary laws. The latter are differential relations defining the progress of irreversible strain as an appropriate time-independent monotonic loading parameter increases, which incorporate dependence on the current state, and which require a direction for the irreversible shear strain increment. Such a model allows a variety of choices and combinations for the loading parameter, shear increment direction and arguments reflecting the current state. A wide selection of possible choices is incorporated in a systematic analysis of the initial shearing response of an unstressed material. It is shown that a physically sensible response restricts the choice to essentially two forms of dependence, and further restricts the initial shapes of the constitutive functions. The simpler model form reduces to three coupled non-linear differential equations for shearing, from which some general conclusions can be drawn, and numerical illustrations for shear stress and shear strain cycling are presented for simple valid model functions.
DISCRETE AND CONTINUUM MODELLING OF GRANULAR FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H. P. Zhu; Y. H. WU; A. B. Yu
2005-01-01
This paper analyses three popular methods simulating granular flow at different time and length scales:discrete element method (DEM), averaging method and viscous, elastic-plastic continuum model. The theoretical models of these methods and their applications to hopper flows are discussed. It is shown that DEM is an effective method to study the fundamentals of granular flow at a particle or microscopic scale. By use of the continuum approach, granular flow can also be described at a continuum or macroscopic scale. Macroscopic quantities such as velocity and stress can be obtained by use of such computational method as FEM. However, this approach depends on the constitutive relationship of materials and ignores the effect of microscopic structure of granular flow. The combined approach of DEM and averaging method can overcome this problem. The approach takes into account the discrete nature of granular materials and does not require any global assumption and thus allows a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of granular flow. However, it is difficult to adapt this approach to process modelling because of the limited number of particles which can be handled with the present computational capacity, and the difficulty in handling non-spherical particles.Further work is needed to develop an appropriate approach to overcome these problems.
Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows
Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.
2014-11-01
Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.
Nilfouroushan, F.; Pysklywec, R.; Cruden, S.
2009-05-01
Cohesionless or very low cohesion granular materials are widely used in analogue/physical models to simulate brittle rocks in the upper crust. Selection of materials with appropriate cohesion values in such models is important for the simulation of the dynamics of brittle rock deformation in nature. Uncertainties in the magnitude of cohesion (due to measurement errors, extrapolations at low normal stresses, or model setup) in laboratory experiments can possibly result in misinterpretation of the styles and mechanisms of deformation in natural fold-and thrust belts. We ran a series of 2-D numerical models to investigate systematically the effect of cohesion uncertainties on the evolution of models of fold-and-thrust belts. The analyses employ SOPALE, a geodynamic code based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. Similar to analogue models, the material properties of sand and transparent silicone (PDMS) are used to simulate brittle and viscous behaviors of upper crustal rocks. The suite of scaled brittle and brittle-viscous numerical experiments have the same initial geometry but the cohesion value of the brittle layers is increased systematically from 0 to 100 Pa. The stress and strain distribution in different sets of models with different cohesion values are compared and analyzed. The kinematics and geometry of thrust wedges including the location and number of foreland- and hinterland- verging thrust faults, pop-up structures, tapers and topography are also explored and their sensitivity to cohesion value is discussed.
1991-05-22
hypoelasticity , plasticity, and viscoplasticity. Despite the large number of models there has been no consensus within the research community on the best...AD-A238 091 FosR-- C)1 0 19 IIIIII1IIII111 11111111l A STUDY OF THE BEHAVIOR AND MICROMECHANICAL MODELLING OF GRANULAR SOIL VOLUME I A CONSTITUTIVE...COVERED IMay 22, 1991 Final 1/6/ 89-5/15/91 4 TITLE AND SUBTITILI S. FUNDING NUMIEgRS A Study of the Behavior and Micromechanical Modelling of Grant
Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows
Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.
2010-12-01
Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes
Computational Granular Dynamics Models and Algorithms
Pöschel, Thorsten
2005-01-01
Computer simulations not only belong to the most important methods for the theoretical investigation of granular materials, but also provide the tools that have enabled much of the expanding research by physicists and engineers. The present book is intended to serve as an introduction to the application of numerical methods to systems of granular particles. Accordingly, emphasis is placed on a general understanding of the subject rather than on the presentation of the latest advances in numerical algorithms. Although a basic knowledge of C++ is needed for the understanding of the numerical methods and algorithms in the book, it avoids usage of elegant but complicated algorithms to remain accessible for those who prefer to use a different programming language. While the book focuses more on models than on the physics of granular material, many applications to real systems are presented.
Self-Structuring of Granular material under Capillary Bulldozing
Dumazer, Guillaume; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Ayaz, Monem; Måløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik
2017-06-01
An experimental observation of the structuring of a granular suspension under the progress of a gas/liquid meniscus in a narrow tube is reported here. The granular material is moved and compactifies as a growing accumulation front. The frictional interaction with the confining walls increases until the pore capillary entry pressure is reached. The gas then penetrates the clogged granular packing and a further accumulation front is formed at the far side of the plug. This cyclic process continues until the gas/liquid interface reaches the tube's outlet, leaving a trail of plugs in the tube. Such 1D pattern formation belongs to a larger family of patterning dynamics observed in 2D Hele-Shaw geometry. The cylindrical geometry considered here provides an ideal case for a theoretical modelling for forced granular matter oscillating between a long frictional phase and a sudden viscous fluidization.
Micromechanical study of plasticity of granular materials
Kruyt, N.P.
2010-01-01
Plastic deformation of granular materials is investigated from the micromechanical viewpoint, in which the assembly of particles and interparticle contacts is considered as a mechanical structure. This is done in three ways. Firstly, by investigating the degree of redundancy of the system by compari
Experimental investigation of impinging jet erosion on model cohesive granular materials
Brunier-Coulin, Florian; Sarrat, Jean-Loup; Cuéllar, Pablo; Philippe, Pierre
2017-06-01
Erosion of soils affects both natural landscapes and engineering constructions as embankment dams or levees. Improving the safety of such earthen structures requires in particular finding out more about the elementary mechanisms involved in soil erosion. Towards this end, an experimental work was undertaken in three steps. First, several model materials were developed, made of grains (mostly glass beads) with solid bridges at particle contacts whose mechanical yield strength can be continuously varied. Furthermore, for most of them, we succeeded in obtaining a translucent system for the purpose of direct visualization. Second, these materials were tested against surface erosion by an impinging jet to determine a critical shear stress and a kinetic coefficient [2, 3]. Note that an adapted device based on optical techniques (combination of Refractive Index Matching and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence [3]) was used specifically for the transparent media. Third, some specifically developed mechanical tests, and particularly traction tests, were implemented to estimate the mechanical strength of the solid bridges both at micro-scale (single contact) and at macro-scale (sample) and to investigate a supposed relationship with soil resistance to erosion.
A model for collisions in granular gases
Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Spahn, Frank; Hertzsch, Jan-Martin; Poeschel, Thorsten
2002-01-01
We propose a model for collisions between particles of a granular material and calculate the restitution coefficients for the normal and tangential motion as functions of the impact velocity from considerations of dissipative viscoelastic collisions. Existing models of impact with dissipation as well as the classical Hertz impact theory are included in the present model as special cases. We find that the type of collision (smooth, reflecting or sticky) is determined by the impact velocity and...
Convection in horizontally shaken granular material
Saluena, Clara; Poeschel, Thorsten
1998-01-01
In horizontally shaken granular material different types of pattern formation have been reported. We want to deal with the convection instability which has been observed in experiments and which recently has been investigated numerically. Using two dimensional molecular dynamics we show that the convection pattern depends crucial on the inelastic properties of the material. The concept of restitution coefficient provides arguments for the change of the behaviour with variing inelasticity.
Numerical simulations of granular dynamics II. Particle dynamics in a shaken granular material
Murdoch, Naomi; Richardson, Derek C; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Berardi, Christian R; Green, Simon F; Losert, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
Surfaces of planets and small bodies of our Solar System are often covered by a layer of granular material that can range from a fine regolith to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Therefore, the dynamics of granular materials are involved in many events occurring during planetary and small-body evolution thus contributing to their geological properties. We demonstrate that the new adaptation of the parallel N-body hard-sphere code pkdgrav has the capability to model accurately the key features of the collective motion of bidisperse granular materials in a dense regime as a result of shaking. As a stringent test of the numerical code we investigate the complex collective ordering and motion of granular material by direct comparison with laboratory experiments. We demonstrate that, as experimentally observed, the scale of the collective motion increases with increasing small-particle additive concentration. We then extend our investigations to assess how self-gravity and external gravity affect collect...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajagopal, K.R.
1996-02-01
This report describes the design of an orthogonal rheometer for the measuring of properties of granular materials such as coal. A section is presented on constitutive modeling of granular materials based on continuum theory.
Local rheology of suspensions and dry granular materials
de Cagny, H.; Fall, A.; Denn, M.M.; Bonn, D.
2015-01-01
The flow of dry and wet granular media is investigated in a Couette geometry using magnetic resonance imaging in order to test the applicability of the "fluidity model" for nonlocality in these materials. Local volume fraction measurements show that the systems become heterogeneous during flow. We f
Numerical simulations of granular dynamics II: Particle dynamics in a shaken granular material
Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek C.; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Berardi, Christian R.; Green, Simon F.; Losert, Wolfgang
2012-05-01
Surfaces of planets and small bodies of our Solar System are often covered by a layer of granular material that can range from a fine regolith to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Therefore, the dynamics of granular materials are involved in many events occurring during planetary and small-body evolution thus contributing to their geological properties. We demonstrate that the new adaptation of the parallel N-body hard-sphere code pkdgrav has the capability to model accurately the key features of the collective motion of bidisperse granular materials in a dense regime as a result of shaking. As a stringent test of the numerical code we investigate the complex collective ordering and motion of granular material by direct comparison with laboratory experiments. We demonstrate that, as experimentally observed, the scale of the collective motion increases with increasing small-particle additive concentration. We then extend our investigations to assess how self-gravity and external gravity affect collective motion. In our reduced-gravity simulations both the gravitational conditions and the frequency of the vibrations roughly match the conditions on asteroids subjected to seismic shaking, though real regolith is likely to be much more heterogeneous and less ordered than in our idealised simulations. We also show that collective motion can occur in a granular material under a wide range of inter-particle gravity conditions and in the absence of an external gravitational field. These investigations demonstrate the great interest of being able to simulate conditions that are to relevant planetary science yet unreachable by Earth-based laboratory experiments.
Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware
1997-01-01
A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Stress transmission and incipient yield flow in dense granular materials
Blumenfeld, Raphael
2010-05-01
Jammed granular matter transmits stresses non-uniformly like no conventional solid, especially when it is on the verge of failure. Jamming is caused by self-organization of granular matter under external loads, often giving rise to networks of force chains that support the loads non-uniformly. An ongoing debate in the literature concerns the correct way to model the static stress field in such media: good old elasticity theory or newcomer isostaticity theory. The two differ significantly and, in particular in 2D, isostaticity theory leads naturally to force chain solutions. More recently, it has been proposed that real granular materials are made of mixtures of regions, some behaving elastically and some isostatically. The theory to describe these systems has been named stato-elasticity. In this paper, I first present the rationale for stato-elasticity theory. An important step towards the construction of this theory is a good understanding of stress transmission in the regions of pure isostatic states. A brief description is given of recently derived general solutions for 2D isostatic regions with nonuniform structures, which go well beyond the over-simplistic picture of force chains. I then show how the static stress equations are related directly to incipient yield flow and derive the equations that govern yield and creep rheology of dense granular matter at the initial stages of failure. These equations are general and describe strains in granular materials of both rigid and compliant particles.
Compaction of granular materials composed of deformable particles
Nguyen, Thanh Hai; Nezamabadi, Saeid; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Radjai, Farhang
2017-06-01
In soft particle materials such as metallic powders the particles can undergo large deformations without rupture. The large elastic or plastic deformations of the particles are expected to strongly affect the mechanical properties of these materials compared to hard particle materials more often considered in research on granular materials. Herein, two numerical approaches are proposed for the simulation of soft granular systems: (i) an implicit formulation of the Material Point Method (MPM) combined with the Contact Dynamics (CD) method to deal with contact interactions, and (i) Bonded Particle Model (BPM), in which each deformable particle is modeled as an aggregate of rigid primary particles using the CD method. These two approaches allow us to simulate the compaction of an assembly of elastic or plastic particles. By analyzing the uniaxial compaction of 2D soft particle packings, we investigate the effects of particle shape change on the stress-strain relationship and volume change behavior as well as the evolution of the microstructure.
Physics of Granular Materials: Investigations in Support of Astrobiology
Marshall, John R.
2002-01-01
This publication list is submitted as a summary of the work conducted under Cooperative Agreement 1120. The goal of the 1120 research was to study granular materials within a planetary, astrophysical, and astrobiological context. This involved research on the physical, mechanical and electrostatic properties of granular systems, as well as the examination of these materials with atomic force microscopy and x-ray analysis. Instruments for analyzing said materials in planetary environments were developed, including the MECA (Mars Environment Compatibility Assessment) experiment for the MSP '01 lander, the ECHOS/MATADOR experiment for the MSP '03 lander, an ISRU experiment for the '03 lander, and MiniLEAP technology. Flight experiments for microgravity (Space Station and Shuttle) have also been developed for the study of granular materials. As expressed in the publications, work on 1120 encompassed laboratory research, theoretical modeling, field experiments, and flight experiments: a series of successful new models were developed for understanding the behavior of triboelectrostatically charged granular masses, and 4 separate instruments were selected for space flight. No inventions or patents were generated by the research under this Agreement.
Discrete Element study of granular material - Bumpy wall interface behavior
El Cheikh, Khadija; Rémond, Sébastien; Pizette, Patrick; Vanhove, Yannick; Djelal, Chafika
2016-09-01
This paper presents a DEM study of a confined granular material sheared between two parallel bumpy walls. The granular material consists of packed dry spherical particles. The bumpiness is modeled by spheres of a given diameter glued on horizontal planes. Different bumpy surfaces are modeled by varying diameter or concentration of glued spheres. The material is sheared by moving the two bumpy walls at fixed velocity. During shear, the confining pressure applied on each bumpy wall is controlled. The effect of wall bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient and on the granular material behavior at the bumpy walls is reported for various shearing conditions. For given bumpiness and confining pressure that we have studied, it is found that the shear velocity does not affect the shear stress. However, the effective friction coefficient and the behavior of the granular material depend on the bumpiness. When the diameter of the glued spheres is larger than about the average grains diameter of the medium, the latter is uniformly sheared and the effective friction coefficient remains constant. For smaller diameters of the glued spheres, the effective friction coefficient increases with the diameter of glued spheres. The influence of glued spheres concentration is significant only for small glued spheres diameters, typically half of average particle diameter of the granular material. In this case, increasing the concentration of glued spheres leads to a decrease in effective friction coefficient and to shear localization at the interface. For different diameters and concentrations of glued spheres, we show that the effect of bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient can be characterized by the depth of interlocking.
Theoretical model of granular compaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Naim, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Knight, J.B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nowak, E.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.; Jaeger, H.M.; Nagel, S.R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.
1997-11-01
Experimental studies show that the density of a vibrated granular material evolves from a low density initial state into a higher density final steady state. The relaxation towards the final density follows an inverse logarithmic law. As the system approaches its final state, a growing number of beads have to be rearranged to enable a local density increase. A free volume argument shows that this number grows as N = {rho}/(1 {minus} {rho}). The time scale associated with such events increases exponentially e{sup {minus}N}, and as a result a logarithmically slow approach to the final state is found {rho} {infinity} {minus}{rho}(t) {approx_equal} 1/lnt.
On the degradation of granular materials due to internal erosion
Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Jiachun
2015-10-01
A new state-based elasto-plastic constitutive relationship along with the discrete element model is established to estimate the degradation of granular materials due to internal erosion. Four essential effects of internal erosion such as the force network damage and relaxation are proposed and then incorporated into the constitutive relationship to formulate internal erosion impacts on the mechanical behavior of granular materials. Most manifestations in the degradation of granular materials, such as reduction of peak strength and dilatancy are predicted by the modified constitutive relationship in good agreement with the discrete element method (DEM) simulation. In particular, the sudden reduction of stress for conspicuous mass erosion in a high stress state is captured by force network damage and the relaxation mechanism. It is concluded that the new modified constitutive relationship is a potential theory to describe the degradation of granular materials due to internal erosion and would be very useful, for instance, in the prediction and assessment of piping disaster risk during the flood season.
Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular Soil
1989-07-01
elasticity, hypoelasticity , plasticity and viscoplasticity. Despite the large number of models , there is no consensus yet within the research community on...Classification) (U) Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular MOWo I... 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Emmanuel Petrakis and Ricardo Dobry 13a. TYPE OF...Institute (RPI) on the behavior and modelling of granular media is summarized. The final objective is to develol a constitutive law for granular soil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajajopal, K.R.
1996-02-01
The design of an orthogonal rheometer for measuring the properties of granular solids is described. A section is presented on the constitutive modeling of granular materials based on continuum theory.
Tran, Quoc Anh; Chevalier, Bastien; Benz, Miguel; Breul, Pierre; Gourvès, Roland
2017-06-01
The recent technological developments made on the light dynamic penetration test Panda 3 ® provide a dynamic load-penetration curve σp - sp for each impact. This curve is influenced by the mechanical and physical properties of the investigated granular media. In order to analyze and exploit the load-penetration curve, a numerical model of penetration test using 3D Discrete Element Method is proposed for reproducing tests in dynamic conditions in granular media. All parameters of impact used in this model have at first been calibrated by respecting mechanical and geometrical properties of the hammer and the rod. There is a good agreement between experimental results and the ones obtained from simulations in 2D or 3D. After creating a sample, we will simulate the Panda 3 ®. It is possible to measure directly the dynamic load-penetration curve occurring at the tip for each impact. Using the force and acceleration measured in the top part of the rod, it is possible to separate the incident and reflected waves and then calculate the tip's load-penetration curve. The load-penetration curve obtained is qualitatively similar with that obtained by experimental tests. In addition, the frequency analysis of the measured signals present also a good compliance with that measured in reality when the tip resistance is qualitatively similar.
Hydrodynamic modeling of granular flows in a modified Couette cell.
Jop, Pierre
2008-03-01
We present simulations of granular flows in a modified Couette cell, using a continuum model recently proposed for dense granular flows. Based on a friction coefficient, which depends on an inertial number, the model captures the positions of the wide shear bands. We show that a smooth transition in velocity-profile shape occurs when the height of the granular material is increased, leading to a differential rotation of the central part close to the surface. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. The model provides predictions for the increase of the shear band width when the rotation rate is increased.
Two Classes of Models of Granular Computing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Daowu Pei
2006-01-01
This paper reviews a class of important models of granular computing which are induced by equivalence relations, or by general binary relations, or by neighborhood systems, and propose a class of models of granular computing which are induced by coverings of the given universe.
Bubbles Rising Through a Soft Granular Material
Le Mestre, Robin; MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Sungyon
2016-11-01
Bubble migration through a soft granular material involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This is relevant to a variety of natural processes such as gas venting from sediments and gas exsolution from magma. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air bubbles into a quasi-2D packing of soft hydrogel beads and measuring the size, speed, and morphology of the bubbles as they rise due to buoyancy. Whereas previous work has focused on deformation resisted by intergranular friction, we focus on the previously inaccessible regime of deformation resisted by elasticity. At low confining stress, the bubbles are irregular and rounded, migrating via local rearrangement. At high confining stress, the bubbles become unstable and branched, migrating via pathway opening. The authors thank The Royal Society for support (International Exchanges Ref IE150885).
Footprints in Sand: The Response of a Granular Material to Local Perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Junfei; Howell, D.; Longhi, E.; Behringer, R. P.; Reydellet, G.; Vanel, L.; Clement, E.; Luding, S.
2001-07-16
We experimentally determine ensemble-averaged responses of granular packings to point forces, and we compare these results to recent models for force propagation in a granular material. We use 2D granular arrays consisting of photoelastic particles: either disks or pentagons, thus spanning the range from ordered to disordered packings. A key finding is that spatial ordering of the particles is a key factor in the force response. Ordered packings have a propagative component that does not occur in disordered packings.
Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R
2017-01-01
In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.
Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)
2011-10-01
Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.
Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)
2010-11-01
The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.
Linguistic granular model: design and realization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUE Shihong; LI Ping; SONG Zhihuan
2005-01-01
A new linguistic granular model is proposed and the effect of its parameters on the output is analyzed. The design of the model consists of two stages: using conditional fuzzy clustering for information granular, and integrating all information granules to final output. The integrating tool is fuzzy integral based on fuzzy measure, and the generalization of fuzzy integral increases flexibility of the linguistic granular model greatly. A heuristic algorithm to determine the parameters in the fuzzy integral is used to realize the linguistic model. Two experiments verify the feasibility of the proposed model.
Transitions in Shaken Granular Materials: Friction, Noise, and Bifurcations
Behringer, Robert P.
2000-03-01
I will describe a set of experiments and models that address the transition from solid to fluid granular states and vice versa. The experiments were carried out with a shaker that provided independent oscillations in the vertical and horizontal directions. A container of material with rectangular horizontal cross section was placed on this shaker, and the accelerations, Γh and Γv in the horizontal and vertical directions, were varied. With Γv = 0 and with increasing Γ_h, there was a transition from granular solid to fluid at Γ_hu and with decreasing Γ_h, there was a reverse transition from fluid to solid at Γ_hlweight. This hysteresis is not contained in Coulomb-like models of granular friction. However, we can introduce hysteresis in a model by assuming that the friction coefficient evolves with a characteristic time τ as the phase changes. Experimental measurements of τ show that it is a powerlaw function of ɛ, ɛ = A/τ, where ɛ measures the distance past the transition point, and where A is the same for both transitions. I will also consider other tests of friction and comparisions to models for which there is combined vertical and horizontal shaking.
Multiple shear band development and related instabilities in granular materials
Gajo, A.; Bigoni, D.; Wood, D. Muir
2004-12-01
A new, small-strain constitutive model, incorporating elastoplastic coupling to describe developing elastic anisotropy, and density as a state variable to capture compaction and dilation, is proposed to simulate the behaviour of granular materials, in particular sand. This developing elastic anisotropy is related to grain reorientation and is shown to be crucial to obtain localisation during strain hardening, as experiments exhibit. Post-localisation analysis is also performed under simplificative assumptions, which evinces a number of features, including softening induced by localisation, size effects and snap-back, all phenomena found in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments. No prior model of granular material deformation correctly captures all these behaviours. The post-localisation analysis has revealed a new form of material instability in granular materials, consisting of a saturation mechanism, in which shear bands just formed unload, permitting new bands to form. This phenomenon shares similarities with the mechanics of phase transformation in metal strips and results in a stress oscillation during increasing deformation. The investigation of this mechanism of localised deformation reveals that loose and dense sands behave in qualitatively different ways. In particular, saturation is not persistent in dense sand; rather, after several shear bands form and saturate, this process is terminated by the formation of a differently inclined shear band occurring in the material transformed by previous strain localisation. In this case, the resulting 'global' stress-strain curve exhibits a few stress oscillations followed by a strong softening. On the other hand, band saturation is found to be a persistent phenomenon in loose sand, yielding a continuing stress oscillation. This provides a consistent description of specific experimental results.
Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material
Kouraytem, N.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Marston, J. O.
2016-11-01
We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between δ =0.5 D0 and δ =7 D0 , which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H =h +δ , as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [ds˜O (30 ) μ m ] were added to the larger particles [dl˜O (200 -500 ) μ m ] , with a size ratio, ɛ =dl/ds , larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.
Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material
Kouraytem, N.
2016-11-07
We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.
Discrete particle modelling of granular roll waves
Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie
2016-11-01
A granular current flowing down an inclined chute or plane can undergo an instability that leads to the formation of surface waves, known as roll waves. Examples of roll waves are found in avalanches and debris flows in landslides, and in many industrial processes. Although related to the Kapitza instability of viscous fluid films, granular roll waves are not yet as well understood. Laboratory experiments typically measure the surface height and velocity of a current as functions of position and time, but they do not give insight into the processes below the surface: in particular, the possible formation of a boundary layer at the free surface as well as the base. To overcome this, we are running discrete particle model (DPM) simulations. Simulations are validated against our laboratory experiments, but they also allow us to examine a much larger range of parameters, such as material properties, chute geometry and particle size dispersity, than that which is possible in the lab. We shall present results from simulations in which we vary particle size and dispersity, and examine the implications on roll wave formation and propagation. Future work will include simulations in which the shape of the chute is varied, both cross-sectionally and in the downstream direction. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Research Fellowship (Vriend).
Non-Steady Oscillatory Flow in Coarse Granular Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, O. H.; Gent, M. R. A. van; Meer, J. W. van der;
1992-01-01
Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse granular materials have been investigated experimentally at Delft Hydraulics in their oscillating water tunnel with the objective of determining the coefficients of the extended Forchheimer equation. Cylinders, spheres and different types of rock hav...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current state-of-the-art in DEM modeling has two major limitations which must be overcome to ensure that the technique can be useful to NASA engineers and the...
Engineering water repellency in granular materials for ground applications
Lourenco, Sergio; Saulick, Yunesh; Zheng, Shuang; Kang, Hengyi; Liu, Deyun; Lin, Hongjie
2017-04-01
Synthetic water repellent granular materials are a novel technology for constructing water-tight barriers and fills that is both inexpensive and reliant on an abundant local resource - soils. Our research is verifying its stability, so that perceived risks to practical implementation are identified and alleviated. Current ground stabilization measures are intrusive and use concrete, steel, and glass fibres as reinforcement elements (e.g. soil nails), so more sustainable approaches that require fewer raw materials are strongly recommended. Synthetic water repellent granular materials, with persistent water repellency, have been tested for water harvesting and proposed as landfill and slope covers. By chemically, physically and biologically adjusting the magnitude of water repellency, they offer the unique advantage of controlling water infiltration and allow their deployment as semi-permeable or impermeable materials. Other advantages include (1) volumetric stability, (2) high air permeability and low water permeability, (3) suitability for flexible applications (permanent and temporary usage), (4) improved adhesion aggregate-bitumen in pavements. Application areas include hydraulic barriers (e.g. for engineered slopes and waste containment), pavements and other waterproofing systems. Chemical treatments to achieve water repellency include the use of waxes, oils and silicone polymers which affect the soil particles at sub-millimetric scales. To date, our research has been aimed at demonstrating their use as slope covers and establishing the chemical compounds that develop high and stable water repellency. Future work will determine the durability of the water repellent coatings and the mechanics and modelling of processes in such soils.
2010-11-21
Methods in Geomechanics 33 pp 1737-1768. Tordesillas, A, Shi, J and Muhlhaus, H (2009) “Non-coaxiality and force chain evolution” International...Buckling force chains in dense granular assemblies: physical and numerical experiments” Geomechanics and Geoengineering 4(1) pp 3-16. Tordesillas, A...J, Tshaikiwsky, T (2010) “Stress-dilatancy and force chain evolution”, International Journal of Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics DOI
Uni-axial compaction of a granular material
Morland, L. W.; Sawicki, A.; Milne, P. C.
1993-11-01
S HEARING OF GRANULAR materials causes rearrangement of the granular structure which induces irreversible volume decrease and shear strain, in addition to reversible strain. The model adopted describes the reversible compression and shear by hypoelastic laws, and the irreversible compaction and shear by evolutionary laws. The latter are differential relations defining the progress of irreversible strain as an appropriate time-independent monotonie loading parameter increases, which incorporate dependence on the current state, and which prescribe a direction for the irreversible shear strain increment. The model is described by four material functions and two material constants, and has been shown to determine valid initial response to applied shear stress. We apply the model to the compaction of a granular material in uni-axial strain, which is described by two simultaneous differential equations for the axial stress and compaction with the axial strain as independent variable, together with algebraic relations for the pressure and lateral stress. The equation forms for loading-increasing axial stress—and unloading—decreasing axial stress-are distinct. Reformulation as differential equations for the pressure and the principal stress difference shows that the pressure derivative depends only on two of the material functions and one constant. The axial strain and lateral stress measured during a complete load-unload cycle on a sand determine the pressure and stress difference derivatives which are correlated directly with the model differential relations. Two material functions and one constant are determined by an optimization procedure from the complete loadunload ressure data, then the remaining two functions and constant from the stress difference data. Solution of the resulting model differential equations reproduces accurately the axial strain and lateral stress variations during the experimental loading cycle. In addition, model predictions for load
Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH
Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.
2016-09-01
We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.
Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH
Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.
2017-01-01
We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.
Pattern formation in vibrated beds of dry and wet granular materials
Chuan Lim, Eldin Wee
2014-01-01
The Discrete Element Method was coupled with a capillary liquid bridge force model for computational studies of pattern formation in vibrated granular beds containing dry or wet granular materials. Depending on the vibration conditions applied, hexagonal, stripes, or cellular pattern was observed in the dry vibrated granular bed. In each of these cases, the same hexagonal, stripes, or cellular pattern was also observed in the spatial distribution of the magnitudes of particle-particle collision forces prior to the formation of the corresponding actual pattern in physical distributions of the particles. This seemed to suggest that the pattern formation phenomenon of vibrated granular bed systems might be the result of a two-dimensional Newton's cradle effect. In the presence of a small amount of wetness, these patterns were no longer formed in the vibrated granular beds under the same corresponding set of vibration conditions. Despite the relatively much weaker capillary forces arising from the simulated liquid bridges between particles compared with particle-particle collision forces, the spatial distributions of these collision forces, physical distributions of particles, as well as time profiles of average collision forces were altered significantly in comparison with the corresponding distributions and profiles observed for the dry vibrated granular beds. This seemed to suggest the presence of a two-dimensional Stokes' cradle effect in these wet vibrated granular bed systems which disrupted the formation of patterns in the wet granular materials that would have been observed in their dry counterparts.
Dartevelle, SéBastien
2004-08-01
Geophysical granular materials display a wide variety of behaviors and features. Typically, granular flows (1) are multiphase flows, (2) are very dissipative over many different scales, (3) display a wide range of grain concentrations, and (4), as a final result of these previous features, display complex nonlinear, nonuniform, and unsteady rheologies. Therefore the objectives of this manuscript are twofold: (1) setting up a hydrodynamic model which acknowledges the multiphase nature of granular flows and (2) defining a comprehensive rheological model which accounts for all the different forms of viscous dissipations within granular flows at any concentration. Hence three important regimes within granular flows must be acknowledged: kinetic (pure free flights of grain), kinetic-collisional, and frictional. The momentum and energy transfer will be different according to the granular regimes, i.e., strain rate dependent in the kinetic and kinetic-collisional cases and strain rate independent in the frictional case. A "universal" granular rheological model requires a comprehensive unified stress tensor able to adequately describe viscous stress within the flow for any of these regimes, and without imposing a priori what regime will dominate over the others. The kinetic-collisional viscous regime is defined from a modified Boltzmann's kinetic theory of dense gas. The frictional viscous regime is defined from the plastic potential and the critical state theories which account for compressibility of granular matter (e.g., dilatancy, consolidation, and critical state). In the companion paper [, 2004] we will introduce a multiphase computer code, (G)MFIX, which accounts for all the granular regimes and rheology and present typical simulations of diluted (e.g., plinian clouds) and concentrated geophysical granular flows (i.e., pyroclastic flows and surges).
Simulation of triaxial response of granular materials by modified DEM
Wang, XiaoLiang; Li, JiaChun
2014-12-01
A modified discrete element method (DEM) with rolling effect taken into consideration is developed to examine macroscopic behavior of granular materials in this study. Dimensional analysis is firstly performed to establish the relationship between macroscopic mechanical behavior, mesoscale contact parameters at particle level and external loading rate. It is found that only four dimensionless parameters may govern the macroscopic mechanical behavior in bulk. The numerical triaxial apparatus was used to study their influence on the mechanical behavior of granular materials. The parametric study indicates that Poisson's ratio only varies with stiffness ratio, while Young's modulus is proportional to contact modulus and grows with stiffness ratio, both of which agree with the micromechanical model. The peak friction angle is dependent on both inter-particle friction angle and rolling resistance. The dilatancy angle relies on inter-particle friction angle if rolling stiffness coefficient is sufficiently large. Finally, we have recommended a calibration procedure for cohesionless soil, which was at once applied to the simulation of Chende sand using a series of triaxial compression tests. The responses of DEM model are shown in quantitative agreement with experiments. In addition, stress-strain response of triaxial extension was also obtained by numerical triaxial extension tests.
Klinkmueller, M.; Schreurs, G.
2009-12-01
Six different granular materials for analogue modelling have been investigated using a sandbox with a compressional set-up and X-ray computed tomography (XRCT). The evolving structures were evaluated with image analysis software. The sandbox has one movable sidewall that is driven by a computer-controlled servomotor at 20 cm/h. A 12 cm wide and 20 cm long sheet of hard cardboard was placed on the base of the sandbox and attached to the moving sidewall creating a velocity discontinuity. The whole sandbox was covered on the inside with Alkor foil to reduce sidewall friction. Computed Tomography was used to scan the whole volume in 3 mm increments of shortening until 15 mm maximum deformation was reached. The second approach was a scanning procedure to a maximum deformation of 80 mm in 2 mm increments of shortening for the first 10 mm and in 5 mm increments for the last 70 mm. The short deformation scans were repeated three times to investigate reproducibility. The long deformation scans were performed twice. The physical properties of the materials (table 1) have been described in a previous material benchmark. Four natural quartz sands and two artificial granular materials, corundum brown sand and glass beads, have been used. The two artificial materials were used for this experimental series as examples for very angular and very rounded sands in contrast to the sub-rounded to angular natural quartz sands. The short deformation experiments show partly large differences in thrust angles of both front and back-thrust, in timing of thrust initiation, and in the degree of undulation of thrusts. The coarse-grained sands show smooth and low undulating thrusts that are only affected by the sidewall friction whereas the thrusts in fine-grained sands undulate significantly and partly divide and merge in an anastomosing fashion. The coarse-grained sand thrusts are clearer visualized by XRCT, which indicates a wider shear zone where the material dilates. Furthermore, the
Swirling flows in horizontally vibrated beds of dense granular materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ali Bakhshinejad; Piroz Zamankhan
2012-01-01
In a series of experiments,a granular material in a rectangular container with two hollow cylinders was studied as it underwent horizontal vibrations.At the peak values of acceleration,novel swirling granular flows were observed in the cylinders while the grains cascaded down the outer surface of the piles that formed outside the cylinders.Computer simulations were performed that supported our interpretation of the behaviour observed in the experiments.
Evolution of network architecture in a granular material under compression
Papadopoulos, Lia; Puckett, James G.; Daniels, Karen E.; Bassett, Danielle S.
2016-09-01
As a granular material is compressed, the particles and forces within the system arrange to form complex and heterogeneous collective structures. Force chains are a prime example of such structures, and are thought to constrain bulk properties such as mechanical stability and acoustic transmission. However, capturing and characterizing the evolving nature of the intrinsic inhomogeneity and mesoscale architecture of granular systems can be challenging. A growing body of work has shown that graph theoretic approaches may provide a useful foundation for tackling these problems. Here, we extend the current approaches by utilizing multilayer networks as a framework for directly quantifying the progression of mesoscale architecture in a compressed granular system. We examine a quasi-two-dimensional aggregate of photoelastic disks, subject to biaxial compressions through a series of small, quasistatic steps. Treating particles as network nodes and interparticle forces as network edges, we construct a multilayer network for the system by linking together the series of static force networks that exist at each strain step. We then extract the inherent mesoscale structure from the system by using a generalization of community detection methods to multilayer networks, and we define quantitative measures to characterize the changes in this structure throughout the compression process. We separately consider the network of normal and tangential forces, and find that they display a different progression throughout compression. To test the sensitivity of the network model to particle properties, we examine whether the method can distinguish a subsystem of low-friction particles within a bath of higher-friction particles. We find that this can be achieved by considering the network of tangential forces, and that the community structure is better able to separate the subsystem than a purely local measure of interparticle forces alone. The results discussed throughout this study
Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications - An experimental approach
Torres-Serra, Joel; Romero, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio; Caba, Joan; Arderiu, Xavier; Padullés, Josep-Manel; González, Juanjo
2017-06-01
Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can be adjusted before run-off to simulate actual handling conditions by fluidisation and deaeration of the pile. Bulk materials on the market, with a wide range of particle sizes, can be tested with the prototype and the results used for classification in terms of flowability to improve industrial equipment selection processes.
Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications - An experimental approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torres-Serra Joel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can be adjusted before run-off to simulate actual handling conditions by fluidisation and deaeration of the pile. Bulk materials on the market, with a wide range of particle sizes, can be tested with the prototype and the results used for classification in terms of flowability to improve industrial equipment selection processes.
Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics
Goddard, Joe
2014-03-01
Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).
Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials
Stannarius, Ralf
2017-05-01
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.
Applying MDL to Learning Best Model Granularity
Gao, Q; Vitanyi, P; Gao, Qiong; Li, Ming; Vitanyi, Paul
2000-01-01
The Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle is solidly based on a provably ideal method of inference using Kolmogorov complexity. We test how the theory behaves in practice on a general problem in model selection: that of learning the best model granularity. The performance of a model depends critically on the granularity, for example the choice of precision of the parameters. Too high precision generally involves modeling of accidental noise and too low precision may lead to confusion of models that should be distinguished. This precision is often determined ad hoc. In MDL the best model is the one that most compresses a two-part code of the data set: this embodies ``Occam's Razor.'' In two quite different experimental settings the theoretical value determined using MDL coincides with the best value found experimentally. In the first experiment the task is to recognize isolated handwritten characters in one subject's handwriting, irrespective of size and orientation. Based on a new modification of elastic...
Numeric Modeling of Granular Asteroid Growth
Beaumont, Benjamin; Lazzati, D.
2014-01-01
It is believed that planetesimals and asteroids are created by the constructive collisions of smaller objects, loosely bound under the effect of self-gravity and/or contact forces. However, the internal dynamics of these collisions and whether they trigger growth or fragmentation are poorly understood. Prior research in the topic has established regimes for the results of constructive collisions of particles under contact forces, but neglects gravity, a critical component once particles are no longer touching, and force chains, an uneven distribution of force inherent to granular materials. We run simulations binary collisions of clusters of particles modeled as hard spheres. Our simulations take into account self-gravity, dissipation of energy, friction, and use a potential function for overlapping particles to study force chains. We present here the collision outcome for clusters with variable masses, particle counts, velocities, and impact parameter. We compare our results to other models and simulations, and find that the collisions remain constructive at higher energies than classically predicted.
Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillard François
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.
The stress and ballistic properties of granular materials
Proud, William G.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.
2017-01-01
Granular materials are widespread in nature and in manufacturing. Their particulate nature gives a compressive strength of a similar order of magnitude as many continuous solids, a vanishingly small tensile strength and variable shear strength, highly dependent on the loading conditions. Previous studies have shown the effect of composition, morphology and particle size, however, compared to metals and polymers, granular materials are not so well understood. This paper will present some recent results for granular materials, placing these within the wider context. Two areas will be dealt with (i) the effect of the skeletal strength of the material and (ii) the displacements associated with ballistic impact. One clear observation is the similarity of behavior of quartz-sands in compression across a range of particle size. However, the precise pathway of compression is strongly dependent on the initial conditions e.g. density and connectivity within the granular bed, as emphasized by some data for quasi-static compression of sand. To fully embrace the range of behaviours seen requires the development of a suitable parameter to describe the material, the paper concludes with a discussion of one of those approaches.
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics modeling of granular column collapse
Szewc, Kamil
2016-01-01
The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a particle-based, Lagrangian method for fluid-flow simulations. In this work, fundamental concepts of this method are first briefly recalled. Then, the ability to accurately model granular materials using an introduced visco-plastic constitutive rheological model is studied. For this purpose sets of numerical calculations (2D and 3D) of the fundamental problem of the collapse of initially vertical cylinders of granular materials are performed. The results of modeling of columns with different aspect ratios and different angles of internal friction are presented. The numerical outcomes are assessed not only with respect to the reference experimental data but also with respect to other numerical methods, namely the Distinct Element Method and the Finite Element Method. In order to improve the numerical efficiency of the method, the Graphics Processing Units implementation is presented and some related issues are discussed. It is believed that this study corresponds t...
Statistics of the Elastic Behavior of Granular Materials
Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Rothenburg, L.
2001-01-01
The elastic behaviour of isotropic assemblies of granular materials consisting of two-dimensional, bonded and non-rotating particles is studied from the micromechanical viewpoint. Discrete element simulations have been performed of assemblies of 50,000 particles with various coordination numbers
Micromechanical study of elastic moduli of loose granular materials
Kruyt, N.P.; Agnolin, I.; Luding, S.; Rothenburg, L.
2010-01-01
In micromechanics of the elastic behaviour of granular materials, the macro-scale continuum elastic moduli are expressed in terms of micro-scale parameters, such as coordination number (the average number of contacts per particle) and interparticle contact stiffnesses in normal and tangential direct
Statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials
Kruyt, N.P.
2003-01-01
A theoretical framework is presented for the statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials. In analogy to the force and moment equilibrium equations for particles, compatibility equations for closed loops are formulated in the two-dimensional case for relative displacements and
Statistics of the elastic behaviour of granular materials
Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.
2001-01-01
The elastic behaviour of isotropic assemblies of granular materials consisting of two-dimensional, bonded and non-rotating particles is studied from the micromechanical viewpoint. Discrete element simulations have been performed of assemblies of 50,000 particles with various coordination numbers (av
Martian gullies: possible formation mechanism by dry granular material..
Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.
section Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies Some theories developed tried explain its origin either by liquid water liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows In winter CO 2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain In spring the CO 2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO 2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies By experimental work with dry granular material we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material section We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City M e xico We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas to target goal recognize or to distinguish to identify possible processes evolved in its formation Also we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters Finally we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material
Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed M. Eissa
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.
Simulating granular materials by energy minimization
Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.
2016-11-01
Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the
Micromechanical Study of fabric evolution in quasi-static deformation of granular materials
Kruyt, Nicolaas P.
2012-01-01
In micromechanical studies of granular materials, relations are investigated between macro-level, continuum characteristics and micro-level, (inter) particle characteristics. For quasi-static deformation of granular materials, the fabric tensor is an important micromechanical characteristic that des
Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials
Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio
2014-03-01
The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.
Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2007-01-01
Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the
Mori, Kentaro; Kaneko, Kenji; Hashizume, Yutaka
2017-06-01
The short fiber mixing method is well known as one of the method to improve the strength of gran- ular soils in geotechnical engineering. Mechanical properties of the short fiber mixing granular materials are influenced by many factors, such as the mixture ratio of the short fiber, the material of short fiber, the length, and the orientation. In particular, the mixture ratio of the short fibers is very important in mixture design. In the past study, we understood that the strength is reduced by too much short fiber mixing by a series of tri-axial compression experiments. Namely, there is "optimum mixture ratio" in the short fiber mixing granular soils. In this study, to consider the mechanism of occurrence of the optimum mixture ratio, we carried out the numerical experiments by granular element method. As the results, we can understand that the strength decrease when too much grain-fiber contact points exist, because a friction coefficient is smaller than the grain-grain contact points.
Submicron structure random field on granular soil material with retinex algorithm optimization
Liang, Yu; Tao, Chenyuan; Zhou, Bingcheng; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Linchong
2017-06-01
In this paper, a Retinex scale optimized image enhancement algorithm is proposed, which can enhance the micro vision image and eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination. Based on that, a random geometric model of the microstructure of granular materials is established with Monte-Carlo method, the numerical simulation including consolidation process of granular materials is compared with the experimental data. The results have proved that the random field method with Retinex image enhancement algorithm is effective, the image of microstructure of granular materials becomes clear and the contrast ratio is improved, after using Retinex image enhancement algorithm to enhance the CT image. The fidelity of enhanced image is higher than that dealing with other method, which have explained that the algorithm can preserve the microstructure information of the image well. The result of numerical simulation is similar with the one obtained from conventional three axis consolidation test, which proves that the simulation result is reliable.
Terahertz scattering by granular composite materials: An effective medium theory
Kaushik, Mayank; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Fischer, Bernd M.; Abbott, Derek
2012-01-01
Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging have emerged as important tools for identification and classification of various substances, which exhibit absorption characteristics at distinct frequencies in the THz range. The spectral fingerprints can potentially be distorted or obscured by electromagnetic scattering caused by the granular nature of some substances. In this paper, we present THz time domain transmission measurements of granular polyethylene powders in order to investigate an effective medium theory that yields a parameterized model, which can be used to estimate the empirical measurements to good accuracy.
