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Sample records for modeling gps velocity

  1. Deformation at a Complex Strike-Slip Plate Boundary: Modeling the Southern California GPS Velocity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W. R.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Because of EarthScope and related deployments, Southern California has perhaps the highest Global Positioning System (GPS) station density of any of Earth’s seismically active regions. Here we provide an updated analysis of the Southern California velocity field to illustrate both the strengths of high station density and the inherent limitations of surface geodetic measurements for quantifying earthquake-related deformation processes. Modeling GPS velocity fields in seismically active regions worldwide indicates deformation can be efficiently and usefully described as relative motions among elastic, fault-bounded crustal blocks. However, subjective choices of block geometry are unavoidable and introduce significant uncertainties in model formulation and in the resultant GPS fault slip rate estimates. To facilitate comparison between GPS and geologic results in southern California we use the SCEC Community Fault Model (CFM) and geologic slip rates tabulated in the 2008 Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF2) report as starting points for identifying the most important faults and specifying the block geometry. We then apply this geometry in an inversion of the SCEC Crustal Motion Model (CMM4) GPS velocity field to estimate block motions and intra-block fault slip rates and compare our results with previous work. In most parts of southern California—for example, north of the San Andreas Big Bend and SE of Los Angeles--our block geometry closely resembles that assumed in previous studies (McCaffrey 2005 JGR; Meade & Hager 2005 JGR; Becker et al. 2005 GJI). In these regions GPS slip rates can be reliably estimated and values for individual faults generally agree from one study to another and are also consistent with geologic estimates. However, there is no consensus on block geometry in the Transverse Ranges, Los Angeles Basin and Central Mojave Desert, where CFM faults are densely distributed, UCERF2 slip rates on several faults are comparable, and

  2. Uncertainty estimation of the velocity model for stations of the TrigNet GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, M.; Malservisi, R.; Hugentobler, U.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite based geodetic techniques - above all GPS - provide an outstanding tool to measure crustal motions. They are widely used to derive geodetic velocity models that are applied in geodynamics to determine rotations of tectonic blocks, to localize active geological features, and to estimate rheological properties of the crust and the underlying asthenosphere. However, it is not a trivial task to derive GPS velocities and their uncertainties from positioning time series. In general time series are assumed to be represented by linear models (sometimes offsets, annual, and semi-annual signals are included) and noise. It has been shown that error models accounting only for white noise tend to underestimate the uncertainties of rates derived from long time series and that different colored noise components (flicker noise, random walk, etc.) need to be considered. However, a thorough error analysis including power spectra analyses and maximum likelihood estimates is computationally expensive and is usually not carried out for every site, but the uncertainties are scaled by latitude dependent factors. Analyses of the South Africa continuous GPS network TrigNet indicate that the scaled uncertainties overestimate the velocity errors. So we applied a method similar to the Allan Variance that is commonly used in the estimation of clock uncertainties and is able to account for time dependent probability density functions (colored noise) to the TrigNet time series. Comparisons with synthetic data show that the noise can be represented quite well by a power law model in combination with a seasonal signal in agreement with previous studies, which allows for a reliable estimation of the velocity error. Finally, we compared these estimates to the results obtained by spectral analyses using CATS. Small differences may originate from non-normal distribution of the noise.

  3. Uncertainty estimation of the velocity model for the TrigNet GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Matthias; Malservisi, Rocco; Hugentobler, Urs; Wonnacott, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Satellite based geodetic techniques - above all GPS - provide an outstanding tool to measure crustal motions. They are widely used to derive geodetic velocity models that are applied in geodynamics to determine rotations of tectonic blocks, to localize active geological features, and to estimate rheological properties of the crust and the underlying asthenosphere. However, it is not a trivial task to derive GPS velocities and their uncertainties from positioning time series. In general time series are assumed to be represented by linear models (sometimes offsets, annual, and semi-annual signals are included) and noise. It has been shown that models accounting only for white noise tend to underestimate the uncertainties of rates derived from long time series and that different colored noise components (flicker noise, random walk, etc.) need to be considered. However, a thorough error analysis including power spectra analyses and maximum likelihood estimates is quite demanding and are usually not carried out for every site, but the uncertainties are scaled by latitude dependent factors. Analyses of the South Africa continuous GPS network TrigNet indicate that the scaled uncertainties overestimate the velocity errors. So we applied a method similar to the Allan Variance that is commonly used in the estimation of clock uncertainties and is able to account for time dependent probability density functions (colored noise) to the TrigNet time series. Finally, we compared these estimates to the results obtained by spectral analyses using CATS. Comparisons with synthetic data show that the noise can be represented quite well by a power law model in combination with a seasonal signal in agreement with previous studies.

  4. Crustal Deformation in the Northern Andes - New GPS Velocity Field and "Broken Indentor" Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, J. N.; Mora-Páez, H.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new precise velocity field for northwestern South America and the southwest Caribbean based on GPS CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Stations) in Panama (ACP and COCONet) and Colombia (GeoRED) with a minimum of 2.5 years of observations. This paper presents the first comprehensive model of North Andean block (NAB) motion. We estimate that the NAB is moving to the northeast at a rate of 8.6 mm/yr. The NAB vector can be resolved into a margin-parallel (035°) component of 8.1 mm/yr rigid "escape" and a margin-normal (125°) component of 4.3 mm/yr. The margin-normal shortening of only 4.3 mm/yr in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is surprising in view of paleobotanical, fission-track, and seismic reflection data that suggest rapid uplift (7 km) and shortening (120 km) in the last 10 Ma. We present a "broken indenter" model for the Panama-Choco arc, in which the Choco arc has been recently accreted to the NAB, resulting in a rapid decrease in shortening in the Eastern Cordillera. The Panama arc is colliding eastward with the NAB at approximately 16-17 mm/yr, and the Panama-Choco collision may have been responsible for much of the uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The present on-going collision poses a major earthquake hazard from the Panama-Colombia border to Medellin, Colombia. Since the northeastward margin-parallel "escape" rate is now greater than the rate of shortening in the Eastern Cordillera, northeast trending right-lateral strike-slip faulting is the primary seismic hazard for the 8 million inhabitants of the city of Bogota. There continues to be a high risk of a great mega-subduction zone earthquake in southern Colombia from the Ecuador-Colombia trench. Trench earthquakes have only released a fraction of the energy accumulated in the trench since the great 1906 earthquake, and interseismic strain is accumulating rapidly as far north as Tumaco.

  5. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a lower slip rate along the Mojave segment of the SAF than TSEM models, consistent

  6. Wave Measurements Using GPS Velocity Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Chuen Kao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves.

  7. Updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate from COCONet GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-05-01

    The currently accepted kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al., 2007, is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. Our work attempts to refine the current plate model by evaluating data from the 60+ continuous GPS stations that comprise COCONet. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean Observation Network) is an NSF-funded collaborative natural hazards research effort that has enhanced the geodetic infrastructure in the region surrounding the Caribbean plate. Data for this study was obtained from the open data archive at UNAVCO. GPS data have been processed with an absolute point positioning strategy using GIPSY-OASIS II, using the non-fiducial, final precise clock and orbit parameters provided by JPL. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate will be presented and co-seismic and post-seismic slip, recorded by network stations will be examined for earthquakes that have occurred within the COCONet footprint.

  8. GPS/INS Sensor Fusion Using GPS Wind up Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Walton R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of stabilizing an inertial navigation system (INS), includes the steps of: receiving data from an inertial navigation system; and receiving a finite number of carrier phase observables using at least one GPS receiver from a plurality of GPS satellites; calculating a phase wind up correction; correcting at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables using the phase wind up correction; and calculating a corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position using the corrected at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables; and performing a step selected from the steps consisting of recording, reporting, or providing the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position to another process that uses the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position. A GPS stabilized inertial navigation system apparatus is also described.

  9. EVA: GPS-based extended velocity and acceleration determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Dagoberto; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Juan-Zornoza, Jose Miguel; Sanz-Subirana, Jaume; Aragon-Angel, Angela

    2011-06-01

    In this work, a new GPS carrier phase-based velocity and acceleration determination method is presented that extends the effective range of previous techniques. The method is named `EVA', and may find applications in fields such as airborne gravimetry when rough terrain or water bodies make difficult or impractical to set up nearby GPS reference receivers. The EVA method is similar to methods such as Kennedy (Precise acceleration determination from carrier phase measurements. In: Proceedings of the 15th international technical meeting of the satellite division of the Institute of Navigation. ION GPS 2002, Portland pp 962-972, 2002b) since it uses L1 carrier phase observables for velocity and acceleration determination. However, it introduces a wide network of stations and it is independent of precise clock information because it estimates satellite clock drifts and drift rates `on-the-fly', requiring only orbit data of sufficient quality. Moreover, with EVA the solution rate is only limited by data rate, and not by the available precise satellite clocks data rate. The results obtained are more robust for long baselines than the results obtained with the reference Kennedy method. An advantage of being independent of precise clock information is that, beside IGS Final products, also the Rapid, Ultra-Rapid (observed) and Ultra-Rapid (predicted) products may be used. Moreover, the EVA technique may also use the undifferenced ionosphere-free carrier phase combination (LC), overcoming baseline limitations in cases where ionosphere gradients may be an issue and very low biases are required. During the development of this work, some problems were found in the velocity estimation process of the Kennedy method. The sources of the problems were identified, and an improved version of the Kennedy method was used for this research work. An experiment was performed using a light aircraft flying over the Pyrenees, showing that both EVA and the improved Kennedy methods are able to

  10. Kinematics of the entire East African Rift from GPS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M.; King, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Through a collaborative effort of the GeoPRISMS East Africa Rift GPS Working Group, we have collected and collated all of the publicly available continuous and survey-mode data for the entire rift system between 1994 and 2017 and processed these data as part of a larger velocity solution for Africa, Arabia and western Eurasia. We present here our velocity solution encompassing the major bounding plates and intervening terranes along the East African Rift from the Red Sea to the Malawi Rift and adjacent regions for GPS sites with data spans of at least 2.4 years, and north and east velocity uncertainties less than 1.5 mm/yr. To obtain realistic uncertainties for the velocity estimates, we attempted at each stage of the analysis to account for the character of the noise: During phase processing, we used an elevation-dependent weighting based on the phase residuals for each station; we then examined each position time series, removing outliers and reweighting appropriately to account for the white noise component of the errors; and e accounted for temporal correlations by estimating an equivalent random-walk magnitude for each continuous site and applying the median value (0.5 mm/√yr) to all survey-mode sites. We rigorously estimate relative rotation rates of Nubia, by choosing subset of well-determined sites such that the effective weights of western, northeastern and southern Africa were roughly equivalent, and Somalia, for which the estimate is dominated by three sites (MALI, RCMN, SEY1) whose uncertainties are a factor of 2-3 smaller than those of the other sites. For both plates, the weighted root-mean-square of the velocity residuals is 0.5 mm/yr. Our unified velocity solution provides a geodetic framework and constraints on the continental-scale kinematics of surface motions as well as more local effects both within and outside of the rift structures. Specific focus areas with denser coverage than previous fields include the Danakil block, the Afar Rift, the

  11. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Matthew C; Fairweather, Ian H; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the validity and reliability of 5 and 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant velocity while straight-line running. Three participants performed 80 running trials while wearing two GPS units each (5 Hz, V2.0 and 10 Hz, V4.0; MinimaxX, Catapult Innovations, Scoresby, VIC, Australia). The criterion measure used to assess GPS validity was instantaneous velocity recorded using a tripod-mounted laser. Validity was established using the standard error of the estimate (± 90% confidence limits). Reliability was determined using typical error (± 90% confidence limits, expressed as coefficient of variation) and Pearson's correlation. The 10 Hz GPS devices were two to three times more accurate than the 5 Hz devices when compared with a criterion value for instantaneous velocity during tasks completed at a range of velocities (coefficient of variation 3.1-11.3%). Similarly, the 10 Hz GPS units were up to six-fold more reliable for measuring instantaneous velocity than the 5 Hz units (coefficient of variation 1.9-6.0%). Newer GPS may provide an acceptable tool for the measurement of constant velocity, acceleration, and deceleration during straight-line running and have sufficient sensitivity for detecting changes in performance in team sport. However, researchers must account for the inherent match-to-match variation reported when using these devices.

  12. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  13. Effect of GPS errors on Emission model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Anders; Gross, Allan

    n this paper we will show how Global Positioning Services (GPS) data obtained from smartphones can be used to model air quality in urban settings. The paper examines the uncertainty of smartphone location utilising GPS, and ties this location uncertainty to air quality models. The results presented...... in this paper indicates that the location error from using smartphones is within the accuracy needed to use the location data in air quality modelling. The nature of smartphone location data enables more accurate and near real time air quality modelling and monitoring. The location data is harvested from user...

  14. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  15. GPS velocity field across the Ossetia region of the Great Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Steblov, Grigory; Drobishev, Valery; Hubaev, Hariton; Kusraev, Anatoliy; Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The Ossetia part of the Great Caucasus is located within the Trans-Caucasian uplift. According to modern understanding this large structure is the northern ending of the planetary-scale structure - the East-African-Trans-Caucasus rift zone. This region, being one of the most tectonically active regions of the Caucasus, was not covered by satellite geodetic measurements made in the Caucasus and surrounding areas since the early 1990s. This work presents results of the development of the network of survey-mode sites and GPS velocity field of this region, which is also part of the international project under leadership of R. Reilinger (MIT) for studying geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus. The network established during the campaigns of 2010-2013 crosses from north to south the main tectonic structures of the Ossetia part of the Great Caucasus: the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus ridge, the Tibsky thrust fault, the Northern Caucasian step, the Orkhevsky thrust fault, the Georgian block. The main profile of the network is oriented from north-east to south-west. The other two profiles are transverse to the main one and are oriented from west to east. The first of them is located along the southern and northern borders of the Orkhevskii thrust fault, covering the area of the Racha 1991 earthquake, with release to the Gagra-Dzhava zone. The second of them passes along the northern slope of Great Caucasus Ridge. The GPS data included 25 sites were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software. Velocity uncertainties for many sites are less then 1 mm/year. GPS velocities are presented in two reference systems: ITRF08 and fixed Eurasia. In terrestrial system of coordinates ITRF08 the horizontal motions of Ossetia region are characterized by the steady north-east trend with velocities of 25-30 mm/year, that as a whole coincides with velocities estimation of modern movements of the North Caucasus. With respect to Eurasia one can note the

  16. Tsunami Scenario in the Nankai Trough, Japan, Based on the GPS-A and GNSS Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Watanabe, S. I.; Melgar, D.; Tadokoro, K.

    2017-12-01

    We present two local tsunami scenarios for the Nankai trough, Japan, an area of significant seismic risk, using GPS-A and GNSS velocities and two different plate interface geometries to better assess the slip deficit rate. We expand on the work of Yokota et al. [2016, Nature] by: (1) Adding seafloor data collected by Nagoya University [Tadokoro et al., 2012 GRL] at the Kumano basin, (2) Aligning the geodetic data to the Nankai block (forearc sliver) to the tectonic model of Loveless and Meade [2010 JGR] - the earlier work ignored block boundaries such as the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) and may have overestimated the slip deficit rate, (3) Considering two different plate interface geometries - it is essential to use the accurate depth of the plate interface, especially for the offshore region where the faults are located near the observation sites, (4) Estimating and correcting for the postseismic displacements of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4). Based upon the refined model, we calculate the coseismic displacements and tsunami wave propagation assuming that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation is released instantaneously. We used the open source software GeoClaw v5.3.1, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations with the finite volume technique [LeVeque, 2002 Cambridge University Press], for the local tsunami scenarios. We present the expected tsunami propagation models and wave profiles based on the geodetically-derived distribution of slip, stressing the importance of identifying fault locations and geometries. The location of the downdip edge of the coseismic rupture is essential to assess whether the coastal area would subside or not. The sensitivity to the plate interface geometries is increased in the near-trough region. From the point of view of disaster prevention, subsidence at the southern coast would heighten the tsunami runup distance (e.g., at gauges in Shimotsu and Irago). Further

  17. Long and Short Term GPS Velocity Change in South Peru and North Chile Seismic Gap: towards the Small SSE Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, J.; Socquet, A.; Walpersdorf, A.; Rousset, B.; Marsan, D.

    2016-12-01

    For more than 20 years, the GPS data have been used to try to understand the different phases of the seismic cycle. Coseismic and postseismic displacements were modeled, and SSEs were discovered in the early 2000'. Those events have shed light of the subduction mechanical properties in long/short term (e.g. coupling factor, dip/strike segmentation, asperity location ). From GPS residual time series is possible see that the GPS signal can not be fully explained by these relatively simple phases of the seismic cycle. Instead, we observe that a residual signal can be evidenced and seems to be related with unmodeled transient deformation, likely small slow slip events. The aim of this work is to understand and characterize the masked transient events in the GPS time series. The database used in this study is made of 66 continuous GPS stations over 15 years in the South Peru - North Chile Seismic Gap. Those data were processed with GAMIT software, and the first order interseismic, coseismic and postseismic signal have been removed to obtain the residual time series. Velocity changes were calculated using a mean sliding window over 1 year, 6 and 3 months. This has allowed detecting clear velocity anomalies. Such is the case of Pisagua Earthquake (Mw 8.2, Chile, 2014) where the data seems to reveal a long precursory phase of around 8 months. In order to complement these findings, and understand whether these transients occur on a steady state manner or as a series of creep bursts, we analyze the time series using a cross correlation technique to detect small transient events. Several positive correlations were detected on shorter-term windows (15,30 and 60 days). This might mean that small SSEs occur in the area. In order to distinguish real events from artifacts produced by the model, several synthetics time series were calculated to see what is the minimum correlation value capable to make real SSE detection. From those results, the magnitude and possible location have

  18. Validity of 10-HZ GPS and Timing Gates for Assessing Maximum Velocity in Professional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Black, Christopher; Shaw, William; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of timing gates and 10-Hz global positioning systems (GPS) units (Catapult Optimeye S5) against a criterion measure (50-Hz radar gun) for assessing maximum sprint velocity (V max ). Nine male professional rugby union players performed 3 maximal 40-m sprints with 3 min rest between efforts with V max assessed simultaneously via timing gates, 10-Hz GPS Open (Openfield software), GPS Sprint (Sprint software), and radar gun. Eight players wore 3 GPS units, while 1 wore a single unit during each sprint. When compared with the radar gun, mean biases for GPS Open , GPS Sprint , and timing gates were trivial, small, and small, respectively. The typical error of the estimate (TEE) was small for timing gate and GPS Open while moderate for GPS Sprint . Correlations with radar gun were nearly perfect for all measures. Mean bias, TEE, and correlations between GPS units were trivial, small, and nearly perfect, respectively, while a small TEE existed when GPS Openfield was compared with GPS Sprint . Based on these findings, both 10-Hz GPS and timing gates provide valid measures of 40-m V max assessment compared with a radar gun. However, as error did exist between measures, the same testing protocol should be used when assessing 40-m V max over time. Furthermore, in light of the above results, it is recommended that when assessing changes in GPS-derived V max over time, practitioners should use the same unit for each player and perform the analysis with the same software, preferably Catapult Openfield.

  19. A new GPS velocity field in the south-western Balkans: insights for continental dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Duni, L.; Ganas, A.; Georgiev, I.; Jouanne, F.; Koci, R.; Kuka, N.; Metois, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Balkans peninsula is an area of active distributed deformation located at the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate. Relatively low strain rates and logistical reasons have so far limited the characterization and definition of the active tectonics and crustal kinematics. The increasing number of GNSS stations belonging to national networks deployed for scientific and cadastral purposes, now provides the opportunity to improve the knowledge of the crustal kinematics in this area and to define a cross-national velocity field that illuminates the active tectonic deformation. In this work we homogeneously processed the data from the south western Balkans and neighbouring regions using available rinex files from scientific and cadastral networks (ALBPOS, EUREF, HemusNET, ITALPOS, KOPOS, MAKPOS, METRICA, NETGEO, RING, TGREF). In order to analyze and interpret station velocities relative to the Eurasia plate and to reduce the common mode signal, we updated the Eurasian terrestrial reference frame described in Métois et al. 2015. Starting from this dataset we present a new GPS velocity field covering the south western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Using this new velocity field, we derive the strain rate tensor to analyze the regional style of the deformation. Our results (1) improve the picture of the general southward flow of the crust characterizing the south western Balkans behind the contractional belt at the boundary with Adriatic and (2) provide new key elements for the understanding of continental dynamics in this part of the Eurasian plate boundary.

  20. GPS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Directorate: Antarctica and Islands and Branch: Marine & Coastal Management of the Department of. Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Prof. C. L. Merry,. Department of Geodetics, University of Cape Town, provided helpful information about GPS accuracy, and commented on a draft. LITERATURE CITED. BUCKLEY, P. A. ...

  1. Validity and reliability of intra-stroke kayak velocity and acceleration using a GPS-based accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ina; Sachlikidis, Alexi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the velocity and acceleration measured by a kayak-mounted GPS-based accelerometer units compared to the video-derived measurements and the effect of satellite configuration on velocity. Four GPS-based accelerometers units of varied accelerometer ranges (2 g or 6 g) were mounted on a kayak as the paddler performed 12 trials at three different stroke rates for each of three different testing sessions (two in the morning vs. one in the afternoon). The velocity and acceleration derived by the accelerometers was compared with the velocity and acceleration derived from high-speed video footage (100Hz). Validity was measured using Bland and Altman plots, R2, and the root of the mean of the squared difference (RMSe), while reliability was calculated using the coefficient of variation, R2, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The GPS-based accelerometers under-reported kayak velocity by 0.14-0.19 m/s and acceleration by 1.67 m/s2 when compared to the video-derived measurements. The afternoon session reported the least difference, indicating a time of day effect on the velocity measured. This study highlights the need for sports utilising GPS-based accelerometers, such as minimaxX, for intra-stroke measurements to conduct sport-specific validity and reliability studies to ensure the accuracy of their data.

  2. Atmospheric anomalies over Mt.Etna using GPS signal delays and tomography of radio wave velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Puglisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent topography of Mt. Etna, the use of satellite geodetic techniques may significantly suffer from atmospheric heterogeneities. This problem mainly affects the DInSAR technique. To overcome these drawbacks the present study attempts to make headway in measuring and interpreting atmospheric anomalies. We used the GAMIT software to obtain the ZTD (Zenith Total Delay values for the GPS sessions performed on 1996-97, during ERS-2 passes at Mt. Etna. GAMIT software also allows to characterize the statistical behaviour of the tropospheric effects, by using residuals for each station-satellite pair, and to locate the atmospheric anomalies, present mostly at low altitudes. The attempt at using these results to produce a tomography of radio waves velocity of the troposphere suggests that the number of GPS stations used to investigate atmosphere is a critical point in such a study. The three stations are too few to invert anomalies eventually existing in the lower atmosphere. This result is a good starting point for better direct future study to verify the applicability of this tomographic technique to a geodetic network with a higher number of stations, with the aim of characterizing the lower atmosphere of Mt. Etna for a more accurate monitoring of ground deformations.

  3. A new GPS velocity field for the Pacific Plate - Part 1: constraints on plate motion, intraplate deformation, and the viscosity of Pacific basin asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, C.; Márquez-Azúa, Bertha; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    We combine new, well-determined GPS velocities from Clarion, Guadalupe and Socorro islands on young seafloor in the eastern Pacific basin with newly estimated velocities for 26 GPS sites from older seafloor in the central, western and southern parts of the Pacific Plate to test for deformation within the interior of the Pacific Plate and estimate the viscosity of the asthenosphere below the plate. Relative to a Pacific Plate reference frame defined from the velocities of the 26 GPS sites in other areas of the Pacific Plate, GPS sites on Clarion and Guadalupe islands in the eastern Pacific move 1.2 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 (1σ) towards S09°W ± 38° and 1.9 ± 0.3 mm yr-1 towards S19°E ± 10°, respectively. The two velocities, which are consistent within their 95 per cent uncertainties, both differ significantly from Pacific Plate motion. Transient volcanic deformation related to a 1993-1996 eruption of the Socorro Island shield volcano renders our GPS velocity from that island unreliable for the tectonic analysis although its motion is also southward like those of Clarion and Guadalupe islands. We test but reject the possibilities that drift of Earth's origin in ITRF2008 or unmodelled elastic offsets due to large-magnitude earthquakes around the Pacific rim since 1993 can be invoked to explain the apparent slow southward motions of Clarion and Guadalupe islands. Similarly, corrections to the Pacific Plate GPS velocity field for possible viscoelastic deformation triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes since 1950 also fail to explain the southward motions of the two islands. Viscoelastic models with prescribed asthenospheric viscosities lower than 1 × 1019 Pa s instead introduce statistically significant inconsistencies into the Pacific Plate velocity field, suggesting that the viscosity of the asthenosphere below the plate is higher than 1 × 1019 Pa s. Elastic deformation from locked Pacific-North America Plate boundary faults is also too small to explain the southward

  4. Accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS Unit in Measuring Shuttle Velocity Performed at Different Speeds and Distances (5 - 20 M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Marco; Bartolini, Davide; Ghia, Gianluigi; Zamparo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS device (STATSports, Ireland) by comparing the instantaneous values of velocity determined with this device with those determined by kinematic (video) analysis (25 Hz). Ten male soccer players were required to perform shuttle runs (with 180° change of direction) at three velocities (slow: 2.2 m·s -1 ; moderate: 3.2 m·s -1 ; high: maximal) over four distances: 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The experiments were video-recorded; the "point by point" values of speed recorded by the GPS device were manually downloaded and analysed in the same way as the "frame by frame" values of horizontal speed as obtained by video analysis. The obtained results indicated that shuttle distance was smaller in GPS than video analysis (p GPS than in video analysis (p GPS data underestimated criterion distance (0.31 ± 0.55 m). In conclusion, the inaccuracy of this GPS unit in determining shuttle speed can be attributed to inaccuracy in determining the shuttle distance.

  5. Vertical E × B drift velocity variations and associated low-latitude ionospheric irregularities investigated with the TOPEX and GPS satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Horvath

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available With a well-selected data set, the various events of the vertical E × B drift velocity variations at magnetic-equator-latitudes, the resultant ionospheric features at low-and mid-latitudes, and the practical consequences of these E × B events on the equatorial radio signal propagation are demonstrated. On a global scale, the development of a equatorial anomaly is illustrated with a series of 1995 global TOPEX TEC (total electron content maps. Locally, in the Australian longitude region, some field-aligned TOPEX TEC cross sections are combined with the matching Guam (144.86° E; 13.59° N, geographic GPS (Global Positioning System TEC data, covering the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly. Together, the 1998 TOPEX and GPS TEC data are utilized to show the three main events of vertical E × B drift velocity variations: (1 the pre-reversal enhancement, (2 the reversal and (3 the downward maximum. Their effects on the dual-frequency GPS recordings are documented with the raw Guam GPS TEC data and with the filtered Guam GPS dTEC/min or 1-min GPS TEC data after Aarons et al. (1997. During these E × B drift velocity events, the Port Moresby (147.10° E; - 9.40° N, geographic virtual height or h'F ionosonde data (km, which cover the southern crest of the equatorial anomaly in the Australian longitude region, show the effects of plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere. With the net (D horizontal (H magnetic field intensity parameter, introduced and called DH or Hequator-Hnon-equator (nT by Chandra and Rastogi (1974, the daily E × B drift velocity variations are illustrated at 121° E (geographic in the Australian longitude region. The results obtained with the various data show very clearly that the development of mid-latitude night-time TEC increases is triggered by the westward electric field as the appearance of such night-time TEC increases coincides with the E × B drift velocity reversal. An explanation is offered with the F

  6. Eighteen years of GPS surveys in the Aeolian Islands (southern Italy: open data archive and velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Esposito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, geodetic networks became a most important tool to monitor the present day deformations of the volcanic arc of the Aeolian Islands. The first benchmarks were installed in this region at Lipari and Vulcano Islands and the number of GPS benchmarks increased in time since the early ’90s. These networks were periodically surveyed in the frame of national and international geodynamic projects and for Civil Protection programs devoted to the mitigation of the volcanic hazard. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV played a fundamental role in the realization and periodical reoccupation of these networks, with the goal to investigate the tectonic and volcanic processes, still active in this crucial area of the central Mediterranean. An updated GPS velocity map for this region, both for the horizontal and vertical component of land motion, with details for Lipari, Vulcano and Panarea Islands, is provided in this paper. The presented GPS velocity field also includes a set of additional discrete stations located in northern Sicily and Calabria together with data from the available CGPS networks active in southern Italy. Here we show the results from eighteen years of repeated GPS surveys performed in this region in the time span 1995-2013 and the open access AINET-GPS data archive, now freely available for the scientific community. Data will support scientific research and hopefully improve the assessment of volcanic and seismic hazard in this region.

  7. Modeling GPS satellite attitude variation for precise orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, D.; Rim, H. J.; Schutz, B. E.; Abusali, P. A. M.

    1996-09-01

    High precision geodetic applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) require highly precise ephemerides of the GPS satellites. An accurate model for the non-gravitational forces on the GPS satellites is a key to high quality GPS orbit determination, especially in long arcs. In this paper the effect of the satellite solar panel orientation error is investigated. These effects are approximated by empirical functions to model the satellite attitude variation in long arc orbit fit. Experiments show that major part of the long arc GPS orbit errors can be accommodated by introducing a periodic variation of the satellite solar panel orientation with respect to the satellite-Sun direction, the desired direction for solar panel normal vector, with an amplitude of about 1 degree and with a frequency of once per orbit revolution.

  8. A New Velocity Field from a Dense GPS Array in the Southernmost Longitudinal Valley, Southeastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yue Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the southernmost Longitudinal Valley (LV, Taiwan, we analyzed a dense GPS array composed of 10 continuous stations and 86 campaign-mode stations. By removing the effects of the four major earthquakes (one regional and three local occurred during the 1992 - 2010 observation period, we derived a new horizontal velocity field in this area, which then allows better locating the surface traces of the major active faults, including the Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF system and the Central Range Fault, and characterizing the slip behaviors along the faults. Note that LVF reveals two sub-parallel strands in the study area: the Luyeh Fault to the west and the Lichi Fault to the east. Based on the results of strain analyses, including dilatation and shear strain, and projected vectors of station velocities across the major faults, we came to the following geological interpretations. During the inter-seismic periods, the surface deformation of the southernmost LV is mainly accommodated by the faulting on the two branches of the LVF; there is very little surface deformation on the Central Range Fault. The Luyeh River appears to act as a boundary to divide the LVF to behave differently to its northern and southern sides. The Lichi Fault reveals a change of slip kinematics from an oblique shearing/thrusting in the north to a nearly pure shearing with minor extension to the south. Regarding the slip behavior of the Luyeh Fault, it exhibits a creeping behavior in the north and a partially near-surface-locked faulting behavior in the south. We interpret that the two strands of the LVF merge together in the northern Taitung alluvial plain and turns to E-W trend toward the offshore area.

  9. Seasonal velocities of eight major marine-terminating outlet glaciers of the Greenland ice sheet from continuous in situ GPS instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    of the GPS data for validation purposes. Three different velocity map products are evaluated, based on ALOS/PALSAR data, TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X data and an aggregate winter TerraSAR-X data set. The velocity maps derived from TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X data have a mean difference of 1.5% compared to the mean GPS...... velocity over the corresponding period, while velocity maps derived from ALOS/PALSAR data have a mean difference of 9.7%. The velocity maps derived from the aggregate winter TerraSAR-X data set have a mean difference of 9.5% to the corresponding GPS velocities. The data are available from the GEUS...

  10. A new velocity field for Africa from combined GPS and DORIS space geodetic Solutions: Contribution to the definition of the African reference frame (AFREF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Farah, H.

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed 16 years of GPS and 17 years of Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) data at continuously operating geodetic sites in Africa and surroundings to describe the present-day kinematics of the Nubian and Somalian plates and constrain relative motions across the East African Rift. The resulting velocity field describes horizontal and vertical motion at 133 GPS sites and 9 DORIS sites. Horizontal velocities at sites located on stable Nubia fit a single plate model with a weighted root mean square residual of 0.6 mm/yr (maximum residual 1 mm/yr), an upper bound for plate-wide motions and for regional-scale deformation in the seismically active southern Africa and Cameroon volcanic line. We confirm significant southward motion ( ˜ 1.5 mm/yr) in Morocco with respect to Nubia, consistent with earlier findings. We propose an updated angular velocity for the divergence between Nubia and Somalia, which provides the kinematic boundary conditions to rifting in East Africa. We update a plate motion model for the East African Rift and revise the counterclockwise rotation of the Victoria plate and clockwise rotation of the Rovuma plate with respect to Nubia. Vertical velocities range from - 2 to +2 mm/yr, close to their uncertainties, with no clear geographic pattern. This study provides the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, expressed in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008), a contribution to the upcoming African Reference Frame (AFREF). Except for a few regions, the African continent remains largely under-sampled by continuous space geodetic data. Efforts are needed to augment the geodetic infrastructure and openly share existing data sets so that the objectives of AFREF can be fully reached.

  11. Application of GPS Measurements for Ionospheric and Tropospheric Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra Prasad, P.; Abdu, M. A.; Furlan, Benedito. M. P.; Koiti Kuga, Hélio

    solar maximum period. In the equatorial region the irregularity structures are highly elongated in the north-south direction and are discrete in the east-west direction with dimensions of several hundred km. With such spatial distribution of irregularities needs to determine how often the GPS receivers fails to provide navigation aid with the available constellation. The effects of scintillation on the performance of GPS navigation systems in the equatorial region can be analyzed through commissioning few ground receivers. Incidentally there are few GPS receivers near these latitudes. Despite the recent advances in the ionosphere and tropospheric delay modeling for geodetic applications of GPS, the models currently used are not very precise. The conventional and operational ionosphere models viz. Klobuchar, Bent, and IRI models have certain limitations in providing very precise accuracies at all latitudes. The troposphere delay modeling also suffers in accuracy. The advances made in both computing power and knowledge of the atmosphere leads to make an effort to upgrade some of these models for improving delay corrections in GPS navigation. The ionospheric group delay corrections for orbit determination can be minimized using duel frequency. However in single frequency measurements the group delay correction is an involved task. In this paper an investigation is carried out to estimate the model coefficients of ionosphere along with precise orbit determination modeling using GPS measurements. The locations of the ground-based receivers near equator are known very exactly. Measurements from these ground stations to a precisely known satellite carrying duel receiver is used for orbit determination. The ionosphere model parameters can be refined corresponding to spatially distributed GPS receivers spread over Brazil. The tropospheric delay effects are not significant for the satellites by choosing appropriate elevation angle. However it needs to be analyzed for user like

  12. Global GPS Ionospheric Modelling Using Spherical Harmonic Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a global ionosphere model based on measurements from a worldwide network of global positioning system (GPS. The total number of the international GPS reference stations for development of ionospheric model is about 100 and the spherical harmonic expansion approach as a mathematical method was used. In order to produce the ionospheric total electron content (TEC based on grid form, we defined spatial resolution of 2.0 degree and 5.0 degree in latitude and longitude, respectively. Two-dimensional TEC maps were constructed within the interval of one hour, and have a high temporal resolution compared to global ionosphere maps which are produced by several analysis centers. As a result, we could detect the sudden increase of TEC by processing GPS observables on 29 October, 2003 when the massive solar flare took place.

  13. Euler-Vector Clustering of GPS Velocities Defines Microplate Geometry in Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.

    2018-02-01

    I have used Euler-vector clustering to assign 469 GEONET stations in southwest Japan to k clusters (k = 2, 3,..., 9) so that, for any k, the velocities of stations within each cluster are most consistent with rigid-block motion on a sphere. That is, I attempt to explain the raw (i.e., uncorrected for strain accumulation), 1996-2006 velocities of those 469 Global Positioning System stations by rigid motion of k clusters on the surface of a spherical Earth. Because block geometry is maintained as strain accumulates, Euler-vector clustering may better approximate the block geometry than the values of the associated Euler vectors. The microplate solution for each k is constructed by merging contiguous clusters that have closely similar Euler vectors. The best solution consists of three microplates arranged along the Nankaido Trough-Ryukyu Trench between the Amurian and Philippine Sea Plates. One of these microplates, the South Kyushu Microplate (an extension of the Ryukyu forearc into the southeast corner of Kyushu), had previously been identified from paleomagnetic rotations. Relative to ITRF2000 the three microplates rotate at different rates about neighboring poles located close to the northwest corner of Shikoku. The microplate model is identical to that proposed in the block model of Wallace et al. (2009, https://doi.org/10.1130/G2522A.1) except in southernmost Kyushu. On Shikoku and Honshu, but not Kyushu, the microplate model is consistent with that proposed in the block models of Nishimura and Hashimoto (2006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2006.04.017) and Loveless and Meade (2010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB006248) without the low-slip-rate boundaries proposed in the latter.

  14. Higher?order ionospheric effects on the GPS reference frame and velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrie, E.J.; King, M.A.; Moore, P.; Lavallée, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe how GPS time series are influenced by higher?order ionospheric effects over the last solar cycle (1995–2008) and examine implications for geophysical studies. Using 14 years of globally reprocessed solutions, we demonstrate the effect on the reference frame. Including second? and

  15. Empirical Modeling of Solar Radiation Pressure Forces Affecting GPS Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, A.; Weiss, J. P.; Harvey, N.; Kuang, D.; Bar-Sever, Y.

    2010-12-01

    At an altitude of approximately 20,000km above the Earth, Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) forces on Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are second in magnitude only to the gravitational attractive forces exerted by the Earth, Sun and Moon. As GPS orbit processing strategies reach unprecedented levels of precision and accuracy, subtle effects from different GPS SRP models are beginning to emerge above the noise floor. We present an updated approach to the empirical modeling of SRP forces on GPS satellites using 14 years of data. We assess the models via orbit prediction and orbit determination using a suite of internal and external metrics. Our new model results in >10% average improvement of 8th-day orbit prediction differences (3D RMS) for block IIA and IIR satellites against our best final orbit solutions. Internal orbit overlaps from precise orbit determination improve by 7%. We additionally assess the impacts of the updated SRP models on satellite laser range residuals, carrier phase ambiguity resolution, and estimation of earth orientation parameters.

  16. The local ionospheric modeling by integration ground GPS observations and satellite altimetry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free electrons in the ionosphere have a strong impact on the propagation of radio waves. When the signals pass through the ionosphere, both their group and phase velocity are disturbed. Several space geodetic techniques such as satellite altimetry, low Earth orbit (LEO satellite and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI can be used to model the total electron content. At present, the classical input data for development of ionospheric models are based on dual-frequency GPS observations, However, a major problem with this observation type is the nonuniform distribution of the terrestrial GPS reference stations with large gaps notably over the sea surface and ocean where only some single stations are located on islands, leading to lower the precision of the model over these areas. In these regions the dual-frequency satellite altimeters provide precise information about the parameters of the ionosphere. Combination of GPS and satellite altimetry observations allows making best use of the advantages of their different spatial and temporal distributions. In this study, the local ionosphere modeling was done by the combination of space geodetic observations using spherical Slepian function. The combination of the data from ground GPS observations over the western part of the USA and the altimetry mission Jason-2 was performed on the normal equation level in the least-square procedure and a least-square variance component estimation (LS-VCE was applied to take into account the different accuracy levels of the observations. The integrated ionosphere model is more accurate and more reliable than the results derived from the ground GPS observations over the oceans.

  17. New GPS velocity field in the northern Andes (Ecuador - Colombia) : partial locking along the subduction and northeastward escape of the Northern Andean Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mothes, Patricia; Mohamed, Chlieh; Jarrin, Paul; Martin, Vallee; Rui, Gorki; Regnier, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Rapid subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the Ecuador-Colombia margin (~58 mm/yr) results in two different processes: (1) elastic stress is accumulating along the Nazca/South America plate interface which is responsible of one of the largest megathrust earthquake sequence during the last century (1906, Mw = 8.8, 1942 Mw = 7.8, 1958 Mw = 7.7, and 1979 Mw = 8.2) (2) the Northern Andean Block (NAB) moves northeastward with respect to Stable South America. However, kinematics of the NAB and its level of internal deformation has yet to be quantified. We present a new GPS velocity field covering the northern Andes from south of the Gulf of Guyaquil to the Carribean plate. Our velocity field includes new continuously-recording GPS stations installed along the Ecuadorian coast, together with campaign sites observed since 1994. The observed velocity field confirms that the current surface deformation results from the superimposition of a NNE motion the crustal North Andean Block occurring at ~8 mm/yr and the elastic deformation induced by partial locking of the subduction interface. We first estimate the long-term kinematics of the North Andean block in a joint inversion including GPS data, earthquake slip vectors and quaternary slip rates on major faults. The inversion provides an Euler pole located at long. -107.8°E, lat. 36.2°N, 0.091°/Ma and indicates little internal deformation of the North Andean Block (wrms of residual velcoties is 1.3 mm/yr). As a consequence, 30% of the obliquity of the Nazca/South America motion is accommodated by transcurrent deformation along the eastern boundary of the NAB. Residual velocities with respect to the North Andean Block are then modelled in terms of elastic locking along the subduction interface. Models indicate that the subduction interface is partially locked (50%) up to a depth of 40 km over the area of rupture of the 1906 earthquake. Further south, coupling decreases with latitude, with no coupling detected at the latitude

  18. GPS horizontal deformation model in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa (SPINA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [es

  19. Central and eastern Anatolian crustal deformation rate and velocity fields derived from GPS and earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, N. M.; Nalbant, S. S.; Sunbul, F.; Komec Mutlu, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new strain-rate and associated kinematic model for the eastern and central parts of Turkey. In the east, a quasi N-S compressional tectonic regime dominates the deformation field and is partitioned through the two major structural elements of the region, which are the conjugate dextral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the sinistral strike slip East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The observed surface deformation is similar to that inferred by anisotropy studies which sampled the region of the mantle closer to the crust (i.e. the lithospheric mantle and the Moho), and is dependent on the presence or absence of a lithospheric mantle, and of the level of coupling between it and the overlaying crust. The areas of the central and eastern parts of Turkey which are deforming at elevated rates are situated above areas with strong gradients in crustal thickness. This seems to indicate that these transition zones, situated between thinner and thicker crusts, promote more deformation at the surface. The regions that reveal elevated strain-rate values are 1) the Elaziğ-Bingol segment of the EAFZ, 2) the region around the Karlıova triple-junction including the Yedisu segment and the Varto fault, 3) the section of the NAFZ that extends from the Erzincan province up to the NAFZ-Ezinepazarı fault junction, and 4) sections of the Tuz Gölü Fault Zone. Other regions like the Adana basin, a significant part of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ), the Aksaray and the Ankara provinces, are deforming at smaller but still considerable rates and therefore should be considered as areas well capable of producing damaging earthquakes (between M6 and 7). This study also reveals that the central part of Turkey is moving at a faster rate towards the west than the eastern part Turkey, and that the wedge region between the NAFZ and the EAFZ accounts for the majority of the counter clockwise rotation between the eastern and the central parts of Turkey. This

  20. Use of GPS and InSAR Technology and its Further Development in Earthquake Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Lyzenga, G.; Argus, D.; Peltzer, G.; Parker, J.; Webb, F.; Heflin, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data are useful for understanding both interseismic and postseismic deformation. Models of GPS data suggest that the lower crust, lateral heterogeneity, and fault slip, all provide a role in the earthquake cycle.

  1. GEOSUD/SUDETEN network GPS data reprocessing and horizontal site velocity estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplon, J.; Kontny, B.; Grzempowski, P.; Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zdeňka; Balek, Jan; Holešovský, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 65-75 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A005; GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA MŠk 1P05ME781; GA MŠk LM2010008; GA ČR GA205/01/0480; GA ČR GA205/05/2287; GA AV ČR 1QS300460551; GA AV ČR IAA300460507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : geodesy * GPS * data processing * geodynamics Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2014 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_detail_doi&id=70

  2. Comparison of the precision of three commonly used GPS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chavoshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Development of science in various fields has caused change in the methods to determine geographical location. Precision farming involves new technology that provides the opportunity for farmers to change in factors such as nutrients, soil moisture available to plants, soil physical and chemical characteristics and other factors with the spatial resolution of less than a centimeter to several meters to monitor and evaluate. GPS receivers based on precision farming operations specified accuracies are used in the following areas: 1 monitoring of crop and soil sampling (less than one meter accuracy 2 use of fertilizer, pesticide and seed work (less than half a meter accuracy 3 Transplantation and row cultivation (precision of less than 4 cm (Perez et al., 2011. In one application of GPS in agriculture, route guidance precision farming tractors in the fields was designed to reduce the transmission error that deviate from the path specified in the range of 50 to 300 mm driver informed and improved way to display (Perez et al., 2011. In another study, the system automatically guidance, based on RTK-GPS technology, precision tillage operations was used between and within the rows very close to the drip irrigation pipe and without damage to their crops at a distance of 50 mm (Abidine et al., 2004. In another study, to compare the accuracy and precision of the receivers, 5 different models of Trimble Mark GPS devices from 15 stations were mapped, the results indicated that minimum error was related to Geo XT model with an accuracy of 91 cm and maximum error was related to Pharos model with an accuracy of 5.62 m (Kindra et al., 2006. Due to the increasing use of GPS receivers in agriculture as well as the lack of trust on the real accuracy and precision of receivers, this study aimed to compare the positioning accuracy and precision of three commonly used GPS receivers models used to specify receivers with the lowest error for precision

  3. The SCEC Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) Software Framework for Distributing and Querying Seismic Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Olsen, K. B.; Jordan, T. H.; Goulet, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal seismic velocity models and datasets play a key role in regional three-dimensional numerical earthquake ground-motion simulation, full waveform tomography, modern physics-based probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis, as well as in other related fields including geophysics, seismology, and earthquake engineering. The standard material properties provided by a seismic velocity model are P- and S-wave velocities and density for any arbitrary point within the geographic volume for which the model is defined. Many seismic velocity models and datasets are constructed by synthesizing information from multiple sources and the resulting models are delivered to users in multiple file formats, such as text files, binary files, HDF-5 files, structured and unstructured grids, and through computer applications that allow for interactive querying of material properties. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software framework to facilitate the registration and distribution of existing and future seismic velocity models to the SCEC community. The UCVM software framework is designed to provide a standard query interface to multiple, alternative velocity models, even if the underlying velocity models are defined in different formats or use different geographic projections. The UCVM framework provides a comprehensive set of open-source tools for querying seismic velocity model properties, combining regional 3D models and 1D background models, visualizing 3D models, and generating computational models in the form of regular grids or unstructured meshes that can be used as inputs for ground-motion simulations. The UCVM framework helps researchers compare seismic velocity models and build equivalent simulation meshes from alternative velocity models. These capabilities enable researchers to evaluate the impact of alternative velocity models in ground-motion simulations and seismic hazard analysis applications

  4. Accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS Unit in Measuring Shuttle Velocity Performed at Different Speeds and Distances (5 – 20 M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Davide; Ghia, Gianluigi; Zamparo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS device (STATSports, Ireland) by comparing the instantaneous values of velocity determined with this device with those determined by kinematic (video) analysis (25 Hz). Ten male soccer players were required to perform shuttle runs (with 180° change of direction) at three velocities (slow: 2.2 m·s-1; moderate: 3.2 m·s-1; high: maximal) over four distances: 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The experiments were video-recorded; the “point by point” values of speed recorded by the GPS device were manually downloaded and analysed in the same way as the “frame by frame” values of horizontal speed as obtained by video analysis. The obtained results indicated that shuttle distance was smaller in GPS than video analysis (p GPS than in video analysis (p GPS data underestimated criterion distance (0.31 ± 0.55 m). In conclusion, the inaccuracy of this GPS unit in determining shuttle speed can be attributed to inaccuracy in determining the shuttle distance. PMID:28031753

  5. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  6. Positioning performance of the NTCM model driven by GPS Klobuchar model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammed Mainul; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens

    2018-03-01

    Users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) utilize the Ionospheric Correction Algorithm (ICA) also known as Klobuchar model for correcting ionospheric signal delay or range error. Recently, we developed an ionosphere correction algorithm called NTCM-Klobpar model for single frequency GNSS applications. The model is driven by a parameter computed from GPS Klobuchar model and consecutively can be used instead of the GPS Klobuchar model for ionospheric corrections. In the presented work we compare the positioning solutions obtained using NTCM-Klobpar with those using the Klobuchar model. Our investigation using worldwide ground GPS data from a quiet and a perturbed ionospheric and geomagnetic activity period of 17 days each shows that the 24-hour prediction performance of the NTCM-Klobpar is better than the GPS Klobuchar model in global average. The root mean squared deviation of the 3D position errors are found to be about 0.24 and 0.45 m less for the NTCM-Klobpar compared to the GPS Klobuchar model during quiet and perturbed condition, respectively. The presented algorithm has the potential to continuously improve the accuracy of GPS single frequency mass market devices with only little software modification.

  7. Accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS Unit in Measuring Shuttle Velocity Performed at Different Speeds and Distances (5 – 20 M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beato Marco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS device (STATSports, Ireland by comparing the instantaneous values of velocity determined with this device with those determined by kinematic (video analysis (25 Hz. Ten male soccer players were required to perform shuttle runs (with 180° change of direction at three velocities (slow: 2.2 m·s-1; moderate: 3.2 m·s-1; high: maximal over four distances: 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The experiments were video-recorded; the “point by point” values of speed recorded by the GPS device were manually downloaded and analysed in the same way as the “frame by frame” values of horizontal speed as obtained by video analysis. The obtained results indicated that shuttle distance was smaller in GPS than video analysis (p < 0.01. Shuttle velocity (shuttle distance/shuttle time was thus smaller in GPS than in video analysis (p < 0.001; the percentage difference (bias, % in shuttle velocity between methods was found to decrease with the distance covered (5 m: 9 ± 6%; 20 m: 3 ± 3%. The instantaneous values of speed were averaged; from these data and from data of shuttle time, the distance covered was recalculated; the error (criterion distance-recalculated distance was negligible for video data (0.04 ± 0.28 m whereas GPS data underestimated criterion distance (0.31 ± 0.55 m. In conclusion, the inaccuracy of this GPS unit in determining shuttle speed can be attributed to inaccuracy in determining the shuttle distance.

  8. Validation of Microscopic Traffic Models Based on GPS Precise Measurement of Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Apeltauer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A necessary stage in the development of traffic models is model validation, where the developed model is verified by comparing its outputs with observed data. The most frequently used variables are average value of speed, flow intensity and flow density (during a selected period.It is possible to use these values for the calibration of macroscopic models, but one cannot always obtain a relevant microscopic dynamic model in this way. A typical use of the microsimulation models is the capacity assessment, where this sort of data (flow, speed and queues is considered to be standard and sufficient. However microsimulation is also increasingly being used for other assessments (e.g. noise and emissions where the correct representation of each vehicle’s acceleration and deceleration plays a crucial role. Another emerging area is the use of microsimulation to predict near-miss situations and conflicts to identify dangerous and accident prone locations. In such assessments the vehicle trajectory, distance from other vehicles as well as velocity and acceleration are very important.Additional source of data, which can be used to validate vehicle dynamics in microsimulation models, is the Global Positioning System (GPS that is able to determine vehicle position with centimeter accuracy.In this article we discuss validation of selected microscopic traffic models, based on the comparison of simulated vehicle dynamics with observed dynamic characteristics of vehicles recorded by the precise geodetic GPS equipment.

  9. Crustal deformation characteristics of Sichuan-Yunnan region in China on the constraint of multi-periods of GPS velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Caiya; Dang, Yamin; Dai, Huayang; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Xiankai

    2018-04-01

    In order to obtain deformation parameters in each block of Sichuan-Yunnan Region (SYG) in China by stages and establish a dynamic model about the variation of the strain rate fields and the surface expansion in this area, we taken the Global Positioning System (GPS) sites velocity in the region as constrained condition and taken advantage of the block strain calculation model based on spherical surface. We also analyzed the deformation of the active blocks in the whole SYG before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, and analyzed the deformation of active blocks near the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake in detail. The results show that, (1) Under the effects of the carving from India plate and the crimping from the potential energy of Tibetan Plateau for a long time, there is a certain periodicity in crustal deformation in SYG. And the period change and the earthquake occurrence have a good agreement. (2) The differences in GPS velocity fields relative Eurasian reference frame shows that the Wenchuan earthquake and the Ya'an earthquake mainly affect the crustal movement in the central and southern part of SYG, and the average velocity difference is about 4-8 mm/a for the Wenchuan earthquake and 2-4 mm/a for the Ya'an earthquake. (3) For the Wenchuan earthquake, the average strain changed from 10 to 20 nanostrian/a before earthquake to 40-50 nanostrian/a after the earthquake, but before and after the Ya'an earthquake, the strain value increased from about 15 nanostrian/a to about 30 nanostrian/a. (4) The Wenchuan earthquake has changed the strain parameter of each active block more or less. Especially, the Longmen block and Chengdu block near the epicenter. The research provides fundamental material for the study of the dynamic mechanism of the push extrusion from the north-east of the India plate and the crimp from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and it also provides support for the study of crustal stress variation and earthquake prediction in Sichuan Yunnan region.

