Spreading dynamics of power-law fluid droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Zhanpeng; Peng Xiaofeng; Wang Xiaodong; Lee, D-J; Su Ay
2009-01-01
This paper aims at providing a summary of the theoretical models available for non-Newtonian fluid spreading dynamics. Experimental findings and model predictions for a Newtonian fluid spreading test are briefly reviewed. Then how the complete wetting and partial wetting power-law fluids spread over a solid substrate is examined. The possible extension of Newtonian fluid models to power-law fluids is also discussed.
Dielectric fluid directional spreading under the action of corona discharge
Zhou, Shangru; Liu, Jie; Hu, Qun; Jiang, Teng; Yang, Jinchu; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Huai
2018-01-01
Liquid spreading is a very common nature phenomenon and of significant importance for a broad range of applications. In this study, a dielectric fluid directional spreading phenomenon is presented. Under the action of corona discharge, a dielectric fluid, here a typical silicone directionally spreads along conductive patterns on conductive/nonconductive substrates. Directional spreading behaviors of silicone were experimentally observed on different conductive patterns in detail. Spreading speeds were analyzed at different driving voltages, which induced the corona discharge. The presented phenomenon may be useful to inspire several techniques of manipulating liquid transportation and fabricating micropatterns.
Spreading of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluids on a Solid Substrate under Pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, Moutushi Dutta; Chandra, Subrata; Nag, Soma; Tarafdar, Sujata [Condensed Matter Physics Research Centre, Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Das, Shantanu, E-mail: mou15july@gmail.com [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)
2011-09-15
Strongly non-Newtonian fluids namely, aqueous gels of starch, are shown to exhibit visco-elastic behavior, when subjected to a load. We study arrowroot and potato starch gels. When a droplet of the fluid is sandwiched between two glass plates and compressed, the area of contact between the fluid and plates increases in an oscillatory manner. This is unlike Newtonian fluids, where the area increases monotonically in a similar situation. The periphery moreover, develops an instability, which looks similar to Saffman Taylor fingers. This is not normally seen under compression. The loading history is also found to affect the manner of spreading. We attempt to describe the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid through a visco-elastic model incorporating generalized calculus. This is shown to reproduce qualitatively the oscillatory variation in the surface strain.
Model of multiroom fire spread
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Takeyoshi.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a refined version of a mathematical model for predicting the hot gas flow induced by fires in multiroom structures. Two layer zone modeling approach is used in the mathematical formulation of the model. Some of the results of sample calculations of the model are also given for a couple of model structures
Gossip spread in social network Models
Johansson, Tobias
2017-04-01
Gossip almost inevitably arises in real social networks. In this article we investigate the relationship between the number of friends of a person and limits on how far gossip about that person can spread in the network. How far gossip travels in a network depends on two sets of factors: (a) factors determining gossip transmission from one person to the next and (b) factors determining network topology. For a simple model where gossip is spread among people who know the victim it is known that a standard scale-free network model produces a non-monotonic relationship between number of friends and expected relative spread of gossip, a pattern that is also observed in real networks (Lind et al., 2007). Here, we study gossip spread in two social network models (Toivonen et al., 2006; Vázquez, 2003) by exploring the parameter space of both models and fitting them to a real Facebook data set. Both models can produce the non-monotonic relationship of real networks more accurately than a standard scale-free model while also exhibiting more realistic variability in gossip spread. Of the two models, the one given in Vázquez (2003) best captures both the expected values and variability of gossip spread.
A network model for Ebola spreading.
Rizzo, Alessandro; Pedalino, Biagio; Porfiri, Maurizio
2016-04-07
The availability of accurate models for the spreading of infectious diseases has opened a new era in management and containment of epidemics. Models are extensively used to plan for and execute vaccination campaigns, to evaluate the risk of international spreadings and the feasibility of travel bans, and to inform prophylaxis campaigns. Even when no specific therapeutical protocol is available, as for the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), models of epidemic spreading can provide useful insight to steer interventions in the field and to forecast the trend of the epidemic. Here, we propose a novel mathematical model to describe EVD spreading based on activity driven networks (ADNs). Our approach overcomes the simplifying assumption of homogeneous mixing, which is central to most of the mathematically tractable models of EVD spreading. In our ADN-based model, each individual is not bound to contact every other, and its network of contacts varies in time as a function of an activity potential. Our model contemplates the possibility of non-ideal and time-varying intervention policies, which are critical to accurately describe EVD spreading in afflicted countries. The model is calibrated from field data of the 2014 April-to-December spreading in Liberia. We use the model as a predictive tool, to emulate the dynamics of EVD in Liberia and offer a one-year projection, until December 2015. Our predictions agree with the current vision expressed by professionals in the field, who consider EVD in Liberia at its final stage. The model is also used to perform a what-if analysis to assess the efficacy of timely intervention policies. In particular, we show that an earlier application of the same intervention policy would have greatly reduced the number of EVD cases, the duration of the outbreak, and the infrastructures needed for the implementation of the intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modelling unidirectional liquid spreading on slanted microposts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Blow, Matthew L.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2013-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann algorithm is used to simulate the slow spreading of drops on a surface patterned with slanted micro-posts. Gibb's pinning of the interface on the sides or top of the posts leads to unidirectional spreading over a wide range of contact angles and inclination angles of the posts....... Regimes for spreading in no, one or two directions are identified, and shown to agree well with a two-dimensional theory proposed in Chu, Xiao and Wang. A more detailed numerical analysis of the contact line shapes allows us to understand deviations from the two dimensional model, and to identify...