A depth integrated model for dry geophysical granular flows
Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne
2017-04-01
Granular flows are rapid to very rapid flows, made up of dry sediment (rock and snow avalanches) or mixture of water and sediment (debris flows). They are among the most dangerous and destructive natural phenomena and the definition of run-out scenarios for risk assessment has received wide interest in the last decades. Nowadays there are many urbanized mountain areas affected by these phenomena, which cause several properties damages and loss of lives. The numerical simulation is a fundamental step to analyze these phenomena and define the runout scenarios. For this reason, a depth-integrated model is developed to analyze the case of dry granular flows, representative of snow avalanches or rock avalanches. The model consists of a two-phase mathematical description of the flow motion: it is similar to the solid transport equations but substantially different since there is no water in this case. A set of partial differential equations is obtained and written in the form of a hyperbolic system. The numerical solution is computed through a path-conservative SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics) scheme, in the two dimensional case. Appropriate closure relations are necessary, with respect to the concentration C and the shear stress at the bed τ0. In first approximation, it is possible to derive a formulation for the two closure relations from appropriate rheological models (Bagnold theory and dense gas analogy). The model parameters are determined by means of laboratory tests on dry granular material and the effectiveness of the closure relation verified through a comparison with the experimental results. In particular, the experimental investigation aims to reproduce two case of study for dry granular material: the dam-break test problem and the stationary motion with changes in planimetry. The experiments are carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the University of Trento, by means of channels with variable slope and variable shape. The mathematical model will
Scaling of heat transfer in granular material in rotating drums
Yohannes, Bereket; Emady, Heather; Pardes, Ingrid; Javed, Maham; Borghard, William; Glasser, Benjamin; Muzzio, Fernando; Cuitino, Alberto
Several industrial processes involve thermal treatment of granular materials and powders, in devices such as rotating drums, to bring about a desired chemical and/or physical transformation. Developing a better understanding of the heat transfer process can significantly improve the quality of the end product and efficiency. However, there is a lack of predictive models, for example, to predict the evolution of the distribution and average of the particles' temperature, particularly for the purposes of scale-up from laboratory scale experiments to manufacturing scale productions. We used discrete element method (DEM) based simulations to study the distribution of particles' temperature in rotating drums at low temperature. Various physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of particles were considered in the simulations and in the analysis. In addition, the effect of operating conditions such as size of drum, material fill level, and speed of rotation on the heat transfer were investigated. Based on the simulations, we identified timescales relevant to the heat transfer process and developed a relationship between these timescales that can be used to predict the average temperature of particles. We also found that the evolution of the temperature distribution, since different particles may have different temperatures, can be predicted based on these timescales. These findings can be used to predict the required time to heat up all particles to the desired temperature.
Some aspects of the characteristics of vertical screw conveyors for granular material
Rademacher, F.J.C.
1974-01-01
A theory has been developed, based on a physical model, to describe the behaviour of non-cohesive granular material inside a vertical screw conveyor. By use of this theory, relationships have been derived between dimensionless numbers for capacity, power consumption and efficiency. These relationshi
Localization and instability in sheared granular materials: Role of friction and vibration
Kothari, Konik R
2016-01-01
Shear banding and stick-slip instabilities have been long observed in sheared granular materials. Yet, their microscopic underpinnings, interdependencies and variability under different loading conditions have not been fully explored. Here, we use a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model, the Shear Transformation Zone theory, to investigate the dynamics of strain localization and its connection to stability of sliding in sheared, dry, granular materials. We consider frictional and frictionless grains as well as presence and absence of acoustic vibrations. Our results suggest that at low and intermediate strain rates, persistent shear bands develop only in the absence of vibrations. Vibrations tend to fluidize the granular network and de-localize slip at these rates. Stick-slip is only observed for frictional grains and it is confined to the shear band. At high strain rates, stick-slip disappears and the different systems exhibit similar stress-slip response. Changing the vibration intensity, duration or time of...
Frost susceptibility of granular subbase materials contaminated by deicing chemicals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Orlander, Tobias; Doré, Guy
2013-01-01
to be caused by ice segregation, but rather a volume increase by fusion caused by a small amount of pore water. The direction of the frost front could not be determined from the collected test results, and no reduction in bearing capacity or increase in frost susceptibility can be derived from the collected...... on roads and airfields enter the granular subbase materials and thereby makes the soil more frost-susceptible. In this project a series of isothermal frost heave tests has been carried out on granular subbase material from the runway at Kuujjuaq Airport, Québec, Canada. The tests have been carried out......, were used in order to determine any influence from the cooling ramp. The tests included settings that allowed the samples additional brine during freezing. Hence, the water and salinity were measured before and after the tests in order to determine the redistribution of water and salinity. The test...
Shape Effects on Jamming of Granular Materials
Farhadi, Somayeh
slow relaxation towards an unjammed state in ellipses is associated with the possibility of small and slow changes in their orientations, which then allow a more efficient packing. In order to study the stress fluctuations, we implement photoelastic properties of the particles. We are able to track the g 2 (a measure of local stress) of each particle throughout the entire experiment. Unlike disks, the power spectra of g2, P(ω), is not rate invariant for ellipses. In other words, all curves of RP(ω) vs. ω/R (where R is the shear rate) with different values of R, collapse to a single curve for disks, but not for ellipses. The rate invariance of spectra was previously studied for sheared spherical glass beads and semi-2D pentagonal particles. This is the first experimental work in which the fluctuations of granular systems composed of elongated particles is addressed. We have also studied the formation and destruction of stress avalanches during Couette shear in both systems of disks and ellipses. In particular, we introduce measures which characterize the size and shape of stress avalanches. Analysis of these measures shows that the build-up and release of stress in both systems of disks and ellipses have similar distributions which indicates that the deformation of particles in a Couette cell does not resemble stick-slip behavior. We also find that the build-up and release of stress is faster is larger avalanches. Cyclic isotropic compression is performed on semi-2D systems of bi-disperse disks and identical ellipses with aspect ratio 2, which are composed of photoelastic particles. In each compression cycle, the system is compressed with a total strain of 1.6% and then expanded to the initial state. After completion of each half cycle, the system is allowed to relax, then imaged by two synchronized cameras. The packing fraction, φ, of compressed states are chosen above the isotopic jamming point (point J). In both systems of disks and ellipses, we observed
Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.
Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L
2015-01-07
Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response.
Gas-driven subharmonic waves in a vibrated two-phase granular material.
Matas, J-P; Uehara, J; Behringer, R P
2008-04-01
Vibrated powders exhibit striking phenomena: subharmonic waves, oscillons, convection, heaping, and even bubbling. We demonstrate novel rectangular profile subharmonic waves for vibrated granular material, that occur uniquely in the two-phase case of grains, and a fluid, such as air. These waves differ substantially from those for the gas-free case, exhibit different dispersion relations, and occur for specific shaking parameters and air pressure, understandable with gas-particle flow models. These waves occur when the gas diffusively penetrates the granular layer in a time comparable to the shaker period. As the pressure is lowered towards P =0, the granular-gas system exhibits a Knudsen regime. This instability provides an opportunity to quantitatively test models of two-phase flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tran Quoc Anh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The recent technological developments made on the light dynamic penetration test Panda 3 ® provide a dynamic load–penetration curve σp – sp for each impact. This curve is influenced by the mechanical and physical properties of the investigated granular media. In order to analyze and exploit the load-penetration curve, a numerical model of penetration test using 3D Discrete Element Method is proposed for reproducing tests in dynamic conditions in granular media. All parameters of impact used in this model have at first been calibrated by respecting mechanical and geometrical properties of the hammer and the rod. There is a good agreement between experimental results and the ones obtained from simulations in 2D or 3D. After creating a sample, we will simulate the Panda 3 ®. It is possible to measure directly the dynamic load–penetration curve occurring at the tip for each impact. Using the force and acceleration measured in the top part of the rod, it is possible to separate the incident and reflected waves and then calculate the tip’s load-penetration curve. The load–penetration curve obtained is qualitatively similar with that obtained by experimental tests. In addition, the frequency analysis of the measured signals present also a good compliance with that measured in reality when the tip resistance is qualitatively similar.
Assessment of the kinetic-frictional model for dense granular flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Boon Ho Ng; Yulong Ding; Mojtaba Ghadiri
2008-01-01
This paper aims to quantitatively assess the application of kinetic-frictional model to simulate the motion of dry granular materials in dense condition, in particular, the annular shearing in Couette configuration. The weight of frictional stress was varied to study the contribution of the frictional stress in dense granular flows. The results show that the pure kinetic-theory-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model (without frictional stress) over-predicts the dominant solids motion of dense granular flow while adding frictional stress [Schaeffer, D. G. (1987). Instability in the evolution equations describing incompressible granular flow. Journal of Differential Equations, 66(1), 19-50] with the solids pressure of [Lun, C. KTK., Savage, S. B., Jeffrey, D. J., & Chepurniy, N. (1984). Kinetic theories for granular flow: Inelastic particles in Couette flow and slightly inelastic particles in a general flow field. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 140, 223-256] in the CFD model improves the simulation to better conform available experimental results. The results also suggest that frictional stress transmission plays an important role in dense granular flow and should not be neglected in granular flow simulations. Compatible simulation results to the experimental data are seen by increasing the weight of frictional stress to a factor of 1.25-1.5. These improved simulation results suggest the current constitutive relations (kinetic-frictional model) need to be improved in order to better reflect the real dense granular flow.
Gaussian kinetic model for granular gases.
Dufty, James W; Baskaran, Aparna; Zogaib, Lorena
2004-05-01
A kinetic model for the Boltzmann equation is proposed and explored as a practical means to investigate the properties of a dilute granular gas. It is shown that all spatially homogeneous initial distributions approach a universal "homogeneous cooling solution" after a few collisions. The homogeneous cooling solution (HCS) is studied in some detail and the exact solution is compared with known results for the hard sphere Boltzmann equation. It is shown that all qualitative features of the HCS, including the nature of overpopulation at large velocities, are reproduced by the kinetic model. It is also shown that all the transport coefficients are in excellent agreement with those from the Boltzmann equation. Also, the model is specialized to one having a velocity independent collision frequency and the resulting HCS and transport coefficients are compared to known results for the Maxwell model. The potential of the model for the study of more complex spatially inhomogeneous states is discussed.
Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in 3D Granular Materials.
Hurley, R C; Hall, S A; Andrade, J E; Wright, J
2016-08-26
Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (3D), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines 3D x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising inverse relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system.
Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems
Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2017-04-01
Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical
A Granular Computing Model Based on Tolerance relation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Guo-yin; HU Feng; HUANG Hai; WU Yu
2005-01-01
Granular computing is a new intelligent computing theory based on partition of problem concepts. It is an important problem in Rough Set theory to process incomplete information systems directly. In this paper, a granular computing model based on tolerance relation for processing incomplete information systems is developed. Furthermore, a criteria condition for attribution necessity is proposed in this model.
The distribution of saturated clusters in wetted granular materials
Li, Shuoqi; Hanaor, Dorian; Gan, Yixiang
2017-06-01
The hydro-mechanical behaviour of partially saturated granular materials is greatly influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of liquid within the media. The aim of this paper is to characterise the distribution of saturated clusters in granular materials using an optical imaging method under different water drainage conditions. A saturated cluster is formed when a liquid phase fully occupies the pore space between solid grains in a localized region. The samples considered here were prepared by vibrating mono-sized glass beads to form closely packed assemblies in a rectangular container. A range of drainage conditions were applied to the specimen by tilting the container and employing different flow rates, and the liquid pressure was recorded at different positions in the experimental cell. The formation of saturated clusters during the liquid withdrawal processes is governed by three competing mechanisms arising from viscous, capillary, and gravitational forces. When the flow rate is sufficiently large and the gravity component is sufficiently small, the viscous force tends to destabilize the liquid front leading to the formation of narrow fingers of saturated material. As the water channels along these liquid fingers break, saturated clusters are formed inside the specimen. Subsequently, a spatial and temporal distribution of saturated clusters can be observed. We investigated the resulting saturated cluster distribution as a function of flow rate and gravity to achieve a fundamental understanding of the formation and evolution of such clusters in partially saturated granular materials. This study serves as a bridge between pore-scale behavior and the overall hydro-mechanical characteristics in partially saturated soils.
TENSILE STRENGTH OF GRANULAR MATERIALS%粒状材料的抗拉强度
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐永福; 董平; 孙德安
2003-01-01
The tensile strength of a single soil particle is usually measured indirectly by compressing the grain between flat platens until failure occurs,and is defined as the tensile stress at whole-particle fracture. The tensile strength appears to decrease monotonically with the diameter of particles,and is usually characterized by the Weibull statistics. For granular materials,it is impossible to measure constant tensile strength,unless the flaw effect is taken into account in the framework of fractal. The fractal dimension of flaw distribution equals to that of the fragmentation of granular materials. The Weibull statistics is modified using the fractal model of flaw distribution. Goodness-of-fit statistics shows that the modified model fits the experimental data much better than the conventional model. The modified model has only one parameter,the fractal dimension of fragmentation D,which can be determined using the mass-size distribution.
Onset of fluidization in vertically shaken granular material
Poschel; Schwager; Saluena
2000-07-01
When granular material is shaken vertically one observes convection, surface fluidization, spontaneous heap formation, and other effects. There is a controversial discussion in the literature as to whether there exists a threshold for the Froude number Gamma=A(0)omega(2)(0)/g, below which these effects cannot be observed anymore. By means of theoretical analysis and computer simulation we find that there is no such single threshold. Instead, we propose a modified criterion that coincides with the critical Froude number Gamma(c)=1 for small driving frequency omega(0).
Patterns and velocity field in vertically vibrated granular materials
Ansari, Istafaul H.; Alam, Meheboob
2013-06-01
We report experimental results on pattern formation in vertically vibrated granular materials confined in a quasitwo-dimensional container. For a deep bed of mono-disperse particles, we uncovered a new transition from the bouncing bed to an f/4-wave (f is the frequency of shaking) which eventually gives birth to an f/2-undulation wave, with increasing shaking intensity. Other patterned states for mono-disperse particles and their transition-route are compared with previous experiments. The coarse-grained velocity field for each patterned state has been obtained which helped to characterize convective rolls as well as synchronous and sub-harmonic waves in this system.
Continuum modeling of projectile impact and penetration in dry granular media
Dunatunga, Sachith; Kamrin, Ken
2017-03-01
Modeling of impact into granular substrates is a topic of growing interest over the last decade. We present a fully continuum approach for this problem, which is shown to capture an array of experimentally observed behavior with regard to the intruder penetration dynamics as well as the flow and stress response of the granular media. The intruder is modeled as a stiff elastic body and the dry granular bulk is modeled using a 'trans-phase' constitutive relation. This relation has an elasto-viscoplastic response with pressure- and rate-sensitive yield behavior given by the μ (I) inertial rheology when the granular free volume is below a critical value. Above this critical value, the material is deemed to separate and is treated as a disconnected, stress-free medium. The Material Point Method is used to implement the impact problem numerically. Validations are conducted against a wide set of experimental data with a common granular material, which allows use of a single model calibration to test the agreement. In particular, continuum simulations of projectile impact with different shaped intruders and different impact energies show good agreement with experiments regarding of time-of-flight, penetration depth, and Poncelet drag force coefficients. Simultaneously, good agreement with experiments is found regarding the response of the granular media during impact, such as the pressure wave propagation process during the initial stage of impact, the flow fields that develop under the moving intruder, and the free-surface dynamics.
Taghizadeh, K.; Kumar, N.; Magnanimo, V.; Luding, S.
2015-09-01
Understanding the mechanical stiffness of closely packed, dense granular systems is of interest in many fields, such as soil mechanics, material science and physics. The main difficulty arises due to discreteness and disorder in granular materials at the microscopic scale which requires a multi-scale approach. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a powerful tool to inspect the influence of the microscopic contact properties of its individual constituents on the bulk behavior of granular assemblies. In this study, the isotropic deformation mode of polydisperse packings of frictionless and frictional spheres are modeled by using DEM, to investigate the effective stiffness of the granular assembly. At various volume fractions, for every sample, we determine the stress and fabric incremental response that result from the application of strain-probes. As we are interested first in the reversible, elastic response, the amplitude of the applied perturbations has to be small enough to avoid opening and closing of too many contacts, which would lead to irreversible rearrangements in the sample. Counterintuitively, with increasing inter-particle contact friction, the bulk modulus decreases systematically with the coefficient of friction for samples with the same volume fraction. We explain this by the difference in microstructure (isotropic fabric) the samples get when compressed to the same density.
Mechanical properties of granular materials: A variational approach to grain-scale simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.
2009-01-15
The mechanical properties of cohesionless granular materials are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. A three-dimensional pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacements of its boundaries. The deformation is described as a sequence of equilibrium configurations. Each configuration is characterized by a minimum of the total potential energy. This minimum is computed using a modification of the conjugate gradient algorithm. Our simulations capture the nonlinear, path-dependent behavior of granular materials observed in experiments. Micromechanical analysis provides valuable insight into phenomena such as hysteresis, strain hardening and stress-induced anisotropy. Estimates of the effective bulk modulus, obtained with no adjustment of material parameters, are in agreement with published experimental data. The model is applied to evaluate the effects of hydrate dissociation in marine sediments. Weakening of the sediment is quantified as a reduction in the effective elastic moduli.
Rheology of cohesive granular materials across multiple dense-flow regimes.
Gu, Yile; Chialvo, Sebastian; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2014-09-01
We investigate the dense-flow rheology of cohesive granular materials through discrete element simulations of homogeneous, simple shear flows of frictional, cohesive, spherical particles. Dense shear flows of noncohesive granular materials exhibit three regimes: quasistatic, inertial, and intermediate, which persist for cohesive materials as well. It is found that cohesion results in bifurcation of the inertial regime into two regimes: (a) a new rate-independent regime and (b) an inertial regime. Transition from rate-independent cohesive regime to inertial regime occurs when the kinetic energy supplied by shearing is sufficient to overcome the cohesive energy. Simulations reveal that inhomogeneous shear band forms in the vicinity of this transition, which is more pronounced at lower particle volume fractions. We propose a rheological model for cohesive systems that captures the simulation results across all four regimes.
Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm
2013-01-01
Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air...
Continuum modelling of the collapse of a granular mass and its subsequent flow
Lagrée, P.; Staron, L.; Popinet, S.
2011-12-01
The continuum modelling of transient granular flows is of primary importance in the context of prediction and risk mitigation in relation with rock avalanches and dry debris flows. In this perspective, the granular column collapse experiment provides an interesting benchmark, due to both its relevance to natural granular flows and its challenging complexity (Lube 2004 et al, Lajeunesse et al 2006). In this contribution, we present 2D continuum simulations of granular column collapse using the Navier-Stokes solver Gerris (Popinet 2003), solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The rheology implemented to model the granular media is the so-called μ (I) rheology, relating the frictional properties and the viscosity of the material to the pressure and shear rate (Jop et al 2006). In addition, discrete simulations using the Contact Dynamics method are performed for systematic comparison between the granular flow dynamics and its continuum counterpart (Staron & Hinch 2005). We find a good agreement, recovering the shape of the flow in the course of time, the internal flow structure, as well as experimental scaling laws for the run-out. A systematic underestimation of the latter is nevertheless observed, and discussed in terms of physical and numerical modeling. This work opens important new prospect for the simulation of more complex situations relevant to geophysical granular flows.
Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 1. Simulation
Daniel Buscombe,; Rubin, David M.
2012-01-01
1. In this, the first of a pair of papers which address the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted natural granular material, a method is presented for simulation of two-phase (solid, void) assemblages of discrete non-cohesive particles. The purpose is to have a flexible, yet computationally and theoretically simple, suite of tools with well constrained and well known statistical properties, in order to simulate realistic granular material as a discrete element model with realistic size and shape distributions, for a variety of purposes. The stochastic modeling framework is based on three-dimensional tessellations with variable degrees of order in particle-packing arrangement. Examples of sediments with a variety of particle size distributions and spatial variability in grain size are presented. The relationship between particle shape and porosity conforms to published data. The immediate application is testing new algorithms for automated measurements of particle properties (mean and standard deviation of particle sizes, and apparent porosity) from images of natural sediment, as detailed in the second of this pair of papers. The model could also prove useful for simulating specific depositional structures found in natural sediments, the result of physical alterations to packing and grain fabric, using discrete particle flow models. While the principal focus here is on naturally occurring sediment and sedimentary rock, the methods presented might also be useful for simulations of similar granular or cellular material encountered in engineering, industrial and life sciences.
DEM simulation of heat transfer in granular materials
Gui, Nan; Xu, Wenkai; Ge, Liang
2013-07-01
This study investigates the heat conduction of low conductivity granular particles in a two-dimensional modeling of a rotary drum using discrete element method (DEM) method. The Shannon entropy and Lagrangian mean temperature difference are used for comparative study. The results obtained by these two methods are in accordance with each other. It shows the evolution of heat conduction in rotary drums can be divided into a dynamically dominated stage and a thermodynamically dominated stage. The former is determined mainly by particle mixing and the latter is by particle-particle contact duration. The mechanisms for these two stages are explained and the heat transfer characteristics in these two stages are explored.
Modeling density segregation in granular flow
Xiao, Hongyi; Lueptow, Richard; Umbanhowar, Paul
2015-11-01
A recently developed continuum-based model accurately predicts segregation in flows of granular mixtures varying in particle size by considering the interplay of advection, diffusion and segregation. In this research, we extend the domain of the model to include density driven segregation. Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-2D bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density driven segregation velocity on local shear rate, particle concentration, and a segregation length which scales with the particle size and the logarithm of the density ratio. With these inputs, the model yields theoretical predictions of density segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios (1.11-3.33) and flow rates (19.2-113.6 cm3/s). Matching experiments with various combinations of glass, steel and ceramic particles were also performed which reproduced the segregation patterns obtained in both the simulations and the theory.
Numerical modelling of granular flows: a reality check
Windows-Yule, C. R. K.; Tunuguntla, D. R.; Parker, D. J.
2016-07-01
Discrete particle simulations provide a powerful tool for the advancement of our understanding of granular media, and the development and refinement of the multitudinous techniques used to handle and process these ubiquitous materials. However, in order to ensure that this tool can be successfully utilised in a meaningful and reliable manner, it is of paramount importance that we fully understand the degree to which numerical models can be trusted to accurately and quantitatively recreate and predict the behaviours of the real-world systems they are designed to emulate. Due to the complexity and diverse variety of physical states and dynamical behaviours exhibited by granular media, a simulation algorithm capable of closely reproducing the behaviours of a given system may be entirely unsuitable for other systems with different physical properties, or even similar systems exposed to differing control parameters. In this paper, we focus on two widely used forms of granular flow, for which discrete particle simulations are shown to provide a full, quantitative replication of the behaviours of real industrial and experimental systems. We identify also situations for which quantitative agreement may fail are identified, but important general, qualitative trends are still recreated, as well as cases for which computational models are entirely unsuitable. By assembling this information into a single document, we hope not only to provide researchers with a useful point of reference when designing and executing future studies, but also to equip those involved in the design of simulation algorithms with a clear picture of the current strengths and shortcomings of contemporary models, and hence an improved knowledge of the most valuable areas on which to focus their work.
Impact of Wettability on Fracturing of Nano-Granular Materials
Trojer, M.; Juanes, R.
2014-12-01
Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a well-known reservoir stimulation technique, by which the permeability of the near-wellbore region is enhanced through the creation of tensile fractures within the rock, formed in the direction perpendicular to the least principal stress. While it is well known that fracturing of granular media strongly depends on the type of media, the pore fluids, and the fracking fluids, the interplay between multiphase flow, wettability and fracture mechanics of shale-like (nano-granular) materials remains poorly understood. Here, we study experimentally the dynamics of multiphase-flow fracking in nano-porous media and its dependence on the wetting properties of the system. The experiments consist in saturating a thin bed of glass beads with a viscous fluid, injecting a less viscous fluid, and imaging the invasion morphology. We investigate three control parameters: the injection rate of the less-viscous invading phase, the confining stress, and the contact angle, which we control by altering the surface chemistry of the beads and the Hele-Shaw cell. We quantify the dynamic fracture pattern by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV), and elucidate the role of wettability on the emerging flow physics at the length scale of the viscous-frictional instability.
An Emotional Agent Model Based on Granular Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Hu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Affective computing has a very important significance for fulfilling intelligent information processing and harmonious communication between human being and computers. A new model for emotional agent is proposed in this paper to make agent have the ability of handling emotions, based on the granular computing theory and the traditional BDI agent model. Firstly, a new emotion knowledge base based on granular computing for emotion expression is presented in the model. Secondly, a new emotional reasoning algorithm based on granular computing is proposed. Thirdly, a new emotional agent model based on granular computing is presented. Finally, based on the model, an emotional agent for patient assistant in hospital is realized, experiment results show that it is efficient to handle simple emotions.
Onset of Stationary Flows of a Cohesive Granular Material in a Channel
de Ryck, A.; Louisnard, O.
The handling of bulk materials and powders in process engineering remains an important issue. To obtain reliable gravitational flows, starting and remaining stationary, the hoppers and transport channels must be designed at a scale appropriate for the friction and cohesive properties of the granular material. To describe such dense flows (the interaction with the surrounding ambient fluid is negligible compared to the weight of the particles and interparticles forces), they can be modelled by continuum mechanics, associated with a constitutive equation taking into account the friction behaviour (Mohr-Coulomb or Druger-Prager plasticity criterion). We use here the rheology proposed by Jop et al. (Nature 441: 727-730, 2006) which combines this with an associated flow rule (co-linearity of the stress and strain tensors) (Jenike, Powder Technol. 50: 229-236, 1987) and a viscous dependency of the coefficient of friction on the strain (Da Cruz et al., Phys. Rev. E 72: 021309, 2005).Using the method of characteristics to describe the flow structure (de Ryck, Granular Matter 10: 361-367, 2008), we deduce the minimal slope to obtain a stationary flow of cohesive granular materials on a finite width channel, whose lateral walls are rough or smooth. We also obtain the depth of the flow (maximal at the centre of the channel). In the case of weak cohesive materials, these results are formulated with simple analytical expressions.
Study of Network Traffic Analysis Model Based on Time Granularity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tan,Xi-aoling; Xu,Yong; Mei,Chenggang; Liu,Lan
2005-01-01
An analytic research on establishing different traffic models on the traffic nature of different time granularity can provide necessary academic foundation for network design and simulation as well as ensuring the quality of service and network management. This paper aims to make simulant predication by means of corresponding math tools on the modeling of real traftic of the different time granularity. The experimental results indicate that the predicated traffic is close to the real traffic distribution.
A micromechanical study of dilatancy of granular materials
Kruyt, N. P.; Rothenburg, L.
2016-10-01
In micromechanics of granular materials, relationships are investigated between micro-scale characteristics of particles and contacts and macro-scale, continuum characteristics. Dilatancy is an important property of granular materials, defined as volume changes (dilative or compressive) induced by shear deformation. To obtain detailed information at the micro-scale, two-dimensional Discrete Element Method simulations of isobaric tests with disk-shaped particles have been performed. The required information includes the fabric tensor which characterizes statistical properties of the contact network. The dependence of the dilatancy rate on the shear strength and the fabric tensor has been investigated, based on the results of the simulations employing a dense and a loose initial system. The dilatancy rate depends in a complex, non-unique way on the shear strength, while the dependence on the fabric tensor is more amenable to analytical description. Two micromechanical mechanisms of dilatancy have been identified: (i) dilatancy due to deformation of loops that are determined by the interparticle contact network and (ii) dilatancy due to topological changes in the interparticle contact network that correspond to the creation or disruption of contacts. For the first mechanism the anisotropy in the contact network is the primary parameter, while for the second mechanism the average number of contacts per particle is the primary parameter. A fabric-based micromechanical relation for the dilatancy rate has been formulated that describes these identified mechanisms. Parameters present in this relation are determined by fitting this relation to the results of the Discrete Element Method simulations, using combined data for the dense and the loose initial system. Employing these fitted coefficients, good agreement is obtained between the results of the simulations and the predictions of the micromechanical dilatancy relation.
An experimental study of low velocity impacts into granular material in reduced gravity
Murdoch, Naomi; Avila Martinez, Iris; Sunday, Cecily; Cherrier, Olivier; Zenou, Emanuel; Janin, Tristan; Cadu, Alexandre; Gourinat, Yves; Mimoun, David
2016-04-01
The granular nature of asteroid surfaces, in combination with the low surface gravity, makes it difficult to predict lander - surface interactions from existing theoretical models. Nonetheless, an understanding of such interactions is particularly important for the deployment of a lander package. This was demonstrated by the Philae lander, which bounced before coming to rest roughly 1 kilometer away from its intended landing site on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko before coming to rest (Biele et al., 2015). In addition to being important for planning the initial deployment, information about the acceleration profile upon impact is also important in the choice of scientific payloads that want to exploit the initial landing to study the asteroid surface mechanical properties (e.g., Murdoch et al., 2016). Using the ISAE-SUPAERO drop tower, we have performed a series of low-velocity collisions into granular material in low gravity. Reduced-gravity is simulated by releasing a free-falling projectile into a surface container with a downward acceleration less than that of Earth's gravity. The acceleration of the surface is controlled through the use an Atwood machine, or a system of pulleys and counterweights. In reducing the effective surface acceleration of the granular material, the confining pressure will be reduced, and the properties of the granular material will become more representative of those on an asteroid's surface. In addition, since both the surface and projectile are falling, the projectile requires a minimum amount of time to catch the surface before the collision begins. This extended free-fall increases the experiment duration, making it easier to use accelerometers and high-speed cameras for data collection. The experiment is built into an existing 5.5 m drop-tower frame and has required the custom design of all components, including the projectile, surface sample container, release mechanism and deceleration system (Sunday et al., 2016
Fluid mechanical scaling of impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials
Miranda, Colin S.; Dowling, David R.
2015-11-01
A single scaling law is proposed for the diameter of simple low- and high-speed impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials where spall is not apparent. The scaling law is based on the assumption that gravity- and shock-wave effects set crater size, and is formulated in terms of a dimensionless crater diameter, and an empirical combination of Froude and Mach numbers. The scaling law involves the kinetic energy and speed of the impactor, the acceleration of gravity, and the density and speed of sound in the target material. The size of the impactor enters the formulation but divides out of the final empirical result. The scaling law achieves a 98% correlation with available measurements from drop tests, ballistic tests, missile impacts, and centrifugally-enhanced gravity impacts for a variety of target materials (sand, alluvium, granulated sugar, and expanded perlite). The available measurements cover more than 10 orders of magnitude in impact energy. For subsonic and supersonic impacts, the crater diameter is found to scale with the 1/4- and 1/6-power, respectively, of the impactor kinetic energy with the exponent crossover occurring near a Mach number of unity. The final empirical formula provides insight into how impact energy partitioning depends on Mach number.
Flow of granular materials-I. Discharge rates from hoppers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nedderman, R.M. (Univ. of Cambridge, England); Tuezuen, U.; Savage, S.B.; Houlsby, G.T.
1982-01-01
This was the first of a set of three review papers on the flow of granular materials. The objective of the papers was to review the published literature in these fields. Much information was drawn from a body of unpulished work represented by internal reports of the Chemical Engineering Department at Cambridge. This paper discussed the experimental results for hopper discharge rates and the correlations of these results. Then theoretical analyses that have been advanced to explain the observations were presented. Also the effects of interstitial pressure gradients were discussed, both those that arise due to deliberate pressurization of the hopper and those caused by the dilation of the flowing material. The flow of coarse, free-flowing materials through orifices seemed to have been adequately investigated experimentally and the correlation of Beverloo or minor modifications of it appeared to predict the flow rates with acceptable precision. Some difficulties were however encountered with narrow angled conical hoppers or in cases where the orifice is close to a vertical wall. The effects of an imposed gas flow were also correlated to reasonable precision at least for modest gas flow rates. Though the correlations seemed satisfactory, there was no really adequate theoretical explanations of the observations. Several theories exist that give qualitative trends in accord with obsrvation but there is no theory that can be used without empirical adjustments of the coefficients. However, with fine particles many more difficulties are encountered. 6 figures. (DP)
Capillary states of granular materials in the funicular state
Delenne, Jean-Yves; Richefeu, Vincent; Radjai, Farhang
2013-06-01
Using a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann model, we investigate the capillary states of a 2D granular packing gradually saturated by condensation from a homogeneously injected vapor phase. The internal stresses induced by surface tension and Laplace pressure are directly calculated from the forces acting on the grains with increasing amount of liquid. The evolution of cohesive strength with the amount of liquid reveals four different states reflecting the connectivity of the liquid phase and local grain environments. It increases in the pendular state, characterized by binary liquid bridges holding the grains together, and within the funicular state with an increasing number of liquid clusters connected to several grains. Beyond 40% of saturation, the cohesive strength falls off due to a decreasing Laplace pressure of liquid clusters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu
2012-01-01
Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing...
An investigation into clustering and segregation in granular materials
Gonzalez Briones, J.S.L.
2013-01-01
In this thesis, I studied the dynamics of granular matter by means of theory, simulations, and experiments. I studied how patterns emerge from a seemly unrelated ensemble of grains in different configurations. I focused on cluster formations in free cooling granular gases, developed an algorithm for
Localized fluidization in granular materials: Theoretical and numerical study
Montellà, E. P.; Toraldo, M.; Chareyre, B.; Sibille, L.
2016-11-01
We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy's law and Therzaghi's effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous, i.e., for small injection rates. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled discrete element method and a pore-scale finite volume method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. The results from both methods are in qualitative agreement with data published independently. A more quantitative agreement is achieved by the numerical model. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. While narrow apertures let the three different regimes be distinguished clearly, larger apertures tend to produce a single homogeneous fluidization regime. In the former case, it is found that the transition between the cavity regime and the chimney regime for an increasing injection rate coincides with a peak in the evolution of inlet pressure. Finally, the occurrence of the different regimes is defined in terms of the normalized flux and aperture.
Localized fluidization in granular materials: Theoretical and numerical study.
Montellà, E P; Toraldo, M; Chareyre, B; Sibille, L
2016-11-01
We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy's law and Therzaghi's effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous, i.e., for small injection rates. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled discrete element method and a pore-scale finite volume method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. The results from both methods are in qualitative agreement with data published independently. A more quantitative agreement is achieved by the numerical model. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. While narrow apertures let the three different regimes be distinguished clearly, larger apertures tend to produce a single homogeneous fluidization regime. In the former case, it is found that the transition between the cavity regime and the chimney regime for an increasing injection rate coincides with a peak in the evolution of inlet pressure. Finally, the occurrence of the different regimes is defined in terms of the normalized flux and aperture.
A nonlinear feedback model for granular and surface charging
Shinbrot, Troy; Kozachkov, Leo; Siu, Theo
2015-03-01
Independent laboratories have experimentally demonstrated that identical materials brought into symmetric contact generate contact charges. Even the most basic features of this odd behavior remain to be explained. In this talk, we provide a simple, Ising-like, model that appears to account for many of the observed phenomena. We calculate the electric field acting on surface molecules in a lattice, and we show that if the molecules are polarizable, then infinitesimal random polarizations typically build exponentially rapidly in time. These polarizations self-assemble to produce surface patterns that come in two types, and we find that one of these types accounts for strong localized charging, while the other produces a weaker persistent surface charge pattern. We summarize predictions for both ideal surfaces and for defects in granular beds. This work was supported by NSF Grant DMR-1404792.
Intragranular fracture and frictional effects in granular materials under pressure-shear loading
Peterson, Amanda; Foster, John; Vogler, Tracy
2013-06-01
Research efforts have been undertaken in recent years to investigate the dynamic behavior of granular materials. Many of the investigations have been experimental in nature, consisting of several rounds of Kolsky bar tests on sand with varying moisture content and confining pressures as well as traditional plate impact. More recently, pressure-shear experiments on both sand and granular tungsten carbide have been performed. In order to investigate the mesoscale physics that affect the bulk response observed in experiments, we have undertaken a computational simulation effort. The simulations are conducted using a massively parallel computational peridynamics code capable of modeling many thousand individual grains at high resolution resulting in simulations that consist of several million degrees of freedom. Individual intragranular fracture and discrete contact with friction are modeled explicitly in the simulations. Thus, these simulations treat aspects of the problem that were not represented well in previous mesoscale simulations with Eulerian hydrocodes. Results from these simulations are compared with results from pressure-shear experiments on sand and granular tungsten carbide. A discussion of the effects of fracture and friction on force chain formation and bulk wave propagation in the samples is included.
Micro-macro analysis of granular material behavior along proportional strain paths
Nicot, François; Sibille, Luc; Hicher, Pierre-Yves
2015-01-01
When granular materials are subjected to proportional strain loading paths, they manifest a variety of behaviors depending on the initial void ratio of the specimen as well as the imposed dilatancy/contractancy rate. In some cases, the stress components may vanish over the duration of the test, and the specimen may progressively liquefy. To investigate this behavior, the authors have developed a kinematic approach to be deployed in two parts. First, numerical simulations are performed by means of a discrete element method. Secondly, two micromechanical models have corroborated the DEM results. The performance of these models may explain a number of microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic constitutive behavior.
Niu, Qifei; Revil, André; Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Yu-Hsing
2017-07-01
The anisotropy of granular media and its evolution during shearing are important aspects required in developing physics-based constitutive models in Earth sciences. The development of relationships between geoelectrical properties and the deformation of porous media has applications to the monitoring of faulting and landslides. However, such relationships are still poorly understood. In this study, we first investigate the definition of the electrical conductivity anisotropy tensor of granular materials in presence of surface conductivity of the grains. Fabric anisotropy is related to the components of the fabric tensor. We define an electrical anisotropy factor based on the Archie's exponent second-order symmetric tensor m of granular materials. We use numerical simulations to confirm a relationship between the evolution of electrical and fabric anisotropy factors during shearing. To realize the simulations, we build a virtual laboratory in which we can easily perform synthetic experiments. We first simulate drained compressive triaxial tests of loose and dense granular materials (porosity 0.45 and 0.38, respectively) using the discrete element method. Then, the electrical conductivity tensor of a set of deformed synthetic samples is computed using the finite-difference method. The numerical results show that shear strains are responsible for a measurable anisotropy in the bulk conductivity of granular media. The observed electrical anisotropy response, during shearing, is distinct for dense and loose synthetic samples. Electrical and fabric anisotropy factors exhibit however a unique linear correlation, regardless of the shear strain and the initial state (porosity) of the synthetic samples. The practical implication of this finding confirms the usefulness of the electrical conductivity method in studying the fabric tensor of granular media. This result opens the door in using time-lapse electrical resistivity to study non-intrusively the evolution of anisotropy
Dynamic Distribution Model with Prime Granularity for Parallel Computing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Dynamic distribution model is one of the best schemes for parallel volume rendering. However, in homogeneous cluster system, since the granularity is traditionally identical, all processors communicate almost simultaneously and computation load may lose balance. Due to problems above, a dynamic distribution model with prime granularity for parallel computing is presented.Granularities of each processor are relatively prime, and related theories are introduced. A high parallel performance can be achieved by minimizing network competition and using a load balancing strategy that ensures all processors finish almost simultaneously. Based on Master-Slave-Gleaner (MSG) scheme, the parallel Splatting Algorithm for volume rendering is used to test the model on IBM Cluster 1350 system. The experimental results show that the model can bring a considerable improvement in performance, including computation efficiency, total execution time, speed, and load balancing.
Meeting on flows of granular materials in complex geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Passman, S.L.; Fukushima, E.; Evans, R.E. [eds.
1994-11-01
The International Energy Agency Fossil Fuel Multiphase Flow Sciences Agreement has been in effect since 1986. The traditional mechanism for the effort has been information exchange, effected by the inclusion of scientists in annual Executive committee meetings, by exchange of reports and papers, and by visits of scientists to one another`s institutions. In a sequence of informal meetings and at the 1993 Executive committee meeting, held in Pittsburgh, US in March 1994, it was decided that more intensive interactions could be productive. A candidate for such interactions would be specific projects. Each of these would be initiated through a meeting of scientists in which feasibility of the particular project was decided, followed by relatively intense international co-operation in which the work would be done. This is a report of the first of these meetings. Official or unofficial representatives from Canada, italy, japan, mexico, the United Kingdom, and the US met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, to consider the subject Flows of Granular Materials in Complex Geometries. Representatives of several other countries expressed interest but were unable to attend this meeting. Sixteen lectures were given on aspects of this topic. It was decided that a co-operative effort was desirable and possible. The most likely candidate for the area of study would be flows in bins and hoppers. Each of the countries wishing to co-operate will pursue funding for its effort. This report contains extended abstracts of the sixteen presentations and a transcription of the final discussion.
Modelling the field behaviour of a granular expansive barrier
Alonso, Eduardo; Hoffmann, Christian
The large scale “Engineered Barrier” (EB) experiment, performed at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory is described. A coupled hydromechanical model is then used to simulate the test performance. Constitutive parameters for the bentonite granular backfill are based on experimental work described in a companion paper. An elastoplastic model describes the granular fill, while the host rock is simulated by a damage model. Predictions of EDZ development around the tunnel are compared with some indirect measurements. Calculated evolutions of relative humidity and stresses within the buffer are compared with sensor records. Good agreement was found for the bentonite blocks supporting the canister. The granular expansive fill exhibit a more irregular behavior. Calculated displacements of the canister agree in absolute terms with actual measurements.
Combined full ﬁeld stress and strain measurement methods for granular materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Broere W.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The current paper re-introduces the photoelastic measurement method in experimental geomechanics. A full-ﬁeld phase stepping polariscope suitable for geomechanical model tests has been developed. Additional constraints on the measurement and mechanical setup arising from geomechanical test conditions are outlined as well as the opportunity to measure the displacement ﬁelds in the sample with digital image correlation. The capability of the current setup in retrieving the stress and strain ﬁeld in a granular material is demonstrated.
Lin, Y.M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.
2015-01-01
To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr
Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M
2015-01-01
To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr
Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M
To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion
A new methodology to simulate subglacial deformation of water saturated granular material
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Larsen, N. K.; Brædstrup, C. F.
2015-07-01
The dynamics of glaciers are to a large degree governed by processes operating at the ice-bed interface, and one of the primary mechanisms of glacier flow over soft unconsolidated sediments is subglacial deformation. However, it has proven difficult to constrain the mechanical response of subglacial sediment to the shear stress of an overriding glacier. In this study, we present a new methodology designed to simulate subglacial deformation using a coupled numerical model for computational experiments on grain-fluid mixtures. The granular phase is simulated on a per-grain basis by the discrete element method. The pore water is modeled as a compressible Newtonian fluid without inertia. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the internal behavior under a range of conditions. The rheology of a water-saturated granular bed may include both plastic and rate-dependent dilatant hardening or weakening components, depending on the rate of deformation, the material state, clay mineral content, and the hydrological properties of the material. The influence of the fluid phase is negligible when relatively permeable sediment is deformed. However, by reducing the local permeability, fast deformation can cause variations in the pore-fluid pressure. The pressure variations weaken or strengthen the granular phase, and in turn influence the distribution of shear strain with depth. In permeable sediments the strain distribution is governed by the grain-size distribution and effective normal stress and is typically on the order of tens of centimeters. Significant dilatant strengthening in impermeable sediments causes deformation to focus at the hydrologically more stable ice-bed interface, and results in a very shallow cm-to-mm deformational depth. The amount of strengthening felt by the glacier depends on the hydraulic conductivity at the ice-bed interface. Grain-fluid feedbacks can cause complex material properties that vary over time, and which may be of importance for
Influence of stress-path on pore size distribution in granular materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Das Arghya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Pore size distribution is an important feature of granular materials in the context of filtration and erosion in soil hydraulic structures. Present study focuses on the evolution characteristics of pore size distribution for numerically simulated granular assemblies while subjected to various compression boundary constrain, namely, conventional drained triaxial compression, one-dimensional or oedometric compression and isotropic compression. We consider the effects initial packing of the granular assembly, loose or dense state. A simplified algorithm based on Delaunay tessellation is used for the estimation of pore size distribution for the deforming granular assemblies at various stress states. The analyses show that, the evolution of pore size is predominantly governed by the current porosity of the granular assembly while the stress path or loading process has minimal influence. Further it has also been observed that pore volume distribution reaches towards a critical distribution at the critical porosity during shear enhanced loading process irrespective of the deformation mechanism either compaction or dilation.