  10. GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) Model to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared to 24 h diary data from 7 participants on workdays and 2 participants on nonworkdays, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time-location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize

  11. Opening of the Aden Gulf Ridge Derived from GPS Constraints and Plate Tectonic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Alothman, A.; Al-Aydrus, A.; Khalil, H.; Ahmed, A.; Khanbari, K.; Bos, M. S.; Nicolon, P.; Heydel, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Aden Gulf Ridge forms, together with the Red Sea and the Ethiopian Rift, the only emerged RRR-type (Ridge/Ridge/Ridge) triple junction in the globe: the Afar Triple Junction. The Aden Gulf Ridge defines the boundary between two major tectonic blocks: Arabia and Somalia, being Nubia the third unit in the triple junction (bordering Arabia along the Red Sea and Somalia along the Ethiopian Rift). Although the extensional behaviour of these structures are well known, the present-day magnitudes of their opening rates are still under evaluation, in particular for the opening rate between the Arabia and Somalia plates. This work uses GPS observations acquired in campaign and continuous mode in order to better constrain the opening rates of the three plate boundaries. For the Nubia-Arabia and Nubia-Somalia boundary plates, we use solely the velocity predictions given by our computed angular velocity models using the available continuous stations in Nubia, Somalia and Arabia. The available data set is augmented here with several stations in Saudi Arabia, which allow us to better constrain the angular velocity for the stable part of the Arabia plate. We estimate the angular velocity model with respect to ITRF2008 (the latest realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System) using the value of 2.5 years (although most of the stations have already a significantly longer time-series) as threshold data span for the processed time-series. Temporal correlations are used to properly estimate the uncertainty of the time-series and derived angular velocity model. In addition, to study the near-field in the Aden Gulf, data acquired in denser campaign networks in Yemen and Oman are used to also directly compute the extension rate in the Red Sea. We show that most of the Arabian Peninsula is stable (within the uncertainties) but the southwest part (Yemen) is influenced by the proximity with the Afar Triple Junction.

  12. Determining rip current circulation patterns and velocities in the vicinity of a groin using GPS equipped drogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, R.; Houser, C.

    2012-12-01

    Rip currents pose a significant hazard to swimmers on Galveston Island, Texas. Groin structures built to protect the Galveston Seawall from erosion consequently are responsible for the generation of quasi-permanent rips. A field study was conducted to better understand and quantify the current speeds and circulation patterns associated with rip currents at this location. Eight GPS equipped drogues were deployed over a range of wave and tidal conditions over 2 weeks from May 3rd to 14th, 2012. The drifter data reveals a fairly consistent circulation cell with peak offshore velocities ranging between 0.10m/s up to 1m/s although long wave pulsing caused the rip speeds to reach 1.5m/s. The areal extent of the rip cell circulation was dependent on the strength of the rip current and wind and wave conditions of the specific day. Green flag days resulted in larger circulation patterns often resulting in occasional drogue releases from the circulation cell and moving alongshore hundreds of metres. Yellow flag days decreased the size of the circulation cell to the order of tens of metres and distances of alongshore drift. Onshore winds aided in the creation of the rip cell circulation directing drogues back to shore. However, with an offshore wind drogues moving off shore in the rip were swiftly driven further out to sea resulting in 3 drogues drifting up to 2 km offshore, providing more evidence of the hazard associated with nearshore circulation processes. Throughout the experiment, the rip channel accreted sediment, contributing to the decrease of rip current velocities and limiting the influence of bathymetric gradients on the magnitude of the flow. Being able to quantify the rip current hazard in Galveston, Texas by correlating rip current speeds and flag colours provides the Galveston Island Beach Patrol with information that can be used to better educate the public and beach staff. Ultimately the increased knowledge or rip current processes around groin structures

  13. Design of complete software GPS signal simulator with low complexity and precise multipath channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arul Elango

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for GPS data simulators have become important due to the tremendous growth in the design of versatile GPS receivers. Commercial hardware and software based GPS simulators are expensive and time consuming. In this work, a low cost simple novel GPS L1 signal simulator is designed for testing and evaluating the performance of software GPS receiver in a laboratory environment. A typical real time paradigm, similar to actual satellite derived GPS signal is created on a computer generated scenario. In this paper, a GPS software simulator is proposed that may offer a lot of analysis and testing flexibility to the researchers and developers as it is totally software based primarily running on a laptop/personal computer without the requirement of any hardware. The proposed GPS simulator allows provision for re-configurability and test repeatability and is developed in VC++ platform to minimize the simulation time. It also incorporates Rayleigh multipath channel fading model under non-line of sight (NLOS conditions. In this work, to efficiently design the simulator, several Rayleigh fading models viz. Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT, Filtering White Gaussian Noise (FWFN and modified Sum of Sinusoidal (SOS simulators are tested and compared in terms of accuracy of its first and second order statistical metrics, execution time and the later one is found to be as the best appropriate Rayleigh multipath model suitable for incorporating with GPS simulator. The fading model written in ‘MATLAB’ engine has been linked with software GPS simulator module enable to test GPS receiver’s functionality in different fading environments.

  14. Optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, G.H.; Cai, X.H.; Liu, C.Q.; Cao, B.F.; Tuo, M.X.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory based on the full velocity difference model. The linear stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The unrealistically high deceleration does not appear in OVDM. Numerical simulation of traffic dynamics shows that the new model can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity occurred at small sensitivity coefficient λ in full velocity difference model by adjusting the coefficient of the optimal velocity difference, which shows that collision can disappear in the improved model. -- Highlights: → A new optimal velocity difference car-following model is proposed. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow have been explored. → The starting and braking process were carried out through simulation. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity.

  15. A Forward GPS Multipath Simulator Based on the Vegetation Radiative Transfer Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuerui; Jin, Shuanggen; Xia, Junming

    2017-06-05

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have been widely used in navigation, positioning and timing. Nowadays, the multipath errors may be re-utilized for the remote sensing of geophysical parameters (soil moisture, vegetation and snow depth), i.e., GPS-Multipath Reflectometry (GPS-MR). However, bistatic scattering properties and the relation between GPS observables and geophysical parameters are not clear, e.g., vegetation. In this paper, a new element on bistatic scattering properties of vegetation is incorporated into the traditional GPS-MR model. This new element is the first-order radiative transfer equation model. The new forward GPS multipath simulator is able to explicitly link the vegetation parameters with GPS multipath observables (signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), code pseudorange and carrier phase observables). The trunk layer and its corresponding scattering mechanisms are ignored since GPS-MR is not suitable for high forest monitoring due to the coherence of direct and reflected signals. Based on this new model, the developed simulator can present how the GPS signals (L1 and L2 carrier frequencies, C/A, P(Y) and L2C modulations) are transmitted (scattered and absorbed) through vegetation medium and received by GPS receivers. Simulation results show that the wheat will decrease the amplitudes of GPS multipath observables (SNR, phase and code), if we increase the vegetation moisture contents or the scatters sizes (stem or leaf). Although the Specular-Ground component dominates the total specular scattering, vegetation covered ground soil moisture has almost no effects on the final multipath signatures. Our simulated results are consistent with previous results for environmental parameter detections by GPS-MR.

  16. Modeling the Ionosphere with GPS and Rotation Measure Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malins, J. B.; Taylor, G. B.; White, S. M.; Dowell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in digital processing have created new tools for looking at and examining the ionosphere. We have combined data from dual frequency GPSs, digital ionosondes and observations from The Long Wavelength Array (LWA), a 256 dipole low frequency radio telescope situated in central New Mexico in order to examine ionospheric profiles. By studying polarized pulsars, the LWA is able to very accurately determine the Faraday rotation caused by the ionosphere. By combining this data with the international geomagnetic reference field, the LWA can evaluate ionospheric profiles and how well they predict the actual Faraday rotation. Dual frequency GPS measurements of total electron content, as well as measurements from digisonde data were used to model the ionosphere, and to predict the Faraday rotation to with in 0.1 rad/m2. Additionally, it was discovered that the predicted topside profile of the digisonde data did not accurate predict faraday rotation measurements, suggesting a need to reexamine the methods for creating the topside predicted profile. I will discuss the methods used to measure rotation measure and ionosphere profiles as well as discuss possible corrections to the topside model.

  17. On stochastic modeling of the modernized global positioning system (GPS) L2C signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsobeiey, Mohamed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In order to take full advantage of the modernized GPS L2C signal, it is essential that its stochastic characteristics and code bias be rigorously determined. In this paper, long sessions of GPS measurements are used to study the stochastic characteristics of the modernized GPS L2C signal. As a byproduct, the stochastic characteristics of the legacy GPS signals, namely C/A and P2 codes, are also determined, which are used to verify the developed stochastic model of the modernized signal. The differential code biases between P2 and C2, DCB P2-C2 , are also estimated using the Bernese GPS software. It is shown that the developed models improved the precise point positioning (PPP) solution and convergence time

  18. Research Article. Improved Dual Frequency PPP Model Using GPS and BeiDou Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, A.; El-Rabbany, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines GPS and BeiDou observations. Combining GPS and BeiDou observations in a PPP model offers more visible satellites to the user, which is expected to enhance the satellite geometry and the overall PPP solution in comparison with GPSonly PPP solution. However, combining different GNSS constellations introduces additional biases, which require rigorous modelling, including GNSS time offset and hardware delays. In this research, ionosphere-free linear combination PPP model is developed. The additional biases, which result from combining the GPS and BeiDou observables, are lumped into a new unknown parameter identified as the inter-system bias. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS/BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets at four IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the IGS-MGEX network are used to correct both of the GPS and BeiDou measurements. It is shown that a sub-decimeter positioning accuracy level and 25% reduction in the solution convergence time can be achieved with combining GPS and Bei-Dou observables in a PPP model, in comparison with the GPS-only PPP solution.

  19. Error detection in GPS observations by means of Multi-process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik F.

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to present the idea of using Multi-process models as a method of detecting errors in GPS observations. The theory behind Multi-process models, and double differenced phase observations in GPS is presented shortly. It is shown how to model cycle slips in the Multi......-process context by means of a simple simulation. The simulation is used to illustrate how the method works, and it is concluded that the method deserves further investigation....

  20. RECURSIVE LEAST SQUARES WITH REAL TIME STOCHASTIC MODELING: APPLICATION TO GPS RELATIVE POSITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zangeneh-Nejad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic data processing is usually performed by the least squares (LS adjustment method. There are two different forms for the LS adjustment, namely the batch form and recursive form. The former is not an appropriate method for real time applications in which new observations are added to the system over time. For such cases, the recursive solution is more suitable than the batch form. The LS method is also implemented in GPS data processing via two different forms. The mathematical model including both functional and stochastic models should be properly defined for both forms of the LS method. Proper choice of the stochastic model plays an important role to achieve high-precision GPS positioning. The noise characteristics of the GPS observables have been already investigated using the least squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE in a batch form by the authors. In this contribution, we introduce a recursive procedure that provides a proper stochastic modeling for the GPS observables using the LS-VCE. It is referred to as the recursive LS-VCE (RLS-VCE method, which is applied to the geometry-based observation model (GBOM. In this method, the (covariances parameters can be estimated recursively when the new group of observations is added. Therefore, it can easily be implemented in real time GPS data processing. The efficacy of the method is evaluated using a real GPS data set collected by the Trimble R7 receiver over a zero baseline. The results show that the proposed method has an appropriate performance so that the estimated (covariance parameters of the GPS observables are consistent with the batch estimates. However, using the RLS-VCE method, one can estimate the (covariance parameters of the GPS observables when a new observation group is added. This method can thus be introduced as a reliable method for application to the real time GPS data processing.

  1. A comparison of hydrological deformation using GPS and global hydrological model for the Eurasian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Yue, Jianping; Li, Wang; Lu, Dekai; Li, Xiaogen

    2017-08-01

    The 0.5° × 0.5° gridded hydrological loading from Global Land Surface Discharge Model (LSDM) mass distributions is adopted for 32 GPS sites on the Eurasian plate from January 2010 to January 2014. When the heights of these sites that have been corrected for the effects of non-tidal atmospheric and ocean loading are adjusted by the hydrological loading deformation, more than one third of the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the GPS height variability become larger. After analyzing the results by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and wavelet transform coherence (WTC), we confirm that hydrological loading primarily contributes to the annual variations in GPS heights. Further, the cross wavelet transform (XWT) is used to investigate the relative phase between the time series of GPS heights and hydrological deformation, and it is indicated that the annual oscillations in the two time series are physically related for some sites; other geophysical effect, GPS systematic errors and hydrological modeling errors could result in the phase asynchrony between GPS and hydrological loading signals for the other sites. Consequently, the phase asynchrony confirms that the annual fluctuations in GPS observations result from a combination of geophysical signals and systematic errors.

  2. Truck Route Choice Modeling using Large Streams of GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    The primary goal of this research was to use large streams of truck-GPS data to analyze travel routes (or paths) chosen by freight trucks to travel between different origin and destination (OD) location pairs in metropolitan regions of Florida. Two s...

  3. Troposphere Modeling and Filtering for Precise GPS Leveling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Precise height differences (5--10 mm standard deviation) are of interest for applications such as maintenance of the Amsterdam Ordnance Datum and deformation analysis. For these applications the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a cost-effective alternative for classic leveling techniques. However,

  4. Trend-Residual Dual Modeling for Detection of Outliers in Low-Cost GPS Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojian; Cui, Tingting; Fu, Jianhong; Peng, Jianwei; Shan, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Low-cost GPS (receiver) has become a ubiquitous and integral part of our daily life. Despite noticeable advantages such as being cheap, small, light, and easy to use, its limited positioning accuracy devalues and hampers its wide applications for reliable mapping and analysis. Two conventional techniques to remove outliers in a GPS trajectory are thresholding and Kalman-based methods, which are difficult in selecting appropriate thresholds and modeling the trajectories. Moreover, they are insensitive to medium and small outliers, especially for low-sample-rate trajectories. This paper proposes a model-based GPS trajectory cleaner. Rather than examining speed and acceleration or assuming a pre-determined trajectory model, we first use cubic smooth spline to adaptively model the trend of the trajectory. The residuals, i.e., the differences between the trend and GPS measurements, are then further modeled by time series method. Outliers are detected by scoring the residuals at every GPS trajectory point. Comparing to the conventional procedures, the trend-residual dual modeling approach has the following features: (a) it is able to model trajectories and detect outliers adaptively; (b) only one critical value for outlier scores needs to be set; (c) it is able to robustly detect unapparent outliers; and (d) it is effective in cleaning outliers for GPS trajectories with low sample rates. Tests are carried out on three real-world GPS trajectories datasets. The evaluation demonstrates an average of 9.27 times better performance in outlier detection for GPS trajectories than thresholding and Kalman-based techniques.

  5. Trend-Residual Dual Modeling for Detection of Outliers in Low-Cost GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost GPS (receiver has become a ubiquitous and integral part of our daily life. Despite noticeable advantages such as being cheap, small, light, and easy to use, its limited positioning accuracy devalues and hampers its wide applications for reliable mapping and analysis. Two conventional techniques to remove outliers in a GPS trajectory are thresholding and Kalman-based methods, which are difficult in selecting appropriate thresholds and modeling the trajectories. Moreover, they are insensitive to medium and small outliers, especially for low-sample-rate trajectories. This paper proposes a model-based GPS trajectory cleaner. Rather than examining speed and acceleration or assuming a pre-determined trajectory model, we first use cubic smooth spline to adaptively model the trend of the trajectory. The residuals, i.e., the differences between the trend and GPS measurements, are then further modeled by time series method. Outliers are detected by scoring the residuals at every GPS trajectory point. Comparing to the conventional procedures, the trend-residual dual modeling approach has the following features: (a it is able to model trajectories and detect outliers adaptively; (b only one critical value for outlier scores needs to be set; (c it is able to robustly detect unapparent outliers; and (d it is effective in cleaning outliers for GPS trajectories with low sample rates. Tests are carried out on three real-world GPS trajectories datasets. The evaluation demonstrates an average of 9.27 times better performance in outlier detection for GPS trajectories than thresholding and Kalman-based techniques.

  6. New empirically-derived solar radiation pressure model for GPS satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Y.; Kuang, D.

    2003-04-01

    We derive a new and improved GPS solar pressure model by estimating model parameters using least square approximation to four and a half years of GPS precise orbit data. The new solar radiation model for Block IIR satellites provides 90% improvement over to the best pre-launch model, as measured by orbit fits and orbit prediction quality. The new model of Block II/IIA realizes a more modest improvement of the previous JPL empirical model. The empirical model is constructed as a set of Fourier functions of the Earth-Probe-Sun angle, to represent the solar radiation pressure forces in the coordinate system tied to the nominal solar panel surface orientation. The model derivation reveals a number of systematic patterns, some of which can be explained in terms of properties of the GPS attitude control system, and some are yet to be explained. Finally, we will discuss the overall orbit determination improvements using the new models.

  7. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Fang, Tian; Bin, Jia; Xin-Gang, Li; Zi-You, Gao

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink–antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model. (general)

  8. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink-antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model.

  9. Optimizing the De-Noise Neural Network Model for GPS Time-Series Monitoring of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is recently used widely in structures and other applications. Notwithstanding, the GPS accuracy still suffers from the errors afflicting the measurements, particularly the short-period displacement of structural components. Previously, the multi filter method is utilized to remove the displacement errors. This paper aims at using a novel application for the neural network prediction models to improve the GPS monitoring time series data. Four prediction models for the learning algorithms are applied and used with neural network solutions: back-propagation, Cascade-forward back-propagation, adaptive filter and extended Kalman filter, to estimate which model can be recommended. The noise simulation and bridge’s short-period GPS of the monitoring displacement component of one Hz sampling frequency are used to validate the four models and the previous method. The results show that the Adaptive neural networks filter is suggested for de-noising the observations, specifically for the GPS displacement components of structures. Also, this model is expected to have significant influence on the design of structures in the low frequency responses and measurements’ contents.

  10. A classical model explaining the OPERA velocity paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Broda, Boguslaw

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the paradoxical results of the OPERA Collaboration, we have proposed a classical mechanics model yielding the statistically measured velocity of a beam higher than the velocity of the particles constituting the beam. Ingredients of our model necessary to obtain this curious result are a non-constant fraction function and the method of the maximum-likelihood estimation.

  11. Velocity of detonation-a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Lemi

    2010-06-01

    Based on the principles of conservation of energy and momentum, a mathematical formula has been derived for the squares of detonation velocities of a large set of explosives. The equation is a function of the total energy and molecular weight of an explosive compound considered. A regressed equation has been obtained for a pool of explosives of various types including nitramines, aliphatic and aromatic nitro compounds. Also another regressed equation for nitramines only is given. For the regression, the total energies are obtained using DFT (UB3LYP/6-31G(d)). The regression statistics are given and discussed.

  12. Propagation modeling of ocean-scattered low-elevation GPS signals for maritime tropospheric duct inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin-Peng; Wu Zhen-Sen; Zhao Zhen-Wei; Zhang Yu-Sheng; Wang Bo

    2012-01-01

    The maritime tropospheric duct is a low-altitude anomalous refractivity structure over the ocean surface, and it can significantly affect the performance of many shore-based/shipboard radar and communication systems. We propose the idea that maritime tropospheric ducts can be retrieved from ocean forward-scattered low-elevation global positioning system (GPS) signals. Retrieval is accomplished by matching the measured power patterns of the signals to those predicted by the forward propagation model as a function of the modified refractivity profile. On the basis of a parabolic equation method and bistatic radar equation, we develop such a forward model for computing the trapped propagation characteristics of an ocean forward-scattered GPS signal within a tropospheric duct. A new GPS scattering initial field is defined for this model to start the propagation modeling. A preliminary test on the performance of this model is conducted using measured data obtained from a 2009-experiment in the South China Sea. Results demonstrate that this model can predict GPS propagation characteristics within maritime tropospheric ducts and serve as a forward model for duct inversion

  13. Velocity potential formulations of highly accurate Boussinesq-type models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2009-01-01

    is of interest because it reduces the computational effort by approximately a factor of two and facilitates a coupling to other potential flow solvers. A new shoaling enhancement operator is introduced to derive new models (in both formulations) with a velocity profile which is always consistent...... structures. Coast. Eng. 53, 929-945) are re-derived in a more general framework which establishes the correct relationship between the model in a velocity formulation and a velocity potential formulation. Although most work with this model has used the velocity formulation, the potential formulation...... with the kinematic bottom boundary condition. The true behaviour of the velocity potential formulation with respect to linear shoaling is given for the first time, correcting errors made by Jamois et al. (Jamois, E., Fuhrman, D.R., Bingham, H.B., Molin, B., 2006. Wave-structure interactions and nonlinear wave...

  14. Estimation of Continuous Velocity Model Variations in Rock Deformation Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, J. W.; Tomas, R.; Benson, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic interferometry, using either seismic waves coda or ambient noise, is a passive technique to image the sub-surface seismic velocity structure, which directly relates to the physical properties of the material through which they travel. The methodology estimates the Green's function for the volume between two seismic stations by cross-correlating long time series of ambient noise recorded at both stations, with the Green's function being effectively the seismogram recorded at one station due to an impulsive or instantaneous energy source at the second station. In laboratory rock deformation experiments, changes in the velocity structure of the rock sample are generally measured through active surveys using an array of AE piezoelectric P-wave transducers, producing a time series of ultrasonic velocities in both axial and radial directions. The velocity information from the active surveys is used to provide a time dependent velocity model for the inversion of AE event source locations. These velocity measurements are carried out at regular intervals throughout the laboratory test, causing the interruption of passive AE monitoring for the length of the surveys. There is therefore a trade-off between the frequency at which the active velocity surveys are carried out to optimise the velocity model and the availability of a complete AE record during the rock deformation test.This study proposes to use noise interferometry to provide a continuous measurement of velocity variations in a rock sample during a laboratory rock deformation experiment without the need to carry out active velocity surveys while simultaneously passively monitoring AE activity. The continuous noise source in this test, is an AE transducer fed with a white gaussian noise signal from a function generator. Data from all AE transducers is continuously acquired and recorded during the deformation experiment. The cross correlation of the continuous AE record is used to produce a continuous velocity

  15. A Year-Long Comparison of GPS TEC and Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlongo, N. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Cnossen, I.; Wu, C.

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of GPS total electron content (TEC) observations has provided an opportunity for extensive global ionosphere-thermosphere model validation efforts. This study presents a year-long data-model comparison using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). For the entire year of 2010, each model was run and compared to GPS TEC observations. The results were binned according to season, latitude, local time, and magnetic local time. GITM was found to overestimate the TEC everywhere, except on the midlatitude nightside, due to high O/N2 ratios. TIE-GCM produced much less TEC and had lower O/N2 ratios and neutral wind speeds. Seasonal and regional biases in the models are discussed along with ideas for model improvements and further validation efforts.

  16. An accurate Kriging-based regional ionospheric model using combined GPS/BeiDou observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazeem, Mohamed; Çelik, Rahmi N.; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose a regional ionospheric model (RIM) based on both of the GPS-only and the combined GPS/BeiDou observations for single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) users in Europe. GPS/BeiDou observations from 16 reference stations are processed in the zero-difference mode. A least-squares algorithm is developed to determine the vertical total electron content (VTEC) bi-linear function parameters for a 15-minute time interval. The Kriging interpolation method is used to estimate the VTEC values at a 1 ° × 1 ° grid. The resulting RIMs are validated for PPP applications using GNSS observations from another set of stations. The SF-PPP accuracy and convergence time obtained through the proposed RIMs are computed and compared with those obtained through the international GNSS service global ionospheric maps (IGS-GIM). The results show that the RIMs speed up the convergence time and enhance the overall positioning accuracy in comparison with the IGS-GIM model, particularly the combined GPS/BeiDou-based model.

  17. Global Ionospheric Modelling using Multi-GNSS: BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS and GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Keke; Yuan, Yongqiang; Li, Xingxing

    2016-09-15

    The emergence of China's Beidou, Europe's Galileo and Russia's GLONASS satellites has multiplied the number of ionospheric piercing points (IPP) offered by GPS alone. This provides great opportunities for deriving precise global ionospheric maps (GIMs) with high resolution to improve positioning accuracy and ionospheric monitoring capabilities. In this paper, the GIM is developed based on multi-GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo) observations in the current multi-constellation condition. The performance and contribution of multi-GNSS for ionospheric modelling are carefully analysed and evaluated. Multi-GNSS observations of over 300 stations from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and International GNSS Service (IGS) networks for two months are processed. The results show that the multi-GNSS GIM products are better than those of GIM products based on GPS-only. Differential code biases (DCB) are by-products of the multi-GNSS ionosphere modelling, the corresponding standard deviations (STDs) are 0.06 ns, 0.10 ns, 0.18 ns and 0.15 ns for GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo, respectively in satellite, and the STDs for the receiver are approximately 0.2~0.4 ns. The single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) results indicate that the ionospheric modelling accuracy of the proposed method based on multi-GNSS observations is better than that of the current dual-system GIM in specific areas.

  18. Flood Water Crossing: Laboratory Model Investigations for Water Velocity Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnon N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of floods may give a negative impact towards road traffic in terms of difficulties in mobilizing traffic as well as causing damage to the vehicles, which later cause them to be stuck in the traffic and trigger traffic problems. The high velocity of water flows occur when there is no existence of objects capable of diffusing the water velocity on the road surface. The shape, orientation and size of the object to be placed beside the road as a diffuser are important for the effective flow attenuation of water. In order to investigate the water flow, a laboratory experiment was set up and models were constructed to study the flow velocity reduction. The velocity of water before and after passing through the diffuser objects was investigated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments to determine the flow velocity of the water using sensors before and after passing through two best diffuser objects chosen from a previous flow pattern experiment.

  19. Velocity Structure in the West Bohemia Seismic Zone: Velocity Models Retrieved from different Earthquake Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Löberich, E.; Kieslich, A.; Calo, M.; Vavrycuk, V.; Buske, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake swarms, fluid migration and gas springs are indications of the ongoing geodynamic processes within the West Bohemia seismic zone located at the Czech-German border. The possible relationship between the fluids, gas and seismicity is of particular interest and has motivated numerous past, ongoing and future studies, including a multidisciplinary monitoring proposal through the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The most seismically active area within the West Bohemia seismic zone is located at the Czech town Nový Kostel. The Nový Kostel zone experiences frequent swarms of several hundreds to thousands of earthquakes over a period of weeks to several months. The seismicity is always located in the same area and depth range (~5-15 km), however the activated fault segments and planes differ. For example, the 2008 swarm activated faults along the southern end of the seismic zone, the 2011 swarm activated the northern segment, and the recent 2014 swarm activated the middle of the seismic zone. This indicates changes to the local stress field, and may relate to fluid migration and/or the complicated tectonic situation. The West Bohemia Seismic Network (WEBNET) is ideally located for studying the Nový Kostel swarm area and provides good azimuthal coverage. Here, we use the high quality P- and S-wave arrival picks recorded by WEBNET to calculate swarm-dependent velocity models for the 2008 and 2011 swarms, and an averaged (swarm independent) model using earthquakes recorded between 1991 and 2011. To this end, we use double-difference tomography to calculate P- and S-wave velocity models. The models are compared and examined in terms of swarm-dependent velocities and structures. Since the P-to-S velocity ratio is particularly sensitive to the presence of pore fluids, we derive ratio models directly from the inverted P- and S-wave models in order to investigate the potential influence of fluids on the seismicity. Finally, clustering

  20. The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Duong, Thanh Trung; Liao, Jhen-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC) and tightly coupled (TC) schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals) affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system. PMID:23955434

  1. Three dimensional reflection velocity analysis based on velocity model scan; Model scan ni yoru sanjigen hanshaha sokudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  2. Behaviour of ion velocity distributions for a simple collision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Maurice, J.-P.; Schunk, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the ion velocity distributions for a weakly ionized plasma subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. An exact solution to Boltzmann's equation has been obtained by replacing the Boltzmann collision integral with a simple relaxation model. At altitudes above about 150 km, where the ion collision frequency is much less than the ion cyclotron frequency, the ion distribution takes the shape of a torus in velocity space for electric fields greater than 40 mV/m. This shape persists for one to two hours after application of the electric field. At altitudes where the ion collision and cyclotron frequencies are approximately equal (about 120 km), the ion velocity distribution is shaped like a bean for large electric field strengths. This bean-shaped distribution persists throughout the lifetime of ionospheric electric fields. These highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions may have an appreciable affect on the interpretation of ion temperature measurements.

  3. Numerical Simulation Modelling for Velocity Measurement of Electromagnetic Flow Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J Z; Gong, C L; Tian, G Y; Lucas, G P

    2006-01-01

    An induced voltage EMF in the area of measuring single-phase flow rate in pipes has been used in many industrial areas. To measure the continuous phase velocity profile in multiphase flows where the continuous phase is an electrical conductor, Electrical capacitance and resistance tomography has been comprehensively investigated, except for continuous phase velocity profile measurement. This paper tries to design the numerical simulation model according to the basic electromagnetic induction law and to investigate the relationship between induced electric potential or potential drop and the velocity distribution of the conductive continuous phase in the flow. First, the 3-Dimenssion simulating module for EMF is built. Given the most simple velocity profile of the fluid in the pipe, the value of the induced potential difference between electrodes is obtained by simulation and theoretical computation according to J A Shercliff's weight function. The relative error is 6.066 . This proves that the simulation model is accurate enough to investigate the characteristic of the induced potential difference of EMF. Finally, the relationship between induced potential difference and the velocity profile is analysed in detail where the complicated velocity profile is expressed as vz = 1m/s when 0.022< x2+y2< = 0.02652 and vz = 5m/s when x2+y2< = 0.022

  4. Accuracy assessment of the global TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model with GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Birgit; Huber, Martin; Wohlfart, Christian; Marschalk, Ursula; Kosmann, Detlev; Roth, Achim

    2018-05-01

    The primary goal of the German TanDEM-X mission is the generation of a highly accurate and global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with global accuracies of at least 10 m absolute height error (linear 90% error). The global TanDEM-X DEM acquired with single-pass SAR interferometry was finished in September 2016. This paper provides a unique accuracy assessment of the final TanDEM-X global DEM using two different GPS point reference data sets, which are distributed across all continents, to fully characterize the absolute height error. Firstly, the absolute vertical accuracy is examined by about three million globally distributed kinematic GPS (KGPS) points derived from 19 KGPS tracks covering a total length of about 66,000 km. Secondly, a comparison is performed with more than 23,000 "GPS on Bench Marks" (GPS-on-BM) points provided by the US National Geodetic Survey (NGS) scattered across 14 different land cover types of the US National Land Cover Data base (NLCD). Both GPS comparisons prove an absolute vertical mean error of TanDEM-X DEM smaller than ±0.20 m, a Root Means Square Error (RMSE) smaller than 1.4 m and an excellent absolute 90% linear height error below 2 m. The RMSE values are sensitive to land cover types. For low vegetation the RMSE is ±1.1 m, whereas it is slightly higher for developed areas (±1.4 m) and for forests (±1.8 m). This validation confirms an outstanding absolute height error at 90% confidence level of the global TanDEM-X DEM outperforming the requirement by a factor of five. Due to its extensive and globally distributed reference data sets, this study is of considerable interests for scientific and commercial applications.

  5. Modeling and Velocity Tracking Control for Tape Drive System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this paper are to formulate mathematical model for the tape drive system (TDS) by designing velocity tracking controller using physical laws. A Matlab function script and Simulink model were developed in Matlab and Simulink environment. The result of the study revealed that 7.07, 8 and 10 of koln values ...

  6. Modeling and Velocity Tracking Control for Tape Drive System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... ABSTRACT: The objectives of this paper are to formulate mathematical model for the tape drive system (TDS) by designing velocity tracking controller using physical laws. A Matlab function script and Simulink model were developed in Matlab and Simulink environment. The result of the study revealed that ...

  7. Real-time GPS Satellite Clock Error Prediction Based On No-stationary Time Series Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Xu, G.; Wang, F.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis Centers of the IGS provide precise satellite ephemeris for GPS data post-processing. The accuracy of orbit products is better than 5cm, and that of the satellite clock errors (SCE) approaches 0.1ns (igscb.jpl.nasa.gov), which can meet with the requirements of precise point positioning (PPP). Due to the 13 day-latency of the IGS final products, only the broadcast ephemeris and IGS ultra rapid products (predicted) are applicable for real time PPP (RT-PPP). Therefore, development of an approach to estimate high precise GPS SCE in real time is of particular importance for RT-PPP. Many studies have been carried out for forecasting the corrections using models, such as Linear Model (LM), Quadratic Polynomial Model (QPM), Quadratic Polynomial Model with Cyclic corrected Terms (QPM+CT), Grey Model (GM) and Kalman Filter Model (KFM), etc. However, the precisions of these models are generally in nanosecond level. The purpose of this study is to develop a method using which SCE forecasting for RT-PPP can be reached with a precision of sub-nanosecond. Analysis of the last 8 years IGS SCE data shown that predicted precision depend on the stability of the individual satellite clock. The clocks of the most recent GPS satellites (BLOCK IIR and BLOCK IIR-M) are more stable than that of the former GPS satellites (BLOCK IIA). For the stable satellite clock, the next 6 hours SCE can be easily predict with LM. The residuals of unstable satellite clocks are periodic ones with noise components. Dominant periods of residuals are found by using Fourier Transform and Spectrum Analysis. For the rest part of the residuals, an auto-regression model is used to determine their systematic trends. Summarized from this study, a no-stationary time series model can be proposed to predict GPS SCE in real time. This prediction model includes: linear term, cyclic corrected terms and auto-regression term, which are used to represent SCE trend, cyclic parts and rest of the errors, respectively

  8. Ingestion of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS data into La Plata Ionospheric Model: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, J. Federico; Brunini, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    La Plata Ionospheric Model (LPIM; Brunini et al., 2011) has been upgraded to a new stage enabling the ingestion of sTEC values retrieved from GPS receivers on board the FORMOSAT-3 Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellites, in order to determine corrections to the global mean values of the ionosphere F2 layer critical frequency, fo F 2 (related to the peak density, Nm F 2) and the F2 layer peak height, hm F 2 .

  9. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  10. Complex Road Intersection Modelling Based on Low-Frequency GPS Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Deng, M.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    It is widely accepted that digital map becomes an indispensable guide for human daily traveling. Traditional road network maps are produced in the time-consuming and labour-intensive ways, such as digitizing printed maps and extraction from remote sensing images. At present, a large number of GPS trajectory data collected by floating vehicles makes it a reality to extract high-detailed and up-to-date road network information. Road intersections are often accident-prone areas and very critical to route planning and the connectivity of road networks is mainly determined by the topological geometry of road intersections. A few studies paid attention on detecting complex road intersections and mining the attached traffic information (e.g., connectivity, topology and turning restriction) from massive GPS traces. To the authors' knowledge, recent studies mainly used high frequency (1 s sampling rate) trajectory data to detect the crossroads regions or extract rough intersection models. It is still difficult to make use of low frequency (20-100 s) and easily available trajectory data to modelling complex road intersections geometrically and semantically. The paper thus attempts to construct precise models for complex road intersection by using low frequency GPS traces. We propose to firstly extract the complex road intersections by a LCSS-based (Longest Common Subsequence) trajectory clustering method, then delineate the geometry shapes of complex road intersections by a K-segment principle curve algorithm, and finally infer the traffic constraint rules inside the complex intersections.

  11. Delayed hydride cracking: theoretical model testing to predict cracking velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, Juan I.; Vigna, Gustavo L.; Domizzi, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    Pressure tubes from Candu nuclear reactors as any other component manufactured with Zr alloys are prone to delayed hydride cracking. That is why it is important to be able to predict the cracking velocity during the component lifetime from parameters easy to be measured, such as: hydrogen concentration, mechanical and microstructural properties. Two of the theoretical models reported in literature to calculate the DHC velocity were chosen and combined, and using the appropriate variables allowed a comparison with experimental results of samples from Zr-2.5 Nb tubes with different mechanical and structural properties. In addition, velocities measured by other authors in irradiated materials could be reproduced using the model described above. (author)

  12. A model of short term surface deformation of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, constrained by GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, E. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2013-05-01

    Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, in the Lesser Antilles island arc, became active in 1995, and for nearly two decades, ground breaking geodetic surveys have been conducted using both continuous GPS and campaign GPS sites. Data have been collected and processed using the latest and most advanced geodetic instruments and technique available. The NSF- funded CALIPSO and SEA-CALIPSO projects have allowed for some of the most in depth studies of the ongoing SHV eruptions to date, and many models for surface deformation and magmatic chamber configuration have resulted. Research for this study is constrained to data gathered from the early stages of eruption in 1996 through 2010 from two continuous GPS sites, Hermitage Peak (HERM - located ~1.6 km from the vent) and Montserrat Volcano Observatory 1 (MVO1- located ~7.6 km away from the vent) and have been reprocessed using GIPSY-OASIS II (v. 6.1.2) with final, precise IGS08 orbits, clocks, and earth orientation parameters using an absolute point positioning (APP) strategy. Our study is being conducted to re-examine spatial and temporal changes in surface deformation, constrained by GPS, and to better illuminate the short term (i.e. sub-daily to weekly) deformation signals noted amongst the longer, cyclic deformation signals (i.e. monthly to annually) that have been previously reported and modeled. The reprocessed time-series show lower variance for daily APP solutions over the entire temporal data set; trends in the long-term inflation and deflation patterns are similar to those previously published (e.g. Elsworth et al., 2008; Mattioli et al., 2010; Odbert et al., 2012), but now superimposed, shorter term signals are more clearly visible. New elastic deformation models are being developed and will be presented for these short-term signals.

  13. Shallow and deep crustal velocity models of Northeast Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, M.; Klemperer, S. L.; Mechie, J.; Shi, D.; Zhao, W.; Brown, L. D.; Wu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The INDEPTH IV seismic profile in Northeast Tibet is the highest resolution wide-angle refraction experiment imaging the Qaidam Basin, North Kunlun Thrusts (NKT), Kunlun Mountains, North and South Kunlun Faults (NKT, SKT), and Songpan-Ganzi terrane (SG). First arrival refraction modeling using ray tracing and least squares inversion has yielded a crustal p-wave velocity model, best resolved for the top 20 km. Ray tracing of deeper reflections shows considerable differences between the Qaidam Basin and the SG, in agreement with previous studies of those areas. The Moho ranges from about 52 km beneath the Qaidam Basin to 63 km with a slight northward dip beneath the SG. The 11-km change must occur between the SKF and the southern edge of the Qaidam Basin, just north of the NKT, allowing the possibility of a Moho step across the NKT. The Qaidam Basin velocity-versus-depth profile is more similar to the global average than the SG profile, which bears resemblance to previously determined “Tibet-type” velocity profiles with mid to lower crustal velocities of 6.5 to 7.0 km/s appearing at greater depths. The highest resolution portion of the profile (100-m instrument spacing) features two distinct, apparently south-dipping low-velocity zones reaching about 2-3 km depth that we infer to be the locations of the NKF and SKF. A strong reflector at 35 km, located entirely south of the SKF and truncated just south of it, may be cut by a steeply south-dipping SKF. Elevated velocities at depth beneath the surface location of the NKF may indicate the south-dipping NKF meets the SKF between depths of 5 and 10 km. Undulating regions of high and low velocity extending about 1-2 km in depth near the southern border of the Qaidam Basin likely represent north-verging thrust sheets of the NKT.

  14. Two velocity difference model for a car following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H. X.; Cheng, R. J.; Li, Z. P.

    2008-09-01

    In the light of the optimal velocity model, a two velocity difference model for a car-following theory is put forward considering navigation in modern traffic. To our knowledge, the model is an improvement over the previous ones theoretically, because it considers more aspects in the car-following process than others. Then we investigate the property of the model using linear and nonlinear analyses. The Korteweg-de Vries equation (for short, the KdV equation) near the neutral stability line and the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (for short, the mKdV equation) around the critical point are derived by applying the reductive perturbation method. The traffic jam could be thus described by the KdV soliton and the kink-anti-kink soliton for the KdV equation and mKdV equation, respectively. Numerical simulations are made to verify the model, and good results are obtained with the new model.

  15. A nonlinear inversion for the velocity background and perturbation models

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2015-08-19

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the single scattered wavefield obtained using an image. However, current RWI methods usually neglect diving waves, which is an important source of information for extracting the long wavelength components of the velocity model. Thus, we propose a new optimization problem through breaking the velocity model into the background and the perturbation in the wave equation directly. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer the single scattering model, but includes all scattering. We optimize both components simultaneously, and thus, the objective function is nonlinear with respect to both the background and perturbation. The new introduced w can absorb the non-smooth update of background naturally. Application to the Marmousi model with frequencies that start at 5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Application to the SEG2014 demonstrates the versatility of the approach.

  16. Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The Swarm satellites, with primary mission to measure Earth's Magnetic Field, continue to provide high-quality hl-SST data. We use these data to derive the time-varying gravity field of the Earth up to Spherical Harmonic degree and order 12, on a monthly basis since December 2013. We combine the gravity field solutions computed with the data of all three satellites, as provided by a number of institutes, namely at the Astronomical Institute (ASU) of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Bezděk et al., 2016), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Jäggi et al., 2016) and the Institute of Geodesy (IfG) of the Graz University of Technology (Zehentner et al., 2015) and demonstrate that this uninterrupted time series of gravity field models are in good agreement with the temporal variations observed by the GRACE satellites. Therefore, these data can be used to study large-scale mass changes globally, e.g. i) in the context of low-latency applications, such as the European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management project (http://egsiem.eu), ii) in those months where GRACE solutions are not available, and iii) as an important source of independent information for mitigating the GRACE/GRACE Follow-On gap.

  17. Evaluation of different approaches to modeling the second-order ionospheric delay on GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Desai, S. D.; Butala, M. D.; Komjathy, A.

    2013-12-01

    This work evaluates various approaches to compute the second order ionospheric correction (SOIC) to Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. When estimating the reference frame using GPS, applying this correction is known to primarily affect the realization of the origin of the Earth's reference frame along the spin axis (Z coordinate). Therefore, the Z translation relative to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 is used as the metric to evaluate various published approaches to determining the slant total electron content (TEC) for the SOIC: getting the slant TEC from GPS measurements, and using the vertical total electron content (TEC) given by a Global Ionospheric Model (GIM) to transform it to slant TEC via a mapping function. All of these approaches agree to 1 mm if the ionospheric shell height needed in GIM-based approaches is set to 600 km. The commonly used shell height of 450 km introduces an offset of 1 to 2 mm. When the SOIC is not applied, the Z axis translation can be reasonably modeled with a ratio of +0.23 mm/TEC units of the daily median GIM vertical TEC. Also, precise point positioning (PPP) solutions (positions and clocks) determined with and without SOIC differ by less than 1 mm only if they are based upon GPS orbit and clock solutions that have consistently applied or not applied the correction, respectively. Otherwise, deviations of few millimeters in the north component of the PPP solutions can arise due to inconsistencies with the satellite orbit and clock products, and those deviations exhibit a dependency on solar cycle conditions.

  18. Model identification for hindered-compression settling velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Pérez, Borja; Climent, Javier; Griffith, Christopher

    process models?” This international research effort aimed to address these questions by carrying out a comprehensive practical identifiability assessment of constitutive functions for hindered and compression settling velocity using laboratory-scale measurements and one-dimensional (1-D) simulation models......Two of the key questions regarding secondary settling are (a) Does a process model exist for which all hindered and compression settling velocity parameters can be estimated using experimental data?; (b) What is the minimum data that need be inferred, from a settling sensor setup to identify....... For model validation, the triangulation technique was used, including independent laboratory- and full-scale measurements as well as 1-D and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation models....

  19. Ionospheric Modelling using GPS to Calibrate the MWA. II: Regional Ionospheric Modelling using GPS and GLONASS to Estimate Ionospheric Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B. S.; Morgan, J.; Ord, S. M.; Tingay, S. J.; Bell, M.; Callingham, J. R.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Hancock, P.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wayth, R. B.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.

    2016-07-01

    We estimate spatial gradients in the ionosphere using the Global Positioning System and GLONASS (Russian global navigation system) observations, utilising data from multiple Global Positioning System stations in the vicinity of Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory. In previous work, the ionosphere was characterised using a single-station to model the ionosphere as a single layer of fixed height and this was compared with ionospheric data derived from radio astronomy observations obtained from the Murchison Widefield Array. Having made improvements to our data quality (via cycle slip detection and repair) and incorporating data from the GLONASS system, we now present a multi-station approach. These two developments significantly improve our modelling of the ionosphere. We also explore the effects of a variable-height model. We conclude that modelling the small-scale features in the ionosphere that have been observed with the MWA will require a much denser network of Global Navigation Satellite System stations than is currently available at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory.

  20. Horizontal and vertical velocities derived from the IDS contribution to ITRF2014, and comparisons with geophysical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Argus, D. F.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.; Ferrage, P.

    2016-10-01

    In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the International DORIS (Doppler Orbitography Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) Service (IDS) has delivered to the IERS a set of 1140 weekly SINEX files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. From this set of weekly SINEX files, the IDS combination centre estimated a cumulative DORIS position and velocity solution to obtain mean horizontal and vertical motion of 160 stations at 71 DORIS sites. The main objective of this study is to validate the velocities of the DORIS sites by comparison with external models or time-series. Horizontal velocities are compared with two recent global plate models (GEODVEL 2010 and NNR-MORVEL56). Prior to the comparisons, DORIS horizontal velocities were corrected for Global Isostatic Adjustment from the ICE-6G (VM5a) model. For more than half of the sites, the DORIS horizontal velocities differ from the global plate models by less than 2-3 mm yr-1. For five of the sites (Arequipa, Dionysos/Gavdos, Manila and Santiago) with horizontal velocity differences with respect to these models larger than 10 mm yr-1, comparisons with GNSS estimates show the veracity of the DORIS motions. Vertical motions from the DORIS cumulative solution are compared with the vertical velocities derived from the latest GPS cumulative solution over the time span 1995.0-2014.0 from the University of La Rochelle solution at 31 co-located DORIS-GPS sites. These two sets of vertical velocities show a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Vertical differences are larger than 2 mm yr-1 at 23 percent of the sites. At Thule, the disagreement is explained by fine-tuned DORIS discontinuities in line with the mass variations of outlet glaciers. Furthermore, the time evolution of the vertical time-series from the DORIS station in Thule show similar trends to the GRACE equivalent water height.

  1. Local climatological modeling of ionospheric irregularities detected by GPS in the mid-latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautelet, G.; Warnant, R.

    2012-11-01

    Global Positioning System, or GPS, plays an important role in everyday life. More particularly, precise positioning applications constitute a continuously growing sector whose surveyors, civil engineers and more recently farmers represent the principal users. Ionospheric irregularities are considered as the main threat for those applications as their occurrence and their effects on positioning are generally unknown or unmodeled. This paper aims at setting up a local climatological model of such irregularities which can be used as a forecasting tool. The model is based upon a time series of GPS-derived ionospheric irregularities in Belgium covering 10 years of data (period 2002-2011). Our climatological model is twofold: its first component describes the daily variability and is derived from a principal component analysis (PCA) which allows us to retrieve the main patterns of the time series. With the use of low order polynomial and harmonic functions, the second component describes the influence of solar cycle and seasons on irregularity occurrence. Moreover, a statistical autoregressive formulation adapts the model to current conditions. Model validation covers both low and active solar activity periods (years 2008 and 2011) and shows that model accuracy varies with solar conditions and season: values are lower during winter and active solar activity periods, where modeling error can reach up to 60% of the observed value. During summer, model performance is clearly improved, with relative errors generally smaller than 20% for periods of low but also active solar activity.

  2. RadVel: General toolkit for modeling Radial Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Petigura, Erik A.; Blunt, Sarah; Sinukoff, Evan

    2018-01-01

    RadVel models Keplerian orbits in radial velocity (RV) time series. The code is written in Python with a fast Kepler's equation solver written in C. It provides a framework for fitting RVs using maximum a posteriori optimization and computing robust confidence intervals by sampling the posterior probability density via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). RadVel can perform Bayesian model comparison and produces publication quality plots and LaTeX tables.

  3. Modelling the main ionospheric trough using the Electron Density Assimilative Model (EDAM) with assimilated GPS TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, James A. D.; Eleri Pryse, S.; Jackson-Booth, Natasha; Buckland, Rachel A.

    2018-01-01

    The main ionospheric trough is a large-scale spatial depletion in the electron density distribution at the interface between the high- and mid-latitude ionosphere. In western Europe it appears in early evening, progresses equatorward during the night, and retreats rapidly poleward at dawn. It exhibits substantial day-to-day variability and under conditions of increased geomagnetic activity it moves progressively to lower latitudes. Steep gradients on the trough-walls on either side of the trough minimum, and their variability, can cause problems for radio applications. Numerous studies have sought to characterize and quantify the trough behaviour. The Electron Density Assimilative Model (EDAM) models the ionosphere on a global scale. It assimilates observations into a background ionosphere, the International Reference Ionosphere 2007 (IRI2007), to provide a full 3-D representation of the ionospheric plasma distribution at specified times and days. This current investigation studied the capability of EDAM to model the ionosphere in the region of the main trough. Total electron content (TEC) measurements from 46 GPS stations in western Europe from September to December 2002 were assimilated into EDAM to provide a model of the ionosphere in the trough region. Vertical electron content profiles through the model revealed the trough and the detail of its structure. Statistical results are presented of the latitude of the trough minimum, TEC at the minimum and of other defined parameters that characterize the trough structure. The results are compared with previous observations made with the Navy Ionospheric Monitoring System (NIMS), and reveal the potential of EDAM to model the large-scale structure of the ionosphere.

  4. Toward a realistic deformation model of the 2008 magmatic intrusion at Etna from combined DInSAR and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Del Negro, Ciro

    2011-12-01

    The combination of (i) DInSAR data, capable of observing deformation pattern at a spatial resolution unachievable with other sparse geodetic measurements, (ii) continuous GPS data, able to provide temporal constraints on source evolution, and (iii) numerical modeling procedures, appropriate to consider a non-uniform opening distribution of a source embedded in a 3D heterogeneous medium, allowed us to infer a complex and realistic deformation model of the magmatic intrusion that occurred in the northern flank of Etna on 13 May 2008. Numerical modeling of ground deformation data defines a near-vertical dyke intruded for 2.5 km starting from a depth of 1400 m asl right below the summit craters and reaching shallow crust level in the northern flank. From the estimated opening distribution of the propagating magma-filled crack, which reached a maximum value of about 2 m, a volumetric expansion of crustal rocks of about 5.3 × 10 6 m 3 was obtained. Also, we clarified the temporal evolution of the northward magmatic intrusion, which lasted just over 5 h with an initial magma propagation velocity of about 1.2 km/h, and decreased to about 0.24 km/h as the driving pressure lowered due to the effusive activity started at southern vents.

  5. A new approach for modeling dry deposition velocity of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.

    2018-05-01

    The dry deposition process is recognized as an important pathway among the various removal processes of pollutants in the atmosphere. In this field, there are several models reported in the literature useful to predict the dry deposition velocity of particles of different diameters but many of them are not capable of representing dry deposition phenomena for several categories of pollutants and deposition surfaces. Moreover, their applications is valid for specific conditions and if the data in that application meet all of the assumptions required of the data used to define the model. In this paper a new dry deposition velocity model based on an electrical analogy schema is proposed to overcome the above issues. The dry deposition velocity is evaluated by assuming that the resistances that affect the particle flux in the Quasi-Laminar Sub-layers can be combined to take into account local features of the mutual influence of inertial impact processes and the turbulent one. Comparisons with the experimental data from literature indicate that the proposed model allows to capture with good agreement the main dry deposition phenomena for the examined environmental conditions and deposition surfaces to be determined. The proposed approach could be easily implemented within atmospheric dispersion modeling codes and efficiently addressing different deposition surfaces for several particle pollution.

  6. Modeling delamination of FRP laminates under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Wen, H. M.; Ren, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic laminates (FRP) have been increasingly used in various engineering such as aeronautics, astronautics, transportation, naval architecture and their impact response and failure are a major concern in academic community. A new numerical model is suggested for fiber reinforced plastic composites. The model considers that FRP laminates has been constituted by unidirectional laminated plates with adhesive layers. A modified adhesive layer damage model that considering strain rate effects is incorporated into the ABAQUS / EXPLICIT finite element program by the user-defined material subroutine VUMAT. It transpires that the present model predicted delamination is in good agreement with the experimental results for low velocity impact.