Dynamical Model about Rumor Spreading with Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaxia Zhao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Rumor is a kind of social remark, that is untrue, and not be confirmed, and spreads on a large scale in a short time. Usually, it can induce a cloud of pressure, anxiety, and panic. Traditionally, it is propagated by word of mouth. Nowadays, with the emergence of the internet, rumors can be spread by instant messengers, emails, or publishing. With this new pattern of spreading, an ISRW dynamical model considering the medium as a subclass is established. Beside the dynamical analysis of the model, we mainly explore the mechanism of spreading of individuals-to-individuals and medium-to-individual. By numerical simulation, we find that if we want to control the rumor spreading, it will not only need to control the rate of change of the spreader subclass, but also need to control the change of the information about rumor in medium which has larger influence. Moreover, to control the effusion of rumor is more important than deleting existing information about rumor. On the one hand, government should enhance the management of internet. On the other hand, relevant legal institutions for punishing the rumor creator and spreader on internet who can be tracked should be established. Using this way, involved authorities can propose efficient measures to control the rumor spreading to keep the stabilization of society and development of economy.
COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL
LORZ, ALEXANDER
2010-01-01
We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic
Mechanistic movement models to understand epidemic spread.
Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy
2017-05-05
An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Dynamic Modeling of CDS Index Tranche Spreads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorn, Jochen
This paper provides a Market Model which implies a dynamics for standardized CDS index tranche spreads, i.e. tranches which securitise CDS index series and dispose of predefined subordination. This model is useful for pricing options on tranches with future Issue Dates as well as for modeling...... options on structured credit derivatives. With the upcoming regulation of the CDS market in perspective, the model presented here is also an attempt to face the effects on pricing approaches provoked by an eventual Clearing Chamber . It becomes also possible to calibrate Index Tranche Options with bespoke...... tenors/tranche subordination to market data obtained by more liquid Index Tranche Options with standard characteristics....
Predictive validation of an influenza spread model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayaz Hyder
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998-1999. Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type. Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. CONCLUSIONS: Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve
Predictive Validation of an Influenza Spread Model
Hyder, Ayaz; Buckeridge, David L.; Leung, Brian
2013-01-01
Background Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. Methods and Findings We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998–1999). Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type). Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. Conclusions Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers) with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve their predictive
Physical model for membrane protrusions during spreading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamaraux, F; Ali, O; Fourcade, B; Keller, S; Bruckert, F
2008-01-01
During cell spreading onto a substrate, the kinetics of the contact area is an observable quantity. This paper is concerned with a physical approach to modeling this process in the case of ameboid motility where the membrane detaches itself from the underlying cytoskeleton at the leading edge. The physical model we propose is based on previous reports which highlight that membrane tension regulates cell spreading. Using a phenomenological feedback loop to mimic stress-dependent biochemistry, we show that the actin polymerization rate can be coupled to the stress which builds up at the margin of the contact area between the cell and the substrate. In the limit of small variation of membrane tension, we show that the actin polymerization rate can be written in a closed form. Our analysis defines characteristic lengths which depend on elastic properties of the membrane–cytoskeleton complex, such as the membrane–cytoskeleton interaction, and on molecular parameters, the rate of actin polymerization. We discuss our model in the case of axi-symmetric and non-axi-symmetric spreading and we compute the characteristic time scales as a function of fundamental elastic constants such as the strength of membrane–cytoskeleton adherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberle Patrick [Service d`Etude et de Modelisation en Thermohydrolique, CEA/DRN/DTP/SMTH, Grenoble (France)]|[Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)
1997-12-12
In the frame of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactor, it is important to understand and to model phenomena of corium spreading with solidification. The first part of the study describes experiments with simulating materials as well as simple models of the literature. We deduce a model where the equations of conservation are averaged over the volume. This model gives interesting results for continuous spreading but it is not convenient for discontinuous phenomena. A more precise model is then necessary. In the second part of this study, we present a complete model from which the basic idea is to average the conservation equations over the fluid height, supposing the characteristic fluid thickness is small in comparison with the characteristic spreading length. This model describes the thermalhydraulic aspects of the spreading as well as the mechanical behaviour of the upper crust. The liquid phases are supposed to be stratified and have a Newtonian fluid behaviour. The dynamical crust model takes into account a non-linear behaviour law. This law depends on the deformation tensor whereas the liquid behaviour low, depends on the rate of deformation tensor, so it is necessary to link this two notions by supplementary equations. The operation of averaging the equations gives terms at the interfaces which must be determined by constitutive laws. We deduce laws by fixing the velocity and temperature profile in the fluid height. The previous system of equations is discretized by finite volumes and semi-implicit methods. The discretized models are included in the specific code THEMA. The results of the model show good agreement with available experimental results. (author) 9 refs., 45 figs., 42 tabs.
Modeling Epidemics Spreading on Social Contact Networks.
Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua
2015-09-01
Social contact networks and the way people interact with each other are the key factors that impact on epidemics spreading. However, it is challenging to model the behavior of epidemics based on social contact networks due to their high dynamics. Traditional models such as susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model ignore the crowding or protection effect and thus has some unrealistic assumption. In this paper, we consider the crowding or protection effect and develop a novel model called improved SIR model. Then, we use both deterministic and stochastic models to characterize the dynamics of epidemics on social contact networks. The results from both simulations and real data set conclude that the epidemics are more likely to outbreak on social contact networks with higher average degree. We also present some potential immunization strategies, such as random set immunization, dominating set immunization, and high degree set immunization to further prove the conclusion.