Influence of stress-path on pore size distribution in granular materials
Das, Arghya; Kumar, Abhinav
2017-06-01
Pore size distribution is an important feature of granular materials in the context of filtration and erosion in soil hydraulic structures. Present study focuses on the evolution characteristics of pore size distribution for numerically simulated granular assemblies while subjected to various compression boundary constrain, namely, conventional drained triaxial compression, one-dimensional or oedometric compression and isotropic compression. We consider the effects initial packing of the granular assembly, loose or dense state. A simplified algorithm based on Delaunay tessellation is used for the estimation of pore size distribution for the deforming granular assemblies at various stress states. The analyses show that, the evolution of pore size is predominantly governed by the current porosity of the granular assembly while the stress path or loading process has minimal influence. Further it has also been observed that pore volume distribution reaches towards a critical distribution at the critical porosity during shear enhanced loading process irrespective of the deformation mechanism either compaction or dilation.
Prediction of permeability of monodisperse granular materials with a micromechanics approach
Yang, Rongwei; Lemarchand, Eric; Fen-Chong, Teddy; Li, Kefei
2016-04-01
Prediction of the permeability of porous media is of vital importance to such fields as petroleum engineering, agricultural engineering and civil engineering. The liquid water within unsaturated granular materials is distinguished as the intergranular layer, the wetting layer and the water film. By means of the micromechanics approach, a physical conceptual model is developed to predict the permeability (intrinsic and relative permeabilities) of the monodisperse granular materials. The proposed model has been validated by comparing the available experimental data and the empirical models, and has been used to re-interpret the Kozeny-Carman's relation in particular. The results obtained with this model show that the intergranular water will dominate the flow transport when the saturation degree is higher than the residual saturation degree; when the saturation degree is below the residual saturation degree, the wetting layer will govern the flow transport and the relative permeability will decrease by 3 to 8 orders of magnitude depending on the connectivity of the wetting layer.
Experimental study of visible and IR light reflection by planetary-like granular materials
Douté, S.; Grundy, W.; Devedeux, F.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.
2003-04-01
The exploration of planetary surfaces by spacecrafts now often involves imaging spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared ranges. The development of methods to analyse the generated image cubes requires theoretical as well as experimental studies to model the bidirectional reflectance (BRDF) of dense granular materials. The physics of the reflection depends on many parameters like the intrinsic optical properties, the shapes, sizes and the packing density of the mineral or icy grains forming the top few centimeters of many solid planetary surfaces. The structural characteristics of the transition zone between the materials and the atmosphere or the vacuum may also play a key role. In particular surface roughness at the scale of tens of grain lengths and facets preferentially oriented in the horizontal plane may greatly determine the BRDF. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic experimental campaign designed to quantify the dependence of the BRDF on the crucial parameters mentioned above. For that purpose we measured, with a spectrophoto-goniometer, the BRDF of various test granular materials (paraffin, glass fragments, epsomite or sodium fluoride, etc.) at several wavelengths. These materials present an increasing optical index from 1.32 to 3.4 and sometimes show isolated absorption bands. They come in various grain sizes and shapes and were prepared using different methods to make samples with different surface textures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao-Xia Tong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The reliability of discrete element method (DEM numerical simulations is significantly dependent on the particle-scale parameters and boundary conditions. To verify the DEM models, two series of biaxial compression tests on ellipse-shaped steel rods are used. The comparisons on the stress-strain relationship, strength, and deformation pattern of experiments and simulations indicate that the DEM models are able to capture the key macro- and micromechanical behavior of inherently anisotropic granular materials with high fidelity. By using the validated DEM models, the boundary effects on the macrodeformation, strain localization, and nonuniformity of stress distribution inside the specimens are investigated using two rigid boundaries and one flexible boundary. The results demonstrate that the boundary condition plays a significant role on the stress-strain relationship and strength of granular materials with inherent fabric anisotropy if the stresses are calculated by the force applied on the wall. However, the responses of the particle assembly measured inside the specimens are almost the same with little influence from the boundary conditions. The peak friction angle obtained from the compression tests with flexible boundary represents the real friction angle of particle assembly. Due to the weak lateral constraints, the degree of stress nonuniformity under flexible boundary is higher than that under rigid boundary.
A new methodology to simulate subglacial deformation of water-saturated granular material
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Larsen, N. K.; Brædstrup, C. F.
2015-11-01
The dynamics of glaciers are to a large degree governed by processes operating at the ice-bed interface, and one of the primary mechanisms of glacier flow over soft unconsolidated sediments is subglacial deformation. However, it has proven difficult to constrain the mechanical response of subglacial sediment to the shear stress of an overriding glacier. In this study, we present a new methodology designed to simulate subglacial deformation using a coupled numerical model for computational experiments on grain-fluid mixtures. The granular phase is simulated on a per-grain basis by the discrete element method. The pore water is modeled as a compressible Newtonian fluid without inertia. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the internal behavior under a range of conditions. Our computational experiments support the findings of previous studies where the rheology of a slowly deforming water-saturated granular bed in the steady state generally conforms to the rate-independent plastic rheology. Before this so-called critical state, deformation is in many cases accompanied by volumetric changes as grain rearrangement in active shear zones changes the local porosity. For previously consolidated beds porosity increases can cause local pore-pressure decline, dependent on till permeability and shear rate. We observe that the pore-water pressure reduction strengthens inter-granular contacts, which results in increased shear strength of the granular material. In contrast, weakening takes place when shear deformation causes consolidation of dilated sediments or during rapid fabric development. Both processes of strengthening and weakening depend inversely on the sediment permeability and are transient phenomena tied to the porosity changes during the early stages of shear. We find that the transient strengthening and weakening in turn influences the distribution of shear strain in the granular bed. Dilatant strengthening has the ability to distribute strain during
The influence of the fractal particle size distribution on the mobility of dry granular materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vallejo Luis E.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents an experimental analysis on the influence of the particle size distribution (psd on the mobility of dry granular materials. The psd obeys a power law of the form: N(L>d=kd-Df, where N is the number of particles with diameter L greater than a given diameter d, k is a proportionality constant, and Df is the fractal dimension of the psd. No laboratory or numerical study has been conducted to date analysing how a fractal psd influences the mobility of granular flows as in the case of rock avalanches. In this study, the flow characteristics of poly-dispersed granular materials that have a fractal psd were investigated in the laboratory. Granular mixtures having different fractal psd values were placed in a hollow cylinder. The cylinder was lifted and the distance of flow of the mixture was measured with respect to the original position of the cylinder. It was determined that the distance of flow of the mixtures was directly related to their fractal psd values. That is, the larger the distance of flow of the mixture, the larger is the fractal psd of the granular mixture tested. Thus, the fractal psd in dry granular mixtures seems to have a large influence on the easiness by which dry granular mixtures move in the field.
Rheology of wet granular materials in shear flow: experiments and discrete simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Badetti Michel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The behaviour of wet granular media in shear flow is characterized by the dependence of apparent friction μ* and solid fraction ΦS on the reduced pressure P* and the inertia number I. Reduced pressure, P*= σ22a2/F0, compares the applied normal stress σ22 on grains of diameter a to the tensile strength of contact F0 (proportional to the surface tension Γ of the liquid and the beads diameter. A specifically modified rotational rheometer is used to characterize the response of model wet granular material (beads with diameter of submillimetric range to applied shear rate γ under controlled normal stress σ22. Discrete Element Method (DEM simulations in 3D are carried out in parallel and numerical results are compared with experimental ones. As P* is reduced, an increase of the apparent friction coefficient μ*=σ12/σ22, measured in the critical state and in slow flows with inertial effects is observed. While the agreement between experiments and simulations is good for dry materials as well as for wet materials in the quasistatic limit (I→0, some differences appear at finite I, for which some possible origins are discussed.
Tapped granular column dynamics: simulations, experiments and modeling
Rosato, A.D.; Zuo, L.; Blackmore, D.; Wu, H.; Horntrop, D.J.; Parker, D.J.; Windows-Yule, C.R.
2015-01-01
This paper communicates the results of a synergistic investigation that initiates our long term research goal of developing a continuum model capable of predicting a variety of granular flows. We consider an ostensibly simple system consisting of a column of inelastic spheres subjected to discrete t
A hierarchical model for cross-scale simulation of granular media
Guo, Ning; Zhao, Jidong
2013-06-01
This paper presents a multiscale modeling framework for granular media based on a hierarchical cross-scale approach. The overall material is treated as a continuum on the macroscale and the corresponding boundary value problem is solved by finite element method (FEM). At each Gauss point of the FEMmesh, a discrete element assembly is embedded from which the material behavior is obtained for the global FEM computation. It is demonstrated that this technique may capture the salient macroscopic behavior of granular media in a natural manner, and meanwhile helps to bypass the conventional phenomenological nature of continuum modeling approaches. Moreover, the framework provides us with rich information on the particle level which can be closely correlated to the macroscopic material response and hence helps to shed lights on the cross-scaling understanding of granular media. Specific linkages between the microscopic origins and mechanisms and the macroscopic responses can be conveniently developed. As a demonstrative example, the strain localization of granular sand in biaxial compression test is investigated by the multiscale approach to showcase the above features.
Partial filling of a honeycomb structure by granular materials for vibration and noise reduction
Koch, Sebastian; Duvigneau, Fabian; Orszulik, Ryan; Gabbert, Ulrich; Woschke, Elmar
2017-04-01
In this paper, the damping effect of granular materials is explored to reduce the vibration and noise of mechanical structures. To this end, a honeycomb structure with high stiffness is used to contain a granular filling which presents the possiblity for the distribution of the granular material to be designed. As a particular application example, the oil pan bottom of a combustion engine is used to investigate the influence on the vibration behavior and the sound emission. The effect of the honeycomb structure along with the granular mass, distribution, and type on the vibration behaviour of the structure is investigated via laser scanning vibrometry. From this, an optimized filling is determined and then its noise suppression level validated on an engine test bench through measurements with an acoustic array.
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
Marshall, J. R.
1999-09-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
Marshall, J. R.
1999-01-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
Internal deformation within an unstable granular slope: insights from physical modeling
Liu, Z.; Koyi, H.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Swantesson, J.; Reshetyuk, Y.
2012-04-01
The collapses of granular materials frequently occur in nature in the form of, for example, rock avalanches, debris avalanches and debris flow. In previous studies of collapses of a granular material, most of the focus has been on the effect of initial geometry and mechanical properties of the granular materials, the run-out distance, and the topography of final deposit. In this study, results of analogue models and scanned natural failed slopes are used to outline the mode of failure of an unstable slope. Model results and field observations are used to argue that a granular mass moves downslope in a wavy pattern resulting in its intensive deformation. In the models, we mainly investigated the internal deformation of collapses of granular slopes in terms of their internal structures and the spatial and temporal distribution of the latter. Model results showed that a displaced mass of the granular slope has the following two features: (1) Initial collapse resulted in a series of normal faults, where hanging-wall blocks were slightly deformed, like the slump-shear structures in nature; (2) With further collapse, a set of secondary structures, such as deformed/folded fault surfaces, faulted folds, displaced inclined folds, and overturned folds formed near the slope surface. The occurrence of these structures reflects the failure process of the granular mass in space and time. In addition, our model results show that the nature of basal friction has a significant influence on the geometry and kinematics of these structures at the slope toe. Model results show also that the mass does not glide downslope along only one surface, but includes several gliding surfaces each of which take part of the sliding. These gliding surfaces become steeper deeper in the sliding mass. Some of these features observed in the models are also detected in the field. Scanned failed slope surfaces show a wavy pattern similar to that in the models, reflecting the presence of normal faults at
Herbold, E. B.; Nesterenko, V. F.; Benson, D. J.; Cai, J.; Vecchio, K. S.; Jiang, F.; Addiss, J. W.; Walley, S. M.; Proud, W. G.
2008-11-01
The variation of metallic particle size and sample porosity significantly alters the dynamic mechanical properties of high density granular composite materials processed using a cold isostatically pressed mixture of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), aluminum (Al), and tungsten (W) powders. Quasistatic and dynamic experiments are performed with identical constituent mass fractions with variations in the size of the W particles and pressing conditions. The relatively weak polymer matrix allows the strength and fracture modes of this material to be governed by the granular type behavior of agglomerated metal particles. A higher ultimate compressive strength was observed in relatively high porosity samples with small W particles compared to those with coarse W particles in all experiments. Mesoscale granular force chains of the metallic particles explain this unusual phenomenon as observed in hydrocode simulations of a drop-weight test. Macrocracks forming below the critical failure strain for the matrix and unusual behavior due to a competition between densification and fracture in dynamic tests of porous samples were also observed. Numerical modeling of shock loading of this granular composite material demonstrated that the internal energy, specifically thermal energy, of the soft PTFE matrix can be tailored by the W particle size distribution.
Formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of the aerobic granular sludge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ni, Bing-Jie [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Water Management Centre
2013-07-01
Reports on successful aerobic granulation of sludge in pilot-scale reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater and identifies the key factors responsible for this process. Develops comprehensive models for sludge granulation, microbial interactions and microbial products formation to provide insights into the dynamics of all the soluble and solid components in aerobic granular sludge system. Demonstrates accelerated start-up and optimization of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation process by seeding the reactor with aerobic granules. Aerobic granular sludge technology will play an important role as an innovative technology alternative to the present activated sludge process in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment in the near future. Intended to fill the gaps in the studies of aerobic granular sludge, this thesis comprehensively investigates the formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of aerobic granular sludge, through integrating the process engineering tools and advanced molecular microbiology. The research results of this thesis contributed significantly to the advance of understanding and optimization of the bacterial granulation processes, the next generation of technology for cost-effective biological wastewater treatment.
Friction phenomena and their impact on the shear behaviour of granular material
Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus
2017-01-01
In the discrete element simulation of granular materials, the modelling of contacts is crucial for the prediction of the macroscopic material behaviour. From the tribological point of view, friction at contacts needs to be modelled carefully, as it depends on several factors, e.g. contact normal load or temperature to name only two. In discrete element method (DEM) simulations the usage of Coulomb's law of friction is state of the art in modelling particle-particle contacts. Usually in Coulomb's law, for all contacts only one constant coefficient of friction is used, which needs to reflect all tribological effects. Thus, whenever one of the influence factors of friction varies over a wide range, it can be expected that the usage of only one constant coefficient of friction in Coulomb's law is an oversimplification of reality. For certain materials, e.g. steel, it is known that a dependency of the coefficient of friction on the contact normal load exists. A more tribological tangential contact law is implemented in DEM, where the interparticle friction coefficient depends on the averaged normal stress in the contact. Simulations of direct shear tests are conducted, using steel spheres of different size distributions. The strong influence of interparticle friction on the bulk friction is shown via a variation of the constant interparticle friction coefficient. Simulations with constant and stress-dependent interparticle friction are compared. For the stress-dependent interparticle friction, a normal stress dependency of the bulk friction is seen. In the literature, measurements of different granular materials and small normal loads also show a stress dependency of the bulk friction coefficient. With increasing applied normal stress, the bulk friction coefficient reduces both in the experiments and in the simulations.
Friction phenomena and their impact on the shear behaviour of granular material
Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus
2016-06-01
In the discrete element simulation of granular materials, the modelling of contacts is crucial for the prediction of the macroscopic material behaviour. From the tribological point of view, friction at contacts needs to be modelled carefully, as it depends on several factors, e.g. contact normal load or temperature to name only two. In discrete element method (DEM) simulations the usage of Coulomb's law of friction is state of the art in modelling particle-particle contacts. Usually in Coulomb's law, for all contacts only one constant coefficient of friction is used, which needs to reflect all tribological effects. Thus, whenever one of the influence factors of friction varies over a wide range, it can be expected that the usage of only one constant coefficient of friction in Coulomb's law is an oversimplification of reality. For certain materials, e.g. steel, it is known that a dependency of the coefficient of friction on the contact normal load exists. A more tribological tangential contact law is implemented in DEM, where the interparticle friction coefficient depends on the averaged normal stress in the contact. Simulations of direct shear tests are conducted, using steel spheres of different size distributions. The strong influence of interparticle friction on the bulk friction is shown via a variation of the constant interparticle friction coefficient. Simulations with constant and stress-dependent interparticle friction are compared. For the stress-dependent interparticle friction, a normal stress dependency of the bulk friction is seen. In the literature, measurements of different granular materials and small normal loads also show a stress dependency of the bulk friction coefficient. With increasing applied normal stress, the bulk friction coefficient reduces both in the experiments and in the simulations.
Discrete particle modeling of granular temperature distribution in a bubbling fluidized bed
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yurong He; Tianyu Wang; Niels Deen; Martin van Sint Annaland; Hans Kuipers; Dongsheng Wen
2012-01-01
The discrete hard sphere particle model (DPM) is applied in this work to study numerically the distributions of particle and bubble granular temperatures in a bubbling fluidized bed.The dimensions of the bed and other parameters are set to correspond to those of Müller et al.(2008).Various drag models and operational parameters are investigated to find their influence on particle and bubble granular temperatures.Various inlet superficial gas velocities are used in this work to obtain their effect on flow characteristics.It is found that the superficial gas velocity has the most important effect on granular temperatures including bubble granular temperature,particle translational granular temperature and particle rotational granular temperature.The drag force model affects more seriously the large scale variables such as the bubble granular temperature.Restitution coefficient influences all granular temperatures to some degree.Simulation results are compared with experimental results by Müller et al.(2008) showing reasonable agreement.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖晓; 苏景林; 许光文; 崔丽杰; 刘晓星
2016-01-01
The influence of outlet setting on the discharge dynamics of granular material in 2D moving beds was investigated by conducting discrete element simulations. To validate the simulation, a moving bed withsingle outlet was first modeled. The simulation results showed that the variation of discharge rate was tally with the modified Beverloo, and the variation tendency of the width of funnel zone was in agreement with the experimental data. Based on such validation, the discharge characteristics of granular material in the moving bed with two outlets were then systematically investigated. The simulation results indicated that as to the bed with two same size outlets, the width of funnel zone was simply equal to the sum of the width of funnel zone of the moving bed with one same size outlet, the distance between outlets and the width of outlet, and the granular mass discharge rate was roughly equivalent to that of the moving bed with one same size outlet. For the bed with two different size outlets, increasing the width of large outlet or decreasing the outlet distance was conducive to increasing the discharge rate at small outlet. Nevertheless, the discharge rate at large outlet was not influenced by the small outlet and nearly kept constant.%采用离散单元法(DEM)模拟研究了二维移动床出口设置对物料卸料特性的影响.为验证模拟结果的合理性,首先针对单出口移动床进行了模拟研究,模拟结果表明:出口处颗粒质量流率满足修正的Beverloo经验关系式,而且定性上物料层内部流动区宽度随出口宽度的变化规律与实验结果吻合良好.在此基础上对两出口移动床的卸料特性进行了研究,得到以下结论:当出口宽度相等时,物料层内流动区宽度等于单出口条件下流动区宽度、出口间距及出口宽度的加和,而且每个出口处颗粒质量流率与单出口条件下颗粒质量流率相当;当出口宽度不相等时,增加大出口的宽度
Computer-aided analysis for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment, part 2
Parker, Joey K.
1987-01-01
Computer vision based analysis for the MGM experiment is continued and expanded into new areas. Volumetric strains of granular material triaxial test specimens have been measured from digitized images. A computer-assisted procedure is used to identify the edges of the specimen, and the edges are used in a 3-D model to estimate specimen volume. The results of this technique compare favorably to conventional measurements. A simplified model of the magnification caused by diffraction of light within the water of the test apparatus was also developed. This model yields good results when the distance between the camera and the test specimen is large compared to the specimen height. An algorithm for a more accurate 3-D magnification correction is also presented. The use of composite and RGB (red-green-blue) color cameras is discussed and potentially significant benefits from using an RGB camera are presented.
Discrete element simulation of localized deformation in stochastic distributed granular materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The deformation in granular material under loading conditions is a problem of great interest currently. In this paper,the micro-mechanism of the localized deformations in stochastically distributed granular materials is investigated based on the modi-fied distinct element method under the plane strain conditions,and the influences of the confining pressure,the initial void ratio and the friction coefficient on the localized deformation and the stability of granular materials are also studied. It is concluded,based on the numerical simulation testing,that two crossed shear sliding planes may occur inside the granular assembly,and deformation patterns vary with the increasing of transverse strain. These conclusions are in good agreement with the present experimental results. By tangential velocity profiles along the direction normal to the two shear sliding planes,it can be found that there are two different shear deformation patterns: one is the fluid-like shear mode and the other is the solid-like shear mode. At last,the influences of various material parameters or factors on localized deformation features and patterns of granular materials are discussed in detail.
Discrete element simulation of localized deformation in stochastic distributed granular materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG DengMing; ZHOU YouHe
2008-01-01
The deformation in granular material under loading conditions is a problem of great interest currently. In this paper, the micro-mechanism of the localized deformations in stochastically distributed granular materials is investigated based on the modi-fied distinct element method under the plane strain conditions, and the influences of the confining pressure, the initial void ratio and the friction coefficient on the localized deformation and the stability of granular materials are also studied. It is concluded, based on the numerical simulation testing, that two crossed shear sliding planes may occur inside the granular assembly, and deformation patterns vary with the increasing of transverse strain. These conclusions are in good agreement with the present experimental results. By tangential velocity profiles along the direction normal to the two shear sliding planes, it can be found that there are two different shear deformation patterns: one is the fluid-like shear mode and the other is the solid-like shear mode. At last, the influences of various material parameters or factors on localized deformation features and patterns of granular materials are discussed in detail.
Development of three-dimensional spherical discontinuous deformation analysis for granular materials
Zhao, Shilong
This dissertation presents a new numerical method---three-dimensional spherical discontinuous deformation analysis model (DDA). This three-dimensional model maintains the characteristics of the original two-dimensional DDA and uses spherical elements to simulate the mechanical properties of granular materials under different loading conditions. A computer program was developed to handle a combination of continuous and discontinuous large displacement problems, as well as large deformation and failure analysis, under external loads and boundary conditions. Particulate materials are ubiquitous in nature and are encountered in all spheres of engineering. The mechanical behavior of these materials is, therefore, of utmost import to a number of engineering problems, for example, deformation and damage of soils and concrete, storage of grains and food-stuffs, flow processes in handling of particulate materials, ice floes, and materials processing. Past several decades have witnessed sustained efforts aimed at understanding the behavior of particulate materials. These efforts have resulted in the development of a variety of theoretical approaches and complementary computational and experimental techniques. The theoretical approaches for particulate materials have ranged from micro mechanical methods, with the consideration of particle interactions, to conventional continuum mechanics methods. Similarly, computer simulation and experimental methods have been developed to study phenomena ranging from particle-level to bulk behavior. A brief review of DDA's concepts is presented and differences between DDA and other numerical methods are discussed. The detailed analysis of 3D spherical DDA formulations is presented. The analytical solutions for the simple physical cases are used to verify the ability and accuracy of 3D spherical DDA model. The results are satisfactory. Numerical simulations are performed to show the capabilities of this model to handle discontinuous contact
Development of EOS data for granular material like sand by using micromodels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gebbeken N.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Detonations in soil can occur due to several reasons: e.g. land mines or bombs from the Second World War. Soil is also often used as a protective barrier. In all cases the behaviour of soil loaded by shock waves is important. The simulation of shock wave loaded soil using hydro-codes like AUTODYN needs a failure model as well as an equation of state (EOS. The parameters for these models are often not known. The popular material law for sand from Laine and Sandvik [1], e.g., is a first approximation, but it can only be used for dry sand with a certain grain grading. The parameters porosity, grain grading, and humidity have a big influence on the material behaviour of cohesive soils. Micro-mechanic models can be used to develop the material behaviour of granular materials. EOS data can be obtained by numerically loading micro-mechanically modelled grains and measuring the density under a certain pressure in the finite element model. The influence of porosity, grain grading, and humidity can be easily investigated. EOS data are determined in this work for cohesive soils depending on these parameters.
A Fractal Model for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Granular Flow with Non-uniform Particles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Duan-Ming; LEI Ya-Jie; YU Bo-Ming; ZHANG Mei-Jun; HUANG Ming-Tao; LI Zhi-Hua; GUAN Li
2002-01-01
The equipartition of energy applied in binary mixture of granular flow is extended to granular flow withnon-uniform particles. Based on the fractal characteristic of granular flow with non-uniform particles as well as energyequipartition, a fractal velocity distribution function and a fractal model of effective thermal conductivity are derived.Thermal conduction resulted from motions of particles in the granular flow, as well as the effect of fractal dimension oneffective thermal conductivity, is discussed.
Peter, SOLLICH; Robert L., JACK; Department of Mathematics, King's College London; Department of Physics, University of Bath
2010-01-01
We consider some duality relations for models of non-interacting particles hopping on disordered one-dimensional chains. In particular, we discuss symmetries of bulk-driven barrier and trap models, and relations between boundary-driven and equilibrium models with related energy landscapes. We discuss the relationships between these duality relations and similar results for interacting many-body systems.
2013-08-26
USING ADVANCED COMPUTING IN APPLIED DYNAMICS: FROM THE DYNAMICS OF GRANULAR MATERIAL TO THE MOTION OF THE MARS ROVER Dan Negrut NVIDIA CUDA ...for public release. #24389 12 Lab’s Research Heterogeneous Cluster • More than 50,000 GPU scalar processors • More than 1,200 CPU cores • Fast...emerging hardware” : • GPUs and clusters of CPUs • “open engineering problems” : • Fluid-solid interaction, vehicle mobility, soil modeling
Fiber bundle models for stress release and energy bursts during granular shearing
Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani; Cohen, Denis
2012-12-01
Fiber bundle models (FBMs) offer a versatile framework for representing transitions from progressive to abrupt failure in disordered material. We report a FBM-based description of mechanical interactions and associated energy bursts during shear deformation of granular materials. For strain-controlled shearing, where elements fail in a sequential order, we present analytical expressions for strain energy release and failure statistics. Results suggest that frequency-magnitude characteristics of fiber failure vary considerably throughout progressive shearing. Predicted failure distributions were in good agreement with experimentally observed shear stress fluctuations and associated bursts of acoustic emissions. Experiments also confirm a delayed release of acoustic emission energy relative to shear stress buildup, as anticipated by the model. Combined with data-rich acoustic emission measurements, the modified FBM offers highly resolved contact-scale insights into granular media dynamics of shearing processes.
Compaction of granular HMX: P-α porosity model in CTH hydrocode
Mahon, K. S.; Lee, T.-W.
2015-12-01
Compaction waves traveling through porous cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX) are computationally modeled using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH and validated with gas gun experimental data. The method employed use of a newly generated set of P-α parameters for granular HMX in a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The P-α model adds a separate parameter to differentiate between the volume changes of a solid material due to compression from the volume change due to compaction, void collapse in a granular material. Computational results are compared via five validation schema for two different initial-porosity experiments. These schema include stress measurements, velocity rise times and arrival times, elastic sound speeds though the material and final compaction densities for a series of two different percent Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD) HMX sets of experimental data. There is a good agreement between the simulations and the experimental gas gun data with the largest source of error being an 11% overestimate of the peak stress which may be due to impedance mismatch on the experimental gauge interface. Determination of these P-α parameters are important as they enable modeling of porosity and are a vital first step in modeling of precursory hotspots, caused by hydrodynamic collapse of void regions or grain interactions, prior to deflagration to detonation transition of granular explosives.
Compaction of granular HMX: P-α porosity model in CTH hydrocode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. S. Mahon
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Compaction waves traveling through porous cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX are computationally modeled using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH and validated with gas gun experimental data. The method employed use of a newly generated set of P-α parameters for granular HMX in a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The P-α model adds a separate parameter to differentiate between the volume changes of a solid material due to compression from the volume change due to compaction, void collapse in a granular material. Computational results are compared via five validation schema for two different initial-porosity experiments. These schema include stress measurements, velocity rise times and arrival times, elastic sound speeds though the material and final compaction densities for a series of two different percent Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD HMX sets of experimental data. There is a good agreement between the simulations and the experimental gas gun data with the largest source of error being an 11% overestimate of the peak stress which may be due to impedance mismatch on the experimental gauge interface. Determination of these P-α parameters are important as they enable modeling of porosity and are a vital first step in modeling of precursory hotspots, caused by hydrodynamic collapse of void regions or grain interactions, prior to deflagration to detonation transition of granular explosives.
Multiple-contact discrete-element model for simulating dense granular media
Brodu, Nicolas; Dijksman, Joshua A.; Behringer, Robert P.
2015-03-01
This article presents a new force model for performing quantitative simulations of dense granular materials. Interactions between multiple contacts (MC) on the same grain are explicitly taken into account. Our readily applicable MC-DEM method retains all the advantages of discrete-element method simulations and does not require the use of costly finite-element methods. The new model closely reproduces our recent experimental measurements, including contact force distributions in full 3D, at all compression levels of the packing up to the experimental maximum limit of 13%. Comparisons with classic simulations using the nondeformable spheres approach, as well as with alternative models for interactions between multiple contacts, are provided. The success of our model, compared to these alternatives, demonstrates that interactions between multiple contacts on each grain must be included for dense granular packings.
Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako
2017-04-01
A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.
Robert L., JACK; Peter, SOLLICH; Department of Physics, University of Bath; King's College London, Department of Mathematics
2010-01-01
We consider ensembles of trajectories associated with large deviations of time-integrated quantities in stochastic models. Motivated by proposals that these ensembles are relevant for physical processes such as shearing and glassy relaxation, we show how they can be generated directly using auxiliary stochastic processes. We illustrate our results using the Glauber-Ising chain, for which biased ensembles of trajectories can exhibit ferromagnetic ordering. We discuss the relation between such ...
STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMICS IN FIXED BED OF COMPOSITE GRANULAR MATERIALS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stelian Petrescu
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims at the experimental determination of pressure drop and friction factor at gas flow through fixed beds of granular silica gel, alumina and activated carbon, and establishment of an equation containing a modified friction factor Fm to calculate pressure drop. In order to calculate the modified friction factor, an equation was suggested.The experimental values for pressure drop and friction factor were determined using spherical grains of silica gel, cylindrical grains of alumina and silica gel, alumina and activated carbon impregnated with calcium chloride. By means of the suggested equation, the values of pressure drop in fixed bed were calculated and compared with the experimental values. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental data is noticed.
A Granular Model of Rolling Grain Ripples
Andersen, K H
1999-01-01
A simple model is presented for the formation of rolling grain ripples on a flat sand bed by the oscillatory flow from a surface wave. The model is related to physical parameters of the problem, and is solved for the equilibrium spacing and height of the ripples. Good agreement between the model and measurements of rolling grain ripples is demonstrated. It is found that the length of the ripples scale with the square-root of the non-dimensional shear stress on a flat bed.
A study of mesoscale simulations for planar shock experiments on heterogeneous granular materials
Schumaker, Merit G.
There is an interest in producing accurate and reliable computer simulations to predict the dynamic behavior of heterogeneous materials and to use these simulations to gain further insight into experimental results. In so doing, a more complete understanding of the multiple-length scales involved in heterogeneous material compaction can be obtained. Mesoscale computer simulations of dynamically shocked materials have proven to be a beneficial resource in unraveling data not observed in planar shock impact experiments, such as stress and temperature interactions between grains. The modeled mono-dispersed geometry of particles, the densities of each material, equations of state, material properties and many other factors affect the simulated outcomes. By studying and analyzing these variables, many of which highlight the difference between experimental and simulated results, there manifests additional insight into the shock dynamics of the different heterogeneous granular materials. The heterogeneous materials in this study were created both by a "shake and pack" method, where individual grains were randomly seeded into the computational domain and grown until the grains matched the experimental volume fraction and average diameter. Three planar shock experiments were utilized to validate simulation models and parameters: 1. Brake pad powder compaction at Marquette University, 2. Dry sand experiments at Georgia Tech, and 3. Release of dry sand at Cambridge University. Planar shock impact experiments were simulated using two different hydrocode packages: CTH and iSALE. Validated models are then used to setup future dry, water, and possible ice saturated sand release experiments. Particle velocity and stress traces obtained from the computer simulations were compared to VISAR, PDV, and Manganin gage measurements obtained from experiments. The results from simulations are compared to experiments and discussed in this document.
The incremental response of a stressed, anisotropic granular material: loading and unloading
Ragione, Luigi La
2016-10-01
In this paper, we investigate the incremental response of a transversely isotropic granular material through numerical simulations (Distinct Element Method) and a theoretical model. A granular material is idealized by a random aggregate made of elastic, identical, frictional particles. We consider an initial isotropic compression followed by a uni-axial deformation, at constant pressure. The regime of deformation of our interest is quite narrow and it encompasses shear strains small compared to the volume strain associated with the pressure. In this regime, the contact network is almost the same as in the initial, isotropic, state, and anisotropy is induced by the applied strain through the contacts. In numerical simulations, particles deform according to local force and moment equilibrium, given an applied strain. In the theory, we do something similar and we allow a pair of contacting particles to deform while satisfying force and moment equilibrium, approximately. An average expression of the first moment of the contact forces is employed to obtain the stiffness tensor Aijkl relating the increments in stress with the increments in total average strain. We determine the non-zero components of Aijkl in stressed, anisotropic, states. The results refer to two cases: (a) when the contact friction coefficient is the same as in the uni-axial compression; (b) when a relatively high-contact friction coefficient is introduced (e.g. elastic response with a full mobilization of contact network). In the latter case, we recover, within a reasonable approximation, the typical structure of a transversely isotropic stiffness tensor Aijkl, itself a function of five independent constants; in the former, in case of forward incremental loading, we find the lack of major symmetry of the stiffness tensor, Aijkl ≠Aklij. We show that this occurs because particle deformation is not affine and because anisotropy is present in the aggregate. Theory and numerical DEM simulations agree
Hess, Julian; Wang, Yongqi
2016-11-01
A new mixture model for granular-fluid flows, which is thermodynamically consistent with the entropy principle, is presented. The extra pore pressure described by a pressure diffusion equation and the hypoplastic material behavior obeying a transport equation are taken into account. The model is applied to granular-fluid flows, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the dynamic fluid pressure to describe the pressure-like residual unknowns, hereby overcoming previous uncertainties in the modeling process. Besides the thermodynamically consistent modeling, numerical simulations are carried out and demonstrate physically reasonable results, including simple shear flow in order to investigate the vertical distribution of the physical quantities, and a mixture flow down an inclined plane by means of the depth-integrated model. Results presented give insight in the ability of the deduced model to capture the key characteristics of granular-fluid flows. We acknowledge the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for this work within the Project Number WA 2610/3-1.
Some statistics about research on granular materials during the last decade
Oquendo, William-Fernando; Estrada, Nicolas
2017-06-01
In this work we present several statistical analyses about research on the subject of granular materials during the last ten years. These statistics are based on the set of articles published in the Granular Materials section of Physical Review E during this period, comprising roughly 1000 documents (including rapid communications). We estimate the degree of contribution of countries, academic institutions, authors, and articles, in terms of the frequency of appearance on the articles' affiliations and the number of citations. On the first hand, these analyses serve as a recognition to researchers and research communities that have notably contributed to the development of knowledge on granular materials. On the second hand, the presented statistics allow for identifying countries and institutions where research in granular materials is the most developed, and also places where it can be developed in the future. Finally, these analyses allow for highlighting which cooperations amongst countries have been the most active during the last decade, which in turn allows for identifying potential links to be created and developed across this research network.
On possible flow back in vertical screw conveyors for cohesionless granular materials
Rademacher, F.J.C.
1981-01-01
Conditions for which back flow will be initiated in vertical screw conveyors conveying cohesionless granular material are theoretically established. Use is made of existing knowledge of the performance characteristics of such conveyors. Provided the conveyor is operated at not too low an angular spe
Kinematic and static assumptions for homogenization in micromechanics of granular materials
Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.
2004-01-01
A study is made of kinematic and static assumptions for homogenization in micromechanics of granular materials for two cases. The first case considered deals with the elastic behaviour of isotropic, two-dimensional assemblies with bonded contacts. Using a minimum potential energy principle and estim
REFINEMENT AND GRANULATING OF COHERENT-GRANULAR MATERIALS IN MACHINES OF ROLL TYPE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. B. Lozhechnikov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The way of selective break of heterogeneous compositions, in particular slags of copper-smelting production and also granular metal-containing powder materials, is based and developed. Calibration of the rolls, providing contrilled granulating of metal-containing powders by rolling.
Xing, W.
2004-01-01
Contaminated granular wastes are potentially reusable because they have similar physical and chemical properties as primary raw building materials. From environmental aspects, the reuse must not result in polluting the soil, groundwater and surface water. Therefore the leaching values of inorganic c
Effect of friction and cohesion on anisotropy in quasi-static granular materials under shear
Singh, A.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan; R. Yang A. Yu, K. Dong
2013-01-01
We study the effect of particle friction and cohesion on the steady-state shear stress and the contact anisotropy of a granular assembly sheared in a split-bottom ring shear cell. For non-cohesive frictional materials, the critical state shear stress first increases and then saturates with friction.
Göncü, F.; Luding, S.
2013-01-01
The macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials inherently depends on the properties of particles that compose them. Using the discrete element method, the effect of particle contact friction and polydispersity on the macroscopic stress response of 3D sphere packings is studied. The analyt
On micromechanical characteristics of the critical state of two-dimensional granular materials
Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.
2014-01-01
In micromechanics of quasi-static deformation of granular materials, relationships are investigated between the macro-scale, continuum-mechanical characteristics, and the micro-scale characteristics at the particle and interparticle contact level. An important micromechanical quantity is the fabric
Kruyt, N.P.; Verel, W.J.Th.
1992-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study is performed of rapid, fully developed flows of cohesionless granular materials down inclined chutes with a rough base. Two flow types are studied in detail: (1) immature sliding flow, where a stagnant zone forms on the base of the chute, and (2) fully developed
Tapped granular column dynamics: simulations, experiments and modeling
Rosato, A. D.; Zuo, L.; Blackmore, D.; Wu, H.; Horntrop, D. J.; Parker, D. J.; Windows-Yule, C.
2016-07-01
This paper communicates the results of a synergistic investigation that initiates our long term research goal of developing a continuum model capable of predicting a variety of granular flows. We consider an ostensibly simple system consisting of a column of inelastic spheres subjected to discrete taps in the form of half sine wave pulses of amplitude a/ d and period τ . A three-pronged approach is used, consisting of discrete element simulations based on linear loading-unloading contacts, experimental validation, and preliminary comparisons with our continuum model in the form of an integro-partial differential equation.
A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2016-04-01
Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To
Effects of cohesion on the flow patterns of granular materials in spouted beds
Zhu, Runru; Li, Shuiqing; Yao, Qiang
2013-02-01
Two-dimensional spouted bed, capable to provide both dilute granular gas and dense granular solid flow patterns in one system, was selected as a prototypical system for studying granular materials. Effects of liquid cohesion on such kind of complex granular patterns were studied using particle image velocimetry. It is seen that the addition of liquid oils by a small fraction of 10-3-10-2 causes a remarkable narrowing (about 15%) of the spout area. In the dense annulus, as the liquid fraction increases, the downward particle velocity gradually decreases and approaches a minimum where, at a microscopic grain scale, the liquid bridge reaches spherical regimes with a maximum capillarity. Viscous lubrication effect is observed at a much higher fraction but is really weak with respect to the capillary effect. In the dilute spout, in contrast to the dry grains, the wet grains have a lightly smaller acceleration in the initial 1/3 of the spout, but have a dramatically higher acceleration in the rest of the spout. We attribute the former to the additional work needed to overcome interparticle cohesion during particle entrainment at the spout-annulus interface. Then, using mass and momentum balances, the latter is explained by the relative higher drag force resulting from both higher gas velocities and higher voidages due to spout narrowing in the wet system. The experimental findings will provide useful data for the validation of discrete element simulation of cohesive granular-fluid flows.
Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.
2004-01-01
For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.
Quantitative Simulation of Granular Collapse Experiments with Visco-Plastic Models
Mangeney, A.; Ionescu, I. R.; Bouchut, F.; Roche, O.
2014-12-01
One of the key issues in landslide modeling is to define the appropriate rheological behavior of these natural granular flows. In particular the description of the static and of the flowing states of granular media is still an open issue. This plays a crucial role in erosion/deposition processes. A first step to address this issue is to derive models able to reproduce laboratory experiments of granular flows. We propose here a mechanical and numerical model of dry granular flows that quantitatively well reproduces granular column collapse over inclined planes, with rheological parameters directly derived from the laboratory experiments. We reformulate the so-called μ(I) rheology proposed by Jop et al. (2006) where I is the so-called inertial number in the framework of Drucker-Prager plasticity with yield stress and a viscosity η(||D||, p) depending on both the pressure p and the norm of the strain rate tensor ||D||. The resulting dynamic viscosity varies from very small values near the free surface and near the front to 1.5 Pa.s within the quasi-static zone. We show that taking into account a constant mean viscosity during the flow (η = 1 Pa.s here) provides results very similar to those obtained with the variable viscosity deduced from the μ(I) rheology, while significantly reducing the computational cost. This has important implication for application to real landslides and rock avalanches. The numerical results show that the flow is essentially located in a surface layer behind the front, while the whole granular material is flowing near the front where basal sliding occurs. The static/flowing interface changes as a function of space and time, in good agreement with experimental observations. Heterogeneities are observed within the flow with low and high pressure zones, localized small upward velocity zones and vortices near the transition between the flowing and static grains. These instabilities create 'sucking zones' and have some characteristics similar
Experimental observations of root growth in a controlled photoelastic granular material
Barés, Jonathan; Mora, Serge; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Fourcaud, Thierry
2017-06-01
We present a novel root observation apparatus capable of measuring the mechanical evolution of both the root network and the surrounding granular medium. The apparatus consists of 11 parallel growth frames, two of them being shearable, where the roots grow inside a photo-elastic or glass granular medium sandwiched between two pieces of glass. An automated system waters the plant and image each frame periodically in white light and between crossed polarisers. This makes it possible to follow (i) the root tips and (ii) the grain displacements as well as (iii) their inner pressure. We show how a root networks evolve in a granular medium and how it can mechanically stabilize it. This constitutes a model experiment to move forward in the understanding of the complex interaction between root growth and surrounding soil mechanical evolution.
Malla, Ramesh B.; Anandakumar, Ganesh
2005-01-01
the bed media increased with decrease in initial compaction of the bed media. This effect could be attributed to the greater tendency for inter-particle sliding/rub bing due to smaller internal friction angles, as seen from the shear tests, at lesser initial compacted levels. Upon unloading, it was obse rved that there was no change in displacement (especially rebounding) in the bed media. This effect could be attributed to the fact that th e porous activated alumina particles fracture/break upon increase in applied load (during loading phase) and occupy void spaces in between the material grains; thereby leading to settling of the media. The lo ad-displacement curve becomes more linear with increase in initial compaction of the bed media. It is concluded that compaction considerabl y affects the load-displacement behavior of the bed media. A series of tests were also conducted on the packed bed media to determine the f orce required to mobilize the friction between the bed media and the housing cylinder. The results from these tests showed the existence of significant friction between the bed media and the encasing stainles s steel cylinder. Further, it was found that friction effects were more pronounced for media with higher initial compaction. Internal frict ion of the granular media was measured using direct shear apparatus. It was observed that the internal friction increased with increase in initial compaction of the bed media. In this study, a computational m odel (CM) is also developed using finite element software ANSYS to verify experimental results obtained for the distribution of the axial n ormal stress and axial displacement along the length of the full-scal e activated alumina bed media. In the computational model, the granular material is considered to have appropriate failure and frictional c ontact exists between the wall and the granular media. It is observed that the model predicts results closely with the experimental method. The compational
Quality Improvement of Granular Wastes-The Effective Way to Recycle Secondary Raw Building Materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XING Wei-hong; Charles Hendriks; Alex Fraaij; Peter Rem
2004-01-01
Granular wastes have negative effects on the environment due to contamination. On the other hand, stony components in granular wastes have a potential good perspectives for utilization in civil engineering works as secondary raw building materials. To reuse such materials without environmental risks, all contaminants must be removed or reduced to an acceptable level. Therefore liberation of materials is an important step in waste treatment. For this purpose, separation and cleansing techniques are suitable. Based on the analysis of contaminants in wastes, it is discussed how to select suitable techniques. The rules for technique selection and processes for quality improvement are set up. To evaluate the environmental quality and technical quality of output products, it is necessary to check leaching behaviours and physical properties.