  7. A comparison between different error modeling of MEMS applied to GPS/INS integrated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, Alex G; Falco, Gianluca; Falletti, Emanuela; Dovis, Fabio; Ferrer, Carles

    2013-07-24

    Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS) and the inertial navigation system (INS) integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects, terrestrial and pedestrian navigation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), stabilization of many platforms, etc. Although these MEMS sensors are low-cost, they present different errors, which degrade the accuracy of the navigation systems in a short period of time. Therefore, a suitable modeling of these errors is necessary in order to minimize them and, consequently, improve the system performance. In this work, the most used techniques currently to analyze the stochastic errors that affect these sensors are shown and compared: we examine in detail the autocorrelation, the Allan variance (AV) and the power spectral density (PSD) techniques. Subsequently, an analysis and modeling of the inertial sensors, which combines autoregressive (AR) filters and wavelet de-noising, is also achieved. Since a low-cost INS (MEMS grade) presents error sources with short-term (high-frequency) and long-term (low-frequency) components, we introduce a method that compensates for these error terms by doing a complete analysis of Allan variance, wavelet de-nosing and the selection of the level of decomposition for a suitable combination between these techniques. Eventually, in order to assess the stochastic models obtained with these techniques, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) of a loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration strategy is augmented with different states. Results show a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional sensor error models under GPS signal blockages using real data collected in urban roadways.

  8. A Comparison between Different Error Modeling of MEMS Applied to GPS/INS Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dovis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS and the inertial navigation system (INS integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects, terrestrial and pedestrian navigation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, stabilization of many platforms, etc. Although these MEMS sensors are low-cost, they present different errors, which degrade the accuracy of the navigation systems in a short period of time. Therefore, a suitable modeling of these errors is necessary in order to minimize them and, consequently, improve the system performance. In this work, the most used techniques currently to analyze the stochastic errors that affect these sensors are shown and compared: we examine in detail the autocorrelation, the Allan variance (AV and the power spectral density (PSD techniques. Subsequently, an analysis and modeling of the inertial sensors, which combines autoregressive (AR filters and wavelet de-noising, is also achieved. Since a low-cost INS (MEMS grade presents error sources with short-term (high-frequency and long-term (low-frequency components, we introduce a method that compensates for these error terms by doing a complete analysis of Allan variance, wavelet de-nosing and the selection of the level of decomposition for a suitable combination between these techniques. Eventually, in order to assess the stochastic models obtained with these techniques, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF of a loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration strategy is augmented with different states. Results show a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional sensor error models under GPS signal blockages using real data collected in urban roadways.

  9. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  10. Impact of different troposphere modelling methods on ZTD time series: case study of mountainous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Katarzyna; Klos, Anna; Bock, Olivier; Bogusz, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    GNSS Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) data is useful for numerical weather forecasting and climate analysis. Considering the fact that tropospheric delays over the mountainous areas are the most difficult to be modelled, we explored the influence of different troposphere models in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) mode. We used GPS data from 2008 to 2014 at 28 permanent EUPOS (European Position Determination System) stations, including 9 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) ones, located in the Sudeten and Carpathians. The GPS data was processed in PPP mode using Bernese 5.2 GNSS software with the final IGS (International GNSS Service) orbits and clocks. Different processing variants were tested implying the newest mapping functions (Global Mapping Function - GMF, and Vienna Mapping Function - VMF1) as well as different time resolutions and constraints on estimated parameters (ZTD and gradients). Median trends and amplitudes of annual/semi-annual oscillations for ZTD series were determined with Weighted Least Squares Estimation (WLSE) obtaining 0.1±0.5 mm/year and 44.7 / 7.2 ± 5 mm, respectively. Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) were estimated using Lomb-Scargle method for each of individual variants. PSDs showed, except oscillations of year and half a year, many other significant peaks in ZTD time series at higher frequencies, about 60, 30, 24, 20, 15, 12, 10, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3 cpy. The proper subtraction of the periodicities is crucial, because they will make stochastic part appear to be artificially autocorrelated. In order to recognized the periodicities in the ZTD signal, we analyzed the ZTD differences between GPS-derived delays and ERA-Interim reanalysis. The results of analysis showed the significant change from station to station and between variants. According to these results the authors will indicate an optimal processing strategy concerning troposphere modelling.

  11. Evaluating GPS Station Trajectory Models for Postseismic Transient Deformation: Logarithmic Versus Exponential Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, F. S.; Bevis, M. G.; Bedford, J. R.; Gomez, D.; Brown, A.; Wang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Simple or multiple timescale transient models for postseismic transient displacements can be formulated using logarithmic and exponential decay formulas. The logarithmic form is associated with rate and state friction theory and afterslip, while the exponential form is associated with bulk viscoelastic relaxation of coseismic stresses. Many theorists have suggested that afterslip will be the dominant driver of postseismic displacement transients in the months and perhaps even years following an earthquake, but viscoelastic relaxation will eventually dominate. It is now quite widely understood that one can model GPS time series manifesting postseismic transient displacements almost equally well using trajectory models constructed using logarithmic or exponential transients. This is consistent with the consensus established by the late 1970's that it is difficult to use geodetic observations to distinguish between deep aseismic afterslip and more diffuse viscoelastic relaxation as the primary mechanism of postseismic deformation. We assess the relative explanatory value of both logarithmic and exponential forms by focusing on GPS time series measured with better than typical signal-to-noise ratios. We find that the logarithmic transient typically provides slightly better fits than exponential transients, when both models are given equal degrees of freedom. We will also discuss the relative utility of the hybrid transient formulas in which the logarithmic component is assigned shorter decay time scale parameters than the exponential component.

  12. Assimilative Modeling of Ionospheric Disturbances with FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and Ground-Based GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Pi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The four-dimensional Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM is applied to a study of ionospheric disturbances. The investigation is focused on disturbance features, particularly in the altitude and latitude dimensions, at low latitudes during a geomagnetic storm on 7 August 2006, under solar minimum conditions. The modeling of storm-time ionospheric state (electron density is conducted by assimilating an unprecedented volume of line-of-sight TEC data collected by the Global Positioning System (GPS occultation receivers on board six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites and geodetic-quality GPS receivers at two hundred globally-distributed ground tracking stations.With a band-limited Kalman filter technique to update the ionospheric state, the assimilative modeling reveals a pronounced enhancement in the equatorial anomaly in the East Asia sector during dusk and evening hours. The disturbance characteristics, obtained by comparing with the quiet conditions prior to the storm also modeled in this study through data assimilation, include lifted F layer and reduced electron density in the equatorial region, enhanced density at the magnetically conjugate anomaly latitudes, and tilted feature of density increase towards higher altitudes at lower latitudes. The characteristics are attributed to the enhanced plasma fountain effect driven by an enhanced eastward zonal electric field. These results enable us to distinguish the storm-time electric field perturbations clearly from other sources during the storm. The possible origins of electric field perturbations are also discussed, including penetration of the magnetospheric electric field and wind dynamo disturbances.

  13. A fault‐based model for crustal deformation in the western United States based on a combined inversion of GPS and geologic inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2017-01-01

    We develop a crustal deformation model to determine fault‐slip rates for the western United States (WUS) using the Zeng and Shen (2014) method that is based on a combined inversion of Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities and geological slip‐rate constraints. The model consists of six blocks with boundaries aligned along major faults in California and the Cascadia subduction zone, which are represented as buried dislocations in the Earth. Faults distributed within blocks have their geometrical structure and locking depths specified by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, version 3 (UCERF3) and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Map Project model. Faults slip beneath a predefined locking depth, except for a few segments where shallow creep is allowed. The slip rates are estimated using a least‐squares inversion. The model resolution analysis shows that the resulting model is influenced heavily by geologic input, which fits the UCERF3 geologic bounds on California B faults and ±one‐half of the geologic slip rates for most other WUS faults. The modeled slip rates for the WUS faults are consistent with the observed GPS velocity field. Our fit to these velocities is measured in terms of a normalized chi‐square, which is 6.5. This updated model fits the data better than most other geodetic‐based inversion models. Major discrepancies between well‐resolved GPS inversion rates and geologic‐consensus rates occur along some of the northern California A faults, the Mojave to San Bernardino segments of the San Andreas fault, the western Garlock fault, the southern segment of the Wasatch fault, and other faults. Off‐fault strain‐rate distributions are consistent with regional tectonics, with a total off‐fault moment rate of 7.2×1018">7.2×1018 and 8.5×1018  N·m/year">8.5×1018  N⋅m/year for California and the WUS outside California, respectively.

  14. Hacking GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley-Hughes, Kathie

    2005-01-01

    * This is the "user manual" that didn't come with any of the 30 million GPS receivers currently in use, showing readers how to modify, tweak, and hack their GPS to take it to new levels!* Crazy-cool modifications include exploiting secret keycodes, revealing hidden features, building power cords and cables, hacking the battery and antenna, protecting a GPS from impact and falls, making a screen protector, and solar-powering a GPS* Potential power users will take the function and performance of their GPS to a whole new level by hacking into the firmware and hacking into a PC connection with a GPS* Fear not! Any potentially dangerous mod (to the device) is clearly labeled, with precautions listed that should be taken* Game time! Readers can check out GPS games, check into hacking geocaching, and even use a GPS as a metal detector

  15. The Effect of Improved Sub-Daily Earth Rotation Models on Global GPS Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Choi, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the various International GNSS Service (IGS) products, strong periodic signals have been observed around the 14 day period. This signal is clearly visible in all IGS time-series such as those related to orbit ephemerides, Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and ground station coordinates. Recent studies show that errors in the sub-daily Earth rotation models are the main factors that induce such noise. Current IGS orbit processing standards adopted the IERS 2010 convention and its sub-daily Earth rotation model. Since the IERS convention had published, recent advances in the VLBI analysis have made contributions to update the sub-daily Earth rotation models. We have compared several proposed sub-daily Earth rotation models and show the effect of using those models on orbit ephemeris, Earth rotation parameters and ground station coordinates generated by the NGS global GPS data processing strategy.

  16. Evaluation of regional ionospheric grid model over China from dense GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current global or regional ionospheric models have been established for monitoring the ionospheric variations. However, the spatial and temporal resolutions are not enough to describe total electron content (TEC variations in small scales for China. In this paper, a regional ionospheric grid model (RIGM with high spatial-temporal resolution (0.5° × 0.5° and 10-min interval in China and surrounding areas is established based on spherical harmonics expansion from dense GPS measurements provided by Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and the International GNSS Service (IGS. The correlation coefficient between the estimated TEC from GPS and the ionosonde measurements is 0.97, and the root mean square (RMS with respect to Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE Global Ionosphere Maps (GIMs is 4.87 TECU. In addition, the impact of different spherical harmonics orders and degrees on TEC estimations are evaluated and the degree/order 6 is better. Moreover, effective ionospheric shell heights from 300 km to 700 km are further assessed and the result indicates that 550 km is the most suitable for regional ionospheric modeling in China at solar maximum.

  17. Small velocity and finite temperature variations in kinetic relaxation models

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A small Knuden number analysis of a kinetic equation in the diffusive scaling is performed. The collision kernel is of BGK type with a general local Gibbs state. Assuming that the flow velocity is of the order of the Knudsen number, a Hilbert expansion yields a macroscopic model with finite temperature variations, whose complexity lies in between the hydrodynamic and the energy-transport equations. Its mathematical structure is explored and macroscopic models for specific examples of the global Gibbs state are presented. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  18. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  19. Predicted and measured velocity distribution in a model heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.B.; Carlucci, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between numerical predictions, using the porous media concept, and measurements of the two-dimensional isothermal shell-side velocity distributions in a model heat exchanger. Computations and measurements were done with and without tubes present in the model. The effect of tube-to-baffle leakage was also investigated. The comparison was made to validate certain porous media concepts used in a computer code being developed to predict the detailed shell-side flow in a wide range of shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometries

  20. Earth's gravity field modelling based on satellite accelerations derived from onboard GPS phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Ditmar, P.; Zhao, Q.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.

    2017-09-01

    GPS data collected by satellite gravity missions can be used for extracting the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. We propose a new data processing method which makes use of the `average acceleration' approach to gravity field modelling. In this method, satellite accelerations are directly derived from GPS carrier phase measurements with an epoch-differenced scheme. As a result, no ambiguity solutions are needed and the systematic errors that do not change much from epoch to epoch are largely eliminated. The GPS data collected by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission are used to demonstrate the added value of the proposed method. An analysis of the residual accelerations shows that accelerations derived in this way are more precise, with noise being reduced by about 20 and 5% at the cross-track component and the other two components, respectively, as compared to those based on kinematic orbits. The accelerations obtained in this way allow the recovery of the gravity field to a slightly higher maximum degree compared to the solution based on kinematic orbits. Furthermore, the gravity field solution has an overall better performance. Errors in spherical harmonic coefficients are smaller, especially at low degrees. The cumulative geoid height error is reduced by about 15 and 5% up to degree 50 and 150, respectively. An analysis in the spatial domain shows that large errors along the geomagnetic equator, which are caused by a high electron density coupled with large short-term variations, are substantially reduced. Finally, the new method allows for a better observation of mass transport signals. In particular, sufficiently realistic signatures of regional mass anomalies in North America and south-west Africa are obtained.

  1. Advanced Corrections for InSAR Using GPS and Numerical Weather Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, F.; Foster, J. H.; Amelung, F.; Varugu, B. K.; Businger, S.; Cherubini, T.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from an investigation into the application of numerical weather models for generating tropospheric correction fields for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). We apply the technique to data acquired from a UAVSAR campaign as well as from the CosmoSkyMed satellites. The complex spatial and temporal changes in the atmospheric propagation delay of the radar signal remain the single biggest factor limiting InSAR's potential for hazard monitoring and mitigation. A new generation of InSAR systems is being built and launched, and optimizing the science and hazard applications of these systems requires advanced methodologies to mitigate tropospheric noise. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to generate a 900 m spatial resolution atmospheric models covering the Big Island of Hawaii and an even higher, 300 m resolution grid over the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. By comparing a range of approaches, from the simplest, using reanalyses based on typically available meteorological observations, through to the "kitchen-sink" approach of assimilating all relevant data sets into our custom analyses, we examine the impact of the additional data sets on the atmospheric models and their effectiveness in correcting InSAR data. We focus particularly on the assimilation of information from the more than 60 GPS sites in the island. We ingest zenith tropospheric delay estimates from these sites directly into the WRF analyses, and also perform double-difference tomography using the phase residuals from the GPS processing to robustly incorporate heterogeneous information from the GPS data into the atmospheric models. We assess our performance through comparisons of our atmospheric models with external observations not ingested into the model, and through the effectiveness of the derived phase screens in reducing InSAR variance. Comparison of the InSAR data, our atmospheric analyses, and assessments of the active local and mesoscale

  2. Model basin, measurement of particle velocities in wave crests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-15

    A model set-up, which makes it possible to measure water particle velocities in wave crests, has been developed and tested. The technique includes a tri-axial ultrasonic current probe mounted on a movable frame which is moved vertically by a hydraulic piston thus following the oscillating water surface. Recording is hereby done at a constant depth beneath the water surface and the velocity profiles are found by interpolation/extrapolation between the recordings taken in different levels at a given time during the wave time series. The set-up has been successfully used for measurements indeep-water regular and irregular seastates. Detailed analysis and comparison with various theoretical descriptions of wave kinematics has been performed. Furthermore, the set-up has been used for measurements in freak waves reproduced at a limited waterdepth. The analysis and comparisons with theoretical predictions have shed new light on the freak wave phenomenon. Some disturbance into the area of measurements is introduced by the ultrasonic proble. For the maximum values of particle velocities (under a crest or a trough), this disturbance is minimal as the particles move in practically horizontal directons. (BN).

  3. Hydrodynamic Equations for Flocking Models without Velocity Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruani, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    The spontaneous emergence of collective motion patterns is usually associated with the presence of a velocity alignment mechanism that mediates the interactions among the moving individuals. Despite of this widespread view, it has been shown recently that several flocking behaviors can emerge in the absence of velocity alignment and as a result of short-range, position-based, attractive forces that act inside a vision cone. Here, we derive the corresponding hydrodynamic equations of a microscopic position-based flocking model, reviewing and extending previous reported results. In particular, we show that three distinct macroscopic collective behaviors can be observed: i) the coarsening of aggregates with no orientational order, ii) the emergence of static, elongated nematic bands, and iii) the formation of moving, locally polar structures, which we call worms. The derived hydrodynamic equations indicate that active particles interacting via position-based interactions belong to a distinct class of active systems fundamentally different from other active systems, including velocity-alignment-based flocking systems.

  4. Pressure and velocity profiles in a static mechanical hemilarynx model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Fariborz; Scherer, Ronald C.

    2002-12-01

    This study examined pressure and velocity profiles in a hemilarynx mechanical model of phonation. The glottal section had parallel walls and was fabricated from hard plastic. Twelve pressure taps were created in the vocal fold surface and connected to a differential pressure transducer through a pressure switch. The glottal gap was measured with feeler gauges and the uniform glottal duct was verified by use of a laser system. Eight pressure transducers were placed in the flat wall opposite the vocal fold. Hot-wire anemometry was used to obtain velocity profiles upstream and downstream of the glottis. The results indicate that the pressure distribution on the vocal fold surface was consistent with pressure change along a parallel duct, whereas the pressures on the opposite flat wall typically were lower (by 8%-40% of the transglottal pressure just past mid-glottis). The upstream velocity profiles were symmetric regardless of the constriction shape and size. The jet flow downstream of the glottis was turbulent even for laminar upstream conditions. The front of the jet was consistently approximately 1.5 mm from the flat wall for glottal gaps of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mm. The turbulence intensity also remained approximately at the same location of about 4 mm from the flat wall for the two larger gaps.

  5. Development of an RTK-GPS positioning application with an improved position error model for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Suh, Yongcheol; Cho, Jeongho; Lee, Dongha

    2012-09-25

    This study developed a smartphone application that provides wireless communication, NRTIP client, and RTK processing features, and which can simplify the Network RTK-GPS system while reducing the required cost. A determination method for an error model in Network RTK measurements was proposed, considering both random and autocorrelation errors, to accurately calculate the coordinates measured by the application using state estimation filters. The performance evaluation of the developed application showed that it could perform high-precision real-time positioning, within several centimeters of error range at a frequency of 20 Hz. A Kalman Filter was applied to the coordinates measured from the application, to evaluate the appropriateness of the determination method for an error model, as proposed in this study. The results were more accurate, compared with those of the existing error model, which only considered the random error.

  6. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Yde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribut......Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids...... associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM......(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full...

  7. Model-assisted measurements of suspension-feeding flow velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, Kevin T; Jones, Ian T; Carrier, Tyler J; Brady, Damian C; Jumars, Peter A

    2017-06-01

    Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because, unlike indirect methods, direct methods are not affected by properties of the cleared particles. We present pumping rates for three species of suspension feeders, the clams Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis , measured using a direct method based on particle image velocimetry (PIV). Past uses of PIV in suspension-feeding studies have been limited by strong laser reflections that interfere with velocity measurements proximate to the siphon. We used a new approach based on fitting PIV-based velocity profile measurements to theoretical profiles from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which allowed us to calculate inhalant siphon Reynolds numbers ( Re ). We used these inhalant Re and measurements of siphon diameters to calculate exhalant Re , pumping rates, and mean inlet and outlet velocities. For the three species studied, inhalant Re ranged from 8 to 520, and exhalant Re ranged from 15 to 1073. Volumetric pumping rates ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 l h -1 for M . arenaria , 0.3 to 3.6 l h -1 for M . m ercenaria and 0.07 to 0.97 l h -1 for C . intestinalis We also used CFD models based on measured pumping rates to calculate capture regions, which reveal the spatial extent of pumped water. Combining PIV data with CFD models may be a valuable approach for future suspension-feeding studies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Forest operations planning by using RTK-GPS based digital elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Gülci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Having large proportion of forests in mountainous terrain in Turkey, the logging methods that not only minimize operational costs but also minimize environmental damages should be determined in forest operations planning. In a case where necessary logging equipment and machines are available, ground slope is the most important factor in determining the logging method. For this reason, accurate, up to date, and precise ground slope data is very crucial in the success of forest operations planning. In recent years, high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM can be generated for forested areas by using Real Time Kinematic (RTK GPS method and these DEMs can be used to develop precise slope maps. In this study, high-resolution DEM was developed by RTK-GPS method to generate precise slope map in a sample area. Then, the slope map was classified into slope classes specified by IUFRO in order to assist forest operations planning. According to the results, logging methods that are suitable for very steep and steep terrain conditions (i.e. skyline logging, cable pulling, and chute systems should be preferred in 48.1% of the study area. It was also found that logging methods that are suitable for terrain with medium slope (i.e. skidding and cable pulling and gentle slope (i.e. skidding and mobile winch should be preferred in 34.1% and 17.8% of the study area, respectively.

  9. Seismic velocity models for an internally asymmetric Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, S.; Kowalle, G.

    1994-01-01

    The well-known dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal structure between the northern lowlands and the southern uplands of Mars has been explained by both endogenic and exogenic processes. According to the used model this asymmetry might be a result of a certain mechanism of core formation influencing the following planetary evolution. Therefore it has been assumed that the present internal structure of Mars is characterized by different velocity-depth distributions of the mantle for the northern and southern hemisphere, respectively. For both regions significant differences in travel times of seismic waves were calculated. These results may be important for the future seismic exploration of Mars.

  10. Stabilization and Riesz basis property for an overhead crane model with feedback in velocity and rotating velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure K. Augustin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a variant of an overhead crane model's problem, with a control force in velocity and rotating velocity on the platform. We obtain under certain conditions the well-posedness and the strong stabilization of the closed-loop system. We then analyze the spectrum of the system. Using a method due to Shkalikov, we prove the existence of a sequence of generalized eigenvectors of the system, which forms a Riesz basis for the state energy Hilbert space.

  11. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  12. The Quasi-Biennial Vertical Oscillations at Global GPS Stations: Identification by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjin Pan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling nonlinear vertical components of a GPS time series is critical to separating sources contributing to mass displacements. Improved vertical precision in GPS positioning at stations for velocity fields is key to resolving the mechanism of certain geophysical phenomena. In this paper, we use ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD to analyze the daily GPS time series at 89 continuous GPS stations, spanning from 2002 to 2013. EEMD decomposes a GPS time series into different intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, which are used to identify different kinds of signals and secular terms. Our study suggests that the GPS records contain not only the well-known signals (such as semi-annual and annual signals but also the seldom-noted quasi-biennial oscillations (QBS. The quasi-biennial signals are explained by modeled loadings of atmosphere, non-tidal and hydrology that deform the surface around the GPS stations. In addition, the loadings derived from GRACE gravity changes are also consistent with the quasi-biennial deformations derived from the GPS observations. By removing the modeled components, the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS variation of the GPS time series is reduced by 7.1% to 42.3%, and especially, after removing the seasonal and QBO signals, the average improvement percentages for seasonal and QBO signals are 25.6% and 7.5%, respectively, suggesting that it is significant to consider the QBS signals in the GPS records to improve the observed vertical deformations.

  13. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  14. Improved vertical displacements induced by a refined thermal expansion model and its quantitative analysis in GPS height time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Ma, Yifang; Deng, Liansheng

    2018-04-01

    There are apparent seasonal variations in GPS height time series, and thermal expansion is considered to be one of the potential geophysical contributors. The displacements introduced by thermal expansion are usually derived without considering the annex height and underground part of the monument (e.g. located on roof or top of the buildings), which may bias the geophysical explanation of the seasonal oscillation. In this paper, the improved vertical displacements are derived by a refined thermal expansion model where the annex height and underground depth of the monument are taken into account, and then 560 IGS stations are adopted to validate the modeled thermal expansion (MTE) displacements. In order to evaluate the impact of thermal expansion on GPS heights, the MTE displacements of 80 IGS stations with less data discontinuities are selected to compare with their observed GPS vertical (OGV) displacements with the modeled surface loading (MSL) displacements removed in advance. Quantitative analysis results show the maximum annual and semiannual amplitudes of the MTE are 6.65 mm (NOVJ) and 0.51 mm (IISC), respectively, and the maximum peak-to-peak oscillation of the MTE displacements can be 19.4 mm. The average annual amplitude reductions are 0.75 mm and 1.05 mm respectively after removing the MTE and MSL displacements from the OGV, indicating the seasonal oscillation induced by thermal expansion is equivalent to >75% of the impact of surface loadings. However, there are rarely significant reductions for the semiannual amplitude. Given the result in this study that thermal expansion can explain 17.3% of the annual amplitude in GPS heights on average, it must be precisely modeled both in GPS precise data processing and GPS time series analysis, especially for those stations located in the middle and high latitudes with larger annual temperature oscillation, or stations with higher monument.

  15. Decadal GPS Time Series and Velocity Fields Spanning the North American Continent and Beyond: New Data Products, Cyberinfrastructure and Case Studies from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Other Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Szeliga, W. M.; Floyd, M.; Puskas, C. M.; King, R. W.; Boler, F. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility, operated by UNAVCO, provides a diverse suite of geodetic data, derived products and cyberinfrastructure services to support community Earth science research and education. GPS data and products including decadal station position time series and velocities are provided for 2000+ continuous GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other networks distributed throughout the high Arctic, North America, and Caribbean regions. The position time series contain a multitude of signals in addition to the secular motions, including coseismic and postseismic displacements, interseismic strain accumulation, and transient signals associated with hydrologic and other processes. We present our latest velocity field solutions, new time series offset estimate products, and new time series examples associated with various phenomena. Position time series, and the signals they contain, are inherently dependent upon analysis parameters such as network scaling and reference frame realization. The estimation of scale changes for example, a common practice, has large impacts on vertical motion estimates. GAGE/PBO velocities and time series are currently provided in IGS (IGb08) and North America (NAM08, IGb08 rotated to a fixed North America Plate) reference frames. We are reprocessing all data (1996 to present) as part of the transition from IGb08 to IGS14 that began in 2017. New NAM14 and IGS14 data products are discussed. GAGE/PBO GPS data products are currently generated using onsite computing clusters. As part of an NSF funded EarthCube Building Blocks project called "Deploying MultiFacility Cyberinfrastructure in Commercial and Private Cloud-based Systems (GeoSciCloud)", we are investigating performance, cost, and efficiency differences between local computing resources and cloud based resources. Test environments include a commercial cloud provider (Amazon/AWS), NSF cloud-like infrastructures within

  16. RadVel: The Radial Velocity Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Petigura, Erik A.; Blunt, Sarah; Sinukoff, Evan

    2018-04-01

    RadVel is an open-source Python package for modeling Keplerian orbits in radial velocity (RV) timeseries. RadVel provides a convenient framework to fit RVs using maximum a posteriori optimization and to compute robust confidence intervals by sampling the posterior probability density via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). RadVel allows users to float or fix parameters, impose priors, and perform Bayesian model comparison. We have implemented real-time MCMC convergence tests to ensure adequate sampling of the posterior. RadVel can output a number of publication-quality plots and tables. Users may interface with RadVel through a convenient command-line interface or directly from Python. The code is object-oriented and thus naturally extensible. We encourage contributions from the community. Documentation is available at http://radvel.readthedocs.io.

  17. Modelling low velocity impact induced damage in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents recent progress on modelling low velocity impact induced damage in fibre reinforced composite laminates. It is important to understand the mechanisms of barely visible impact damage (BVID) and how it affects structural performance. To reduce labour intensive testing, the development of finite element (FE) techniques for simulating impact damage becomes essential and recent effort by the composites research community is reviewed in this work. The FE predicted damage initiation and propagation can be validated by Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) that gives confidence to the developed numerical damage models. A reliable damage simulation can assist the design process to optimise laminate configurations, reduce weight and improve performance of components and structures used in aircraft construction.

  18. Dynamic Travel Time Prediction Models for Buses Using Only GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing real-time and accurate travel time information of transit vehicles can be very helpful as it assists passengers in planning their trips to minimize waiting times. The purpose of this research is to develop and compare dynamic travel time prediction models which can provide accurate prediction of bus travel time in order to give real-time information at a given downstream bus stop using only global positioning system (GPS data. Historical Average (HA, Kalman Filtering (KF and Artificial Neural Network (ANN models are considered and developed in this paper. A case has been studied by making use of the three models. Promising results are obtained from the case study, indicating that the models can be used to implement an Advanced Public Transport System. The implementation of this system could assist transit operators in improving the reliability of bus services, thus attracting more travelers to transit vehicles and helping relieve congestion. The performances of the three models were assessed and compared with each other under two criteria: overall prediction accuracy and robustness. It was shown that the ANN outperformed the other two models in both aspects. In conclusion, it is shown that bus travel time information can be reasonably provided using only arrival and departure time information at stops even in the absence of traffic-stream data.

  19. An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for Northern Europe from Love and Rayleigh group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    A model of upper-mantle S-wave velocity and transverse anisotropy beneath northwestern Europe is presented, based on regional surface wave observations. Group velocities for both Love and Rayleigh surface waves are measured on waveform data from international and regional data archives (including temporary deployments) and then inverted for group velocity maps, using a method accounting for Fresnel zone sensitivity. The group velocity variations are larger than in global reference maps, and we are able to resolve unprecedented details. We then apply a linear inversion scheme to invert for local 1-D shear wave velocity profiles which are consequently assembled to a 3-D model. By choosing conservative regularization parameters in the 2-D inversion, we ensure the smoothness of the group velocity maps and hence of the resulting 3-D shear wave speed model. To account for the different tectonic regimes in the study region and investigate the sensitivity of the 1-D inversions to inaccuracies in crustal parameters, we analyse inversions with different reference models of increasing complexity (pure 1-D, 3-D crust/1-D mantle and pure 3-D). We find that all inverted models are very consistent at depths below 70 km. At shallower depths, the constraints put by the reference models, primarily Moho depth which we do not invert for, remain the main cause for uncertainty in our inversion. The final 3-D model shows large variations in S-wave velocity of up to +/-12 per cent. We image an intriguing low-velocity anomaly in the depth range 70-150 km that extends from the Iceland plume beneath the North Atlantic and in a more than 400 km wide channel under Southern Scandinavia. Beneath Southern Norway, the negative perturbations are around 10 per cent with respect to ak135, and a shallowing of the anomaly is indicated which could be related to the sustained uplift of Southern Scandinavia in Neogene times. Furthermore, our upper-mantle model reveals good alignment to ancient plate

  20. The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhen-Kai Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS and the Global Positioning System (GPS is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC and tightly coupled (TC schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system.

  1. Entropy-Based Modeling of Velocity Lag in Sediment-Laden Open Channel Turbulent Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manotosh Kumbhakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, a wide variety of instruments with laser-based techniques have been developed that enable experimentally measuring particle velocity and fluid velocity separately in particle-laden flow. Experiments have revealed that stream-wise particle velocity is different from fluid velocity, and this velocity difference is commonly known as “velocity lag” in the literature. A number of experimental, as well as theoretical investigations have been carried out to formulate deterministic mathematical models of velocity lag, based on several turbulent features. However, a probabilistic study of velocity lag does not seem to have been reported, to the best of our knowledge. The present study therefore focuses on the modeling of velocity lag in open channel turbulent flow laden with sediment using the entropy theory along with a hypothesis on the cumulative distribution function. This function contains a parameter η, which is shown to be a function of specific gravity, particle diameter and shear velocity. The velocity lag model is tested using a wide range of twenty-two experimental runs collected from the literature and is also compared with other models of velocity lag. Then, an error analysis is performed to further evaluate the prediction accuracy of the proposed model, especially in comparison to other models. The model is also able to explain the physical characteristics of velocity lag caused by the interaction between the particles and the fluid.

  2. GPS system simulation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are presented: background; Global Positioning System (GPS) methodology overview; the graphical user interface (GUI); current models; application to space nuclear power/propulsion; and interfacing requirements. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  3. Modeling the effects of Multi-path propagation and scintillation on GPS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Wilson, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    GPS signals traveling through the earth's ionosphere are affected by charged particles that often disrupt the signal and the information it carries due to "scintillation", which resembles an extra noise source on the signal. These signals are also affected by weather changes, tropospheric scattering, and absorption from objects due to multi-path propagation of the signal. These obstacles cause distortion within information and fading of the signal, which ultimately results in phase locking errors and noise in messages. In this work, we attempted to replicate the distortion that occurs in GPS signals using a signal processing simulation model. We wanted to be able to create and identify scintillated signals so we could better understand the environment that caused it to become scintillated. Then, under controlled conditions, we simulated the receiver's ability to suppress scintillation in a signal. We developed a code in MATLAB that was programmed to: 1. Create a carrier wave and then plant noise (four different frequencies) on the carrier wave, 2. Compute a Fourier transform on the four different frequencies to find the frequency content of a signal, 3. Use a filter and apply it to the Fourier transform of the four frequencies and then compute a Signal-to-noise ratio to evaluate the power (in Decibels) of the filtered signal, and 4.Plot each of these components into graphs. To test the code's validity, we used user input and data from an AM transmitter. We determined that the amplitude modulated signal or AM signal would be the best type of signal to test the accuracy of the MATLAB code due to its simplicity. This code is basic to give students the ability to change and use it to determine the environment and effects of noise on different AM signals and their carrier waves. Overall, we were able to manipulate a scenario of a noisy signal and interpret its behavior and change due to its noisy components: amplitude, frequency, and phase shift.

  4. Parameterization of water vapor using high-resolution GPS data and empirical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S.; Jade, Sridevi; Shrungeshwara, T. S.

    2018-03-01

    The present work evaluates eleven existing empirical models to estimate Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) over a high-altitude (4500 m amsl), cold-desert environment. These models are tested extensively and used globally to estimate PWV for low altitude sites (below 1000 m amsl). The moist parameters used in the model are: water vapor scale height (Hc), dew point temperature (Td) and water vapor pressure (Es 0). These moist parameters are derived from surface air temperature and relative humidity measured at high temporal resolution from automated weather station. The performance of these models are examined statistically with observed high-resolution GPS (GPSPWV) data over the region (2005-2012). The correlation coefficient (R) between the observed GPSPWV and Model PWV is 0.98 at daily data and varies diurnally from 0.93 to 0.97. Parameterization of moisture parameters were studied in-depth (i.e., 2 h to monthly time scales) using GPSPWV , Td , and Es 0 . The slope of the linear relationships between GPSPWV and Td varies from 0.073°C-1 to 0.106°C-1 (R: 0.83 to 0.97) while GPSPWV and Es 0 varied from 1.688 to 2.209 (R: 0.95 to 0.99) at daily, monthly and diurnal time scales. In addition, the moist parameters for the cold desert, high-altitude environment are examined in-depth at various time scales during 2005-2012.

  5. 23 October 2011 (Mw=7.2) Van Earthquake (Turkey): Revised Coseismic and Postseismic Models from New GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, U.; Demir, D. O.; Cakir, Z.; Ergintav, S.; Cetin, S.; Ozdemir, A.; Reilinger, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The 23 October 2011, Mw=7.2 Van Earthquake occurred in eastern Turkey on a thrust fault trending NE-SW and dipping to the north. We use GPS time series from the survey and continuous stations to determine coseismic deformation and to identify spatial and temporal changes in the near and far field due to postseismic processes (2011-2017). The coseismic deformation in the near field is derived from GPS data collected at 25 cadastral GPS survey sites. The coseismic horizontal displacements reach nearly 50 cm close to the surface trace of the fault that ruptured at depth during the earthquake. The density and distribution of the GPS sites allow us to better constrain the extent of the coseismic rupture using elastic dislocations on triangular faults embedded in a homogeneous, elastic half space. Modeling studies suggest that the coseismic rupture stopped west of the Erçek Lake before veering to the north. Estimated seismic moment is in good agreement with the seismologically and geodetically estimated seismic moment, estimated from the finite-fault model. Our preferred coseismic model consists of a simple elliptical slip patch centered at around 8 km depth with a maximum slip of about 2.5 m, consistent with the previous estimates based on InSAR measurements. The postseismic deformation field is derived from far field continuous GPS observations (10.2011 - 11.2017) and near field GPS campaigns (10.2011 - 09.2015). The postseismic time-series are fit better with a logarithmic than an exponential function, suggesting that the postseismic deformation is due to afterslip. Then, we modified our published postseismic model, using the coseismic model and data sets, extended until the end of 2017. The results show that during 6 years following the earthquake, after slip of up to 65 cm occurred at relatively shallow ( 15 km. New interpretations of the shallow afterslip, also, adds further evidence that the surface break observed after the earthquake was caused by coseismic

  6. Inferring spatial memory and spatiotemporal scaling from GPS data: comparing red deer Cervus elaphus movements with simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautestad, Arild O; Loe, Leif E; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-05-01

    1. Increased inference regarding underlying behavioural mechanisms of animal movement can be achieved by comparing GPS data with statistical mechanical movement models such as random walk and Lévy walk with known underlying behaviour and statistical properties. 2. GPS data are typically collected with ≥ 1 h intervals not exactly tracking every mechanistic step along the movement path, so a statistical mechanical model approach rather than a mechanistic approach is appropriate. However, comparisons require a coherent framework involving both scaling and memory aspects of the underlying process. Thus, simulation models have recently been extended to include memory-guided returns to previously visited patches, that is, site fidelity. 3. We define four main classes of movement, differing in incorporation of memory and scaling (based on respective intervals of the statistical fractal dimension D and presence/absence of site fidelity). Using three statistical protocols to estimate D and site fidelity, we compare these main movement classes with patterns observed in GPS data from 52 females of red deer (Cervus elaphus). 4. The results show best compliance with a scale-free and memory-enhanced kind of space use; that is, a power law distribution of step lengths, a fractal distribution of the spatial scatter of fixes and site fidelity. 5. Our study thus demonstrates how inference regarding memory effects and a hierarchical pattern of space use can be derived from analysis of GPS data. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  7. Intraplate Strain and the Seismic Cycle: Inferences from 3D Finite-Element Spherical Viscoelastic Models and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Klein, E.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The postseismic deformations affecting the subducting and overiding plates over thousands of kilometers after the Sumatra, Tohoku and Maule megaearthquakes have been measured precisely by GPS positioning. The characteristics of the postseismic deformation are very similar for the three earthquakes. Modeling using 3D finite element methodsleads to the conclusion that only viscous relaxation in an asthenosphere a few hundred kilometers thick with a viscosity of some 3. 1018Pas, can explain the far-field GPS data. A low viscosity channel along thedeep part of the slab interface helps to explain uplift over the volcanic arc. Viscoelastic models of the seismic cycle based on the mechanical models compatible with the postseismic data predict a continuous transitionbetween postseismic extension andthe compensating interseismic compression. The transition between the two regimes occurs sooner in areas close to the trench. The predictions of the models are compared to GPS data in South-America before Maule earthquake. The GPS time-series are corrected for deformations induced by hydrological loading deduced from the GRACE mission.A slight but welldefined general compression of the South American plate is evidenced between20 and 40 degrees south.Postseismic extension several decades after Valdivia earthquake is also conspicuous south of 40° South.At shorter distances from the trench, the zone of strong compression rate isbroader thanpredicted by elastic back-slip models.Although Chile appears like an ideal place to study deformations through the seismic cycle, similar patterns seem to prevail in other areas affected by megaearthquakes: In Asia, the Northward motion of the 'Sunda block' with respect to South China, or the convergence ratebetween Amour and Okhotsk plates infered from GPS data collected before the megaearthquake, are, at least in part, due to interseismic elastic compression of the lithosphere.

  8. Using APEX to Model Anticipated Human Error: Analysis of a GPS Navigational Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSelst, Mark; Freed, Michael; Shefto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The interface development process can be dramatically improved by predicting design facilitated human error at an early stage in the design process. The approach we advocate is to SIMULATE the behavior of a human agent carrying out tasks with a well-specified user interface, ANALYZE the simulation for instances of human error, and then REFINE the interface or protocol to minimize predicted error. This approach, incorporated into the APEX modeling architecture, differs from past approaches to human simulation in Its emphasis on error rather than e.g. learning rate or speed of response. The APEX model consists of two major components: (1) a powerful action selection component capable of simulating behavior in complex, multiple-task environments; and (2) a resource architecture which constrains cognitive, perceptual, and motor capabilities to within empirically demonstrated limits. The model mimics human errors arising from interactions between limited human resources and elements of the computer interface whose design falls to anticipate those limits. We analyze the design of a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device used for radical and navigational decisions in small yacht recalls. The analysis demonstrates how human system modeling can be an effective design aid, helping to accelerate the process of refining a product (or procedure).

  9. Modelling nonstationary Doppler noise in exoplanetary radial velocity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a new class of analytic nonstationary noise models for exoplanetary Doppler data. The observable correlated noise is represented as a convolution of a parent activity process with a given memory function. The model honours the casuality principle, meaning that only past values of the activity may affect the observable value. This model does not approximate detailedly any real stellar activity phenomena, but it becomes mathematically simple, simultaneously satisfying the basic natural principles of physical sensibility and self-consistency.Additionally, we develop a new type of periodograms that can be used to detect periodic modulations in the Doppler noise characteristics, rather than in the observed radial velocity curve itself. We present first results of applying this technique to public Doppler time series available for a set of planet-hosting stars.This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 14-02-92615 KO_a), the UK Royal Society International Exchange grant IE140055, by the President of Russia grant for young scientists (No. MK-733.2014.2), by the programme of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences P21, and by the Saint Petersburg State University research grant 6.37.341.2015.

  10. Shear wave crustal velocity model of the Western Bohemian Massif from Love wave phase velocity dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2011), s. 81-104 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : love waves * phase velocity dispersion * frequency-time analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2011 www.springerlink.com/content/w3149233l60111t1/

  11. GPS & Roadpricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabic, Martina

    2005-01-01

    I denne artikel præsenteres analysemetoderne og resultaterne fra et eksamensprojekt omhandlende en analyse af GPS kvaliteten i forhold til roadpricing i København. Denne undersøgelse af GPS kvaliteten i forbindelse med roadpricing, er foretaget i tilknytning til det danske AKTA forsøg (www.......akta-kbh.dk), hvor GPS data er indsamlet for 500 biler over en 2-årig periode (2001-2003). Artiklen præsenterer således en analyse af GPS nøjagtigheden med henblik på at undersøge om kvalitet og pålidelighed er tilstrækkelig, til et GPS-baseret roadpricingssystem i København. Ved GPS-baseret roadpricing, udstyres...... med henblik på enhedsomkostningerne skulle være økonomisk realisable til brug i et så omfattende roadpricingssystem. Endvidere vanskeliggøres positionerings forholdene, idet bilen der ønskes positionsbestemt er i bevægelse. Når både satellitterne og GPS modtageren er i bevægelse, reduceres...

  12. Results of verification and investigation of wind velocity field forecast. Verification of wind velocity field forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Kayano, Mitsunaga; Kikuchi, Hideo; Abe, Takeo; Saga, Kyoji

    1995-01-01

    In Environmental Radioactivity Research Institute, the verification and investigation of the wind velocity field forecast model 'EXPRESS-1' have been carried out since 1991. In fiscal year 1994, as the general analysis, the validity of weather observation data, the local features of wind field, and the validity of the positions of monitoring stations were investigated. The EXPRESS which adopted 500 m mesh so far was improved to 250 m mesh, and the heightening of forecast accuracy was examined, and the comparison with another wind velocity field forecast model 'SPEEDI' was carried out. As the results, there are the places where the correlation with other points of measurement is high and low, and it was found that for the forecast of wind velocity field, by excluding the data of the points with low correlation or installing simplified observation stations to take their data in, the forecast accuracy is improved. The outline of the investigation, the general analysis of weather observation data and the improvements of wind velocity field forecast model and forecast accuracy are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  14. OPEN-SOURCE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEMs EVALUATION WITH GPS AND LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Khalid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010 are freely available Digital Elevation Model (DEM datasets for environmental modeling and studies. The quality of spatial resolution and vertical accuracy of the DEM data source has a great influence particularly on the accuracy specifically for inundation mapping. Most of the coastal inundation risk studies used the publicly available DEM to estimated the coastal inundation and associated damaged especially to human population based on the increment of sea level. In this study, the comparison between ground truth data from Global Positioning System (GPS observation and DEM is done to evaluate the accuracy of each DEM. The vertical accuracy of SRTM shows better result against ASTER and GMTED10 with an RMSE of 6.054 m. On top of the accuracy, the correlation of DEM is identified with the high determination of coefficient of 0.912 for SRTM. For coastal zone area, DEMs based on airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR dataset was used as ground truth data relating to terrain height. In this case, the LiDAR DEM is compared against the new SRTM DEM after applying the scale factor. From the findings, the accuracy of the new DEM model from SRTM can be improved by applying scale factor. The result clearly shows that the value of RMSE exhibit slightly different when it reached 0.503 m. Hence, this new model is the most suitable and meets the accuracy requirement for coastal inundation risk assessment using open source data. The suitability of these datasets for further analysis on coastal management studies is vital to assess the potentially vulnerable areas caused by coastal inundation.

  15. The Candy Wrapper Velocity Model for the Earth's Inner Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattesini, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent global expansion of seismic data motivated a number of seismological studies of the Earth's inner core that proposed the existence of increasingly complex structure and anisotropy. In the meantime, new hypotheses of dynamic mechanisms have been put forward to interpret seismological results. Here, the nature of hemispherical dichotomy and anisotropy is re-investigated by bridging the observations of PKP(bc-df) differential travel-times with the iron bcc/hcp elastic properties computed from first-principles methods.The Candy Wrapper velocity model introduced here accounts for a dynamic picture of the inner core (i.e., the eastward drift of material), where different iron crystal shapes can be stabilized at the two hemispheres. We show that seismological data are best explained by a rather complicated, mosaic-like, structure of the inner core, where well-separated patches of different iron crystals compose the anisotropic western hemispherical region, and a conglomerate of almost indistinguishable iron phases builds-up the weakly anisotropic eastern side.

  16. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyong; Wu, Suqin; Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Andong; Wang, Qianxin; Zhang, Kefei

    2017-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV). In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm) is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models - GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTmN - using different data sources in 2014 - the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  17. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV. In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP. The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models – GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTm_N – using different data sources in 2014 – the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  18. Rapid modeling of complex multi-fault ruptures with simplistic models from real-time GPS: Perspectives from the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B.; Melgar, D.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake is one of the most complex earthquakes in recent history, rupturing across at least 10 disparate faults with varying faulting styles, and exhibiting intricate surface deformation patterns. The complexity of this event has motivated the need for multidisciplinary geophysical studies to get at the underlying source physics to better inform earthquake hazards models in the future. However, events like Kaikoura beg the question of how well (or how poorly) such earthquakes can be modeled automatically in real-time and still satisfy the general public and emergency managers. To investigate this question, we perform a retrospective real-time GPS analysis of the Kaikoura earthquake with the G-FAST early warning module. We first perform simple point source models of the earthquake using peak ground displacement scaling and a coseismic offset based centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion. We predict ground motions based on these point sources as well as simple finite faults determined from source scaling studies, and validate against true recordings of peak ground acceleration and velocity. Secondly, we perform a slip inversion based upon the CMT fault orientations and forward model near-field tsunami maximum expected wave heights to compare against available tide gauge records. We find remarkably good agreement between recorded and predicted ground motions when using a simple fault plane, with the majority of disagreement in ground motions being attributable to local site effects, not earthquake source complexity. Similarly, the near-field tsunami maximum amplitude predictions match tide gauge records well. We conclude that even though our models for the Kaikoura earthquake are devoid of rich source complexities, the CMT driven finite fault is a good enough "average" source and provides useful constraints for rapid forecasting of ground motion and near-field tsunami amplitudes.

  19. An extended continuum model considering optimal velocity change with memory and numerical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingtao, Zhai; Hongxia, Ge; Rongjun, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an extended continuum model of traffic flow is proposed with the consideration of optimal velocity changes with memory. The new model's stability condition and KdV-Burgers equation considering the optimal velocities change with memory are deduced through linear stability theory and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the extended continuum model, which explores how optimal velocity changes with memory affected velocity, density and energy consumption. Numerical results show that when considering the effects of optimal velocity changes with memory, the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently. Both the memory step and sensitivity parameters of optimal velocity changes with memory will enhance the stability of traffic flow efficiently. Furthermore, numerical results demonstrates that the effect of optimal velocity changes with memory can avoid the disadvantage of historical information, which increases the stability of traffic flow on road, and so it improve the traffic flow stability and minimize cars' energy consumptions.

  20. Linear time series modeling of GPS-derived TEC observations over the Indo-Thailand region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj, Puram Sai; Kumar Dabbakuti, J. R. K.; Chowdhary, V. Rajesh; Tripathi, Nitin K.; Ratnam, D. Venkata

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a linear time series model to represent the climatology of the ionosphere and to investigate the characteristics of hourly averaged total electron content (TEC). The GPS-TEC observation data at the Bengaluru international global navigation satellite system (GNSS) service (IGS) station (geographic 13.02°N , 77.57°E ; geomagnetic latitude 4.4°N ) have been utilized for processing the TEC data during an extended period (2009-2016) in the 24{th} solar cycle. Solar flux F10.7p index, geomagnetic Ap index, and periodic oscillation factors have been considered to construct a linear TEC model. It is evident from the results that solar activity effect on TEC is high. It reaches the maximum value (˜ 40 TECU) during the high solar activity (HSA) year (2014) and minimum value (˜ 15 TECU) during the low solar activity (LSA) year (2009). The larger magnitudes of semiannual variations are observed during the HSA periods. The geomagnetic effect on TEC is relatively low, with the highest being ˜ 4 TECU (March 2015). The magnitude of periodic variations can be seen more significantly during HSA periods (2013-2015) and less during LSA periods (2009-2011). The correlation coefficient of 0.89 between the observations and model-based estimations has been found. The RMSE between the observed TEC and model TEC values is 4.0 TECU (linear model) and 4.21 TECU (IRI2016 Model). Further, the linear TEC model has been validated at different latitudes over the northern low-latitude region. The solar component (F10.7p index) value decreases with an increase in latitude. The magnitudes of the periodic component become less significant with the increase in latitude. The influence of geomagnetic component becomes less significant at Lucknow GNSS station (26.76°N, 80.88°E) when compared to other GNSS stations. The hourly averaged TEC values have been considered and ionospheric features are well recovered with linear TEC model.

  1. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  2. Investigation of the single layer model of GPS ionospheric data processing using IRI-90 and the attached diffusive equilibrium model of plasmaspheric electron density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bànyai

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The single layer model of GPS ionospheric data processing is compared with the International Reference Ionosphere í 1990 and the attached Diffusive Equilibrium model of Plasmasphere (IRI-90+DEP which proved to be a good supplement to GPS data processing. These models can be used to estimate the single layer height and to improve the mapping function in day-time. The code delays estimated from IRI-90+DEP models are compared with GPS measurements carried out by TurboRogue receiver. These models can be used to estimate the preliminary receiver biases especially in the case of cross-correlation tracking mode. The practical drawback of the IRI-90 model is the sharp discontinuity of the ion components during sunset and sunrise at an elevation of 1000 km, because it also causes a sharp discontinuity in the TEC values computed from the DEP model. The GPS data may be a good source to improve the topside region of the IRI model estimating smooth TEC transition before and after sunrise in the plasmasphere.

  3. Assessment of Gravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) geoid model using GPS levelling over Sabah and Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. H.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Pa'suya, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    The GOCE satellite mission has significantly contributed to various applications such as solid earth physics, oceanography and geodesy. Some substantial applications of geodesy are to improve the gravity field knowledge and the precise geoid modelling towards realising global height unification. This paper aims to evaluate GOCE geoid model based on the recent GOCE Global Geopotential Model (GGM), as well as EGM2008, using GPS levelling data over East Malaysia, i.e. Sabah and Sarawak. The satellite GGMs selected in this study are the GOCE GGM models which include GOCE04S, TIM_R5 and SPW_R4, and the EGM2008 model. To assess these models, the geoid heights from these GGMs are compared to the local geometric geoid height. The GGM geoid heights was derived using EGMLAB1 software and the geometric geoid height was computed by available GPS levelling information obtained from the Department Survey and Mapping Malaysia. Generally, the GOCE models performed better than EGM2008 over East Malaysia and the best fit GOCE model for this region is the TIM_R5 model. The TIM_R5 GOCE model demonstrated the lowest R.M.S. of ± 16.5 cm over Sarawak, comparatively. For further improvement, this model should be combined with the local gravity data for optimum geoid modelling over East Malaysia.

  4. RNAV (GPS) total system error models for use in wake encounter risk analysis of candidate CSPR pairs for inclusion in FAA Order 7110.308

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide recommended Total System Error (TSE) models for : aircraft using RNAV (GPS) guidance when analyzing the wake encounter risk of proposed simultaneous : dependent (paired) approaches, with 1.5 Nautical...

  5. RNAV (GPS) total system error models for use in wake encounter risk analysis of dependent paired approaches to closely-spaced parallel runways : Project memorandum - February 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide recommended Total System Error (TSE) models : for aircraft using RNAV (GPS) guidance when analyzing the wake encounter risk of proposed : simultaneous dependent (paired) approach operations to Closel...