A lattice model for influenza spreading.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonella Liccardo
Full Text Available We construct a stochastic SIR model for influenza spreading on a D-dimensional lattice, which represents the dynamic contact network of individuals. An age distributed population is placed on the lattice and moves on it. The displacement from a site to a nearest neighbor empty site, allows individuals to change the number and identities of their contacts. The dynamics on the lattice is governed by an attractive interaction between individuals belonging to the same age-class. The parameters, which regulate the pattern dynamics, are fixed fitting the data on the age-dependent daily contact numbers, furnished by the Polymod survey. A simple SIR transmission model with a nearest neighbors interaction and some very basic adaptive mobility restrictions complete the model. The model is validated against the age-distributed Italian epidemiological data for the influenza A(H1N1 during the [Formula: see text] season, with sensible predictions for the epidemiological parameters. For an appropriate topology of the lattice, we find that, whenever the accordance between the contact patterns of the model and the Polymod data is satisfactory, there is a good agreement between the numerical and the experimental epidemiological data. This result shows how rich is the information encoded in the average contact patterns of individuals, with respect to the analysis of the epidemic spreading of an infectious disease.
Model of fire spread around Krsko Power Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidmar, P.; Petelin, S.
2001-01-01
The idea behind the article is how to define fire behaviour. The work is based on an analytical study of fire origin, its development and spread. The study is based on thermodynamics, heat transfer and the study of hydrodynamics and combustion, which represent the bases of fire dynamics. The article shows a practical example of a leak of hazardous chemicals from a tank. Because of the inflammability of the fluid, fire may start. We have tried to model fire propagation around the Krsko power plant, and show what extended surrounding area could be affected. The model also considers weather conditions, in particular wind speed and direction. For this purpose we have used the computer code Safer Trace, which is based on zone models. That means that phenomena are described by physical and empirical equations. An imperfection in this computer code is the inability to consider ground topology. However in the case of the Krsko power plant, topology is not so important, as the plan is located in a relatively flat region. Mathematical models are presented. They show the propagation of hazardous fluid in the environment considering meteorological data. The work also shows which data are essential to define fire spread and shows the main considerations of Probabilistic Safety Assessment for external fire event.(author)
Sotin, C.; Senske, D. A.; Head, J. W.; Parmentier, E. M.
1989-01-01
The model of Reid and Jackson (1981) for terrestrial spreading centers is applied to Venus conditions. On the basis of spreading rate, mantle temperature, and surface temperature, the model predicts both isostatic topography and crustal thickness. The model and Pioneer Venus altimetry and gravity data are used to test the hypothesis of Head and Crumpler (1987) that Western Aphrodite Terra is the location of crustal spreading on Venus. It is concluded that a spreading center model for Ovda Regio in Western Aphrodite Terra could account for the observed topography and line-of-sight gravity anomalies found in the Pioneer data.
COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL
LORZ, ALEXANDER
2010-06-01
We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Modelling dengue epidemic spreading with human mobility
Barmak, D. H.; Dorso, C. O.; Otero, M.
2016-04-01
We explored the effect of human mobility on the spatio-temporal dynamics of Dengue with a stochastic model that takes into account the epidemiological dynamics of the infected mosquitoes and humans, with different mobility patterns of the human population. We observed that human mobility strongly affects the spread of infection by increasing the final size and by changing the morphology of the epidemic outbreaks. When the spreading of the disease is driven only by mosquito dispersal (flight), a main central focus expands diffusively. On the contrary, when human mobility is taken into account, multiple foci appear throughout the evolution of the outbreaks. These secondary foci generated throughout the outbreaks could be of little importance according to their mass or size compared with the largest main focus. However, the coalescence of these foci with the main one generates an effect, through which the latter develops a size greater than the one obtained in the case driven only by mosquito dispersal. This increase in growth rate due to human mobility and the coalescence of the foci are particularly relevant in temperate cities such as the city of Buenos Aires, since they give more possibilities to the outbreak to grow before the arrival of the low-temperature season. The findings of this work indicate that human mobility could be the main driving force in the dynamics of vector epidemics.
Default Spread dan Term Spread sebagai Variabel Proxy Siklus Bisnis pada Model Fama-French
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Edwin Hendra
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This research aims to apply the Fama-French models and test the effect of alternative variable of bond yield spread, default spread (RBBB – RAAA and RAAA – RF, and the term spread (RSUN10-RSUN1, as proxy variables of the business cycle, in IDX stock data during 2005-2010. Four types of asset pricing models tested are Sharpe-Lintner CAPM, Fama-French models, Hwang et al.model, and hybrid model. The results showed that the size effect and value effect has an impact on excess stock returns. Slopes of market beta, SMB, and HML are more sensitive to stock big size and high B / M. Default spreads and term spreads in Hwang et al. model can explain the value effect, and weakly explain the size effect, meanwhile the power of explanation disappeared on Hybrid models. Based on the assessment adjusted R2 and the frequency of rejection of non-zero alpha, is found that the hybrid model is the most suitable model.
Modelling of fire spread in car parks
Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.
2005-01-01
Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.
Numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan Zhenghua
1999-01-01
Theoretical models have been developed to address several important aspects of numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread. The developed models include a pyrolysis model for charring and non-charring solid materials, a fast narrow band radiation property evaluation model (FASTNB) and a turbulence model for buoyant flow and flame. In the pyrolysis model, a completely new algorithm has been proposed, where a moving dual mesh concept was developed and implemented. With this new concept, it provides proper spatial resolution for both temperature and density and automatically considers the regression of the surface of the non-charring solid material during its pyrolysis. It is simple, very efficient and applicable to both charring and non-charring materials. FASTNB speeds up significantly the evaluation of narrow band spectral radiation properties and thus provides a potential of applying narrow band model in numerical simulations of practical turbulent combustion. The turbulence model was developed to improve the consideration of buoyancy effect on turbulence and turbulent transport. It was found to be simple, promising and numerically stable. It has been tested against both plane and axisymmetric thermal plumes and an axisymmetric buoyant diffusion flame. When compared with the widely used standard buoyancy-modified {kappa} - {epsilon} model, it gives significant improvement on numerical results. These developed models have been fully incorporated into CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and coupled with other CFD sub-models, including the DT (Discrete Transfer) radiation model, EDC (Eddy Dissipation Concept) combustion model, flamelet combustion model, various soot models and transpired wall function. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out to study soot formation and oxidation in turbulent buoyant diffusion flames, flame heat transfer and flame spread in fires. The gas temperature and velocity, soot volume fraction, wall
SPREADING OF A FLUID JET ON THE CORRUGATED SURFACE OF THE STRUCTURED PACKING OF WET SCRUBBERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gorodilov A.A.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The new packing for wet scrubbers for cooling exhaust gases of furnaces is presented. Spreading features of the fluid jet on the corrugated surface of the proposed packing have been studied. Flow rate of the liquid flowing through slits to the opposite side of the packing element was determined. Several regimes of a fluid flow on the surface of the proposed structured packing were determined. An optimal range of rational flow rates for more intense cooling of exhaust gases is proposed. It was discovered that the range of optimum flow rates may be extended if the surface of the packing element is pre-wetted. The way of increasing the rate of effective interfacial surface area for gas-liquid contact per unit volume of the packing of the scrubber is presented.
Deterministic ripple-spreading model for complex networks.
Hu, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Ming; Leeson, Mark S; Hines, Evor L; Di Paolo, Ezequiel
2011-04-01
This paper proposes a deterministic complex network model, which is inspired by the natural ripple-spreading phenomenon. The motivations and main advantages of the model are the following: (i) The establishment of many real-world networks is a dynamic process, where it is often observed that the influence of a few local events spreads out through nodes, and then largely determines the final network topology. Obviously, this dynamic process involves many spatial and temporal factors. By simulating the natural ripple-spreading process, this paper reports a very natural way to set up a spatial and temporal model for such complex networks. (ii) Existing relevant network models are all stochastic models, i.e., with a given input, they cannot output a unique topology. Differently, the proposed ripple-spreading model can uniquely determine the final network topology, and at the same time, the stochastic feature of complex networks is captured by randomly initializing ripple-spreading related parameters. (iii) The proposed model can use an easily manageable number of ripple-spreading related parameters to precisely describe a network topology, which is more memory efficient when compared with traditional adjacency matrix or similar memory-expensive data structures. (iv) The ripple-spreading model has a very good potential for both extensions and applications.
Mathematical model for spreading dynamics of social network worms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Xin; Liu, Yan-Heng; Han, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xue-Jie; Li, Bin; Li, Jin
2012-01-01
In this paper, a mathematical model for social network worm spreading is presented from the viewpoint of social engineering. This model consists of two submodels. Firstly, a human behavior model based on game theory is suggested for modeling and predicting the expected behaviors of a network user encountering malicious messages. The game situation models the actions of a user under the condition that the system may be infected at the time of opening a malicious message. Secondly, a social network accessing model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of network users, by which the number of online susceptible users can be determined at each time step. Several simulation experiments are carried out on artificial social networks. The results show that (1) the proposed mathematical model can well describe the spreading dynamics of social network worms; (2) weighted network topology greatly affects the spread of worms; (3) worms spread even faster on hybrid social networks
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.
Fierro, Annalisa; Liccardo, Antonella
2013-01-01
Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1) epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI). We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious diseases.
Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annalisa Fierro
Full Text Available Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1 epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI. We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious
A model of spreading of sudden events on social networks
Wu, Jiao; Zheng, Muhua; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Wang, Wei; Gu, Changgui; Liu, Zonghua
2018-03-01
Information spreading has been studied for decades, but its underlying mechanism is still under debate, especially for those ones spreading extremely fast through the Internet. By focusing on the information spreading data of six typical events on Sina Weibo, we surprisingly find that the spreading of modern information shows some new features, i.e., either extremely fast or slow, depending on the individual events. To understand its mechanism, we present a susceptible-accepted-recovered model with both information sensitivity and social reinforcement. Numerical simulations show that the model can reproduce the main spreading patterns of the six typical events. By this model, we further reveal that the spreading can be speeded up by increasing either the strength of information sensitivity or social reinforcement. Depending on the transmission probability and information sensitivity, the final accepted size can change from continuous to discontinuous transition when the strength of the social reinforcement is large. Moreover, an edge-based compartmental theory is presented to explain the numerical results. These findings may be of significance on the control of information spreading in modern society.
Modeling universal dynamics of cell spreading on elastic substrates.