A new methodology to simulate subglacial deformation of water saturated granular material
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Piotrowski, Jan A.;
2015-01-01
element method. The pore water is modeled as a compressible Newtonian fluid without inertia. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the internal behavior under a range of conditions. The rheology of a water-saturated granular bed may include both plastic and rate-dependent dilatant hardening...
Evolution of the effective moduli of an anisotropic, dense, granular material
La Ragione, L.; Magnanimo, Vanessa
2012-01-01
We analyze the behavior of a dense granular aggregate made by identical, elastic spheres, uni-axially compressed at constant pressure. Our goal is to predict the evolution of the effective moduli along the loading path when small perturbations are applied to stressed states. The analytical model is
Evolution of the effective moduli of an anisotropic, dense, granular material
La Ragione, L.; Magnanimo, V.
2012-01-01
We analyze the behavior of a dense granular aggregate made by identical, elastic spheres, uni-axially compressed at constant pressure. Our goal is to predict the evolution of the effective moduli along the loading path when small perturbations are applied to stressed states. The analytical model is
Preliminary Results of a Microgravity Investigation to Measure Net Charge on Granular Materials
Green, Robert D.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hansen, Bonnie L.
2003-01-01
Accurate characterization of the electrostatic charge on granular materials has typically been limited to materials with diameters on the order of 10 microns and below due to high settling velocities of larger particles. High settling velocities limit both the time and the acceptable uncertainty with which a measurement can be made. A prototype device has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to measure coulombic charge on individual particles of granular materials that are 50 to 500 microns in diameter. This device, a novel extension of Millikan's classic oil drop experiment, utilizes the NASA GRC 2.2 second drop tower to extend the range of electrostatic charge measurements to accommodate moderate size granular materials. A dielectric material with a nominal grain diameter between 1.06 and 250 microns was tribocharged using a dry gas jet, suspended in a 5x10x10 cm enclosure during a 2.2 second period of microgravity and exposed to a known electric field. The response was recorded on video and post processed to allow tracking of individual particles. By determining the particle trajectory and velocity, estimates of the coulombic charge were made. Over 30 drops were performed using this technique and the analysis showed that first order approximations of coulombic charge could successfully be obtained, with the mean charge of 3.4E-14 coulombs measured for F-75 Ottawa quartz sand. Additionally, the measured charge showed a near-Gaussian distribution, with a standard deviation of 2.14E -14 coulombs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
The basic ideas and principles of granular computing (GrC) have been studied explicitly or implicitly in many fields in isolation. With the recent renewed and fast growing interest, it is time to extract the commonality from a diversity of fields and to study systematically and formally the domain independent principles of granular computing in a unified model. A framework of granular computing can be established by applying its own principles. We examine such a framework from two perspectives,granular computing as structured thinking and structured problem solving. From the philosophical perspective or the conceptual level,granular computing focuses on structured thinking based on multiple levels of granularity. The implementation of such a philosophy in the application level deals with structured problem solving.
Ritter, Malte C.; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno
2014-05-01
Strain weakening is the major agent of localisation of deformation into shear zones and faults at various scales in brittle media. Physical analogue models using granular material are especially apt to investigate both phenomena, because they are able to reproduce them without the need of any assumptions concerning the physics behind. Several attempts have been made to quantify either strain weakening (e. g. Lohrmann et al., 2003, using Ring-Shear tests) or strain localisation (e. g. Schrank et al., 2008, using a variation of the classical Riedel-experiment). While Ring-Shear tests yield excellent data on strain weakening through measuring shear stress during localisation, they do not allow monitoring the process of strain localisation in-situ because of experimental inaccessibility of the small scale kinematics. In Riedel-type strike-slip experiments, on the other hand, no direct measurements of shear stresses have been available so far. Furthermore, they contain a strong boundary condition in form of a pre-defined linear discontinuity at the base. This forces the formation of Riedel-Shears, i. e. a complex fault system, that makes it difficult to define strain localisation on single faults. We developed a new experimental set-up, in which the formation of a strike-slip shear zone in granular material is induced using an ndenter with stress and strain monitored at high accuracy and resolution. In a first set of experiments we used a horizontal sand layer indented by a vertical wall. The sand layer is laterally unconfined and rests on low-viscosity silicone oil in order to minimize basal shear strength. Compared to the Riedel experiments, this avoids the boundary condition of a pre-existing basal discontinuity allowing one single, hrough-going shear crack to form and propagate. The indenter moves at a constant rate and is equipped with a force sensor that measures the applied push, which integrates over shear stresses along the fault and the base of the sand pack
Progressive Shear Failure in Granular Materials: Linking Force Fluctuations With Acoustic Emissions
Michlmayr, G. K.; Cohen, D. O.; Or, D.
2011-12-01
Natural hazards associated with rapid mass movements such as shallow landslides, rock falls or debris flows are notoriously difficult to predict even though precursor events associated with small internal failures are known to occur. In this study we focus on grain scale processes preceding the formation of a shear plane in granular materials such as frictional sliding of grain contacts, accommodation of contact networks and fracturing of grain bonds (in cohesive materials) - all of which are discrete micro-mechanical failure events that emit characteristic acoustic emissions that could be used to study internal failure and potentially provide early warning (albeit short). Experiments involving direct shear tests using glass beads and sand were combined with acoustic emission (AE) measurements using piezoelectric sensors with sensitivities to frequencies in the range of 20kHz - 200kHz and accelerometers (0.2kHz - 20kHz) buried within the sheared sample. We obtained good correlations between shear deformation and associated grain-scale mechanical behavior with key characteristics of measured AE (frequency content, signal energy). Fluctuations of shear force occurring during strain controlled deformation are assumed to represent micro-structural rearrangements of the material. We obtained exponential distributions of force fluctuation magnitudes and low frequency AE event statistics. The number of AE events increased with confining stress as well as with particle roughness and were inversely related to grain size. These results were linked with conceptual models of failure accumulation such as the fiber-bundle model. The statistics of AE event occurrence, particularly magnitude-frequency distributions may provide prediction of imminent mechanical collapse. The strong attenuation of acoustic signals within most earth materials present a major challenge to field applications requiring innovative deployment strategies such as the use of acoustic waveguides.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩流; 周伟; 才庆祥; 舒继森; 靖洪文; 李鑫
2015-01-01
Remodeled clay and sand rock specimens were prepared by designing lateral confinement and water drainage experiments based on the stress exerted on granular materials in a waste dump. An in situ test was conducted in an internal waste dump; the physical and mechanical parameters of the remodeled rock mass dumped at different time and depths were measured. Based on statistics, regression analysis was performed with regard to the shearing stress parameters acquired from the two tests. Other factors, such as remodeling pressure (burial depth), remodeling time (amount of time since waste was dumped), and the corresponding functional relationship, were determined. Analysis indicates that the cohesion of the remodeled clay and its remodeling pressure are correlated by a quadratic function but are not correlated with remodeling time length. In situ experimental results indicate that the shear strength of reshaped granular materials in the internal dump is positively correlated with burial depth but poorly correlated with time length. CohesionC and burial depthH follow a quadratic function, specifically for a short time since waste has been dumped. As revealed by both in situ and laboratory experiments, the remodeling strength of granular materials varies in a certain pattern. The consistency of such materials verifies the reliability of the remodeling experimental program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajagopal, K.R.
1998-03-01
A great many industrial processes involve interaction between solids and fluids (i.e. gases or liquids). Combustion, gasification of solid fuels, shales or solid wastes, drying of particles, calcining, particle heating, regenerative heat exchangers, oxidation or reduction of ores, metal surface treatments and catalytic and thermal cracking are some of such processes. Solids and fluids serve different roles and several combinations of solids and fluids can arise in a practical situation. Thus, when considering processes or plants it is necessary to be clear as to the particular purpose served by the fluids and the solids. Heating and drying of solids, for example, involve heat and mass transfer only, whereas combustors, gasifiers etc. have the additional complication of chemical reactions which have to be carried out simultaneously with heat and mass transfer. Again, there are many processes where just the flow of granular particles take place, for example, the flow of food grain, coal or sand particles through bin, silo, hoppers, chutes, conveyor belts, inclined planes etc. In most of these cases, a theoretical modeling of the process requires a complete and thorough understanding of the phenomena involved and constitutive modeling of the constituents along with the usual balance laws. In a process, where both a fluid and a solid constituents are involved, it is essential to model both the constituents such that the models accurately describes the characteristics of the constituent concerned. While there are many different models available for fluids, the models for granular materials lack from an understanding of the material parameters.
DRYING OF GRANULAR MATERIALS IN AGITATED FLUIDIZED BED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
An experimental study of the drying characteristics of an agitated fluidized bed dryer is presented and discussed. In the study, the citric acid particles were used as bed material with the diameters ranging from 0.2mm to 1.3mm. The variables affecting apparently the drying rate were found to be the mass flow rate, the inlet air temperature, the rotary speed of agitating mechanism and the particles feed rate. Comparing with other variables considered, mass flow rate was found to have the least important influence on the drying rate. The agitated fluidized bed dryer is suitable to drying agglomerating or sticky materials.
Localization of Shear in Saturated Granular Media: Insights from a Multi-Scaled Granular-Fluid Model
Aharonov, Einat; Sparks, David; Toussaint, Renaud
2013-01-01
The coupled mechanics of fluid-filled granular media controls the behavior of many natural systems such as saturated soils, fault gouge, and landslides. The grain motion and the fluid pressure influence each other: It is well established that when the fluid pressure rises, the shear resistance of fluid-filled granular systems decreases, and as a result catastrophic events such as soil liquefaction, earthquakes, and accelerating landslides may be triggered. Alternatively, when the pore pressure drops, the shear resistance of these systems increases. Despite the great importance of the coupled mechanics of grains-fluid systems, the basic physics that controls this coupling is far from understood. We developed a new multi-scaled model based on the discrete element method, coupled with a continuum model of fluid pressure, to explore this dynamical system. The model was shown recently to capture essential feedbacks between porosity changes arising from rearrangement of grains, and local pressure variations due to ...
A discrete element model for simulating saturated granular soil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mahan Lamei; Ali Asghar Mirghasemi
2011-01-01
A numerical model is developed to simulate saturated granular soil,based on the discrete element method.Soil particles are represented by Lagrangian discrete elements,and pore fluid,by appropriate discrete elements which represent alternately Lagrangian mass of water and Eulerian volume of space.Macroscale behavior of the model is verified by simulating undrained biaxial compression tests.Micro-scale behavior is compared to previous literature through pore pressure pattern visualization during shear tests,it is demonstrated that dynamic pore pressure patterns are generated by superposed stress waves.These pore-pressure patterns travel much faster than average drainage rate of the pore fluid and may initiate soil fabric change,ultimately leading to liquefaction in loose sands.Thus,this work demonstrates a tool to roughly link dynamic stress wave patterns to initiation of liquefaction phenomena.
Particle Damping with Granular Materials for Multi Degree of Freedom System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masanobu Inoue
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A particle damper consists of a bed of granular materials moving in cavities within a multi degree-of-freedom (MDOF structure. This paper deals with the damping effects on forced vibrations of a MDOF structure provided with the vertical particle dampers. In the analysis, the particle bed is assumed to be a single mass, and the collisions between the granules and the cavities are completely inelastic, i.e., all energy dissipation mechanisms are wrapped into zero coefficient of restitution. To predict the particle damping effect, equations of motion are developed in terms of equivalent single degree-of-freedom (SDOF system and damper mass with use made of modal approach. In this report, the periodic vibration model comprising sustained contact on or separation of the damper mass from vibrating structure is developed. A digital model is also formulated to simulate the damped motion of the physical system, taking account of all vibration modes. Numerical and experimental studies are made of the damping performance of plural dampers located at selected positions throughout a 3MDOF system. The experimental results confirm numerical prediction that collision between granules and structures is completely inelastic as the contributing mechanism of damping in the vertical vibration. It is found that particle dampers with properly selected mass ratios and clearances effectively suppress the resonance peaks over a wide frequency range.
Numerical simulation of liquefaction behaviour of granular materials using Discrete Element Method
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
T G Sitharam; S V Dinesh
2003-09-01
In this paper, numerical simulation of 3-dimensional assemblies of 1000 polydisperse sphere particles using Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to study the liquefaction behaviour of granular materials. Numerical simulations of cyclic triaxial shear tests under undrained conditions are performed at different confining pressures under constant strain amplitude. Results obtained in these numerical simulations indicate that with increase in confining pressure there is an increase in liquefaction resistance.
Computer-aided analysis for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment
Parker, Joey K.
1986-01-01
The Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) program is planned to provide experimental determinations of the mechanics of granular materials under very low gravity conditions. The initial experiments will use small glass beads as the granular material, and a precise tracking of individual beads during the test is desired. Real-time video images of the experimental specimen were taken with a television camera, and subsequently digitized by a frame grabber installed in a microcomputer. Easily identified red tracer beads were randomly scattered throughout the test specimen. A set of Pascal programs was written for processing and analyzing the digitized images. Filtering the image with Laplacian, dilation, and blurring filters when using a threshold function produced a binary (black on white) image which clearly identified the red beads. The centroids and areas for each bead were then determined. Analyzing a series of the images determined individual red bead displacements throughout the experiment. The system can provide displacement accuracies on the order of 0.5 to 1 pixel is the image is taken directly from the video camera. Digitizing an image from a video cassette recorder introduces an additional repeatability error of 0.5 to 1 pixel. Other programs were written to provide hardcopy prints of the digitized images on a dot-matrix printer.
Drying and Heating Modelling of Granular Flow: Application to the Mix-Asphalt Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L Le Guen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Concrete asphalt is a hydrocarbon material that includes a mix of mineral components along with a bituminous binder. Prior to mixing, its production protocol requires drying and heating the aggregates. Generally performed in a rotary drum, these drying and heating steps within mix asphalt processes have never been studied from a physical perspective. We are thus proposing in the present paper to analyze the drying and heating mechanisms when granular materials and hot gases are involved in a co-current flow. This process step accounts for a large proportion of the overall energy consumed during hot-mix asphalt manufacturing. In the present context, the high energy cost associated with this step has encouraged developing new strategies specifically for the drying process. Applying new asphalt techniques so that an amount of moisture can be preserved in the asphalt concrete appears fundamental to such new strategies. This low-energy asphalt, also referred to as the "warm technique", depends heavily on a relevant prediction of the actual moisture content inside asphalt concrete during the mixing step. The purpose of this paper is to present a physical model dedicated to the evolution in temperature and moisture of granular solids throughout the drying and heating steps carried out inside a rotary drum. An initial experimental campaign to visualize inside a drum at the pilot scale (i.e. 1/3 scale has been carried out in order to describe the granular flow and establish the necessary physical assumptions for the drying and heating model. Energy and mass balance equations are solved by implementing an adequate heat and mass transfer coupling, yielding a 1D model from several parameters that in turn drives the physical modeling steps. Moreover, model results will be analyzed and compared to several measurements performed in an actual asphalt mix plant at the industrial scale (i.e. full scale.
Holsapple, K. A.
2011-03-01
About flows of granular materials and assumptions about fluidization mechanisms to explain large flat craters and landslide run outs. No such mechanisms are needed, the reasons and examples are given.
Blast wave attenuation by lightly destructable granular materials
Golub, V. V.; Lu, F. K.; Medin, S. A.; Mirova, O. A.; Parshikov, A. N.; Petukhov, V. A.; Volodin, V. V.
Terrorist bombings are a dismal reality nowadays. One of the most effective ways for protection against blast overpressure is the use of lightly compacted materials such as sand [1] and aqueous foam [2] as a protective envelope or barrier. According to [1], shock wave attenuation in a mine tunnel (one-dimensional case) behind a destroyed object is given by q_e ≈ q {1}/{1 + 4(S/q)^{1/6} bρ _{mat} /L^{1/3} }where qe — effective charge, S — exposed area of the obstacle, q — TNT equivalent (grams), L — distance between charge and obstacle, b — obstacle thickness and ρ mat — material density. This empirical equation is applicable only in a one-dimensional case but not for a less confined environment. Another way of protecting a structure against blast is to coat the surface with a sacrificial layer. In [3] full-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the behaviour of a covering of aluminum foam under the effect of a blast wave.
Shojaaee, Zahra; Roux, Jean-Noël; Chevoir, François; Wolf, Dietrich E
2012-07-01
We report on a numerical study of the shear flow of a simple two-dimensional model of a granular material under controlled normal stress between two parallel smooth frictional walls moving with opposite velocities ± V. Discrete simulations, which are carried out with the contact dynamics method in dense assemblies of disks, reveal that, unlike rough walls made of strands of particles, smooth ones can lead to shear strain localization in the boundary layer. Specifically, we observe, for decreasing V, first a fluidlike regime (A), in which the whole granular layer is sheared, with a homogeneous strain rate except near the walls, then (B) a symmetric velocity profile with a solid block in the middle and strain localized near the walls, and finally (C) a state with broken symmetry in which the shear rate is confined to one boundary layer, while the bulk of the material moves together with the opposite wall. Both transitions are independent of system size and occur for specific values of V. Transient times are discussed. We show that the first transition, between regimes A and B, can be deduced from constitutive laws identified for the bulk material and the boundary layer, while the second one could be associated with an instability in the behavior of the boundary layer. The boundary zone constitutive law, however, is observed to depend on the state of the bulk material nearby.
Vector-based model of elastic bonds for simulation of granular solids.
Kuzkin, Vitaly A; Asonov, Igor E
2012-11-01
A model (further referred to as the V model) for the simulation of granular solids, such as rocks, ceramics, concrete, nanocomposites, and agglomerates, composed of bonded particles (rigid bodies), is proposed. It is assumed that the bonds, usually representing some additional gluelike material connecting particles, cause both forces and torques acting on the particles. Vectors rigidly connected with the particles are used to describe the deformation of a single bond. The expression for potential energy of the bond and corresponding expressions for forces and torques are derived. Formulas connecting parameters of the model with longitudinal, shear, bending, and torsional stiffnesses of the bond are obtained. It is shown that the model makes it possible to describe any values of the bond stiffnesses exactly; that is, the model is applicable for the bonds with arbitrary length/thickness ratio. Two different calibration procedures depending on bond length/thickness ratio are proposed. It is shown that parameters of the model can be chosen so that under small deformations the bond is equivalent to either a Bernoulli-Euler beam or a Timoshenko beam or short cylinder connecting particles. Simple analytical expressions, relating parameters of the V model with geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the bond, are derived. Two simple examples of computer simulation of thin granular structures using the V model are given.
Meso-scopic deformation in brittle granular materials
Neal, William D.; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth J.; Collins, Gareth S.
2014-05-01
Compaction is the process of removing void-space from a porous material. In brittle particulate systems, the majority of densification is caused by particle fracture. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the differences in fracture behaviour between quasi-statically and shock loaded glass-microsphere beds. Macro-scale quasi-static (20 μm s-1) and dynamic compaction curves were measured that show subtle qualitative differences in stress-density space. Samples were recovered from a quasi-static and dynamic experiment at a similar order of stress. Differences in fracture behaviour were observed that may explain the differences in crush curves. Results suggest that the primary total-fracture process occurs relatively instantaneously at low stresses in the quasi-static regime. The sphere fracture process is slow relative to the stress-wave therefore causing a different fracture pattern in the shock regime.
Micromechanics of seismic wave propagation in granular materials
O’Donovan, J.; Ibraim, E.; O’Sullivan, C.; Hamlin, S.; Muir Wood, D.; Marketos, G.
2016-01-01
In this study experimental data on a model soil in a cubical cell are compared with both discrete element (DEM) simulations and continuum analyses. The experiments and simulations used point source transmitters and receivers to evaluate the shear and compression wave velocities of the samples, from
Dropping the Ball: The effect of anisotropic granular materials on ejecta and impact crater shape
Drexler, Philip; Arratia, Paulo
2013-01-01
In this fluid dynamics video, we present an experimental investigation of the shape of impact craters in granular materials. Complex crater shapes, including polygons, have been observed in many terrestrial planets as well as moons and asteroids. We release spherical projectiles from different heights above a granular bed (sand). The experiments demonstrate two different techniques to create non-circular impact craters, which we measure by digitizing the final crater topography. In the first method, we create trenches in the sand to mimic fault lines or valleys on a planetary target. During impact, ejecta move faster in the direction of the trenches, creating nearly elliptical craters with the major axis running parallel to the trench. Larger trenches lead to more oblong craters. In the second method, a hose beneath the surface of the sand injects nitrogen gas. The pressure of the gas counters the hydrostatic pressure of the sand, greatly reducing static friction between grains above the injection point, with...
Devising a protocol-related statistical mechanics framework for granular materials.
Paillusson, Fabien
2015-01-01
Devising a statistical mechanics framework for jammed granular materials is a challenging task as those systems do not share some important properties required to characterize them with statistical thermodynamics tools. In a recent paper [Asenjo et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)], a new definition of a granular entropy, which puts the protocol used to generate the packings at its roots, has been proposed. Following up these results, it is shown that the protocol used in Asenjo et al. can be recast as a canonical ensemble with a particular value of the temperature. Signature of gaussianity for large system sizes strongly suggests an asymptotic equivalence with a corresponding microcanonical ensemble where jammed states with certain basin volumes are sampled uniformly. We argue that this microcanonical ensemble is not Edwards's microcanonical ensemble and generalize this argument to other protocols.
Subglacial sediment mechanics investigated by computer simulation of granular material
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Tulaczyk, Slawek
. The numerical method is applied to better understand the mechanical properties of the subglacial sediment and its interaction with meltwater. The computational approach allows full experimental control and offers insights into the internal kinematics, stress distribution, and mechanical stability. During...... numerical method provides a framework for quantifying a wide range of subglacial sediment-water processes, which are a key unknown in our ability to model the future evolution of ice sheets....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Los vehículos que circulan sobre una estructura de pavimento inducen ciclos de carga y descarga que generan dentro de las capas granulares deformaciones recuperables (resilientes y permanentes (plásticas. La ingeniería de pavimentos ha venido desarrollando estudios desde la década de los 60 con el fin de intentar comprender el comportamiento elastoplástico que experimentan materiales granulares cuando conforman capas de base y subbase en estructuras flexibles. La mayor parte de las investigaciones que se han realizado en esta área se han concentrado en estudiar su comportamiento resiliente. El estado del conocimiento de estudios desarrollados para medir la respuesta resiliente y la deformación permanente en materiales granulares es presentado en dos artículos por separado. En este primer artículo se presenta la forma como ha sido estudiado el comportamiento resiliente de materiales granulares y se discuten los factores que influyen en dicho comportamiento. Al final del artículo se presenta la evolución de las ecuaciones matemáticas desarrolladas a partir de resultados de estudios teóricos y experimentales. Un estado del conocimiento sobre el fenómeno de deformación permanente es presentado en un segundo artículo.When vehicles move on a pavement structure, they induce load cycles that generate resilient and permanent strains inside granular layers. Since the 60's, pavement engineering has developed studies in order to understand the elasto-plastic behavior that granular materials experiment on base and sub-base layers of flexible pavements. Most of the researches that have been made in this area have concentrated in studying their resilient behavior. A state of the art about the behavior of granular materials in flexible pavements is presented in two separate papers. This first paper tries on resilient stress-strain characteristics of such materials. The mathematical equations found in the literature to predict the resilient
Mechanics of granular environments; Mecanique des milieux granulaires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lanier, J. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, 38 (France)
2001-07-01
This book aims at presenting different aspects of the behaviour of granular materials as encountered in natural environments (mainly soils), in industries involving the handling of granular products (cereals..) or powders (chemistry, metal industry..). It brings together the contributions of various specialists of physics and mechanics: mechanics of collisions between solids; gravity flows; grain flows; solid transport as example of two-phase granular flow; wave propagation inside a model of granular environment; propagation of waves in soils; enrockments and stability of rocky slopes; soils behaviour; coupled heat and mass transfers in granular environments; thermo-mechanical properties of granular environments. (J.S.)
A new methodology to simulate subglacial deformation of water-saturated granular material
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.;
2015-01-01
of subglacial sediment to the shear stress of an overriding glacier. In this study, we present a new methodology designed to simulate subglacial deformation using a coupled numerical model for computational experiments on grain-fluid mixtures. The granular phase is simulated on a per-grain basis by the discrete...... element method. The pore water is modeled as a compressible Newtonian fluid without inertia. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the internal behavior under a range of conditions. Our computational experiments support the findings of previous studies where the rheology of a slowly deforming...... water-saturated granular bed in the steady state generally conforms to the rate-independent plastic rheology. Before this so-called critical state, deformation is in many cases accompanied by volumetric changes as grain rearrangement in active shear zones changes the local porosity. For previously...
What causes the emergence of force chains in granular materials?
Kp, Krishnaraj; R Nott, Prabhu
2016-11-01
A dense collection of grains may be viewed as a network of contacts which transmit forces. Force transmission in this network is influenced by constraints of geometry and packing, making it significantly different from information, transportation, or power networks. Experiments on two-dimensional disks report the presence of anisotropic quasi-linear structures called force chains, which are assumed to be the cause of their uncommon macroscopic behaviour. Studies have tried to quantify the properties of these structures, but the problem largely remains unresolved. We show using a simple discrete model, that force chain-like features are generic to any Euclidean packing of particles. The packing structure is sufficient to predict the essential features of the force network, regardless of the external forcing or boundary conditions. Using a novel method to study the structure of packing, we quantify the long range correlations in the system. The method reveals important, phase transition-like, properties in particle packings, the critical parameters and exponents of which characterize the geometry of the particle arrangements.
MODELING THE ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A GRANULAR GRAPHITE-PACKED REACTOR
A comprehensive reactor model was developed for the electrolytic dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) at a granular-graphite cathode. The reactor model describes the dynamic processes of TCE dechlorination and adsorption, and the formation and dechlorination of all the major...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhenchen Zhong
2002-01-15
We have set up successfully two experimental systems during the past time of the project. The first system is sol-gel chemical method for preparing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular support particles. The second system is the laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) technique for nanoparticle catalysts containing Fe/Cu, and Co/Cu on the granular support. We have successfully deposited {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular support particles by sol-gel method and Co and CoO nanoparticles by LISD novel fabrication technique. The characterization methods we have used include scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The research toward to the proposed direction is in good progress. We have given three presentations in national and local materials meetings and have submitted another two papers in another two key national meetings in nanotechnology and American Physical Annual March Meeting 2002. A couple of papers are in preparation.
Thermal properties of a new ecological building material / Granular cork embedded in white cement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cherki Abou-bakr
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Cork, natural and renewable product, has thermal and acoustic properties very interesting because of its microstructure and porosity representing a significant portion of its apparent volume; it’s coming from Moroccan Maamora’s forest. This work is a contribution to understand the thermal behaviour of the composite material based on granular cork embedded in white cement. An experimental investigation of its thermal properties was mainly performed using the asymmetrical device of transient Hot Plate method. The effect of granular cork size on the thermal properties of the mixture was studied. The experimental study of this sustainable material aims to characterize its thermal properties and then compare them with those of white cement without cork for motivate the proposal that this composite material will be used as walls insulator. A comparison of the energy performances of the composite material and white cement was made; it allows deducing a very interesting energy gain. The findings of the experiments indicate that the composite is better than white cement in term of thermal insulation, energy storage capacity and lightness. So, it can be used to realize the internal walls insulation. Its utilization should contribute to the improvement of the energy efficiency in building especially that this is a mixture based on a sustainable and renewable material.
Wu, Ming; Cheng, Zhou; Wu, Jianfeng; Wu, Jichun
2017-02-01
Aquifers composed of granular materials are major repositories of groundwater resource in which water can flow freely and be stored abundantly. Undoubtedly, exploring connectivity of granular materials is essential to understand the mechanism of water and contaminant migration in subsurface environment, while characterizing the connectivity remains a difficult task currently. This study proposes a new light transmission micro-tomography (LTM) with high resolution to address this problem. The new approach relies on scanning micro-structure by light transmission through translucent granular materials in given thickness. An experiment of light transmission through a two dimensional (2D) sandbox packed by heterogeneous translucent silica is conducted to examine the efficiency of LTM in capturing all the features of connectivity including porosity (n), density (ρ), solid phase-pores interface area (Asp), and tortuosity (τ). Considering the importance of representative elementary volume (REV) in characterizing the representativeness and reliability of connectivity, associated REV scales of characteristic variables are also estimated using a criterion of relative gradient error (εgi). Results suggest that the frequencies of minimum REV sizes of connectivity are close to Gaussian distribution in 0.0-12.0 mm and the REV size of approximately 10.0 mm is available to represent connectivity of translucent silica. Then the quantification of connectivity and the corresponding REV estimates are significant for accurate simulation of fluid migration and for associated optimal design of contaminant remediation in subsurface environment. More important, this study provides the possibility of rapid, handy and economical on-site measurements of connectivity for translucent materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Alexánder Rondón
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Diversos estudios han sido desarrollados en el área de los pavimentos para comprender el comportamiento elastoplástico que experimentan materiales granulares bajo carga cíclica. Este es el segundo de dos artículos que presentan el estado del conocimiento de investigaciones desarrolladas en esta área. Basado en una amplia revisión bibliográfica, este artículo da cuenta de la forma como ha sido estudiado el fenómeno de deformación permanente en materiales granulares empleados para conformar capas de base y sub-base de estructuras de pavimentos flexibles. Además, se exponen y se discuten los factores que afectan la resistencia a la deformación permanente y la evolución de las ecuaciones matemáticas desarrolladas para predecir la deformación que experimentan estos materiales bajo carga cíclica. Un estado del conocimiento sobre el comportamiento resiliente de estos materiales es presentado en el primer artículo (Rondón y Reyes, 2007.Several studies have been conducted in pavement field for trying to understand the elastoplastic behavior experienced by granular materials under a cyclic load. This is the second out of two articles which show state-of-the-art of researches conducted in this field. Based on a wide literature review, this article accounts for the way how permanent strain phenomenon has been studied in granular materials used for creating base and sub-base layers of flexible pavement structures. Besides, this article displays and discusses factors which affect resistance to permanent strain and evolution of mathematical equations developed for predicting that strain experienced by these materials under a cyclic load. A state-of-the-art about resilient behavior of these materials has been presented in the first article (Rondón and Reyes, 2007.
In situ bioremediation: A network model of diffusion and flow in granular porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffiths, S.K.; Nilson, R.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.
1997-04-01
In situ bioremediation is a potentially expedient, permanent and cost- effective means of waste site decontamination. However, permeability reductions due to the transport and deposition of native fines or due to excessive microorganism populations may severely inhibit the injection of supplemental oxygen in the contamination zone. To help understand this phenomenon, we have developed a micro-mechanical network model of flow, diffusion and particle transport in granular porous materials. The model differs from most similar models in that the network is defined by particle positions in a numerically-generated particle array. The model is thus widely applicable to computing effective transport properties for both ordered and realistic random porous media. A laboratory-scale apparatus to measure permeability reductions has also been designed, built and tested.
Mass flow rate of granular material in silos with lateral exit holes
Medina, Abraham; Serrano, Armando; Sanchez, Florencio
2014-11-01
In this work we have analyzed experimentally the mass flow rate, m', of the lateral outflow of cohesionless granular material through circular orifices of diameter D and rectangular and triangular slots of hydraulic diameter DH made in vertical walls of bins. Experiments were made in order to determine also the influence of the wall thickness of the bin, w. Geometrical and physical arguments, are given to get a general correlation for m' embracing both quantities, D (DH) and w. The angle of repose is also an important factor characterizing these flows.
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Larsen, N. K.
2014-12-01
The coupled mechanical response of ice, water and sediment may control the flow of warm-based glaciers residing on deformable sediment. This is most clearly expressed by the fast flowing ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica, where low levels of basal friction are thought to support the high flow rates. These ice streams are of particular interest since they are large constituents of the polar ice sheet mass balance. The study of these ice streams and their future impact on the ice sheets necessitates a deeper understanding of their basal dynamics, including the rheology of water-saturated sediment. We present the methodology and first results of a coupled numerical model for computational experiments on granular-fluid mixtures under dynamic conditions similar to those in subglacial settings. The granular phase is simulated on a per-particle basis by the soft body discrete element method. The fluid phase is handled as a continuum by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The particle and fluid phases are coupled by mass conservation and momentum exchanges. The hydraulic diffusivity and permeability is compared to previous laboratory studies on tills. We demonstrate how the onset and halt of granular deformation is an efficient mechanism to create fluid pressure fluctuations due to local porosity changes. These pressure anomalies are driving transient hydraulic flows, and they influence directly the rheology of granular-fluid mixtures. Our results highlight the nonlinear nature of water saturated granular deformation, and demonstrate how the mechanical behaviour of granular materials may include both brittle and viscous components depending on the rates of deformation and the hydrological properties.
Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher
2014-05-01
-boundary diffusion and precipitation on pore walls. As a first step to better describe creep in sands and sandstones, we have derived a simple model for intergranular pressure solution (IPS) within an ordered pack of spherical grains, employing existing IPS rate models, such as those derived by Renard et al. (1999) and Spiers et al. (2004). This universal model is able to predict the conditions under which each of the respective pressure solution serial processes, i.e. diffusion, precipitation or dissolution, is dominant. In essence, this creates generic deformation mechanism maps for any granular material. We have used our model to predict the amount and rate of compaction for sandstone reservoirs, and compared our predictions to known subsidence rates for reservoirs around the world. This gives a first order-comparison to verify whether or not IPS is an important mechanism in controlling reservoir compaction.
Modelling of a viscoplastic granular column collapse and comparison with experiments
Martin, Nathan; Ionescu, Ioan; Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, François; Roche, Olivier; Farin, Maxime
2015-04-01
Landslides and, more generally, large scale granular flows, represent a wide variety of geophysical flows also including mud or debris flow and snow avalanches. In a continuum mechanics context, the accurate simulation of these flows strongly depends on the modelling of their rheology and their boundary conditions, namely the sliding law and processes of erosion. In particular the description of the static and of the flowing states of granular media is still an open issue. We focus here on the quantitative reproduction of laboratory experiments using a mechanical and numerical model of dry granular flows with the so-called μ(I) rheology associated to a Drucker-Prager plasticity criterion and a shear rate and pressure dependent viscosity η(||D||,p). A Coulomb type friction law is considered at the base of the flow. The modelling is achieved in a finite-element context using the software FreeFem++. The simulations are bidimensionnal and well reproduce quantitatively both the dynamical and final shapes of the deposit. The effects of the sidewalls of the experimental channel, neglected in 2D simulations, are investigated by introducing an extra term in the equations varying with the inverse of the width of the channel, providing an enhanced agreement with the experiments. The numerical results show that the flow is essentially located in a surface layer behind the front, while the whole granular material is flowing near the front where basal sliding occurs. The static/flowing interface changes as a function of space and time, in good agreement with experimental observations. The resulting dynamic viscosity varies from very small values near the free surface and near the front to 1.5Pa.s within the quasi-static zone. The results show a rather small yet computationnaly expensive difference between a constant viscosity model and a μ(I) rheology in the case of a rigid bed. This has important implication for application to real geophysical flows. The role of an erodible
Influencia de la inclusión de desecho de PVC sobre el CBR de un material granular tipo subbase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgar Rodríguez Rincón
2006-07-01
Full Text Available En Colombia, los materiales granulares de alta calidad para la conformación de estructuras de pavimentos flexibles son de difícil obtención. En algunas ocasiones el Ingeniero de carreteras debe trabajar con materiales granulares que no cumplen los requisitos mínimos de calidad de la especificación vial pertinente. En este caso el Ingeniero debe intentar mejorar las propiedades del material ya sea por medios mecánicos o químicos. En la presente investigación se utilizó desecho de PVC como material de adición, para modificar el comportamiento de una subbase granular. A partir de ensayos de Proctor y CBR se comparó el comportamiento del material natural, y mezclado con diferentes proporciones del desecho de PVC. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que el CBR de una mezcla de material granular, tipo subbase, y material de desecho, presenta un incremento notable. Además, la mezcla modificada logra cambiar el peso unitario del material, obteniéndose una mezcla con mayor resistencia y menor peso.In Colombia, the granular materials of high quality for the conformation of flexible pavements structures are of difficult obtaining. In some cases the Engineer of highways must work with granular materials that do not fulfill the requirements of minimum quality standards of the pertinent road specification. In this case the Engineer must try to improve the properties of the material either. In the present investigation, PVC remainders were used like adding material, to modify the behavior of a granular subbase. From tests of Proctor and CBR, the behavior of the natural and mixed material with different proportions of the PVC remainder was compared. The results of the investigation shown that the CBR of a mixture of granular material type subbase and the remainder material, present a remarkable increment. In addition, the modified mixture manages to modify the unitary weight of the material, obtaining a mixture with greater resistance and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘其鹏; 李锡夔; 楚锡华
2011-01-01
提出了基于细观微-方向模型（Micro—Directional Model）的宏观Cosserat连续体本构关系。在细观尺度上考虑颗粒旋转自由度及接触力矩，微结构的影响通过接触分布函数体现。给出均质各向同性Cosserat连续体模型弹性常数的细观参数表达式，并建议了二维情况下内尺度参数的细观力学表达式。对颗粒材料宏观行为分别进行离散单元法数值模拟和基于本文所给表达式的理论预测，二者的一致性说明了所发展模型的有效性。%This paper develops the micro-directional model of Cosserat continuum, taking into account the particle rotation and contact couples on the micro level. The effects of micro structures on macro behavior are embodied with the contact distribution function. The specific formulae of macro elastic constants under homogeneous and isotropic assumption are derived. Micro-mechanically-based expressions of the intrinsic length scale are also suggested for two-dimensional case. The validity of the proposed model is verified through the comparisons of theoretical predictions from the developed model and numerical simulation by using discrete element method on overall behavior of a granular assembly with regular arrangement.
Algorithm for direct numerical simulation of emulsion flow through a granular material
Zinchenko, Alexander Z.; Davis, Robert H.
2008-08-01
A multipole-accelerated 3D boundary-integral algorithm capable of modelling an emulsion flow through a granular material by direct multiparticle-multidrop simulations in a periodic box is developed and tested. The particles form a random arrangement at high volume fraction rigidly held in space (including the case of an equilibrium packing in mechanical contact). Deformable drops (with non-deformed diameter comparable with the particle size) squeeze between the particles under a specified average pressure gradient. The algorithm includes recent boundary-integral desingularization tools especially important for drop-solid and drop-drop interactions, the Hebeker representation for solid particle contributions, and unstructured surface triangulations with fixed topology. Multipole acceleration, with two levels of mesh node decomposition (entire drop/solid surfaces and "patches"), is a significant improvement over schemes used in previous, purely multidrop simulations; it remains efficient at very high resolutions ( 104- 105 triangular elements per surface) and has no lower limitation on the number of particles or drops. Such resolutions are necessary in the problem to alleviate lubrication difficulties, especially for near-critical squeezing conditions, as well as using ˜104 time steps and an iterative solution at each step, both for contrast and matching viscosities. Examples are shown for squeezing of 25-40 drops through an array of 9-14 solids, with the total volume fraction of 70% for particles and drops. The flow rates for the drop and continuous phases are calculated. Extensive convergence testing with respect to program parameters (triangulation, multipole truncation, etc.) is made.
Exploring the relationship between critical state and particle shape for granular materials
Yang, J.; Luo, X. D.
2015-11-01
The relationship between critical state and particle shape corresponds to the most fundamental aspect of the mechanics of granular materials. This paper presents an investigation into this relationship through macro-scale and micro-scale laboratory experiments in conjunction with interpretation and analysis in the framework of critical state soil mechanics. Spherical glass beads and crushed angular glass beads of different percentages were mixed with a uniform quartz sand (Fujian sand) to create a sequence of mixtures with varying particle shape. On the micro-scale, particle shape was accurately measured using a laser scanning technique, and was characterized by aspect ratio, sphericity and convexity; a new shape index, taken as the average of the three shape measures and referred to as overall regularity, was proposed to provide a collective characterization of particle shape. On the macro-scale, both undrained and drained triaxial tests were carried out to provide evidence that varying particle shape can alter the overall response as well as the critical states in both stress space and volumetric compression space. The mixtures of Fujian sand and spherical glass beads were found to be markedly more susceptible to liquefaction than the mixtures of Fujian sand and crushed angular glass beads. The change in liquefaction susceptibility was shown to be consistent with the change in the position of the critical state locus (CSL) in the compression space, manifested by a decrease in the intercept and gradient of the CSL due to the presence of spherical glass beads. Quantitative relationships have been established between each of the critical state parameters and each of the shape parameters, thereby providing a way to construct macro-scale constitutive models with intrinsic micro-scale properties built in.
Granularity as a Cognitive Factor in the Effectiveness of Business Process Model Reuse
Holschke, Oliver; Rake, Jannis; Levina, Olga
Reusing design models is an attractive approach in business process modeling as modeling efficiency and quality of design outcomes may be significantly improved. However, reusing conceptual models is not a cost-free effort, but has to be carefully designed. While factors such as psychological anchoring and task-adequacy in reuse-based modeling tasks have been investigated, information granularity as a cognitive concept has not been at the center of empirical research yet. We hypothesize that business process granularity as a factor in design tasks under reuse has a significant impact on the effectiveness of resulting business process models. We test our hypothesis in a comparative study employing high and low granularities. The reusable processes provided were taken from widely accessible reference models for the telecommunication industry (enhanced Telecom Operations Map). First experimental results show that Recall in tasks involving coarser granularity is lower than in cases of finer granularity. These findings suggest that decision makers in business process management should be considerate with regard to the implementation of reuse mechanisms of different granularities. We realize that due to our small sample size results are not statistically significant, but this preliminary run shows that it is ready for running on a larger scale.
Microscopic Description of the Granular Fluidity Field in Nonlocal Flow Modeling
Zhang, Qiong; Kamrin, Ken
2017-02-01
A recent granular rheology based on an implicit "granular fluidity" field has been shown to quantitatively predict many nonlocal phenomena. However, the physical nature of the field has not been identified. Here, the granular fluidity is found to be a kinematic variable given by the velocity fluctuation and packing fraction. This is verified with many discrete element simulations, which show that the operational fluidity definition, solutions of the fluidity model, and the proposed microscopic formula all agree. Kinetic theoretical and Eyring-like explanations shed insight into the obtained form.
Microscopic Description of the Granular Fluidity Field in Nonlocal Flow Modeling.
Zhang, Qiong; Kamrin, Ken
2017-02-03
A recent granular rheology based on an implicit "granular fluidity" field has been shown to quantitatively predict many nonlocal phenomena. However, the physical nature of the field has not been identified. Here, the granular fluidity is found to be a kinematic variable given by the velocity fluctuation and packing fraction. This is verified with many discrete element simulations, which show that the operational fluidity definition, solutions of the fluidity model, and the proposed microscopic formula all agree. Kinetic theoretical and Eyring-like explanations shed insight into the obtained form.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Angel S, A.
2015-07-01
In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)
Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM0 Flight Hardware in Bench Test
2000-01-01
Engineering bench system hardware for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested on a lab bench at the University of Colorado in Boulder. This is done in a horizontal arrangement to reduce pressure differences so the tests more closely resemble behavior in the microgravity of space. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).