  6. Statistical Modelling of Pre-Impact Velocities in Car Crashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Kager; I. Kryven; K.W. Myerscough (Keith); T. van Opstal; T. Rot; R. Planqué (Robert); S. Bhulai (Sandjai); J. Hulshof; W. Kager; T. Rot

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe law wants to determine if any party involved in a car crash is guilty. The Dutch court invokes the expertise of the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to answer this question. We discuss the present method of the NFI to determine probabilities on pre-impact car velocities, given

  7. Validation of Velocity the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal) velocity model using H/V technique

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, A; Borges, JF; Bezzeghoud, M; Caldeira, B

    2010-01-01

    Along his history the Lower Tagus Valley LTV area was shaken by several earthquakes. The largest reported had their origin in the southwestern part of Iberia. These earth- quakes were destructive, and some of them were produced in large ruptures of offshore structures located southwest of the Portu- guese coastline; other moderates earthqua- kes were produced by local sources such as the 1344, 1531 and the 1909 (Benavente). In the last years, due to 3D structural model improvement and develop...

  8. J2 : An evaluation of new estimates from GPS, GRACE, and load models compared to SLR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavallée, D.A.; Moore, P.; Clarke, P.J.; Petrie, E.J.; Van Dam, T.; King, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in J2, resulting from past and present changes in Earth's climate, are traditionally observed by Satellite Laser ranging (SLR). Assuming an elastic Earth, it is possible to infer changes in J2 from changes in Earth's shape observed by GPS. We compare estimates of non-secular J2 changes from

  9. Multijam Solutions in Traffic Models with Velocity-Dependent Driver Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Paul; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri B.

    2014-01-01

    The optimal-velocity follow-the-leader model is augmented with an equation that allows each driver to adjust their target headway according to the velocity difference between the driver and the car in front. In this more detailed model, which is investigated on a ring, stable and unstable multipu...

  10. Modelling Velocity Spectra in the Lower Part of the Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H.R.; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1984-01-01

    Principles used when constructing models for velocity spectra are reviewed. Based upon data from the Kansas and Minnesota experiments, simple spectral models are set up for all velocity components in stable air at low heights, and for the vertical spectrum in unstable air through a larger part of...

  11. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

  12. Rapid fault model estimation based on RTK-GPS and its application to near-field tsunami forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ohta, Y.; Miura, S.; Tsushima, H.; Hino, R.; Takasu, T.; Fujimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a huge tsunami that inflicted enormous damage on the Pacific side of Tohoku region. Three minutes after the earthquake, the Japan Meteorological Agency issued a tsunami warning based on the seismic data. The estimated maximum tsunami heights (up to 6 m), however, were clearly smaller than the observed one (more than 10 m) because of underestimation of the earthquake magnitude. The magnitude can be derived within a short period following the earthquake, which can saturate for such great earthquakes. This example clearly shows necessity of accurate tsunami early warning system and importance of the rapid determination of reliable earthquake sizes. Blewitt et al. [GRL, 2006] already pointed out that a true earthquake size and its tsunamigenic potential could be determined using GPS data. The permanent displacement directly tells us the true earthquake size information. It is the great advantage of the GPS compared with the seismometer even though the signal-to-noise ratio is lower than it. Based on these backgrounds, we newly developed an algorithm to detect/estimate static ground displacement due to earthquake faulting from real time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) time series for quasi real-time determination of seismic fault model. We use the method using comparison between short-term and long-term average, which is generally used for automatic detection of seismic waves. Before its practical application, we assessed the noise property of the RTK-GPS time series with various conditions such as baseline lengths, GPS satellites ephemerides, etc., with analysis software "RTKLIB 2.4.0" [http://www.rtklib.com] to show that the ultra-rapid ephemerides distributed by the international GNSS Service result in enough precision for the crustal deformation monitoring with long baselines up to 1,000 km. We applied the algorithm to the GPS data obtained in the Tohoku Earthquake to assess its ability of event

  13. A Dynamic Model for GPS Based Attitude Determination and Testing using a Serial Robotic Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Raskaliyev, Almat; Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    A computational algorithm is developed for estimating accurately the attitude of a robotic arm which moves along a predetermined path. This algorithm requires preliminary input data obtained in the static mode to yield phase observables for the precise, 3-axis attitude determination of a swinging manipulator in the dynamic mode. Measurements are recorded simultaneously by three GPS L1 receivers and then processed in several steps to accomplish this task. First, artkconv batch executable conve...

  14. Theoretical analysis of a hybrid traffic model accounting for safe velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Chao-Fan; Yan, Bo-Wen; Zhang, De-Chen; Wang, Ji-Xin; Jia, Bin; Gao, Zi-You; Wu, Qing-Song

    2017-04-01

    A hybrid traffic-flow model [Wang-Zhou-Yan (WZY) model] is brought out in this paper. In WZY model, the global equilibrium velocity is replaced by the local equilibrium one, which emphasizes that the modification of vehicle velocity is based on the view of safe-driving rather than the global deployment. In the view of safe-driving, the effect of drivers’ estimation is taken into account. Moreover, the linear stability of the traffic model has been performed. Furthermore, in order to test the robustness of the system, the evolvement of the density wave and the velocity wave of the traffic flow has been numerically calculated.

  15. A dynamic model for GPS based attitude determination and testing using a serial robotic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskaliyev, Almat; Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2017-07-01

    A computational algorithm is developed for estimating accurately the attitude of a robotic arm which moves along a predetermined path. This algorithm requires preliminary input data obtained in the static mode to yield phase observables for the precise, 3-axis attitude determination of a swinging manipulator in the dynamic mode. Measurements are recorded simultaneously by three GPS L1 receivers and then processed in several steps to accomplish this task. First, artkconv batch executable converts GPS receiver readings into RINEX format to generate GPS observables and ephemeris for multiple satellites. Then baseline vectors determination is carried out by baseline constrained Least-Squares Ambiguity Decorrelation (LAMBDA) method that uses double difference carrier phase estimates as input to calculate integer solution for each baseline. Finally, attitude determination is made by employing alternatively Least-squares attitude determination (LSAD) in the static mode and extended Kalman filter in the dynamic mode. The algorithm presented in this paper is applied to recorded data on Mitsubishi RV-M1 robotic arm in order to produce attitude estimates. These results are confirmed by another set of Euler angles independently evaluated from robotic arm postures obtained along the predefined trajectory.

  16. A dynamic model for GPS based attitude determination and testing using a serial robotic manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almat Raskaliyev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A computational algorithm is developed for estimating accurately the attitude of a robotic arm which moves along a predetermined path. This algorithm requires preliminary input data obtained in the static mode to yield phase observables for the precise, 3-axis attitude determination of a swinging manipulator in the dynamic mode. Measurements are recorded simultaneously by three GPS L1 receivers and then processed in several steps to accomplish this task. First, artkconv batch executable converts GPS receiver readings into RINEX format to generate GPS observables and ephemeris for multiple satellites. Then baseline vectors determination is carried out by baseline constrained Least-Squares Ambiguity Decorrelation (LAMBDA method that uses double difference carrier phase estimates as input to calculate integer solution for each baseline. Finally, attitude determination is made by employing alternatively Least-squares attitude determination (LSAD in the static mode and extended Kalman filter in the dynamic mode. The algorithm presented in this paper is applied to recorded data on Mitsubishi RV-M1 robotic arm in order to produce attitude estimates. These results are confirmed by another set of Euler angles independently evaluated from robotic arm postures obtained along the predefined trajectory.

  17. Comparison of GPS derived TEC with the TEC predicted by IRI 2012 model in the southern Equatorial Ionization Anomaly crest within the Eastern Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulungu, Emmanuel D.; Uiso, Christian B. S.; Sibanda, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    We have compared the TEC obtained from the IRI-2012 model with the GPS derived TEC data recorded within southern crest of the EIA in the Eastern Africa region using the monthly means of the 5 international quiet days for equinoxes and solstices months for the period of 2012 - 2013. GPS-derived TEC data have been obtained from the Africa array and IGS network of ground based dual-frequency GPS receivers from four stations (Kigali (1.95°S, 30.09°E; Geom. Lat. 11.63°S), Malindi (2.99°S, 40.19°E; Geom. Lat. 12.42°S), Mbarara (0.60°S, 30.74°E; Geom. Lat. 10.22°S) and Nairobi (1.22°S, 36.89°E; Geom. Lat. 10.69°S)) located within the EIA crest in this region. All the three options for topside Ne of IRI-2012 model and ABT-2009 for bottomside thickness have been used to compute the IRI TEC. Also URSI coefficients were considered in this study. These results are compared with the TEC estimated from GPS measurements. Correlation Coefficients between the two sets of data, the Root-Mean Square Errors (RMSE) of the IRI-TEC from the GPS-TEC, and the percentage RMSE of the IRI-TEC from the GPS-TEC have been computed. Our general results show that IRI-2012 model with all three options overestimates the GPS-TEC for all seasons and at all stations, and IRI-2001 overestimates GPS-TEC more compared with other options. IRI-Neq and IRI-01-corr are closely matching in most of the time. The observation also shows that, GPS TEC are underestimated by TEC from IRI model during noon hours, especially during equinoctial months. Further, GPS-TEC values and IRI-TEC values using all the three topside Ne options show very good correlation (above 0.8). On the other hand, the TEC using IRI-Neq and IRI-01- corr had smaller deviations from the GPS-TEC compared to the IRI-2001.

  18. New GPS Constrains on Crustal Deformation within the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, M. M.; Lopez, A. M.; Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over twenty years of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations along the northeastern region of the Caribbean plate boundary zone have been used to evaluate crustal deformation in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate, which generally translates westward relative to the Caribbean plate. New data from continuous GPS stations (cGPS) and re-occupied campaign GPS stations (eGPS) obtained between 2014 and 2015 allowed us to update the velocity field of the PRVI GPS Network and redefine the existing plate kinematics model of the PRVI microplate from previous measurements (Jansma et al., 2000; Jansma & Mattioli, 2005). Geodetic datasets for this epoch were processed with GIPSY/OASIS II (v.6.2) using an absolute point positioning strategy with final, precise orbits and clocks from JPL (IGS08). Results of sites velocity in the PRVI block are presented with respect to North America and Caribbean reference frames in ITRF08. The horizontal velocity components were used to calculate baseline lengths changes between selected GPS stations that span on-land faults and microplate boundaries, thus allowing quantification of internal deformation within the PRVI block. This enables us to locate zones of active deformation and faulting in order to understand how the relative motion between geological structures is accommodated. Our updated velocity field constrains intraplate deformation to 1-3 mm/yr across the PRVI microplate and active extension of 1-2 mm/yr in the Anegada passage eastern boundary. In addition, counterclockwise rotation has been observed and may be related to the deformation in southwestern Puerto Rico continuing offshore to the Muertos Trough along PRVI's southern boundary. Despite the PRVI microplate slow motion and small deformation, increasing velocities from east to west coincides with the most active microseismic zone and ongoing deformation in southwestern Puerto Rico suggesting independent motion along this segment of the PRVI block.

  19. Comparison of fluid-dynamic modeling of flow with velocity-encoded MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.; Hearshen, D.O.; Rankin, G.W.; Haggar, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a fluid dynamic model using finite difference methods characterizing flow in phantoms simulating in vivo conditions and to compare those results with velocity encoded MR images. The phantom consisted of 1-inch (2.5-cm) tubing with semicircular insert and fluid with viscosity, T1, and T2 comparable to blood. Numeric solutions to Navier-Stokes equations for this system were obtained using finite difference methods, with velocity input function of zero at walls and parabolic at both ends. In resulting color raster (CR) images, color temperature represented velocity value. In velocity-encoded MR images acquired under the same flow conditions, phase is proportional to average velocity during application of flow-encoding gradients. Because these gradients are applied along one direction per acquisition, magnitude and direction of velocity are obtained

  20. Lagrangian velocity statistics of directed launch strategies in a Gulf of Mexico model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dependence of Lagrangian displacement and velocity statistics is studied in the context of a data assimilating numerical model of the Gulf Mexico. In the active eddy region of the Western Gulf, a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian measures are used to locate strongly hyperbolic regions of the flow. The statistics of the velocity field sampled by sets of drifters launched specifically in these hyperbolic regions are compared to those produced by randomly chosen launch sites. The results show that particle trajectories initialized in hyperbolic regions preferentially sample a broader range of Eulerian velocities than do members of ensembles of randomly launched drifters. The velocity density functions produced by the directed launches compare well with Eulerian velocity pdfs. Implications for the development of launch strategies to improve Eulerian velocity field reconstruction from drifter data are discussed.

  1. Crust and Mantle Deformation Revealed from High-Resolution Radially Anisotropic Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Dave, R.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Love wave tomography, which can achieve a similar model resolution as Rayleigh wave, so far has limited applications to the USArray data. Recently, we have developed high-resolution Love wave phase velocity maps in the Wyoming craton and Texas using data at the Transportable Array stations. 3-D, radially anisotropic velocity models are obtained by jointly inverting Love and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. A high-velocity anomaly extending to about 200 km depth beneath central Wyoming correlates with negative radial anisotropy (Vsv>Vsh), suggesting that mantle downwelling develops under the cratonic lithosphere. Surprisingly, the significantly low velocity beneath the Yellowstone hotspot, which has been interpreted as partial melting and asthenospheric upwelling, is associated with the largest radial anisotropy (Vsh>Vsv) in the area. This observation does not support mantle upwelling. Instead, it indicates that the upper mantle beneath the hotspot has experienced strong shear deformation probably by the plate motion and large-scale mantle flow. In Texas, positive radial anisotropy in the lower crust extends from the coast to the Ouachita belt, which is characterized by high velocity and negative radial anisotropy. In the upper mantle, large variations of velocity and anisotropy exit under the coastal plain. A common feature in these anisotropic models is that high-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle often correlate with negative anisotropy (Vsv>Vsh) while low-velocity anomalies are associated with positive anisotropy (Vsh>Vsv). The manifestation of mantle downweling as negative radial anisotropy is largely due to the relatively high viscosity of the high-velocity mantle block, which is less affected by the surrounding large-scale horizontal flow. However, mantle upwelling, which is often associated with low-velocity anomalies, presumably low-viscosity mantle blocks, is invisible in radial anisotropy models. Such upwelling may happen too quickly to make last

  2. Velocity Deficits in the Wake of Model Lemon Shark Dorsal Fins Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, K. N.; Turner, V.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic animals' morphology provides inspiration for human technological developments, as their bodies have evolved and become adapted for efficient swimming. Lemon sharks exhibit a uniquely large second dorsal fin that is nearly the same size as the first fin, the hydrodynamic role of which is unknown. This experimental study looks at the drag forces on a scale model of the Lemon shark's unique two-fin configuration in comparison to drag forces on a more typical one-fin configuration. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water flume, where the wakes behind the scale models are measured using particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed at three different flow speeds for both fin configurations. The measured instantaneous 2D distributions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components are ensemble averaged to generate streamwise velocity vertical profiles. In addition, velocity deficit profiles are computed from the difference between these mean streamwise velocity profiles and the free stream velocity, which is computed based on measured flow rates during the experiments. Results show that the mean velocities behind the fin and near the fin tip are smallest and increase as the streamwise distance from the fin tip increases. The magnitude of velocity deficits increases with increasing flow speed for both fin configurations, but at all flow speeds, the two-fin configurations generate larger velocity deficits than the one-fin configurations. Because the velocity deficit is directly proportional to the drag force, these results suggest that the two-fin configuration produces more drag.

  3. Analyses of precooling parameters for a bottom flooding ECCS rewetting velocity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    An extension work of the previous paper on the rewetting velocity model is presented. Application of the rewetting velocity model presented elsewhere requires a priori values of phi. In the absence of phi values, film boiling heat transfer coefficient (hsub(df)) and fog-film length (1) data are needed. To provide these informations, a modified Bromley's correlation is first derived and used to obtain hsub(df) values at higher pressure conditions. In addition, the analysis of the precooling parameters, such as phi and 1 is further extended using much more expensive PWR FLECHT data. Thus, the applicable range of the rewetting velocity model is further expanded in this work. (author)

  4. Impact of velocity correlation and distribution on transport in fractured media: Field evidence and theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter K.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco; Bour, Olivier; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-02-01

    Flow and transport through fractured geologic media often leads to anomalous (non-Fickian) transport behavior, the origin of which remains a matter of debate: whether it arises from variability in fracture permeability (velocity distribution), connectedness in the flow paths through fractures (velocity correlation), or interaction between fractures and matrix. Here we show that this uncertainty of distribution- versus correlation-controlled transport can be resolved by combining convergent and push-pull tracer tests because flow reversibility is strongly dependent on velocity correlation, whereas late-time scaling of breakthrough curves is mainly controlled by velocity distribution. We build on this insight, and propose a Lagrangian statistical model that takes the form of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) with correlated particle velocities. In this framework, velocity distribution and velocity correlation are quantified by a Markov process of particle transition times that is characterized by a distribution function and a transition probability. Our transport model accurately captures the anomalous behavior in the breakthrough curves for both push-pull and convergent flow geometries, with the same set of parameters. Thus, the proposed correlated CTRW modeling approach provides a simple yet powerful framework for characterizing the impact of velocity distribution and correlation on transport in fractured media.

  5. Comparison of a novel real-time SonixGPS needle-tracking ultrasound technique with traditional ultrasound for vascular access in a phantom gel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, Daniel S; Chen, Jerry; Tang, Raymond; Sawka, Andrew; Vaghadia, Himat

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous vascular access for endovascular procedures is well established in surgical practice. Despite this, rates of complications from venous and arterial access procedures remain a significant cause of morbidity. We hypothesized that the use of a new technique of vascular access using an ultrasound with a novel needle-guidance positioning system (GPS) would lead to improved success rates of vascular puncture for both in-plane and out-of-plane techniques compared with traditional ultrasound. A prospective, randomized crossover study of medical students from all years of medical school was conducted using a phantom gel model. Each medical student performed three ultrasound-guided punctures with each of the four modalities (in-plane no GPS, in-plane with GPS, out-of-plane no GPS, out-of-plane with GPS) for a total of 12 attempts. The success or failure was judged by the ability to aspirate a simulated blood solution from the model. The time to successful puncture was also recorded. A poststudy validated NASA Task Load Index workload questionnaire was conducted to assess the student's perceptions of the two different techniques. A total of 30 students completed the study. There was no significant difference seen in the mean times of vascular access for each of the modalities. Higher success rates for vascular access using the GPS for both the in-plane (94% vs 91%) and the out-of-plane (86% vs 70%) views were observed; however, this was not statistically significant. The students perceived the mental demand (median 12.0 vs 14.00; P = .035) and effort to be lower (mean 11.25 vs 14.00; P = .044) as well as the performance to be higher (mean 15.50 vs 14.00; P = .041) for the GPS vs the traditional ultrasound-guided technique. Students also perceived their ability to access vessels increased with the aid of the GPS (7.00 vs 6.50; P = .007). The majority of students expressed a preference for GPS (26/30, 87%) as opposed to the traditional counterpart

  6. Detecting exoplanets: jointly modeling radial velocity and stellar activity time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Edward; Stenning, David; Ford, Eric B.; Wolpert, Robert L.; Loredo, Thomas J.

    2017-06-01

    The radial velocity method is one of the most successful techniques for detecting exoplanets, but stellar activity often corrupts the radial velocity signal. This corruption can make it difficult to detect low mass planets and planets orbiting more active stars. A principled approach to recovering planet radial velocity signals in the presence of stellar activity was proposed by Rajpaul et al. (2015) and involves the use of dependent Gaussian processes to jointly model the corrupted radial velocity signal and multiple proxies for stellar activity. We build on this work in two ways: (i) we propose using dimension reduction techniques to construct more informative stellar activity proxies; (ii) we extend the Rajpaul et al. (2015) model to a larger class of models and use a model comparison procedure to select the best model for the particular stellar activity proxies at hand. Our framework enables us to compare the performance of various proxies in terms of the resulting statistical power for planet detection.

  7. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  8. Evaluation of a Model for Predicting the Tidal Velocity in Fjord Entrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Emilia [The Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division of Electricity, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Thomassen, Paul [Team Ashes, Trondheim (Norway); Leijon, Mats [The Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division of Electricity, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Sufficiently accurate and low-cost estimation of tidal velocities is of importance when evaluating a potential site for a tidal energy farm. Here we suggest and evaluate a model to calculate the tidal velocity in fjord entrances. The model is compared with tidal velocities from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements in the tidal channel Skarpsundet in Norway. The calculated velocity value from the model corresponded well with the measured cross-sectional average velocity, but was shown to underestimate the velocity in the centre of the channel. The effect of this was quantified by calculating the kinetic energy of the flow for a 14-day period. A numerical simulation using TELEMAC-2D was performed and validated with ADCP measurements. Velocity data from the simulation was used as input for calculating the kinetic energy at various locations in the channel. It was concluded that the model presented here is not accurate enough for assessing the tidal energy resource. However, the simplicity of the model was considered promising in the use of finding sites where further analyses can be made.

  9. Global Three-Dimensional Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model Using Ground-based GPS and Radio Occultation Total Electron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann-Yenq Liu, Tiger; Lin, Chi-Yen; Matsuo, Tomoko; Lin, Charles C. H.; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Chen, Chao-Yen

    2017-04-01

    An ionospheric data assimilation approach presented here is based on the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) as the background model and designed to assimilate the total electron content (TEC) observed from ground-based GPS receivers and space-based radio occultation (RO) of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) or FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7/C2). The Kalman filter consists of the forecast step according to Gauss-Markov process and measurement update step. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) show that the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter procedure can increase the accuracy of the data assimilation analysis over the procedure consisting of the measurement update step alone. Moreover, in comparing to F3/C, the dense F7/C2 RO observation can further increase the model accuracy significantly. Validating the data assimilation results with the vertical TEC in Global Ionosphere Maps and that derived from ground-based GPS measurements, as well as the ionospheric F2-peak height and electron density sounded by ionosondes is also carried out. Both the OSSE results and the observation validations confirm that the developed data assimilation model can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional electron density in the ionosphere satisfactorily.

  10. VELOCITY AND GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS ON GPS SATELLITES: AN OUTLINE OF EARLY PREDICTION AND DETECTION OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES EFECTOS DE VELOCIDAD Y DE GRAVITACIÓN EN GPS SATELITALES: UN ESQUEMA PARA LA PREDICCIÓN Y DETECCIÓN TEMPRANA DE FUERTES TERREMOTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Torres-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global navigation satellite systems, GPS used as global positioning systems, are based on a gravitational model and hence they are only operative when several relativistic effects are taken into account. The most important relativistic effects (to order 1/c² are: the Doppler red shift of second order, due to the motion of the satellite (special relativity and the Einstein gravitational blue shift effect of the satellite clock frequency (equivalence principle of general relativity. Both of these effects can be treated at a basic level, making for an appealing application of relativity to every life. This paper examines the significant effects that must be taken into account in the design and operation of systems GPS without resorting to the theory of special and general relativity, yielding the same results for these systems, where one of the effects can be treated with the time contraction approach proposed here and the other using the Newton's theory as an approximation of the General Relativity. This approach allow us to propose an outline of early prediction and detection on strong earthquake phenomena.Hoy en día, los sistemas de navegación global por satélite, GPS utilizados como sistemas de posicionamiento global, se basan en un modelo gravitacional y por lo tanto solo son operativos cuando varios efectos relativistas son tenidos en cuenta. Los efectos relativistas más importantes (hasta el orden 1/c² son: el desplazamiento Doppler al rojo de segundo orden, debido al movimiento del satélite (la relatividad especial y el efecto gravitacional de Einstein corrimiento al azul de la frecuencia de reloj del satélite (principio de equivalencia de la relatividad general. Ambos efectos pueden ser tratados en un nivel básico, apelando a la relatividad del día a día. Este artículo examina los efectos significativos que deben tenerse en cuenta en la operación de sistemas de GPS sin tener que recurrir a las teorías de la

  11. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  12. GPS for land surveyors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sickle, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The GPS SignalGlobal Positioning System (GPS) Signal StructureTwo ObservablesPseudorangingCarrier Phase RangingBiases and SolutionsThe Error BudgetDifferencingThe FrameworkTechnological ForerunnersVery Long Baseline InterferometryTransitNavstar GPSGPS Segment OrganizationGPS ConstellationThe Control SegmentReceivers and MethodsCommon Features of GPS ReceiversChoosing a GPS ReceiverSome GPS Surveying MethodsCoordinatesA Few Pertinent Ideas About Geodetic Datums for GPSState Plane CoordinatesHeightsGPS Surveying TechniquesStatic GPS SurveyingReal-Time Kinematic (RTK) and Differential GPS (DGPS)T

  13. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J.

    2010-06-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ±0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  14. Improving Seismic Velocity Models with Constraints from Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise and Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0098 TR-2016-0098 IMPROVING SEISMIC VELOCITY MODELS WITH CONSTRAINTS FROM AUTOCORRELATION OF AMBIENT SEISMIC ...TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 24 Apr 2014 – 24 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving Seismic Velocity Models with Constraints from...Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise and Signal 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-14-C-0214 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6

  15. Validation of tectonic models for an intraplate seismic zone, Charleston, South Carolina, with GPS geodetic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talwani, P.; Kellogg, J.N.; Trenkamp, R.

    1997-02-01

    Although the average strain rate in intraplate settings is 2--3 orders of magnitude lower than at plate boundaries, there are pockets of high strain rates within intraplate regions. The results of a Global Positioning System survey near the location of current seismicity (and the inferred location of the destructive 1886 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake) suggest that there is anomalous strain build-up occurring there. By reoccupying 1930 triangulation and 1980 GPS sites with six Trimble SST dual frequency receivers, a strain rate of 0.4 x 10 -7 yr -1 was observed. At the 95% confidence level, this value is not significant; however, at a lower level of confidence (∼ 85%) it is about two orders of magnitude greater than the background of 10 -9 to 10 -10 yr -1 . The direction of contraction inferred from the GPS survey 66 degree ± 11 degree is in excellent agreement with the direction of the maximum horizontal stress (N 60 degree E) in the area, suggesting that the observed strain rate is also real. 66 refs

  16. Validation of tectonic models for an intraplate seismic zone, Charleston, South Carolina, with GPS geodetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talwani, P.; Kellogg, J.N.; Trenkamp, R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-02-01

    Although the average strain rate in intraplate settings is 2--3 orders of magnitude lower than at plate boundaries, there are pockets of high strain rates within intraplate regions. The results of a Global Positioning System survey near the location of current seismicity (and the inferred location of the destructive 1886 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake) suggest that there is anomalous strain build-up occurring there. By reoccupying 1930 triangulation and 1980 GPS sites with six Trimble SST dual frequency receivers, a strain rate of 0.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} yr{sup {minus}1} was observed. At the 95% confidence level, this value is not significant; however, at a lower level of confidence ({approximately} 85%) it is about two orders of magnitude greater than the background of 10{sup {minus}9} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1}. The direction of contraction inferred from the GPS survey 66{degree} {+-} 11{degree} is in excellent agreement with the direction of the maximum horizontal stress (N 60{degree} E) in the area, suggesting that the observed strain rate is also real. 66 refs.

  17. M-Health Service for Train Passengers Using Mobile GPS System: An ArchiMate Service Layer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD SAJID

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EA (Enterprise Architecture is an instrument that is employed to describe the organization?s structure, business layout and operations within the IT (Information Technology environment. Different types of organizations extensively employed EA for aligning their business and operations with IT resources. EA may also be employed in non-organizational setting such as service providing agencies; rescue, medical emergency and education services. This paper suggests an EAF (Enterprise Architecture Framework for non-organizational setting by critically analyzing the top four EAs. The paper also proposes a new m-Health service model based on the mobile GPS (Global Positioning System for train/rail passengers by employing the ArchiMate modeling language and compares the proposed model with existing service providers.

  18. Modelling and simulation of German BIOGEST/EL-AGAMY wastewater treatment plants – Egypt using GPS-X simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Nasr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling and simulation of German BIOGEST/EL-AGAMY Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR using a package software GPS-X simulator to investigate the plant performance among six scenarios of various durations of fill, react and settle phases as a case study. The Activated Sludge Model 1 (ASM1 was used for biological processes, and the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD based influent model was used for influent characterization. This case study presents the rule of denitrification process via anoxic conditions to remove nitrates and nitrites which is known to be eutrophic, toxic for aquatic animals, hazardous to human health as well as inhibit phosphorus removal during activated sludge treatment. Also, denitrification process provides a selector operation to prevent filamentous sludge bulking that is considered a major problem in EL-AGAMY WWTP, as well as decreases the overall aeration energy of the batch cycle time.

  19. Satellite Galaxy Velocity Dispersions in the SDSS and Modified Gravity Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Moffat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS provides data on several hundred thousand galaxies. The precise location of these galaxies in the sky, along with information about their luminosities and line-of-sight (Doppler velocities, allows one to construct a three-dimensional map of their location and estimate their line-of-sight velocity dispersion. This information, in principle, allows one to test dynamical gravity models, specifically models of satellite galaxy velocity dispersions near massive hosts. A key difficulty is the separation of true satellites from interlopers. We sidestep this problem by not attempting to derive satellite galaxy velocity dispersions from the data, but instead incorporate an interloper background into the mathematical models and compare the result to the actual data. We find that due to the presence of interlopers, it is not possible to exclude several gravitational theories on the basis of the SDSS data.

  20. Optimization of Roller Velocity for Quenching Machine Based on Heat Transfer Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During quenching process of steel plate, control parameters are important to product quality. In this work, heat transfer mathematical model has been developed for roller-type quenching machine to predict the temperature field of plate at first, and then an optimization schedule considering quenching technology and equipment limitations is developed firstly based on the heat transfer mathematical model with considering the shortest quenching time. A numerical simulation is performed during optimization process to investigate the effects of roller velocity on the temperature of representative plate. Based on the optimization method, study is also performed for different thickness of plate to obtain the corresponding roller velocity. The results show that the optimized roller velocity can be achieved for the roller-type continuous quenching machine based on the heat transfer mathematical model. With the increasing of plate’s thickness, the optimized roller velocity decreases exponentially.

  1. GPS horizontal deformation model in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa (SPINA); Modelo de deformación horizontal GPS de la región sur de la Península Ibérica y norte de África (SPINA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [Spanish] El Sistema Global de Navegación por Satélite (GNSS), y, en particular, el Sistema Global de Posicionamiento (GPS) proporcionan una importante herramienta en el estudio de los procesos geodinámicos. Como consecuencia de estos estudios, es posible analizar la interacción entre las placas tectónicas con el fin de evaluar y establecer las características de sus límites. Este trabajo se centra principalmente, en el análisis de series temporales obtenidas a partir de observaciones de los satélites GNSS-GPS en estaciones geodésicas permanentes ubicadas en la región sur de la Península Ibérica y norte de

  2. Observation and Modeling of Storm Generated Acoustic Waves in the Ionosphere Revealed in a Dense Network of GPS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Azeem, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic waves generated in the lower atmosphere may become an important source of variably in the upper atmosphere. Although they are excited with small amplitudes they are minimally subject to viscous dissipation and may reach significant amplitudes at F-region altitudes. A number of studies in the 1970s showed clear signatures in ionosonde data in the infrasonic period range attributable to thunder storm activity. We have examined Total Electron Content data from a dense network of over 4000 ground-based GPS receivers over the continental United States during an outbreak of severe weather, including tornados, over Kansas in May 2015. A sequence of GPS TEC images showed clear Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) in the form of concentric rings moving outward from the center of the storm region. The characteristics of the disturbance (phase speed and frequency) were consistent with acoustic waves in the infrasonic range. We have modeled the disturbance by including a tropospheric heat source representing latent heat release from a large thunderstorm. The disturbance at ionospheric altitudes resembles the observed disturbance in terms of phase speed, frequency and horizontal wavelength. We conclude that the observed TIDs in TEC were caused by an acoustic wave generated by deep convection.

  3. Depth variations of friction rate parameter derived from dynamic modeling of GPS afterslip associated with the 2003 Mw 6.5 Chengkung earthquake in eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. C.; Liu, Z. Y. C.; Shirzaei, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Chihshang fault lies at the plate suture between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates along the Longitudinal Valley in eastern Taiwan. Here we investigate depth variation of fault frictional parameters derived from the post-seismic slip model of the 2003 Mw 6.5 Chengkung earthquake. Assuming a rate-strengthening friction, we implement an inverse dynamic modeling scheme to estimate the frictional parameter (a-b) and reference friction coefficient (μ*) in depths by taking into account: pre-seismic stress as well as co-seismic and post-seismic coulomb stress changes associated with the 2003 Chengkung earthquake. We investigate two coseismic models by Hsu et al. (2009) and Thomas et al. (2014). Model parameters, including stress gradient, depth dependent a-b and μ*, are determined from fitting the transient post-seismic geodetic signal measured at 12 continuous GPS stations. In our inversion scheme, we apply a non-linear optimization algorithm, Genetic Algorithm (GA), to search for the optimum frictional parameters. Considering the zone with velocity-strengthening frictional properties along Chihshang fault, the optimum a-b is 7-8 × 10-3 along the shallow part of the fault (0-10 km depth) and 1-2 × 10-2 in 22-28 km depth. Optimum solution for μ* is 0.3-0.4 in 0-10 km depth and reaches 0.8 in 22-28 km depth. The optimized stress gradient is 54 MPa/ km. The inferred frictional parameters are consistent with the laboratory measurements on clay-rich fault zone gouges comparable to the Lichi Melange, which is thrust over Holocene alluvial deposits across the Chihshang fault, considering the main rock composition of the Chihshang fault, at least at the upper kilometers level of the fault. Our results can facilitate further studies in particular on seismic cycle and hazard assessment of active faults.

  4. Efficient use of the velocity gradients tensor in flow modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    For models of fabric development in rocks, with vorticity as a variable parameter, the choice of an unsuitable reference frame for instantaneous flow can hamper clear presentation of results. The orientation of most fabric elements which develop in deforming rocks is attached to some principal

  5. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Hill, Craig [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414; Chamorro, Leonardo [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414

    2012-01-01

    Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.

  6. Deformation and stress-change modeling at Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, from ENVISAT INSAR and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Sigurjon; Chadwick, W.W.; Poland, M.; Geist, D.

    2008-01-01

    We use radar interferograms and GPS observations to constrain models of magma accumulation and faulting at Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos, during the years before its 2005 eruption. The data have shown ~5 m of pre-eruption uplift and multiple trapdoor faulting events on an intra-caldera fault system. We find the pattern of uplift to be consistent with an inflating sill at 2.2 km depth under the caldera. Our deformation modeling and stress-change calculations suggest that the inflating sill triggered faulting on an inward- dipping thrust fault and that the faulting in turn relieved the pressure within the sill. This sill-fault interaction tends to thicken the sill and limit its lateral extent within the area bounded by the fault.

  7. Investigation on velocity distribution of TFM and DEM phase in hybrid model of CBFB in mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Feng, Ying; Zhao, Zhening

    2017-05-01

    As a novel model for gas solid flow simulation, the investigation of TFM-DEM hybrid model is far from completely, including mutual interaction of TFM and DEM phase, selection of DEM portion and coherence of the predicted results from both phases. Therefore, in present study, the consistency of velocity distribution between TFM and DEM phase is investigated. The correlation of instantaneous and time-averaged velocity distribution of TFM and DEM phase in specific area in CBFB for mining is studied. And the differences of the axial and radial velocity between the particles of different sizes are discussed. The influence of particle diameter and the ratio of DEM and TFM phase on the correlation of velocity, both instantaneous and time-averaged, are taken into consideration.

  8. A glacial isostatic adjustment model for the central and northern Laurentide ice sheet based on relative sea level and GPS measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, K.M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The thickness and equivalent global sea level contribution of an improved model of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet is constrained by 24 relative sea level histories and 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates. The final model, termed Laur16, is derived from the ICE-5G

  9. Real-time inversions for finite fault slip models and rupture geometry based on high-rate GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Gomberg, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an inversion strategy capable of using real-time high-rate GPS data to simultaneously solve for a distributed slip model and fault geometry in real time as a rupture unfolds. We employ Bayesian inference to find the optimal fault geometry and the distribution of possible slip models for that geometry using a simple analytical solution. By adopting an analytical Bayesian approach, we can solve this complex inversion problem (including calculating the uncertainties on our results) in real time. Furthermore, since the joint inversion for distributed slip and fault geometry can be computed in real time, the time required to obtain a source model of the earthquake does not depend on the computational cost. Instead, the time required is controlled by the duration of the rupture and the time required for information to propagate from the source to the receivers. We apply our modeling approach, called Bayesian Evidence-based Fault Orientation and Real-time Earthquake Slip, to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, and a simulated Hayward fault earthquake. In all three cases, the inversion recovers the magnitude, spatial distribution of slip, and fault geometry in real time. Since our inversion relies on static offsets estimated from real-time high-rate GPS data, we also present performance tests of various approaches to estimating quasi-static offsets in real time. We find that the raw high-rate time series are the best data to use for determining the moment magnitude of the event, but slightly smoothing the raw time series helps stabilize the inversion for fault geometry.

  10. Using GPS Imaging to Unravel Vertical Land Motions in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overacker, J.; Hammond, W. C.; Kraner, M.; Blewitt, G.

    2017-12-01

    GPS Imaging uses robust trends in time series of GPS positions to create a velocity field that can reveal rates and patterns of vertical motions that would be otherwise difficult to detect. We have constructed an image of vertical land velocities within the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States using GPS Imaging. The image shows a 50-250 km wide swath of approximately 2 mm/yr of subsidence seemingly unrelated to topographic features of the region. The extent of the signal roughly corresponds to the Juan de Fuca plate subduction latitudes and longitude of the Cascade arc. This suggests that the signal could be associated with ongoing crustal deformation possibly related to plate-scale geodynamic forces arising from interseismic coupling, long term plate boundary tractions, volcanic loading, and/or mantle flow. However, hydrological loading from accumulating precipitation in the Cascades and in the region's groundwater basins, and possible effects from Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) near its hinge line cannot be discounted as potential contributors to the observed subsidence signal. Here we attempt to unravel the contributions of hydrological loading and GIA to the vertical GPS signal observed within the interior Pacific Northwest. In order to determine the non-tectonic contributions to the observed vertical GPS Image, we will examine how the subsidence rate changes over time using early and late period comparisons. GPS, GRACE, and climatic data will be used in conjunction to disentangle the hydrological effect from the GPS Image. GIA models of the Western Cordillera will be compared with the patterns in the GPS Image to assess whether the signal can be explained with current models of GIA. Our presentation will document the signals, uncertainties, and hypotheses for the possible mechanisms behind this subsidence and attempt to quantify their relation and contribution to the observed deformation signal. Figure 1: Pacific Northwest GPS Imaging

  11. Modeling of velocity regimens for anaerobic and aerobic power exercises in high-performance swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issurin, V B; Kaufman, L E; Tenenbaum, G

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the validity and eligibility of a modeling method to determine velocity regimes of highly intensive swimming exercises. The model postulates that swimming velocity regimens, which correspond to the three biomotor components, i.e.: Maximal Anaerobic Power, Anaerobic Capacity, and Aerobic Power, can be predicted by special equations using a 50 m all out swim velocity, and the equation coefficient, which determine swimmer's classification. The swimmers are classified into 12 categories according to pre-determined race distance records, and swimmer's capability level. Comparative field study was used to contrast predicted velocity regimens with observed velocity regimes. National swimming center at the Wingate Institute for Physical Education. 22 highly trained swimmers (14 male and 8 female) participated in this study and were examined 1-4 times within a period of two years in totally 162 sessions. The 50 m all-out trial was performed and three basic velocity regimens were predicted according to the modeling procedure. Three different interval sets were carried out by all the swimmers for validation procedures. The blood lactate (BLA) samples were taken after test completion. The correlations between the observed and predicted velocities within each of the three tests were very strong. The RM-ANOVA with respect to lactic acid concentration revealed that across the three measures (different tests) BLA concentration was significantly higher in male swimmers than in female swimmers, and highest in butterfly followed by breaststroke, backstroke, and freestyle stroke. The modeling method allows to predict desirable velocity regimes in order to develop the main biomotor components of the swimmers. This procedure is recommended for practice as a non-invasive method for designing desired training regimens.

  12. The Accuracy Analysis of Multiple Earth Gravity Field Models and Normal Height Determination of GPS Points Based on Combination Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xingfu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The scale factor ae of Earth gravity field model is discussed for numerically analyzing the effect on model height anomaly,and the coefficient's accuracy of the latest models ITG-GRACE2010S,AIUB-GRACE03S,EIGEN-6C,GOCO02S,DIR_R3,TIM_R3,SPW_R2,gif48 and EGM2008 for different degrees are analyzed based on coefficient's variance information and GPS/leveling data sets.The simply spectral combination method and weighted spectral combination method are given for improving the accuracy of model height anomaly.In test area,the results show that the accuracy of all models up to degree and order 135 is better than the same degree and order of EGM2008 model,and the accuracy of gif48 and EIGEN-6C model is also better than the same degree and order of EGM2008 model,the simply spectral combination method and weighted spectral combination method can also improve the accuracy of regional model height anomaly.

  13. Modeling and control of a flexible one-link robot driven by a velocity controlled actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, D.; De Schutter, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to control flexible robots. Many control schemes for flexible robots have been developed and published in robotics research literature. All of them assume the use of torque controlled actuators (DC-motors), while most commercially available robots have velocity controlled actuators. It is possible to extend a traditional controller, which uses velocity controlled actuators and which is designed to control rigid robots, to a controller for flexible robots. However, it is shown that the high gain velocity loop introduces a controllability problem. The proposed control approach is based on state feedback, built around a high gain velocity controlled actuator. The total dynamic model consists of a parallel combination of the models relating the differential velocity input to the joint position on the one hand and relating the differential velocity input to the flexible deformation on the other. This structure is proven to solve the controllability problem. By state feedback together with feedforward, accurate tracking, proper positioning and oscillation suppression during and after positioning of the end point are achieved. Test results on a bread board model prove the applicability of the proposed control scheme.

  14. Mathematical Modeling for Lateral Displacement Induced by Wind Velocity Using Monitoring Data Obtained from Main Girder of Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the health monitoring system installed on the main span of Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge, GPS displacement and wind field are real-time monitored and analyzed. According to analytical results, apparent nonlinear correlation with certain discreteness exists between lateral static girder displacement and lateral static wind velocity; thus time series of lateral static girder displacement are decomposed into nonlinear correlation term and discreteness term, nonlinear correlation term of which is mathematically modeled by third-order Fourier series with intervention of lateral static wind velocity and discreteness term of which is mathematically modeled by the combined models of ARMA(7,4 and EGARCH(2,1. Additionally, stable power spectrum density exists in time series of lateral dynamic girder displacement, which can be well described by the fourth-order Gaussian series; thus time series of lateral dynamic girder displacement are mathematically modeled by harmonic superposition function. By comparison and verification between simulative and monitoring lateral girder displacements from September 1 to September 3, the presented mathematical models are effective to simulate time series of lateral girder displacement from main girder of Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge.

  15. One-dimensional velocity model of the Middle Kura Depresion from local earthquakes data of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetirmishli, G. C.; Kazimova, S. E.; Kazimov, I. E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the method for determining the velocity model of the Earth's crust and the parameters of earthquakes in the Middle Kura Depression from the data of network telemetry in Azerbaijan. Application of this method allowed us to recalculate the main parameters of the hypocenters of the earthquake, to compute the corrections to the arrival times of P and S waves at the observation station, and to significantly improve the accuracy in determining the coordinates of the earthquakes. The model was constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates one-dimensional minimal velocity models from the travel times of seismic waves.

  16. UCVM: An Open Source Framework for 3D Velocity Model Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Small, P.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide fundamental input data to ground motion simulations, in the form of structured or unstructured meshes or grids. Numerous models are available for California, as well as for other parts of the United States and Europe, but models do not share a common interface. Being able to interact with these models in a standardized way is critical in order to configure and run 3D ground motion simulations. The Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software, developed by researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an open source framework designed to provide a cohesive way to interact with seismic velocity models. We describe the several ways in which we have improved the UCVM software over the last year. We have simplified the UCVM installation process by automating the installation of various community codebases, improving the ease of use.. We discuss how UCVM software was used to build velocity meshes for high-frequency (4Hz) deterministic 3D wave propagation simulations, and how the UCVM framework interacts with other open source resources, such as NetCDF file formats for visualization. The UCVM software uses a layered software architecture that transparently converts geographic coordinates to the coordinate systems used by the underlying velocity models and supports inclusion of a configurable near-surface geotechnical layer, while interacting with the velocity model codes through their existing software interfaces. No changes to the velocity model codes are required. Our recent UCVM installation improvements bundle UCVM with a setup script, written in Python, which guides users through the process that installs the UCVM software along with all the user-selectable velocity models. Each velocity model is converted into a standardized (configure, make, make install) format that is easily downloaded and installed via the script. UCVM is often run in specialized high performance computing (HPC

  17. GPS measurements in Satakunta area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ahola, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute, the Geological Survey of Finland, Posiva Ltd and municipalities in the district of Satakunta launched the GeoSatakunta research program in 2002 to carry out interdisciplinary studies on regional bedrock stress field and to apply the results e.g. in land use planning in the Satakunta area. The area was chosen for many reasons. Its geological diversity, extensive multi-disciplinary data coverage, and various interests of participants made the area suitable for the project. The purpose of the GPS observations is to get detailed information on recent crustal deformations in the area. The Finnish Geodetic Institute maintains e.g. national GPS network, FinnRef, and since 1995 a local research network in the Olkiluoto area. The Satakunta network differs from these, and this is the first time to obtain such detailed information of a regional network in Finland. The Satakunta GPS network consists of 13 concrete pillars for episodic GPS campaigns and the Olkiluoto permanent GPS station in the FinnRef network. The distances between the concrete pillars are 10-15 km, and the sites were chosen in a co-operation with the Geological Survey of Finland taking into account the geological structures in the area. The City of Pori made the final reconnaissance in the field and constructed eight pillars in 2003. The original network was expanded in 2005-2006 in Eurajoki and Rauma, and at the City of Rauma joined the co-operation. The five new pillars join the previous Olkiluoto network into the Satakunta network. There have been three annual GPS campaigns in 2003-2008. Time series of the Satakunta network are shorter than in the Olkiluoto network, and also the distances are longer. Therefore, the same accuracy than in Olkiluoto has not yet achieved. However, mm-sized movements can be excluded. Estimated velocities were small (0.2 mm/a) and mostly statistically insignificant because of relatively short time series. In this publication we describe the

  18. Analysis the Source model of the 2009 Mw 7.6 Padang Earthquake in Sumatra Region using continuous GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amertha Sanjiwani, I. D. M.; En, C. K.; Anjasmara, I. M.

    2017-12-01

    A seismic gap on the interface along the Sunda subduction zone has been proposed among the 2000, 2004, 2005 and 2007 great earthquakes. This seismic gap therefore plays an important role in the earthquake risk on the Sunda trench. The Mw 7.6 Padang earthquake, an intraslab event, was occurred on September 30, 2009 located at ± 250 km east of the Sunda trench, close to the seismic gap on the interface. To understand the interaction between the seismic gap and the Padang earthquake, twelves continuous GPS data from SUGAR are adopted in this study to estimate the source model of this event. The daily GPS coordinates one month before and after the earthquake were calculated by the GAMIT software. The coseismic displacements were evaluated based on the analysis of coordinate time series in Padang region. This geodetic network provides a rather good spatial coverage for examining the seismic source along the Padang region in detail. The general pattern of coseismic horizontal displacements is moving toward epicenter and also the trench. The coseismic vertical displacement pattern is uplift. The highest coseismic displacement derived from the MSAI station are 35.0 mm for horizontal component toward S32.1°W and 21.7 mm for vertical component. The second largest one derived from the LNNG station are 26.6 mm for horizontal component toward N68.6°W and 3.4 mm for vertical component. Next, we will use uniform stress drop inversion to invert the coseismic displacement field for estimating the source model. Then the relationship between the seismic gap on the interface and the intraslab Padang earthquake will be discussed in the next step. Keyword: seismic gap, Padang earthquake, coseismic displacement.

  19. Crustal P-wave velocity model for the central-western region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, J.; Escudero, C. R.; Perez, O. G.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Several studies require a p-wave velocity model to obtain accurate results moreover such models could provide an insight of the tectonic structure of the study area. Accordingly, in this study we estimate the crustal 3D p-wave velocity model for the Jalisco Block located at the central-western region of Mexico. The Jalisco Block is limited on its eastern side by the Colima and Tepic-Zacoalcos Rifts, and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; while on its western side it is limited by the Mesoamerican Trench. Cocos and Rivera plates are subducting beneath the Jalisco Block conforming a tectonically complex region. We used earthquakes occurring within the limits of lithosphere volume from which we want to estimate the velocity model. Such events were registered by the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone experiment (MARS) and the Seismic and Acelerometric Network of Jalisco (RESAJ). During MARS experiment 51broadband stations active from January 2006 to June 2007 were deployed while RESAJ by July of 2012consists of nine active stations however more stations will be deployed until reach 30 stations. The velocity model is estimated using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) software. FMTOMO uses the Fast Marching Method (FMM) in order to solve the forward problem; the FMM is a numerical algorithm that tracks the interfaces evolution along a nodes narrow band, and travel times are updated solving the eikonal equation. Finally , the inverse problem is about adjusting the model parameters (interface depth, velocity, hypocenter location) in order to try to satisfy the observed data (travel times). We perform a resolution test using several events that show good resolution results up to a 60 km depth. We present a 3D p-wave velocity model, we compare our results within the MARS data with previous results for greater depths, approximately the upper mantle, finally we also present studies towards the northern portion of the Jalisco Block using the RESAJ data.

  20. Building Subsurface Velocity Models with Sharp Interfaces Using Interface-Guided Seismic Full-Waveform Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Youzuo; Huang, Lianjie

    2017-11-01

    Reverse-time migration has the potential to image complex subsurface structures, including steeply-dipping fault zones, but the method requires an accurate velocity model. Acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion is a promising tool for high-resolution velocity model building. Because of the ill-posedness of acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion, it is a great challenge to obtain accurate velocity models containing sharp interfaces. To improve velocity model building, we develop an acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion method with an interface-guided modified total-variation regularization scheme to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness, particularly for models with sharp interfaces and steeply-dipping fault zones with widths much smaller than the seismic wavelength. The new regularization scheme incorporates interface information into seismic full-waveform inversion. The interface information of subsurface interfaces is obtained iteratively using migration imaging during waveform inversion. Seismic migration is robust for subsurface imaging. Our new acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion takes advantage of the robustness of migration imaging to improve velocity estimation. We use synthetic seismic data for a complex model containing sharp interfaces and several steeply-dipping fault zones to validate the improved capability of our new acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion method. Our inversion results are much better than those produced without using interface-guided regularization. Acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion with an interface-guided modified total-variation regularization scheme has the potential to accurately build subsurface velocity models with sharp interfaces and/or steep fault zones.

  1. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Northern Korean Peninsula 1-D velocity model from surface wave dispersion and full-waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.; Cho, C.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring seismic activities in the northern Korean Peninsula is important not only for understanding the characteristics of earthquakes but also for watching nuclear tests. To better monitor those natural and man-made seismic activities, reliable seismic velocity models are required. However, the seismic velocity structure of the region is not known well due to the lack of available seismic data directly measured in the region. This study presents 1-D velocity models of the region using two different datasets comprised of two-year-long continuous waveform and the 2013 North Korea nuclear test event waveform recorded at stations surrounding the region. Two reference 1-D models for the inland and offshore areas (Western East Sea) were estimated by 1-D inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements from ambient noise cross-correlations of the continuous waveform. To investigate the variations in the velocity models, many 1-D models for the paths between the 2013 nuclear test site and stations in China and South Korea were constructed by forward waveform modeling. The velocity variations are not significant for both models representing the inland and offshore paths, respectively. The 1-D models for the inland paths are similar to the models constructed for the southern Korean Peninsula. Interestingly, waveforms sampling through the offshore paths are not well explained by simple 1-D isotropic models. The preliminary result indicates that there exists radial anisotropy with SH being faster than SV by 3-5% in the upper mantle beneath the offshore northern Korean Peninsula, although further studies are necessary to explain the origin of anisotropy. A proper characterization of propagation effects along the offshore paths would be useful for monitoring future nuclear tests because many seismic stations in the eastern South Korea record waveforms sampling the offshore region from the nuclear test site to those stations.