Fan, Houfu; Li, Shaofan
2015-11-01
A three-dimensional (3D) multiscale moving contact line model is combined with a soft matter cell model to study the universal dynamics of cell spreading over elastic substrates. We have studied both the early stage and the late stage cell spreading by taking into account the actin tension effect. In this work, the cell is modeled as an active nematic droplet, and the substrate is modeled as a St. Venant Kirchhoff elastic medium. A complete 3D simulation of cell spreading has been carried out. The simulation results show that the spreading area versus spreading time at different stages obeys specific power laws, which is in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical prediction reported in the literature. Moreover, the simulation results show that the substrate elasticity may affect force dipole distribution inside the cell. The advantage of this approach is that it combines the hydrodynamics of actin retrograde flow with moving contact line model so that it can naturally include actin tension effect resulting from actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and thus it might be capable of simulating complex cellular scale phenomenon, such as cell spreading or even crawling.
Rumor Spreading Model with Trust Mechanism in Complex Social Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ya-Qi; Yang Xiao-Yuan; Han Yi-Liang; Wang Xu-An
2013-01-01
In this paper, to study rumor spreading, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model by introducing the trust mechanism. We derive mean-field equations that describe the dynamics of the SIR model on homogeneous networks and inhomogeneous networks. Then a steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the critical threshold and the final size of the rumor spreading. We show that the introduction of trust mechanism reduces the final rumor size and the velocity of rumor spreading, but increases the critical thresholds on both networks. Moreover, the trust mechanism not only greatly reduces the maximum rumor influence, but also postpones the rumor terminal time, which provides us with more time to take measures to control the rumor spreading. The theoretical results are confirmed by sufficient numerical simulations. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Rumor Spreading Model with Trust Mechanism in Complex Social Networks
Wang, Ya-Qi; Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Han, Yi-Liang; Wang, Xu-An
2013-04-01
In this paper, to study rumor spreading, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model by introducing the trust mechanism. We derive mean-field equations that describe the dynamics of the SIR model on homogeneous networks and inhomogeneous networks. Then a steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the critical threshold and the final size of the rumor spreading. We show that the introduction of trust mechanism reduces the final rumor size and the velocity of rumor spreading, but increases the critical thresholds on both networks. Moreover, the trust mechanism not only greatly reduces the maximum rumor influence, but also postpones the rumor terminal time, which provides us with more time to take measures to control the rumor spreading. The theoretical results are confirmed by sufficient numerical simulations.
An empirical model of global spread-f occurrence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singleton, D.G.
1974-09-01
A method of combining models of ionospheric F-layer peak electron density and irregularity incremental electron density into a model of the occurrence probability of the frequency spreading component of spread-F is presented. The predictions of the model are compared with spread-F occurrence data obtained under sunspot maximum conditions. Good agreement is obtained for latitudes less than 70 0 geomagnetic. At higher latitudes, the inclusion of a 'blackout factor' in the model allows it to accurately represent the data and, in so doing, resolves an apparent discrepancy in the occurrence statistics at high latitudes. The blackout factor is ascribed to the effect of polar blackout on the spread-F statistics and/or the lack of a definitve incremental electron density model for irregularities at polar latitudes. Ways of isolating these effects and assessing their relative importance in the blackout factor are discussed. The model, besides providing estimates of spread-F occurrence on a worldwide basis, which will be of value in the engineering of HF and VHF communications, also furnishes a means of further checking the irregularity incremental electron density model on which it is based. (author)
Nonlinear model of epidemic spreading in a complex social network.
Kosiński, Robert A; Grabowski, A
2007-10-01
The epidemic spreading in a human society is a complex process, which can be described on the basis of a nonlinear mathematical model. In such an approach the complex and hierarchical structure of social network (which has implications for the spreading of pathogens and can be treated as a complex network), can be taken into account. In our model each individual has one of the four permitted states: susceptible, infected, infective, unsusceptible or dead. This refers to the SEIR model used in epidemiology. The state of an individual changes in time, depending on the previous state and the interactions with other individuals. The description of the interpersonal contacts is based on the experimental observations of the social relations in the community. It includes spatial localization of the individuals and hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions. Numerical simulations were performed for different types of epidemics, giving the progress of a spreading process and typical relationships (e.g. range of epidemic in time, the epidemic curve). The spreading process has a complex and spatially chaotic character. The time dependence of the number of infective individuals shows the nonlinear character of the spreading process. We investigate the influence of the preventive vaccinations on the spreading process. In particular, for a critical value of preventively vaccinated individuals the percolation threshold is observed and the epidemic is suppressed.
Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - Model intercomparison
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gloster, John; Jones, Andrew; Redington, Alison
2010-01-01
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route, with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics....... Atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to assess airborne spread of FMDV in a number of countries, including the UK, Denmark, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada. These models were compared at a Workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office in 2008. Each modeller was provided...... with data relating to the 1967 outbreak of FMD in Hampshire, UK, and asked to predict the spread of FMDV by the airborne route. A number of key issues emerged from the Workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all models predicted similar directions for livestock at risk, with much...