Mixing of powders and granular materials by mechanical means-A perspective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
John Bridgwater
2012-01-01
When engineers and scientists encounter the mixing of powders,they enter a subject where it is often difficult to find bearings.This perspective seeks to address this need by setting out the state of practice.It then considers the growing momentum in the area following advances in computation and in measurement that became significant in the 1990s.The mixing of powders and granular materials is of central importance for the quality and performance of a wide range of products.However,process design and operation are very difficult,being largely based on judgement rather than science.There are not even tabulated data to tell how the quality of mixtures depends on mixer selection.Design depends on experience and insight,not science.There are no sound scale-up laws for a given equipment type,largely because particle size needs to be included in any dimensional analysis.Design is not possible by applying physical principles.fhere is no reliable equation to describe the flow of single component powders,let alone multi-component mixtures.In most cases,measurement has been difficult because the materials are optically opaque.Work in the research literature has been questionable because the results obtained for mixture sampling are affected by sample size.Recently,modern experimental techniques and modelling work have provided a good deal of information on the behaviour of many of the pieces of equipment,though these have been small in size and often confined to materials of a single size.However,the studies have enhanced knowledge of physical behaviour.For example,for a wide range of equipment when operating at lower velocities,mixing is determined by the number of revolutions of the mixer,not the time.Observations of flow structure have led to a few specific models that should scale with equipment size.Measurement techniques are slowly becoming more effective in giving internal flow patterns and in measuring powder composition.For cohesionless and cohesive materials
Ji, S.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.
2009-01-01
In this study, we report a direct comparison between a physical test and a computer simulation of rapidly sheared granular materials. An annular shear cell experiment was conducted. All parameters were kept the same between the physical and the computational systems to the extent possible. Artificially softened particles were used in the simulation to reduce the computational time to a manageable level. Sensitivity study on the particle stiffness ensured such artificial modification was acceptable. In the experiment, a range of normal stress was applied to a given amount of particles sheared in an annular trough with a range of controlled shear speed. Two types of particles, glass and Delrin, were used in the experiment. Qualitatively, the required torque to shear the materials under different rotational speed compared well with those in the physical experiments for both the glass and the Delrin particles. However, the quantitative discrepancies between the measured and simulated shear stresses were nearly a factor of two. Boundary conditions, particle size distribution, particle damping and friction, including a sliding and rolling, contact force model, were examined to determine their effects on the computational results. It was found that of the above, the rolling friction between particles had the most significant effect on the macro stress level. This study shows that discrete element simulation is a viable method for engineering design for granular material systems. Particle level information is needed to properly conduct these simulations. However, not all particle level information is equally important in the study regime. Rolling friction, which is not commonly considered in many discrete element models, appears to play an important role. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
X-ray tomography system to investigate granular materials during mechanical loading
Athanassiadis, Athanasios G; Sidky, Emil; Pelizzari, Charles; Pan, Xiaochuan; Jaeger, Heinrich M
2014-01-01
We integrate a small and portable medical x-ray device with mechanical testing equipment to enable in-situ, non-invasive measurements of a granular material's response to mechanical loading. We employ an orthopedic C-arm as the x-ray source and detector to image samples mounted in the materials tester. We discuss the design of a custom rotation stage, which allows for sample rotation and tomographic reconstruction under applied compressive stress. We then discuss the calibration of the system for 3d computed tomography, as well as the subsequent image reconstruction process. Using this system to reconstruct packings of 3d-printed particles, we resolve packing features with 0.52 mm resolution in a (60 mm)$^3$ field of view. By analyzing the performance bounds of the system, we demonstrate that the reconstructions exhibit only moderate noise.
X-ray tomography system to investigate granular materials during mechanical loading
Athanassiadis, Athanasios G.; La Rivière, Patrick J.; Sidky, Emil; Pelizzari, Charles; Pan, Xiaochuan; Jaeger, Heinrich M.
2014-08-01
We integrate a small and portable medical x-ray device with mechanical testing equipment to enable in situ, non-invasive measurements of a granular material's response to mechanical loading. We employ an orthopedic C-arm as the x-ray source and detector to image samples mounted in the materials tester. We discuss the design of a custom rotation stage, which allows for sample rotation and tomographic reconstruction under applied compressive stress. We then discuss the calibration of the system for 3D computed tomography, as well as the subsequent image reconstruction process. Using this system to reconstruct packings of 3D-printed particles, we resolve packing features with 0.52 mm resolution in a (60 mm)3 field of view. By analyzing the performance bounds of the system, we demonstrate that the reconstructions exhibit only moderate noise.
X-ray tomography system to investigate granular materials during mechanical loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Athanassiadis, Athanasios G. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); La Rivière, Patrick J.; Sidky, Emil; Pan, Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Pelizzari, Charles [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Jaeger, Heinrich M., E-mail: h-jaeger@uchicago.edu [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2014-08-15
We integrate a small and portable medical x-ray device with mechanical testing equipment to enable in situ, non-invasive measurements of a granular material's response to mechanical loading. We employ an orthopedic C-arm as the x-ray source and detector to image samples mounted in the materials tester. We discuss the design of a custom rotation stage, which allows for sample rotation and tomographic reconstruction under applied compressive stress. We then discuss the calibration of the system for 3D computed tomography, as well as the subsequent image reconstruction process. Using this system to reconstruct packings of 3D-printed particles, we resolve packing features with 0.52 mm resolution in a (60 mm){sup 3} field of view. By analyzing the performance bounds of the system, we demonstrate that the reconstructions exhibit only moderate noise.
Creep of sound paths in consolidated granular material detected through coda wave interferometry.
Espíndola, David; Galaz, Belfor; Melo, Francisco
2016-07-01
The time evolution of the contact force structure of a consolidated granular material subjected to a constant stress is monitored using the coda wave interferometry method. In addition, the nature of the aging and rejuvenation processes are investigated. These processes are interpreted in terms of affine and nonaffine structural path deformations. During the later stages of creep, the rearrangements of subgrains are so small that they only produce affine deformations in the contact paths, without any significant changes in the structural configuration. As a result, the strain path distribution follows the macroscopic strain. Conversely, in the presence of ultrasonic perturbations, the nonaffine grain buckling mechanism dominates, producing relatively drastic changes in the structural configuration accompanied by path deformations of the order of the grain size. This plastic mechanism induces material rejuvenation that is observed macroscopically as an ultrasonically accelerated creep.
Solitary granular avalanches: stability, fingering and theoretical modeling
Malloggi, Florent; Andreotti, Bruno; Clément, Eric; Aronson, Igor; Tsimring, Lev
2008-03-01
Avalanching processes do not only occur in the air as we know of snow avalanches, mud flows and land-slides. Such events frequently happen below the see level as they take many forms from turbidity currents to thick sediment waves. In this study we report results on laboratory scale avalanche experiments taking place both in the air and under-water. In both cases a family of stable solitary erosion/deposition waves is observed [1]. At higher inclination angles, we show the existence of a long wavelength transverse instability followed by a coarsening and the onset of a fingering pattern. While the experiments strongly differ by the spatial and time scales, the agreement between the stability diagrams, the wavelengths selection and the avalanche morphology suggest a common erosion/deposition scenario. We also use these erosion/deposition waves to investigate the dynamics of granular flow and jamming in the frame work of the Partial Fluidization Theory (PFT) proposed by Aronson et al. to describe the dynamics of granular matter near jamming [2]. [1] F. Malloggi et al. Europhysics Letters, 2006, Erosion waves: Transverse instabilities and fingering 75, 825-831 [2] I. S. Aranson et al.. Transverse instability of avalanches in granular flows down an incline. Physical Review E, 2006, 73, 050302; I.S.Aronson et al., Non rheological properties of granular flows: exploring the near jamming limit, preprint (2007).
Thornton, Anthony; Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David; Luding, Stefan
2017-06-01
We review simulations, experiments and a theoretical treatment of vertically vibrated granular media. The systems considered are confined in narrow quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional (column) geometries, where the vertical extension of the container is much larger than one or both horizontal lengths. The additional geometric constraint present in the column setup frustrates the convection state that is normally observed in wider geometries. We start by showing that the Event Driven (ED) simulation method is able to accurately reproduce the previously experimentally determined phase-diagram for vibrofludised granular materials. We then review two papers that used ED simulations to study narrow quasi-one-dimensional systems revealing a new phenomenon: collective oscillations of the grains with a characteristic frequency that is much lower than the frequency of energy injection. Theoretical work was then undertaken that is able to accurately predict the frequency of such an oscillation and Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) experiments were undertaken to provide the first experimental evidence of this new phenomenon. Finally, we briefly discuss ongoing work to create an open-source version of this ED via its integration in the existing open-source package MercuryDPM (http://MercuryDPM.org); which has many advanced features that are not found in other codes.
颗粒介质结构与力学特征研究综述%STRUCTURE AND THERMODYNAMICS OF GRANULAR MATERIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘传奇; 孙其诚; 王光谦
2014-01-01
The granular materials are composed of a collection of discrete and solid particles,such as coarse sands and debris accumulation.Using data from experiments or based on engineering experiences,numerous models are developed to describe certain mechanical phenomena of granular materials.However,our understandings of the mechanical properties of granular materials and their physical nature remain limited.The specific mechanical properties of granular materials come from complicated processes of the energy transportation,the disordered structure in the long-range and the ordered structure in the short-range.In this paper,some developments in measuring the inherent structural characteristics,the thermodynamics,and the transformation between solid and fluid states of granular materials are discussed.A new research approach is proposed to unify the thermodynamics and the structural analysis to have a better understanding of granular materials.%颗粒介质由大量离散的粗颗粒聚集而成,如自然界中的粗砂和碎屑堆积体等.在工程实践中,人们依据经验和实验数据建立了许多模型,虽然可以满意地描述某些力学现象,但是对颗粒介质力学性质全貌的认识以及颗粒介质物理本质的理解仍远远不够.颗粒介质长程无序、短程有序的结构和复杂的能量转化过程,注定了其独特的力学性质.该文综述了颗粒介质结构探测和表征技术、热力学理论和固态-流态转变方面的新进展,特别介绍了清华大学近5年来开展的颗粒介质结构模型化方法和双颗粒温度热力学理论.最后,提出了开展结构分析-热力学理论的联合研究思路,以期更加深入认识颗粒介质的力学特性,探究颗粒介质的热力学根源,改善现有唯象研究现状.
Numerical Simulation on Dense Packing of Granular Materials by Container Oscillation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The packing of granular materials is a basic and important problem in geomechanics. An approach, which generates dense packing of spheres confined in cylindrical and cuboidal containers in three steps, is introduced in this work. A loose packing structure is first generated by means of a reference lattice method. Then a dense packing structure is obtained in a container by simulating dropping of particles under gravitational forces. Furthermore, a scheme that makes the bottom boundary fluctuate up and down was applied to obtain more denser packing. The discrete element method (DEM was employed to simulate the interactions between particle-particle and particle-boundary during the particles' motions. Finally, two cases were presented to indicate the validity of the method proposed in this work.
Kajian Fisika Aliran Material Granular Dedak Gandum Di Dalam Saluran Microfluidic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Perima -
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi mikroelektronik telah melahirkan suatu cabang ilmu baru yaitu microfluidics. Teknologi ini dapat memanipulasi instrumentasi laboratorium menjadi satu chip. Proses pembuatan chip diawali dengan pembuatan mask kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan master untuk kemudian dituangkan larutan Polydimethil siloxane (PDMS dan diikatkan dengan kaca melalui teknologi plasma. Kemudian setelah chip dibuat, dilakukanuji microfluidics dengan melewatkan campuran material granular dedak gandum dan air di dalam saluran chip tersebut dengan kecepatan 5,000 μl/jam dan pola aliran direkam dengan menggunakan kamera kecepatan tinggi. Dari hasil rekaman, gambar dianalisis dengan menggunakan persamaan Navier-Stokes dan dilakukan simulasi untuk dapat menduga pola aliran yang terjadi di dalam saluran.Kesimpulan yang didapatkan menunjukkan bahwa aliran fluida yang diperoleh bersifat non-newtonian, dan partikel dedak gandum memiliki sifat tabrakan inleastik. The development of microelectronic technology leads to a new technology branch, namely microfluidics. This technology can manipulate a complicated laboratory instrument into a single chip. The process of making chip starts with making mask, molding a master, pouring of Polydimethilsiloxane (PDMS into the master, and then making the bonding between the PDMS and glass by using plasma technology. The next step is microfluidics testing by passing the mixing of granular material wheatbran and dionized water through the chip’s channel with the speed of 5,000 μl/hour, and recording the flow of fluid by using high speed camera. The result was then analyzed by Navier-Stokes equation and employed the simulation to predict the flow inside the chip. It can be concluded that the characteristics of fluid’s flow found are non-newtonian fluid and the wheatbran particle has inelastic collision.
Kajian Fisika Aliran Material Granular Dedak Gandum Di Dalam Saluran Microfluidic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Perima -
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi mikroelektronik telah melahirkan suatu cabang ilmu baru yaitu microfluidics. Teknologi ini dapat memanipulasi instrumentasi laboratorium menjadi satu chip. Proses pembuatan chip diawali dengan pembuatan mask kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan master untuk kemudian dituangkan larutan Polydimethil siloxane (PDMS dan diikatkan dengan kaca melalui teknologi plasma. Kemudian setelah chip dibuat, dilakukanuji microfluidics dengan melewatkan campuran material granular dedak gandum dan air di dalam saluran chip tersebut dengan kecepatan 5,000 μl/jam dan pola aliran direkam dengan menggunakan kamera kecepatan tinggi. Dari hasil rekaman, gambar dianalisis dengan menggunakan persamaan Navier-Stokes dan dilakukan simulasi untuk dapat menduga pola aliran yang terjadi di dalam saluran.Kesimpulan yang didapatkan menunjukkan bahwa aliran fluida yang diperoleh bersifat non-newtonian, dan partikel dedak gandum memiliki sifat tabrakan inleastik. The development of microelectronic technology leads to a new technology branch, namely microfluidics. This technology can manipulate a complicated laboratory instrument into a single chip. The process of making chip starts with making mask, molding a master, pouring of Polydimethilsiloxane (PDMS into the master, and then making the bonding between the PDMS and glass by using plasma technology. The next step is microfluidics testing by passing the mixing of granular material wheatbran and dionized water through the chip’s channel with the speed of 5,000 μl/hour, and recording the flow of fluid by using high speed camera. The result was then analyzed by Navier-Stokes equation and employed the simulation to predict the flow inside the chip. It can be concluded that the characteristics of fluid’s flow found are non-newtonian fluid and the wheatbran particle has inelastic collision.
Inherent Segregation in Granular Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sánchez-Guzmán J.
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A study of the inherent segregation within granular media due to the relative size of the different particles is presented. A numerical model is used to simulate granular structures. For both simulation and granular structures evaluations, probability theory is widely used. Particles are idealized by disks (2D model and spheres (3D model. Strictly uniform grain size materials, bimodal (two particle sizes and continuous are simulated. Two variables representing segregation and allowing appreciating the grain-size parameters effects are considered. In uniform materials, the presence of spontaneous structuring is observed. In bimodal and continuous materials, inherent segregation mainly depends on the ratio between maximum and minimum diameters of particle. Some practical implications of inherent segregation in geotechnical problems and other disciplines are remarked.
New advance on non-hydrostatic shallow granular flow model in a global Cartesian coordinate system
Yuan, L; Zhai, J; Wu, S F; Patra, A K; Pitman, E B
2016-01-01
Mathematical modeling of granular avalanche flows over a general topography needs appropriate forms of shallow granular flow models. Current shallow granular flow models suited to arbitrary topography can be grossly divided into two types, those formulated in bed-fitted curvilinear coordinates (e.g., Ref.~\\cite{{Puda2003}}), and those formulated in global Cartesian coordinates (e.g., Refs.~\\cite{{Bouchut2004},{Denlinger2004},{Castro2014}}). In the recent years, several improvements have been made in global Cartesian formulations for shallow granular flows. In this paper, we first perform a review of the Cartesian model of Denlinger and Iverson \\cite{Denlinger2004} and the Cartesian Boussinesq-type granular flow theory of Castr-Ogaz \\emph{et al.} \\cite{Castro2014}. Both formulations account for the effect of nonzero vertical acceleration on depth-averaged momentum fluxes and stress states. We then further calculate the vertical normal stress of Castr-Ogaz \\emph{et al.}~\\cite{Castro2014} and the basal normal st...
Torsional shear flow of granular materials: shear localization and minimum energy principle
Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick
2016-10-01
The rheological properties of granular matter submitted to torsional shear are investigated numerically by means of discrete element method. The shear cell is made of a cylinder filled by grains which are sheared by a bumpy bottom and submitted to a vertical pressure which is applied at the top. Regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. The effects of the (i) the applied pressure, (ii) sidewall friction, and (iii) angular velocity are investigated. A model, based on the purely local μ (I) -rheology and a minimum energy principle is able to capture the effect of the two former quantities but unable to account the effect of the latter. Although, an ad hoc modification of the model allows to reproduce all the numerical results, our results point out the need for an alternative rheology.
DAMAGE AND FRACTURE EVALUATION OF GRANULAR COMPOSITE MATERIALS BY DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jue; XIONG Chunyang; LI Hongju; LI Ming; WANG Jianxiang; FANG Jing
2004-01-01
This paper presents the applications of digital image correlation technique to the mesoscopic damage and fracture study of some granular based composite materials including steelfiber reinforced concrete, sandstone and crystal-polymer composite. The deformation fields of the composite materials resulted from stress localization were obtained by the correlation computation of the surface images with loading steps and thus the related damage prediction and fracture parameters were evaluated. The correlation searching could be performed either directly based on the gray levels of the digital images or from the wavelet transform (WT) coefficients of the transform spectrum. The latter was developed by the authors and showed higher resolution and sensitivity to the singularity detection.Because the displacement components came from the rough surfaces of the composite materials without any coats of gratings or fringes of optical interferometry, both surface profiles and the deformation fields of the composites were visualized which was helpful to compare each other to analyze the damage of those heterogeneous materials.
Mechanical properties of some granular agricultural materials used in silo design
Moya, M.; Aguado, P. J.; Ayuga, F.
2013-03-01
The aim of this research was to provide values for different material properties considered in either traditional or more recent numerical silo design methods. Different samples of granular agricultural materials commonly stored in silos were tested. Common geotechnical devices have been used in order to make the replications easier. Based on these experiments it was determined that the different material properties were not affected by the test velocity, except in the case of Poisson ratio. From a practical point of view, the test velocity correlates well with the sliding velocity of grain during discharge. The values obtained for material properties considered in traditional silo design methods were similar to those reported by other authors. No significant differences were observed in the results obtained when using either the square shear box or the circular shear cell. The same conclusion was reached when comparing the results from direct shear tests with preconsolidated and unconsolidated samples. This means that simplified devices and procedures can be used in agricultural grains against other products. Finally, a table with the recommended values for the different parameters determined for each sample tested was provided in this work.
Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.
2006-01-01
A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using on
1991-05-22
Eisenberg 1987). Among other formulations, the existing models are based on the theories of elasticity, hypoelasticity , plasticity and viscoplasticity...AD-A238 158 AFOSR4R. 91 069.1 A STUDY OF THE BEHAVIOR AND MICROMECHANICAL MODELLING OF GRANULAR SOIL DTIC VOLUME mI ELECTIE A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION...Final 1/6/ 9-5/15/91 4. nU AN SUS"Ll5. FUNDING NUMBERS A Study of the Behavior and Micromechanical Modelling of Grant AFOSR-89-0350 Granular Soil PR
Multi-scale coupling strategy for fully two-dimensional and depth-averaged models for granular flows
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Domnik, Birte; Miller, Stephen A.
2013-04-01
We developed a full two-dimensional Coulomb-viscoplastic model and applied it for inclined channel flows of granular materials from initiation to their deposition. The model includes the basic features and observed phenomena in dense granular flows like the exhibition of a yield strength and a non-zero slip velocity. A pressure-dependent yield strength is proposed to account for the frictional nature of granular materials. The yield strength can be related to the internal friction angle of the material and plays an important role, for example, in deposition processes. The interaction of the flow with the solid boundary is modelled by a pressure and rate-dependent Coulomb-viscoplastic sliding law. We developed an innovative multi-scale strategy to couple the full two-dimensional, non depth-averaged model (N-DAM) with a one-dimensional, depth-averaged model (DAM). The coupled model reduces computational complexity dramatically by using DAM only in regions with smooth changes of flow variables. The numerics uses N-DAM in regions where depth-averaging becomes inaccurate, for instance, in the initiation and deposition regions, and (particularly) when the flow hits an obstacle or a defense structure. In these regions, momentum transfer must be, and is, considered in all directions. We observe very high coupling performance, and show that the numerical results deviate only slightly from results of the much more cumbersome full two-dimensional model. This shows that the coupled model, which retains all the basic physics of the flow, is an attractive alternative to an expensive, full two-dimensional simulations. We compare simulation results with different experimental data for shock waves appearing in rapid granular flows down inclined channels and impacting a wall. The model predicts the evolution of the strong shock wave and the impact force on a rigid wall for different inclination angles and sliding surfaces. It is demonstrated that the internal friction angle plays an
Investigation of proper modeling of very dense granular flows in the recirculation system of CFBs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Aristeidis Nikolopoulos; Nikos Nikolopoulos; Nikos Varveris; Sotirios Karellas; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is the development of new models and/or the improvement of existing numerical models,used for simulating granular flow in CFB (circulating fluidized bed) recirculation systems.Most recent models follow the TFM (two-fluid model) methodology,but they cannot effectively simulate the inter-particle friction forces in the recirculation system,because the respective stress tensor does not incorporate compressibility of flow due to change of effective particle density.As a consequence,the induced normal and shear stresses are not modeled appropriately during the flow of the granular phase in the CFB recirculation system.The failure of conventional models,such as that of von Mises/Coulomb,is mainly caused by false approximation of the yield criterion which is not applicable to the CFB recirculation system.The present work adopts an alternative yield function,used for the first time in TFM Eulerian modeling.The proposed model is based on the Pitman-Schaeffer-Gray-Stiles yield criterion.Both the temporal deformation of the solid granular phase and the repose angle that the granular phase forms are more accurately simulated by this model.The numerical results of the proposed model agree well with experimental data,implying that frictional forces are efficiently simulated by the new model.
High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications
Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad
2012-01-01
NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure
Study of an athermal quasi static plastic deformation in a 2D granular material
Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Jie
2016-11-01
In crystalline materials, the plasticity has been well understood in terms of dynamics of dislocation, i.e. flow defects in the crystals where the flow defects can be directly visualized under a microscope. In a contrast, the plasticity in amorphous materials, i.e. glass, is still poorly understood due to the disordered nature of the materials. In this talk, I will discuss the recent results we have obtained in our ongoing research of the plasticity of a 2D glass in the athermal quasi static limit where the 2D glass is made of bi-disperse granular disks with very low friction. Starting from a densely packed homogeneous and isotropic initial state, we apply pure shear deformation to the system. For a sufficiently small strain, the response of the system is linear and elastic like; when the strain is large enough, the plasticity of the system gradually develops and eventually the shear bands are fully developed. In this study, we are particularly interested in how to relate the local plastic deformation to the macroscopic response of the system and also in the development of the shear bands.
Modeling gas formation and mineral precipitation in a granular iron column.
Jeen, Sung-Wook; Amos, Richard T; Blowes, David W
2012-06-19
In granular iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), hydrogen gas formation, entrapment and release of gas bubbles, and secondary mineral precipitation have been known to affect the permeability and reactivity. The multicomponent reactive transport model MIN3P was enhanced to couple gas formation and release, secondary mineral precipitation, and the effects of these processes on hydraulic properties and iron reactivity. The enhanced model was applied to a granular iron column, which was studied for the treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of dissolved CaCO(3). The simulation reasonably reproduced trends in gas formation, secondary mineral precipitation, permeability changes, and reactivity changes observed over time. The simulation showed that the accumulation of secondary minerals reduced the reactivity of the granular iron over time, which in turn decreased the rate of mineral accumulation, and also resulted in a gradual decrease in gas formation over time. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the evolving nature of geochemistry and permeability, resulting from coupled processes of gas formation and mineral precipitation, which leads to a better understanding of the processes controlling the granular iron reactivity, and represents an improved method for incorporating these factors into the design of granular iron PRBs.
Physically-based modelling of granular flows with Open Source GIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mergili
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Computer models, in combination with Geographic Information Sciences (GIS, play an important role in up-to-date studies of travel distance, impact area, velocity or energy of granular flows (e.g. snow or rock avalanches, flows of debris or mud. Simple empirical-statistical relationships or mass point models are frequently applied in GIS-based modelling environments. However, they are only appropriate for rough overviews at the regional scale. In detail, granular flows are highly complex processes and physically-based, distributed models are required for detailed studies of travel distance, velocity, and energy of such phenomena. One of the most advanced theories for understanding and modelling granular flows is the Savage-Hutter type model, a system of differential equations based on the conservation of mass and momentum. The equations have been solved for a number of idealized topographies, but only few attempts to find a solution for arbitrary topography or to integrate the model with GIS are known up to now. The work presented is understood as an initiative to integrate a fully physically-based model for the motion of granular flows, based on the extended Savage-Hutter theory, with GRASS, an Open Source GIS software package. The potentials of the model are highlighted, employing the Val Pola Rock Avalanche (Northern Italy, 1987 as the test event, and the limitations as well as the most urging needs for further research are discussed.
Physically-based modelling of granular flows with Open Source GIS
Mergili, M.; Schratz, K.; Ostermann, A.; Fellin, W.
2012-01-01
Computer models, in combination with Geographic Information Sciences (GIS), play an important role in up-to-date studies of travel distance, impact area, velocity or energy of granular flows (e.g. snow or rock avalanches, flows of debris or mud). Simple empirical-statistical relationships or mass point models are frequently applied in GIS-based modelling environments. However, they are only appropriate for rough overviews at the regional scale. In detail, granular flows are highly complex processes and physically-based, distributed models are required for detailed studies of travel distance, velocity, and energy of such phenomena. One of the most advanced theories for understanding and modelling granular flows is the Savage-Hutter type model, a system of differential equations based on the conservation of mass and momentum. The equations have been solved for a number of idealized topographies, but only few attempts to find a solution for arbitrary topography or to integrate the model with GIS are known up to now. The work presented is understood as an initiative to integrate a fully physically-based model for the motion of granular flows, based on the extended Savage-Hutter theory, with GRASS, an Open Source GIS software package. The potentials of the model are highlighted, employing the Val Pola Rock Avalanche (Northern Italy, 1987) as the test event, and the limitations as well as the most urging needs for further research are discussed.
Zhang, Yun; Richardson, Derek C.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Maurel, Clara; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Li, Junfeng
2017-09-01
As the target of the proposed Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission, the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos represents a special class of binary asteroids, those whose primaries are at risk of rotational disruption. To gain a better understanding of these binary systems and to support the AIDA mission, this paper investigates the creep stability of the Didymos primary by representing it as a cohesionless self-gravitating granular aggregate subject to rotational acceleration. To achieve this goal, a soft-sphere discrete element model (SSDEM) capable of simulating granular systems in quasi-static states is implemented and a quasi-static spin-up procedure is carried out. We devise three critical spin limits for the simulated aggregates to indicate their critical states triggered by reshaping and surface shedding, internal structural deformation, and shear failure, respectively. The failure condition and mode, and shear strength of an aggregate can all be inferred from the three critical spin limits. The effects of arrangement and size distribution of constituent particles, bulk density, spin-up path, and interparticle friction are numerically explored. The results show that the shear strength of a spinning self-gravitating aggregate depends strongly on both its internal configuration and material parameters, while its failure mode and mechanism are mainly affected by its internal configuration. Additionally, this study provides some constraints on the possible physical properties of the Didymos primary based on observational data and proposes a plausible formation mechanism for this binary system. With a bulk density consistent with observational uncertainty and close to the maximum density allowed for the asteroid, the Didymos primary in certain configurations can remain geo-statically stable without requiring cohesion.
Granular Solid-liquid Transition: Experiment and Simulation
Fei, M.; Xu, X.; Sun, Q.
2015-12-01
Granular media are amorphous materials, which differs from traditional solid or liquid. In different circumstance, granular behavior varies from solid-like to liquid-like, and the transitions between these regimes are always related to many complex natural progresses such as the failure of soil foundation and the occurrence of landslide and debris flow. The mechanic of elastic instability during the transition from solid-like to liquid-like regime, and the quantitative description of irreversible deformation during flow are the key problems to interpret these transition phenomena. In this work, we developed a continuum model with elastic stable condition and irreversible flow rule of granular material based on a thermal dynamical model, the Two-Granular-Temperature model (TGT). Since infinitesimal elastic deformation in solid-like regime and significant plastic large deformation in liquid-like regime can coexist in the granular solid-liquid transition process, the material point method (MPM) was used to build an effective numerical model. Collapse of rectangular granular pile contains both the transition from granular solid to granular liquid and the inverse process, thus in this work we carried out collapse experiment with clay particles, and simulated the experiment with our continuum model and an open-source DEM model YADE to study the transition processes. Results between experiment and simulations were compared and good agreements on collapse shape and velocity profiles were achieved, and the new model proposed in this work seems to work well on the description of granular solid-liquid transition.
Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.
2011-12-01
The cross-sectional shape of high-gradient bedrock channels carved by debris flows is often very similar to that of channels formed by fluvial erosion. Both tend to have narrow U-shapes with width-to-depth ratios much less than 10. Gullies and channels cut into colluvium by both water erosion and debris-flow erosion have similarly narrow geometries. Given that the physics governing debris flow and turbulent water flow are very different, why are channels eroded by these two processes so similar in shape? To begin to investigate this question, we conducted a series of numerical simulations using continuum models for the end-member cases of granular flow and water flow. Each model is used to evolve the steady-state channel shape formed by uniform flow of the respective material. The granular model is based on the constitutive equation for dense granular flow proposed by Jop et al. (Nature, 2006). They demonstrated that without any fitting parameters, a numerical model using this constitutive equation could reproduce the velocity and depth profiles observed in granular-flow laboratory experiments. The model for water flow uses a ray-isovel turbulence closure to calculate the boundary shear stress across the wetted perimeter of the channel. This fully predictive model has also been shown to be in good agreement with laboratory data. We start the calculations for the granular and water-flow cases by determining the velocity and boundary shear-stress fields in an initial V-shape cross section. We then erode both channels using a simple wear law scaled linearly by the bed-normal boundary shear stress. The calculation is repeated until the channel reaches an equilibrium shape. Initial comparisons of the granular and water-flow channels show that they have very similar width-to-depth ratios of about four, and only moderate differences in bottom geometries and boundary shear-stress distributions. The structure of the velocity field differs more substantially between the two
DEM/CFD modelling of the deposition of dilute granular systems in a vertical container
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Shen; GUO Yu; WU ChuanYu
2009-01-01
Deposition of granular materials into a container is a general industrial packing process. In this study, the deposition behaviour of dilute granular mixtures consisting of two types of particles that were of the same particle size but different particle densities in the presence of air was numerically analyzed using a coupled discrete element method (DEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Bilayer gra-nular mixtures with light particles at bottom and heavy particles at top were first simulated. It was found that the presence of air significantly affected the flow behaviour of the bilayer mixtures. For the system with a relatively low initial void fraction, the air entrapped inside the container escaped through the dilated zones induced due to the friction between the powder bed and wall surfaces. The escaping air streams entrained light particles that were originally located at the bottom of the granular system. Consequently, these light particles were migrated to the top of the granular bed at the end of deposition process. More light particles were migrated when the deposition distance was increased. For the sys-tem with a high initial void fraction, some light particles penetrated into the top layer of heavy particles and created a mixing zone. Deposition of random mixtures with different initial void fractions was also investigated and the influence of initial void fraction on the segregation behaviour was explored as well. It was found that the increase of void fraction promoted segregation during the deposition in air. It was demonstrated that, for granular mixtures consisting of particles of different air sensitivities, the pres-ence of air had a significant impact on the mixing and segregation behaviour during the deposition.
Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) for pressure-dependent inelasticity in granular rocks
Ashari, Shiva Esna; Cusatis, Gianluca
2016-01-01
This paper deals with the formulation, calibration, and validation of a Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) for the simulation of the pressure-dependent inelastic response of granular rocks. LDPM is formulated in the framework of discrete mechanics and it simulates the heterogeneous deformation of cemented granular systems by means of discrete compatibility/equilibrium equations defined at the grain scale. A numerical strategy is proposed to generate a realistic microstructure based on the actual grain size distribution of a sandstone and the capabilities of the method are illustrated with reference to the particular case of Bleurswiller sandstone, i.e. a granular rock that has been extensively studied at the laboratory scale. LDPM micromechanical parameters are calibrated based on evidences from triaxial experiments, such as hydrostatic compression, brittle failure at low confinement and plastic behavior at high confinement. Results show that LDPM allows exploring the effect of fine-scale heterogeneity on...
Multi-granularity immunization strategy based on SIRS model in scale-free network
Nian, Fuzhong; Wang, Ke
2015-04-01
In this paper, a new immunization strategy was established to prevent the epidemic spreading based on the principle of "Multi-granularity" and "Pre-warning Mechanism", which send different pre-warning signal with the risk rank of the susceptible node to be infected. The pre-warning means there is a higher risk that the susceptible node is more likely to be infected. The multi-granularity means the susceptible node is linked with multi-infected nodes. In our model, the effect of the different situation of the multi-granularity immunizations is compared and different spreading rates are adopted to describe the epidemic behavior of nodes. In addition the threshold value of epidemic outbreak is investigated, which makes the result more convincing. The theoretical analysis and the simulations indicate that the proposed immunization strategy is effective and it is also economic and feasible.
Missiaen, Jean-Michel; Raharijaona, Jean-Joël; Delannay, Francis
2016-11-01
A model is developed to compute the capillary pressure for the migration of the liquid phase out or into a uniform solid-liquid-vapor system. The capillary pressure is defined as the reduction of the overall interface energy per volume increment of the transferred fluid phase. The model takes into account the particle size of the solid particle aggregate, the packing configuration (coordination number, porosity), the volume fractions of the different phases, and the values of the interface energies in the system. The model is used for analyzing the stability of the composition profile during processing of W-Cu functionally graded materials combining a composition gradient with a particle size gradient. The migration pressure is computed with the model in two stages: (1) just after the melting of copper, i.e., when sintering and shape accommodation of the W particle aggregate can still be neglected and (2) at high temperature, when the system is close to full density with equilibrium particle shape. The model predicts well the different stages of liquid-phase migration observed experimentally.
Goldman, Daniel I.; Maladen, Ryan D.; Ding, Yang; Umbanhowar, Paul
2010-11-01
We integrate biological experiments, empirical theory, numerical simulation, and a physical robot model to reveal principles of undulatory locomotion in granular media. High speed x-ray imaging of the sandfish, Scincus scincus, in 3 mm glass particles reveals that it swims within the medium without limb use by propagating a single period traveling sinusoidal wave down its body, resulting in a wave efficiency, η, the ratio of its average forward speed to wave speed, of 0.54,,.13. A resistive force theory (RFT) which balances granular thrust and drag forces along the body predicts η close to the observed value. We test this prediction against two other modeling approaches: a numerical model of the sandfish coupled to a Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of the granular medium, and an undulatory robot which swims within granular media. We use these models and analytic solutions of the RFT to vary the ratio of undulation amplitude to wavelength (A/λ) and demonstrate an optimal condition for sand-swimming that results from competition between η and λ. The RFT, in agreement with simulation and robot models, predicts that for a single period sinusoidal wave, maximal speed occurs for A/λ 0.2, the same kinematics used by the sandfish.
Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment
Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping
Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.
Nguyen, V.; Gland, N. F.; Dautriat, J.; Guelard, J.; David, C.
2010-12-01
During the production of petroleum reservoirs, compaction due to depletion (pore fluid pressure reduction) can lead to emphasis of natural permeability anisotropy and significant permeability reduction. Under such effective stress increase, weakly consolidated reservoirs will undergo strong deformation inducing important modifications of the transport properties, which control the fluid flows in the reservoir and the productivity of the wells. Classically the mechanical loadings applied in the laboratory are either hydrostatic or deviatoric at constant confining pressure; however the 'in-situ' stress paths experienced by the reservoirs differ; it is thus important to perform loading tests with more appropriate conditions such as ‘proportional triaxial’ and ‘oedometric’. This study focuses on the elastoplatic behaviour of non to weakly consolidated reservoir rocks (analogues) and the influence of the stress path (K=ΔσH/ΔσV) on the evolutions of porosity and permeability. Generally, permeability of pourous rocks evolves in three stages: (1) initial decrease related to compaction (soft rocks) or closing of pre-existing microflaws (compact rocks), (2) small reduction associated to the 'linear' deformation regime, (3) drop due to a strong compaction linked to porosity collapse and grain crushing mechanisms. The intensity of this reduction depends on the stress path coefficient, the grain sharpness and the granular texture. We use a triaxial cell (maximum axial load of 80kN and maximum confinement of 69MPa) to perform proportional triaxial compression tests (0elastoplastic properties. Our loading protocol combines compaction at imposed stress rates and creep phases at constant load. Yield surfaces (and hardening parameter) are determined on the basis of the Modified Cam-Clay model to delimit elastic and plastic regions. For the studied glass beads (analogue for rounded sands) the critical pressure at failure for K=1 is P*=30MPa and the critical state line
Use of steel slag as a granular material: volume expansion prediction and usability criteria.
Wang, George; Wang, Yuhong; Gao, Zhili
2010-12-15
The theoretical equation for predicting volume expansion of steel slag is deduced based on both chemical reaction and physical changes of free lime in steel slag during the hydration process. Laboratory volume expansion testing is conducted to compare the results with the theoretical volume expansion. It is proved that they correlated well. It is furthermore experimentally proved that certain volume expansion of steel slag can be absorbed internally by the void volume in bulk steel slag under external surcharge weight making the apparent volume expansion equal zero. The minimum (lowest) absorbable void volume is approximately 7.5%, which is unrelated to the free lime content. A usability criterion is then developed based on the volume expansion of steel slag (%) and the minimum percentage of the volume that can take the volume expansion of steel slag (%). Eventually the criterion (relationship) is established based on the free lime content, the specific gravity and bulk relative gravity of a specific steel slag sample. The criteria can be used as guidance and specification for the use of steel slag and other expansion-prone nonferrous slags, copper, nickel for instance as a granular material in highway construction.
Multiscale modeling of rapid granular flow with a hybrid discrete-continuum method
Chen, Xizhong; Li, Jinghai
2015-01-01
Both discrete and continuum models have been widely used to study rapid granular flow, discrete model is accurate but computationally expensive, whereas continuum model is computationally efficient but its accuracy is doubtful in many situations. Here we propose a hybrid discrete-continuum method to profit from the merits but discard the drawbacks of both discrete and continuum models. Continuum model is used in the regions where it is valid and discrete model is used in the regions where continuum description fails, they are coupled via dynamical exchange of parameters in the overlap regions. Simulation of granular channel flow demonstrates that the proposed hybrid discrete-continuum method is nearly as accurate as discrete model, with much less computational cost.
Toward Generalized Continuum Models of Granular Soil and Soil-Tire Interaction
2007-11-02
Geomechanics , BIT Numerik Mathematik, International Journal of Solids and Structures. In addition, we have four more papers currently in review: one in...Methods in Geomechanics . 6. Technology Transfer Our group is collaborating with Dr. John Peters of the Geotechnical Laboratory at ERDC on a number of...Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics , in press [5] Walsh, S and Tordesillas, A (2004) “The stress response of a semi-infinite granular material
Mihalache, Constance; Buscarnera, Giuseppe
2013-04-01
Granular materials are susceptible to a wide variety of failure and deformation mechanisms, especially because of their interaction with the pore fluids and the surrounding environment. An adequate modeling of their mechanical response is therefore essential for understanding a number of geological processes, such as the onset of rapid landslides, hillslope denudation and sediment transport, or even the mechanics of fault gauges. Depending on the type of material, the groundwater conditions and the surrounding kinematic constraints, both diffuse and localized mechanisms are possible, and these may occur under either drained or undrained conditions. In the geomechanics literature, failure modes are usually explained and modeled with the tools of continuum mechanics, such as the mathematical theory of plasticity. Due to the complexity of granular material behavior, however, most classical models for frictional strength are unable to capture the variety of instability mechanisms observed for such class of geomaterials (e.g., liquefaction, shear banding, etc.). Sophisticated strain-hardening plasticity models are therefore required for numerical modeling purposes, thus making the evaluation of critical failure conditions less straightforward than in perfect plasticity theories. Here we propose a mathematical strategy that can be adapted to any elastoplastic model and allows the onset of failure in elastoplastic geomaterials to be expressed in a more general manner. More specifically, our theory expresses the failure conditions as a function of local kinematics and solid-fluid interactions. The stability criterion used in this study is based on the so-called stability modulus, a scalar index of failure that was formulated by linking the physical concept controllability to the mathematical notion of plastic admissibility upon an incremental loading path [Buscarnera et al, 2011]. In this contribution, different loading constraints are considered, accounting for the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王学文; Qin Yi; 李娟莉; Tian Yankang; 杨兆建
2015-01-01
Finite element models, which employ the Drucker-Prager yield criterion, have been developed to simulate the static contact statuses between conical silos and granular materials in 3 forms:the near contact, the sliding contact and the sticking contact. Contact conditions are established when 2 separated surfaces touch at normal direction while maintaining tangential relative movement. In general physical meaning, the surfaces in contact status have the following characteristics: 1) No penetration between each other;2) The normal pressure and the tangent friction force may be transferred during contact;3) Generally the normal pulling force cannot be transferred when surface separation occurs. Due to the symmetric property of conical structures, simplified two-dimensional contacting simulations are carried out in this paper, nonlinear finite element software ANSYS is used and the contacting surfaces between granular materials and conical silos are defined with rigid-to-flexible surface-to-surface contact pair. The target surfaces of conical silos are modeled with TARGE169 element and the contact surfaces of granular materials are modeled with CONTA171 element. During finite element analysis, conical silos and granular materials are meshed with two-dimensional solid element, PLANE42. The static contact statuses are investigated with conical silos containing different granular materials. The silo geometries vary at a dip angle of 20°, 33.7° and 45°. Sunflower seeds, corn, coal, rounded gravel and wheat are selected as the granular materials. Results show that the mechanical properties of granular materials (including bulk density, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, dilation angle, internal friction angle, cohesion) and silo designs (especially dip angle) have significant effects on the contact statuses at the interface between conical silos and granular materials:1) For various granular material, 3 contact statuses, i.e. the form of near contact, sliding contact and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabil Arman
2010-06-01
Full Text Available E-learning materials development is typically acknowledged as an expensive, complicated, and lengthy process, often producing materials that are of low quality and difficult to adaptand maintain. It has always been a challenge to identify proper e-learning materials that can be reused at a reasonable cost and effort. In this paper, software engineering reuse principlesare applied to e-learning materials development process. These principles are then applied and implemented in a prototype that is integrated with an open-source course management systems. The reuse of existing e-learning materials is beneficial in improving developers of elearning materials productivity. E-learning material reuse is performed, in this research, based on construct’s granularity rather than on unified constructs of one size.
2007-04-30
of papers containing this body of work have described this as a highly innovative approach at the cutting edge of international geomechanics research...for publication in world-leading journals in granular media mechanics, multi-scale modelling, and experimental and theoretical geomechanics research...international geomechanics research” “an innovative direction for modelling particulate systems” “should be very useful, enriching the knowledge
A two-dimensional model for the dynamics of granular avalanches
2005-01-01
Zoning of avalanche risk areas is one important task of land-use planning in alpine areas. The lack of records, due to the low frequency of these events, makes it dicult to implement a statistical analysis. Simulations made with physical and mathematical models can improve the knowledge of the dynamics of these events. In this thesis three didifferent mathematical and numerical models, based on the rheological theory of Savage and Hutter for granular flows, are introduced. A one dimensi...
Influences on the Molding in Hydroforming Using Granular Material as a Medium
Grüner, Martin; Merklein, Marion
2011-08-01
The need of lightweight construction for the body in white of modern cars increases due to legal restrictions of CO2 emissions and the passengers wishes of safety and low fuel consumption. One approach of lightweight construction is the use of high and ultra high strength steel, to reduce the weight of the single parts, another approach is the use of modern forming technologies, e.g. hydroforming with the possibility to create undercuts, to produce complex parts and thus to reduce the number of parts, the number of joining operations and the weight. The mentioned ultra high strength steels show a poor formability at room temperature and the necessary process forces are high compared to standard deep drawing steels. Warmforming operations can help to reduce the process forces and to increase form ability [1]. To combine the benefits of warmforming and hydroforming new forming media are necessary to overcome the problem of temperature stability of fluids, which is limited to about 350 °C [2]. Beside gases, which tend to leakage and which are highly compressible, granular material like small ceramic beads can be used as a forming medium. First results of forming operations using this medium were presented in [3]. The experimental tool used for those tests pressurizes the medium by a punch. To divide the effects caused by temperature and steel grade from the other effects experiments were carried out at room temperature using the well known deep drawing steel DC04. Influences of the ceramic beads diameter, the number of repetitions, the punch geometry as the punch position, determining the volume of media, on the forming are presented.