  3. Velocity and Drag Evolution From the Leading Edge of a Model Mangrove Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Maria; Adler, Katherine; Ramos, Diogo; Garcia, Adrian Mikhail; Nepf, Heidi

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study of unidirectional flow through a model mangrove forest measured both velocity and forces on individual trees. The individual trees were 1/12th scale models of mature Rhizophora, including 24 prop roots distributed in a three-dimensional layout. Thirty-two model trees were distributed in a staggered array producing a 2.5 m long forest. The velocity evolved from a boundary layer profile at the forest leading edge to a vertical profile determined by the vertical distribution of frontal area, with significantly higher velocity above the prop roots. Fully developed conditions were reached at the fifth tree row from the leading edge. Within the root zone the velocity was reduced by up to 50% and the TKE was increased by as much as fivefold, relative to the upstream conditions. TKE in the root zone was mainly produced by root and trunk wakes, and it agreed in magnitude with the estimation obtained using the Tanino and Nepf (2008) formulation. Maximum TKE occurred at the top of the roots, where a strong shear region was associated with the change in frontal area. The drag measured on individual trees decreased from the leading edge and reached a constant value at the fifth row and beyond, i.e., in the fully developed region. The drag exhibited a quadratic dependence on velocity, which justified the definition of a quadratic drag coefficient. Once the correct drag length-scale was defined, the measured drag coefficients collapsed to a single function of Reynolds number.

  4. The Argos-CLS Kalman Filter: Error Structures and State-Space Modelling Relative to Fastloc GPS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Andrew D; Lydersen, Christian; Fedak, Mike A; Lovell, Phil; Kovacs, Kit M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how an animal utilises its surroundings requires its movements through space to be described accurately. Satellite telemetry is the only means of acquiring movement data for many species however data are prone to varying amounts of spatial error; the recent application of state-space models (SSMs) to the location estimation problem have provided a means to incorporate spatial errors when characterising animal movements. The predominant platform for collecting satellite telemetry data on free-ranging animals, Service Argos, recently provided an alternative Doppler location estimation algorithm that is purported to be more accurate and generate a greater number of locations that its predecessor. We provide a comprehensive assessment of this new estimation process performance on data from free-ranging animals relative to concurrently collected Fastloc GPS data. Additionally, we test the efficacy of three readily-available SSM in predicting the movement of two focal animals. Raw Argos location estimates generated by the new algorithm were greatly improved compared to the old system. Approximately twice as many Argos locations were derived compared to GPS on the devices used. Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) for each optimal SSM were less than 4.25 km with some producing RMSE of less than 2.50 km. Differences in the biological plausibility of the tracks between the two focal animals used to investigate the utility of SSM highlights the importance of considering animal behaviour in movement studies. The ability to reprocess Argos data collected since 2008 with the new algorithm should permit questions of animal movement to be revisited at a finer resolution.

  5. The Argos-CLS Kalman Filter: Error Structures and State-Space Modelling Relative to Fastloc GPS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Lowther

    Full Text Available Understanding how an animal utilises its surroundings requires its movements through space to be described accurately. Satellite telemetry is the only means of acquiring movement data for many species however data are prone to varying amounts of spatial error; the recent application of state-space models (SSMs to the location estimation problem have provided a means to incorporate spatial errors when characterising animal movements. The predominant platform for collecting satellite telemetry data on free-ranging animals, Service Argos, recently provided an alternative Doppler location estimation algorithm that is purported to be more accurate and generate a greater number of locations that its predecessor. We provide a comprehensive assessment of this new estimation process performance on data from free-ranging animals relative to concurrently collected Fastloc GPS data. Additionally, we test the efficacy of three readily-available SSM in predicting the movement of two focal animals. Raw Argos location estimates generated by the new algorithm were greatly improved compared to the old system. Approximately twice as many Argos locations were derived compared to GPS on the devices used. Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE for each optimal SSM were less than 4.25 km with some producing RMSE of less than 2.50 km. Differences in the biological plausibility of the tracks between the two focal animals used to investigate the utility of SSM highlights the importance of considering animal behaviour in movement studies. The ability to reprocess Argos data collected since 2008 with the new algorithm should permit questions of animal movement to be revisited at a finer resolution.

  6. Professional growth of trainees: applying teacher training models to the training of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel, George; Gavriel, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Study of professional growth is useful for reflective purposes at any time during a career. The concept of known knowns and unknowns with a training twist can be used to summarise the overall stages of any trainee. At the start of vocational training the trainee does not know what they do not know, they have not yet recognised how much they have to learn. This happens in the second stage (that could be equated to survival) when they begin to understand the vast array of skills they must develop to make it look easy. With time and practice they will reach the point where they know what they have to do--not always getting it right but then who does? Finally, and it is particularly important that trainers recognise this, an individual will reach the point where everything is so automatic they are no longer aware of the intricacies of the skills they have acquired. This is where most trainers, both for teachers and GPs, find themselves and this can be frustrating for both trainee and trainer as they find they are unable to communicate effectively. A good trainer will spend time dissecting and 'unlearning' their skills so they are able to teach their trainees successfully. Trainees, meanwhile, must realise that, one day, they will have their own unknown knowns, but they cannot expect it to happen overnight or without substantial effort. In moving forward from our training it is how we deal with repeated survival stages that determines if we can keep doing the job, it is how we deal with the plateau that determines if we will be any good at it--effective on-the-job training leads to lifelong on-the-job learning.

  7. Methodological approach for the estimation of a new velocity model for continental Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Parra, Humberto

    2017-12-01

    We used 33 stations belonging of the Ecuador Continuous Monitoring GNSS Network (REGME) during the period 2008-2014, with aim to contribute with a methodological approach for the estimation of a new velocity model for Continental Ecuador. We used daily solutions to perform the analysis of GNSS time series, to obtain models of the series that best fit, taking into count the trend, seasonal variations and the type of noise. The sum of all these components represent the real-time series, and thus we can have a better estimation of the velocity parameter and its uncertainty. The velocities were calculated introducing the trend, seasonality and noise that were presented in each series into the overall model, which improved uncertainty by 12% and changed in magnitude up to 1.7 mm/yr and 2.5 mm/yr in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, with respect to the initial velocities. The velocity field describes the crustal movement of the REGME stations in mainland Ecuador with uncertainty of 1 mm/yr and 2 mm/yr for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. Finally, a velocity model has been developed using the kriging technique whose geostatistical approach has been based on the data to identify the spatial characteristics by examining the observations by peers. The mean square error (rms) of prediction obtained in this method is 1.78 mm/yr and 1.95 mm/yr in the east and north components, respectivaly. The vertical component could not be modeled due to its chaotic behavior.

  8. Rip current monitoring using GPS buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, DongSeob; Kim, InHo; Kang, DongSoo

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of rip current in the Haeundae beach, which is one of the most famous beaches in South Korea, has been threatening beach-goers security in summer season annually. Many coastal scientists have been investigating rip currents by using field observations and measurements, laboratory measurements and wave tank experiments, and computer and numerical modeling. Rip current velocity is intermittent and may rapidly increase within minutes due to larger incoming wave groups or nearshore circulation instabilities. It is important to understand that changes in rip current velocity occur in response to changes in incoming wave height and period as well as changes in water level. GPS buoys have been used to acquire sea level change data, atmospheric parameters and other oceanic variables in sea for the purposes of vertical datum determination, tide correction, radar altimeter calibration, ocean environment and marine pollution monitoring. Therefore, we adopted GPS buoy system for an experiment which is to investigate rip current velocity; it is sporadic and may quickly upsurge within minutes due to larger arriving wave groups or nearshore flow uncertainties. In this study, for high accurate positioning of buy equipment, a Satellite Based Argumentation System DGPS data logger was deployed to investigate within floating object, and it can be acquired three-dimensional coordinate or geodetic position of buoy with continuous NMEA-0183 protocol during 24 hours. The wave height measured by in-situ hydrometer in a cross-shore array clearly increased before and after occurrence of rip current, and wave period also was lengthened around an event. These results show that wave height and period correlate reasonably well with long-shore current interaction in the Haeundae beach. Additionally, current meter data and GPS buoy data showed that rip current velocities, about 0.2 m/s, may become dangerously strong under specific conditions. Acknowledgement This research was

  9. Velocity Model Analysis Based on Integrated Well and Seismic Data of East Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin, Fathul; Widya, Aviandy; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Nurul Mahmudah, Erma; Purwaman, Indro; Radityo, Aryo; Shirly, Agung; Nurwani, Citra

    2018-03-01

    Time to depth conversion is an important processof seismic interpretationtoidentify hydrocarbonprospectivity. Main objectives of this research are to minimize the risk of error in geometry and time to depth conversion. Since it’s using a large amount of data and had been doing in the large scale of research areas, this research can be classified as a regional scale research. The research was focused on three horizons time interpretation: Top Kujung I, Top Ngimbang and Basement which located in the offshore and onshore areas of east Java basin. These three horizons was selected because they were assumed to be equivalent to the rock formation, which is it has always been the main objective of oil and gas exploration in the East Java Basin. As additional value, there was no previous works on velocity modeling for regional scale using geological parameters in East Java basin. Lithology and interval thickness were identified as geological factors that effected the velocity distribution in East Java Basin. Therefore, a three layer geological model was generated, which was defined by the type of lithology; carbonate (layer 1: Top Kujung I), shale (layer 2: Top Ngimbang) and Basement. A statistical method using three horizons is able to predict the velocity distribution on sparse well data in a regional scale. The average velocity range for Top Kujung I is 400 m/s - 6000 m/s, Top Ngimbang is 500 m/s - 8200 m/s and Basement is 600 m/s - 8000 m/s. Some velocity anomalies found in Madura sub-basin area, caused by geological factor which identified as thick shale deposit and high density values on shale. Result of velocity and depth modeling analysis can be used to define the volume range deterministically and to make geological models to prospect generation in details by geological concept.

  10. CONSTRAINING THE NFW POTENTIAL WITH OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXY VELOCITY FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Mihos, J. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We model the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) potential to determine if, and under what conditions, the NFW halo appears consistent with the observed velocity fields of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We present mock DensePak Integral Field Unit (IFU) velocity fields and rotation curves of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric potentials that are well matched to the spatial resolution and velocity range of our sample galaxies. We find that the DensePak IFU can accurately reconstruct the velocity field produced by an axisymmetric NFW potential and that a tilted-ring fitting program can successfully recover the corresponding NFW rotation curve. We also find that nonaxisymmetric potentials with fixed axis ratios change only the normalization of the mock velocity fields and rotation curves and not their shape. The shape of the modeled NFW rotation curves does not reproduce the data: these potentials are unable to simultaneously bring the mock data at both small and large radii into agreement with observations. Indeed, to match the slow rise of LSB galaxy rotation curves, a specific viewing angle of the nonaxisymmetric potential is required. For each of the simulated LSB galaxies, the observer's line of sight must be along the minor axis of the potential, an arrangement that is inconsistent with a random distribution of halo orientations on the sky.

  11. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  12. On the assimilation of ice velocity and concentration data into large-scale sea ice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dulière

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate way to further assimilate sea ice concentration and velocity observations into a global sea ice-ocean model, we analyze here results from a number of twin experiments (i.e. experiments in which the assimilated data are model outputs carried out with a simplified model of the Arctic sea ice pack. Our objective is to determine to what degree the assimilation of ice velocity and/or concentration data improves the global performance of the model and, more specifically, reduces the error in the computed ice thickness. A simple optimal interpolation scheme is used, and outputs from a control run and from perturbed experiments without and with data assimilation are thoroughly compared. Our results indicate that, under certain conditions depending on the assimilation weights and the type of model error, the assimilation of ice velocity data enhances the model performance. The assimilation of ice concentration data can also help in improving the model behavior, but it has to be handled with care because of the strong connection between ice concentration and ice thickness. This study is first step towards real data assimilation into NEMO-LIM, a global sea ice-ocean model.

  13. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, J. A.; DeMets, C.; Jansma, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al. (2007) is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. COCONet is a multi-hazard GPS-Met observatory, which extends the existing infrastructure of the PBO in North America into the Caribbean basin. In 2010, UNAVCO in collaboration with UCAR, was funded by NSF to design, build, and initially maintain a network of 50 new cGPS/Met sites and include data from another 50 existing sites in the Caribbean region. The COCONet siting plan is for 46 new stations, 21 refurbished stations, and 77 existing stations across 26 nations in the Caribbean region. Data from all COCONet sites flow into the UNAVCO archive and are processed by the PBO analysis centers and are also processed independently by the UTA Geodesy Lab using GIPSY-OASISII (v.6.3) using an APP strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, and EOP from JPL in the IGS08r frame. We present a refined estimate of Caribbean plate motion by evaluating data from an expanded number of stations with an improved spatial distribution. In order to better constrain the eastern margin of the plate near the Lesser Antilles subduction interface, campaign GPS observations have been collected on the island of Dominica over the last decade. These are combined with additional campaign observations from the western Caribbean, specifically from Honduras and Nicaragua. We have analyzed a total of 117 sites from the Caribbean region, including campaign data and the data from the cGPS stations that comprise COCONet. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate is presented and an inversion of the velocities for 24 sites yields a plate angular velocity that differs from previously published models. Our best fitting inversion to GPS velocities from these 24 sites suggests that 2-plate model for the Caribbean is required to fit the GPS observations, which implies that the Caribbean is undergoing modest (1-3 mm/yr) deformation within its interior. Some

  14. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: I. Model and velocity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J [Cardiovascular Research Group Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Buick, J M [Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Anglesea Building, Anglesea Road, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-21

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool in the investigation of human blood flow and arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis. It is known that near wall velocity and shear are important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper results for a simulation of blood flow in a three-dimensional carotid artery geometry using the lattice Boltzmann method are presented. The velocity fields in the body of the fluid are analysed at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. It is found that the three-dimensional model agrees well with previous literature results for carotid artery flow. Regions of low near wall velocity and circulatory flow are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery, which are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  15. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: I. Model and velocity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J; Buick, J M

    2008-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool in the investigation of human blood flow and arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis. It is known that near wall velocity and shear are important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper results for a simulation of blood flow in a three-dimensional carotid artery geometry using the lattice Boltzmann method are presented. The velocity fields in the body of the fluid are analysed at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. It is found that the three-dimensional model agrees well with previous literature results for carotid artery flow. Regions of low near wall velocity and circulatory flow are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery, which are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  16. Car-following model with relative-velocity effect and its experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto, Daisuke; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishi, Ryosuke; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2011-04-01

    In driving a vehicle, drivers respond to the changes of both the headway and the relative velocity to the vehicle in front. In this paper a new car-following model including these maneuvers is proposed. The acceleration of the model becomes infinite (has a singularity) when the distance between two vehicles is zero, and the asymmetry between the acceleration and the deceleration is incorporated in a nonlinear way. The model is simple but contains enough features of driving for reproducing real vehicle traffic. From the linear stability analysis, we confirm that the model shows the metastable homogeneous flow around the critical density, beyond which a traffic jam emerges. Moreover, we perform experiments to verify this model. From the data it is shown that the acceleration of a vehicle has a positive correlation with the relative velocity.

  17. Ab initio calculation of the sound velocity of dense hydrogen: implications for models of Jupiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1995-01-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulations were used to calculate the sound velocity of dense hydrogen, and the results were compared with extrapolations of experimental data that currently conflict with either astrophysical models or data obtained from recent global oscillation measurements of

  18. Inertialess Velocity Change and a Two Particle Model of the Photon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Spencer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building on the idea presented earlier that the gravitational fields outside of basic particles are those particles’ inertia and that acceleration results only from inertial field imbalances, inertialess velocity changes may result when motivation for motion arises from within basic particles. A two particle model of the photon shows how this might work

  19. Modeling the Coupled Effects of Pore Space Geometry and Velocity on Colloid Transport and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent experimental and theoretical work has demonstrated that pore space geometry and hydrodynamics can play an important role in colloid retention under unfavorable attachment conditions. Computer models that only consider the average pore-water velocity and a single attachment rate coefficient a...

  20. Analytical models for predicting the ion velocity distributions in JET in the presence of ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Eriksson, L.G.; Lisak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The present report summarizes the work performed within the contract JT4/9008, the aim of which is to derive analytical models for ion velocity distributions resulting from ICRF heating on JET. The work has been performed over a two-year-period ending in August 1986 and has involved a total effort of 2.4 man years. (author)

  1. Traffic jam and discontinuity induced by slowdown in two-stage optimal-velocity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    We study the traffic states and jams induced by a slowdown of vehicles in a single-lane highway. The two-stage optimal velocity model is used in which the optimal velocity function has two turning points. The fundamental (flow-density) diagrams are calculated. At low density, the flow (current) increases linearly with density, while it saturates at some values of intermediate density. When the flow saturates, the discontinuous front (stationary shock wave) appears before or within the section of slowdown. The values of saturated flow are determined by the extreme values of theoretical current curves. The relationship between the densities is derived before and after the discontinuity.

  2. 3D Crustal Velocity Structure Model of the Middle-eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Wang, F.; Lin, J.; Wei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lithosphere thinning and destruction in the middle-eastern North China Craton (NCC), a region susceptible to strong earthquakes, is one of the research hotspots in solid earth science. Up to 42 wide-angle reflection/refraction deep seismic sounding (DSS) profiles have been completed in the middle-eastern NCC, we collect all the 2D profiling results and perform gridding of the velocity and interface depth data, and build a 3D crustal velocity structure model for the middle-eastern NCC, named HBCrust1.0, using the Kriging interpolation method. In this model, four layers are divided by three interfaces: G is the interface between the sedimentary cover and crystalline crust, with velocities of 5.0-5.5 km/s above and 5.8-6.0 km/s below. C is the interface of the upper and lower crust, with velocity jump from 6.2-6.4 km/s to 6.5-6.6 km/s. M is the interface between the crust and upper mantle, with velocity 6.7-7.0 km/s at the crust bottom and 7.9-8.0 km/s on mantle top. Our results show that the first arrival time calculated from HBCust1.0 fit well with the observation. It also demonstrates that the upper crust is the main seismogenic layer, and the brittle-ductile transition occurs at depths near interface C. The depth of interface Moho varies beneath the source area of the Tangshan earth-quake, and a low-velocity structure is found to extend from the source area to the lower crust. Based on these observations, it can be inferred that stress accumulation responsible for the Tangshan earthquake may have been closely related to the migration and deformation of the mantle materials. Comparisons of the average velocities of the whole crust, the upper and the lower crust show that the average velocity of the lower crust under the central part of the North China Basin (NCB) in the east of the craton is obviously higher than the regional average, this high-velocity probably results from longterm underplating of the mantle magma. This research is founded by the Natural Science

  3. Retrieval Assimilation and Modeling of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Ground- and Space-Based GPS Networks: Investigation of the Global and Regional Hydrological Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1999-01-01

    Uncertainty over the response of the atmospheric hydrological cycle (particularly the distribution of water vapor and cloudiness) to anthropogenic forcing is a primary source of doubt in current estimates of global climate sensitivity, which raises severe difficulties in evaluating its likely societal impact. Fortunately, a variety of advanced techniques and sensors are beginning to shed new light on the atmospheric hydrological cycle. One of the most promising makes use of the sensitivity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to the thermodynamic state, and in particular the water vapor content, of the atmosphere through which the radio signals propagate. Our strategy to derive the maximum benefit for hydrological studies from the rapidly increasing GPS data stream will proceed in three stages: (1) systematically analyze and archive quality-controlled retrievals using state-of-the-art techniques; (2) employ both currently available and innovative assimilation procedures to incorporate these determinations into advanced regional and global atmospheric models and assess their effects; and (3) apply the results to investigate selected scientific issues of relevance to regional and global hydrological studies. An archive of GPS-based estimation of total zenith delay (TZD) data and water vapor where applicable has been established with expanded automated quality control. The accuracy of the GPS estimates is being monitored; the investigation of systematic errors is ongoing using comparisons with water vapor radiometers. Meteorological packages have been implemented. The accuracy and utilization of the TZD estimates has been improved by implementing a troposphere gradient model. GPS-based gradients have been validated as real atmospheric moisture gradients, establishing a link between the estimated gradients and the passage of weather fronts. We have developed a generalized ray tracing inversion scheme that can be used to analyze occultation data acquired from space

  4. A New Open-Loop Fiber Optic Gyro Error Compensation Method Based on Angular Velocity Error Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing

    2015-01-01

    With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage  and temperature  as the input variables and angular velocity error  as the output variable. Firstly, the angular ve...

  5. Angular velocity estimation based on star vector with improved current statistical model Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Zhang, He

    2016-11-20

    Angular velocity information is a requisite for a spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control system. In this paper, an approach for angular velocity estimation based merely on star vector measurement with an improved current statistical model Kalman filter is proposed. High-precision angular velocity estimation can be achieved under dynamic conditions. The amount of calculation is also reduced compared to a Kalman filter. Different trajectories are simulated to test this approach, and experiments with real starry sky observation are implemented for further confirmation. The estimation accuracy is proved to be better than 10-4  rad/s under various conditions. Both the simulation and the experiment demonstrate that the described approach is effective and shows an excellent performance under both static and dynamic conditions.

  6. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1997-12-31

    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  7. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumo, T.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors

  8. Numerical Material Model for Composite Laminates in High-Velocity Impact Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract A numerical material model for composite laminate, was developed and integrated into the nonlinear dynamic explicit finite element programs as a material user subroutine. This model coupling nonlinear state of equation (EOS, was a macro-mechanics model, which was used to simulate the major mechanical behaviors of composite laminate under high-velocity impact conditions. The basic theoretical framework of the developed material model was introduced. An inverse flyer plate simulation was conducted, which demonstrated the advantage of the developed model in characterizing the nonlinear shock response. The developed model and its implementation were validated through a classic ballistic impact issue, i.e. projectile impacting on Kevlar29/Phenolic laminate. The failure modes and ballistic limit velocity were analyzed, and a good agreement was achieved when comparing with the analytical and experimental results. The computational capacity of this model, for Kevlar/Epoxy laminates with different architectures, i.e. plain-woven and cross-plied laminates, was further evaluated and the residual velocity curves and damage cone were accurately predicted.

  9. Minimum 1D P wave velocity model for the Cordillera Volcanica de Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, Maria C.; Linkimer, Lepolt; Taylor, Waldo

    2016-01-01

    A minimum velocity model is derived from 475 local earthquakes registered by the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico Arenal Miravalles (OSIVAM) for the Cordillera Volcanica de Guanacaste, between January 2006 and July 2014. The model has consisted of six layers from the surface up to 80 km the depth. The model has presented speeds varying between 3,96 and 7,79 km/s. The corrections obtained from the seismic stations have varied between -0,28 to 0,45, and they have shown a trend of positive values on the volcanic arc and negative on the forearc, in concordance with the crustal thickness. The relocation of earthquakes have presented three main groups of epicenters that could be associated with activity in inferred failures. The minimum ID velocity model has provided a simplified idea of the crustal structure and aims to contribute with the improvement of the routine location of earthquakes performed by OSIVAM. (author) [es

  10. Jenkins Model Based Ferrofluid Lubrication of a Curved Rough Annular Squeeze Film with Slip Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Patel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the combined effect of roughness and slip velocity on the performance of a Jenkins model based ferrofluid squeeze film in curved annular plates. Beavers and Joseph’s slip model has been adopted to incorporate the effect of slip velocity. The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder has been deployed to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. The associated stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is solved to derive the pressure distribution, leading to the calculation of load carrying capacity. The graphical representation makes it clear that although, the effect of transverse surface roughness is adverse in general, Jenkins model based ferrofluid lubrication provides some measures in mitigating the adverse effect and this becomes more manifest when the slip parameter is reduced and negatively skewed roughness occurs. Of course, a judicious choice of curvature parameters and variance (-ve add to this positive effect.

  11. Present-day Kinematics of Papua New Guinea from GPS campaign measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulali Idrissi, A.; McClusky, S.; Tregoning, P.

    2013-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a complex tectonic region located in the convergence zone between the Australian and Pacific Plate. It occupies arguably one of the most tectonically complicated regions of the world, and its geodynamic evolution involves micro-plate rotation, lithospheric rupture forming ocean basins, arc-continent collision, subduction polarity reversal, collisional orogenesis, ophiolite obduction, and exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic (ultramafic) rocks. In this study we present a GPS derived velocity field based on 1993-2008 survey mode observations at 30 GPS sites. We combine our results with previously published GPS velocities to investigate the deformation in northern and northwestern Papua New Guinea. We use an elastic block model to invert the regional GPS velocities as well as earthquake slip vectors for poles of rotation of several micro-plates. The micro-plate block boundary fault geometry is based on geological mapping and regional seismicity. The results show that fault system north of the Highlands fold and thrust belt is the major boundary between the rigid Australian Plate and the north Highlands block, with convergence occurring at rates of between ~ 6 and 11.5 mm/yr. The relative motion across the northern Highlands block increases to the north to ~ 21-24 mm/yr, meaning that the New Guinea trench is likely accumulating elastic strain and confirming that the new Guinea Trench is an active inter-plate boundary. Our results also show, that the north New Guinea Highlands and the Papuan peninsula are best modelled as two blocks separated by a boundary through the Aure Fold belt Belt complex. This block boundary today is accommodating an estimated 4-5 mm/yr dextral motion. Our model also confirms previous results showing that the Ramu-Markham fault accommodates the deformation associated with the Finisterre arc-continent collision. This new GPS velocity field provides fresh insights into the details of the kinematics of the PNG present

  12. Development of a State-Wide 3-D Seismic Tomography Velocity Model for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C. H.; Lin, G.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.; Waldhauser, F.; Hardebeck, J.; Brocher, T.

    2007-12-01

    We report on progress towards the development of a state-wide tomographic model of the P-wave velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle of California. The dataset combines first arrival times from earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded on regional network stations and travel times of first arrivals from explosions and airguns recorded on profile receivers and network stations. The principal active-source datasets are Geysers-San Pablo Bay, Imperial Valley, Livermore, W. Mojave, Gilroy-Coyote Lake, Shasta region, Great Valley, Morro Bay, Mono Craters-Long Valley, PACE, S. Sierras, LARSE 1 and 2, Loma Prieta, BASIX, San Francisco Peninsula and Parkfield. Our beta-version model is coarse (uniform 30 km horizontal and variable vertical gridding) but is able to image the principal features in previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, such as the high-velocity subducting Gorda Plate, upper to middle crustal velocity highs beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Coast Ranges, the deep low-velocity basins of the Great Valley, Ventura, and Los Angeles, and a high- velocity body in the lower crust underlying the Great Valley. The new state-wide model has improved areal coverage compared to the previous models, and extends to greater depth due to the data at large epicentral distances. We plan a series of steps to improve the model. We are enlarging and calibrating the active-source dataset as we obtain additional picks from investigators and perform quality control analyses on the existing and new picks. We will also be adding data from more quarry blasts, mainly in northern California, following an identification and calibration procedure similar to Lin et al. (2006). Composite event construction (Lin et al., in press) will be carried out for northern California for use in conventional tomography. A major contribution of the state-wide model is the identification of earthquakes yielding arrival times at both the Northern California Seismic

  13. Depth-integrated modelling on onshore and offshore sandbar migration: Revision of fall velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hong; Sanchez-Arcilla, Agustin; Caceres, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of morphodynamic modelling and analysis of onshore and offshore sandbar migration based on a depth-integrated approach. The coastal flow was modeled using the Boussinesq equation and the morphological evolution was modeled using the suspended sediment transport equation and bed load formulae based on the instantaneous velocity and acceleration. The proposed model was applied to the accretive and erosive conditions and the model reproduced the onshore and offshore sandbar migration and the formation of a berm around the shoreline reasonably. An analysis of the computed results revealed the following. (i) The vertical flow velocity can affect the suspension time of the sediments considerably and the bottom evolution. (ii) The suspended load is the main contributor to the morphological changes in terms of the quantity and quality, regardless of the accretive or erosive conditions. (iii) Regardless of accretive or erosive conditions, in terms of the time-average, the instantaneous flow velocity and acceleration-based bed load models always yielded an offshore and onshore direction sediment flux, respectively, except in the swash zone. On the other hand, the suspended sediment flux calculated by the advection-diffusion equation results in the sediment transport in either direction depending on the flow field.

  14. Three-dimensional S-wave velocity model of the Bohemian Massif from Bayesian ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František; Maierová, Petra

    2017-10-01

    We perform two-step surface wave tomography of phase-velocity dispersion curves obtained by ambient noise cross-correlations in the Bohemian Massif. In the first step, the inter-station dispersion curves were inverted for each period (ranging between 4 and 20 s) separately into phase-velocity maps using 2D adjoint method. In the second step, we perform Bayesian inversion of the set of the phase-velocity maps into an S-wave velocity model. To sample the posterior probability density function, the parallel tempering algorithm is employed providing over 1 million models. From the model samples, not only mean model but also its uncertainty is determined to appraise the reliable features. The model is correlated with known main geologic structures of the Bohemian Massif. The uppermost low-velocity anomalies are in agreement with thick sedimentary basins. In deeper parts (4-20 km), the S-wave velocity anomalies correspond, in general, to main tectonic domains of the Bohemian Massif. The exception is a stable low-velocity body in the middle of the high-velocity Moldanubian domain and high-velocity body resembling a promontory of the Moldanubian into the Teplá-Barrandian domain. The most pronounced (high-velocity) anomaly is located beneath the Eger Rift that is a part of a Tertiary rift system across Europe.

  15. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time-location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Long, Thomas C; Schultz, Bradley D; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E; Isaacs, Kristin K; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M; Devlin, Robert B; Batterman, Stuart A; Buckley, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time-location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies.

  16. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time–location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: Model evaluation in central North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S.; Long, Thomas C.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E.; Isaacs, Kristin K.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W.; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Buckley, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time–location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

  17. An extended macro traffic flow model accounting for multiple optimal velocity functions with different probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wang, Jufeng

    2017-08-01

    Due to the maximum velocity and safe headway distance of the different vehicles are not exactly the same, an extended macro model of traffic flow with the consideration of multiple optimal velocity functions with probabilities is proposed in this paper. By means of linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability condition considering multiple probabilities optimal velocity is obtained. The KdV-Burgers equation is derived to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the neutral stability line through nonlinear analysis. The numerical simulations of influences of multiple maximum velocities and multiple safety distances on model's stability and traffic capacity are carried out. The cases of two different kinds of maximum speeds with same safe headway distance, two different types of safe headway distances with same maximum speed and two different max velocities and two different time-gaps are all explored by numerical simulations. First cases demonstrate that when the proportion of vehicles with a larger vmax increase, the traffic tends to unstable, which also means that jerk and brakes is not conducive to traffic stability and easier to result in stop and go phenomenon. Second cases show that when the proportion of vehicles with greater safety spacing increases, the traffic tends to be unstable, which also means that too cautious assumptions or weak driving skill is not conducive to traffic stability. Last cases indicate that increase of maximum speed is not conducive to traffic stability, while reduction of the safe headway distance is conducive to traffic stability. Numerical simulation manifests that the mixed driving and traffic diversion does not have effect on the traffic capacity when traffic density is low or heavy. Numerical results also show that mixed driving should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when the traffic density is lower, while the traffic diversion should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when

  18. Models for assessing the relative phase velocity in a two-phase flow. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrath, A.; Ringel, H.

    2000-06-01

    The knowledge of slip or drift flux in two phase flow is necessary for several technical processes (e.g. two phase pressure losses, heat and mass transfer in steam generators and condensers, dwell period in chemical reactors, moderation effectiveness of two phase coolant in BWR). In the following the most important models for two phase flow with different phase velocities (e.g. slip or drift models, analogy between pressure loss and steam quality, ε - ε models and models for the calculation of void distribution in reposing fluids) are classified, described and worked up for a further comparison with own experimental data. (orig.)

  19. Modeling Atmospheric Turbulence via Rapid Distortion Theory: Spectral Tensor of Velocity and Buoyancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    A spectral tensor model is presented for turbulent fluctuations of wind velocity components and temperature, assuming uniform vertical gradients in mean temperature and mean wind speed. The model is built upon rapid distortion theory (RDT) following studies by Mann and by Hanazaki and Hunt, using...... the eddy lifetime parameterization of Mann to make the model stationary. The buoyant spectral tensor model is driven via five parameters: the viscous dissipation rate epsilon, length scale of energy-containing eddies L, a turbulence anisotropy parameter Gamma, gradient Richardson number (Ri) representing...

  20. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  1. Using GPS telemetry to validate least-cost modeling of gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) movement within a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Claire D; Ferryman, Mark; Nevin, Owen T; Ramsey, Andrew D; Bailey, Sallie; Watts, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    In Britain, the population of native red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris has suffered population declines and local extinctions. Interspecific resource competition and disease spread by the invasive gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis are the main factors behind the decline. Gray squirrels have adapted to the British landscape so efficiently that they are widely distributed. Knowledge on how gray squirrels are using the landscape matrix and being able to predict their movements will aid management. This study is the first to use global positioning system (GPS) collars on wild gray squirrels to accurately record movements and land cover use within the landscape matrix. This data were used to validate Geographical Information System (GIS) least-cost model predictions of movements and provided much needed information on gray squirrel movement pathways and network use. Buffered least-cost paths and least-cost corridors provide predictions of the most probable movements through the landscape and are seen to perform better than the more expansive least-cost networks which include all possible movements. Applying the knowledge and methodologies gained to current gray squirrel expansion areas, such as Scotland and in Italy, will aid in the prediction of potential movement areas and therefore management of the invasive gray squirrel. The methodologies presented in this study could potentially be used in any landscape and on numerous species.

  2. Inlet and outlet boundary conditions for the discrete velocity direction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Qingjun; Lu, Guojing; Xu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-01

    The discrete velocity direction model is an approximate method to the Boltzmann equation, which is an optional kinetic method to microgas flow and heat transfer. In this paper, the treatment of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions for the model is proposed. In the computation strategy, the microscopic molecular speed distribution functions at inlet and outlet are indirectly determined by the macroscopic gas pressure, mass flux and temperature, which are all measurable parameters in microgas flow and heat transfer. The discrete velocity direction model with the pressure correction boundary conditions was applied into the plane Poiseuille flow in microscales and the calculations cover all flow regimes. The numerical results agree well with the data of the NS equation near the continuum regime and the date of linearized Boltzmann equation and the DSMC method in the transition regime and free molecular flow. The Knudsen paradox and the nonlinear pressure distributions have been accurately captured by the discrete velocity direction model with the present boundary conditions.

  3. A seismic waves velocity model for Gran Canaria Island from ambient noise correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Almendros, Javier; Martínez-Arévalo, Carmen; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Luzón, Francisco; Carmona, Enrique; Martín, Rosa; Sánchez, Nieves

    2014-05-01

    We have analysed continuous ambient seismic noise recorded by a temporary array in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) in order to find a velocity model for the top few kilometers. The SISTEVOTENCAN-IGN seismic array consisted of five broadband stations surrounding a sixth central one placed close to Pico de las Nieves, at the center of the island. The array had a radius of 12-14 km, with interstation distances ranging from 10 to 27 km. This network was operative from December 2009 to November 2011. The Green's functions between the 15 pairs of stations have been estimated in the time domain by stacking cross-correlations of 60-s time windows for the whole recording period (~2 years). The effects of several processing adjustments such as 1-bit normalization and spectral whitening are discussed. We observe significant differences (mainly in amplitude) between causal and acausal parts of the estimated Green's functions, which can be associated to an uneven distribution of the seismic noise sources. The application of a phase-matched filter based on an average dispersion curve allowed the effective reduction of some spurious early arrivals and the selection of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave pulses, making possible an automatic extraction of their group velocities. Then, Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves were retrieved for the set of paths by using frequency-time analysis (FTAN) as well as by following the procedure described by Herrin and Goforth (1977, BSSA) based on the iterative fitting of a phase-matched filter which optimally undisperses the signal. Reliable curves were obtained from 1 s to 6-7 s with group velocities ranging between 1.5 and 2.2 km/s. Some lateral variations in velocity have been detected in spite of the limited spatial coverage and path density, which substantially restricted the resolution. A mean S-wave velocity model has been inverted for this area down to ~3 km.

  4. Crustal Deformation along San Andreas Fault System revealed by GPS and Sentinel-1 InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    We present a crustal deformation velocity map along the San Andreas Fault System by combining measurements from Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity models (CGM V1). We assembled 5 tracks of descending Sentinel-1 InSAR data spanning 2014.11-2017.02, and produced 545 interferograms, each of which covers roughly 250km x 420km area ( 60 bursts). These interferograms are unwrapped using SNAPHU [Chen & Zebker, 2002], with the 2Npi unwrapping ambiguity corrected with a sparse recovery method. We used coherence-based small baseline subset (SBAS) method [Tong & Schmidt, 2016] together with atmospheric correction by common-point stacking [Tymofyeyeva and Fialko, 2015] to construct deformation time series [Xu et. al., 2017]. Then we project the horizontal GPS model and vertical GPS data into satellite line-of-sight directions separately. We first remove the horizontal GPS model from InSAR measurements and perform elevation-dependent atmospheric phase correction. Then we compute the discrepancy between the remaining InSAR measurements and vertical GPS data. We interpolate this discrepancy and remove it from the residual InSAR measurements. Finally, we restore the horizontal GPS model. Preliminary results show that fault creep over the San Jacinto fault, the Elsinore fault, and the San Andreas creeping section is clearly resolved. During the period of drought, the Central Valley of California was subsiding at a high rate (up to 40 cm/yr), while the city of San Jose is uplifting due to recharge, with a quaternary fault acting as a ground water barrier. These findings will be reported during the meeting.

  5. A vorticity transport model to restore spatial gaps in velocity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Siavash; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Often measurements of velocity data do not have full spatial coverage in the probed domain or near boundaries. These gaps can be due to missing measurements or masked regions of corrupted data. These gaps confound interpretation, and are problematic when the data is used to compute Lagrangian or trajectory-based analyses. Various techniques have been proposed to overcome coverage limitations in velocity data such as unweighted least square fitting, empirical orthogonal function analysis, variational interpolation as well as boundary modal analysis. In this talk, we present a vorticity transport PDE to reconstruct regions of missing velocity vectors. The transport model involves both nonlinear anisotropic diffusion and advection. This approach is shown to preserve the main features of the flow even in cases of large gaps, and the reconstructed regions are continuous up to second order. We illustrate results for high-frequency radar (HFR) measurements of the ocean surface currents as this is a common application of limited coverage. We demonstrate that the error of the method is on the same order of the error of the original velocity data. In addition, we have developed a web-based gateway for data restoration, and we will demonstrate a practical application using available data. This work is supported by the NSF Grant No. 1520825.

  6. Modelling of the combustion velocity in UIT-85 on sustainable alternative gas fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenskaya, N. M.; Korneev, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    The flame propagation velocity is one of the determining parameters characterizing the intensity of combustion process in the cylinder of an engine with spark ignition. Strengthening of requirements for toxicity and efficiency of the ICE contributes to gradual transition to sustainable alternative fuels, which include the mixture of natural gas with hydrogen. Currently, studies of conditions and regularities of combustion of this fuel to improve efficiency of its application are carried out in many countries. Therefore, the work is devoted to modeling the average propagation velocities of natural gas flame front laced with hydrogen to 15% by weight of the fuel, and determining the possibility of assessing the heat release characteristics on the average velocities of the flame front propagation in the primary and secondary phases of combustion. Experimental studies, conducted the on single cylinder universal installation UIT-85, showed the presence of relationship of the heat release characteristics with the parameters of the flame front propagation. Based on the analysis of experimental data, the empirical dependences for determination of average velocities of flame front propagation in the first and main phases of combustion, taking into account the change in various parameters of engine operation with spark ignition, were obtained. The obtained results allow to determine the characteristics of heat dissipation and to assess the impact of addition of hydrogen to the natural gas combustion process, that is needed to identify ways of improvement of the combustion process efficiency, including when you change the throttling parameters.

  7. A New Open-Loop Fiber Optic Gyro Error Compensation Method Based on Angular Velocity Error Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage  and temperature  as the input variables and angular velocity error  as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error  is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage , temperature  and angular velocity error  are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T,  and  is established and thus  can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to  and . The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by ,  and  relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by ,  and , respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity.

  8. A new open-loop fiber optic gyro error compensation method based on angular velocity error modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing

    2015-02-27

    With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage u and temperature T as the input variables and angular velocity error Δω as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error Δω is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage u, temperature T and angular velocity error Δω are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF) neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, u and Δω is established and thus Δω can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to T and u. The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by 97.0%, 97.1% and 96.5% relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by 1.6%, 1.4% and 1.42%, respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity.

  9. Quantitative explanation of circuit experiments and real traffic using the optimal velocity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Macoto; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have experimentally confirmed that the occurrence of a traffic jam is a dynamical phase transition (Tadaki et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 103034, Sugiyama et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001). In this study, we investigate whether the optimal velocity (OV) model can quantitatively explain the results of experiments. The occurrence and non-occurrence of jammed flow in our experiments agree with the predictions of the OV model. We also propose a scaling rule for the parameters of the model. Using this rule, we obtain critical density as a function of a single parameter. The obtained critical density is consistent with the observed values for highway traffic.

  10. The 2010 Mw 7.8 Mentawai Earthquake: a Tsunami Earthquake With Triggered Subevents Modeled by Regional hr-GPS, Teleseismic Body Waves and Tsunami Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, T.; Yue, H.; Rivera, L. A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Cheung, K.; Bai, Y.; Li, L.; Hill, E.; Sieh, K.; Kongko, W.; Muhari, A.

    2013-12-01

    The 25 October 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia earthquake (Mw 7.8) ruptured the near-trench portion of the subduction zone seaward of the Mentawai islands, off-shore of Sumatra, generating 3 to 9 m tsunami run-up along the southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands and taking at least 431 lives. The location of the main slip area varies in published models and is critical to the tsunami generation mechanism. We constrain the slip model using iterative modeling of high-rate (1 sample/s) GPS observations and teleseismic body wave signals, along with tsunami recordings at buoys and tide gauges. The hr-GPS data, from SuGAR network stations on the Mentawai Islands, recorded the complete ground displacement field produced by the earthquake. The closest station is located ~40 km from the hypocenter, with the time-varying (seismic) portion of the signal constraining the location of the slip. The near-field ground displacement data show a ramp-like initial phase followed by several short period strong oscillations, which suggests that the earthquake is primarily a tsunami earthquake that triggered abrupt subevents. Finite-fault models, inverted jointly from hr-GPS and teleseismic datasets, indicate that the main rupture area extends ~100 km along strike and ~50 km along dip, with a seismic moment of 8×10**21 Nm (Mw = 7.85). An isolated off-shore slip patch with large slip amplitude (~4 m) is apparent later in the rupture. This subevent radiated relatively short-period seismic energy detected in the hr-GPS data. It appears that local regions along the prism toe, perhaps associated with subducted plate bathymetry, can be strongly locked and rupture as a regular event, while most of the toe region has smoother rupture.

  11. The Three-Dimensional Velocity Distribution of Wide Gap Taylor-Couette Flow Modelled by CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shina Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is conducted for the flow between two concentric cylinders with a wide gap, relevant to bearing chamber applications. This wide gap configuration has received comparatively less attention than narrow gap journal bearing type geometries. The flow in the gap between an inner rotating cylinder and an outer stationary cylinder has been modelled as an incompressible flow using an implicit finite volume RANS scheme with the realisable k-ε model. The model flow is above the critical Taylor number at which axisymmetric counterrotating Taylor vortices are formed. The tangential velocity profiles at all axial locations are different from typical journal bearing applications, where the velocity profiles are quasilinear. The predicted results led to two significant findings of impact in rotating machinery operations. Firstly, the axial variation of the tangential velocity gradient induces an axially varying shear stress, resulting in local bands of enhanced work input to the working fluid. This is likely to cause unwanted heat transfer on the surface in high torque turbomachinery applications. Secondly, the radial inflow at the axial end-wall boundaries is likely to promote the transport of debris to the junction between the end-collar and the rotating cylinder, causing the build-up of fouling in the seal.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF MOTION CORRECTED WIND VELOCITY USING AN AEROSTAT LOFTED SONIC ANEMOMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aerostat-lofted, sonic anemometer was used to determine instantaneous 3 dimensional wind velocities at altitudes relevant to fire plume dispersion modeling. An integrated GPS, inertial measurement unit, and attitude heading and reference system corrected the wind data for th...

  13. A comparison between TEC obtained by the TOPEX/Poseidon borne GPS receiver and TEC from the Gallagher model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraolo, L.

    2003-01-01

    JPL archived RINEX files relative to the GPS receiver of TOPEX at the site bodhi.jplnasa.gov/pub/topex/rinex for years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997. The GPS receiver on board was intended as a tool for precise orbitography, but from such data it is possible to extract Differential Phase and Group Delays providing with a biased estimate of slant Total Electron Content (TEC) from TOPEX to GPS. This means a very useful information about TEC in an area above 1340 up to 20000 km, or high topside and plasmasphere. It was possible to get some estimate of the minimum magnitude of slants that can be observed in such region. A comparison with slants obtained by the Gallagher was carried out, with interesting results

  14. A comparison between TEC obtained by the TOPEX/Poseidon borne GPS receiver and TEC from the Gallagher model

    CERN Document Server

    Ciraolo, L

    2002-01-01

    JPL archived RINEX files relative to the GPS receiver of TOPEX at the site bodhi.jplnasa.gov/pub/topex/rinex for years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997. The GPS receiver on board was intended as a tool for precise orbitography, but from such data it is possible to extract Differential Phase and Group Delays providing with a biased estimate of slant Total Electron Content (TEC) from TOPEX to GPS. This means a very useful information about TEC in an area above 1340 up to 20000 km, or high topside and plasmasphere. It was possible to get some estimate of the minimum magnitude of slants that can be observed in such region. A comparison with slants obtained by the Gallagher was carried out, with interesting results.

  15. Assessment of earthquake locations in 3-D deterministic velocity models: A case study from the Altotiberina Near Fault Observatory (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, D.; Mirabella, F.; Chiaraluce, L.; Trippetta, F.; Lomax, A.

    2016-11-01

    The accuracy of earthquake locations and their correspondence with subsurface geology depends strongly on the accuracy of the available seismic velocity model. Most modern methods to construct a velocity model for earthquake location are based on the inversion of passive source seismological data. Another approach is the integration of high-resolution geological and geophysical data to construct deterministic velocity models in which earthquake locations can be directly correlated to the geological structures. Such models have to be kinematically consistent with independent seismological data in order to provide precise hypocenter solutions. We present the Altotiberina (AT) seismic model, a three-dimensional velocity model for the Upper Tiber Valley region (Northern Apennines, Italy), constructed by combining 300 km of seismic reflection profiles, six deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth), detailed data from geological surveys and direct measurements of P and S wave velocities performed in situ and in laboratory. We assess the robustness of the AT seismic model by locating 11,713 earthquakes with a nonlinear, global-search inversion method and comparing the probabilistic hypocenter solutions to those calculated in three previously published velocity models, constructed by inverting passive seismological data only. Our results demonstrate that the AT seismic model is able to provide higher-quality hypocenter locations than the previous velocity models. Earthquake locations are consistent with the subsurface geological structures and show a high degree of spatial correlation with specific lithostratigraphic units, suggesting a lithological control on the seismic activity evolution.

  16. The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes that they define. We show that they are covariant and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position (ii) the components of his 4-velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides this system with a unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localization, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography and tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate his position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime, and the identification of the components of the observer's velocity in the GPS frame with the (inversed) observed redshifts of the probes. Specific cases (non-relativistic velocities, Minkowski and Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetimes, geodesic motions) are studied in detail

  17. Deformation Study of Papandayan Volcano using GPS Survey Method and Its Correlation with Seismic Data Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A. Sarsito

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Papandayan volcano located in the southern part of Garut regency, around 70 km away from Bandung city, West Java. Many methods carried out to monitoring the activities of volcano, both continuously or periodically, one of the monitoring method is periodically GPS survey. Basically those surveys are carried out to understand the pattern and velocity of displacement which occurred in the volcano body, both horizontally and vertically, and also others deformation elements such as; translation, rotation and dilatation. The Mogi modeling was also used to determine the location and volume of the pressure source which caused deformation of volcano body. By comparing seismic activity and the deformation reveal from GPS measurement, before, during and after eruption, it could be understood there is a correlation between the seismicity and its deformation. These studies is hoping that GPS measurement in Papandayan volcano could be one of supported method to determine the volcano activities, at least in Papandayan volcano.

  18. A RLS-SVM Aided Fusion Methodology for INS during GPS Outages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain a relatively high accuracy of navigation performance during global positioning system (GPS outages, a novel robust least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM-aided fusion methodology is explored to provide the pseudo-GPS position information for the inertial navigation system (INS. The relationship between the yaw, specific force, velocity, and the position increment is modeled. Rather than share the same weight in the traditional LS-SVM, the proposed algorithm allocates various weights for different data, which makes the system immune to the outliers. Field test data was collected to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The comparison results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively provide position corrections for standalone INS during the 300 s GPS outage, which outperforms the traditional LS-SVM method. Historical information is also involved to better represent the vehicle dynamics.

  19. How position, velocity, and temporal information combine in the prospective control of catching: data and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Joost C; Peper, C Lieke E; Bullock, Daniel; Beek, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    The cerebral cortex contains circuitry for continuously computing properties of the environment and one's body, as well as relations among those properties. The success of complex perceptuomotor performances requires integrated, simultaneous use of such relational information. Ball catching is a good example as it involves reaching and grasping of visually pursued objects that move relative to the catcher. Although integrated neural control of catching has received sparse attention in the neuroscience literature, behavioral observations have led to the identification of control principles that may be embodied in the involved neural circuits. Here, we report a catching experiment that refines those principles via a novel manipulation. Visual field motion was used to perturb velocity information about balls traveling on various trajectories relative to a seated catcher, with various initial hand positions. The experiment produced evidence for a continuous, prospective catching strategy, in which hand movements are planned based on gaze-centered ball velocity and ball position information. Such a strategy was implemented in a new neural model, which suggests how position, velocity, and temporal information streams combine to shape catching movements. The model accurately reproduces the main and interaction effects found in the behavioral experiment and provides an interpretation of recently observed target motion-related activity in the motor cortex during interceptive reaching by monkeys. It functionally interprets a broad range of neurobiological and behavioral data, and thus contributes to a unified theory of the neural control of reaching to stationary and moving targets.

  20. High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field

  1. Coarse analysis of collective behaviors: Bifurcation analysis of the optimal velocity model for traffic jam formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yasunari; Sugiyama, Yuki

    2017-12-01

    We present a general method for analyzing macroscopic collective phenomena observed in many-body systems. For this purpose, we employ diffusion maps, which are one of the dimensionality-reduction techniques, and systematically define a few relevant coarse-grained variables for describing macroscopic phenomena. The time evolution of macroscopic behavior is described as a trajectory in the low-dimensional space constructed by these coarse variables. We apply this method to the analysis of the traffic model, called the optimal velocity model, and reveal a bifurcation structure, which features a transition to the emergence of a moving cluster as a traffic jam.

  2. Dry deposition models for radionuclides dispersed in air: a new approach for deposition velocity evaluation schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.; Cervone, A.; De Rosa, F.; Lombardo, C.; Casamirra, M.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of a National Research Program funded by the Italian Minister of Economic Development, the Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models (DEIM) of Palermo University and ENEA Research Centre of Bologna, Italy are performing several research activities to study physical models and mathematical approaches aimed at investigating dry deposition mechanisms of radioactive pollutants. On the basis of such studies, a new approach to evaluate the dry deposition velocity for particles is proposed. Comparisons with some literature experimental data show that the proposed dry deposition scheme can capture the main phenomena involved in the dry deposition process successfully.

  3. Modelling of human exposure to air pollution in the urban environment: a GPS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of a new modelling tool for quantification of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution within distinct microenvironments by using a novel approach for trajectory analysis of the individuals. For this purpose, mobile phones with Global Positioning System technology have been used to collect daily trajectories of the individuals with higher temporal resolution and a trajectory data mining, and geo-spatial analysis algorithm was developed and implemented within a Geographical Information System to obtain time-activity patterns. These data were combined with air pollutant concentrations estimated for several microenvironments. In addition to outdoor, pollutant concentrations in distinct indoor microenvironments are characterised using a probabilistic approach. An example of the application for PM2.5 is presented and discussed. The results obtained for daily average individual exposure correspond to a mean value of 10.6 and 6.0-16.4 μg m(-3) in terms of 5th-95th percentiles. Analysis of the results shows that the use of point air quality measurements for exposure assessment will not explain the intra- and inter-variability of individuals' exposure levels. The methodology developed and implemented in this work provides time-sequence of the exposure events thus making possible association of the exposure with the individual activities and delivers main statistics on individual's air pollution exposure with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  4. Learning Together 1: an educational model for training GPs, paediatricians: initial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Chloe; Spicer, John; Riches, Wendy; Lakhanpaul, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Learning Together is primarily an educational intervention, where paediatric registrars [SpRs] and General Practice (GP) registrars [GPSTs] see children together in a primary care setting. Over a six month period in 2013/2014, 44 learning pairs were set up mainly in North East and Central London. Proof of concept for the model at scale was achieved. Reported learning demonstrated: clinical learning themes of new knowledge, skill and communication skills; and collaborative themes of ongoing collaboration, satisfaction with team working and change in attitudes. These themes were identified in both sets of trainees. The self-reported learning is backed up by the results of a retrospective notes review of four common conditions based on NICE guidelines; constipation, asthma, feverish illness and eczema (CAFE). Guidance adherence improved from 57% before the intervention in solo GP training consultations to 72% during the joint clinic intervention (p confidence to manage their children's health following the consultation. A second, linked article examines the cost utility of Learning Together in its South London extension.