Epidemiological models for the spread of anti-malarial resistance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antia R
2003-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of drug resistance is making malaria control increasingly difficult. Mathematical models for the transmission dynamics of drug sensitive and resistant strains can be a useful tool to help to understand the factors that influence the spread of drug resistance, and they can therefore help in the design of rational strategies for the control of drug resistance. Methods We present an epidemiological framework to investigate the spread of anti-malarial resistance. Several mathematical models, based on the familiar Macdonald-Ross model of malaria transmission, enable us to examine the processes and parameters that are critical in determining the spread of resistance. Results In our simplest model, resistance does not spread if the fraction of infected individuals treated is less than a threshold value; if drug treatment exceeds this threshold, resistance will eventually become fixed in the population. The threshold value is determined only by the rates of infection and the infectious periods of resistant and sensitive parasites in untreated and treated hosts, whereas the intensity of transmission has no influence on the threshold value. In more complex models, where hosts can be infected by multiple parasite strains or where treatment varies spatially, resistance is generally not fixed, but rather some level of sensitivity is often maintained in the population. Conclusions The models developed in this paper are a first step in understanding the epidemiology of anti-malarial resistance and evaluating strategies to reduce the spread of resistance. However, specific recommendations for the management of resistance need to wait until we have more data on the critical parameters underlying the spread of resistance: drug use, spatial variability of treatment and parasite migration among areas, and perhaps most importantly, cost of resistance.
Fire and Heat Spreading Model Based on Cellular Automata Theory
Samartsev, A. A.; Rezchikov, A. F.; Kushnikov, V. A.; Ivashchenko, V. A.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Filimonyuk, L. Yu; Dolinina, O. N.; Kushnikov, O. V.; Shulga, T. E.; Tverdokhlebov, V. A.; Fominykh, D. S.
2018-05-01
The distinctive feature of the proposed fire and heat spreading model in premises is the reduction of the computational complexity due to the use of the theory of cellular automata with probability rules of behavior. The possibilities and prospects of using this model in practice are noted. The proposed model has a simple mechanism of integration with agent-based evacuation models. The joint use of these models could improve floor plans and reduce the time of evacuation from premises during fires.
An information spreading model based on online social networks
Wang, Tao; He, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiaoxia
2018-01-01
Online social platforms are very popular in recent years. In addition to spreading information, users could review or collect information on online social platforms. According to the information spreading rules of online social network, a new information spreading model, namely IRCSS model, is proposed in this paper. It includes sharing mechanism, reviewing mechanism, collecting mechanism and stifling mechanism. Mean-field equations are derived to describe the dynamics of the IRCSS model. Moreover, the steady states of reviewers, collectors and stiflers and the effects of parameters on the peak values of reviewers, collectors and sharers are analyzed. Finally, numerical simulations are performed on different networks. Results show that collecting mechanism and reviewing mechanism, as well as the connectivity of the network, make information travel wider and faster, and compared to WS network and ER network, the speed of reviewing, sharing and collecting information is fastest on BA network.
Dynamical Behaviors of Rumor Spreading Model with Control Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia-Xia Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Rumor has no basis in fact and flies around. And in general, it is propagated for a certain motivation, either for business, economy, or pleasure. It is found that the web does expose us to more rumor and increase the speed of the rumors spread. Corresponding to these new ways of spreading, the government should carry out some measures, such as issuing message by media, punishing the principal spreader, and enhancing management of the internet. In order to assess these measures, dynamical models without and with control measures are established. Firstly, for two models, equilibria and the basic reproduction number of models are discussed. More importantly, numerical simulation is implemented to assess control measures of rumor spread between individuals-to-individuals and medium-to-individuals. Finally, it is found that the amount of message released by government has the greatest influence on the rumor spread. The reliability of government and the cognizance ability of the public are more important. Besides that, monitoring the internet to prevent the spread of rumor is more important than deleting messages in media which already existed. Moreover, when the minority of people are punished, the control effect is obvious.
Computational modelling in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauguel, A.
1985-01-01
The modelling of the greatest part of environmental or industrial flow problems gives very similar types of equations. The considerable increase in computing capacity over the last ten years consequently allowed numerical models of growing complexity to be processed. The varied group of computer codes presented are now a complementary tool of experimental facilities to achieve studies in the field of fluid mechanics. Several codes applied in the nuclear field (reactors, cooling towers, exchangers, plumes...) are presented among others [fr
Vala, A. K.; Desai, R.; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.
2008-12-01
Interaction of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger with a Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid (MF) has been studied. The fungus exhibited a luxuriant growth in the presence of magnetic fluid at test concentrations. Though the biomass accumulation was found to be almost similar, mycelial spread was found to be rapid in the presence of MF if compared to the control one. The MF also exhibited a positive effect on the biomass accumulation during prolonged incubation. These preliminary observations provide a baseline information for possible exploitation of the magnetic fluid-facultative marine fungal interaction for bioremediation purposes. Figs 5, Refs 13.
Relativistic fluid model of the resistive hose instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siambis, J.G.
1992-01-01
A systematic analysis of the hose instability using the relativistic fluid formulation is reported. In its basic nature, the hose instability is a macroscopic, low-frequency instability, hence a fluid model should, in principle, give an accurate account of the hose instability. It has been found that for zeroth-order beam displacements, giving rise to rigid beam displacements, the fluid wave equation and resulting dispersion relation are identical to the spread-mass model and the energy-group model results. When first-order fluid displacements are included as well, giving rise to compressible, nonfrozen displacements in the axial direction and beam cross-section distortion in the radial direction, then there is obtained a wave equation similar, but not identical to the multicomponent model. The dispersion relation is solved for numerically. The hose instability growth rate is found to be similar to the multicomponent model result, over part of the beam frame, real hose frequency range
Web malware spread modelling and optimal control strategies
Liu, Wanping; Zhong, Shouming
2017-02-01
The popularity of the Web improves the growth of web threats. Formulating mathematical models for accurate prediction of malicious propagation over networks is of great importance. The aim of this paper is to understand the propagation mechanisms of web malware and the impact of human intervention on the spread of malicious hyperlinks. Considering the characteristics of web malware, a new differential epidemic model which extends the traditional SIR model by adding another delitescent compartment is proposed to address the spreading behavior of malicious links over networks. The spreading threshold of the model system is calculated, and the dynamics of the model is theoretically analyzed. Moreover, the optimal control theory is employed to study malware immunization strategies, aiming to keep the total economic loss of security investment and infection loss as low as possible. The existence and uniqueness of the results concerning the optimality system are confirmed. Finally, numerical simulations show that the spread of malware links can be controlled effectively with proper control strategy of specific parameter choice.