Acoustic response of cemented granular sedimentary rocks: molecular dynamics modeling.
García, Xavier; Medina, Ernesto
2007-06-01
The effect of cementation processes on the acoustical properties of sands is studied via molecular dynamics simulation methods. We propose numerical methods where the initial uncemented sand is built by simulating the settling process of sediments. Uncemented samples of different porosity are considered by emulating natural mechanical compaction of sediments due to overburden. Cementation is considered through a particle-based model that captures the underlying physics behind the process. In our simulations, we consider samples with different degrees of compaction and cementing materials with distinct elastic properties. The microstructure of cemented sands is taken into account while adding cement at specific locations within the pores, such as grain-to-grain contacts. Results show that the acoustical properties of cemented sands are strongly dependent on the amount of cement, its stiffness relative to the hosting medium, and its location within the pores. Simulation results are in good correspondence with available experimental data and compare favorably with some theoretical predictions for the sound velocity within a range of cement saturation, porosity, and confining pressure.
Discrete element modeling of inherently anisotropic granular assemblies with polygonal particles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ehsan Seyedi Hosseininia
2012-01-01
In the present article,we study the effect of inherent anisotropy,i.e.,initial bedding angle of particles and associated voids on macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials,by numerical simulation of several biaxial compression tests using the discrete element method (DEM).Particle shape is considered to be irregular convex-polygonal.The effect of inherent anisotropy is investigated by following the evolution of mobilized shear strength and volume change during loading.As experimental tests have already shown,numerical simulations also indicate that initial anisotropic condition has a great influence on the strength and deformational behavior of granular assemblies.Comparison of simulations with tests using oval particles,shows that angularity influences both the mobilized shear strength and the volume change regime,which originates from the interlocking resistance between particles.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current modeling of Lunar and Martian soil erosion and debris transport caused by rocket plume impingement lacks essential physics from the peculiar granular...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhisheng Wu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study demonstrated particle size effect on the measurement of saikosaponin A in Bupleurum chinense DC. by near infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy. Four types of granularity were prepared including powder samples passed through 40-mesh, 65-mesh, 80-mesh, and 100-mesh sieve. Effects of granularity on NIR spectra were investigated, which showed to be wavelength dependent. NIR intensity was proportional to particle size in the first combination-overtone and combination region. Local partial least squares model was constructed separately for every kind of samples, and data-preprocessing techniques were performed to optimize calibration model. The 65-mesh model exhibited the best prediction ability with root mean of square error of prediction (RMSEP = 0.492 mg·g−1, correlation coefficient RP=0.9221, and relative predictive determinant (RPD = 2.58. Furthermore, a granularity-hybrid calibration model was developed by incorporating granularity variation. Granularity-hybrid model showed better performance than local model. The model performance with 65-mesh samples was still the most accurate with RMSEP = 0.481 mg·g−1, RP=0.9279, and RPD = 2.64. All the results presented the guidance for construction of a robust model coupled with granularity-hybrid calibration set.
Investigation of the resilient behavior of granular base materials with simple test apparatus
Araya, A.A.; Huurman, M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Houben, L.J.M.
2012-01-01
In many developing countries, where resources are at premium, thin asphalt layers or chip seals are widely used to provide a durable all weather pavement surfacing. In such pavements the role of granular layers is very important in the general performance of the structure. Pavement designs in these
Investigation of the resilient behavior of granular base materials with simple test apparatus
Araya, A.A.; Huurman, M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Houben, L.J.M.
2012-01-01
In many developing countries, where resources are at premium, thin asphalt layers or chip seals are widely used to provide a durable all weather pavement surfacing. In such pavements the role of granular layers is very important in the general performance of the structure. Pavement designs in these
Two dimension porous media reconstruction using granular model under influence of gravity
Sundari, Pury; Fauzi, Umar; Irayani, Zaroh; Viridi, Sparisoma
2011-01-01
Modeling of pores generation in 2-D with granular grains using molecular dynamics method is reported in this work. Grains with certain diameter distribution are let falling due to gravity. Three configurations (larger diameter on top, smaller diameter on top, and mixed) and two kinds of mixture (same grains density and same grains mass) are used in the simulation. Mixture with heterogen density gives higher porosity than the homogen one for higher initial height, but change into opposite cond...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guang-jin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The researchers cannot control the composition and structure of coarse grained soil in the indoor experiment because the granular particles of different size have the characteristics of random distribution and no sorting. Therefore, on the basis of the laboratory tests with the coarse grained soil, the HHC-Granular model, which could simulate the no sorting and random distribution of different size particles in the coarse-grained soil, was developed by use of cellular automata method. Meanwhile, the triaxial numerical simulation experiments of coarse grained soil were finished with the different composition and structure soil, and the variation of shear strength was discussed. The results showed that the internal friction angle was likely to reduce with the increasing of gravel contents in the coarse-grained soil, but the mean internal friction angle significantly increased with the increment of gravel contents. It indicated that the gravel contents of shear bands were the major factor affecting the shear strength.
The Microstructural Response of Granular Soil Under Uniaxial Strain
1993-10-01
contacts or granular motions will provide insight into more accurate modeling of the material response. The microstructural theory can be directly...use of a flow rule, the ramifications of using an associated or nonassociated flow rule for modeling the response of granular materials will also be...plasticity-based models has been developed over the past 30 yr. Common variations include perfect (ideal) plasticity, hypoelasticity , and viscoplasticity
Continuum modelling of shock waves through granular gases and the role of statistical fluctuations
Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei I.
2016-11-01
Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. Two-dimensional event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were previously completed to investigate the stability of piston driven shock waves through dilute granular gases. By considering viscoelastic collisions, allowing for finite dissipation within the shock wave, instabilities were found in the form of distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. This work is now extended to the continuum level. Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for granular gases are modelled with a modified cooling rate to include an impact threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. The shock structure predicted by the continuum formulation is found in good agreement with the structure obtained by MD. Introducing strong perturbations to the incoming density field, in accordance with the spacial fluctuations in the upstream state seen in MD, yields similar instabilities as those previously observed. While the inviscid model predicts a highly turbulent structure from these perturbations, the inclusion of viscosity and heat conductivity yields comparable wavelengths of pattern formations to those seen in MD.
Resolved granular debris-flow simulations with a coupled SPH-DCDEM model
Birjukovs Canelas, Ricardo; Domínguez, José M.; Crespo, Alejandro J. C.; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho; Ferreira, Rui M. L.
2016-04-01
Debris flows represent some of the most relevant phenomena in geomorphological events. Due to the potential destructiveness of such flows, they are the target of a vast amount of research (Takahashi, 2007 and references therein). A complete description of the internal processes of a debris-flow is however still an elusive achievement, explained by the difficulty of accurately measuring important quantities in these flows and developing a comprehensive, generalized theoretical framework capable of describing them. This work addresses the need for a numerical model applicable to granular-fluid mixtures featuring high spatial and temporal resolution, thus capable of resolving the motion of individual particles, including all interparticle contacts. This corresponds to a brute-force approach: by applying simple interaction laws at local scales the macro-scale properties of the flow should be recovered by upscaling. This methodology effectively bypasses the complexity of modelling the intermediate scales by resolving them directly. The only caveat is the need of high performance computing, a demanding but engaging research challenge. The DualSPHysics meshless numerical implementation, based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is expanded with a Distributed Contact Discrete Element Method (DCDEM) in order to explicitly solve the fluid and the solid phase. The model numerically solves the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for the liquid phase and Newton's motion equations for solid bodies. The interactions between solids are modelled with classical DEM approaches (Kruggel-Emden et al, 2007). Among other validation tests, an experimental set-up for stony debris flows in a slit check dam is reproduced numerically, where solid material is introduced trough a hopper assuring a constant solid discharge for the considered time interval. With each sediment particle undergoing tens of possible contacts, several thousand time-evolving contacts are efficiently treated
Lateral Pressure of RC Silos with Static and Dynamic Granular Materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lingkai Meng
2015-01-01
This paper aims at analyzing material⁃induced lateral pressure of RC cylinder silo in both static and dynamic condition using the finite element method (FEM).In the finite element software ABAQUS, concrete material is modeled by concrete damaged plasticity model, and stored materials in silo is modeled by the hypoplastic theory.In terms of numerical model, shell elements (S4R) and solid elements (C3D8) are applied for model silo wall and stored materials respectively. The interaction between silo wall and stored materials is simulated by Coulomb friction model and penalty contact constrain provided by ABAQUS.The numerical results are verified with the existing experimental data that are designed to ensure the validation of such numerical model using FEM and it obtains good agreements between numerical results and experimental data. Then the material parameters are analyzed in both static and dynamic condition.According to the analysis, it is clear that critical friction angle, initial void ratio and minimum void ratio have an obvious effect on static lateral pressure while all the material parameters affect dynamic lateral pressure at different levels. In addition, differences of silo wall between elastic and plastic state are analyzed in dynamic condition. The numerical results show that it contributes to increasing dynamic pressure when silo wall enters into the plastic state. Finally, this paper discusses the time⁃history lateral pressure at different heights along silo wall, and analytical results indicate that larger acceleration values play main roles in producing the maximum lateral pressure at higher part of the silo wall.
Renouf, Mathieu; Alart, Pierre
2005-01-01
International audience; This paper presents gradient type algorithms to solve frictional multi contact problems written as quasi optimization problems. A single loop scheme formally close to the classical conjugate gradient method is proposed with some adap tations of the iterate corrections and gradient projections. Since the convergence is difficult to prove, various tests in the field of granular media are performed with comparison with the non linear Gauss Seidel scheme.
岩土类颗粒物质宏-细观力学研究进展%ADVANCES IN THE MICRO-MACRO MECHANICS OF GRANULAR SOIL MATERIALS*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙其诚; 程晓辉; 季顺迎; 金峰
2011-01-01
examine the assumptions, concepts, models and theories that previously proposed and being used. In this review paper, major fundamental problems are presented introduced and discussed, including the characteristics of microscale structure, procedure of micro-macro study with Rowe stress dilatancy relation as an example, derivation of stress and strain from microscale structure, the relation of macroscale strength with particle friction, size effect and similarity. In addition, granular soil as a typical granular material, its new developments are summarized. The frequently used techniques are introduced as well.Finally, we present a few aspects in which research should be reinforced, such as examining the assumptions in the discrete element method and checking the computing details, conducting the ideal physical and numerical experiments; by lying on the fast development of high performance computing, carrying on high scientific confidence degree large scale computation of granular materials with high scientific confidence degree; with the help of fast development of high performence computers. The mechanics of granular materials is still at its infancy stage, and there is a long way to directly solve the engineering problems. Essential development of related engineering technologies depends certainly on progress or break-through in the of fundamental studies of granular material mechanics.
An Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuhr, Bryan [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component Science and Mechanics; Lechman, Jeremy B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanoscale and Reactive Processes
2015-03-01
The following details the implementation of an analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of elastic loading followed by a period of mixed elastic plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the elastic/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.
Coupled discrete element modeling of fluid injection into dense granular media
Zhang, Fengshou; Damjanac, Branko; Huang, Haiying
2013-06-01
The coupled displacement process of fluid injection into a dense granular medium is investigated numerically using a discrete element method (DEM) code PFC2D® coupled with a pore network fluid flow scheme. How a dense granular medium behaves in response to fluid injection is a subject of fundamental and applied research interests to better understand subsurface processes such as fluid or gas migration and formation of intrusive features as well as engineering applications such as hydraulic fracturing and geological storage in unconsolidated formations. The numerical analysis is performed with DEM executing the mechanical calculation and the network model solving the Hagen-Poiseuille equation between the pore spaces enclosed by chains of particles and contacts. Hydromechanical coupling is realized by data exchanging at predetermined time steps. The numerical results show that increase in the injection rate and the invading fluid viscosity and decrease in the modulus and permeability of the medium result in fluid flow behaviors displaying a transition from infiltration-governed to infiltration-limited and the granular medium responses evolving from that of a rigid porous medium to localized failure leading to the development of preferential paths. The transition in the fluid flow and granular medium behaviors is governed by the ratio between the characteristic times associated with fluid injection and hydromechanical coupling. The peak pressures at large injection rates when fluid leakoff is limited compare well with those from the injection experiments in triaxial cells in the literature. The numerical analysis also reveals intriguing tip kinematics field for the growth of a fluid channel, which may shed light on the occurrence of the apical inverted-conical features in sandstone and magma intrusion in unconsolidated formations.
Modelling of a recirculating granular medium filter's processes.
Boutin, C; Parouty, R; Ménoret, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F
2002-01-01
The effluents of French small farm factories will soon be submitted to regulation. Only a few treatment techniques are available to deal with these kind of effluent (high concentration and small daily volumes). To allow the treatment, in the particular economic context of small food processing industries, Cemagref is trying to adapt a treatment based on attached growth cultures on fine media, a system known to be easy to operate and relatively inexpensive. A model, based on four sub-models (hydrodynamic characteristics, oxygen transport, solute transport in the mobile and immobile phases and bacterial evolution) describes this process. Based on wastewater concentration, hydraulic load, applied organic loads, feeding/rest cycles and recycling phases number, this model predicts: eliminated organic loads and the discharge concentration as a function of time, oxygen and biomass contents as a function of time and depth. The determination of the model's parameters is based on a comparison between simulations and performances achieved on experimental columns. This model would be helpful in sizing full-scale filters treating different types of agro-food wastewater. The aim of this article is to present the model's structure, to give all parameter values and to compare the simulations with the results obtained on pilot and full scale plants.
Computational study on the behaviors of granular materials under mechanical cycling
Wang, Xiaoliang; Ye, Minyou; Chen, Hongli
2015-11-01
Considering that fusion pebble beds are probably subjected to the cyclic compression excitation in their future applications, we presented a computational study to report the effect of mechanical cycling on the behaviors of granular matter. The correctness of our numerical experiments was confirmed by a comparison with the effective medium theory. Under the cyclic loads, the fast granular compaction was observed to evolve in a stretched exponential law. Besides, the increasing stiffening in packing structure, especially the decreasing moduli pressure dependence due to granular consolidation, was also observed. For the force chains inside the pebble beds, both the internal force distribution and the spatial distribution of force chains would become increasingly uniform as the external force perturbation proceeded and therefore produced the stress relief on grains. In this case, the originally proposed 3-parameter Mueth function was found to fail to describe the internal force distribution. Thereby, its improved functional form with 4 parameters was proposed here and proved to better fit the data. These findings will provide more detailed information on the pebble beds for the relevant fusion design and analysis.
Computational study on the behaviors of granular materials under mechanical cycling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xiaoliang; Ye, Minyou; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2015-11-07
Considering that fusion pebble beds are probably subjected to the cyclic compression excitation in their future applications, we presented a computational study to report the effect of mechanical cycling on the behaviors of granular matter. The correctness of our numerical experiments was confirmed by a comparison with the effective medium theory. Under the cyclic loads, the fast granular compaction was observed to evolve in a stretched exponential law. Besides, the increasing stiffening in packing structure, especially the decreasing moduli pressure dependence due to granular consolidation, was also observed. For the force chains inside the pebble beds, both the internal force distribution and the spatial distribution of force chains would become increasingly uniform as the external force perturbation proceeded and therefore produced the stress relief on grains. In this case, the originally proposed 3-parameter Mueth function was found to fail to describe the internal force distribution. Thereby, its improved functional form with 4 parameters was proposed here and proved to better fit the data. These findings will provide more detailed information on the pebble beds for the relevant fusion design and analysis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
楚锡华
2011-01-01
The mechanical behaviors of granular materials presented by discrete element method (DEM) based on discrete particle model are closely relative to its numerical specimen. The generation techniques for granular materials specimens has attracted comprehensive attentions with development of DEM in numerical simulation of granular materials. The object of this paper is how to generate a more dense granular assembly using random sequential analysis (RSA) model. For uniform grains, that is to say how to generate more number of grains in given region. Four modified RSA methods are suggested and discussed; numerical practices show that the more dense granular assembly will be generated by sort of coordinates based on RSA.%颗粒材料离散颗粒模型的数值模拟结果与颗粒材料的数值样本密切相关,随着离散单元在颗粒材料数值模拟领域的广泛应用,颗粒材料的数值样本生成技术日益受到重视.基于RSA模型研究如何使随机生成的颗粒材料更密实,对均匀颗粒而言亦即如何在指定区域内生成更多的颗粒,讨论了4类修正方案,并建议了一种基于坐标排序的样本生成技术.研究表明,在传统的颗粒体随机生成技术基础上,通过对随机生成的x坐标序列或y坐标序列进行排序,可使生成的颗粒材料数值样本更密实.
Granular mixtures modeled as elastic hard spheres subject to a drag force.
Vega Reyes, Francisco; Garzó, Vicente; Santos, Andrés
2007-06-01
Granular gaseous mixtures under rapid flow conditions are usually modeled as a multicomponent system of smooth inelastic hard disks (two dimensions) or spheres (three dimensions) with constant coefficients of normal restitution alpha{ij}. In the low density regime an adequate framework is provided by the set of coupled inelastic Boltzmann equations. Due to the intricacy of the inelastic Boltzmann collision operator, in this paper we propose a simpler model of elastic hard disks or spheres subject to the action of an effective drag force, which mimics the effect of dissipation present in the original granular gas. For each collision term ij, the model has two parameters: a dimensionless factor beta{ij} modifying the collision rate of the elastic hard spheres, and the drag coefficient zeta{ij}. Both parameters are determined by requiring that the model reproduces the collisional transfers of momentum and energy of the true inelastic Boltzmann operator, yielding beta{ij}=(1+alpha{ij})2 and zeta{ij} proportional, variant1-alpha{ij}/{2}, where the proportionality constant is a function of the partial densities, velocities, and temperatures of species i and j. The Navier-Stokes transport coefficients for a binary mixture are obtained from the model by application of the Chapman-Enskog method. The three coefficients associated with the mass flux are the same as those obtained from the inelastic Boltzmann equation, while the remaining four transport coefficients show a general good agreement, especially in the case of the thermal conductivity. The discrepancies between both descriptions are seen to be similar to those found for monocomponent gases. Finally, the approximate decomposition of the inelastic Boltzmann collision operator is exploited to construct a model kinetic equation for granular mixtures as a direct extension of a known kinetic model for elastic collisions.
Modeling intragranular diffusion in low-connectivity granular media
Ewing, Robert P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Qinhong
2012-03-01
Characterizing the diffusive exchange of solutes between bulk water in an aquifer and water in the intragranular pores of the solid phase is still challenging despite decades of study. Many disparities between observation and theory could be attributed to low connectivity of the intragranular pores. The presence of low connectivity indicates that a useful conceptual framework is percolation theory. The present study was initiated to develop a percolation-based finite difference (FD) model, and to test it rigorously against both random walk (RW) simulations of diffusion starting from nonequilibrium, and data on Borden sand published by Ball and Roberts (1991a,b) and subsequently reanalyzed by Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) using a multirate mass transfer (MRMT) approach. The percolation-theoretical model is simple and readily incorporated into existing FD models. The FD model closely matches the RW results using only a single fitting parameter, across a wide range of pore connectivities. Simulation of the Borden sand experiment without pore connectivity effects reproduced the MRMT analysis, but including low pore connectivity effects improved the fit. Overall, the theory and simulation results show that low intragranular pore connectivity can produce diffusive behavior that appears as if the solute had undergone slow sorption, despite the absence of any sorption process, thereby explaining some hitherto confusing aspects of intragranular diffusion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱立平; 袁竹林; 闫亚明; 罗登山; 王宏生; 李斌
2012-01-01
丝状颗粒作为一类长径比较大的非球形颗粒,其传热特性及相关技术广泛应用于工农业生产的诸多领域.但目前颗粒在运动过程中传热问题的研究还很不充分,特别是对于丝状颗粒,更是缺乏有效的数学模型进行描述.从颗粒传热机理出发,提出了一种基于离散单元法的丝状颗粒传热模型,模型中综合考虑了颗粒碰撞(接触)传热、颗粒的内部导热以及颗粒与气体间的对流换热.利用该模型,对固定床中堆积丝状颗粒的热量迁移过程进行了数值模拟,着重比较了各种传热方式对传热过程的影响.研究表明,对流换热对整体传热量的贡献较大.此外,还获得了不同工况下颗粒温度随时间的变化规律.%Filamentous particle is a kind of non-spherical particles with large aspect ratio. It has been widely applied in industrial and agricultural processes. However, the heat transfer phenomenon about particles is not well understood, especially the filamentous particle. In this study, in order to describe the heat transfer process of filamentous particle, a new mathematical model based on the discrete element method was proposed through the analysis of heat transfer mechanisms. The impact heat transfer between particles, the internal heat conduction and the convection heat exchange between gas and particles were considered in this model, and then it was used to numerically study the heat transfer process of filamentous particles in a fixed bed. Comparing the mechanisms with each other, it showed that the convection heat exchange had greater contribution to the total heat transfer. In addition, the simulation results revealed some internal temperature rules in filamentous particles under different operating conditions.
Hydrodynamic Burnett equations for inelastic Maxwell models of granular gases
Khalil, Nagi; Garzó, Vicente; Santos, Andrés
2014-05-01
The hydrodynamic Burnett equations and the associated transport coefficients are exactly evaluated for generalized inelastic Maxwell models. In those models, the one-particle distribution function obeys the inelastic Boltzmann equation, with a velocity-independent collision rate proportional to the γ power of the temperature. The pressure tensor and the heat flux are obtained to second order in the spatial gradients of the hydrodynamic fields with explicit expressions for all the Burnett transport coefficients as functions of γ, the coefficient of normal restitution, and the dimensionality of the system. Some transport coefficients that are related in a simple way in the elastic limit become decoupled in the inelastic case. As a byproduct, existing results in the literature for three-dimensional elastic systems are recovered, and a generalization to any dimension of the system is given. The structure of the present results is used to estimate the Burnett coefficients for inelastic hard spheres.
A new model for analysing thermal stress in granular composite
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑茂盛; 金志浩; 浩宏奇
1995-01-01
A double embedding model of inletting reinforcement grain and hollow matrix ball into the effective media of the particulate-reinforced composite is advanced. And with this model the distributions of thermal stress in different phases of the composite during cooling are studied. Various expressions for predicting elastic and elastoplastic thermal stresses are derived. It is found that the reinforcement suffers compressive hydrostatic stress and the hydrostatic stress in matrix zone is a tensile one when temperature decreases; when temperature further decreases, yield area in matrix forms; when the volume fraction of reinforcement is enlarged, compressive stress on grain and tensile hydrostatic stress in matrix zone decrease; the initial temperature difference of the interface of reinforcement and matrix yielding rises, while that for the matrix yielding overall decreases.
Brilliantov, Nikolai
2003-01-01
While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.
Helical Locomotion in a Granular Medium
Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Ibarra, Alejandro; Melo, Francisco
2017-08-01
The physical mechanisms that bring about the propulsion of a rotating helix in a granular medium are considered. A propulsive motion along the axis of the rotating helix is induced by both symmetry breaking due to the helical shape, and the anisotropic frictional forces undergone by all segments of the helix in the medium. Helix dynamics is studied as a function of helix rotation speed and its geometrical parameters. The effect of the granular pressure and the applied external load were also investigated. A theoretical model is developed based on the anisotropic frictional force experienced by a slender body moving in a granular material, to account for the translation speed of the helix. A good agreement with experimental data is obtained, which allows for predicting the helix design to propel optimally within granular media. These results pave the way for the development of an efficient sand robot operating according to this mode of locomotion.
Yang, H; Li, R; Kong, P; Sun, Q C; Biggs, M J; Zivkovic, V
2015-04-01
We used speckle visibility spectroscopy to measure the time-resolved dynamcis of avalanching down the inclined surface of a granular material in a half-full rotating drum operating in the slumping regime. The distribution of the avalanche period, t(d), rest time between them, t(r), and peak particle velocity fluctuation, δv(p)(2), are all normally distributed. While the distributions of the two times at the top and bottom of the free surface are very similar, the particle velocity fluctuation is greater at the bottom of the free surface than at the top. The rest time is observed to be inversely related to the drum speed. Combining this with the relation of t(r) and the difference of the upper and lower angle of repose for the granular material, Δθ, we find that the latter decreases linearly with increasing rotational speed. We also observe that t(d) increases in a linear fashion with the drum speed. Using the relation of t(r) and the distance that particles have to move during an avalanche, we further find that a new scaling relation of the mean number of avalanches required to traverse the free surface with drum speed. We find that the slumping frequency increases with the rotating speed before becoming constant in the slumping-to-rolling transition region. Finally, we find that the average peak of the fluctuation speed of the avalanche, δv(p)(2), increases linearly with the drum speed.
A micromechanical model for effective conductivity in granular electrode structures
Ott, Julia; Völker, Benjamin; Gan, Yixiang; McMeeking, Robert M.; Kamlah, Marc
2013-10-01
Optimization of composition and microstructure is important to enhance performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and lithium-ion batteries (LIB). For this, the porous electrode structures of both SOFC and LIB are modeled as a binary mixture of electronic and ionic conducting particles to estimate effective transport properties. Particle packings of 10 000 spherical, binary sized and randomly positioned particles are created numerically and densified considering the different manufacturing processes in SOFC and LIB: the sintering of SOFC electrodes is approximated geometrically, whereas the calendering process and volume change due to intercalation in LIB are modeled physically by a discrete element approach. A combination of a tracking algorithm and a resistor network approach is developed to predict the connectivity and effective conductivity for the various densified structures. For SOFC, a systematic study of the influence of morphology on connectivity and conductivity is performed on a large number of assemblies with different compositions and particle size ratios between 1 and 10. In comparison to percolation theory, an enlarged percolation area is found, especially for large size ratios. It is shown that in contrast to former studies the percolation threshold correlates to varying coordination numbers. The effective conductivity shows not only an increase with volume fraction as expected but also with size ratio. For LIB, a general increase of conductivity during the intercalation process was observed in correlation with increasing contact forces. The positive influence of calendering on the percolation threshold and the effective conductivity of carbon black is shown. The anisotropy caused by the calendering process does not influence the carbon black phase.
Modeling the Mechanics of Dynamic Triggering of Earthquakes in Granular Fault Gouge
Payne, R. M.; Sparks, D. W.
2015-12-01
On faults where the static stress state is near but below the failure criterion, dynamic stress perturbations from passing seismic waves may initiate earthquakes. To study how these transient stresses can cause failure, we perform Discrete Element Method numerical simulations of shear failure in a layer of non-cohesive granular material. The granular material mimics crushed gouge in the fault core - the weakest part of the fault and the region most likely to initiate slip. The applied shear stress is slowly increased until failure (a slip event) to determine the frictional strength of the granular layer under non-perturbed conditions. Pre-failure states of the gouge layer are saved during the loading process and used as initial conditions in triggering experiments: one boundary of the gouge is subjected to a transient pulse in boundary stresses, to simulate a passing seismic waves. Various amplitudes and frequencies of the stress pulse are tested on layers at different static stress levels from 0.95 to 0.99 of the failure strength. In order to trigger an immediate failure, the pulse must increase the normal stress ratio to reach the previously measured frictional strength of the layer. However, we find that this is not a sufficient condition for immediate failure. The stress state must be above the frictional strength threshold long enough to allow for significant grain shifting (~ 0.1 grain diameters). This introduces a frequency dependence in addition to the amplitude dependence of the pulse. For low pre-stress levels, high frequency pulses do not remain above the threshold long enough and are incapable of causing immediate triggering. This frequency cutoff is directly proportional to the stress level, meaning lower frequencies can cause immediate triggering at a wider range of initial stress levels. Systems that are not immediately triggered may still experience "delayed triggering" - slip induced by the pulse after a time delay. This implies that transient
Huang, Bolin; Yin, Yueping; Wang, Shichang; Tan, Jianmin; Liu, Guangning
2017-05-01
A rocky granular flow is commonly formed after the failure of rocky bank slopes. An impulse wave disaster may also be initiated if the rocky granular flow rushes into a river with a high velocity. Currently, the granular mass-water body coupling study is an important trend in the field of landslide-induced impulse waves. In this paper, a full coupling numerical model for landslide-induced impulse waves is developed based on a non-coherent granular flow equation, i.e., the Mih equation. In this model, the Mih equation for continuous non-coherent granular flow controls movements of sliding mass, the two-phase flow equation regulates the interaction between sliding mass and water, and the renormalization group (RNG) turbulence model governs the movement of the water body. The proposed model is validated and applied for the 2014 Tangjiaxi landslide of the Zhexi Reservoir located in Hunan Province, China, to analyze the characteristics of both landslide motion and its following impulse waves. On 16 July 2014, a rocky debris flow was formed after the failure of the Tangjiaxi landslide, damming the Tangjiaxi stream and causing an impulse wave disaster with three dead and nine missing bodies. Based on the full coupling numerical analysis, the granular flow impacts the water with a maximum velocity of about 22.5 m s-1. Moreover, the propagation velocity of the generated waves reaches up to 12 m s-1. The maximum calculated run-up of 21.8 m is close enough to the real value of 22.7 m. The predicted landslide final deposit and wave run-up heights are in a good agreement with the field survey data. These facts verify the ability of the proposed model for simulating the real impulse wave generated by rocky granular flow events.
Discrete element modelling of permanent pavement deformation in granular materials
Cai, Wei
2015-01-01
The permanent deformation of a pavement due to vehicle load is one of the important factors affecting the design life as well as the maintenance cost of a pavement. For the purpose of obtaining a cost-effective design, it is advisable to predict the traffic-loadinduced permanent pavement deformation. The permanent deformation in pavements (i.e. rutting) can be classified into three categories, including the wearing of the asphalt layers, compaction, and shear deformations. In the present stud...
Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rycroft, Chris; Orpe, Ashish; Kudrolli, Arshad
2009-01-15
We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity driven sheared granular flow with a computational model performed with the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). To our knowledge, this is the first thorough test of the LAMMPS model with a laboratory granular flow. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross-section, and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The boundary imposes a packing order, and the grains are observed to flow in layers which get progressively more disordered with distance from the walls. The computations use a Cundall--Strack contact model between the grains, using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies, and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. After appropriate scaling, we find that the mean velocity of the grains and the number density as a function of flow cross-section observed in the experiments and the simulations are in excellent agreement. The mean flow profile is observed to be unchanged over a broad range of coefficient of friction, except near the smooth wall. We show that the flow profile is not sensitive to atleast 10\\percent polydispersity in particle size. Because the grain elasticity used is smaller in the computations as compared with glass grains, wave-like features can be noted over short time scales in the mean velocity and the velocity auto-correlations measured in the simulations. These wave features occur over an intermediate timescale larger than the particle interaction but smaller than the
Micromechanics and statistics of slipping events in a granular seismic fault model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arcangelis, L de [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, Aversa (Italy); Ciamarra, M Pica [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Lippiello, E; Godano, C, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy)
2011-09-15
The stick-slip is investigated in a seismic fault model made of a confined granular system under shear stress via three dimensional Molecular Dynamics simulations. We study the statistics of slipping events and, in particular, the dependence of the distribution on model parameters. The distribution consistently exhibits two regimes: an initial power law and a bump at large slips. The initial power law decay is in agreement with the the Gutenberg-Richter law characterizing real seismic occurrence. The exponent of the initial regime is quite independent of model parameters and its value is in agreement with experimental results. Conversely, the position of the bump is solely controlled by the ratio of the drive elastic constant and the system size. Large slips also become less probable in absence of fault gouge and tend to disappear for stiff drives. A two-time force-force correlation function, and a susceptibility related to the system response to pressure changes, characterize the micromechanics of slipping events. The correlation function unveils the micromechanical changes occurring both during microslips and slips. The mechanical susceptibility encodes the magnitude of the incoming microslip. Numerical results for the cellular-automaton version of the spring block model confirm the parameter dependence observed for size distribution in the granular model.
Ciudad, David
2016-04-01
Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Zhi-Yin; Feng Jun-Xiao
2013-01-01
Mixing and heat transfer processes of the granular materials within rotary cylinders play a key role in industrial processes.The numerical simulation is carried out by using the discrete element method (DEM) to investigate the influences of material properties on the bed mixing and heat transfer process,including heat conductivity,heat capacity,and shear modulus.Moreover,a new Péclet number is derived to determine the dominant mechanism of the heating rate within the particle bed,which is directly related to thermal and mechanical properties.The system exhibits a faster heating rate with the increase of ratio of thermal conductivity and heat capacity,or the decrease of shear modulus when inter-particle conduction dominates the heating rate; conversely,it shows a fast-mixing bed when particle convection governs the heating rate.The simulation results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Meister, Jeffrey P.
1987-01-01
The Mechanics of Materials Model (MOMM) is a three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis code for use as an early design stage tool for hot section components. MOMM is a stiffness method finite element code that uses a network of beams to characterize component behavior. The MOMM contains three material models to account for inelastic material behavior. These include the simplified material model, which assumes a bilinear stress-strain response; the state-of-the-art model, which utilizes the classical elastic-plastic-creep strain decomposition; and Walker's viscoplastic model, which accounts for the interaction between creep and plasticity that occurs under cyclic loading conditions.
Testing Hadronic Interaction Models using a Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Calorimeter
Bilki, B.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Deng, Z.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yue, Q.; Yang, Z.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Price, T.; Watson, N.K.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Carloganu, C.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Lima, J.G.R.; Salcido, P.; Zutshi, V.; Boisvert, V.; Green, B.; Misiejuk, A.; Salvatore, F.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Tomita, T.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Apostolakis, J.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Krüger, K.; Lutz, B.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Lu, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Kaplan, A.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Kim, E.J.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wing, M.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci-Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Kégl, B.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëne, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; Matthieu, A.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Videau, H.; Augustin, J.-E.; David, J.; Ghislain, P.; Lacour, D.; Lavergne, L.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.
2015-01-01
A detailed study of hadronic interactions is presented using data recorded with the highly granular CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. Approximately 600,000 selected negatively changed pion events at energies between 2 and 10 GeV have been studied. The predictions of several physics models available within the GEANT4 simulation tool kit are compared to this data. Although a reasonable overall description of the data is observed, there are significant quantitative discrepancies in the longitudinal and transverse distributions of reconstructed energy.
Two dimension porous media reconstruction using granular model under influence of gravity
Sundari, Pury; Fauzi, Umar; Irayani, Zaroh; Viridi, Sparisoma
2012-06-01
Modeling of pores generation in 2-D with granular grains using molecular dynamics method is reported in this work. Grains with certain diameter distribution are let falling due to gravity. Three configurations (larger diameter in at upper layer, smaller diameter in at upper layer, and mixed) and two kinds of mixture (similar of grain density and mass) are used in the simulation. Mixture with heterogeneous density gives higher porosity than the homogeneous one for higher initial height, but change into opposite condition for lower initial height.
Yang, Jing; Ren, Yan-Yu
2016-01-01
We examine the evolution of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) droplets with viscous hydrodynamics and analyze pion transverse-momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry in a granular source model consisting of the viscous QGP droplets. The shear viscosity of the QGP droplet speeds up the droplet evolution and the effect of the bulk viscosity on the evolution is negligible. Although there are viscous effects on the droplet evolution, the pion momentum spectrum and elliptic flow change little for the granular sources with and without viscosity. On the other hand, the influence of viscosity on HBT radius $R_{\\rm out}$ is significant. It makes $R_{\\rm out}$ decrease in the granular source model. We determine the model parameters of granular sources by the experimental data of pion transverse-momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii together, and investigate the effects of viscosity on the model parameters. The results indicate that the granular source model may reproduce the expe...
Implementation and Re nement of a Comprehensive Model for Dense Granular Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sundaresan, Sankaran [The Trustees Of Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
2015-09-30
Dense granular ows are ubiquitous in both natural and industrial processes. They manifest three di erent ow regimes, each exhibiting its own dependence on solids volume fraction, shear rate, and particle-level properties. This research project sought to develop continuum rheological models for dense granular ows that bridges multiple regimes of ow, implement them in open-source platforms for gas-particle ows and perform test simulations. The rst phase of the research covered in this project involved implementation of a steady- shear rheological model that bridges quasi-static, intermediate and inertial regimes of ow into MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges - a general purpose computer code developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory). MFIX simulations of dense granular ows in hourglass-shaped hopper were then performed as test examples. The second phase focused on formulation of a modi ed kinetic theory for frictional particles that can be used over a wider range of particle volume fractions and also apply for dynamic, multi- dimensional ow conditions. To guide this work, simulations of simple shear ows of identical mono-disperse spheres were also performed using the discrete element method. The third phase of this project sought to develop and implement a more rigorous treatment of boundary e ects. Towards this end, simulations of simple shear ows of identical mono-disperse spheres con ned between parallel plates were performed and analyzed to formulate compact wall boundary conditions that can be used for dense frictional ows at at frictional boundaries. The fourth phase explored the role of modest levels of cohesive interactions between particles on the dense phase rheology. The nal phase of this project focused on implementation and testing of the modi ed kinetic theory in MFIX and running bin-discharge simulations as test examples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana
2008-12-01
Full Text Available En un pavimento, cada una de las capas de la estructura experimenta bajo una carga vehicular ciclos de esfuerzo con componentes vertical, horizontal y de corte. Para el estudio de materiales granulares no tratados (utilizados para conformar capas de base y subbase, la mayor parte de las investigaciones se realizan empleando equipos triaxiales cíclicos en donde sólo la carga vertical es cíclica y la presión de confinamiento permanece constante durante el ensayo. Un ensayo que reproduce mejor la forma como se distribuyen los esfuerzos en estas capas es el ensayo triaxial cíclico con presión de confinamiento variable. En este ensayo se pueden modelar las componentes cíclicas tanto en el sentido vertical como horizontal. A pesar que son ensayos distintos, la ingeniería de pavimentos supone que la respuesta que experimentan estos materiales en estos ensayos es similar, lo anterior basado en algunos estudios realizados en la década de los setenta. En la presente investigación se diseña y desarrolla un programa experimental más detallado, para comparar el comportamiento que desarrolla un material granular no tratado en estos ensayos. De los resultados se evidencia que sólo para algunas trayectorias de esfuerzo, la dirección y la acumulación de la deformación vertical y volumétrica es similar.In a pavement structure, passing wheel loads impose cyclic stresses consisting of vertical, horizontal and shear components. Studies of the behavior of unbound granular materials (UGM, used for base and sub-base layers under cyclic loading are mostly performed using the axisymmetric triaxial test with constant confining pressure (CCP test and a cyclic variation of the axial stress. However, in this type of test only the vertical component of the cyclic stress path is considered. The oscillation of the horizontal stress can be reproduced by an additional cyclic variation of the confining pressure (VCP test. CCP and VCP tests are sometimes assumed to
The Thermal Conductivity Theory of Non-uniform Granular Flow and the Mechanism Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGDuan-Ming; LEIYa-Jie; YUBo-Ming; PANGui-Jun
2003-01-01
According to the fractal characteristics appearing in non-uniform granular system, we found the fractal model to study the effective thermal conductivity in the mixed system. Considering the quasi-equilibrium, we bring forward the fractal velocity probability distribution function. The equipartition of energy is employed to the non-uniform granular system, and the granular temperature is derived. We investigate the thermal conductivity in granular flow due to the movement of the particles, namely the heat transfer induced by the streaming mode only. The thermal conductivity in the mixed system changes with the fractal parameters such as the solid fraction v, structural character parameter η, and fractal dimension D of size distribution. These parameters depict the characteristics of the thermal conductivity in the actual complex granular system. Comparing our conclusion with the correlative experimental data and the theoretical conclusion of binary mixture of granular materials, the results can qualitatively confirm the generality of our prediction on the granular system.
On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Chuan-Yu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨鸿; 杨代恒; 赵阳
2011-01-01
为考察所储存散料对钢简仓仓壁的静态压力,建立考虑散料与仓壁相互作用的钢筒仓静态散料压力三维有限元分析模型.散料假定为各向同性,塑性阶段采用Drucker-Prager塑性模型,散料与仓壁之间的接触效应采用刚柔接触模型和面面接触方法进行模拟.利用所建立的有限元模型对平底钢筒仓(浅仓和深仓)及锥底钢筒仓的散料压力进行数值模拟,并将数值结果与欧洲钢筒仓规范、我国粮食钢板简仓设计规范进行对比分析.文中还对平底钢筒仓散料的泊松比、内摩擦角、膨胀角和摩擦系数进行参数分析,结果表明泊松比和内摩擦角的影响较大.%In order to simulate the static pressures from stored granular materials, a three-dimensional finite element model accounting for the interaction between the granular material and the silo wall was established. The stored granular material was considered to follow a law of behavior of isotropic elastic material with the Drucker-Prager plasticity criterion in the plastic range, and the interaction between the stored material and the silo wall was simulated by the rigid-flexible contact model and the face-to-face contact method. Granular material pressures for both flat-bottomed steel silos (shallow silos and deep silos) and conical-bottomed steel silos were simulated employing the proposed FE model, and the results were compared with those of the Eurocode for steel silos and the Chinese design code for grain steel silos. A parametric analysis on flat-bottomed steel silos was also carried out to study the effects of granular material's Poisson's ratio, internal friction angle, dilatancy angle and friction coefficient, and it is found that the effects of the Poisson's ratio and internal friction angle are obvious.
Pohlman, Nicholas; Si, Yun
2014-11-01
The typical granular motion in circular tumblers is considered steady-state since there are no features to disrupt the top surface layer dimension. In polygon tumblers, however, the flowing layer is perpetually changing length, which creates unsteady conditions with corresponding change in the flow behavior. Prior work showed the minimization of free surface energy is independent of tumbler dimension, particle size, and rotation rate. This subsequent research reports on experiments where dimensional symmetry of the free surface in triangular and square tumblers with varying fill fractions do not necessarily produce the symmetric flow behaviors. Results of the quasi-2D tumbler experiment show that other dimensions aligned with gravity and the instantaneous free surface influence the phase when extrema for angle of repose and other flow features occur. The conclusion is that 50% fill fraction may produce geometric symmetry of dimensions, but the symmetry point of flow likely occurs at a lower fill fraction.
Collapse dynamics and runout of dense granular materials in a fluid.
Topin, V; Monerie, Y; Perales, F; Radjaï, F
2012-11-02
We investigate the effect of an ambient fluid on the dynamics of collapse and spread of a granular column simulated by means of the contact dynamics method interfaced with computational fluid dynamics. The runout distance is found to increase as a power law with the aspect ratio of the column, and, surprisingly, for a given aspect ratio and packing fraction, it may be similar in the grain-inertial and fluid-inertial regimes but with considerably longer duration in the latter case. We show that the effect of fluid in viscous and fluid-inertial regimes is to both reduce the kinetic energy during collapse and enhance the flow by lubrication during spread. Hence, the runout distance in a fluid may be below or equal to that in the absence of fluid due to compensation between those effects.
A hybrid model for the computationally-efficient simulation of the cerebellar granular layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna eCattani
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to efficiently describe the membrane potential dynamics of neural populations formed by species having a high density difference in specific brain areas. We propose a hybrid model whose main ingredients are a conductance-based model (ODE system and its continuous counterpart (PDE system obtained through a limit process in which the number of neurons confined in a bounded region of the brain tissue is sent to infinity. Specifically, in the discrete model, each cell is described by a set of time-dependent variables, whereas in the continuum model, cells are grouped into populations that are described by a set of continuous variables.Communications between populations, which translate into interactions among the discrete and the continuous models, are the essence of the hybrid model we present here. The cerebellum and cerebellum-like structures show in their granular layer a large difference in the relative density of neuronal species making them a natural testing ground for our hybrid model. By reconstructing the ensemble activity of the cerebellar granular layer network and by comparing our results to a more realistic computational network, we demonstrate that our description of the network activity, even though it is not biophysically detailed, is still capable of reproducing salient features of neural network dynamics. Our modeling approach yields a significant computational cost reduction by increasing the simulation speed at least $270$ times. The hybrid model reproduces interesting dynamics such as local microcircuit synchronization, traveling waves, center-surround and time-windowing.
Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei
2015-11-01
Two-dimensional event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were previously completed to investigate the stability of piston driven shock waves through dilute granular gases. By considering viscoelastic collisions, allowing for finite dissipation within the shock wave, instabilities were found in the form of distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. This work is now extended to the continuum level. Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for granular gases are modelled with a modified cooling rate to include an impact threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. The shock structure predicted by the continuum formulation is found in good agreement with the structure obtained by MD. Non-linear stability analyses of the travelling wave solution are performed, showing a neutrally stable structure and responding only to fluctuations in the upstream state. Introducing strong perturbations to the incoming density field, in accordance with the spacial fluctuations in upstream state seen in MD, yields similar instabilities as those previously observed. While the inviscid model predicts a highly turbulent structure from these perturbations, the inclusion of viscosity yields comparable wavelengths of pattern formations to those seen in MD.
Drasdo, Dirk; Hoehme, Stefan
2012-05-01
In this paper, we explore how potential biomechanical influences on cell cycle entrance and cell migration affect the growth dynamics of cell populations. We consider cell populations growing in free, granular and tissue-like environments using a mathematical single-cell-based model. In a free environment we study the effect of pushing movements triggered by proliferation versus active pulling movements of cells stretching cell-cell contacts on the multi-cellular kinetics and the cell population morphotype. By growing cell clones embedded in agarose gel or cells of another type, one can mimic aspects of embedding tissues. We perform simulation studies of cell clones expanding in an environment of granular objects and of chemically inert cells. In certain parameter ranges, we find the formation of invasive fingers reminiscent of viscous fingering. Since the simulation studies are highly computation-time consuming, we mainly study one-cell-thick monolayers and show that for selected parameter settings the results also hold for multi-cellular spheroids. Finally, we compare our model to the experimentally observed growth dynamics of multi-cellular spheroids in agarose gel.
Effect of system and particle properties on closure relations for granular segregation models
Singh, Abhinendra; Tunuguntla, D. R.; Thornton, A. R.; Multi Scale mechanics Team
2015-03-01
In recent years, much effort has been made on developing valid constitutive laws for continuum models to describe kinetic sieving driven segregation in granular flows over inclined channels. Surprisingly, the existing closure relations for such continuum models have not considered factors such as particle contact stiffness, coefficient of restitution etc. Using Discrete Element method simulations, we investigate the effects of these factors on particle segregation and thereby formulate a constitutive law which takes particle properties into account. Additionally, apart from studying the effects of particle properties on segregating flows, we investigate the effects of gravity on our granular system. We consider a varied range of gravity and find that rate of segregation, for bidisperse mixtures varying in size alone, is proportional to the square root of gravity which is often assumed but was never validated. To be more precise concerning the effects of varying gravity on the steady states of bidisperse flows, varying in size alone, we investigate how the Peclet number (ratio of the segregation rate to diffusion) is affected.
A distribution model for the aerial application of granular agricultural particles
Fernandes, S. T.; Ormsbee, A. I.
1978-01-01
A model is developed to predict the shape of the distribution of granular agricultural particles applied by aircraft. The particle is assumed to have a random size and shape and the model includes the effect of air resistance, distributor geometry and aircraft wake. General requirements for the maintenance of similarity of the distribution for scale model tests are derived and are addressed to the problem of a nongeneral drag law. It is shown that if the mean and variance of the particle diameter and density are scaled according to the scaling laws governing the system, the shape of the distribution will be preserved. Distributions are calculated numerically and show the effect of a random initial lateral position, particle size and drag coefficient. A listing of the computer code is included.
Some fundamental aspects of the continuumization problem in granular Media
Peters, John F.
The central problem of devising mathematical models of granular materials is how to define a granular medium as a continuum. This paper outlines the elements of a theory that could be incorporated in discrete models such as the Discrete-Element Method, without recourse to a continuum description. It is shown that familiar concepts from continuum mechanics such as stress and strain can be defined for interacting discrete quantities. Established concepts for constitutive equations can likewise be applied to discrete quantities. The key problem is how to define the constitutive response in terms of truncated strain measures that are a practical necessity for analysis of large granular systems.
Modeling multiphase materials processes
Iguchi, Manabu
2010-01-01
""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of
Granular flows : fluidization and anisotropy
Wortel, Gerrit Herman
2014-01-01
This work discusses the flow of granular materials (e.g. sand). Even though a single particle is a simple object, the collective behavior of billions of particles can be very complex. In a surprisingly large amount of cases, it is not exactly known how a granular material behaves, and this while the
The Grading Entropy-based Criteria for Structural Stability of Granular Materials and Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janos Lőrincz
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with three grading entropy-based rules that describe different soil structure stability phenomena: an internal stability rule, a filtering rule and a segregation rule. These rules are elaborated on the basis of a large amount of laboratory testing and from existing knowledge in the field. Use is made of the theory of grading entropy to derive parameters which incorporate all of the information of the grading curve into a pair of entropy-based parameters that allow soils with common behaviours to be grouped into domains on an entropy diagram. Applications of the derived entropy-based rules are presented by examining the reason of a dam failure, by testing against the existing filter rules from the literature, and by giving some examples for the design of non-segregating grading curves (discrete particle size distributions by dry weight. A physical basis for the internal stability rule is established, wherein the higher values of base entropy required for granular stability are shown to reflect the closeness between the mean and maximum grain diameters, which explains how there are sufficient coarser grains to achieve a stable grain skeleton.
van den Wildenberg, Siet; Tourin, Arnaud; Jia, Xiaoping
2016-08-01
We measure the consequences of elastic heterogeneities in confined granular layers using long-wavelength sound velocity determination. By progressively decreasing the coarse-graining length w, which is determined here by the sample size L, we measure the standard deviation of the longitudinal sound velocity δ VL and the packing density ϕ, normalized by their ensemble-averaged values. We find that the relative fluctuations in V L and ϕ increase when w is decreased. Importantly, we observe that decreasing the confining pressure P or using nonspherical particles leads to an important increase of the fluctuations in δ V_L/\\bar{V_L} . We conduct simulations of sound propagation in 2D hexagonal packings with contact-stiffness disorder to mimic the inhomogeneous contact networks. The sound velocity fluctuations of coherent longitudinal waves increase either with decreasing the sample size or with increasing the elastic disorder related to confining pressure, in consistency with the experiments. Our experimental observations thus support the scenario of a pressure-dependent mesoscopic length ξ∼10d (at P∼200 \\text{kPa} ), below which the continuum elasticity breaks down, likely due to the large spatial fluctuation of the shear modulus δ G/\\bar{G} ∼ 5δ V_L/\\bar{V_L}>20% .
Two-dimension tissue growth model based on circular granular cells for cells with small overlap
Viridi, Sparisoma; Aprianti, Devi; Haris, Luman; Haryanto, Freddy
2014-01-01
Tissue growth can be modeled in two dimension by only using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce child. Linear spring-dashpot model is used to bind the cells with a cut-off interaction range of 1.1 times sum of radii of interacted cells. Simulation steps must be divided into explicit and implicit ones due to cell growing stage and cell position rearrangement. This division is aimed to avoid simulation problem. Only in the explicit steps time changes is performed. Large cells overlap is chosen as termination condition of tissue growth. Only some cells configuration can growth to infinite time without encountering the large cells overlap. These configurations, and the other also, are presented in this work.
Modelling of thermoelectric materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerg, Lasse
In order to discover new good thermoelectric materials, there are essentially two ways. One way is to go to the laboratory, synthesise a new material, and measure the thermoelectric properties. The amount of compounds, which can be investigated this way is limited because the process is time...... consuming. Another approach is to model the thermoelectric properties of a material on a computer. Several crystal structures can be investigated this way without use of much man power. I have chosen the latter approach. Using density functional theory I am able to calculate the band structure of a material....... This band structure I can then use to calculate the thermoelectric properties of the material. With these results I have investigated several materials and found the optimum theoretical doping concentration. If materials with these doping concentrations be synthesised, considerably better thermoelectric...
Piccolroaz, Andrea; Gajo, Alessandro
2010-01-01
The two key phenomena occurring in the process of ceramic powder compaction are the progressive gain in cohesion and the increase of elastic stiffness, both related to the development of plastic deformation. The latter effect is an example of `elastoplastic coupling', in which the plastic flow affects the elastic properties of the material, and has been so far considered only within the framework of small strain assumption (mainly to describe elastic degradation in rock-like materials), so that it remains completely unexplored for large strain. Therefore, a new finite strain generalization of elastoplastic coupling theory is given to describe the mechanical behaviour of materials evolving from a granular to a dense state. The correct account of elastoplastic coupling and of the specific characteristics of materials evolving from a loose to a dense state (for instance, nonlinear --or linear-- dependence of the elastic part of the deformation on the forming pressure in the granular --or dense-- state) makes the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We systematically investigate the pion transverse momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT interferometry in the granular source model for the heavy ion collisions of Au-Au at sNN=200 GeV and Pb-Pb at sNN=2.76 TeV with different centralities. The granular source model can well reproduce the experimental results of the heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. We examine the parameters involved in the granular source model. The experimental data of the momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii for the two collision energies and different centralities impose very strict constraints on the model parameters. They exhibit certain regularities for collision centrality and energy. The space-time structure and expansion velocities of the granular sources for the heavy ion collisions at the RHIC and LHC energies with different centralities are investigated.
1977-08-01
To advice the statt-of-che- art in the combustion of granular prope..lents by forwilating a complete theoretical model describ".•j the Important...d~~+W s (-.1 1-3. Where the vector products of W , W/2 , W/ , W/ and W/ vith I arte •iVn as Wl#’. m II -VVW ,÷I&. -Wig I,÷W,4A+. j IS÷ I-P(/. W/r...5wItu-gto, r! 05402 Sacro Ci 9581 1 General ziactric comany Flisht ?ropulaicm Diwisiou 1 ADO Incorporated ATM I: ch Llb AIM Mr. 2. Dougbarty Clac~ati an
Erosion and deposition in depth-averaged models of dense, dry, inclined, granular flows
Jenkins, James T.; Berzi, Diego
2016-11-01
We derive expressions for the rates of erosion and deposition at the interface between a dense, dry, inclined granular flow and an erodible bed. In obtaining these, we assume that the interface between the flowing grains and the bed moves with the speed of a pressure wave in the flow, for deposition, or with the speed of a disturbance through the contacting particles in the bed, for erosion. We employ the expressions for the rates of erosion and deposition to show that after an abrupt change in the angle of inclination of the bed the characteristic time for the motion of the interface is much shorter than the characteristic time of the flow. This eliminates the need for introducing models of erosion and deposition rate in the mass balance; and the instantaneous value of the particle flux is the same function of the instantaneous value of the flow depth as in a steady, uniform flow.
Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media
Peng, Zhiwei; Elfring, Gwynn J
2015-01-01
Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swi...
Folli, Viola; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio
2012-06-15
Granular materials have been studied for decades, driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed of agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) to the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored. Here we provide experimental evidence that laser emission can be affected and controlled by the status of the motion of the granular material; we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity-affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.
A new methodology to simulate subglacial deformation of water saturated granular material
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Piotrowski, Jan A.
2015-01-01
or weakening components, depending on the rate of deformation, the material state, clay mineral content, and the hydrological properties of the material. The influence of the fluid phase is negligible when relatively permeable sediment is deformed. However, by reducing the local permeability, fast deformation...... on the hydraulic conductivity at the ice-bed interface. Grain-fluid feedbacks can cause complex material properties that vary over time, and which may be of importance for glacier stick-slip behavior....
Proposal for initial collection efficiency models for direct granular upflow filtration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Botari
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Mathematical models of the filtration process are based on the mass balance in the filter bed. Models of the filtration phenomenon describe the mass balance in bed filtration in terms of particle removal mechanisms, and allow for the determination of global particle removal efficiencies. This phenomenon is defined in terms of the geometry and the characteristic elements of granule collectors, particles and fluid, and the composition of the balance of forces that act in the particle collector system. This type of resolution is well known as the trajectory analysis theory. Particle trajectory analysis by mathematical correlation of the dimensionless numbers that represent fluid and particle characteristics is considered the main approach for mathematically modeling the initial collection efficiency of particle removal in water filtration. The existing initial collection efficiency models are designed for downflow filtration. This study analyzes initial collection efficiency models, and proposes an adaptation of these models to direct upflow filtration in a granular bed of coarse sand and gravel, taking into account the contribution of the gravitational factor of the settling removal efficiency in the proposal of initial collection efficiency models.
Fernández-Nieto, Enrique D; Mangeney, Anne; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2015-01-01
In this work we present a multilayer shallow model to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations with hydrostatic pressure and the $\\mu(I)$-rheology. The main advantages of this approximation are (i) the low cost associated with the numerical treatment of the free surface of the modelled flows, (ii) exact conservation of mass and (iii) the ability to compute 3D profiles of the velocities in the directions along and normal to the slope. The derivation of the model follows [14] and introduces a dimensional analysis based on the shallow flow hypothesis. The proposed first order multilayer model fully satisfies a dissipative energy equation. A comparison with an analytical solution with a non-constant normal profile of the downslope velocity demonstrates the accuracy of the numerical model. Finally, by comparing the numerical results with experimental data, we show that the proposed multilayer model with the $\\mu(I)$-rheology reproduces qualitatively the effect of the erodible bed on granular flow dynamics and depos...
Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media
Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.
2016-03-01
Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.
Khadilkar, Aditi B.
. Each particle class undergoes distinct transformations of mineral matter at fluidized bed operating temperatures, as determined by using high temperature X-ray diffraction, thermo-mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For the incorporation of a particle size distribution, bottom ash from an operating plant was divided into four size intervals and the system granular temperatures and dynamic bed height were computed using MFIX, a CFD simulation software. The kinetic theory of granular flow was used to obtain a distribution of binary collision frequencies for the entire particle size distribution. With this distribution of collision frequencies, which is computed based on hydrodynamics and granular physics of the poly-disperse system, as the particles grow, defluidize and decrease in number, the collision frequency also decreases. Under the conditions studied, the growth rate in the latter half of the run decreased to almost 1/5th the initial rate, with this decrease in collision frequency. This interdependent effect of chemistry and physics-based parameters, at the particle-level, was used to predict the agglomerate growth probabilities of Pittsburgh No. 8, Illinois No. 6 and Skidmore anthracite coals in this study, to illustrate the utility of the modeling methodology. The study also showed that agglomerate growth probability significantly increased above 15 to 20 wt. % slag. It was limited by ash chemistry at levels below this amount. Ash agglomerates were generated in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor at Penn State to support the proposed agglomerate growth mechanism. This study also attempted to gain a mechanistic understanding of agglomerate growth with particle-level initiation occurring at the relatively low operating temperatures of about 950 °C, found in some fluidized beds. The results of this study indicated that, for the materials examined, agglomerate growth in fluidized bed
Sun, Jing; Dai, Xiaohu; Wang, Qilin; Pan, Yuting; Ni, Bing-Jie
2016-10-01
In this work, a mathematical model based on growth kinetics of microorganisms and substrates transportation through biofilms was developed to describe methane production and sulfate reduction with ethanol being a key electron donor. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from two case studies conducted in granule-based Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors. The results suggest that the developed model could satisfactorily describe methane and sulfide productions as well as ethanol and sulfate removals in both systems. The modeling results reveal a stratified distribution of methanogenic archaea, sulfate-reducing bacteria and fermentative bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge and the relative abundances of these microorganisms vary with substrate concentrations. It also indicates sulfate-reducing bacteria can successfully outcompete fermentative bacteria for ethanol utilization when COD/SO42‑ ratio reaches 0.5. Model simulation suggests that an optimal granule diameter for the maximum methane production efficiency can be achieved while the sulfate reduction efficiency is not significantly affected by variation in granule size. It also indicates that the methane production and sulfate reduction can be affected by ethanol and sulfate loading rates, and the microbial community development stage in the reactor, which provided comprehensive insights into the system for its practical operation.
Three Perspectives of Granular Computing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yiyu(Y.Y.) Yao
2006-01-01
As an emerging field of study, granular computing has received much attention. Many models, frameorks, methods and techniques have been proposed and studied. It is perhaps the time to seek for a general and unified view so that fundamental issues can be examined and clarified. This paper examines granular computing from three perspectives. By viewing granular computing as a way of structured thinking,we focus on its philosophical foundations in modeling human perception of the reality. By viewing granular computing as a method of structured problem solving, we examine its theoretical and methodological foundations in solving a wide range of real-world problems. By viewing granular computing as a paradigm of information processing,we turn our attention to its more concrete techniques. The three perspectives together offer a holistic view of granular computing.
2011-09-26
Geomechanics , (02 2011): 264. doi: 10.1002/nag.910 2011/08/24 01:39:39 10 David M. Walker, Antoinette Tordesillas, Colin Thornton, Robert P. Behringer, Jie...Computational Geomechanics . 2011/04/26 10:00:00, . : , 2011/08/30 08:52:12 17 TOTAL: 3 (d) Manuscripts Number of Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding...Bifurcations and Degradations in Geomechanics . (In press) The techniques in [1]-[2] are extended to a broader range of experimental and simulation
Folli, Viola; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio
2012-01-01
Granular materials have been studied for decades, also driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed by agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) on the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored; here we provide experimental evidence that it can be affected and controlled by the status of motion of the granular, we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.
Euler-like modelling of dense granular flows: application to a rotating drum
Bonamy, D.; Chavanis, P.-H.; Cortet, P.-P.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Renouf, M.
2009-04-01
General conservation equations are derived for 2D dense granular flows from the Euler equation within the Boussinesq approximation. In steady flows, the 2D fields of granular temperature, vorticity and stream function are shown to be encoded in two scalar functions only. We checked such prediction on steady surface flows in a rotating drum simulated through the Non-Smooth Contact Dynamics method even though granular flows are dissipative and therefore not necessarily compatible with Euler equation. Finally, we briefly discuss some possible ways to predict theoretically these two functions using statistical mechanics.
Euler-Euler granular flow model of liquid fuels combustion in a fluidized reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nemoda Stevan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the numerical simulation of liquid fuel combustion in a fluidized reactor using a two-fluid Eulerian-Eulerian fluidized bed modeling incorporating the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF to gas and solid phase flow prediction. The comprehensive model of the complex processes in fluidized combustion chamber incorporates, besides gas and particular phase velocity fields’ prediction, also the energy equations for gas and solid phase and the transport equations of chemical species conservation with the source terms due to the conversion of chemical components. Numerical experiments show that the coefficients in the model of inter-phase interaction drag force have a significant effect, and they have to be adjusted for each regime of fluidization. A series of numerical experiments was performed with combustion of the liquid fuels in fluidized bed (FB, with and without significant water content. The given estimations are related to the unsteady state, and the modeled time period corresponds to flow passing time throw reactor column. The numerical experiments were conducted to examine the impact of the water content in a liquid fuel on global FB combustion kinetics.
A k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model of an isothermal dry granular dense matter
Fang, Chung
2016-07-01
The turbulent flow characteristics of an isothermal dry granular dense matter with incompressible grains are investigated by the proposed first-order k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model. Reynolds-filter process is applied to obtain the balance equations of the mean fields with two kinematic equations describing the time evolutions of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to derive the equilibrium closure relations satisfying turbulence realizability conditions, with the dynamic responses postulated by a quasi-linear theory. The established closure model is applied to analyses of a gravity-driven stationary flow down an inclined moving plane. While the mean velocity decreases monotonically from its value on the moving plane toward the free surface, the mean porosity increases exponentially; the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation evolve, respectively, from their minimum and maximum values on the plane toward their maximum and minimum values on the free surface. The evaluated mean velocity and porosity correspond to the experimental outcomes, while the turbulent dissipation distribution demonstrates a similarity to that of Newtonian fluids in turbulent shear flows. When compared to the zero-order model, the turbulent eddy evolution tends to enhance the transfer of the turbulent kinetic energy and plane shearing across the flow layer, resulting in more intensive turbulent fluctuation in the upper part of the flow. Solid boundary as energy source and sink of the turbulent kinetic energy becomes more apparent in the established first-order model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment
2009-03-01
The adsorption of two representative pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) naproxen and carbamazepine and one endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) nonylphenol was studied in pilot-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers using post-sedimentation (PS) water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. The GAC adsorbents were coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. Acidic naproxen broke through fastest while nonylphenol was removed best, which was consistent with the degree to which fouling affected compound removals. Model predictions and experimental data were generally in good agreement for all three compounds, which demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the pore and surface diffusion model (PSDM) used in combination with the time-variable parameter approach for predicting removals at environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., ng/L range). Sensitivity analyses suggested that accurate determination of film diffusion coefficients was critical for predicting breakthrough for naproxen and carbamazepine, in particular when high removals are targeted. Model simulations demonstrated that GAC carbon usage rates (CURs) for naproxen were substantially influenced by the empty bed contact time (EBCT) at the investigated conditions. Model-based comparisons between GAC CURs and minimum CURs for powdered activated carbon (PAC) applications suggested that PAC would be most appropriate for achieving 90% removal of naproxen, whereas GAC would be more suitable for nonylphenol. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Numerical simulation of failure behavior of granular debris flows based on flume model tests.
Zhou, Jian; Li, Ye-xun; Jia, Min-cai; Li, Cui-na
2013-01-01
In this study, the failure behaviors of debris flows were studied by flume model tests with artificial rainfall and numerical simulations (PFC(3D)). Model tests revealed that grain sizes distribution had profound effects on failure mode, and the failure in slope of medium sand started with cracks at crest and took the form of retrogressive toe sliding failure. With the increase of fine particles in soil, the failure mode of the slopes changed to fluidized flow. The discrete element method PFC(3D) can overcome the hypothesis of the traditional continuous medium mechanic and consider the simple characteristics of particle. Thus, a numerical simulations model considering liquid-solid coupled method has been developed to simulate the debris flow. Comparing the experimental results, the numerical simulation result indicated that the failure mode of the failure of medium sand slope was retrogressive toe sliding, and the failure of fine sand slope was fluidized sliding. The simulation result is consistent with the model test and theoretical analysis, and grain sizes distribution caused different failure behavior of granular debris flows. This research should be a guide to explore the theory of debris flow and to improve the prevention and reduction of debris flow.
Numerical Simulation of Failure Behavior of Granular Debris Flows Based on Flume Model Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Zhou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the failure behaviors of debris flows were studied by flume model tests with artificial rainfall and numerical simulations (PFC3D. Model tests revealed that grain sizes distribution had profound effects on failure mode, and the failure in slope of medium sand started with cracks at crest and took the form of retrogressive toe sliding failure. With the increase of fine particles in soil, the failure mode of the slopes changed to fluidized flow. The discrete element method PFC3D can overcome the hypothesis of the traditional continuous medium mechanic and consider the simple characteristics of particle. Thus, a numerical simulations model considering liquid-solid coupled method has been developed to simulate the debris flow. Comparing the experimental results, the numerical simulation result indicated that the failure mode of the failure of medium sand slope was retrogressive toe sliding, and the failure of fine sand slope was fluidized sliding. The simulation result is consistent with the model test and theoretical analysis, and grain sizes distribution caused different failure behavior of granular debris flows. This research should be a guide to explore the theory of debris flow and to improve the prevention and reduction of debris flow.
A theoretical model for calculation of the detective quantum efficiency in granular scintillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavouras, D. E-mail: cavouras@hol.gr; Kandarakis, I.; Tsoukos, S.; Kateris, A.; Nomicos, C.D.; Panayiotakis, G.S
2001-11-01
A theoretical model has been developed for calculating the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of scintillators, by taking into account the internal structure of granular scintillators often used in medical imaging detectors. Scintillators were considered to consist of N elementary thin layers containing spherical scintillating grains of equal size. Grains were assumed to be regularly distributed within each thin layer, the thickness of the latter being equal to the grain diameter. Values of the X-ray absorption and X-ray attenuation coefficients, of the intrinsic X-ray to light conversion efficiency and of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients were used as input data to the model. Optical scattering and optical absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the model to experimental luminescence data. The model was employed to calculate the detective quantum efficiency of La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu, ZnSCdS:Ag, ZnSCdS:Au,Cu scintillators. Results of the calculations were found close to values published in previous studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takeru Honda
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Information processing of the cerebellar granular layer composed of granule and Golgi cells is regarded as an important first step toward the cerebellar computation. Our previous theoretical studies have shown that granule cells can exhibit random alternation between burst and silent modes, which provides a basis of population representation of the passage-of-time (POT from the onset of external input stimuli. On the other hand, another computational study has reported that granule cells can exhibit synchronized oscillation of activity, as consistent with observed oscillation in local field potential recorded from the granular layer while animals keep still. Here we have a question of whether an identical network model can explain these distinct dynamics. In the present study, we carried out computer simulations based on a spiking network model of the granular layer varying two parameters: the strength of a current injected to granule cells and the concentration of Mg²⁺ which controls the conductance of NMDA channels assumed on the Golgi cell dendrites. The simulations showed that cells in the granular layer can switch activity states between synchronized oscillation and random burst-silent alternation depending on the two parameters. For higher Mg²⁺ concentration and a weaker injected current, granule and Golgi cells elicited spikes synchronously (synchronized oscillation state. In contrast, for lower Mg²⁺ concentration and a stronger injected current, those cells showed the random burst-silent alternation (POT-representing state. It is suggested that NMDA channels on the Golgi cell dendrites play an important role for determining how the granular layer works in response to external input.
Taha, Habib; Nguyen, Ngoc-Son; Marot, Didier; Hijazi, Abbas; Abou-Saleh, Khalil
2017-06-01
In this paper, we present a micro-mechanical study of the effect of fine content on the behavior of gap graded granular samples by using numerical simulations performed with the Discrete Element Method. Different samples with fine content varied from 0% to 30% are simulated. The role of fine content in reinforcing the granular skeleton and in supporting the external deviatoric stress is then brought into the light.
Microstructure evolution during impact on granular matter.
Kondic, L; Fang, X; Losert, W; O'Hern, C S; Behringer, R P
2012-01-01
We study the impact of an intruder on a dense granular material. The process of impact and interaction between the intruder and the granular particles is modeled using discrete element simulations in two spatial dimensions. In the first part of the paper we discuss how the intruder's dynamics depends on (1) the intruder's properties, including its size, shape and composition, (2) the properties of the grains, including friction, polydispersity, structural order, and elasticity, and (3) the properties of the system, including its size and gravitational field. It is found that polydispersity and related structural order, and frictional properties of the granular particles, play a crucial role in determining impact dynamics. In the second part of the paper we consider the response of the granular system itself. We discuss the force networks that develop, including their topological evolution. The influence of friction and structural order on force propagation, including the transition from hyperbolic-like to elastic-like behavior is discussed, as well as the affine and nonaffine components of the grain dynamics. Several broad observations include the following: tangential forces between granular particles are found to play a crucial role in determining impact dynamics; both force networks and particle dynamics are correlated with the dynamics of the intruder itself. © 2012 American Physical Society
Segregation of Granular Material in Two and Three-Dimensional Units
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sandhya Mishra; Ankit Namdev; Munindra Bisen; Jeeshan Ahmad; Vishal Mishra
2016-10-01
Segregation of particulate materials in mixtures is controlledby differences in density, shape, and size. Experiments on segregationwere performed in two and three-dimensional demonstrationunits. The results conclusively indicated that the segregationof solids is affected by the shape, size and density ofgranular particles.
The rise of granular computing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO Yi-yu
2008-01-01
This paper has two purposes. One is to present a critical examination of the rise of granular computing and the other is to suggest a triarchic theory of granular computing. By examining the reasons, justifications, and motivations for the rise of granular computing, we may be able to fully appreciate its scope, goal and potential values. The results enable us to formulate a triarchic theory in the light of research results from many disciplines. The three components of the theory are labeled as the philosophy, the methodology, and the computation. The integration of the three offers a unified view of gran-ular computing as a way of structured thinking, a method of structured problem solving, and a paradigm of structured infor-mation processing, focusing on hierarchical granular structures. The triarchic theory is an important effort in synthesizing the various theories and models of granular computing.
Johnson, Christie
2016-01-01
This poster presentation presents a content modeling strategy using the SNOMED CT Observable Model to represent large amounts of detailed clinical data in a consistent and computable manner that can support multiple use cases. Lightweight Expression of Granular Objects (LEGOs) represent question/answer pairs on clinical data collection forms, where a question is modeled by a (usually) post-coordinated SNOMED CT expression. LEGOs transform electronic patient data into a normalized consumable, which means that the expressions can be treated as extensions of the SNOMED CT hierarchies for the purpose of performing subsumption queries and other analytics. Utilizing the LEGO approach for modeling clinical data obtained from a nursing admission assessment provides a foundation for data exchange across disparate information systems and software applications. Clinical data exchange of computable LEGO patient information enables the development of more refined data analytics, data storage and clinical decision support.
A rough-granular computing in discovery of process models from data and domain knowledge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NGUYEN Hung Son; SKOWRON Andrzej
2008-01-01
The rapid expansion of the Internet has resulted not only in the ever growing amount of data therein stored, but also in the burgeoning complexity of the concepts and phenomena pertaining to those data. This issue has been vividly com- pared by the renowned statistician, prof. Friedman of Stanford University, to the advances in human mobility from the pe- riod of walking afoot to the era of jet travel. These essential changes in data have brought new challenges to the develop- ment of new data mining methods, especially that the treatment of these data increasingly involves complex processes that e- lude classic modeling paradigms. "Hot" datasets like biomedical, financial or net user behavior data are just a few examples. Mining such temporal or stream data is on the agenda of many research centers and companies worldwide. In the data min- ing community, there is a rapidly growing interest in developing methods for process mining, e. g. , for discovery of struc- tures of temporal processes from data. Works on process mining have recently been undertaken by many renowned centers worldwide. This research is also related to functional data analysis , cognitive networks , and dynamical system modeling, e. g. , in biology. In the lecture, we outline an approach to discovery of processes from data and domain knowledge which is based on the rough-granular computing.
Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system.
Rycroft, Chris H; Orpe, Ashish V; Kudrolli, Arshad
2009-09-01
We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity-driven sheared granular flow with a discrete-element simulation performed in the same geometry. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross section and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index-matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The simulations use a Cundall-Strack contact model between the grains using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. We then perform a detailed comparison of the particle fluctuation properties as measured by the displacement probability distribution function and the mean square displacement. All in all, our study suggests a high level of quantitative agreement between the simulations and experiments.
On Non-Stationary One-Dimensional Porous Flow in Coarse Granular Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; Christensen, Claus
Traditionally the hydrodynamic response of rubble mound structures are studied in physical models scaled according to the Froude scaling law which neglects viscous forces. This introduces scale effect because the inherent length scaling of the stone diameters creates laminar flow in the regions...... which in prototypes are dominated by turbulent flow. Numerical modelling of the flow do not have this draw back and is therefore attractive....
On Stationary and Non-stationary Porous Flow in Coarse Granular Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; Christensen, Claus
Traditionally the hydrodynamic response of rubble mound structures are studied in physical models scaled according to the Froude scaling law which neglects viscous forces. This introduces scale effect because the inherent length scaling of the stone diameters creates laminar flow in the regions...... which in prototypes are dominated by turbulent flow. Numerical modelling of the flow do not have this draw back and is therefore attractive....
Micro-mechanical analysis on the onset of erosion in granular materials
Harshani, H. M. D.; Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Muhlhaus, H. B.
2015-10-01
The onset of internal erosion is a particle level phenomenon, and therefore, a numerical model capable of tracking the behaviour of particles at micro-scale is needed to exemplify most of the critical variables involved in the process. In this paper, a three-dimensional fully coupled fluid-solid model was utilized to explore the initiation of erosion. Particles were modelled on a micro-scale using the discrete element method (DEM), while the fluid was modelled at a meso-scale using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Fluid was passed through a solid matrix in an opposing direction to gravity with the pore water pressure controlled in stepwise stages until internal erosion or bulk movement of the particles developed and progressed. The model was validated through experimental results found in the literature. Once validated, particle fluid properties were analyzed for the onset of erosion. Determination of a critical hydraulic gradient was obtained from the modelled scenario, which gave clear evidence that the coupled DEM-LBM scheme is a very effective tool for studying internal erosion phenomena in water retaining structures.
Combined full field stress and strain measurement methods for granular materials
Dijkstra, J.; Broere, W.
2010-01-01
The current paper re-introduces the photoelastic measurement method in experimental geomechanics. A full-field phase stepping polariscope suitable for geomechanical model tests has been developed. Additional constraints on the measurement and mechanical setup arising from geomechanical test conditio
Physical modelling of rainfall-induced flow failures in loose granular soils
Take, W. A.; Beddoe, R. A.
2015-09-01
The tragic consequences of the March 2014 Oso landslide in Washington, USA were particularly high due to the mobility of the landslide debris. Confusingly, a landslide occurred at that exact same location a number of years earlier, but simply slumped into the river at the toe of the slope. Why did these two events differ so drastically in their mobility? Considerable questions remain regarding the conditions required to generate flow failures in loose soils. Geotechnical centrifuge testing, in combination with high-speed cameras and advanced image analysis has now provided the landslides research community with a powerful new tool to experimentally investigate the complex mechanics leading to high mobility landslides. This paper highlights recent advances in our understanding of the process of static liquefaction in loose granular soil slopes achieved through observations of highly-instrumented physical models. In particular, the paper summarises experimental results aimed to identify the point of initiation of the chain-reaction required to trigger liquefaction flow failures, to assess the effect of slope inclination on the likelihood of a flowslide being triggered, and to quantify the effect of antecedent groundwater levels on the distal reach of landslide debris with the objective of beginning to explain why neighbouring slopes can exhibit such a wide variation in landslide travel distance upon rainfall-triggering.
An experimental study of low-velocity impacts into granular material in reduced gravity
Murdoch, Naomi; Avila Martinez, Iris; Sunday, Cecily; Zenou, Emmanuel; Cherrier, Olivier; Cadu, Alexandre; Gourinat, Yves
2017-01-01
In order to improve our understanding of landing on small bodies and of asteroid evolution, we use our novel drop tower facility (Sunday et al. 2016) to perform low-velocity (2 - 40 cm/s), shallow impact experiments of a 10 cm diameter aluminum sphere into quartz sand in low effective gravities (˜0.2 - 1 m/s2). Using in-situ accelerometers we measure the acceleration profile during the impacts and determine the peak accelerations, collision durations and maximum penetration depth. We find that the penetration depth scales linearly with the collision velocity but is independent of the effective gravity for the experimental range tested, and that the collision duration is independent of both the effective gravity and the collision velocity. No rebounds are observed in any of the experiments. Our low-gravity experimental results indicate that the transition from the quasi-static regime to the inertial regime occurs for impact energies two orders of magnitude smaller than in similar impact experiments under terrestrial gravity. The lower energy regime change may be due to the increased hydrodynamic drag of the surface material in our experiments, but may also support the notion that the quasi-static regime reduces as the effective gravity becomes lower.
Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin
2016-04-01
The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously
Akbashev, A. R.; Telegin, A. V.; Kaul, A. R.; Sukhorukov, Yu. P.
2015-06-01
Epitaxial thin films of granular and layered nanocomposites consisting of ferromagnetic perovskite Pr1-xSrxMnO3 and ferroelectric hexagonal LuMnO3 were grown on ZrO2(Y2O3) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A self-organized growth of the granular composite took place in situ as a result of phase separation of the Pr-Sr-Lu-Mn-O system into the perovskite and hexagonal phases. Optical transmission measurements revealed a large negative magnetotransmission effect in the layered nanocomposite over a wide spectral and temperature range. The granular nanocomposite unexpectedly showed an even larger, but positive, magnetotransmission effect at room temperature.
Effect of particle distribution on the compaction behavior of granular beds
Lowe, C. A.; Longbottom, A. W.
2006-06-01
This research determines how particle size and particle distribution affects the compaction of granular beds. A modelling and experimental effort was recently designed to compare the compaction behavior of two types of granular HMX: prepressed conventional (coarse) HMX material (mean diameter of 40μm) and microfine HMX (mean diameter Journal of Applied Physics 97, 093521 (2005)]. The microfine material demonstrated higher levels of granular bed strength. Mesoscale modelling of granular beds that are of fixed initial solid volume fraction but vary in particle size and distribution have been undertaken that include a simple elastic-plastic strength model. These suggest that it is not inherently the "size" of a particle that controls the bed strength but the morphology and distribution of particle grains. These solutions are compared with the behavior predicted from continuum scale models of material compaction.
Ain, T. N.; Wibowo, H. A. C.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.
2016-08-01
Compaction inhibit Brazil nut effect experiment by using acrylic material as bed and intruder has peformed. There are five diameter of granular bed (cm): 0.68, 0.53, 0.47, 0.42, and 0.375 and single intruder with diameter 2.4 cm used in this experiment. Vibration taken under r = 3 and frequency (Hz): 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19. Discontinue vibration technique is used in this experiment. Vibrating system is done around one second then stop for a moment before next vibration. This technique used to make easier the process photo taken in each second. These photos then processed to gain contactopy and height of system. Based on the data, contactopy of all system observed are increasing. The average of contactopy without intruder system toward ratio of granular bed diameter and the width of shaking place giving logarithmic equation Δ C = - 210,5ln (\\frac{d}{L}) - 443,56. This equation show the value of contactopy without intruder system under certain ratio of granular bed diameter and the width of shaking place. Potential energy change for both system without intruder and with intruder are decreasing as the height system is decreasing. These result show that compaction inhibit Brazil nut effect phenomena still obey the minimum energy principle (MEP). The whole results of this research confirm that increasing contactopy and decreasing potential energy not only valid for Brazil nut effect, but also for compaction inhibit Brazil nut effect phenomenon.
Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials
Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi
2016-06-01
Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Andrzej Skowron
2006-01-01
Solving complex problems by multi-agent systems in distributed environments requires new approximate reasoning methods based on new computing paradigms. One such recently emerging computing paradigm is Granular Computing(GC). We discuss the Rough-Granular Computing(RGC) approach to modeling of computations in complex adaptive systems and multiagent systems as well as for approximate reasoning about the behavior of such systems. The RGC methods have been successfully applied for solving complex problems in areas such as identification of objects or behavioral patterns by autonomous systems, web mining, and sensor fusion.
Nonvibrating granular model for a glass-forming liquid: Equilibration and aging
Tapia-Ignacio, C.; Garcia-Serrano, J.; Donado, F.
2016-12-01
We studied experimentally a model of a glass-forming liquid on the basis of a nonvibrating magnetic granular system under an unsteady magnetic field. A sudden quenching was produced that drove the system from a liquid state to a different final state with lower temperature; the latter could be a liquid state or a solid state. We determined the mean-squared displacement in temporal windows to obtain the dynamic evolution of the system, and we determined the radial distribution function to obtain its structural characteristics. The results were analyzed using the intermediate scattering function and the effective potential between two particles. We observed that when quenching drives the system to a final state in the liquid phase far from the glass-transition temperature, equilibration occurs very quickly. When the final state has a temperature far below the glass-transition temperature, the system reaches its equilibrium state very quickly. In contrast, when the final state has an intermediate temperature but is below that corresponding to the glass transition, the system falls into a state that evolves slowly, presenting aging. The system evolves by an aging process toward more ordered states. However, after a waiting time, the dynamic behavior changes. It was observed that some particles get close enough to overpass the repulsive interactions and form small stable aggregates. In the effective potential curves, it was observed that the emergence of a second effective well due to the attraction quickly evolves and results in a deeper well than the initial effective well due to the repulsion. With the increase in time, more particles fall in the attractive well forming inhomogeneities, which produce a frustration in the aging process.
Numerical modeling of advanced materials
Meinders, T.; Perdahcioglu, E.S.; Riel, van M.; Wisselink, H.H.
2007-01-01
The finite element (FE) method is widely used to numerically simulate forming processes. The accuracy of an FE analysis strongly depends on the extent to which a material model can represent the real material behavior. The use of new materials requires complex material models which are able to descr
Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wyatt, Nicholas B [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-08-01
The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.
Hashemnia, Kamyar
A new laser displacement probe was developed to measure the impact velocities of particles within vibrationally-fluidized beds. The sensor output was also used to measure bulk flow velocity along the probe window and to provide a measure of the media packing. The displacement signals from the laser sensors were analyzed to obtain the probability distribution functions of the impact velocity of the particles. The impact velocity was affected by the orientation of the laser probe relative to the bulk flow velocity, and the density and elastic properties of the granular media. The impact velocities of the particles were largely independent of their bulk flow speed and packing density. Both the local impact and bulk flow velocities within a tub vibratory finisher were predicted using discrete element modelling (DEM) and compared to the measured values for spherical steel media. It was observed that the impact and bulk flow velocities were relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the contact coefficients of friction and restitution. It was concluded that the predicted impact and bulk flow velocities were dependent on the number of layers in the model. Consequently, the final DE model mimicked the key aspects of the experimental setup, including the submerged laser sensor. The DE method predictions of both impact velocity and bulk flow velocity were in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements, with maximum differences of 20% and 30%, respectively. Discrete element modeling of granular flows is effective, but requires large numerical models. In an effort to reduce computational effort, this work presents a finite element (FE) continuum model of a vibrationally-fluidized granular flow. The constitutive equations governing the continuum model were calibrated using the discrete element method (DEM). The bulk flow behavior of the equivalent continuum media was then studied using both Lagrangian and Eulerian FE formulations. The bulk flow velocities predicted
Scales and kinetics of granular flows.
Goldhirsch, I.
1999-09-01
When a granular material experiences strong forcing, as may be the case, e.g., for coal or gravel flowing down a chute or snow (or rocks) avalanching down a mountain slope, the individual grains interact by nearly instantaneous collisions, much like in the classical model of a gas. The dissipative nature of the particle collisions renders this analogy incomplete and is the source of a number of phenomena which are peculiar to "granular gases," such as clustering and collapse. In addition, the inelasticity of the collisions is the reason that granular gases, unlike atomic ones, lack temporal and spatial scale separation, a fact manifested by macroscopic mean free paths, scale dependent stresses, "macroscopic measurability" of "microscopic fluctuations" and observability of the effects of the Burnett and super-Burnett "corrections." The latter features may also exist in atomic fluids but they are observable there only under extreme conditions. Clustering, collapse and a kinetic theory for rapid flows of dilute granular systems, including a derivation of boundary conditions, are described alongside the mesoscopic properties of these systems with emphasis on the effects, theoretical conclusions and restrictions imposed by the lack of scale separation. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.
Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows
Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.
2011-12-01
In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non
Puig i Montellà, Eduard; Toraldo, Marcella; Chareyre, Bruno; Sibille, Luc
2017-06-01
We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy's law and Therzaghi's effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled DEM-PFV method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. Finally, the merging of chimneys in case of two injection points is investigated.
Weissbrodt, David G; Holliger, Christof; Morgenroth, Eberhard
2017-03-21
New-generation bioprocesses using granular sludge aim for a high-rate removal of nutrients from wastewater with low footprint. Achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on the design of sludge beds and wastewater feeding conditions to optimally load the biomass and to select for polyphosphate- (PAOs) over glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other heterotrophs. A hydraulic-metabolic mathematical model was developed to elucidate the impact of hydraulic transport patterns and environmental conditions on the PAO/GAO competition during up-flow feeding through an EBPR granular sludge bed. Tracer experiments highlighted plug-flow regimes with dispersion under both rapid (9 m h(-1) , Rebed = 1.6, Pez = 7.2, Pet = 4.6) and slow (0.9 m h(-1) , Rebed = 0.2, Pez = 21.3, Pet = 3.4) feeding. Non-turbulent regimes (Rebed Feeding time, pH, and temperature significantly impacted bacterial competition for carbon uptake under anaerobic slow feeding. Feeding duration should be designed to avoid full depletion of intracellular storage polymers within static granules. PAOs bear twice longer feeding than GAOs by using both polyphosphate and glycogen hydrolysis to sustain anaerobic C-uptake. Alkaline conditions (pH 7.25-8.0) by, e.g., dosing lime in the feed select for PAOs independently of temperature (10 - 30°C). A twice higher bed is required for full anaerobic conversions at 10 rather than 20 °C. Biosystem responses for anaerobic C-uptake can be anticipated using the model toward designing robust anaerobic selectors to manage the microbial resource in EBPR granular sludge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Hexagons and Interfaces in a Vibrated Granular Layer
Aranson, I S; Vinokur, V M
1998-01-01
The order parameter model based on parametric Ginzburg-Landau equation is used to describe high acceleration patterns in vibrated layer of granular material. At large amplitude of driving both hexagons and interfaces emerge. Transverse instability leading to formation of ``decorated'' interfaces and labyrinthine patterns, is found. Additional sub-harmonic forcing leads to controlled interface motion.
Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions
Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno
2013-04-01
Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap
Magnetic avalanches in granular ferromagnets: thermal activated collective behavior
Chern, Gia-Wei
2017-02-01
We present a numerical study on the thermal activated avalanche dynamics in granular materials composed of ferromagnetic clusters embedded in a non-magnetic matrix. A microscopic dynamical simulation based on the reaction-diffusion process is developed to model the magnetization process of such systems. The large-scale simulations presented here explicitly demonstrate inter-granular collective behavior induced by thermal activation of spin tunneling. In particular, we observe an intriguing criticality controlled by the rate of energy dissipation. We show that thermal activated avalanches can be understood in the framework of continuum percolation and the emergent dissipation induced criticality is in the universality class of 3D percolation transition. Implications of these results to the phase-separated states of colossal magnetoresistance materials and other artificial granular magnetic systems are also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Krishna
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Liquefaction was the most hazardous damage during an earthquake. Ground improvement techniques were employed to mitigate liquefaction hazards. Most common methods to improve engineering properties of soils are densification, reinforcement, grouting/mixing and drainage. Among various remedial measures available, installation of columnar granular inclusions is the most widely adopted method for liquefaction mitigation. Approach: Columnar granular inclusions function as drains and permit rapid dissipation of earthquake induced pore pressures by virtue of their high permeability. Results: One of the chief benefits of ground treatment with granular piles is the densification of in situ ground by which the in-situ properties of the ground get modified to mitigate liquefaction potential. Further, the very high deformation modulus and stiffness of the granular pile material provide reinforcement for the in situ soil and offer another mechanism to mitigate liquefaction. The study described briefly the phenomenon of liquefaction and the associated features. A short discussion on various ground improvement methods available for liquefaction mitigation was presented highlighting the importance of columnar inclusions. Construction methods of different granular columnar inclusions like sand compaction piles/ granular piles were discussed briefly. Recent developments in the research of columnar granular inclusions as liquefaction counter measures were presented in relation to physical, numerical and analytical model studies. Conclusion/Recommendations: Columnar granular inclusions were demonstrated to be very effective for liquefaction mitigation in different case studies and research investigations.
Zhao, Runchen; Zhang, Qianyun; Tjugito, Hendro; Cheng, Xiang
2015-01-13
When a granular material is impacted by a sphere, its surface deforms like a liquid yet it preserves a circular crater like a solid. Although the mechanism of granular impact cratering by solid spheres is well explored, our knowledge on granular impact cratering by liquid drops is still very limited. Here, by combining high-speed photography with high-precision laser profilometry, we investigate liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular surface and monitor the morphology of resulting impact craters. Surprisingly, we find that despite the enormous energy and length difference, granular impact cratering by liquid drops follows the same energy scaling and reproduces the same crater morphology as that of asteroid impact craters. Inspired by this similarity, we integrate the physical insight from planetary sciences, the liquid marble model from fluid mechanics, and the concept of jamming transition from granular physics into a simple theoretical framework that quantitatively describes all of the main features of liquid-drop imprints in granular media. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms governing raindrop impacts on granular surfaces and reveals a remarkable analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes.
Material Modelling - Composite Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang
1997-01-01
in this report is that cement paste and concrete behave practically as linear-viscoelastic materials from an age of approximately 10 hours. This is a significant age extension relative to earlier studies in the literature where linear-viscoelastic behavior is only demonstrated from ages of a few days. Thus......, linear-viscoelastic analysis methods are justified from the age of approximately 10 hours.The rheological properties of plain cement paste are determined. These properties are the principal material properties needed in any stress analysis of concrete. Shrinkage (autogeneous or drying) of mortar...... and concrete and associated internal stress states are examples of analysis made in this report. In this context is discussed that concrete strength is not an invariable material property. It is a property the potentials of which is highly and negatively influenced by any damage caused by stress concentrations...
Assessing continuum postulates in simulations of granular flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rycroft, Chris; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin
2008-08-26
Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume"element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale three-dimensional Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that an approximate"granular element" defined at the scale of observed dynamical correlations (roughly three to five particle diameters) has a reasonable continuum interpretation. By viewing all the simulations as an ensemble of granular elements which deform and move with the flow, we can track material evolution at a local level. Our results confirm some of the hypotheses of classical plasticity theory while contradicting others and suggest a subtle physical picture of granular failure, combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-like dependence on strain. Our computational methods and results can be used to guide the development of more realistic continuum models, based on observed local relationships betweenaverage variables.
The effect of limb kinematics on the speed of a legged robot on granular media
Li, Chen; Komsuoglu, Haldun; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1007/s11340-010-9347-1
2013-01-01
Achieving effective locomotion on diverse terrestrial substrates can require subtle changes of limb kinematics. Biologically inspired legged robots (physical models of organisms) have shown impressive mobility on hard ground but suffer performance loss on unconsolidated granular materials like sand. Because comprehensive limb-ground interaction models are lacking, optimal gaits on complex yielding terrain have been determined empirically. To develop predictive models for legged devices and to provide hypotheses for biological locomotors, we systematically study the performance of SandBot, a small legged robot, on granular media as a function of gait parameters. High performance occurs only in a small region of parameter space. A previously introduced kinematic model of the robot combined with a new anisotropic granular penetration force law predicts the speed. Performance on granular media is maximized when gait parameters minimize body acceleration and limb interference, and utilize solidification features o...
Model Selection of Cooling Equipment for Granular Fertilizers%颗粒肥料冷却设备的选型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李秋萍; 程建伟; 邵国兴
2011-01-01
在颗粒肥料生产中,产品的冷却是直接影响产品包装及成品质量的重要过程之一.介绍了转鼓冷却器、流化床冷却器、波面冷却器等几种适合于颗粒肥料冷却的设备,并对它们的工作原理和性能特点作了简单介绍和评述,供用户在设备选型时参考.%In the production of granular fertilizers, product cooling is one of the important processes that affect directly the product packaging and quality. Several cooling facilities are described suitable for granular fertilizers, such as the rotary drum cooler, fluid-bed cooler, wave surface cooler, etc.A brief account and review are given of their working principles and performance characteristics, as a reference for users in their model selection of equipment.
Baup, S; Wolbert, D; Laplanche, A
2002-10-01
Three pesticides (atrazine, bromoxynil and diuron) and two granular activated carbons are involved in equilibrium and kinetic adsorption experiments. Equilibrium is represented by Freundlich isotherm law and kinetic is described by the Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model, based on external mass transfer and intraparticle surface diffusion. Equilibrium and long-term experiments are conducted to compare Powdered Activated Carbon and Granular Activated Carbon. These first investigations show that crushing GAC into PAC improves the accessibility of the adsorption sites without increasing the number of these sites. In a second part, kinetics experiments are carried out using a Differential Column Batch Reactor. Thanks to this experimental device, the external mass transfer coefficient k(f) is calculated from empirical correlation and the effect of external mass transfer on adsorption is likely to be minimized. In order to obtain the intraparticle surface diffusion coefficient D. for these pesticides, comparisons between experimental kinetic data and simulations are conducted and the best agreement leads to the Ds coefficient. This procedure appears to be an efficient way to acquire surface diffusion coefficients for the adsorption of pesticides onto GAC. Finally it points out the role of surface diffusivity in the adsorption rate. As a matter of fact, even if the amount of the target-compound that could be potentially adsorbed is really important, its surface diffusion coefficient may be small, so that its adsorption may not have enough contact time to be totally achieved.
Seismic wave propagation in granular media
Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion
2016-10-01
Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in
Interfacing materials models with fire field models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Moya, J.L.
1995-12-01
For flame spread over solid materials, there has traditionally been a large technology gap between fundamental combustion research and the somewhat simplistic approaches used for practical, real-world applications. Recent advances in computational hardware and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based software have led to the development of fire field models. These models, when used in conjunction with material burning models, have the potential to bridge the gap between research and application by implementing physics-based engineering models in a transient, multi-dimensional tool. This paper discusses the coupling that is necessary between fire field models and burning material models for the simulation of solid material fires. Fire field models are capable of providing detailed information about the local fire environment. This information serves as an input to the solid material combustion submodel, which subsequently calculates the impact of the fire environment on the material. The response of the solid material (in terms of thermal response, decomposition, charring, and off-gassing) is then fed back into the field model as a source of mass, momentum and energy. The critical parameters which must be passed between the field model and the material burning model have been identified. Many computational issues must be addressed when developing such an interface. Some examples include the ability to track multiple fuels and species, local ignition criteria, and the need to use local grid refinement over the burning material of interest.
Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes
Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko
2014-11-01
Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金鑫鑫; 金峰; 刘宁; 孙其诚
2016-01-01
. Then granular temperature rooted from gas kinetics is introduced to model the macroscopic behaviors. For loose and rapid granular flow, the kinetic granular temperature itself is the root to affect the flow process. While in a dense granular system, the granular temperature at a quasi-static state is referred to as elastic energy fluctuation. The structure can be kept stable when granular temperature exists on account of the mutual confinement among particles. And the granular temperature at a stable state is just a representation of internal structure of granular assembly. When the granular temperature stimulated by the external disturbance exceeds the stable value, the irreversible process happens and the difference between the excited state and stationary state is the driving force for evolution. The stress relaxations under different surface properties and confining pressures are simulated using non-equilibrium theory with new change for granular temperature. It can be found that the granular temperature difference triggers elastic relaxation and force chains reorganization. And the larger the temperature difference, the further away from the steady state the system is and the larger the stress change is. The more smooth the surface and the smaller the confining pressure, the lower resistance is generated, so that the initial granular temperature difference is larger and the stress change is larger during stress relaxation. The granular temperature decreases as time goes by because of its own relaxation. When the difference is equal to zero, the process of stress relaxation finishes and the system evolves into a global minimum of potential energy.
Aerospace Materials Process Modelling
1988-08-01
deTresca La d~termination du coefficient de frottement de Tresca 9 est effectu~e de facon courante en forgeant un anneau de g~oan~trie fix~e. On mesure la...ailleurs et vaut a= 105 xt 0 , 2 5 Les riductions relatives du diam~tre int~rieur sont report~es sur l1abaque TVM(fig. 2a). Les coefficient de frottement ...validated material data bass. Information such as constitutive equations, intrinsic workability maps, effective heat-transfer coefficients , interface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.Balevi(c)ius; I.Sielamowicz; Z.Mróz; R.Ka(c)ianauskas
2012-01-01
The present paper provides both experimental and DEM analyses of the filling and discharge of pea grains from a 3D flat-bottomed bin.In the DEM model,the fixed mean values of the experimentally determined single particle data,such as the particle density,Young's modulus,Poisson's ratio as well as the sliding and rolling friction coefficients were incorporated to analyse their effects on the macroscale indicators,such as the wall pressure,discharge velocities and material outflow parameters.The effect of rolling friction was studied based on the experimentally measured single particle rolling friction coefficient.This analysis is aimed at the quantitative prediction of flow parameters as related to the identification of material parameters.
Mirabolghasemi, M.; Prodanovic, M.; DiCarlo, D. A.
2014-12-01
Filtration is relevant to many disciplines from colloid transport in environmental engineering to formation damage in petroleum engineering. In this study we compare the results of the novel numerical modeling of filtration phenomenon on pore scale with the complementary experimental observations on laboratory scale and discuss how the results of comparison can be used to improve macroscale filtration models for different porous media. The water suspension contained glass beads of 200 micron diameter and flows through a packing of 1mm diameter glass beads, and thus the main filtration mechanism is straining and jamming of particles. The numerical model simulates the flow of suspension through a realistic 3D structure of an imaged, disordered sphere pack, which acts as the filter medium. Particle capture through size exclusion and jamming is modeled via a coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The coupled CFD-DEM approach is capable of modeling the majority of particle-particle, particle-wall, and particle-fluid interactions. Note that most of traditional approaches require spherical particles both in suspension and the filtration medium. We adapted the interface between the pore space and the spherical grains to be represented as a triangulated surface and this allows extensions to any imaged media. The numerical and experimental results show that the filtration coefficient of the sphere pack is a function of the flow rate and concentration of the suspension, even for constant total particle flow rate. An increase in the suspension flow rate results in a decrease in the filtration coefficient, which suggests that the hydrodynamic drag force plays the key role in hindering the particle capture in random sphere packs. Further, similar simulations of suspension flow through a sandstone sample, which has a tighter pore space, show that filtration coefficient remains almost constant at different suspension flow rates. This
Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe
2014-05-01
characterize both the convergence of these grain-scale parameters toward the empirical coefficients of the macroscopic descriptions, and the deviations from continuum model predictions caused by nonlocal granular effects for quantities such as erosion rate. We will also summarize the context and implications of our work for both granular physics theory and granular flow hazard risk assessment.
Global nuclear material control model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.
1996-05-01
The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material.
Shojaaee, Zahra; Brendel, Lothar; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E
2012-07-01
The role of rotational degrees of freedom and of microscopic contact properties at smooth walls in two dimensional planar shear has been investigated by contact dynamics simulations of round hard frictional particles. Our default system setup consists of smooth frictional walls, giving rise to slip. We show that there exists a critical microscopic friction coefficient at the walls, above which they are able to shear the granular medium. We observe distinctive features at this critical point, which to our knowledge have not been reported before. Activating rolling friction at smooth walls reduces slip, leading to similar shear behavior as for rough walls (with particles glued on their surface). Our simulations with rough walls are in agreement with previous results, provided the roughness is strong enough. In the limit of small roughness amplitude, however, the distinctive features of shearing with smooth walls are confirmed.
Validation of GEANT4 Monte Carlo models with a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter
Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Drancourt, C.; Espargilière, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Buanes, T.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Benyamna, M.; Cârloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G. R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Marchesini, I.; Ramilli, M.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Dauncey, P. D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Götze, M.; Hartbrich, O.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.
2013-07-01
Calorimeters with a high granularity are a fundamental requirement of the Particle Flow paradigm. This paper focuses on the prototype of a hadron calorimeter with analog readout, consisting of thirty-eight scintillator layers alternating with steel absorber planes. The scintillator plates are finely segmented into tiles individually read out via Silicon Photomultipliers. The presented results are based on data collected with pion beams in the energy range from 8 GeV to 100 GeV. The fine segmentation of the sensitive layers and the high sampling frequency allow for an excellent reconstruction of the spatial development of hadronic showers. A comparison between data and Monte Carlo simulations is presented, concerning both the longitudinal and lateral development of hadronic showers and the global response of the calorimeter. The performance of several GEANT4 physics lists with respect to these observables is evaluated.
Validation of GEANT4 Monte Carlo Models with a Highly Granular Scintillator-Steel Hadron Calorimeter
Adloff, C; Blaising, J J; Drancourt, C; Espargiliere, A; Gaglione, R; Geffroy, N; Karyotakis, Y; Prast, J; Vouters, G; Francis, K; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Buanes, T; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Watson, N K; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Yan, W; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Apostolakis, J; Dotti, A; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Uzhinskiy, V; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Gottlicher, P; Gunter, C; Hermberg, B; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Vargas-Trevino, A; Feege, N; Garutti, E; Marchesini, I; Ramilli, M; Eckert, P; Harion, T; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A M; Bartsch, V; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Kirikova, N; Kozlov, V; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y; Buzhan, P; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Tikhomirov, V; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Szalay, M; Tesar, M; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; Conforti di Lorenzo, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poschl, R; Raux, L; Rouene, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Ruan, M; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Takeshita, T; Uozumi, S; Gotze, M; Hartbrich, O; Sauer, J; Weber, S; Zeitnitz, C
2013-01-01
Calorimeters with a high granularity are a fundamental requirement of the Particle Flow paradigm. This paper focuses on the prototype of a hadron calorimeter with analog readout, consisting of thirty-eight scintillator layers alternating with steel absorber planes. The scintillator plates are finely segmented into tiles individually read out via Silicon Photomultipliers. The presented results are based on data collected with pion beams in the energy range from 8GeV to 100GeV. The fine segmentation of the sensitive layers and the high sampling frequency allow for an excellent reconstruction of the spatial development of hadronic showers. A comparison between data and Monte Carlo simulations is presented, concerning both the longitudinal and lateral development of hadronic showers and the global response of the calorimeter. The performance of several GEANT4 physics lists with respect to these observables is evaluated.
Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
2000-01-01
A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised
Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
2001-01-01
A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised
Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.
2000-01-01
A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised
Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.
2001-01-01
A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised
Advances in design and modeling of porous materials
Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric
2015-07-01
This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.
Prediction of shear bands in sand based on granular flow model and two-phase equilibrium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张义同; 齐德瑄; 杜如虚; 任述光
2008-01-01
In contrast to the traditional interpretation of shear bands in sand as a bifurcation problem in continuum mechanics,shear bands in sand are considered as high-strain phase(plastic phase) of sand and the materials outside the bands are still in low-strain phase(elastic phase),namely,the two phases of sand can coexist under certain condition.As a one-dimensional example,the results show that,for materials with strain-softening behavior,the two-phase solution is a stable branch of solutions,but the method to find two-phase solutions is very different from the one for bifurcation analysis.The theory of multi-phase equilibrium and the slow plastic flow model are applied to predict the formation and patterns of shear bands in sand specimens,discontinuity of deformation gradient and stress across interfaces between shear bands and other regions is considered,the continuity of displacements and traction across interfaces is imposed,and the Maxwell relation is satisfied.The governing equations are deduced.The critical stress for the formation of a shear band,both the stresses and strains inside the band and outside the band,and the inclination angle of the band can all be predicted.The predicted results are consistent with experimental measurements.
Predictive simulation of granular flows applied to compressible multiphase flow modeling
Goetsch, Ryan J.; Regele, Jonathan D.
2014-11-01
Multiphase flows have been an active area of research for decades due to their complex nature and occurrence in many engineering applications. However, little information exists about the dense compressible flow regime. Recent experimental work [Wagner et al., Exp. Fluids 52, 1507 (2012)] using a multiphase shock tube has studied gas-solid flows with high solid volume fractions (α = 0 . 2) by measuring shock wave-particle cloud interactions. It is still unclear what occurs at the particle scale inside and behind the particle cloud during this interaction. The objective of this work is to perform direct numerical simulations to understand this phenomena. With this goal in mind, a discrete element method (DEM) solver was developed to predict the properties of a particle cloud formed by gravity driven granular flow through a slit opening. For validation purposes, the results are compared with experimental channel flow data. It is found that the mean velocity profile and mass flow rates correlate well with the experiment, however the fluctuation velocities are significantly under-predicted for both smooth and rough wall cases.
An inversion method to extract basal friction law of granular flows and snow avalanches
Pulfer, Gaëtan; Thibert, Emmanuel; Naaim, Mohamed
2015-04-01
The aim of this work is to develop an inversion method allowing to extract basal friction parameters from snow avalanches. To develop this method, granular flows on an incline covered by sand paper (typical roughness size is 500µm) are used. The granular material is composed of glass beads of 1.1 mm diameter. A controlled volume of granular material is released by retracting a gate of 35 mm height. On the upper and steepest part of the incline, the front velocity of the flow is measured by image capture (30 frames/s). At three locations, the flow height and the Lagrangian velocity are measured with infrared distance sensors and the Particle Image Velocimetry technics, respectively. On the lower and less steep part of the rough incline where granular flow decelerates and stops, the front velocity is also measured by image capture. The shape and the thickness of the deposit is determined with an accurate four fringe shifted Moiré method. A Saint-Venant code is used as a direct model to simulate the granular experiments. From the measurements and an optimization/inversion method, best estimates of basal friction parameters are extracted. In order to discuss and validate this inverse approach, an external determination of the rheology of the granular material is performed using Hstart and Hstop curves constructed under the same basal surface roughness.
Nabil Arman,
2010-01-01
E-learning materials development is typically acknowledged as an expensive, complicated, and lengthy process, often producing materials that are of low quality and difficult to adaptand maintain. It has always been a challenge to identify proper e-learning materials that can be reused at a reasonable cost and effort. In this paper, software engineering reuse principlesare applied to e-learning materials development process. These principles are then applied and implemented in a prototype that...
Hangx, Suzanne; Cordonnier, Benoît; Pijnenburg, Ronald; Renard, François; Spiers, Christopher
2017-04-01
Relating macroscopic deformation of granular media to grain-scale processes, such as grain fracturing, has been a focus of many studies. Understanding these processes is key for predicting surface subsidence and induced seismicity caused by hydrocarbon depletion, the hydraulic fracturing response of geothermal reservoirs, and post-seismic crustal deformation. With the development of state-of-the-art techniques, such as time-lapse X-ray tomography imaging during triaxial deformation, new avenues to investigate the operating mechanisms have opened up. As a first step to understanding grain-scale deformation processes, we performed a deformation experiment on highly porous sandstone, obtained from a depleting gas reservoir, using a novel small-scale triaxial deformation apparatus coupled to high-resolution 4D X-ray tomography, available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Grenoble) and Université Grenoble Alpes. This state-of-the-art apparatus allows for 3D time-lapse imaging of samples, while deforming at pressure, temperature and fluid flow conditions relevant for geological reservoirs. We performed our experiment at relevant in-situ reservoir conditions (T = 100˚ C, 10 MPa pore pressure, 40 MPa effective confining pressure). Axial stress was increased step-wise until failure occurred, while continuously imaging deformation. This enables us to monitor progressive grain failure, and strain localisation, during deformation in real-time. Though the vast amount of data obtained from even a single test poses challenges for data analysis, this presentation will address the first results obtained from this experiment.
Uphill solitary waves in granular flows
Martínez, E.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Ramos, O.; Måløy, K. J.; Douady, S.; Altshuler, E.
2007-03-01
We have experimentally observed uphill solitary waves in the surface flow on a granular material. A heap is constructed by injecting sand between two vertical glass plates separated by a distance much larger than the average grain size, with an open boundary. As the heap reaches the open boundary, solitary fluctuations appear on the flowing layer and move “up the hill” (i.e., against the direction of the flow). We explain the phenomenon in the context of stop-and-go traffic models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berryman, J G
2005-03-23
To provide quantitative measures of the importance of fluid effects on shear waves in heterogeneous reservoirs, a model material called a ''random polycrystal of porous laminates'' is introduced. This model poroelastic material has constituent grains that are layered (or laminated), and each layer is an isotropic, microhomogeneous porous medium. All grains are composed of exactly the same porous constituents, and have the same relative volume fractions. The order of lamination is not important because the up-scaling method used to determine the transversely isotropic (hexagonal) properties of the grains is Backus averaging, which--for quasi-static or long-wavelength behavior--depends only on the volume fractions and layer properties. Grains are then jumbled together totally at random, filling all space, and producing an overall isotropic poroelastic medium. The poroelastic behavior of this medium is then analyzed using the Peselnick-Meister-Watt bounds (of Hashin-Shtrikman type). We study the dependence of the shear modulus on pore fluid properties and determine the range of behavior to be expected. In particular we compare and contrast these results to those anticipated from Gassmann's fluid substitution formulas, and to the predictions of Mavko and Jizba for very low porosity rocks with flat cracks. This approach also permits the study of arbitrary numbers of constituents, but for simplicity the numerical examples are restricted here to just two constituents. This restriction also permits the use of some special exact results available for computing the overall effective stress coefficient in any two-component porous medium. The bounds making use of polycrystalline microstructure are very tight. Results for the shear modulus demonstrate that the ratio of compliance differences R (i.e., shear compliance changes over bulk compliance changes when going from drained to undrained behavior, or vice versa) is usually nonzero and can take a wide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Beem, Lucas H.
rheology, which limit our ability to predict ice sheet dynamics in a changing climate. In this talk I will present the soft-body Discrete Element Method which is a Lagrangian method I use in order to simulate the unique and diverse nature of granular dynamics in the subglacial environment. However......, the method imposes intense computational requirements on the computational time step. The majority of steps in the granular dynamics algorithm are massively parallel, which makes the DEM an obvious candidate for exploiting the capabilities of modern GPUs. The granular computations are coupled to a fluid...
Multiscale Modeling of Hydrogen Embrittlement for Multiphase Material
Al-Jabr, Khalid A.
2014-05-01
ABSTRACT Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE) is a very common failure mechanism induced crack propagation in materials that are utilized in oil and gas industry structural components and equipment. Considering the prediction of HE behavior, which is suggested in this study, is one technique of monitoring HE of equipment in service. Therefore, multi-scale constitutive models that account for the failure in polycrystalline Body Centered Cubic (BCC) materials due to hydrogen embrittlement are developed. The polycrystalline material is modeled as two-phase materials consisting of a grain interior (GI) phase and a grain boundary (GB) phase. In the rst part of this work, the hydrogen concentration in the GI (Cgi) and the GB (Cgb) as well as the hydrogen distribution in each phase, were calculated and modeled by using kinetic regime-A and C, respectively. In the second part of this work, this dissertation captures the adverse e ects of hydrogen concentration, in each phase, in micro/meso and macro-scale models on the mechanical behavior of steel; e.g. tensile strength and critical porosity. The models predict the damage mechanisms and the reduction in the ultimate strength pro le of a notched, round bar under tension for di erent hydrogen concentrations as observed in the experimental data available in the literature for steels. Moreover, the study outcomes are supported by the experimental data of the Fractography and HE indices investigation. In addition to the aforementioned continuum model, this work employs the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to provide information regarding 4 5 bond formulation and breaking. The MD analyses are conducted for both single grain and polycrystalline BCC iron with di erent amounts of hydrogen and di erent size of nano-voids. The simulations show that the hydrogen atoms could form the transmission in materials con guration from BCC to FCC (Face Centered Cubic) and HCP (Hexagonal Close Packed). They also suggest the preferred sites of hydrogen
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.
1988-01-01
The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.
Instability in Shocked Granular Gases
Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei
2013-01-01
Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.
Instability in shocked granular gases
Sirmas, Nick; Falle, Sam; Radulescu, Matei
2014-05-01
Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.
Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion.
Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre
2016-02-12
The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results.
Tartanson, Marie-Anne; Soussan, Laurence; Rivallin, Matthieu; Pecastaings, Sophie; Chis, Cristian V; Penaranda, Diego; Roques, Christine; Faur, Catherine
2015-10-01
The bactericidal activity of an Al2O3-TiO2-Ag granular material against an Escherichia coli strain was confirmed by a culture-based method. In particular, 100% of microorganisms were permanently inactivated in 30 to 45 min. The present work aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the bactericidal action of this material and their dynamics on Escherichia coli using different techniques. Observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different times of disinfection revealed morphological changes in the bacteria as soon as they were put in contact with the material. Notably highlighted were cell membrane damage; cytoplasm detachment; formation of vacuoles, possibly due to DNA condensation, in association with regions exhibiting different levels of electron density; and membrane lysis. PCR and flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm and quantify the observations of cell integrity. The direct exposure of cells to silver, combined with the oxidative stress induced by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, was identified to be responsible for these morphological alterations. From the first 5 min of treatment with the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag material, 98% of E. coli isolates were lysed. From 30 min, cell viability decreased to reach total inactivation, although approximately 1% of permeable E. coli cells and 1% of intact cells (10(5) genomic units·ml(-1)) were evidenced. This study demonstrates that the bactericidal effect of the material results from a synergic action of desorbed and supported silver. Supported silver was shown to generate the ROS evidenced.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José F. de A Marques Neto
2011-02-01
Full Text Available O armazenamento de produtos agrícolas cumpre um papel importante no agronegócio. Observa-se uma tendência cada vez maior em se trabalhar com produtos a granel, em grandes volumes. Visando a uma concepção construtiva racional e econômica, o presente trabalho propõe um sistema misto em concreto armado e alvenaria estrutural aplicado a silos para armazenagem de produto agrícola a granel. No projeto proposto, o silo é composto de células em alvenaria estrutural, geminadas duas a duas na largura e com um número variável de células no comprimento, em função do volume desejado de armazenagem. Esse sistema simétrico favorece a racionalidade operacional, garantindo a continuidade entre os fluxos de recebimento e de expedição. O fundo da célula é em forma de tremonha dupla troncopiramidal, com saída central, construída em painéis treliçados pré-moldados. A sustentação das células e das tremonhas é feita através de vigas e de pilares de concreto armado. O isolamento térmico necessário para que a qualidade do produto armazenado seja garantida é estabelecido pela utilização de telhas trapezoidais de aço galvanizado, tanto na cobertura como nos fechamentos laterais. A fim de ilustrar o presente trabalho, um exemplo de silo utilizando o sistema proposto é apresentado, e a viabilidade da concepção construtiva adotada é analisada.The storage of granular materials has had an important role in the agribusiness. Storing granular materials in silos, instead of in bags or big-bags, has been an increase tendency. Aiming at an economic and rational solution for storing granular materials this paper presents an alternative design: a multi-cell silo group composed of reinforced masonry rectangular cells coupled two by two in width, and a variable number of cells in length according to the volume of desired storage. Such symmetrical system benefits the loading and the unloading operations, and guarantees the continuity between the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Botari
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Compreender e quantificar os mecanismos relacionados à perda de carga e à remoção de partículas em um meio filtrante granular é de importância fundamental para o estudo do processo da filtração. Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento dos modelos de perda de carga na filtração em meios porosos e a proposição da modelação matemática semiempírica da perda de carga para meios filtrantes limpos e do desenvolvimento do perfil de perda de carga ao longo do tempo de filtração a partir da equação de Ergun. Objetivou-se a determinação dos valores das constantes da equação de Ergun para meio granular de areia grossa e pedregulho. Alguns exemplos de aplicação dessa modelação matemática são também apresentados e discutidos pelos autores com base em dados experimentais obtidos em uma estação piloto de dupla filtração.To understand and to quantify the head loss due to the particles removal in a porous medium has primary importance to filtration process study. This paper presents the development of the models of head loss used in the filtration in porous media and proposes a mathematical semi-empiric model for head loss in clean beds and head loss increasing profile during the filtration run length, by means of the Ergun equation. The goal was the determination of Ergun’s equation coefficients for granular material constituted of coarse sand and gravel. Examples of application of these mathematical modeling are also presented and discussed by the authors based on experimental data obtained in a double filtration pilot plant.
General scaling relations for locomotion in granular media.
Slonaker, James; Motley, D Carrington; Zhang, Qiong; Townsend, Stephen; Senatore, Carmine; Iagnemma, Karl; Kamrin, Ken
2017-05-01
Inspired by dynamic similarity in fluid systems, we have derived a general dimensionless form for locomotion in granular materials, which is validated in experiments and discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The form instructs how to scale size, mass, and driving parameters in order to relate dynamic behaviors of different locomotors in the same granular media. The scaling can be derived by assuming intrusion forces arise from resistive force theory or equivalently by assuming the granular material behaves as a continuum obeying a frictional yield criterion. The scalings are experimentally confirmed using pairs of wheels of various shapes and sizes under many driving conditions in a common sand bed. We discuss why the two models provide such a robust set of scaling laws even though they neglect a number of the complexities of granular rheology. Motivated by potential extraplanetary applications, the dimensionless form also implies a way to predict wheel performance in one ambient gravity based on tests in a different ambient gravity. We confirm this using DEM simulations, which show that scaling relations are satisfied over an array of driving modes even when gravity differs between scaled tests.
Validation of DEM prediction for granular avalanches on irregular terrain
Mead, Stuart R.; Cleary, Paul W.
2015-09-01
Accurate numerical simulation can provide crucial information useful for a greater understanding of destructive granular mass movements such as rock avalanches, landslides, and pyroclastic flows. It enables more informed and relatively low cost investigation of significant risk factors, mitigation strategy effectiveness, and sensitivity to initial conditions, material, or soil properties. In this paper, a granular avalanche experiment from the literature is reanalyzed and used as a basis to assess the accuracy of discrete element method (DEM) predictions of avalanche flow. Discrete granular approaches such as DEM simulate the motion and collisions of individual particles and are useful for identifying and investigating the controlling processes within an avalanche. Using a superquadric shape representation, DEM simulations were found to accurately reproduce transient and static features of the avalanche. The effect of material properties on the shape of the avalanche deposit was investigated. The simulated avalanche deposits were found to be sensitive to particle shape and friction, with the particle shape causing the sensitivity to friction to vary. The importance of particle shape, coupled with effect on the sensitivity to friction, highlights the importance of quantifying and including particle shape effects in numerical modeling of granular avalanches.
A Study of SDT in an Ammonium Nitrate (NH4 NO3) Based Granular Explosive
Burns, Malcolm; Taylor, Peter
2007-06-01
In order to study the SDT process in a granular non ideal explosive (NIE) an experimental technique has been developed that allows the granular explosive to be shock initiated at a well controlled ``tap density''. The granular NIE was contained in a PMMA cone and a planar shock was delivered to the explosive through buffer plates of varying material. A combination of piezoelectric probes, ionization pins, PVDF stress gauges and a high speed framing camera were used to measure the input shock pressure and shock and detonation wave positions in the explosive. Four trials were performed to characterize the run to detonation distance versus pressure relationship (Pop plot) of the granular NH4 NO3 explosive. Input pressures ranged from close to the 4GPa predicted CJ pressure of the granular explosive down to 1.4 GPa, giving run distances up to 14mm for the lowest pressure. The data indicates a steady acceleration of the input shock to the detonation velocity, implying significant reaction growth at the shock front. This is in contrast to the behaviour of most high density pressed PBXs which show little growth in shock front velocity before transit to detonation. The experimentally observed initiation behaviour is compared to that predicted by a simple JWL++ reactive burn model for the granular NH4 NO3 explosive which has been fitted to other detonics experiments on this material.
Some open problems in granular matter mechanics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qicheng Sun; Guangqian Wang; Kaiheng Hu
2009-01-01
Granular matter is a large assemblage of solid particles,which is fundamentally different from any other type of matters,such as solid and liquid.Most models presented for granular matter are phenomenological and are only suitable for solving engineering problems.Many fundamental mechanical problems remain open.By analyzing characteristics of internal state structure,we propose that granularmatter is intrinsically multiscale,i.e.microscale of particle size,mesoscale of force chain,and macroscale of the bulk of granular matter.The correlations among difference scales would be crucial.The mesoscale force chain network is determined by both particle properties and macroscopic boundary conditions.The evolution of the force the chain network contributes to macroscopic mechanical properties of granular matter.In addition,we discuss the drawbacks in simplifying contact forces in the current models,and the difficulties in analyzing the interaction of interstitial fluid in wet granular matter.As an appropriate application of granular matter,debris flow can be studied with granular matter mechanics;meanwhile,debris flow brings more challenges which certainly motivate future studies on granular matter.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.
Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K
2017-06-29
This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11
2013-01-01
This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena. The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.
Unifying suspension and granular rheology.
Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier
2011-10-28
Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.
Segregation induced fingering instabilities in granular avalanches
Woodhouse, Mark; Thornton, Anthony; Johnson, Chris; Kokelaar, Pete; Gray, Nico
2013-04-01
It is important to be able to predict the distance to which a hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. snow slab avalanches, debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) might travel, as this information is vital for accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In the high solids fraction regions of these flows the large particles commonly segregate to the surface, where they are transported to the margins to form bouldery flow fronts. In many natural flows these bouldery margins experience a much greater frictional force, leading to frontal instabilities. These instabilities create levees that channelize the flow vastly increasing the run-out distance. A similar effect can be observed in dry granular experiments, which use a combination of small round and large rough particles. When this mixture is poured down an inclined plane, particle size segregation causes the large particles to accumulate near the margins. Being rougher, the large particles experience a greater friction force and this configuration (rougher material in front of smoother) can be unstable. The instability causes the uniform flow front to break up into a series of fingers. A recent model for particle size-segregation has been coupled to existing avalanche models through a particle concentration dependent friction law. In this talk numerical solutions of this coupled system are presented and compared to both large scale experiments carried out at the USGS flume and more controlled small scale laboratory experiments. The coupled depth-averaged model captures the accumulation of large particles at the flow front. We show this large particle accumulation at the head of the flow can lead to the break-up of the initially uniform front into a series of fingers. However, we are unable to obtain a fully grid-resolved numerical solution; the width of the fingers decreases as the grid is refined. By considering the linear stability of a steady, fully-developed, bidisperse granular layer it is shown that
Modelling Hospital Materials Management Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raffaele Iannone
2013-06-01
integrated and detailed analysis and description model for hospital materials management data and tasks, which is able to tackle information from patient requirements to usage, from replenishment requests to supplying and handling activities. The model takes account of medical risk reduction, traceability and streamlined processes perspectives. Second, the paper translates this information into a business process model and mathematical formalization.The study provides a useful guide to the various relevant technology‐related, management and business issues, laying the foundations of an efficient reengineering of the supply chain to reduce healthcare costs and improve the quality of care.
del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Prieto, M; Nadal, R; Niubó, M; Chimenos, J M
2014-02-15
A granular material (GM) to be used as road sub-base was formulated using 80% of weathered bottom ash (WBA) and 20% of mortar. The mortar was prepared separately and consisted in 50% APC and 50% of Portland cement. A pilot-scale study was carried on by constructing three roads in order to environmentally evaluate the performance of GM in a real scenario. By comparing the field results with those of the column experiments, the overestimations observed at laboratory scale can be explained by the potential mechanisms in which water enters into the road body and the pH of the media. An exception was observed in the case of Cu, whose concentration release at the test road was higher. The long-time of exposure at atmospheric conditions might have favoured oxidation of organic matter and therefore the leaching of this element. The results obtained showed that immobilization of all heavy metals and metalloids from APC is achieved by the pozzolanic effect of the cement mortar. This is, to the knowledge of the authors, the only pilot scale study that is considering reutilization of APC as a safe way to disposal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiqiang Chen
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The hydro-mechanical coupling transport process of sand production is numerically investigated with special attention paid to the bonding effect between sand grains. By coupling the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and the discrete element method (DEM, we are able to capture particles movements and fluid flows simultaneously. In order to account for the bonding effects on sand production, a contact bond model is introduced into the LBM-DEM framework. Our simulations first examine the experimental observation of “initial sand production is evoked by localized failure” and then show that the bonding or cement plays an important role in sand production. Lower bonding strength will lead to more sand production than higher bonding strength. It is also found that the influence of flow rate on sand production depends on the bonding strength in cemented granular media, and for low bonding strength sample, the higher the flow rate is, the more severe the erosion found in localized failure zone becomes.
Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich
2005-01-01
These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...
Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ita, Stacey Leigh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-08-01
Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.
Wyser, Emmanuel; Carrea, Dario; Jaboyeodff, Michel
2017-04-01
Most of the past studies focused on solid impacts onto granular beds addressing key questions such as the crater dimensions or the impactor deceleration. Recent investigations were oriented toward the more complex case of liquid-to-granular impacts. However, the influence of the packing over the impact process and the bed response is not clearly understood. Moreover, we may assume the general scaling law which relates the average crater volume to the kinetic energy is invariant regarding the impact type (solid-to-granular, liquid-to-granular). Hence, we address the influence of the granular bed packing over both the excavated & deposited volumes. We propose to study liquid-to-granular impacts via an experimental protocol, which is described in the following. A device releases 2.34±0.14 mm radii water droplets, which vertically fall from different heights (50, 100, 200 & 290 mm) onto fine granular samples (d50 = 0.0357 mm) of diameter 400 mm. Each granular sample was previously compacted using a heavy circular plate and a shaking device. Pre and post-impacts geometries are acquired using a 3D scanner, which is the KONICA MINOLTA VIVID 9i fitted with a TELE lens 25 mm with a focal distance of 25 mm and a theoretical vertical precision of 0.008 mm with a standard deviation of 0.024 mm. High density 3D point clouds result from this experimental procedure. Spatial changes are then characterized and provide a quantification of excavated & deposited volumes or local granular bed uplifts. We observe a common pattern for every impacts: the local granular bed uplift at the periphery of the impact center. This shows the difficulty to distinguish deposited materials from uplifted materials. Achieving distinction between deposition and uplift process leads to an average uplift-induced volume proportion of 0.94-0.97 (i.e. the ratio between deposited volume and uplift-induced volume), which illustrates the high dissipation of energy The granular bed packing influence is clearly
Visualising stress-chain morphology during granular shear
Mair, K.; Hazzard, J. F.; Heath, A.
2004-05-01
Active faults often contain distinct accumulations of granular wear material. During shear, this granular material accommodates stress and strain in heterogeneous manner that may influence fault stability. We present new work to visualise evolving stress distributions during granular shear. Our 3D numerical models consist of granular layers subjected to normal loading and shear, where gouge particles are simulated by individual spheres interacting at points of contact according to simple laws. During shear we observe the transient microscopic processes and resulting macroscopic mechanical behaviour that emerge from interactions of thousands of particles. We track particle translations and contact forces to determine the nature of internal stress accommodation with accumulated slip for different initial configurations. We view model outputs using novel 3D visualisation techniques. Our results highlight the prevalence of transient force or stress chain networks that preferentially transmit enhanced stresses across our layers. We demonstrate that particle size distribution (psd) strongly controls the nature and persistence of the stress chain networks. Models having a narrow (or relatively uniform) psd exhibit localised stress chains with a dominant orientation, whereas wider psd models show diffuse stress chain webs that take a range of orientations. First order macroscopic friction, is insensitive to these distinct stress chain morphologies, however, wider psd models with diffuse stress chains are linked to enhanced friction fluctuations i.e. second order macroscopic effects. Our results are consistent with predictions, based on recent laboratory observations, that stress chain morphologies are sensitive to grain characteristics such as psd. Our numerical approach offers the potential to investigate correlations between stress chain geometry, evolution and resulting macroscopic friction, thus allowing us to explore ideas that heterogeneous stress distributions in
Karrech, Ali; Bonnet, Guy; Chevoir, François; Roux, Jean-Noel; Canou, Jean; Dupla, Jean-Claude
2008-01-01
This paper deals with the vibration of granular materials due to cyclic external excitation. It highlights the effect of the acceleration on the settlement speed and proves the existence of a relationship between settlement and loss of contacts in partially confined granular materials under vibration. The numerical simulations are carried out using the Molecular Dynamics method, where the discrete elements consist of polygonal grains. The data analyses are conducted based on multivariate autoregressive models to describe the settlement and permanent contacts number with respect to the number of loading cycles.
Fictitious crack modelling of polymethyl methacrylate porous material
Jimenez Pique, E.; Dortmans, L.J.M.G.; With, G. de
2002-01-01
Fracture tests were performed on a granular polymethyl methacrylate porous material used as a mould for white were castings. Two types of sample geometry (single-edge notch beam and wedge opening load) and two types of environment (dry at room temperature and in water at 45°C) were used and the forc
Fictitious crack modelling of polymethyl methacrylate porous material
Jimenez Pique, E.; Dortmans, L.J.M.G.; With, G. de
2002-01-01
Fracture tests were performed on a granular polymethyl methacrylate porous material used as a mould for white were castings. Two types of sample geometry (single-edge notch beam and wedge opening load) and two types of environment (dry at room temperature and in water at 45°C) were used and the forc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomoyasu, Yoshitada. [Sanzou Energy Engineering Corp., Okayama (Japan); Yoshino, Fumio.; Iwata, Hiroshi.; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1999-03-10
The flow characteristics of granular materials and gas in a vertical packed moving bed, called a [stand pipe], furnished at the bottom of the fluidized bed are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A correlation equation of axial stress {sigma}{sub z} and voidage {epsilon} of granular materials in the stand pipe is proposed through investigations of the continuity equation, the momentum balance equation, Ergun's equation for gas pressure loss and the gas pressure distribution data measured experimentally in the axial direction. Regarding the relation of the axial stress and the voidage, it was recogniged that : 1. The absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is large at the voidage near the minimum fluidizing condition, and at the voidage in the dense packed condition, and an inflection point of {sigma}{sub z} exists in range between the both conditions ; 2. It seems to be the wall-friction-effect of stand pipe that the absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is larger at the inlet of stand pipe, and ; 3. The stress is also a function of the particle diameter. The gas flow rate, axial stress distribution of granular materials, gas pressure distribution and voidage distribution in the axial direction of the stand pipe can be calculated from relating equations. (author)