  5. Critique of the use of deposition velocity in modeling indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Weschler, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Among the potential fates of indoor air pollutants are a variety of physical and chemical interactions with indoor surfaces. In deterministic mathematical models of indoor air quality, these interactions are usually represented as a first-order loss process, with the loss rate coefficient given as the product of the surface-to-volume ratio of the room times a deposition velocity. In this paper, the validity of this representation of surface-loss mechanisms is critically evaluated. From a theoretical perspective, the idea of a deposition velocity is consistent with the following representation of an indoor air environment. Pollutants are well-mixed throughout a core region which is separated from room surfaces by boundary layers. Pollutants migrate through the boundary layers by a combination of diffusion (random motion resulting from collisions with surrounding gas molecules), advection (transport by net motion of the fluid), and, in some cases, other transport mechanisms. The rate of pollutant loss to a surface is governed by a combination of the rate of transport through the boundary layer and the rate of reaction at the surface. The deposition velocity expresses the pollutant flux density (mass or moles deposited per area per time) to the surface divided by the pollutant concentration in the core region. This concept has substantial value to the extent that the flux density is proportional to core concentration. Published results from experimental and modeling studies of fine particles, radon decay products, ozone, and nitrogen oxides are used as illustrations of both the strengths and weaknesses of deposition velocity as a parameter to indicate the rate of indoor air pollutant loss on surfaces. 66 refs., 5 tabs

  6. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic

  7. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P. D.; Noh, K. A. B. M.; Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave

  8. Thrust Force Analysis of Tripod Constant Velocity Joint Using Multibody Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsugiharu; Mizutani, Yoshiteru; Ando, Yosei; Kashiwagi, Isashi

    A tripod constant velocity joint is used in the driveshaft of front wheel drive vehicles. Thrust force generated by this joint causes lateral vibration in these vehicles. To analyze the thrust force, a detailed model is constructed based on a multibody dynamics approach. This model includes all principal parts of the joint defined as rigid bodies and all force elements of contact and friction acting among these parts. This model utilizes a new contact modeling method of needle roller bearings for more precise and faster computation. By comparing computational and experimental results, the appropriateness of this model is verified and the principal factors inducing the second and third rotating order components of the thrust force are clarified. This paper also describes the influence of skewed needle rollers on the thrust force and evaluates the contribution of friction forces at each contact region to the thrust force.

  9. Application of neural models as controllers in mobile robot velocity control loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkala, Jakub; Jadlovska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an inverse neural models used as controllers in comparison to classical PI controllers for velocity tracking control task used in two-wheel, differentially driven mobile robot. The PI controller synthesis is based on linear approximation of actuators with equivalent load. In order to obtain relevant datasets for training of feed-forward multi-layer perceptron based neural network used as neural model, the mathematical model of mobile robot, that combines its kinematic and dynamic properties such as chassis dimensions, center of gravity offset, friction and actuator parameters is used. Neural models are trained off-line to act as an inverse dynamics of DC motors with particular load using data collected in simulation experiment for motor input voltage step changes within bounded operating area. The performances of PI controllers versus inverse neural models in mobile robot internal velocity control loops are demonstrated and compared in simulation experiment of navigation control task for line segment motion in plane.

  10. Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation in Magnetorhelogical fluids based on an effective density fluid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetrohelogical fluids (MRFs represent a class of smart materials whose rheological properties change in response to the magnetic field, which resulting in the drastic change of the acoustic impedance. This paper presents an acoustic propagation model that approximates a fluid-saturated porous medium as a fluid with a bulk modulus and effective density (EDFM to study the acoustic propagation in the MRF materials under magnetic field. The effective density fluid model derived from the Biot’s theory. Some minor changes to the theory had to be applied, modeling both fluid-like and solid-like state of the MRF material. The attenuation and velocity variation of the MRF are numerical calculated. The calculated results show that for the MRF material the attenuation and velocity predicted with this effective density fluid model are close agreement with the previous predictions by Biot’s theory. We demonstrate that for the MRF material acoustic prediction the effective density fluid model is an accurate alternative to full Biot’s theory and is much simpler to implement.

  11. Horses for Courses: Designing a GPS Tracking Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, GPS tracking has become a key technology for data collection. In this chapter, the authors develop a practice-ready guideline for how to design and conduct GPS tracking investigations. They do so by first developing a V-model for GPS tracking, which describes the different...... phases of a GPS tracking data collection and the choices that have to be made in each phase. Thereafter, the authors show how this model can be applied in practice in a case study. The V-model is the first model that systematically combines methodological insights from the literature on GPS tracking...... and practical experiences from a number of GPS tracking projects into a practical guideline. Researchers can use this model as a starting point when designing a GPS tracking data collection. The authors hope that the model can constitute a first step towards the development of best practice....

  12. A Global Model of The Light Curves and Expansion Velocities of Type II-plateau Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Prieto, Jose L.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ~230 velocity and ~6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 μm. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard \\mathscr{R}_V˜ 3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.

  13. A GLOBAL MODEL OF THE LIGHT CURVES AND EXPANSION VELOCITIES OF TYPE II-PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Ondřej [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: pejcha@astro.princeton.edu [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ∼230 velocity and ∼6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 μm. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard R{sub V}∼3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.

  14. A fifth equation to model the relative velocity the 3-D thermal-hydraulic code THYC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhanique, T.; Rascle, P.

    1995-11-01

    E.D.F. has developed, since 1986, a general purpose code named THYC (Thermal HYdraulic Code) designed to study three-dimensional single and two-phase flows in rod tube bundles (pressurised water reactor cores, steam generators, condensers, heat exchangers). In these studies, the relative velocity was calculated by a drift-flux correlation. However, the relative velocity between vapor and liquid is an important parameter for the accuracy of a two-phase flow modelling in a three-dimensional code. The range of application of drift-flux correlations is mainly limited by the characteristic of the flow pattern (counter current flow ...) and by large 3-D effects. The purpose of this paper is to describe a numerical scheme which allows the relative velocity to be computed in a general case. Only the methodology is investigated in this paper which is not a validation work. The interfacial drag force is an important factor of stability and accuracy of the results. This force, closely dependent on the flow pattern, is not entirely established yet, so a range of multiplicator of its expression is used to compare the numerical results with the VATICAN test section measurements. (authors). 13 refs., 6 figs

  15. Jenkins model based ferrofluid lubrication of a curved rough annular squeeze film: Effect of slip velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Jimit R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the combined effect of slip velocity and transverse roughness on the performance of a Jenkins model based ferrofluid lubrication of a squeeze film in curved rough annular plates. The slip model of Beavers and Joseph has been invoked to evaluate the effect of slip velocity. In order to find the effect of surface roughness the stochastic averaging model of Christensen and Tonder has been used. The pressure distribution is obtained by solving the concerned stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation. The load carrying capacity is calculated. The graphical representations of the results indicate that the effect of transverse surface roughness is adverse in general, however, the situation is relatively better in the case of negatively skewed roughness. Further, Jenkins model based ferrofluid lubrication offers some measures in reducing the adverse effect of roughness when slip parameter is kept at reduced level with a suitable ratio of curvature parameters. Lastly, the positive effect of magnetization gets a boost due to the combined effect of variance (-ve and negatively skewed roughness suitably choosing the aspect ratio.

  16. Performance of ZTD models derived in near real-time from GBAS and meteorological data in GPS fast-static positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielgosz, P; Krukowska, M; Paziewski, J; Krypiak-Gregorczyk, A; Stepniak, K; Kaplon, J; Sierny, J; Hadas, T; Bosy, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents accuracy analyses of two near real-time tropospheric delay estimation models, IGGHZG and IGGHZM, in fast-static precise positioning. The first model is based on the processing of GPS data collected from ground-based reference stations, and the second one uses metrological data fed into the Saastamoinen model. These two methods were developed within the ASG+ project by researchers from Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The accuracy of these models was evaluated by comparison to tropospheric zenith total delays (ZTDs) obtained from the ASG-EUPOS network final solution and the UNB3m model. The applicability of these models to precise positioning was studied by their application to ultra-fast-static positioning, in which the resulting coordinates' accuracy and ambiguity resolution performance were analysed. Baselines from 65 to 72 km, with height differences from 39 to 379 m, were processed. The obtained results show that the GPS-based model can be successfully used in precise positioning, and the meteo-based model still requires improvements, mostly related to the interpolation technique. (paper)

  17. Simulation of High Velocity Impact on Composite Structures - Model Implementation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Dominik; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Voggenreiter, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    High velocity impact on composite aircraft structures leads to the formation of flexural waves that can cause severe damage to the structure. Damage and failure can occur within the plies and/or in the resin rich interface layers between adjacent plies. In the present paper a modelling methodology is documented that captures intra- and inter-laminar damage and their interrelations by use of shell element layers representing sub-laminates that are connected with cohesive interface layers to simulate delamination. This approach allows the simulation of large structures while still capturing the governing damage mechanisms and their interactions. The paper describes numerical algorithms for the implementation of a Ladevèze continuum damage model for the ply and methods to derive input parameters for the cohesive zone model. By comparison with experimental results from gas gun impact tests the potential and limitations of the modelling approach are discussed.

  18. Modeling solar oscillation power spectra. II. Parametric model of spectral lines observed in Doppler-velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, Sergei V.; Jefferies, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler-velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements, and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudomodes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).

  19. Modeling solar oscillation power spectra. II. Parametric model of spectral lines observed in Doppler-velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorontsov, Sergei V. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Jefferies, Stuart M., E-mail: S.V.Vorontsov@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, HI 96768 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler-velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements, and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudomodes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).

  20. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  1. Softverski model estimatora radijalne brzine ciljeva / Software model of a radial velocity estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan S. Ivković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je softverski modelovan novi blok u delu za obradu signala softverskog radarskog prijemnika, koji je nazvan estimator radijalne brzine. Detaljno je opisan način procene Doplerove frekvencije na osnovu MUSIC algoritma i ukratko prikazan način rada pri merenju. Svi parametri pri merenju klatera i detekcije simuliranih i realnih ciljeva dati su tabelarno, a rezultati grafički. Na osnovu analize prikazanih rezultata može se zaključiti da se pomoću projektovanog estimatora radijalne brzine može precizno proceniti Doplerov pomak u reflektovanom signalu od pokretnog cilja, a samim tim može se precizno odrediti njegova brzina. / In all analyses the MUSIC method has given better results than the FFT method. The MUSIC method proved to be better at estimation precision as well as at resolving two adjacent Doppler frequencies. On the basis of the obtained results, the designed estimator of radial velocity can be said to estimate Doppler frequency in the reflected signal from a moving target precisely, and, consequently, the target velocity. It is thus possible to improve the performances of the current radar as far as a precise estimation of velocity of detected moving targets is concerned.

  2. Quality control of GPS deformation data from Forsmark and analysis of crustal deformation in the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, Lennart; Ekman, Mats

    2013-03-01

    A network comprising seven GPS stations was established at Forsmark, Sweden, within about 10 km radius from the centre of the investigation area for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel with the purpose of monitoring slow rock motion. During the period November 2005 to December 2009, GPS data were collected in eighteen intermittent measurement campaigns, each with a duration of between three and seven days. As shown in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), the data expose a considerable scatter, indicating a non-linear variability of the GPS baseline velocities. However, the commission narrated in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was restricted to account only for the field performance of the GPS measurement campaign and to present the resulting measurement data per se, merely supplemented with a linear regression solution for the baseline motions. The preliminary interpretation of GPS data in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was in the present report followed by a closer examination where the non-linear variability is modelled as sinusoidal. Evidence for sinusoidal variations were also found in resulting data from GPS measurements at the Aespoe/Laxemar area at Oskarshamn (Sjoeberg et al. 2004), as well as in GPS data from several sites in western, middle and north-eastern Finland (Ollikainen et al. 2004, Ahola et al. 2008, Poutanen et al. 2010). We here postulate that the baseline velocities are characterized by a long-term linear drift superposed by a non-linear sinusoidal motion. This was modelled in two steps. Initially an Auto Regressive (AR) model was applied and the linear trends between the GPS stations were estimated. In a second step, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model was estimated for (almost) all baselines. The residuals between the original data and the one-step predictor for the ARMA model were then used to estimate new linear trends for the baselines. Our analysis of the Forsmark GPS data indicates relative motions more than 10 times slower

  3. Quality control of GPS deformation data from Forsmark and analysis of crustal deformation in the local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, Lennart; Ekman, Mats [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    A network comprising seven GPS stations was established at Forsmark, Sweden, within about 10 km radius from the centre of the investigation area for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel with the purpose of monitoring slow rock motion. During the period November 2005 to December 2009, GPS data were collected in eighteen intermittent measurement campaigns, each with a duration of between three and seven days. As shown in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), the data expose a considerable scatter, indicating a non-linear variability of the GPS baseline velocities. However, the commission narrated in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was restricted to account only for the field performance of the GPS measurement campaign and to present the resulting measurement data per se, merely supplemented with a linear regression solution for the baseline motions. The preliminary interpretation of GPS data in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was in the present report followed by a closer examination where the non-linear variability is modelled as sinusoidal. Evidence for sinusoidal variations were also found in resulting data from GPS measurements at the Aespoe/Laxemar area at Oskarshamn (Sjoeberg et al. 2004), as well as in GPS data from several sites in western, middle and north-eastern Finland (Ollikainen et al. 2004, Ahola et al. 2008, Poutanen et al. 2010). We here postulate that the baseline velocities are characterized by a long-term linear drift superposed by a non-linear sinusoidal motion. This was modelled in two steps. Initially an Auto Regressive (AR) model was applied and the linear trends between the GPS stations were estimated. In a second step, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model was estimated for (almost) all baselines. The residuals between the original data and the one-step predictor for the ARMA model were then used to estimate new linear trends for the baselines. Our analysis of the Forsmark GPS data indicates relative motions more than 10 times slower

  4. Vibrationally-Fluidized Granular Flows: Impact and Bulk Velocity Measurements Compared with Discrete Element and Continuum Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnia, Kamyar

    A new laser displacement probe was developed to measure the impact velocities of particles within vibrationally-fluidized beds. The sensor output was also used to measure bulk flow velocity along the probe window and to provide a measure of the media packing. The displacement signals from the laser sensors were analyzed to obtain the probability distribution functions of the impact velocity of the particles. The impact velocity was affected by the orientation of the laser probe relative to the bulk flow velocity, and the density and elastic properties of the granular media. The impact velocities of the particles were largely independent of their bulk flow speed and packing density. Both the local impact and bulk flow velocities within a tub vibratory finisher were predicted using discrete element modelling (DEM) and compared to the measured values for spherical steel media. It was observed that the impact and bulk flow velocities were relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the contact coefficients of friction and restitution. It was concluded that the predicted impact and bulk flow velocities were dependent on the number of layers in the model. Consequently, the final DE model mimicked the key aspects of the experimental setup, including the submerged laser sensor. The DE method predictions of both impact velocity and bulk flow velocity were in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements, with maximum differences of 20% and 30%, respectively. Discrete element modeling of granular flows is effective, but requires large numerical models. In an effort to reduce computational effort, this work presents a finite element (FE) continuum model of a vibrationally-fluidized granular flow. The constitutive equations governing the continuum model were calibrated using the discrete element method (DEM). The bulk flow behavior of the equivalent continuum media was then studied using both Lagrangian and Eulerian FE formulations. The bulk flow velocities predicted

  5. Flow instability originating from particle configurations using the two-dimensional optimal velocity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Yuki

    2015-12-01

    The two-dimensional optimal velocity model has potential applications to pedestrian dynamics and the collective motion of animals. In this paper, we extend the linear stability analysis presented in a previous paper [A Nakayama et al., Phys. Rev. E. 77, 016105 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.016105] and investigate the effects of particle configuration on the stability of several wave modes of collective oscillations of moving particles. We find that, when a particle moves without interacting with particles that are positioned in a diagonally forward or backward direction, the stable region of the particle flow is completely removed by the elliptically polarized mode.

  6. A Hybrid Windkessel Model of Blood Flow in Arterial Tree Using Velocity Profile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelkassem, Yasser; Virag, Zdravko

    2016-11-01

    For the study of pulsatile blood flow in the arterial system, we derived a coupled Windkessel-Womersley mathematical model. Initially, a 6-elements Windkessel model is proposed to describe the hemodynamics transport in terms of constant resistance, inductance and capacitance. This model can be seen as a two compartment model, in which the compartments are connected by a rigid pipe, modeled by one inductor and resistor. The first viscoelastic compartment models proximal part of the aorta, the second elastic compartment represents the rest of the arterial tree and aorta can be seen as the connection pipe. Although the proposed 6-elements lumped model was able to accurately reconstruct the aortic pressure, it can't be used to predict the axial velocity distribution in the aorta and the wall shear stress and consequently, proper time varying pressure drop. We then modified this lumped model by replacing the connection pipe circuit elements with a vessel having a radius R and a length L. The pulsatile flow motions in the vessel are resolved instantaneously along with the Windkessel like model enable not only accurate prediction of the aortic pressure but also wall shear stress and frictional pressure drop. The proposed hybrid model has been validated using several in-vivo aortic pressure and flow rate data acquired from different species such as, humans, dogs and pigs. The method accurately predicts the time variation of wall shear stress and frictional pressure drop. Institute for Computational Medicine, Dept. Biomedical Engineering.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of a new car-following model accounting for the global average optimal velocity difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; Lu, Weizhen; He, Hongdi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering the global average optimal velocity difference effect on the basis of the full velocity difference (FVD) model. We investigate the influence of the global average optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow by making use of linear stability analysis. It indicates that the stable region will be enlarged by taking the global average optimal velocity difference effect into account. Subsequently, the mKdV equation near the critical point and its kink-antikink soliton solution, which can describe the traffic jam transition, is derived from nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, numerical simulations confirm that the effect of the global average optimal velocity difference can efficiently improve the stability of traffic flow, which show that our new consideration should be taken into account to suppress the traffic congestion for car-following theory.

  8. Satellite-motion Compensation for Monitoring Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.; Penney, R.

    2016-12-01

    The ionosphere exerts a strong influence over a wide range of modern communications and navigtion systems, but is subject to complex influences from both terrestrial and solar sources. Ionospheric disturbances can be triggered by lower-atmosphere phenomena such as hurricanes as well as geophysical events such as earthquakes, as well as being strongly influenced by cyclical and unpredictable solar behaviour. Dual-band GPS receivers provide a popular and convenient means of obtaining information about the ionosphere, and ionospheric disturbances. While GPS measurements can provide clues about the state of the ionosphere, there are many challenges in obtaining reliable information from them. For example, drop-outs and carrier-phase cycle slips may have little influence on using GPS for (medium-precision) navigation, but can lead to signal-processing artefacts that would cause false alarms in detecting ionospheric disturbances. If one is interested in measuring the motion of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) one must also be able to disentangle the effects of satellite motion from the TID motion. We discuss a novel approach to robustly separating TID waveforms from background trends within GPS time-series of total electron content (TEC), as well as innovative techniques for estimating TID velocities using ideas from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Underpinning these, we consider how to robustly pre-process GPS time-series to reduce the influence of drop-outs while also reducing data volumes. We present comparisons of our TID velocity estimates with more standard "cross-correlation" techniques, including cases where these standard techniques produce pathological results. We also show results from simulated GPS time-series derived from modelled ionospheric disturbances.

  9. Synchronous Surface Pressure and Velocity Measurements of standard model in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in the Hypersonic Wind tunnel of NUAA(NHW present synchronous measurements of bow shockwave and surface pressure of a standard blunt rotary model (AGARD HB-2, which was carried out in order to measure the Mach-5-flow above a blunt body by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry as well as unsteady pressure around the rotary body. Titanium dioxide (Al2O3 Nano particles were seeded into the flow by a tailor-made container. With meticulous care designed optical path, the laser was guided into the vacuum experimental section. The transient pressure was obtained around model by using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSPsprayed on the model. All the experimental facilities were controlled by Series Pulse Generator to ensure that the data was time related. The PIV measurements of velocities in front of the detached bow shock agreed very well with the calculated value, with less than 3% difference compared to Pitot-pressure recordings. The velocity gradient contour described in accord with the detached bow shock that showed on schlieren. The PSP results presented good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. Our work involving studies of synchronous shock-wave and pressure measurements proved to be encouraging.

  10. Predictive K-PLSR myocardial contractility modeling with phase contrast MR velocity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Lin; Wu, Qian; Huntbatch, Andrew; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing versatility of CMR, further understanding of intrinsic contractility of the myocardium can be achieved by performing subject-specific modeling by integrating structural and functional information available. The recent introduction of the virtual tagging framework allows for visualization of the localized deformation of the myocardium based on phase contrast myocardial velocity mapping. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of a non-linear, Kernel-Partial Least Squares Regression (K-PLSR) predictive motion modeling scheme for the virtual tagging framework. The method allows for the derivation of a compact non-linear deformation model such that the entire deformation field can be predicted by a limited number of control points. When applied to virtual tagging, the technique can be used to predictively guide the mesh refinement based on the motion of the coarse grid, thus greatly reducing the search space and increasing the convergence speed of the algorithm. The effectiveness and numerical accuracy of the proposed technique are assessed with both numerically simulated data sets and in vivo phase contrast CMR velocity mapping from a group of 7 subjects. The technique presented has a distinct advantage over the conventional mesh refinement scheme and brings CMR myocardial contractility analysis closer to routine clinical practice.

  11. Improved Near-surface Velocity Models from Waveform Tomography Applied to Vibroseis MCS Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithyman, B.; Clowes, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Multichannel vibroseis reflection surveys are prevalent in the land exploration seismic industry because of benefits in speed and cost, along with reduced environmental impact when compared to explosive sources. Since the downgoing energy must travel through the shallow subsurface, an improved model of near-surface velocity can in theory substantially improve the resolution of deeper reflections. We describe techniques aimed at allowing the use of vibroseis data for long-offset refraction processing of first-arrival traveltimes and waveforms. Refraction processing of surface vibroseis data is typically limited to near-offset refraction statics. Velocity models of the shallow subsurface can be built to facilitate CDP stacking and migration, but these models are typically coarse and of limited use for interpretation. Waveform tomography combines inversion of first-arrival traveltime data with full waveform inversion of densely-sampled refracted arrivals. Since inversion of the waveform amplitude and phase is not limited by the ray-theory approximation, identification of low-velocity zones and small scattering targets is possible. Incorporating a wide range of offsets is critical for a more complete characterization of the near-surface. Because of the use of a non-linear frequency-domain approach to the solution of this inverse problem, low data frequencies are important in comparison with conventional reflection processing. Through the use of waveform tomography, we plan to build useful, detailed near-surface velocity models for both the reflection work flow and direct interpretation. Several difficulties exist in first-arrival analysis and waveform inversion of vibroseis data. The mixed-phase vibroseis source signature exhibits variations in phase with offset that are difficult to quantify without detailed a priori knowledge of the near-surface. This causes difficulties with picking and initial model building, which is critical for non-linear waveform inversion. A

  12. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  13. Remote Sensing Data in Wind Velocity Field Modelling: a Case Study from the Sudetes (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancewicz, Kacper

    2014-06-01

    The phenomena of wind-field deformation above complex (mountainous) terrain is a popular subject of research related to numerical modelling using GIS techniques. This type of modelling requires, as input data, information on terrain roughness and a digital terrain/elevation model. This information may be provided by remote sensing data. Consequently, its accuracy and spatial resolution may affect the results of modelling. This paper represents an attempt to conduct wind-field modelling in the area of the Śnieżnik Massif (Eastern Sudetes). The modelling process was conducted in WindStation 2.0.10 software (using the computable fluid dynamics solver Canyon). Two different elevation models were used: the Global Land Survey Digital Elevation Model (GLS DEM) and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 2. The terrain roughness raster was generated on the basis of Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC 2006) data. The output data were post-processed in ArcInfo 9.3.1 software to achieve a high-quality cartographic presentation. Experimental modelling was conducted for situations from 26 November 2011, 25 May 2012, and 26 May 2012, based on a limited number of field measurements and using parameters of the atmosphere boundary layer derived from the aerological surveys provided by the closest meteorological stations. The model was run in a 100-m and 250-m spatial resolution. In order to verify the model's performance, leave-one-out cross-validation was used. The calculated indices allowed for a comparison with results of former studies pertaining to WindStation's performance. The experiment demonstrated very subtle differences between results in using DTED or GLS DEM elevation data. Additionally, CLC 2006 roughness data provided more noticeable improvements in the model's performance, but only in the resolution corresponding to the original roughness data. The best input data configuration resulted in the following mean values of error measure: root mean squared error of velocity

  14. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through...... altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably...... high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from...

  15. Validity and reliability of GPS and LPS for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Polglaze, Ted; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that

  16. Towards a new technique to construct a 3D shear-wave velocity model based on converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.; Colavitti, L.

    2017-12-01

    A 3D model is essential in all branches of solid Earth sciences because geological structures can be heterogeneous and change significantly in their lateral dimension. The main target of this research is to build a crustal S-wave velocity structure in 3D. The currently popular methodologies to construct 3D shear-wave velocity models are Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) and Local Earthquake Tomography (LET). Here we propose a new technique to map Earth discontinuities and velocities at depth based on the analysis of receiver functions. The 3D model is obtained by simultaneously inverting P-to-S converted waveforms recorded at a dense array. The individual velocity models corresponding to each trace are extracted from the 3D initial model along ray paths that are calculated using the shooting method, and the velocity model is updated during the inversion. We consider a spherical approximation of ray propagation using a global velocity model (iasp91, Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) for the teleseismic part, while we adopt Cartesian coordinates and a local velocity model for the crust. During the inversion process we work with a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity, with a flexible mesh for the depth of the interfaces. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter space. Depending on the studied area, this method can accommodate possible independent and complementary geophysical data (gravity, active seismics, LET, ANT, etc.), helping to reduce the non-linearity of the inversion. Our first focus of application is the Central Alps, where a 20-year long dataset of

  17. Novel Hybrid of LS-SVM and Kalman Filter for GPS/INS Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenkai; Li, Yong; Rizos, Chris; Xu, Xiaosu

    Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) technologies can overcome the drawbacks of the individual systems. One of the advantages is that the integrated solution can provide continuous navigation capability even during GPS outages. However, bridging the GPS outages is still a challenge when Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors are used. Methods being currently explored by the research community include applying vehicle motion constraints, optimal smoother, and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. In the research area of AI, the neural network (NN) approach has been extensively utilised up to the present. In an NN-based integrated system, a Kalman filter (KF) estimates position, velocity and attitude errors, as well as the inertial sensor errors, to output navigation solutions while GPS signals are available. At the same time, an NN is trained to map the vehicle dynamics with corresponding KF states, and to correct INS measurements when GPS measurements are unavailable. To achieve good performance it is critical to select suitable quality and an optimal number of samples for the NN. This is sometimes too rigorous a requirement which limits real world application of NN-based methods.The support vector machine (SVM) approach is based on the structural risk minimisation principle, instead of the minimised empirical error principle that is commonly implemented in an NN. The SVM can avoid local minimisation and over-fitting problems in an NN, and therefore potentially can achieve a higher level of global performance. This paper focuses on the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), which can solve highly nonlinear and noisy black-box modelling problems. This paper explores the application of the LS-SVM to aid the GPS/INS integrated system, especially during GPS outages. The paper describes the principles of the LS-SVM and of the KF hybrid method, and introduces the LS-SVM regression algorithm. Field

  18. A new car-following model for autonomous vehicles flow with mean expected velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Xing, Zhu; Li-Dong, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Due to the development of the modern scientific technology, autonomous vehicles may realize to connect with each other and share the information collected from each vehicle. An improved forward considering car-following model was proposed with mean expected velocity field to describe the autonomous vehicles flow behavior. The new model has three key parameters: adjustable sensitivity, strength factor and mean expected velocity field size. Two lemmas and one theorem were proven as criteria for judging the stability of homogeneousautonomous vehicles flow. Theoretical results show that the greater parameters means larger stability regions. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to check the stability and fundamental diagram of autonomous flow. From the numerical simulation results, the profiles, hysteresis loop and density waves of the autonomous vehicles flow were exhibited. The results show that with increased sensitivity, strength factor or field size the traffic jam was suppressed effectively which are well in accordance with the theoretical results. Moreover, the fundamental diagrams corresponding to three parameters respectively were obtained. It demonstrates that these parameters play almost the same role on traffic flux: i.e. before the critical density the bigger parameter is, the greater flux is and after the critical density, the opposite tendency is. In general, the three parameters have a great influence on the stability and jam state of the autonomous vehicles flow.

  19. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2011-11-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) has studied crustal deformations in co-operation with the Posiva Oy since 1994, when a network of ten pillars for GPS observations was established at Olkiluoto. In 2010 the local GPS network at Olkiluoto consisted of 14 concrete pillars. The whole network has been measured twice a year in the static GPS campaigns with 24 h sessions. The four new pillars were established in 2010 and the permanent measurements on them will start in 2011. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. A total of 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 18 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured in connection to the GPS observations using the EDM instrument Kern ME5000 Mekometer. The GPS operations in 2010 included the two GPS campaigns at Olkiluoto, GPS campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara, EDM baseline measurements at Olkiluoto, and the control marker measurements with the tachymeter at Olkiluoto. All GPS data history was reprocessed with Bernese GPS software using the new processing strategy tested in 2009. The results were analysed by computing the change rates of the baselines and estimating horizontal velocities for the pillars using the barycenter of the velocities as a reference. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/a. Roughly one fourth of the change rates could be considered as statistically significant (change rate larger than 3 σ. The statistically significant change rates were mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillar GPS5, which had also the maximum change rate (0.21 ± 0.03 mm/a). In Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rates are

  20. Two-dimensional velocity models for paths from Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walck, M.C.; Phillips, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    Vertical acceleration recordings of 21 underground nuclear explosions recorded at stations at Yucca Mountain provide the data for development of three two-dimensional crystal velocity profiles for portions of the Nevada Test Site. Paths from Area 19, Area 20 (both Pahute Mesa), and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain have been modeled using asymptotic ray theory travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques. Significant travel time differences exist between the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa source areas; relative amplitude patterns at Yucca Mountain also shift with changing source azimuth. The three models, UNEPM1, UNEPM2, and UNEYF1, successfully predict the travel time and amplitude data for all three paths. 24 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs

  1. A computational model for assessing high-velocity debris impact in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, M.; Garcia, V.

    2017-07-01

    Man-made space debris is dominating the background meteorite environment with a growing debris population leading to increased collision risks for satellites, especially in the low Earth orbit and geostationary orbit protected environments. Here we present a computational model for estimating the effect of hypervelocity impact from debris particles on non-shielded propellant and pressurant tanks. Eulerian hydrocode simulation is utilised to model firstly penetration and shock wave formation in the propellant and secondly subsequent detonation wave propagation and interaction with the tank wall. Furthermore, reactive molecular dynamics is used to estimate the risk of detonation in a liquid hydrazine layer. We present simulations of a 3.5 mm aluminium spherical debris particle at a velocity of 14 km/s relative to a hydrazine tank. We find that the degree of damage is strongly dependent on tank temperature and hence on the satellite thermal configuration at its end of life.

  2. CFD model of thermal and velocity conditions in a particular indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Guillen Guillamon, Ignacio [Applied Physics Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for maintaining high indoor environmental quality (IEQ) with the minimum energy consumption is rapidly increasing. In the recent years, several studies have been completed to investigate the impact of indoor environment factors on human comfort, health and energy efficiency. Therefore, the design of the thermal environment in any sort of room, specially offices, has huge economic consequences. In this paper, a particular analysis on the air temperature in a multi-task room environment is modeled, in order to represent the velocities and temperatures inside the room by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. This model will help to designers to analyze the thermal comfort regions inside the studied air volume and to visualize the whole temperatures inside the room, determining the effect of the fresh external incoming air in the internal air temperature.

  3. How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to?: a cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The school journey may make an important contribution to children’s physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the characteristics of children and their environments that make the modelled route more or less representative of that actually taken. We compared modelled GIS routes and actual Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measured routes in a free-living sample of children using varying travel modes. Methods Participants were 175 13-14 yr old children taking part in the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study who wore GPS units for up to 7 days. Actual routes to/from school were extracted from GPS data, and shortest routes between home and school along a road network were modelled in a GIS. Differences between them were assessed according to length, percentage overlap, and food outlet exposure using multilevel regression models. Results GIS routes underestimated route length by 21.0% overall, ranging from 6.1% among walkers to 23.2% for bus users. Among pedestrians food outlet exposure was overestimated by GIS routes by 25.4%. Certain characteristics of children and their neighbourhoods that improved the concordance between GIS and GPS route length and overlap were identified. Living in a village raised the odds of increased differences in length (odds ratio (OR) 3.36 (1.32-8.58)), while attending a more urban school raised the odds of increased percentage overlap (OR 3.98 (1.49-10.63)). However none were found for food outlet exposure. Journeys home from school increased the difference between GIS and GPS routes in terms of food outlet exposure, and this measure showed considerable within-person variation. Conclusions GIS modelled routes between home and school were not

  4. How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to? A cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Burgoine, Thomas; Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Jones, Andy

    2014-02-14

    The school journey may make an important contribution to children's physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the characteristics of children and their environments that make the modelled route more or less representative of that actually taken. We compared modelled GIS routes and actual Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measured routes in a free-living sample of children using varying travel modes. Participants were 175 13-14 yr old children taking part in the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study who wore GPS units for up to 7 days. Actual routes to/from school were extracted from GPS data, and shortest routes between home and school along a road network were modelled in a GIS. Differences between them were assessed according to length, percentage overlap, and food outlet exposure using multilevel regression models. GIS routes underestimated route length by 21.0% overall, ranging from 6.1% among walkers to 23.2% for bus users. Among pedestrians food outlet exposure was overestimated by GIS routes by 25.4%. Certain characteristics of children and their neighbourhoods that improved the concordance between GIS and GPS route length and overlap were identified. Living in a village raised the odds of increased differences in length (odds ratio (OR) 3.36 (1.32-8.58)), while attending a more urban school raised the odds of increased percentage overlap (OR 3.98 (1.49-10.63)). However none were found for food outlet exposure. Journeys home from school increased the difference between GIS and GPS routes in terms of food outlet exposure, and this measure showed considerable within-person variation. GIS modelled routes between home and school were not truly representative of accurate GPS

  5. A Novel Dynamic Model for Predicting Pressure Wave Velocity in Four-Phase Fluid Flowing along the Drilling Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic pressure wave velocity model is presented based on momentum equation, mass-balance equation, equation of state, and small perturbation theory. Simultaneously, the drift model was used to analyze the flow characteristics of oil, gas, water, and drilling fluid multiphase flow. In addition, the dynamic model considers the gas dissolution, virtual mass force, drag force, and relative motion of the interphase as well. Finite difference and Newton-Raphson iterative are introduced to the numerical simulation of the dynamic model. The calculation results indicate that the wave velocity is more sensitive to the increase of gas influx rate than the increase of oil/water influx rate. Wave velocity decreases significantly with the increase of gas influx. Influenced by the pressure drop of four-phase fluid flowing along the annulus, wave velocity tends to increase with respect to well depth, contrary to the gradual reduction of gas void fraction at different depths with the increase of backpressure (BP. Analysis also found that the growth of angular frequency will lead to an increase of wave velocity at low range. Comparison with the calculation results without considering virtual mass force demonstrates that the calculated wave velocity is relatively bigger by using the presented model.

  6. Investigation of the velocity distribution in the flow of a journal bearing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Matthias; Reinke, Peter; Schmidt, Marcus; Riedel, Marco; Redlich, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    In many previous studies the main focus was put on the pressure distribution in the lubricating gap. Due to the limited space in the gap an investigation of the velocity distribution is very difficult or rather impossible. Based on the geometrical shapes of a real journal bearing, a bearing model test rig with an increased relative gap width has been developed. Thus, it is possible to detect the distribution of the flow speed within the gap by using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). The comparability of the flow to the flow in a real journal bearing is ensured by observing the Reynolds similarity. Due to a targeted eccentricity in the system and the circumferential groove over 180°, there is in connection with the outlet hole in the rotating shaft a permanent change in the outflow conditions. The consequence is a periodically varying system pressure with effects to the pressure and volumetric flow rate at the inlet and outlet. The velocity measurements with a triggered LDV are done by considering these transient boundary conditions at the system boundaries. In this paper the experimental setup, the expiration of the investigations and some exemplary results are presented. Attendant to the experiment, numerical simulations are carried out and the results are compared with the experimental data.

  7. Investigation of the velocity distribution in the flow of a journal bearing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobis Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many previous studies the main focus was put on the pressure distribution in the lubricating gap. Due to the limited space in the gap an investigation of the velocity distribution is very difficult or rather impossible. Based on the geometrical shapes of a real journal bearing, a bearing model test rig with an increased relative gap width has been developed. Thus, it is possible to detect the distribution of the flow speed within the gap by using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV. The comparability of the flow to the flow in a real journal bearing is ensured by observing the Reynolds similarity. Due to a targeted eccentricity in the system and the circumferential groove over 180°, there is in connection with the outlet hole in the rotating shaft a permanent change in the outflow conditions. The consequence is a periodically varying system pressure with effects to the pressure and volumetric flow rate at the inlet and outlet. The velocity measurements with a triggered LDV are done by considering these transient boundary conditions at the system boundaries. In this paper the experimental setup, the expiration of the investigations and some exemplary results are presented. Attendant to the experiment, numerical simulations are carried out and the results are compared with the experimental data.

  8. Three-dimensional velocity model of crustal structure in the southern Korean Peninsula and its full-waveform validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Woo, J. U.; Song, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    To obtain a high-resolution crustal three-dimensional (3-D) model, we incorporate multiple regional ambient noise datasets in different scales, which consist of 150 accelerometer stations (1-6 s group velocity), 37 regional broadband stations (5-30 s group and phase velocity), and longer period phase velocity maps from previous study (25-40 s phase velocity). A 3-D structure of shear wave velocity is constrained by integrating one-dimensional depth profiles from inversions of surface wave dispersions. The model estimation is carried out thoroughly in a trans-dimensional and hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework, such that the resulting model is less biased by arbitrary assumptions in the inversion process. To obtain P-wave velocity structure, then, a previous estimation of the variation of Vp/Vs ratio is applied. A 1-D velocity model will be replaced by this new 3-D model for determining accurate hypocenters and source processes of local earthquakes in the region. In addition, the new model will make more reliable seismic hazard analysis for scenario earthquakes possible. Before adopting the new model for various applications, it is necessary to validate it. To verify the validity of the model, full-waveform simulations for recent local earthquakes are performed. Two well observed moderate earthquakes occurred at NE and SW of the southern Korean Peninsula are considered for waveform simulations. The comparison between synthetic and observed waveforms shows that the new model reasonably well represents the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the southern Korean Peninsula.

  9. Shallow Crustal Structure in the Northern Salton Trough, California: Insights from a Detailed 3-D Velocity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, R.; Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Coachella Valley is the northern extent of the Gulf of California-Salton Trough. It contains the southernmost segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) for which a magnitude 7.8 earthquake rupture was modeled to help produce earthquake planning scenarios. However, discrepancies in ground motion and travel-time estimates from the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) velocity model of the Salton Trough highlight inaccuracies in its shallow velocity structure. An improved 3-D velocity model that better defines the shallow basin structure and enables the more accurate location of earthquakes and identification of faults is therefore essential for seismic hazard studies in this area. We used recordings of 126 explosive shots from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) to SSIP receivers and Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) stations. A set of 48,105 P-wave travel time picks constituted the highest-quality input to a 3-D tomographic velocity inversion. To improve the ray coverage, we added network-determined first arrivals at SCSN stations from 39,998 recently relocated local earthquakes, selected to a maximum focal depth of 10 km, to develop a detailed 3-D P-wave velocity model for the Coachella Valley with 1-km grid spacing. Our velocity model shows good resolution ( 50 rays/cubic km) down to a minimum depth of 7 km. Depth slices from the velocity model reveal several interesting features. At shallow depths ( 3 km), we observe an elongated trough of low velocity, attributed to sediments, located subparallel to and a few km SW of the SAF, and a general velocity structure that mimics the surface geology of the area. The persistence of the low-velocity sediments to 5-km depth just north of the Salton Sea suggests that the underlying basement surface, shallower to the NW, dips SE, consistent with interpretation from gravity studies (Langenheim et al., 2005). On the western side of the Coachella Valley, we detect depth-restricted regions of

  10. KdV-Burgers equation in a new continuum model based on full velocity difference model considering anticipation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wang, Jufeng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new continuum model based on full velocity difference car following model is developed with the consideration of driver's anticipation effect. By applying the linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability is obtained. Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV-Burgers equation is derived to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the neutral stability line. Numerical simulation shows that the new model possesses the local cluster, and it is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena Numerical results show that when considering the effects of anticipation, the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently. The key improvement of this new model is that the anticipation effect can improve the stability of traffic flow.

  11. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen

    2015-02-06

    © 2015 The Authors. Earth\\'s present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  12. Kinematic Modeling of Normal Voluntary Mandibular Opening and Closing Velocity-Initial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriołek, Krzysztof; Gawriołek, Maria; Komosa, Marek; Piotrowski, Paweł R; Azer, Shereen S

    2015-06-01

    Determination and quantification of voluntary mandibular velocity movement has not been a thoroughly studied parameter of masticatory movement. This study attempted to objectively define kinematics of mandibular movement based on numerical (digital) analysis of the relations and interactions of velocity diagram records in healthy female individuals. Using a computerized mandibular scanner (K7 Evaluation Software), 72 diagrams of voluntary mandibular velocity movements (36 for opening, 36 for closing) for women with clinically normal motor and functional activities of the masticatory system were recorded. Multiple measurements were analyzed focusing on the curve for maximum velocity records. For each movement, the loop of temporary velocities was determined. The diagram was then entered into AutoCad calculation software where movement analysis was performed. The real maximum velocity values on opening (Vmax ), closing (V0 ), and average velocity values (Vav ) as well as movement accelerations (a) were recorded. Additionally, functional (A1-A2) and geometric (P1-P4) analysis of loop constituent phases were performed, and the relations between the obtained areas were defined. Velocity means and correlation coefficient values for various velocity phases were calculated. The Wilcoxon test produced the following maximum and average velocity results: Vmax = 394 ± 102, Vav = 222 ± 61 for opening, and Vmax = 409 ± 94, Vav = 225 ± 55 mm/s for closing. Both mandibular movement range and velocity change showed significant variability achieving the highest velocity in P2 phase. Voluntary mandibular velocity presents significant variations between healthy individuals. Maximum velocity is obtained when incisal separation is between 12.8 and 13.5 mm. An improved understanding of the patterns of normal mandibular movements may provide an invaluable diagnostic aid to pathological changes within the masticatory system. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Efficient scattering-angle enrichment for a nonlinear inversion of the background and perturbations components of a velocity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2017-09-01

    Reflection-waveform inversion (RWI) can help us reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full-waveform inversion by inverting for the background velocity model using the wave path of a single scattered wavefield to an image. However, current RWI implementations usually neglect the multiscattered energy, which will cause some artefacts in the image and the update of the background. To improve existing RWI implementations in taking multiscattered energy into consideration, we split the velocity model into background and perturbation components, integrate them directly in the wave equation and formulate a new optimization problem for both components. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer a single-scattering model, but includes all scattering. Through introducing a new cheap implementation of scattering angle enrichment, the separation of the background and perturbation components can be implemented efficiently. We optimize both components simultaneously to produce updates to the velocity model that is nonlinear with respect to both the background and the perturbation. The newly introduced perturbation model can absorb the non-smooth update of the background in a more consistent way. We apply the proposed approach on the Marmousi model with data that contain frequencies starting from 5 Hz to show that this method can converge to an accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Also, our proposed method works well when applied to a field data set.

  14. Efficient scattering-angle enrichment for a nonlinear inversion of the background and perturbations components of a velocity model

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2017-07-04

    Reflection-waveform inversion (RWI) can help us reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background velocity model using the wave-path of a single scattered wavefield to an image. However, current RWI implementations usually neglect the multi-scattered energy, which will cause some artifacts in the image and the update of the background. To improve existing RWI implementations in taking multi-scattered energy into consideration, we split the velocity model into background and perturbation components, integrate them directly in the wave equation, and formulate a new optimization problem for both components. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer a single-scattering model, but includes all scattering. Through introducing a new cheap implementation of scattering angle enrichment, the separation of the background and perturbation components can be implemented efficiently. We optimize both components simultaneously to produce updates to the velocity model that is nonlinear with respect to both the background and the perturbation. The newly introduced perturbation model can absorb the non-smooth update of the background in a more consistent way. We apply the proposed approach on the Marmousi model with data that contain frequencies starting from 5 Hz to show that this method can converge to an accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Also, our proposed method works well when applied to a field data set.

  15. The time-dependent Ginzburg—Landau equation for the two-velocity difference model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shu-Zhen; Ge Hong-Xia; Cheng Rong-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory is formulated to describe the phase transition and critical phenomenon in traffic flow. Based on the two-velocity difference model, the time-dependent Ginzburg—Landau (TDGL) equation under certain condition is derived to describe the traffic flow near the critical point through the nonlinear analytical method. The corresponding two solutions, the uniform and the kink solutions, are given. The coexisting curve, spinodal line and critical point are obtained by the first and second derivatives of the thermodynamic potential. The modified Korteweg de Vries (mKdV) equation around the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method and its kink—antikink solution is also obtained. The relation between the TDGL equation and the mKdV equation is shown. The simulation result is consistent with the nonlinear analytical result. (general)

  16. Influence of running velocity on vertical, leg and joint stiffness : modelling and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John

    2008-01-01

    Human running can be modelled as either a spring-mass model or multiple springs in series. A force is required to stretch or compress the spring, and thus stiffness, the variable of interest in this paper, can be calculated from the ratio of this force to the change in spring length. Given the link between force and length change, muscle stiffness and mechanical stiffness have been areas of interest to researchers, clinicians, and strength and conditioning practitioners for many years. This review focuses on mechanical stiffness, and in particular, vertical, leg and joint stiffness, since these are the only stiffness types that have been directly calculated during human running. It has been established that as running velocity increases from slow-to-moderate values, leg stiffness remains constant while both vertical stiffness and joint stiffness increase. However, no studies have calculated vertical, leg or joint stiffness over a range of slow-to-moderate values to maximum values in an athletic population. Therefore, the effects of faster running velocities on stiffness are relatively unexplored. Furthermore, no experimental research has examined the effects of training on vertical, leg or joint stiffness and the subsequent effects on running performance. Various methods of training (Olympic style weightlifting, heavy resistance training, plyometrics, eccentric strength training) have shown to be effective at improving running performance. However, the effects of these training methods on vertical, leg and joint stiffness are unknown. As a result, the true importance of stiffness to running performance remains unexplored, and the best practice for changing stiffness to optimize running performance is speculative at best. It is our hope that a better understanding of stiffness, and the influence of running speed on stiffness, will lead to greater interest and an increase in experimental research in this area.

  17. Testing global geopotential models through comparison of a local quasi-geoid model with GPS/leveling data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Kostelecký, J.; Klokočník, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 39-60 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003407; GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : global geopotential models * CHAMP * GRACE Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  18. Ground deformation source model at Kuchinoerabu-jima volcano during 2006-2014 as revealed by campaign GPS observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kohei; Iguchi, Masato

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed campaign Global Positioning System observation data in Kuchinoerabu-jima during 2006-2014. Most benchmarks located around Shin-dake crater showed crater-centered radial horizontal displacements. Horizontal displacements at western rim of the Shin-dake crater were tended to be larger compared to those at eastern rim. In addition, benchmark KUC14 which locates near the cliff at Furu-dake showed westward horizontal displacement rather than crater-centered radial (southward) one. Meanwhile, small displacements were detected at the benchmarks located at the foot of Kuchinoerabu-jima. We modeled the observed displacements applying a finite element method. We set entire FE domain as 100 × 100 × 50 km3. We set top of the domain as a free surface, and sides and bottom to be fixed boundaries. Topography was introduced in the area within Kuchinoerabu-jima using digital elevation model data provided by Kagoshima prefecture and elevation information from Google earth, and elevation of the outside area was assumed to be sea level. We assumed a stratified structure based on a one-dimensional P-wave velocity structure. We applied a vertical spheroid source model and searched optimal values of horizontal location, depth, equatorial and polar radiuses, and internal pressure change of the source using the forward modeling method. A spherical source with a radius of 50 m was obtained beneath the Shin-dake crater at a depth of 400 m above sea level. The internal pressure increase of 361 MPa yields its volume increase of 31,700 m3. Taking effects of topography and heterogeneity of ground into account allowed reproduction of overall deformation in Kuchinoerabu-jima. The location of deformation source coincides with hypocenters of shallow volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes and the aquifer estimated from a two-dimensional resistivity model by audio-frequency magnetotellurics method. The obtained deformation source may be corresponding to the pressurized aquifer, and shallow VT

  19. An Accurate GPS-IMU/DR Data Fusion Method for Driverless Car Based on a Set of Predictive Models and Grid Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyao; Deng, Zhidong; Yin, Gang

    2016-02-24

    A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS)  receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS-inertial measurement unit (IMU)/dead reckoning (DR) data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car.

  20. Minimum 1D velocity models in Central and Southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frepoli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We computed one-dimensional ( I D velocity models and station corrections for Centrai and Southern Italy, in- verting re-picked P-wave alTival times recorded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica seismic network. The re-picked data yield resolved P-wave velocity results and proved to be more suited than bulletin data for de- tailed tomographic studies. Using the improved velocity models, we relocated the most significant earthquakes which occurt.ed in the Apennines in the past 7 years, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events within most of the Apenninic belt. The interpretation of the obtained lD velocity models allows us to infer interesting features on the deep structure of the Apennines. Smooth velocity gradients with depth and low P-wave velocities are ob,'ierved beneath the Apennines. We believe that our results are effective to constrain hypocentral locations in Italy and may represent a first step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.

  1. Probing dark energy models with extreme pairwise velocities of galaxy clusters from the DEUS-FUR simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillot, Vincent R.; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann

    2015-06-01

    Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model predictions. Halo catalogues from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogues from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results, we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwise velocities significantly deviates from that of a Gaussian, moreover it carries an imprint of the underlying cosmology. We find the Bullet Cluster probability to be two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, thus easing the tension with the ΛCDM model. Finally, the comparison of the inferred probabilities for the different DEUS-FUR cosmologies suggests that observations of extreme interacting clusters can provide constraints on dark energy models complementary to standard cosmological tests.

  2. Internal velocity and mass distributions in simulated clusters of galaxies for a variety of cosmogonic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue

    1994-01-01

    The mass and velocity distributions in the outskirts (0.5-3.0/h Mpc) of simulated clusters of galaxies are examined for a suite of cosmogonic models (two Omega(sub 0) = 1 and two Omega(sub 0) = 0.2 models) utilizing large-scale particle-mesh (PM) simulations. Through a series of model computations, designed to isolate the different effects, we find that both Omega(sub 0) and P(sub k) (lambda less than or = 16/h Mpc) are important to the mass distributions in clusters of galaxies. There is a correlation between power, P(sub k), and density profiles of massive clusters; more power tends to point to the direction of a stronger correlation between alpha and M(r less than 1.5/h Mpc); i.e., massive clusters being relatively extended and small mass clusters being relatively concentrated. A lower Omega(sub 0) universe tends to produce relatively concentrated massive clusters and relatively extended small mass clusters compared to their counterparts in a higher Omega(sub 0) model with the same power. Models with little (initial) small-scale power, such as the hot dark matter (HDM) model, produce more extended mass distributions than the isothermal distribution for most of the mass clusters. But the cold dark matter (CDM) models show mass distributions of most of the clusters more concentrated than the isothermal distribution. X-ray and gravitational lensing observations are beginning providing useful information on the mass distribution in and around clusters; some interesting constraints on Omega(sub 0) and/or the (initial) power of the density fluctuations on scales lambda less than or = 16/h Mpc (where linear extrapolation is invalid) can be obtained when larger observational data sets, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, become available.