Modeling of Ceiling Fire Spread and Thermal Radiation.
1981-10-01
under a PMMA ceiling and flame lengths under an inert ceiling are found to be in reasonable agreement with full-scale behavior. Although fire spread...5 3 Flame Lengths under Full-Scale Ceilings 12 4 Correlation of Flame Length under Inert Ceilings 16 5 Correlation of Flame Length under No 234 Model...Ceilings 17 6 Correlation of Flame Length under No B8811 Model Ceilings 18 7 Correlation of Flame Length under No. 223 Model Ceilings 19 8
Term structure of sovereign spreads: a contingent claim model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katia Rocha
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple structural model to estimate the termstructure and the implied default probability of a selected group of emerging countries, which account for 54% of the JPMorgan EMBIG index on average for the period 2000-2005. The real exchange rate dynamic, modeled as a pure diffusion process, is assumed to trigger default. The calibrated model generates sovereign spread curves consistent to market data. The results suggest that the market is systematically overpricing spreads for Brazil in 100 basis points, whereas for Mexico, Russia and Turkey the model is able to reproduce the market behavior.Este trabalho propõe um modelo estrutural para estimar a estrutura a termo e a probabilidade implícita de default de países emergentes que representam, em média, 54% do índice EMBIG do JPMorgan no período de 2000-2005. A taxa de câmbio real, modelada como um processo de difusão simples, é considerada como indicativa de default. O modelo calibrado gera a estrutura a termo dos spreads consistente com dados de mercado, indicando que o mercado sistematicamente sobre-estima os spreads para o Brasil em 100 pontos base na média, enquanto para México, Rússia e Turquia reproduz o comportamento do mercado.
Ripple-Spreading Network Model Optimization by Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Bing Hu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Small-world and scale-free properties are widely acknowledged in many real-world complex network systems, and many network models have been developed to capture these network properties. The ripple-spreading network model (RSNM is a newly reported complex network model, which is inspired by the natural ripple-spreading phenomenon on clam water surface. The RSNM exhibits good potential for describing both spatial and temporal features in the development of many real-world networks where the influence of a few local events spreads out through nodes and then largely determines the final network topology. However, the relationships between ripple-spreading related parameters (RSRPs of RSNM and small-world and scale-free topologies are not as obvious or straightforward as in many other network models. This paper attempts to apply genetic algorithm (GA to tune the values of RSRPs, so that the RSNM may generate these two most important network topologies. The study demonstrates that, once RSRPs are properly tuned by GA, the RSNM is capable of generating both network topologies and therefore has a great flexibility to study many real-world complex network systems.
a Discrete Mathematical Model to Simulate Malware Spreading
Del Rey, A. Martin; Sánchez, G. Rodriguez
2012-10-01
With the advent and worldwide development of Internet, the study and control of malware spreading has become very important. In this sense, some mathematical models to simulate malware propagation have been proposed in the scientific literature, and usually they are based on differential equations exploiting the similarities with mathematical epidemiology. The great majority of these models study the behavior of a particular type of malware called computer worms; indeed, to the best of our knowledge, no model has been proposed to simulate the spreading of a computer virus (the traditional type of malware which differs from computer worms in several aspects). In this sense, the purpose of this work is to introduce a new mathematical model not based on continuous mathematics tools but on discrete ones, to analyze and study the epidemic behavior of computer virus. Specifically, cellular automata are used in order to design such model.
Spatial distribution of emissions to air - the SPREAD model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plejdrup, M S; Gyldenkaerne, S
2011-04-15
The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark's obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the requirements for reporting of gridded emissions to CLRTAP. Spatial emission data is e.g. used as input for air quality modelling, which again serves as input for assessment and evaluation of health effects. For these purposes distributions with higher spatial resolution have been requested. Previously, a distribution on the 17x17 km EMEP grid has been set up and used in research projects combined with detailed distributions for a few sectors or sub-sectors e.g. a distribution for emissions from road traffic on 1x1 km resolution. SPREAD is developed to generate improved spatial emission data for e.g. air quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation of distributions for single sectors and for a number of sub-sectors and single sources as well. This report documents the methodologies in this first version of SPREAD and presents selected results. Further, a number of potential improvements for later versions of SPREAD are addressed and discussed. (Author)
Spatial distribution of emissions to air - the SPREAD model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plejdrup, M.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.
2011-04-15
The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark's obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the requirements for reporting of gridded emissions to CLRTAP. Spatial emission data is e.g. used as input for air quality modelling, which again serves as input for assessment and evaluation of health effects. For these purposes distributions with higher spatial resolution have been requested. Previously, a distribution on the 17x17 km EMEP grid has been set up and used in research projects combined with detailed distributions for a few sectors or sub-sectors e.g. a distribution for emissions from road traffic on 1x1 km resolution. SPREAD is developed to generate improved spatial emission data for e.g. air quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation of distributions for single sectors and for a number of sub-sectors and single sources as well. This report documents the methodologies in this first version of SPREAD and presents selected results. Further, a number of potential improvements for later versions of SPREAD are addressed and discussed. (Author)
Spatial distribution of emissions to air – the SPREAD model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Gyldenkærne, Steen
The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark’s obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long...... quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation...