  3. Model velocities assessment and HF radar data assimilation in the Ibiza Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Lasheras, Jaime; Mourre, Baptiste; Reyes, Emma; Marmain, Julien; Orfila, Alejandro; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Radar (HFR) provides continuous and high-resolution surface current measurements over wide coastal areas, enabling the observation of dynamic processes at the atmosphere-ocean interface, where a lot of momentum and heat exchange takes place, which is still not fully understood. Furthermore, HFR data provide critical information to improve numerical model predictions through data assimilation. However, the routine assimilation of HFR surface current data in operational models is still a challenge from both the methodological and computational points of view. Since 2012, SOCIB, the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System, operates two coastal HFR sites with the purpose of monitoring the surface currents of the Ibiza Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea). It is an area characterized by important meridional flow exchanges with significant impacts on ecosystems. The circulation in the Ibiza Channel results from the complex interaction of different water masses under strong topographic constraints. This makes the area very challenging from the point of view of numerical modeling. Indeed, models are generally found to represent erroneous flows across this section. In this work, we perform the first steps to evaluate the potential of HFR data to improve the model circulation in the Ibiza Channel area with data assimilation. A multimodel Ensemble Optimal Interpolation scheme has been coupled to the SOCIB Western Mediterranean Operational Model (WMOP) to assimilate multiplatform observations, including the HFR surface velocities. WMOP is a 2-km resolution configuration of the ROMS model using CMEMS numerical products as initial and boundary conditions and high-resolution surface forcing from the Spanish Meteorological Agency. To evaluate whether the model properly captures the main dynamical features observed in the Ibiza Channel (which is a prerequisite for a successful data assimilation), comparison of spatial empirical orthogonal function

  4. Shear-wave velocity structure of young Atlantic Lithosphere from dispersion analysis and waveform modelling of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Schippkus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The lithosphere is the outermost solid layer of the Earth and includes the brittle curst and brittle uppermost mantle. It is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker and hotter portion of the mantle. The boundary between the brittle lithosphere and the asthenosphere is call the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or LAB. The oceanic lithosphere is created at spreading ridges and cools and thickens with age. Seismologists define the LAB by the presence of a low shear wave velocity zone beneath a high velocity lid. Surface waves from earthquakes occurring in young oceanic lithosphere should sample lithospheric structure when being recorded in the vicinity of a mid-ocean ridge. Here, we study group velocity and dispersion of Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes occurring at transform faults in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Earthquakes were recorded either by a network of wide-band (up to 60 s) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N or at the Global Seismic Network (GSN) Station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surface waves sampling young Atlantic lithosphere indicate systematic age-dependent changes of group velocities and dispersion of Rayleigh waves. With increasing plate age maximum group velocity increases (as a function of period), indicating cooling and thickening of the lithosphere. Shear wave velocity is derived inverting the observed dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Further, models derived from the OBS records were refined using waveform modelling of vertical component broadband data at periods of 15 to 40 seconds, constraining the velocity structure of the uppermost 100 km and hence in the depth interval of the mantle where lithospheric cooling is most evident. Waveform modelling supports that the thickness of lithosphere increases with age and that velocities in the lithosphere increase, too.

  5. Tightly coupled low cost 3D RISS/GPS integration using a mixture particle filter for vehicular navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle's odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  6. Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Georgy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF. Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D reduced inertial sensors system (RISS with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle’s odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift

  7. Site-response Estimation by 1D Heterogeneous Velocity Model using Borehole Log and its Relationship to Damping Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    In the Niigata area, which suffered from several large earthquakes such as the 2007 Chuetsu-oki earthquake, geographical observation that elucidates the S-wave structure of the underground is advancing. Modeling of S-wave velocity structure in the subsurface is underway to enable simulation of long-period ground motion. The one-dimensional velocity model by inverse analysis of micro-tremors is sufficiently appropriate for long-period site response but not for short-period, which is important for ground motion evaluation at NPP sites. The high-frequency site responses may be controlled by the strength of heterogeneity of underground structure because the heterogeneity of the 1D model plays an important role in estimating high-frequency site responses and is strongly related to the damping factor of the 1D layered velocity model. (author)

  8. Velocity Models of the Upper Mantle Beneath the MER, Somali Platform, and Ethiopian Highlands from Body Wave Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, A.; Keranen, K. M.; Alemayehu, S.; Ayele, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Eilon, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) presents a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of an active continental rift. Here we use body wave tomography to generate compressional and shear wave velocity models of the region beneath the rift. The models help us understand the rifting process over the broader region around the MER, extending the geographic region beyond that captured in past studies. We use differential arrival times of body waves from teleseismic earthquakes and multi-channel cross correlation to generate travel time residuals relative to the global IASP91 1-d velocity model. The events used for the tomographic velocity model include 200 teleseismic earthquakes with moment magnitudes greater than 5.5 from our recent 2014-2016 deployment in combination with 200 earthquakes from the earlier EBSE and EAGLE deployments (Bastow et al. 2008). We use the finite-frequency tomography analysis of Schmandt et al. (2010), which uses a first Fresnel zone paraxial approximation to the Born theoretical kernel with spatial smoothing and model norm damping in an iterative LSQR algorithm. Results show a broad, slow region beneath the rift with a distinct low-velocity anomaly beneath the northwest shoulder. This robust and well-resolved low-velocity anomaly is visible at a range of depths beneath the Ethiopian plateau, within the footprint of Oligocene flood basalts, and near surface expressions of diking. We interpret this anomaly as a possible plume conduit, or a low-velocity finger rising from a deeper, larger plume. Within the rift, results are consistent with previous work, exhibiting rift segmentation and low-velocities beneath the rift valley.

  9. ON MODELLING RECRYSTALLIZATION PROCESSES WITH RANDOM GROWTH VELOCITIES OF THE GRAINS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous transformations (or reactions  may be defined as those transformations in which there is a sharp moving boundary between the transformed and untransformed region. In Materials Science such transformations are normally called nucleation and growth transformations, whereas birth-and-growth processes is the preferred denomination in Mathematics. Recently, the present authors in a series of papers have derived new analytical expressions for nucleation and growth transformations with the help of stochastic geometry methods. Those papers focused mainly on the role of nuclei location in space, described by point processes, on transformation kinetics.  In this work we focus on the effect that a random velocity of the moving boundaries of the grains has in the overall kinetics. One example of a practical situation in which such a model may be useful is that of recrystallization.  Juul Jensen and Godiksen reviewed recent 3-d experimental results  on recrystallization kinetics and concluded that there is compelling evidence  that  every  grain has its own distinct growth rate. Motivated by this practical application we present here new general kinetics expressions for various situations of practical interest, in which a random distribution of growth velocities is assumed. In order to do this, we  make use of tools from Stochastic Geometry and Geometric Measure Theory. Previously known results follow here as particular cases. Although the motivation for this paper was recrystallization the expressions derived here may be applied to nucleation and growth reactions in general.

  10. P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draebing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, which constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These studies explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no significant velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimetre-large low-porosity (< 10% metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary rock samples from permafrost sites with a natural texture (> 100 micro-fissures from 25 °C to −15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. When freezing, p-wave velocity increases by 11–166% perpendicular to cleavage/bedding and equivalent to a matrix velocity increase from 11–200% coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's two-phase-equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the general applicability of refraction seismics to differentiate frozen and unfrozen low-porosity bedrock.

  11. Modelling the average velocity of propagation of the flame front in a gasoline engine with hydrogen additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenskaya, N. M.; Smolenskii, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents models for calculating the average velocity of propagation of the flame front, obtained from the results of experimental studies. Experimental studies were carried out on a single-cylinder gasoline engine UIT-85 with hydrogen additives up to 6% of the mass of fuel. The article shows the influence of hydrogen addition on the average velocity propagation of the flame front in the main combustion phase. The dependences of the turbulent propagation velocity of the flame front in the second combustion phase on the composition of the mixture and operating modes. The article shows the influence of the normal combustion rate on the average flame propagation velocity in the third combustion phase.

  12. Analysis of Regional GPS Networks in Eastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Although stable, intraplate region of eastern Canada is considered low rate deformation area in the North American plate, the retreat of large ice sheets during deglaciation in the last 20 ka has resulted in horizontal and vertical deformation of the Earth's in eastern Ontario. Present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) uplift rates approach 10 mm/yr or more at Hudson Bay and decrease with distance southeastward. Current GIA models forecast that the hinge line between uplift to the northwest and subsidence to the southeast lies somewhere near the Saint Lawrence valley in eastern Canada [Tushingham and Peltier, 1991; Peltier, 2002]. Employing continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) observations and high precision tools for processing and then analyzing each component of derived time series are important tools to monitor the associated regional crustal deformation with good accuracies. Here we describe the analysis of coordinate time series of cGPS stations scattered sparsely throughout southeastern Ontario and between Ottawa and the east coast of Hudson Bay. Here, the two most reliable local networks, each including 4 to 6 reference stations, were selected for analysis. Data for period of approximately five years, 2008-2012.9, was processed with Bernese 5.0 over several campaigns. Individual cGPS coordinate time series were generated for each station and basic parameters, such as mean, variance and repeatability, were estimated. The time series are corrected with respect to the rigid plate motion and seasonal variations and advanced time series analysis techniques, including spectral analysis and principal component analysis were implemented. Post-processing of the time series reproduces the general GIA spatial pattern. Results also show that the vertical velocities of all stations in the solution are consistent with the GIA model uplift rate and are consistent with other cGPS sites in eastern Canada and increases from north of lake of Ontario (approximately

  13. The Statistics of GPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsakis, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an extremely effective satellite-based system that broadcasts sufficient information for a user to determine time and position from any location on or near the Earth...

  14. Observed and modeled tsunami current velocities in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City Harbor, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, A. R.; Dengler, L.; Crawford, G. B.; uslu, B. U.; Montoya, J.

    2012-12-01

    Crescent City were compared to calculated velocities from the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) numerical model. For Humboldt Bay, the 2010 model tsunami frequencies matched the actual values for the first two hours after the initial arrival however the amplitudes were underestimated by approximately 65%. MOST replicated the first four hours of the 2011 tsunami signal in Humboldt Bay quite well although the peak flood currents were underestimated by about 50%. MOST predicted attenuation of the signal after four hours but the actual signal persisted at a nearly constant level for more than 48 hours. In Crescent City, the model prediction of the 2011 frequency agreed quite well with the observed signal for the first two and a half hours after the initial arrival with a 50% underestimation of the peak amplitude. The results from this project demonstrate that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami currents for small to moderate events and can be used to calibrate and validate models (i.e. MOST) in order to better predict hazardous tsunami conditions and improve planned responses to protect lives and property, especially within harbors. An ADCP will be installed in Crescent City Harbor and four additional ADCPs are being deployed in Humboldt Bay during the fall of 2012.

  15. Application of one-dimensional model to calculate water velocity distributions over elastic elements simulating Canadian waterweed plants (Elodea Canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Elżbieta; Kubrak, Janusz; Rowiński, Paweł

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional model for vertical profiles of longitudinal velocities in open-channel flows is verified against laboratory data obtained in an open channel with artificial plants. Those plants simulate Canadian waterweed which in nature usually forms dense stands that reach all the way to the water surface. The model works particularly well for densely spaced plants.

  16. A Model for Determining the Effect of the Wind Velocity on 100 M Sprinting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janjic Natasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an equation for determining instantaneous and final velocity of a sprinter in a 100 m run completed with a wind resistance ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 m/s. The validity of the equation was verified using the data of three world class sprinters: Carl Lewis, Maurice Green, and Usain Bolt. For the given constant wind velocity with the values + 0.9 and + 1.1 m/s, the wind contribution to the change of sprinter velocity was the same for the maximum as well as for the final velocity. This study assessed how the effect of the wind velocity influenced the change of sprinting velocity. The analysis led to the conclusion that the official limit of safely neglecting the wind influence could be chosen as 1 m/s instead of 2 m/s, if the velocity were presented using three, instead of two decimal digits. This implies that wind velocity should be rounded off to two decimal places instead of the present practice of one decimal place. In particular, the results indicated that the influence of wind on the change of sprinting velocity in the range of up to 2 m/s and was of order of magnitude of 10-3 m/s. This proves that the IAAF Competition Rules correctly neglect the influence of the wind with regard to such velocities. However, for the wind velocity over 2 m/s, the wind influence is of order 10-2 m/s and cannot be neglected.

  17. InSAR and GPS time series analysis: Crustal deformation in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.; Plag, H.

    2010-12-01

    Several previous studies have successfully demonstrated that long time series (e.g. >5 years) of GPS measurements can be employed to detect tectonic signals with a vertical rate greater than 0.3 mm/yr (e.g. Hill and Blewitt, 2006; Bennett et al. 2009). However, GPS stations are often sparse, with spacing from a few kilometres to a few hundred kilometres. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) can complement GPS by providing high horizontal spatial resolution (e.g. meters to tens-of metres) over large regions (e.g. 100 km × 100 km). A major source of error for repeat-pass InSAR is the phase delay in radio signal propagation through the atmosphere. The portion of this attributable to tropospheric water vapour causes errors as large as 10-20 cm in deformation retrievals. InSAR Time Series analysis with Atmospheric Estimation Models (InSAR TS + AEM), developed at the University of Glasgow, is a robust time series analysis approach, which mainly uses interferograms with small geometric baselines to minimise the effects of decorrelation and inaccuracies in topographic data. In addition, InSAR TS + AEM can be used to separate deformation signals from atmospheric water vapour effects in order to map surface deformation as it evolves in time. The principal purposes of this study are to assess: (1) how consistent InSAR-derived deformation time series are with GPS; and (2) how precise InSAR-derived atmospheric path delays can be. The Yucca Mountain, Nevada region is chosen as the study site because of its excellent GPS network and extensive radar archives (>10 years of dense and high-quality GPS stations, and >17 years of ERS and ENVISAT radar acquisitions), and because of its arid environment. The latter results in coherence that is generally high, even for long periods that span the existing C-band radar archives of ERS and ENVISAT. Preliminary results show that our InSAR LOS deformation map agrees with GPS measurements to within 0.35 mm/yr RMS misfit at the stations which is the

  18. Two-phase modeling of DDT: Structure of the velocity-relaxation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapila, A.K.; Son, S.F.; Bdzil, J.B.; Menikoff, R.; Stewart, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the velocity relaxation zone in a hyperbolic, nonconservative, two-phase model is examined in the limit of large drag, and in the context of the problem of deflagration-to-detonation transition in a granular explosive. The primary motivation for the study is the desire to relate the end states across the relaxation zone, which can then be treated as a discontinuity in a reduced, equivelocity model, that is computationally more efficient than its parent. In contrast to a conservative system, where end states across thin zones of rapid variation are determined principally by algebraic statements of conservation, the nonconservative character of the present system requires an explicit consideration of the structure. Starting with the minimum admissible wave speed, the structure is mapped out as the wave speed increases. Several critical wave speeds corresponding to changes in the structure are identified. The archetypal structure is partly dispersed, monotonic, and involves conventional hydrodynamic shocks in one or both phases. The picture is reminiscent of, but more complex than, what is observed in such (simpler) two-phase media as a dusty gas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. PREDICTION OF BLOOD FLOW VELOCITY AND LEAFLET DEFORMATION VIA 2D MITRAL VALVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.H. Mohd Adib

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mitral valve, regional variations in structure and material properties combine to affect the biomechanics of the entire valve. From previous studies, we know that the mitral valve leaflet tissue is highly extensible. A two-dimensional model of the mitral valve was generated using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE mesh. A simple approximation of the heart geometry was used and the valve dimensions were based on actual measurements made. Valve opening and closure was simulated using contact equations. The objective of this study was to investigate and predict flow and leaflet phenomena via a simple 2D mitral valve model based on the critical parameter of blood. Two stages of mitral valves analysis were investigated: the systolic and diastolic stages. The results show a linear correlation between the mitral valve leaflet rigidity and the volume of backflow. Additionally, the simulation predicted mitral valve leaflet displacement during closure, which agreed with the results of our previous data analysis and the results for blood flow velocity during systole condition through the mitral valve outlet, as reported in the medical literature. In conclusion, these computational techniques are very useful in the study of both degenerative valve disease and failure of prostheses and will be further developed to investigate heart valve failure and subsequent surgical repair.

  20. Estimation of the Characterized Tsunami Source Model considering the Complicated Shape of Tsunami Source by Using the observed waveforms of GPS Buoys in the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, S.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    In the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami disaster, the delay of understanding damage situation increased the human damage. To solve this problem, it is important to search the severe damaged areas. The tsunami numerical modeling is useful to estimate damages and the accuracy of simulation depends on the tsunami source. Seto and Takahashi (2017) proposed a method to estimate the characterized tsunami source model by using the limited observed data of GPS buoys. The model consists of Large slip zone (LSZ), Super large slip zone (SLSZ) and background rupture zone (BZ) as the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (below COGJ) reported after the Tohoku tsunami. At the beginning of this method, the rectangular fault model is assumed based on the seismic magnitude and hypocenter reported right after an earthquake. By using the fault model, tsunami propagation is simulated numerically, and the fault model is improved after comparing the computed data with the observed data repeatedly. In the comparison, correlation coefficient and regression coefficient are used as indexes. They are calculated with the observed and the computed tsunami wave profiles. This repetition is conducted to get the two coefficients close to 1.0, which makes the precise of the fault model higher. However, it was indicated as the improvement that the model did not examine a complicated shape of tsunami source. In this study, we proposed an improved model to examine the complicated shape. COGJ(2012) assumed that possible tsunami source region in the Nankai trough consisted of the several thousands small faults. And, we use these small faults to estimate the targeted tsunami source in this model. Therefore, we can estimate the complicated tsunami source by using these small faults. The estimation of BZ is carried out as a first step, and LSZ and SLSZ are estimated next as same as the previous model. The proposed model by using GPS buoy was applied for a tsunami scenario in the Nankai Trough. As a result

  1. An attitude determination GPS Receiver Integrated with Dead Reckoning Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Sung, T. K.; Lee, S. J. [Chungnam University, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    In the GPS/DR integrated system, the GPS position(or velocity) is used to compensate the DR output and to calibrate errors of the DR sensor. This synergistic relationship ensures that the calibrated DR accuracy can be maintained even when the GPS signal is blocked. Because of the observability problem, however, the DR sensors are not sufficiently calibrated when the vehicle speed is low. This problem can be solved if we use a multi-antenna GPS receiver for attitude determination instead of conventional one. This paper designs a two-antenna GPS receiver integrated with DR sensors. The proposed integration system has three remarkable features. First, the DR sensor can be calibrated regardless of the vehicle speed with the aid of two-antenna GPS receiver. Secondly, the search space of integer ambiguities in GPS carrier-phase measurements is reduced to a part of the surface of the sphere using DR heading. Thirdly, the detection resolution of cycle-slips in GPS carrier-phase measurements is improved with the aid of DR heading. From the experimental result, it is shown that the search space is drastically reduced to about 3/20 of the non-aided case the cycle-slips of 1 or half cycle can be detected. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Anatomy of a caldera: seismic velocity and attenuation models of the Campi Flegrei (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Marco; Tramelli, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Campi Flegrei is an active Caldera marked by strong vertical deformations of the soil called bradyseisms. The mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon are essentially three i) the presence of a shallow magmatic chamber that pushes the lid and consequently producing periodic variation of the soil level, ii) a thermic expansion of the geothermal aquifer due to the periodic increase of heat flux coming from a near magmatic chamber or deep fluids or iii) a combination of both phenomena. To solve the paradox, several models have been proposed to describe the nature and the geometry of the bodies responsible of the bradyseisms. Seismological tools allowed a rough description of the main features in terms of seismic velocities and attenuation parameters and till now were not able to resolve the smallest structures (water saturated reservoir from regions with low Vp, low Vp/Vs and low Qp possibly related to the gas saturated part of the reservoir. At deeper depth (2-3.5 km) bodies with high Vp and Vp/Vs and low Qp can be associated with magmatic intrusions. The results of this project have been obtained in the framework of the PIPIIT program (IA100416).

  3. Defect evolution in cosmology and condensed matter quantitative analysis with the velocity-dependent one-scale model

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2016-01-01

    This book sheds new light on topological defects in widely differing systems, using the Velocity-Dependent One-Scale Model to better understand their evolution. Topological defects – cosmic strings, monopoles, domain walls or others - necessarily form at cosmological (and condensed matter) phase transitions. If they are stable and long-lived they will be fossil relics of higher-energy physics. Understanding their behaviour and consequences is a key part of any serious attempt to understand the universe, and this requires modelling their evolution. The velocity-dependent one-scale model is the only fully quantitative model of defect network evolution, and the canonical model in the field. This book provides a review of the model, explaining its physical content and describing its broad range of applicability.

  4. a Global Shear Velocity Model of the Upper Mantle from New Fundamental and Higher Rayleigh Mode Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present a global SV-wave tomographic model of the upper mantle, built from a new dataset of fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waveforms. We use an extension of the automated waveform inversion approach of Debayle (1999) designed to improve the extraction of fundamental and higher mode information from a single surface wave seismogram. The improvement is shown to be significant in the transition zone structure which is constrained by the higher modes. The new approach is fully automated and can be run on a Beowulf computer to process massive surface wave dataset. It has been used to match successfully over 350 000 fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waveforms, corresponding to about 20 millions of new measurements extracted from the seismograms. For each seismogram, we obtain a path average shear velocity and quality factor model, and a set of fundamental and higher mode dispersion and attenuation curves compatible with the recorded waveform. The set of dispersion curves provides a global database for future finite frequency inversion. Our new 3D SV-wave tomographic model takes into account the effect of azimuthal anisotropy and is constrained with a lateral resolution of several hundred kilometers and a vertical resolution of a few tens of kilometers. In the uppermost 200 km, our model shows a very strong correlation with surface tectonics. The slow velocity signature of mid-oceanic ridges extend down to ~100 km depth while the high velocity signature of cratons vanishes below 200 km depth. At depth greater than 400 km, the pattern of seismic velocities appear relatively homogeneous at large scale, except for high velocity slabs which produce broad high velocity regions within the transition zone. Although resolution is still good, the region between 200 and 400 km is associated with a complex pattern of seismic heterogeneities showing no simple correlation with the shallower or deeper structure.

  5. Validation of GPS and accelerometer technology in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Emma; Main, Luana C; Aisbett, Brad; Gastin, Paul; Netto, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of an integrated accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) device to quantify swimming kinematics variables in swimming. Criterion validation study. Twenty-one sub-elite swimmers completed three 100 m efforts (one butterfly, breaststroke and freestyle) in an outdoor 50 m Olympic pool. A GPS device with an integrated tri-axial accelerometer was used to obtain mid-pool velocity and stroke count of each effort. This data was compared to velocity and stroke count data obtained from concurrently recorded digital video of the performance. A strong relationship was detected between the accelerometer stroke count and the video criterion measure for both breaststroke (r>0.98) and butterfly (r>0.99). Also, no significant differences were detected between the GPS velocity and video obtained velocity for both freestyle and breaststroke. There was a significant difference between the GPS velocity and criterion measure for butterfly. Acceptable standard error and 95% limits of agreement were obtained for freestyle (0.13 m s(-1), 0.36 m s(-1)) and breaststroke (0.12 m s(-1), 0.33 m s(-1)) compared to butterfly (0.18 m s(-1), 0.50 m s(-1)). Relative error measurements ranged between 10.2 and 13.4% across the three strokes. The integrated accelerometer and GPS device offers a valid and accurate tool for stroke count quantification in breaststroke and butterfly as well as measuring mid-pool swimming velocity in freestyle and breaststroke. The application of GPS technology in the outdoor training environment suggests advantageous practical benefits for swimmers, coaches and sports scientists. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  6. A statistical characterization of the Galileo-to-GPS inter-system bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Ciro; Borio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Global navigation satellite system operates using independent time scales and thus inter-system time offsets have to be determined to enable multi-constellation navigation solutions. GPS/Galileo inter-system bias and drift are evaluated here using different types of receivers: two mass market and two professional receivers. Moreover, three different approaches are considered for the inter-system bias determination: in the first one, the broadcast Galileo to GPS time offset is used to align GPS and Galileo time scales. In the second, the inter-system bias is included in the multi-constellation navigation solution and is estimated using the measurements available. Finally, an enhanced algorithm using constraints on the inter-system bias time evolution is proposed. The inter-system bias estimates obtained with the different approaches are analysed and their stability is experimentally evaluated using the Allan deviation. The impact of the inter-system bias on the position velocity time solution is also considered and the performance of the approaches analysed is evaluated in terms of standard deviation and mean errors for both horizontal and vertical components. From the experiments, it emerges that the inter-system bias is very stable and that the use of constraints, modelling the GPS/Galileo inter-system bias behaviour, significantly improves the performance of multi-constellation navigation.

  7. Proof of Concept: Model Based Bionic Muscle with Hyperbolic Force-Velocity Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. B. Haeufle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE, a parallel damper element (PDE, and a serial element (SE exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, a technical proof of this concept was presented. AE and PDE were implemented as electric motors, SE as a mechanical spring. The force-velocity relation of this artificial CE was determined in quick release experiments. The CE exhibited hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. This proof of concept can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles.

  8. Pre-eruptive and co-eruptive deformation of Kirishima volcano, Japan with deep and shallow sources modeling constrained from InSAR and GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Amelug, F.; Albino, F.; Aoki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Kirishima volcano group is located on the southern part of Kyushu, Japan. Prior to its 2011 magmatic eruption, several phreatic eruptions occurred on August 2008 and March, April, May, June and July 2010. Using time series InSAR from 2007-2011 ALOS PALSAR data, we found a small deflating area around Shinmoe-dake volcano summit and a relatively large inflating area on the northwest of Shinmoe-dake volcano, before 2011 Kirishima, Shinmoe-dake eruption. Modeling constrained from both InSAR and dense regional GPS network data revealed deep and shallow deformation sources for Kirishima volcano. This double sources system would help us better understand the complex process of volcanic deformation.

  9. Deformation of Northwestern South America from GPS Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Paez, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Ruiz, A. G.; Fernandes, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that migrates (escapes) north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought-to-be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador and/or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). At the latitude of Ecuador, the NAB is defined by transpressional deformation accommodating east-northeastward motion along its boundary with South America. In southern to central Colombia, the NAB is dissected by several mapped and prominent regional shear zones. At these latitudes the NAB may be bound to the west by the Choco block and the transpressional Atrato-Uraba fault system and to the east by the Guayaquil-Algeciras fault system. And in northern Colombia the Caribbean - South America plate boundary is defined by the NAB and proposed Maracaibo and Guajira blocks. We investigate the deformation of northwestern South America, including the kinematics of NAB utilizing a new velocity field based on continuous GPS and existing episodic GPS data in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. We reference these new velocities to a newly estimated Euler vector for the South America plate based on inversion of cGPS data from stations east of the Andes. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vectors of the NAB, Choco, Panama, Maracaibo and Guajira blocks and interseismic elastic strain accumulation (interseismic coupling) on block-bounding faults using a block modeling approach. We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the NAB along strike and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block-bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquakes

  10. Analytical solutions of jam pattern formation on a ring for a class of optimal velocity traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Caputo, Jean Guy

    2009-01-01

    are found analytically. Their velocity and amplitude are determined from a perturbation approach based on collective coordinates with the discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries equation as the zero order equation. This contains the standard OV model as a special case. The analytical results are in excellent...

  11. Deformation in Northeast India and Indo-Burmese Arc derived from GPS and Earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, S. P.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.; Reddy, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    GPS/acoustic (GPS/A) seafloor geodetic observation is a precise seafloor positioning technique and has made great progress over the last decade. GPS/A observation determines the positions of acoustic mirror-type transponders installed on the seafloor by combining the two techniques of kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging through a ship or a buoy. The original idea was proposed by Prof. Spiess at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1985 and its protocol and hardware were made through research and development of his group by the mid-1990s. In Japan, three research groups, Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University and Nagoya University, began to develop the GPS/A observation system in the 1990s, established GPS/A observation sites mainly on the landward slope of the plate boundaries around Japan, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai trough, and have been carrying out campaign observations since around 2000. The primary purpose of our observation is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where large interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred. By continuous efforts for over a decade, the positioning precision has achieved a few centimeters and seafloor movements such as intraplate deformation and coseismic displacements have been successfully detected. In particular, regarding the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0), which occurred off northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, east-southeastward coseismic displacements of up to 31 m were observed above the focal region, especially close to the epicenter, while those detected by on-land GPS measurements over 100 km away from the epicenter, conducted by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, was up to 5.3 m. Coseismic slip models on the plate boundary estimated from not only GPS data but also GPS/A results indicate that a huge slip of more than 50 m generated close to the trench axis, which was much larger than that estimated from GPS

  12. GPS/acoustic seafloor geodetic observation in the subduction zone around Japan (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Kido, M.; Tadokoro, K.; Fujimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    GPS/acoustic (GPS/A) seafloor geodetic observation is a precise seafloor positioning technique and has made great progress over the last decade. GPS/A observation determines the positions of acoustic mirror-type transponders installed on the seafloor by combining the two techniques of kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging through a ship or a buoy. The original idea was proposed by Prof. Spiess at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1985 and its protocol and hardware were made through research and development of his group by the mid-1990s. In Japan, three research groups, Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University and Nagoya University, began to develop the GPS/A observation system in the 1990s, established GPS/A observation sites mainly on the landward slope of the plate boundaries around Japan, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai trough, and have been carrying out campaign observations since around 2000. The primary purpose of our observation is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where large interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred. By continuous efforts for over a decade, the positioning precision has achieved a few centimeters and seafloor movements such as intraplate deformation and coseismic displacements have been successfully detected. In particular, regarding the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0), which occurred off northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, east-southeastward coseismic displacements of up to 31 m were observed above the focal region, especially close to the epicenter, while those detected by on-land GPS measurements over 100 km away from the epicenter, conducted by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, was up to 5.3 m. Coseismic slip models on the plate boundary estimated from not only GPS data but also GPS/A results indicate that a huge slip of more than 50 m generated close to the trench axis, which was much larger than that estimated from GPS

  13. Precise Orbit Determination of LEO Satellite Using Dual-Frequency GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoola Hwang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available KOrea Multi-purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT-5 will be launched at 550km altitude in 2010. Accurate satellite position (20 cm and velocity (0.03 cm/s are required to treat highly precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image processing. Ionosphere delay was eliminated using dual frequency GPS data and double differenced GPS measurement removed common clock errors of both GPS satellites and receiver. SAC-C carrier phase data with 0.1 Hz sampling rate was used to achieve precise orbit determination (POD with ETRI GNSS Precise Orbit Determination (EGPOD software, which was developed by ETRI. Dynamic model approach was used and satellite's position, velocity, and the coefficients of solar radiation pressure and drag were adjusted once per arc using Batch Least Square Estimator (BLSE filter. Empirical accelerations for sinusoidal radial, along-track, and cross track terms were also estimated once per revolution for unmodeled dynamics. Additionally piece-wise constant acceleration for cross-track direction was estimated once per arc. The performance of POD was validated by comparing with JPL's Precise Orbit Ephemeris (POE.

  14. Applying indoor and outdoor modeling techniques to estimate individual exposure to PM2.5 from personal GPS profiles and diaries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Lydia E; Krüger, Antonio; Klemm, Otto

    2009-09-01

    Impacts of individual behavior on personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and the associated individual health effects are still not well understood. As outdoor PM concentrations exhibit highly temporal and spatial variations, personal PM exposure depends strongly on individual trajectories and activities. Furthermore, indoor environments deserve special attention due to the large fraction of the day people spend indoors. The indoor PM concentration in turn depends on infiltrated outdoor PM and indoor particle sources, partially caused by the activities of people indoor. We present an approach to estimate PM2.5 exposure levels for individuals based upon existing data sources and models. For this pilot study, six persons kept 24-hour diaries and GPS tracks for at least one working day and one weekend day, providing their daily activity profiles and the associated geographical locations. The survey took place in the city of Münster, Germany in the winter period between October 2006 and January 2007. Environmental PM2.5 exposure was estimated by using two different models for outdoor and indoor concentrations, respectively. For the outdoor distribution, a dispersion model was used and extended by actual ambient fixed site measurements. Indoor concentrations were modeled using a simple mass balance model with the estimated outdoor concentration fraction infiltrated and indoor activities estimated from the diaries. A limited number of three 24-hour indoor measurements series for PM were performed to test the model performance. The resulting average daily exposure of the 14 collected profiles ranged from 21 to 198 microg m(-3) and showed a high variability over the day as affected by personal behavior. Due to the large contribution of indoor particle sources, the mean 24-hour exposure was in most cases higher than the daily means of the respective outdoor fixed site monitors. This feasibility study is a first step towards a more comprehensive modeling approach for

  15. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  16. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  17. Hypocenter relocation along the Sunda arc in Indonesia, using a 3D seismic velocity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Shiddiqi, Hasbi A.; Widiyantoro, Sri; Thurber, Clifford H.; Pesicek, Jeremy D.; Zhang, Haijiang; Wiyono, Samsul H.; Ramadhan, Mohamad; Wandano,; Irsyam, Mahsyur

    2018-01-01

    The tectonics of the Sunda arc region is characterized by the junction of the Eurasian and Indo‐Australian tectonic plates, causing complex dynamics to take place. High‐seismicity rates in the Indonesian region occur due to the interaction between these tectonic plates. The availability of a denser network of seismometers after the earthquakes of Mw">Mw 9.1 in 2004 and  Mw">Mw 8.6 in 2005 supports various seismic studies, one of which regards the precise relocation of the hypocenters. In this study, hypocenter relocation was performed using a teleseismic double‐difference (DD) relocation method (teletomoDD) combining arrival times of P and S waves from stations at local, regional, and teleseismic distances. The catalog data were taken from the Agency of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) of Indonesia, and the International Seismological Centre (ISC) for the time period of April 2009 to May 2015. The 3D seismic‐wave velocity model with a grid size 1°×1°">1°×1° was used in the travel‐time calculations. Relocation results show a reduction in travel‐time residuals compared with the initial locations. The relocation results better illuminate subducted slabs and active faults in the region such as the Mentawai back thrust and the outer rise in the subduction zone south of Java. Focal mechanisms from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog are analyzed in conjunction with the relocation results, and our synthesis of the results provides further insight into seismogenesis in the region.

  18. Blind test of methods for obtaining 2-D near-surface seismic velocity models from first-arrival traveltimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.

  19. An analysis of Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model for Sisko fluid flow with velocity slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Malik

    Full Text Available The present frame work examines the characteristics of Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model to the Sisko fluid flow over a flat stretching sheet with velocity slip and thermal radiation. Instead of using classical Fourier's law and Fick's law the inclusion of thermal and concentration relaxation times lead us to the Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model. Utilization of the suitable transformations makes it convenient to transform our governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Further, the numerical solutions to these normalized ordinary differential equations are obtained by adopting the shooting technique along with Runge-Kutta fourth order method. The results are then plotted for various values of the pertinent parameters and discussed deliberately. Also, a comparison of the present results with the previously reported results as well as analytic results obtained through the homotopy analysis method (HAM helps to ensure their validity. This investigation leads us to the fact that the velocity diminishes with the velocity slip parameter. Also, in temperature and concentration profiles a decline can obviously be verdict with the larger relaxation times. Keywords: Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model, Sisko fluid, Velocity slip, Thermal radiation

  20. Comparison of Large Eddy Simulations and κ-ε Modelling of Fluid Velocity and Tracer Concentration in Impinging Jet Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtas Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of turbulent mixing in two types of jet mixers were carried out using two CFD models, large eddy simulation and κ-ε model. Modelling approaches were compared with experimental data obtained by the application of particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence methods. Measured local microstructures of fluid velocity and inert tracer concentration can be used for direct validation of numerical simulations. Presented results show that for higher tested values of jet Reynolds number both models are in good agreement with the experiments. Differences between models were observed for lower Reynolds numbers when the effects of large scale inhomogeneity are important.

  1. GPS Imaging of Time-Variable Earthquake Hazard: The Hilton Creek Fault, Long Valley California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Hilton Creek Fault, in Long Valley, California is a down-to-the-east normal fault that bounds the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate, and lies half inside and half outside the magmatically active caldera. Despite the dense coverage with GPS networks, the rapid and time-variable surface deformation attributable to sporadic magmatic inflation beneath the resurgent dome makes it difficult to use traditional geodetic methods to estimate the slip rate of the fault. While geologic studies identify cumulative offset, constrain timing of past earthquakes, and constrain a Quaternary slip rate to within 1-5 mm/yr, it is not currently possible to use geologic data to evaluate how the potential for slip correlates with transient caldera inflation. To estimate time-variable seismic hazard of the fault we estimate its instantaneous slip rate from GPS data using a new set of algorithms for robust estimation of velocity and strain rate fields and fault slip rates. From the GPS time series, we use the robust MIDAS algorithm to obtain time series of velocity that are highly insensitive to the effects of seasonality, outliers and steps in the data. We then use robust imaging of the velocity field to estimate a gridded time variable velocity field. Then we estimate fault slip rate at each time using a new technique that forms ad-hoc block representations that honor fault geometries, network complexity, connectivity, but does not require labor-intensive drawing of block boundaries. The results are compared to other slip rate estimates that have implications for hazard over different time scales. Time invariant long term seismic hazard is proportional to the long term slip rate accessible from geologic data. Contemporary time-invariant hazard, however, may differ from the long term rate, and is estimated from the geodetic velocity field that has been corrected for the effects of magmatic inflation in the caldera using a published model of a dipping ellipsoidal

  2. Informing disease models with temporal and spatial contact structure among GPS-collared individuals in wild populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Williams

    Full Text Available Contacts between hosts are essential for transmission of many infectious agents. Understanding how contacts, and thus transmission rates, occur in space and time is critical to effectively responding to disease outbreaks in free-ranging animal populations. Contacts between animals in the wild are often difficult to observe or measure directly. Instead, one must infer contacts from metrics such as proximity in space and time. Our objective was to examine how contacts between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus vary in space and among seasons. We used GPS movement data from 71 deer in central New York State to quantify potential direct contacts between deer and indirect overlap in space use across time and space. Daily probabilities of direct contact decreased from winter (0.05-0.14, to low levels post-parturition through summer (0.00-0.02, and increased during the rut to winter levels. The cumulative distribution for the spatial structure of direct and indirect contact probabilities around a hypothetical point of occurrence increased rapidly with distance for deer pairs separated by 1,000 m-7,000 m. Ninety-five percent of the probabilities of direct contact occurred among deer pairs within 8,500 m of one another, and 99% within 10,900 m. Probabilities of indirect contact accumulated across greater spatial extents: 95% at 11,900 m and 99% at 49,000 m. Contacts were spatially consistent across seasons, indicating that although contact rates differ seasonally, they occur proportionally across similar landscape extents. Distributions of contact probabilities across space can inform management decisions for assessing risk and allocating resources in response.

  3. Precise Orbit Determination of GPS Satellites Using Phase Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Kook Jee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of user position by GPS is heavily dependent upon the accuracy of satellite position which is usually transmitted to GPS users in radio signals. The real-time satellite position information directly obtained from broadcast ephimerides has the accuracy of 3 x 10 meters which is very unsatisfactory to measure 100km baseline to the accuracy of less than a few mili-meters. There are globally at present seven orbit analysis centers capable of generating precise GPS ephimerides and their orbit quality is of the order of about 10cm. Therefore, precise orbit model and phase processing technique were reviewed and consequently precise GPS ephimerides were produced after processing the phase observables of 28 global GPS stations for 1 day. Initial 6 orbit parameters and 2 solar radiation coefficients were estimated using batch least square algorithm and the final results were compared with the orbit of IGS, the International GPS Service for Geodynamics.

  4. Continuing medical education and burnout among Danish GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndt, Anders; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been minimal research into continuing medical education (CME) and its association with burnout among GPs. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between participating in CME and experiencing burnout in a sample of Danish GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross......-sectional questionnaire study. SETTING: All 458 active GPs in 2004, in the County of Aarhus, Denmark were invited to participate. METHOD: Data on CME activities were obtained for all GPs and linked to burnout which was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey. The relationship between CME...... activity and burnout was calculated as prevalence ratios (PR) in a generalised linear model. RESULTS: In total, 379 (83.5%) GPs returned the questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was about 25%, and almost 3% suffered from 'high burnout'. A total of 344 (92.0%) GPs were members of a CME group...

  5. Present kinematics of the Tjornes Fracture Zone, North Iceland, from campaign and continuous GPS measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, S.

    2012-11-19

    The Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ), North Iceland, is a 120 km transform offset of the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge that accommodates 18 mm yr−1 plate motion on two parallel transform structures and connects the offshore Kolbeinsey Ridge in the north to the on-shore Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in the south. This transform zone is offshore except for a part of the right-lateral strike-slip Húsavík-Flatey fault (HFF) system that lies close to the coastal town of Húsavík, inducing a significant seismic risk to its inhabitants. In our previous work we constrained the locking depth and slip-rate of the HFF using 4 yr of continuous GPS measurements and found that the accumulated slip-deficit on the fault is equivalent to a Mw6.8 ± 0.1 earthquake, assuming a complete stress release in the last major earthquakes in 1872 and a steady accumulation since then. In this paper we improve our previous analysis by adding 44 campaign GPS (EGPS) data points, which have been regularly observed since 1997. We extract the steady-state interseismic velocities within the TFZ by correcting the GPS data for volcanic inflation of Theistareykir—the westernmost volcano of the NVZ—using a model with a magma volume increase of 25 × 106 m3, constrained by InSAR time-series analysis results. The improved velocity field based on 58 GPS stations confirms the robustness of our previous model and allows to better constrain the free model parameters. For the HFF we find a slightly shallower locking depth of ∼6.2 km and a slightly higher slip-rate of ∼6.8 mm yr−1 that again result in the same seismic potential equivalent to a Mw6.8 earthquake. The much larger number of GPS velocities improves the statistically estimated model parameter uncertainties by a factor of two, when compared to our previous study, a result that we validate using Bayesian estimation.

  6. The acceleration dependent validity and reliability of 10 Hz GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Richard; French, Duncan; Thompson, Kevin G; Hayes, Philip R

    2014-09-01

    To examine the validity and inter-unit reliability of 10 Hz GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during maximal accelerations. Experimental. Two 10 Hz GPS devices secured to a sliding platform mounted on a custom built monorail were towed whilst sprinting maximally over 10 m. Displacement of GPS devices was measured using a laser sampling at 2000 Hz, from which velocity and mean acceleration were derived. Velocity data was pooled into acceleration thresholds according to mean acceleration. Agreement between laser and GPS measures of instantaneous velocity within each acceleration threshold was examined using least squares linear regression and Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOA). Inter-unit reliability was expressed as typical error (TE) and a Pearson correlation coefficient. Mean bias ± 95% LOA during accelerations of 0-0.99 ms(-2) was 0.12 ± 0.27 ms(-1), decreasing to -0.40 ± 0.67 ms(-1) during accelerations >4 ms(-2). Standard error of the estimate ± 95% CI (SEE) increased from 0.12 ± 0.02 ms(-1) during accelerations of 0-0.99 ms(-2) to 0.32 ± 0.06 ms(-1) during accelerations >4 ms(-2). TE increased from 0.05 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01 ms(-1) during accelerations of 0-0.99 ms(-2) and >4 ms(-2) respectively. The validity and reliability of 10 Hz GPS for the measurement of instantaneous velocity has been shown to be inversely related to acceleration. Those using 10 Hz GPS should be aware that during accelerations of over 4 ms(-2), accuracy is compromised. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  8. Earthquake-cycle deformation along the Kunlun fault constrained by GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Klinger, Y.; Xu, X.; Nocquet, J. M.; Chen, G.; Yu, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Kunlun fault (KLF) is a major strike-slip fault that accommodates part of extrusion of the Tibetan plateau eastward. Several M>7 earthquakes in the past 100 years, including the most recent Mw7.8 2001 Kokoxili earthquake, ruptured most segments of the KLF except for the Xidatan-Dongdatan segment next to the 2001 rupture. Here we use continuous GPS data recorded across the Xidatan (XDT) segment since 2007, to re-revisit the earthquake-cycle deformation models constrained by both pre- and post-Kokoxili GPS data. We show that the XDT GPS "interseismic" velocities contain sharp asymmetric post-seismic transients of the 2001 event and have a potential to highlight the heterogeneity of mechanical properties across the KLF. We first consider elastic/viscoelastic block models without any lateral heterogeneity. Elastic models, with block rotation, back-slip, and afterslip on deep continuation of the fault segments that ruptured during past earthquakes explain both pre- and post-Kokoxili GPS velocities well. We next use viscoelastic block modeling approach in which steady block motion is punctuated by the instantaneous co-seismic deformation and the follow-up time-decaying deformation due to viscoelastic relaxation of the earthquake-induced stress. The times of the last earthquakes along the regional active faults are set according to the paleoseismological results. We systematically explore series of earthquake-recurrence intervals and viscosities. The preferred models fit the GPS data well, but long-term slip rates of some active faults are not well constrained due to trade-offs between parameters such as recurrence interval and slip rate for the KLF, and between block rotation and viscoelastic-correction term for the Altyn Tagh fault. In both models, if the contribution from afterslip in the elastic block models and viscoelastic relaxation effects in the viscoelastic block models are removed from the model predictions, the residuals at the XDT sites clearly show

  9. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  10. A one-dimensional model to describe flow localization in viscoplastic slender bars subjected to super critical impact velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Romero, A.; Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate flow localization in viscoplastic slender bars subjected to dynamic tension. We explore loading rates above the critical impact velocity: the wave initiated in the impacted end by the applied velocity is the trigger for the localization of plastic deformation. The problem has been addressed using two kinds of numerical simulations: (1) one-dimensional finite difference calculations and (2) axisymmetric finite element computations. The latter calculations have been used to validate the capacity of the finite difference model to describe plastic flow localization at high impact velocities. The finite difference model, which highlights due to its simplicity, allows to obtain insights into the role played by the strain rate and temperature sensitivities of the material in the process of dynamic flow localization. Specifically, we have shown that viscosity can stabilize the material behavior to the point of preventing the appearance of the critical impact velocity. This is a key outcome of our investigation, which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has not been previously reported in the literature.

  11. Dynamical system with plastic self-organized velocity field as an alternative conceptual model of a cognitive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Natalia B; Marsden, Christopher J

    2017-12-05

    It is well known that architecturally the brain is a neural network, i.e. a collection of many relatively simple units coupled flexibly. However, it has been unclear how the possession of this architecture enables higher-level cognitive functions, which are unique to the brain. Here, we consider the brain from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory and hypothesize that the unique feature of the brain, the self-organized plasticity of its architecture, could represent the means of enabling the self-organized plasticity of its velocity vector field. We propose that, conceptually, the principle of cognition could amount to the existence of appropriate rules governing self-organization of the velocity field of a dynamical system with an appropriate account of stimuli. To support this hypothesis, we propose a simple non-neuromorphic mathematical model with a plastic self-organized velocity field, which has no prototype in physical world. This system is shown to be capable of basic cognition, which is illustrated numerically and with musical data. Our conceptual model could provide an additional insight into the working principles of the brain. Moreover, hardware implementations of plastic velocity fields self-organizing according to various rules could pave the way to creating artificial intelligence of a novel type.

  12. A novel model and behavior analysis for a swarm of multi-agent systems with finite velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang-Shun; Wu Zhi-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that in most existing swarm models of multi-agent systems the velocity of an agent can be infinite, which is not in accordance with the real applications, we propose a novel swarm model of multi-agent systems where the velocity of an agent is finite. The Lyapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle are employed to show that by using the proposed model all of the agents eventually enter into a bounded region around the swarm center and finally tend to a stationary state. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Vp and Vs velocity models from the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary across the Gloria Fault, North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luis; Hübscher, Christian; Terrinha, Pedro; Matias, Luis; Afilhado, Alexandra; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The oceanic crustal and uppermost lithospheric mantle structure across the Gloria Fault transcurrent plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia in the Northeast Atlantic is investigated based on seismic reflection, seismic refraction and wide angle reflection data. This experiment used 18 ocean bottom stations along a N-S 150 km long traverse together with coincident acquisition of a multichannel seismic reflection profile. Structural and seismic stratigraphic interpretation of the reflection profile shows that Neogene to recent tectonic deformation on this segment of the plate boundary concentrated on the southern side of the Gloria Fault, i.e. the Africa plate. Modeling of P and S seismic waves and gravimetric anomalies allowed estimation of velocities, density, Poisson's ratio and proposal of a compositional model. A five layer model is proposed in which layers 1 to 3 correspond to normal sediments and typical oceanic crust layers 2 and 3, respectively. Layer 5 yielded mantle velocities above 7.9 km/s. Layer 4 with 4 km of thickness has Vp velocities between 7.1 and 7.4 km/s. Layer 4 velocities can be found at the base of the lower crust and at the uppermost hydrated lithospheric mantle as reported from various authors from other parts of the Earth. Enrichment in olivine at the base of the lower crust, as a result of underplating, could explain Layer 4 velocities; however, there are no morphologic evidences associated to plume activity. On the other hand, morphologic, geologic and seismicity generated along the Gloria Fault (M>7-8.4) indicates that the Gloria Fault has accumulated ductile and brittle deformation from the upper mantle through the surface. It is here argued that pathways for fluid migration through seismic pumping mechanisms have provided the conditions for partial serpentinization of the peridotite mantle rocks, which probably make up the bulk of Layer 4. Publication supported by FCT- project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz

  14. Comparison of an empirical S-wave velocity model and a calculated stress-strain model for a rock mass disturbed by mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Krzysztof; Czarny, Rafał

    2017-11-01

    In the article a comparison analysis is presented between a numerical model of the stress and deformation state in a rock mass and an S-wave velocity model obtained as a result of in situ measurement. The research was conducted using data from the Jastrzębie and Moszczenica coal mines. The part of the rock mass examined was strongly disturbed by multi-seam exploitation of coal. To obtain the S-wave velocity model 6 hours of ambient seismic noise data were recorded using 11 seismometers. The propagation of the Rayleigh surface wave between the seismometers was reconstructed utilising the seismic interferometry and the cross correlation technique. Estimation of a two dimensional model of the Swave velocity field was performed on the basis of dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave phase velocity. The stress and deformation field were calculated assuming a plane state of stress with the use of the elastic-plastic Coulomb-Mohr strength criterion. Images of the vertical stress, horizontal stress, vertical strain and horizontal strain as well as the subsidence profile on the model surface were obtained as a result of the calculation. Analysis of the results shows correlation between the field of S-wave velocity and the modelled field of stress and strain.

  15. Shear velocity model for the westernmost Mediterranean from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean comprises the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, resulting from Iberia-Eurasia collision; the Iberian Massif, which has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes), resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back; and the Atlas Mountains. We analyzed data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations in the area (IberArray and Siberia arrays, the PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. We calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise (periods 4 to 40 s) and teleseismic events (periods 20 to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. Our results correlate well with the surface expression of the main structural units with higher crustal velocity for the Iberian Massif than for the Alpine Iberia and Atlas Mountains. The Gibraltar Arc has lower crustal shear velocities than the regional average at all crustal depths. It also shows an arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas.

  16. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Thao Q

    2007-01-01

    ... differential GPS algorithm for a network of users. The stand-alone user GPS algorithm is a direct, closed-form, and efficient new position determination algorithm that exploits the closed-form solution of the GPS trilateration equations and works...

  17. Predicting the peak growth velocity in the individual child: validation of a new growth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; Kingma, I.; Bruin, R.; Wapstra, F.H.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the peak growth velocity in an individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is essential or determining the prognosis of the disorder and timing of the (surgical) treatment. Until the present time, no accurate method has been found to predict the timing and magnitude of the

  18. Predicting the peak growth velocity in the individual child : validation of a new growth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Kingma, Idsart; de Bruin, Rob; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    Predicting the peak growth velocity in an individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is essential or determining the prognosis of the disorder and timing of the (surgical) treatment. Until the present time, no accurate method has been found to predict the timing and magnitude of the

  19. Modeling temperature and moisture state effects on acoustic velocity in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; X. Wang; L. Wang; R.B. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has proved the concept of acoustic wave propagation methods for evaluating wood quality of trees and logs during forest operations. As commercial acoustic equipment is implemented in field for various purposes, one has to consider the influence of operating temperature on acoustic velocity — a key parameter for wood property prediction. Our field...

  20. A stochastic model of reactive solute transport with time-varying velocity in a heterogeneous aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabala, Z. J.; Sposito, Garrison

    1991-03-01

    The cumulant expansion method, used previously by Sposito and Barry (1987) to derive an ensemble average transport equation for a tracer moving in a heterogeneous aquifer, is generalized to the case of a reactive solute that can adsorb linearly and undergo first-order decay. In the process we also generalize the Van Kampen (1987) result for the cumulant expansion of a multiplicative stochastic differential equation containing a time-dependent sure matrix. The resulting partial differential equation exhibits terms with field-scale coefficients that are analogous to those in the corresponding nonstochastic local-scale transport equation. There are also new terms in the third- and fourth-order spatial derivatives of the ensemble average concentration. It is demonstrated that the effective solute velocity for the aqueous concentration, not that for the total concentration (aqueous plus sorbed), is relevant for a field-scale description of solute transport. The field-scale effective solute velocity, dispersion coefficient, retardation factor, and first-order decay parameters, unlike their local-scale counterparts, are time-dependent because of autocorrelations and cross correlations among the random local solute velocity, retardation factor, and first-order decay constant. It is shown also that negative cross correlations between the random tracer solute velocity and the inverse of the local retardation factor may produce both enhanced dispersion and a temporal growth in the field-scale retardation factor. These effects are possible in any heterogeneous aquifer for which a stochastic description of aquifer spatial variability is appropriate.

  1. Altimetry, gravimetry, GPS and viscoelastic modeling data for the joint inversion for glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica (ESA STSE Project REGINA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasgen, Ingo; Martín-Español, Alba; Horvath, Alexander; Klemann, Volker; Petrie, Elizabeth J.; Wouters, Bert; Horwath, Martin; Pail, Roland; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Clarke, Peter J.; Konrad, Hannes; Wilson, Terry; Drinkwater, Mark R.

    2018-03-01

    The poorly known correction for the ongoing deformation of the solid Earth caused by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is a major uncertainty in determining the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet from measurements of satellite gravimetry and to a lesser extent satellite altimetry. In the past decade, much progress has been made in consistently modeling ice sheet and solid Earth interactions; however, forward-modeling solutions of GIA in Antarctica remain uncertain due to the sparsity of constraints on the ice sheet evolution, as well as the Earth's rheological properties. An alternative approach towards estimating GIA is the joint inversion of multiple satellite data - namely, satellite gravimetry, satellite altimetry and GPS, which reflect, with different sensitivities, trends in recent glacial changes and GIA. Crucial to the success of this approach is the accuracy of the space-geodetic data sets. Here, we present reprocessed rates of surface-ice elevation change (Envisat/Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellite, ICESat; 2003-2009), gravity field change (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, GRACE; 2003-2009) and bedrock uplift (GPS; 1995-2013). The data analysis is complemented by the forward modeling of viscoelastic response functions to disc load forcing, allowing us to relate GIA-induced surface displacements with gravity changes for different rheological parameters of the solid Earth. The data and modeling results presented here are available in the PANGAEA database (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875745" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875745). The data sets are the input streams for the joint inversion estimate of present-day ice-mass change and GIA, focusing on Antarctica. However, the methods, code and data provided in this paper can be used to solve other problems, such as volume balances of the Antarctic ice sheet, or can be applied to other geographical regions in the case of the viscoelastic response functions. This paper

  2. Electromechanical wave imaging and electromechanical wave velocity estimation in a large animal model of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costet, Alexandre; Melki, Lea; Sayseng, Vincent; Hamid, Nadira; Nakanishi, Koki; Wan, Elaine; Hahn, Rebecca; Homma, Shunichi; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Echocardiography is often used in the clinic for detection and characterization of myocardial infarction. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a non-invasive ultrasound-based imaging technique based on time-domain incremental motion and strain estimation that can evaluate changes in contractility in the heart. In this study, electromechanical activation is assessed in infarcted heart to determine whether EWI is capable of detecting and monitoring infarct formation. Additionally, methods for estimating electromechanical wave (EW) velocity are presented, and changes in the EW propagation velocity after infarct formation are studied. Five (n  =  5) adult mongrels were used in this study. Successful infarct formation was achieved in three animals by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Dogs were survived for a few days after LAD ligation and monitored daily with EWI. At the end of the survival period, dogs were sacrificed and TTC (tetrazolium chloride) staining confirmed the formation and location of the infarct. In all three dogs, as soon as day 1 EWI was capable of detecting late-activated and non-activated regions, which grew over the next few days. On final day images, the extent of these regions corresponded to the location of infarct as confirmed by staining. EW velocities in border zones of infarct were significantly lower post-infarct formation when compared to baseline, whereas velocities in healthy tissues were not. These results indicate that EWI and EW velocity might help with the detection of infarcts and their border zones, which may be useful for characterizing arrhythmogenic substrate.

  3. Vel-IO 3D: A tool for 3D velocity model construction, optimization and time-depth conversion in 3D geological modeling workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesano, Francesco E.; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2017-02-01

    We present Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D velocity model creation and time-depth conversion, as part of a workflow for 3D model building. The workflow addresses the management of large subsurface dataset, mainly seismic lines and well logs, and the construction of a 3D velocity model able to describe the variation of the velocity parameters related to strong facies and thickness variability and to high structural complexity. Although it is applicable in many geological contexts (e.g. foreland basins, large intermountain basins), it is particularly suitable in wide flat regions, where subsurface structures have no surface expression. The Vel-IO 3D tool is composed by three scripts, written in Python 2.7.11, that automate i) the 3D instantaneous velocity model building, ii) the velocity model optimization, iii) the time-depth conversion. They determine a 3D geological model that is consistent with the primary geological constraints (e.g. depth of the markers on wells). The proposed workflow and the Vel-IO 3D tool have been tested, during the EU funded Project GeoMol, by the construction of the 3D geological model of a flat region, 5700 km2 in area, located in the central part of the Po Plain. The final 3D model showed the efficiency of the workflow and Vel-IO 3D tool in the management of large amount of data both in time and depth domain. A 4 layer-cake velocity model has been applied to a several thousand (5000-13,000 m) thick succession, with 15 horizons from Triassic up to Pleistocene, complicated by a Mesozoic extensional tectonics and by buried thrusts related to Southern Alps and Northern Apennines.

  4. Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate

  5. Continuous GPS (static) Data from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In October 2005, three geodetic GPS receivers were deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf near the ice front to observe short-term fluctuations in ice-shelf velocity...

  6. Relation between velocity and curvature in movement: equivalence and divergence between a power law and a minimum-jerk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, J; Nimmo-Smith, I; Wing, A M

    1988-11-01

    Unconstrained hand movements typically display a decrease in hand speed around highly curved sections of a trajectory. It has been suggested that this relation between tangential velocity and radius of curvature conforms to a one-third power law. We demonstrate that a one-third power law can be explained by models taking account of trajectory costs such as a minimum-jerk model. Data were analyzed from 6 subjects performing elliptical drawing movements of varying eccentricities. Conformity to the one-third power law in the average was obtained but is shown to be artifactual. It is demonstrated that asymmetric velocity profiles may result in consistent departures from a one-third power law but that such differences may be masked by inappropriate analysis procedures. We introduce a modification to the original minimum-jerk model by replacing the assumption of a Newtonian point-mass with a visco-elastic body. Simulations with the modified model identify a basis for asymmetry of velocity profiles and thereby predict departures from a one-third law commensurate with the empirical findings.

  7. Lithospheric structure of the westernmost Mediterranean inferred from finite frequency Rayleigh wave tomography S-velocity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, Imma; Villasenor, Antonio; Thurner, Sally; Levander, Alan; Gallart, Josep; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin, constitute the westernmost Mediterranean. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, the result of interaction between the Iberian and Eurasian plates; the Iberian Massif, a region that has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes) and the Atlas Mountains, resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back and Eurasian-Nubian plate convergence. In this study we analyze data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations on the Iberian Peninsula and in Morocco (Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the US PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km, comparable to USArray. We have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. The model shows differences in the crust for the different areas, where the highest shear velocities are mapped in the Iberian Massif crust. The crustal thickness is highly variable ranging from ~25 km beneath the eastern Betics to ~55km beneath the Gibraltar Strait, Internal Betics and Internal Rif. Beneath this region a unique arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas

  8. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  9. Estimation of particle velocity in moving beds based on a flow model for bulk solids. Ryudo model ni motozuita idoso no ryushi sokudo no suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H. (Muroran Inst. of Tech., Hokkaido (Japan)); Honda, Y. (Snow Brand Milk Products Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    Based on a particle flow model (stress-shear strain velocity relational expression) which takes account of the bulk volume expansion effect during shearing deformation of particles, a new estimation method for particle velocity distribution and stress distribution is proposed. The method is applied to a crossflow moving bed and to a moving bed for comparison with the experimental values to examine its validity. The method is further extended to predict the velocity profile and stress profile of moving beds in a vertical tube (countercurrent and concurrent) accompanying gas flow. It is indicated that the bulk volume expansion effect differs according to dimensions. The velocity distribution and the stress distribution of flows in a vertical tube are greatly influenced by the nature of the flow, i.e. whether it is a counterflow or a concurrent flow, and the frictional force of solids on a wall surface increases markedly in a concurrent flow, which induces considerable lag of particle velocity. The parameter which is contained in the model and indicates the bulk volume expansion effect is a function of the particle velocity, and it is almost unaffected by the flow rate of gas moving. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Quasi real-time fault model estimation for near-field tsunami forecasting based on RTK-GPS analysis: Application to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Miura, Satoshi; Hino, Ryota; Takasu, Tomoji; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Iinuma, Takeshi; Tachibana, Kenji; Demachi, Tomotsugu; Sato, Toshiya; Ohzono, Mako; Umino, Norihito

    2012-02-01

    Real-time crustal deformation monitoring is extremely important for achieving rapid understanding of actual earthquake scales, because the measured permanent displacement directly gives the true earthquake size (seismic moment, Mw) information, which in turn, provides tsunami forecasting. We have developed an algorithm to detect/estimate static ground displacements due to earthquake faulting from real-time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) time series. The new algorithm identifies permanent displacements by monitoring the difference of a short-term average (STA) to a long-term average (LTA) of the GPS time series. We assessed the noise property and precision of the RTK-GPS time series with various baseline length conditions and orbits and discerned that the real-time ephemerides based on the International GNSS Service (IGS) are sufficient for crustal deformation monitoring with long baselines up to ˜1,000 km. We applied the algorithm to data obtained in the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) to test the possibility of coseismic displacement detections, and further, we inverted the obtained displacement fields for a fault model; the inversion estimated a fault model with Mw 8.7, which is close to the actual Mw of 9.0, within five minutes from the origin time. Once the fault model is estimated, tsunami waveforms can be immediately synthesized using pre-computed tsunami Green's functions. The calculated waveforms showed good agreement with the actual tsunami observations both in arrival times and wave heights, suggesting that the RTK-GPS data by our algorithm can provide reliable rapid tsunami forecasting that can complement existing tsunami forecasting systems based on seismic observations.

  11. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  12. Ionospheric correction for spaceborne single-frequency GPS based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified ionospheric correction method and the corresponding approximate algorithm for spaceborne single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) users are proposed in this study. Single Layer Model (SLM) mapping function for spaceborne GPS was analyzed. SLM mapping functions at different altitudes were ...

  13. Derivation of Orthometric Heights from GPS Measured Heights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, geometric technique of deriving orthometric height from GPS survey along a profile and the use of EGM 96 geoid model for deriving orthometric height from GPS data (using GNSS solution software) are discussed. The main focus of the research is to critically examine the potentials of these methods with a view ...

  14. Stochastic Analysis of Differential GPS Surveys for Earth Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In GPS measurement, we try to model not just the deterministic part of the measurement but also try to account for their stochastic behavior using the measurement variance-covariance matrix. The variance-covariance matrices are computed as part of a least squares adjustment. In this study, the results of GPS survey by ...

  15. Absolute earthquake locations using 3-D versus 1-D velocity models below a local seismic network: example from the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, T.; Chevrot, S.; Sylvander, M.; Monteiller, V.; Calvet, M.; Villaseñor, A.; Benahmed, S.; Pauchet, H.; Grimaud, F.

    2018-03-01

    Local seismic networks are usually designed so that earthquakes are located inside them (primary azimuthal gap 180° and distance to the first station higher than 15 km). Errors on velocity models and accuracy of absolute earthquake locations are assessed based on a reference data set made of active seismic, quarry blasts and passive temporary experiments. Solutions and uncertainties are estimated using the probabilistic approach of the NonLinLoc (NLLoc) software based on Equal Differential Time. Some updates have been added to NLLoc to better focus on the final solution (outlier exclusion, multiscale grid search, S-phases weighting). Errors in the probabilistic approach are defined to take into account errors on velocity models and on arrival times. The seismicity in the final 3-D catalogue is located with a horizontal uncertainty of about 2.0 ± 1.9 km and a vertical uncertainty of about 3.0 ± 2.0 km.

  16. Three decades of harnessing the GPS data explosion for geophysics (Vening Meinesz Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, I attempt to convey the immensity of the task that faced the geodesy community three decades ago, and continues to challenge us, to harness all potentially valuable GPS data available in the world for geophysical science. It would be fair to see that three decades ago, we were struggling with controlled tests just to get GPS geodesy working, and had little time to imagine the flood of data today. Yet the geodesy community has succeeded in meeting this challenge. Today, for example, the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory produces and makes publicly available coordinate time series for over 12,000 geodetic GPS station around the globe with various data intervals, latencies, and reference frames. About 8,000 stations have their daily time series updated every week, with 4,000 being updated the next day with coordinates at daily and 5 minute intervals. About 2,000 stations have their time series updated every hour with coordinates at 5 minute intervals. I will show examples of how these time series are being used by NGL and many other scientists to study a wide variety of geophysical topics, including plate tectonics, earthquake modeling, seismic and tsunami hazard, volcanic deformation, water resources, mountain growth, terrestrial reference frame realization, glacial isostatic adjustment, ice sheet melting, sea level rise and coastal subsidence, and even fundamental physics, using GPS atomic clocks to probe the nature of dark matter in the universe. The explosion in GPS data has challenged us to invent new data processing algorithms and develop robust automation in order to keep up with the flood. This explosion has been exponential, and therefore it can be said that it is not a recent phenomena, but rather that it began in the earliest years of GPS geodesy, and has always posed a challenge to us. Over the course of my post-doctoral career starting in late 1985, I have had the good fortune to witness the key developments that have taken place since the

  17. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  18. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtaji, Agung; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  19. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabtaji, Agung, E-mail: sabtaji.agung@gmail.com, E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id [Study Program of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciencies and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysics Region V, Jayapura 1572 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  20. Response of explosive HMX to low-velocity impact: modeling by the crystal plasticity finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnitsky, Denis; Inogamov, Nail; Zhakhovsky, Vasily

    2017-12-01

    Crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM) is a powerful tool for modeling the various deformation problems, which takes into account the different plasticity mechanisms at microscale of grain sizes and contribution of anisotropic behavior of each grain to macroscopic deformation pattern. Using this method we simulated deformation and plasticity of high explosive HMX produced by relatively low velocity impact. It was found that such plastic deformations of grains cause local heating which is sufficient to induce chemical reactions.

  1. 1D layered velocity models and microseismic event locations: synthetic examples for a case with a single linear receiver array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Jubran; Eaton, David W.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss various aspects of 1D velocity-model building for application to microseismic data analysis. We generate simple synthetic example data using a widely used single linear array geometry. The synthetic data contain 30 sources with known locations for a reference model based on previous studies of the Barnett shale. We investigate several key factors that should be considered, including selection of the calibration technique, inclusion of a priori information such as lateral heterogeneity and parameter ranges, and choice of algorithm for travel time computations. For the source-receiver geometry considered here, hypocenter location errors (±6 m in X and ±12 m in Z) can result from differently calibrated models only and without including the errors in picked arrival times and polarization estimates. We find that the errors in hypocenter locations are reduced (±3 m in X and ±6 m in Z) when a model calibrated with multiple shots simultaneously is used. Using four different models (vertical fault, dipping layers, channels, and these effects combined), we demonstrate that systematic errors in hypocenter locations can result when a 1D layered model is used in lieu of a laterally heterogeneous subsurface. Finally, we show that event locations from a velocity model calibrated using direct-arrival times are more stable than from a model calibrated with first-arrival times.

  2. The AUSGeoid98 geoid model of Australia: data treatment, computations and comparisons with GPS-levelling data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Featherstone, W.E.; Kirby, J.F.; Kearsley, A.H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The AUSGeoid98 gravimetric geoid model of Australia has been computed using data from the EGM96 global geopotential model, the 1996 release of the Australian gravity database, a nationwide digital elevation model, and satellite altimeter-derived marine gravity anomalies. The geoid heights...

  3. The AUSGeoid98 geoid model of Australia: data treatment, computations and comparisons with GPS-levelling data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Featherstone, W.E.; Kirby, J.F.; Kearsley, A.H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The AUSGeoid98 gravimetric geoid model of Australia has been computed using data from the EGM96 global geopotential model, the 1996 release of the Australian gravity database, a nationwide digital elevation model, and satellite altimeter-derived marine gravity anomalies. The geoid heights are on ...

  4. GPS antenna designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Samuel J. P.

    1987-05-01

    Application of the current GPS NAVSTAR system to civilian service requires that a right hand, circularly polarized, -160 dBW spread spectrum signal be received from an orbiting satellite, where the antenna environment is also moving. This presents a design challenge when inexpensive antennas are desired. The intent of this survey is to provide information on the antennas mentioned and to construct and test prototypes to determine whether the choice made by the industry, the quadrifilar helix, is the best. The helix antenna is currently the low cost standard for GPS. Prototype versions were constructed using 12 gauge wire and subminiature coaxial hardline. The constructed antennas were tested using a signal generator and a reference turnstile. A spectrum analyzer was used to measure the level of the received signal.

  5. How does the workload and work activities of procedural GPs compare to non-procedural GPs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Deborah J; McGrail, Matthew R

    2017-08-01

    To investigate patterns of Australian GP procedural activity and associations with: geographical remoteness and population size hours worked in hospitals and in total; and availability for on-call DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: National annual panel survey (Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life) of Australian GPs, 2011-2013. Self-reported geographical work location, hours worked in different settings, and on-call availability per usual week, were analysed against GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery or emergency medicine. Analysis of 9301 survey responses from 4638 individual GPs revealed significantly increased odds of GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics or emergency medicine as geographical remoteness increased and community population size decreased, albeit with plateauing of the effect-size from medium-sized (population 5000-15 000) rural communities. After adjusting for confounders, procedural GPs work more hospital and more total hours each week than non-procedural GPs. In 2011 this equated to GPs practising anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery, and emergency medicine providing 8% (95%CI 0, 16), 13% (95%CI 8, 19), 8% (95%CI 2, 15) and 18% (95%CI 13, 23) more total hours each week, respectively. The extra hours are attributable to longer hours worked in hospital settings, with no reduction in private consultation hours. Procedural GPs also carry a significantly higher burden of on-call. The longer working hours and higher on-call demands experienced by rural and remote procedural GPs demand improved solutions, such as changes to service delivery models, so that long-term procedural GP careers are increasingly attractive to current and aspiring rural GPs. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Vertical Rise Velocity of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Estimated from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Observations and High-Resolution Bubble Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Ajith, K. K.; Yamamoto, M.; Niranjan, K.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPBs from a space weather point of view. The development of EPBs is presently believed as an evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have already developed a 3D high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model with a grid spacing of as small as 1 km and presented nonlinear growth of EPBs which shows very turbulent internal structures such as bifurcation and pinching. As EPBs have field-aligned structures, the latitude range that is affected by EPBs depends on the apex altitude of EPBs over the dip equator. However, it was not easy to observe the apex altitude and vertical rise velocity of EPBs. Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in Indonesia is capable of steering radar beams quickly so that the growth phase of EPBs can be captured clearly. The vertical rise velocities of the EPBs observed around the midnight hours are significantly smaller compared to those observed in postsunset hours. Further, the vertical growth of the EPBs around midnight hours ceases at relatively lower altitudes, whereas the majority of EPBs at postsunset hours found to have grown beyond the maximum detectable altitude of the EAR. The HIRB model with varying background conditions are employed to investigate the possible factors that control the vertical rise velocity and maximum attainable altitudes of EPBs. The estimated rise velocities from EAR observations at both postsunset and midnight hours are, in general, consistent with the nonlinear evolution of EPBs from the HIRB model.

  7. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1 overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2 field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3 the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying

  8. Elaboration of a velocity model of the Bogota basin (Colombia) based on microtremors arrays measurements, gravity data, and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Senna, S.; Garcia, H. Mr; Montejo, S.; Reyes, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Bogotá, a megacity with almost 8 million inhabitants is prone to a significant earthquake hazard due to nearby active faults as well as subduction megathrust earthquakes. The city has been severely affected by many historical earthquakes in the last 500 years, reaching MM intensities of 8 or more in Bogotá. The city is also located at a large lacustrine basin composed of extremely soft soils which may strongly amplify the ground shaking from earthquakes. The basin extends approximately 40 km from North to South, is bounded by the Andes range to the East and South, and sharply deepens towards the West of Bogotá. The city has been the subject of multiple microzonations studies which have contributed to gain a good knowledge on the geotechnical zonation of the city and tectonic setting of the region. To improve our knowledge on the seismic risk of the city as one of the topics, we started a 5 years project sponsored by SATREPS (a joint program of JICA and JST), entitled "Application of state of the art technologies to strengthen research and response to seismic, volcanic and tsunami events and enhance risk management in Colombia (2015-2019)". In this paper we will show our results for the elaboration of a velocity model of the city. To construct a velocity model of the basin we conducted multi-sized microtremors arrays measurements (radius from 60 cm up to 1000 m) at 41 sites within the city. We calculated dispersion curves and inferred velocity profiles at all the sites. We combine these results with gravity measurements as well as geological information to obtain the initial velocity model of the basin. Ackowledgments This research is funded by SATREPS (a joint program of JICA and JST).

  9. TLALOCNet continuous GPS-Met Array in Mexico supporting the 2017 NAM GPS Hydrometeorological Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Vivoni, E. R.; Grutter, M.; Serra, Y. L.; DeMets, C.; Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a network of continuous GPS and meteorology stations in Mexico to study atmospheric and solid earth processes. This recently completed network spans most of Mexico with a strong coverage emphasis on southern and western Mexico. This network, funded by NSF, CONACyT and UNAM, recently built 40 cGPS-Met sites to EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory standards and upgraded 25 additional GPS stations. TLALOCNet provides open and freely available raw GPS data, and high frequency surface meteorology measurements, and time series of daily positions. This is accomplished through the development of the TLALOCNet data center (http://tlalocnet.udg.mx) that serves as a collection and distribution point. This data center is based on UNAVCO's Dataworks-GSAC software and also works as part of UNAVCO's seamless archive for discovery, sharing, and access to GPS data. The TLALOCNet data center also contains contributed data from several regional GPS networks in Mexico for a total of 100+ stations. By using the same protocols and structure as the UNAVCO and other COCONet regional data centers, the scientific community has the capability of accessing data from the largest Mexican GPS network. This archive provides a fully queryable and scriptable GPS and Meteorological data retrieval point. In addition, real-time 1Hz streams from selected TLALOCNet stations are available in BINEX, RTCM 2.3 and RTCM 3.1 formats via the Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP) for real-time seismic and weather forecasting applications. TLALOCNet served as a GPS-Met backbone for the binational Mexico-US North American Monsoon GPS Hydrometeorological Network 2017 campaign experiment. This innovative experiment attempts to address water vapor source regions and land-surface water vapor flux contributions to precipitation (i.e., moisture recycling) during the 2017 North American Monsoon in Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Arizona. Models suggest that moisture recycling is

  10. Homogenization and implementation of a 3D regional velocity model in Mexico for its application in moment tensor inversion of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Caló, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Moment tensor inversions for intermediate and small earthquakes (M. < 4.5) are challenging as they principally excite relatively short period seismic waves that interact strongly with local heterogeneities. Incorporating detailed regional 3D velocity models permits obtaining realistic synthetic seismograms and recover the seismic source parameters these smaller events. Two 3D regional velocity models have recently been developed for Mexico, using surface waves and seismic noise tomography (Spica et al., 2016; Gaite et al., 2015), which could be used to model the waveforms of intermediate magnitud earthquakes in this region. Such models are parameterized as layered velocity profiles and for some of the profiles, the velocity difference between two layers are considerable. The "jump" in velocities between two layers is inconvenient for some methods and algorithms that calculate synthetic waveforms, in particular for the method that we are using, the spectral element method (SPECFEM3D GLOBE, Komatitsch y Tromp, 2000), when the mesh does not follow the layer boundaries. In order to make the velocity models more easily implementec in SPECFEM3D GLOBE it is neccesary to apply a homogenization algorithm (Capdeville et al., 2015) such that the (now anisotropic) layer velocities are smoothly varying with depth. In this work, we apply a homogenization algorithm to the regional velocity models in México for implementing them in SPECFEM3D GLOBE, calculate synthetic waveforms for intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in México and invert them for the seismic moment tensor.

  11. Three-dimensional lithospheric S wave velocity model of the NE Tibetan Plateau and western North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchen; Li, Yonghua; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei; Wang, Chunyong; Bao, Xuewei; Wu, Yan

    2017-08-01

    We present a new 3-D lithospheric Vs model for the NE Tibetan Plateau (NETP) and the western North China Craton (NCC). First, high-frequency receiver functions (RFs) were inverted using the neighborhood algorithm to estimate the sedimentary structure beneath each station. Then a 3D Vs model with unprecedented resolution was constructed by jointly inverting RFs and Rayleigh wave dispersions. A low-velocity sedimentary layer with thicknesses varying from 2 to 10 km is present in the Yinchuan-Hetao graben, Ordos block, and western Alxa block. Velocities from the middle-lower crust to the uppermost mantle are generally high in the Ordos block and low in the Alxa block, indicating that the Alxa block is not part of the NCC. The thickened crust in southwestern Ordos block and western Alxa block suggests that they have been modified. Two crustal low-velocity zones (LVZs) were detected beneath the Kunlun Fault (KF) zone and western Qilian Terrane (QLT). The origin of the LVZ beneath the KF zone may be the combined effect of shear heating, localized asthenosphere upwelling, and crustal radioactivity. The LVZ in the western QLT, representing an early stage of the LVZ that has developed in the KF zone, acts as a decollement to decouple the deformation between the upper and lower crust and plays a key role in seismogenesis. We propose that the crustal deformation beneath the NETP is accommodated by a combination of shear motion, thickening of the upper-middle crust, and removal of lower crust.

  12. Observing and Modeling Temporal Variations of Seismic Velocities at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, V. H.; Tsai, V. C.; Taira, T.

    2016-12-01

    Perturbations in subsurface elastic parameters induce changes in seismic velocity. To understand the stress perturbations due to geothermal operation, we apply seismic noise interferometry to examine the temporal variations of seismic velocity (dv/v) at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California. Our observations show a strong positive correlation between dv/v and net production (steam production minus fluid injection), and a strong negative correlation between dv/v and fluid injection. Notably, there is little time lag (less than a month) between dv/v and fluid injection in the SE region of the field, suggesting a rapid response in elastic properties in this highly saturated region. The influx of fluid decreases the effective shear modulus, which in turn decreases the velocities. A number of hypotheses have been suggested to cause stress perturbations in the field, including poroelastic-induced stresses, direct elastic loading and thermoelastic-induced stresses. We perform a 1-D hydrological simulation to calculate the expected variations in dv/v due to different stresses by considering Murnaghan's theory of finite deformations and the third-order terms in the strain energy function. The synthetic dv/v measurements are spatially averaged based on computed sensitivity kernels, allowing for direct comparison with both the amplitude and phase of dv/v observations. We show the order-of-magnitude effect that each of the stresses have on the dv/v measurement, and explore the possibility of using dv/v to constrain important hydrological and elastic properties such as hydraulic conductivity in the field.

  13. Modeling of hand function by mapping the motion of individual muscle voxels with MR imaging velocity tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.; Pele, N.; Herfkens, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method to correlate the three-dimensional (3D) motion of the fingers with the complex motion of the intrinsic, flexor, and extensor muscles. A better understanding of hand function is important to the medical, surgical, and rehabilitation treatment of patients with arthritic, neurogenic, and mechanical hand dysfunctions. Static, high-resolution MR volumetric imaging defines the 3D shape of each individual bone in the hands of three subjects and three patients. Single-section velocity-tagging sequences (VIGOR) are performed through the hand and forearm, while the actual 3D motion of the hand is computed from the MR model and readings of fiber-optic goniometers attached to each finger. The accuracy of the velocity tagging is also tested with a motion phantom

  14. Prediction of velocity distributions in rod bundle axial flow, with a statistical model (K-epsilon) of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, H.C. da.

    1978-12-01

    Reactor fuel elements generally consist of rod bundles with the coolant flowing axially through the region between the rods. The confiability of the thermohydraulic design of such elements is related to a detailed description of the velocity field. A two-equation statistical model (K-epsilon) of turbulence is applied to compute main and secondary flow fields, wall shear stress distributions and friction factors of steady, fully developed turbulent flows, with incompressible, temperature independent fluid flowing axially through triangular or square arrays of rod bundles. The numerical procedure uses the vorticity and the stream function to describe the velocity field. Comparison with experimental and analytical data of several investigators is presented. Results are in good agreement. (Author) [pt

  15. Evaluation of Porosity and Saturation Degree by Laboratory Joint Measurements of Velocity and Resistivity: A Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, E.; Mazzacca, A.; Pece, R.; Roberti, N.; Vanorio, T.

    This paper illustrates the laboratory procedures and experiments carried out on samples with different lithologies and reconstructed samples in order to test and implement an electroseismic model (Carrara et al., 1994) which allows the evaluation of porosity and the saturation degree of rocks. The testing was conducted by comparing porosity (Φ) and saturation degree (Sw ) values, obtained from measured resistivity (ρ) and elastic wave velocity (VP ) by means of appropriate formulations, with the values of Φ and Sw previously calculated by geotechnics and employed as standards. The experimental results have led to a good definition of the model to be proposed as an application method in the field of hydrogeology.

  16. Inverse modeling/transmit power levels : GPS-ABC Workshop VI RTCA, Washington, DC, March 30, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This presentation provides models for adjacent band transmitters (base stations and handsets), and : GNSS receiver antenna patterns, as well as provides C/A results for: (1) impacted regions for adjacent band transmitters of : various types, (2) maxi...

  17. Depletion velocities for atmospheric pollutants oriented To improve the simplified regional dispersion modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Gacita, Madeleine; Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Rivero Oliva, Jose de Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The present work is aimed to improve externalities assessment using Simplified Methodologies, through the obtaining of depletion velocities for primary pollutants SO 2 , NO X and TSP (Total Suspended Particles) and for sulfate and nitrate aerosols, the secondary pollutants created from the first ones. The main goal proposed was to estimate these values for different cases, in order to have an ensemble of values for the geographic area, among which the most representative could be selected for using it in future studies that appeal to a simplified methodology for the regional dispersion assessment, taking into account the requirements of data, qualified manpower and time for a detailed approach. The results where obtained using detailed studies of the regional dispersion that were conduced for six power facilities, three from Cuba (at the localities of Mariel, Santa Cruz and Tallapiedra) and three from Mexico (at the localities of Tuxpan, Tula and Manzanillo). The depletion velocity for SO 2 was similar for all cases. Results obtained for Tallapiedra, Santa Cruz, Mariel and Manzanillo were similar. For Tula and Tuxpan a high uncertainty was found

  18. GPS Coordinate Estimates by a priori Tropospheric Delays from NWP using Ultra-Rapid Orbits

    OpenAIRE

    R. Santangelo; S. Fazlagic'; M. Boccolari

    2006-01-01

    Comparisons of high accuracy GPS positioning estimates using scientific GPS software through three different processing strategies have been done. The two Italian baselines in a time period of 5 months during 2004 made a calculus data set. For high accuracy GPS differential positioning the employ of global tropospheric delay models can be replaced by the implementation of other techniques. The GPS coordinate repeatability when the tropospheric delay is calculated in near-real time (NRT) ...

  19. Standardization of GPS data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Pil Ho

    2001-06-01

    A nationwide GPS network has been constructed with about 60 permanent GPS stations after late 1990s in Korea. For using the GPS in variety of application area like crustal deformation, positioning, or monitoring upper atmosphere, it is necessary to have ability to process the data precisely. Now Korea Astronomy Observatory has the precise GPS data processing technique in Korea because it is difficult to understand characteristics of the parameters we want to estimate, resolve the integer ambiguity, and analyze many errors. There are three reliable GPS data processing software in the world ; Bernese(University of Berne), GIPSY-OASIS(JPL), GAMIT(MIT). These software allow us to achieve millimeter accuracy in the horizontal position and about 1 cm accuracy vertically even for regional networks with a diameter of several thousand kilometers. But we established the standard of GPS data processing using Bernese as main tool and GIPSY O ASIS as side

  20. Ionosphere influence on success rate of GPS ambiguity resolution in a satellite formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Leandro

    2015-10-01

    Satellite formation flying is one of the most promising technologies for future space missions. The distribution of sensors and payloads among different satellites provides more redundancy, flexibility, improved communication coverage, among other advantages. One of the fundamental issues in spacecraft formation flying is precise position and velocity determination between satellites. For missions in low Earth orbits, GPS system can meet the precision requirement in relative positioning, since the satellite dynamics is modeled properly. The key for high accuracy GPS relative positioning is to resolve the ambiguities to their integer values. Ambiguities resolved successfully can improve the positioning accuracy to decimetre or even millimetre-level. So, integer carrier phase ambiguity resolution is often a prerequisite for high precision GPS positioning. The determination of relative position was made using an extended Kalman filter. The filter must take into account imperfections in dynamic modeling of perturbations affecting the orbital flight, and changes in solar activity that affects the GPS signal propagation, for mitigating these effects on relative positioning accuracy. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the impact of ionosphere variation, caused by changes in solar activity, in success rate of ambiguity resolution. Using the Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP) concept, the ambiguity success rate is analyzed and the expected precision of the ambiguity-fixed solution is calculated. Evaluations were performed using actual data from GRACE mission and analyzed for their performance in real scenarios. Analyses were conducted in different configurations of relative position and during different levels of solar activity. Results bring the impact of various disturbances and modeling of solar activity level on the success rate of ambiguity resolution.

  1. Episodic inflation and complex surface deformation of Akutan volcano, Alaska revealed from GPS time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, Kimberly; Wang, Teng; Lu, Zhong; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2017-11-01

    Akutan is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian island arc. Studies involving seismic, GPS, and InSAR data have observed activity and deformation on the island since 1996. In this study we inverted measurements of volcanic deformation, observed using three components of motions at 12 continuous GPS sites to define magma source parameters using Mogi point source, Okada dislocation, and Yang spheroid and ellipsoid models. In order to analyze the evolution of this magma source we split the GPS data into five consecutive time periods, and one period that incorporates all available data. These time periods were designed around two inflation events in 2008 and 2014, when a sudden and significant increase in vertical velocity was observed. Inversion of these time periods independently allowed us to create a magma volume time-series that is related to the physical migration of magma defined by the estimated source parameters. The best fit model parameters resulting from these inversions describes magma storage in the form of an oblate spheroid centered on the northeastern rim of the caldera of Akutan volcano, extending from a depth of 7 km to 8 km, with a length of 3.5 km, a strike of N165°E, and a dip of 63° from the horizontal to the southwest. Our model results were compared with seismic studies and found to support previous interpretations of episodic inflation beneath Akutan volcano with complicated magma storage at intermediate depths. The inflation event observed in 2008 was estimated to be the result of an injection of magma of 0.08 km3 that was followed in 2014 by an additional increase in volume of 0.06 km3. No periods of deflation were observed in the GPS data after these events, and we believe the total volume of magma accumulated in this region, 0.2 km3, remains in a shallow storage system beneath Akutan Volcano.

  2. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Tryggvason, Ari; Panea, Ionelia; Mocanu, Victor; Hauser, Franz; Matenco, Liviu

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly WNW-ESE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN first arrival data. The results show that the data fairly accurately resolve the transition from sediment to crystalline basement beneath the Focsani Basin, where industry seismic data are available for correlation, at depths up to about 10 km. Beneath the external Carpathians nappes, apparent basement (material with velocities above 5.8 km/s) lies at depths as shallow as 3-4 km, which is less than previously surmised on the basis of geological observations. The first arrival travel-time data suggest that there is significant lateral structural heterogeneity on the apparent basement surface in this area, suggesting that the high velocity material may be involved in Carpathian thrusting.

  3. Three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking surface with velocity slip: A revised model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, R.; Nazar, R.; Pop, I.

    2018-03-01

    A reformulation of the three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid by employing Buongiorno's model is presented. A new boundary condition is implemented in this study with the assumption of nanoparticle mass flux at the surface is zero. This condition is practically more realistic since the nanoparticle fraction at the boundary is latently controlled. This study is devoted to investigate the impact of the velocity slip and suction to the flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum, energy, and concentration are reduced to the ordinary differential equations by utilizing the appropriate transformation. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by using the built-in bvp4c function in Matlab. Graphical illustrations displaying the physical influence of the several nanofluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles, as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are provided. The present study discovers the existence of dual solutions at a certain range of parameters. Surprisingly, both of the solutions merge at the stretching sheet indicating that the presence of the velocity slip affects the skin friction coefficients. Stability analysis is carried out to determine the stability and reliability of the solutions. It is found that the first solution is stable while the second solution is not stable.

  4. Towards a new tool to develop a 3-D shear-wave velocity model from converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavitti, Leonardo; Hetényi, György

    2017-04-01

    The main target of this work is to develop a new method in which we exploit converted waves to construct a fully 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust. A reliable 3-D model is very important in Earth sciences because geological structures may vary significantly in their lateral dimension. In particular, shear-waves provide valuable complementary information with respect to P-waves because they usually guarantee a much better correlation in terms of rock density and mechanical properties, reducing the interpretation ambiguities. Therefore, it is fundamental to develop a new technique to improve structural images and to describe different lithologies in the crust. In this study we start from the analysis of receiver functions (RF, Langston, 1977), which are nowadays largely used for structural investigations based on passive seismic experiments, to map Earth discontinuities at depth. The RF technique is also commonly used to invert for velocity structure beneath single stations. Here, we plan to combine two strengths of RF method: shear-wave velocity inversion and dense arrays. Starting from a simple 3-D forward model, synthetic RFs are obtained extracting the structure along a ray to match observed data. During the inversion, thanks to a dense stations network, we aim to build and develop a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity. The initial model should be chosen simple to make sure that the inversion process is not influenced by the constraints in terms of depth and velocity posed at the beginning. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999a, b), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter

  5. OSGM02: A new model for converting GPS-derived heights to local height datums in Great Britain and Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliffe, J.C.; Ziebart, M.; Cross, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    The background to the recent computation of a new vertical datum model for the British Isles (OSGM02) is described After giving a brief description of the computational techniques and the data sets used for the derivation of the gravimetric geoid, the paper focuses on the fitting of this surface...

  6. Uppermost mantle (Pn) velocity model for the Afar region, Ethiopia: an insight into rifting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2013-04-01

    The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.

  7. An Integrated Method 3D Velocity Model and Fuzzy Clustering for Fracture Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Erlangga Ibrahim; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Sule, Rachmat

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced Geothermal system assessment conducted to have a better understanding of characteristics of fracture caused by a fluid injection in the geothermal reservoir. Fluid injection may cause microseismic occur. These events allow us to map and characterize fractures in the geothermal system. Fractures play important role at the geothermal system due to its ability to increase permeability for fluid movement within the reservoir. In this study, we combined tomographic inversion method and fuzzy clustering to identify fracture characteristics at the EIF Geothermal Field. Tomography helped in delineating fluid-filled fractures with high permeability area which shown by lower velocity Vs anomaly than Vp and higher Vp/Vs ratio. Fuzzy clustering allowed us to map microseismic movement and estimate suitable locations for the future well injections or productions.

  8. Crustal structure and velocity model of the Moroccan Atlas from refraction/wide angle data. Implications for its tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Carbonell, R.; Teixell, A.; Martí, D.; Kchikach, A.; Harnafi, M.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M.; Ouraini, F.; Charroud, M.; Amrhar, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Atlas Mountain Range is an intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt located at the southern edge of the diffuse plate boundary zone separating Africa and Europe. Its western part, the Moroccan Atlas, has long been under the scope of scientist regarding the origin of its high topographies, locally exceeding 4000 m. Geological studies indicate that this mountain belt has experienced low to moderate shortening. Furthermore, the later decreases as topography increases towards the west. These observations rise the question about the origin of the Atlas Mountains topography. Potential field studies indicate that an astenospheric upwelling supports the Atlas high elevations. However, these models depend strongly on the Moho topography and depth. Refraction/wide angle experiments carried out in the 80's suggested that the crust is thin and the Moho relatively flat. However, the proposed crustal structure and velocity inversions are not in agreement with the present models of this mountain belt. With the goal of improving the knowledge of the Moho boundary geometry and the velocity structure of the crust, a refraction/wide angle experiment was carried out in spring 2010 by an international team: the SIMA (Seismic Imaging of the Moroccan Atlas) experiment. A ~700 km long profile, going from Tanger to the Sahara Desert, south of Merzouga, recorded, every 400-1000 m, the energy of 6, 1 tn shots. Even with a low signal/noise ratio, the data allows the identification of crustal phases (Ps, Pg and PiP) and Moho reflected/refracted phases (PmP and Pn). Very weak subcrustal energy appers in some shot gathers. Forward modeling pictures a 3 layers crust and shows the Moho as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root, suggesting that the crust is imbricated. The crust-mantle boundary is modeled at relatively shallow depths that are in accordance with the results of other geophysical data, thus supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  9. Volcano deformation and subdaily GPS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano’s plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ˜30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I

  10. An intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy densities from METOP GPS radio occultation measurements and ECMWF model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Kaifler, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    Temperature profiles based on radio occultation (RO) measurements with the operational European METOP satellites are used to derive monthly mean global distributions of stratospheric (20-40 km) gravity wave (GW) potential energy densities (EP) for the period July 2014-December 2016. In order to test whether the sampling and data quality of this data set is sufficient for scientific analysis, we investigate to what degree the METOP observations agree quantitatively with ECMWF operational analysis (IFS data) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data. A systematic comparison between corresponding monthly mean temperature fields determined for a latitude-longitude-altitude grid of 5° by 10° by 1 km is carried out. This yields very low systematic differences between RO and model data below 30 km (i.e., median temperature differences is between -0.2 and +0.3 K), which increases with height to yield median differences of +1.0 K at 34 km and +2.2 K at 40 km. Comparing EP values for three selected locations at which also ground-based lidar measurements are available yields excellent agreement between RO and IFS data below 35 km. ERA-Interim underestimates EP under conditions of strong local mountain wave forcing over northern Scandinavia which is apparently not resolved by the model. Above 35 km, RO values are consistently much larger than model values, which is likely caused by the model sponge layer, which damps small-scale fluctuations above ˜ 32 km altitude. Another reason is the well-known significant increase of noise in RO measurements above 35 km. The comparison between RO and lidar data reveals very good qualitative agreement in terms of the seasonal variation of EP, but RO values are consistently smaller than lidar values by about a factor of 2. This discrepancy is likely caused by the very different sampling characteristics of RO and lidar observations. Direct comparison of the global data set of RO and model EP fields shows large correlation coefficients (0

  11. Impact of GPS tracking data of LEO satellites on global GPS solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacher, M.; Svehla, D.

    Already at present quite a few Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (SAC-C, CHAMP, JASON-1, GRACE-1 and GRACE-2) are equipped with one or more GPS receivers for precise orbit determination or other applications (atmospheric sounding, gravity field recovery, . . . ). This trend will continue in the near future (e.g., with the GOCE and COSMIC missions) and we will soon have an entire "constellation" of LEO satellites tracked by GPS at our disposal. In this contribution we want to study the impact of LEO GPS measurements (from a single LEO satellite or from a LEO constellation) on global GPS solutions, where GPS satellite orbits and clocks, Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), station coordinates and troposphere zenith delays are determined simultaneously using the data of the global network of the International GPS Service (IGS). In order to assess the impact of the LEO GPS data on global IGS results, we have to perform a combined analysis of the space-borne and the ground-based GPS data. Such a combination may benefit on one hand from the differences between a ground station and a LEO, e.g., (1) the different tracking geometry (coverage of isolated geographical areas by LEOs, rapidly changing geometry, . . . ), (2) that LEOs connect all ground stations within 1-2 hours, (3) that baselines between LEO and ground stations may be longer than station-station baselines, (4) that no tropospheric delays have to be estimated for LEOs, and (5) that LEOs orbit the Earth within the ionosphere and may therefore contribute to global ionosphere models. On the other hand we have to deal with difficult aspects of precise orbit determination for the LEOs: only if we succeed to obtain very accurate dynamic or reduced-dynamic orbits for the LEOs, we will have a chance at all to improve the global GPS results. We present first results concerning the influence of LEO data on GPS orbits, ERPs, site coordinates, and troposphere zenith delays using both, variance-covariance analyses based on

  12. OSGM02: A new model for converting GPS-derived heights to local height datums in Great Britain and Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliffe, J.C.; Ziebart, M.; Cross, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    The background to the recent computation of a new vertical datum model for the British Isles (OSGM02) is described After giving a brief description of the computational techniques and the data sets used for the derivation of the gravimetric geoid, the paper focuses on the fitting of this surface ...... procedure. Results for each major region (Great Britain, Ireland, and Northern Ireland) as well as the various independent island datums are described The problems to be expected when working between datums are discussed....

  13. Assessment of speed and position during human locomotion using nondifferential GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Andrew D; Worringham, Charles J; Stewart, Ian B

    2008-01-01

    To validate a nondifferential global positioning system (GPS) to measure speed, displacement, and position during human locomotion. Three healthy participants walked and ran over straight and curved courses for 59 and 34 trials, respectively. A nondifferential GPS receiver provided speed data by Doppler shift and change in GPS position over time, which were compared with actual speeds determined by chronometry. Displacement data from the GPS were compared with a surveyed 100-m section, and static positions were collected for 1 h and compared with the known geodetic point. GPS speed values on the straight course were closely correlated with actual speeds (Doppler shift: r = 0.9994, P GPS position/time: r = 0.9984, P GPS distance/time: r = 0.9973, P GPS was 100.46 +/- 0.49 m, and 86.5% of static points were within 1.5 m of the actual geodetic point (mean error: 1.08 +/- 0.34 m, range 0.69-2.10 m). Nondifferential GPS demonstrated a highly accurate estimation of speed across a wide range of human locomotion velocities using only the raw signal data with a minimal decrease in accuracy around bends. This high level of resolution was matched by accurate displacement and position data. Coupled with reduced size, cost, and ease of use, this method offers a valid alternative to differential GPS in the study of overground locomotion.

  14. InSAR and GPS derived coseismic deformation and fault model of the 2017 Ms7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake in the Northeast Bayanhar block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dezheng; Qu, Chunyan; Shan, Xinjian; Gong, Wenyu; Zhang, Yingfeng; Zhang, Guohong

    2018-02-01

    On 8 August 2017, a Ms7.0 earthquake stroke the city of Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake occurred on a buried fault in the vicinity of three well-known active faults and this event offers a unique opportunity to study tectonic structures in the epicentral region and stress transferring. Here we present coseismic displacement field maps for this earthquake using descending and ascending Sentinel-1A Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data. Deformation covered an area of approximately 50 × 50 km, with a maximum line-of-sight (LOS) displacement of 22 cm in ascending and 14 cm in descending observations on the west side of the source fault. Based on InSAR and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, both separately and jointly, we constructed a one-segment model to invert the coseismic slip distribution and dip angle of this event. Our final fault slip model suggests that slip was concentrated at an upper depth of 15 km; there was a maximum slip of 1.3 m and the rupture was dominated by a left-lateral strike-slip motion. The inverted geodetic moment was approximately 6.75 × 1018 Nm, corresponding to a moment magnitude of Mw6.5, consistent with seismological results. The calculated static Coulomb stress changes indicate that most aftershocks occurred in stress increasing zones caused by the mainshock rupture; the Jiuzhaigou earthquake has brought the western part of the Tazang fault 0.1-0.4 MPa closer to failure, indicating an increasing seismic hazard in this region. The Coulomb stress changes caused by the 2008 Mw7.8 Wenchuan earthquake suggest that stress loading from this event acted as a trigger for the Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  15. COMPARISON OF CRUSTAL DEFORMATION RATES ESTIMATED FROM SEISMIC AND GPS DATA ON THE BISHKEK GEODYNAMIC POLYGON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sycheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bishkek geodynamic polygon (BGP, 41.5–43.5° N – 73–77° E is located within the central segment of the North Tien Shan seismic zone, in the junction zone of the Tien Shanorogene and the Turan plate (Fig. 1. In the entire modern structure of Tien Shan lengthwise zones of shearing (with both right- and left-lateral strike-slip faults are observed, thus Tien Shancan be considered as a transpression zone. Our study aimed at comparing deformation values estimated for the BGP territory from the seismic and GPS data. The modern stress-strain state of the study area was determined from the focal mechanisms of 1287 earthquakes that occurred in the period from 1994 to 2015. The study area was divided into cells with a radius of 0.2° (~20 km. The cell centers were in the nodes of the grid with a spacing of 0.1° (~10 km. A tensor of a seismotectonic deformation (STD rate within a cell was calculated as a sum of seismic moment tensors normalized for time, volume and shear modulus, assuming that STD is similar at different scale levels. The STD field is shown in Figure 4 at the background given by the deformation intensity pattern. Figure 6 shows the scatter of the sums of the strain rate tensor’s horizontal components estimated from the seismic data. The modern crustal movements were estimated from the geodetic measurements performed on the Central Asian GPS Network. Using the crustal movement velocities for 90 sites in the study area, the deformation processes in the crust were modeled based on the linear part of the Taylorexpansion of the point's-velocity-versus-its-radius-vector function. Then the velocity gradient tensors were estimated for the grid nodes with a spacing of 8.3 km. To estimate tensor's value in every single grid node a system of linear algebraic equations was solved by the weighted least-squares method. The weight of an observation point decreased with an increasing distance to such point, so that the inhomogeneity of the

  16. Prediction of Compressional Wave Velocity Using Regression and Neural Network Modeling and Estimation of Stress Orientation in Bokaro Coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suman; Ali, Muhammad; Chatterjee, Rima

    2018-01-01

    Velocity of compressional wave ( V P) of coal and non-coal lithology is predicted from five wells from the Bokaro coalfield (CF), India. Shear sonic travel time logs are not recorded for all wells under the study area. Shear wave velocity ( Vs) is available only for two wells: one from east and other from west Bokaro CF. The major lithologies of this CF are dominated by coal, shaly coal of Barakar formation. This paper focuses on the (a) relationship between Vp and Vs, (b) prediction of Vp using regression and neural network modeling and (c) estimation of maximum horizontal stress from image log. Coal characterizes with low acoustic impedance (AI) as compared to the overlying and underlying strata. The cross-plot between AI and Vp/ Vs is able to identify coal, shaly coal, shale and sandstone from wells in Bokaro CF. The relationship between Vp and Vs is obtained with excellent goodness of fit ( R 2) ranging from 0.90 to 0.93. Linear multiple regression and multi-layered feed-forward neural network (MLFN) models are developed for prediction Vp from two wells using four input log parameters: gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and neutron porosity. Regression model predicted Vp shows poor fit (from R 2 = 0.28) to good fit ( R 2 = 0.79) with the observed velocity. MLFN model predicted Vp indicates satisfactory to good R2 values varying from 0.62 to 0.92 with the observed velocity. Maximum horizontal stress orientation from a well at west Bokaro CF is studied from Formation Micro-Imager (FMI) log. Breakouts and drilling-induced fractures (DIFs) are identified from the FMI log. Breakout length of 4.5 m is oriented towards N60°W whereas the orientation of DIFs for a cumulative length of 26.5 m is varying from N15°E to N35°E. The mean maximum horizontal stress in this CF is towards N28°E.

  17. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1–2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%. Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE–WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  18. Viscous flux flow velocity and stress distribution in the Kim model of a long rectangular slab superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Chai, Xueguang

    2018-05-01

    When a bulk superconductor endures the magnetization process, enormous mechanical stresses are imposed on the bulk, which often leads to cracking. In the present work, we aim to resolve the viscous flux flow velocity υ 0/w, i.e. υ 0 (because w is a constant) and the stress distribution in a long rectangular slab superconductor for the decreasing external magnetic field (B a ) after zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) using the Kim model and viscous flux flow equation simultaneously. The viscous flux flow velocity υ 0/w and the magnetic field B* at which the body forces point away in all of the slab volumes during B a reduction, are determined by both B a and the decreasing rate (db a /dt) of the external magnetic field normalized by the full penetration field B p . In previous studies, υ 0/w obtained by the Bean model with viscous flux flow is only determined by db a /dt, and the field B* that is derived only from the Kim model is a positive constant when the maximum external magnetic field is chosen. This means that the findings in this paper have more physical contents than the previous results. The field B* stress changing with decreasing field B a after ZFC if B* ≤ 0. The effect of db a /dt on the stress is significant in the cases of both ZFC and FC.

  19. A Global 3D P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Event Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Chang, M.; Lewis, J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Effectively monitoring for small nuclear tests (data can be best performed via use of a true global model without seams, based on a single, simultaneous inversion of a global data set encompassing regional and teleseismic data from a variety of areas. Several such models have been developed, but generally for insight into the structure of the inner Earth, not for improving treaty-monitoring capability. We present our first generation global P-velocity model developed specifically to improve event location using both teleseismic and regional distance phases. Our data set is the global EHB catalog, consisting of 130,000 events spanning some 46 years (e.g., ISC, PDE; http://www.isc.ac.uk/EHB/ index.html). The total number of P, Pn, and Pg ray paths is over 14 million. To make the inversion computationally practical, and to prevent overweighting due to ray path redundancy, we cluster rays based on geometric similarity of the entire ray paths traced through our starting model, reducing the num