A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model
Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui
2014-01-01
This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738
A spread willingness computing-based information dissemination model.
Huang, Haojing; Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui
2014-01-01
This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network.
A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haojing Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user’s spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network.
Complex fluids modeling and algorithms
Saramito, Pierre
2016-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.
Spreading of correlations in the Falicov-Kimball model
Herrmann, Andreas J.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Werner, Philipp
2018-04-01
We study dynamical properties of the one- and two-dimensional Falicov-Kimball model using lattice Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we calculate the spreading of charge correlations in the equilibrium model and after an interaction quench. The results show a reduction of the light-cone velocity with interaction strength at low temperature, while the phase velocity increases. At higher temperature, the initial spreading is determined by the Fermi velocity of the noninteracting system and the maximum range of the correlations decreases with increasing interaction strength. Charge order correlations in the disorder potential enhance the range of the correlations. We also use the numerically exact lattice Monte Carlo results to benchmark the accuracy of equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamical cluster approximation calculations. It is shown that the bias introduced by the mapping to a periodized cluster is substantial, and that from a numerical point of view, it is more efficient to simulate the lattice model directly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-09-01
For the purpose of spreading/promoting circulating fluidized bed boilers in China, survey was conducted on the confirmation of effectiveness of implementation of the model project on spread type circulating fluidized bed boilers and the appropriateness of the sites proposed for implementation. As to the model of spread type 35t/h-CFB boilers, local products are more integrated into it, taking cost reduction of equipment and secure performance/quality into consideration, and the wider-ranging technical guidance/transfer are conducted also in design/production. In China, where environmental regulations are not strict, and there are many restrictions on funds, the size of the initial investment is an important element for selection of type. Further, the market is very big, about 200 units/year. It is highly possible to realize the competitive cost level by the quantity production effect by increasing local production. Two companies, Southeast Electrochemical Co. and Fujian Prime Pharmaceutical Group Co., which were proposed as sites are financially good and are achieving substantial results. Both companies are located in the urban area, and therefore, environmental measures should urgently be taken, and PR activities for spread are highly effective. It was confirmed that the companies were fully appropriate as sites proposed for the spread type model project. (NEDO)
Side, Syafruddin; Molliq Rangkuti, Yulita; Gerhana Pane, Dian; Setia Sinaga, Marlina
2018-01-01
Dengue fever is endemic disease which spread through vector, Aedes Aegypty. This disease is found more than 100 countries, such as, United State, Africa as well Asia, especially in country that have tropic climate. Mathematical modeling in this paper, discusses the speed of the spread of dengue fever. The model adopting divided over four classes, such as Susceptible (S), Exposed (E), Infected (I) and Recovered (R). SEIR model further analyzed to detect the re-breeding value based on the number reported case by dengue in Medan city. Analysis of the stability of the system in this study is asymptotically stable indicating a case of endemic and unstable that show cases the endemic cases. Simulation on the mathematical model of SEIR showed that require a very long time to produce infected humans will be free of dengue virus infection. This happens because of dengue virus infection that occurs continuously between human and vector populations.
Credit Spread Modeling: Macro-financial versus HOC Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanja Dudaković
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to throw light on the relationship between credit spread changes and past changes of U.S. macro-financial variables when invariants do not have Gaussian distribution. The first part presents the empirical analysis which is based on 10-year AAA corporate bond yields and 10-year Treasury bond yields. Explanatory variables include lagged U.S. leading index, Russell 2000 returns, BBB bond price changes interest rate swaps, exchange rates EUR/ USD, Repo rates, S& P 500 returns and S&P 500 volatility, Treasury bill changes, liquidity index-TRSW, LIBOR rates, Moody’s default rates; credit spread volatility and Treasury bills volatility. The proposed dynamical model explains 73% of the U.S. credit spread variance for the period 1999:07-2013:07. The second part of the article introduces the parameter estimation method based on higher order cumulants. It is demonstrated empirically that much of the information about variability of Credit Spread can be extracted from higher order cumulant function (85%.
Modelling the spread of American foulbrood in honeybees
Datta, Samik; Bull, James C.; Budge, Giles E.; Keeling, Matt J.
2013-01-01
We investigate the spread of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, that affects bees and can be extremely damaging to beehives. Our dataset comes from an inspection period carried out during an AFB epidemic of honeybee colonies on the island of Jersey during the summer of 2010. The data include the number of hives of honeybees, location and owner of honeybee apiaries across the island. We use a spatial SIR model with an underlying owner network to simulate the epidemic and characterize the epidemic using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme to determine model parameters and infection times (including undetected ‘occult’ infections). Likely methods of infection spread can be inferred from the analysis, with both distance- and owner-based transmissions being found to contribute to the spread of AFB. The results of the MCMC are corroborated by simulating the epidemic using a stochastic SIR model, resulting in aggregate levels of infection that are comparable to the data. We use this stochastic SIR model to simulate the impact of different control strategies on controlling the epidemic. It is found that earlier inspections result in smaller epidemics and a higher likelihood of AFB extinction. PMID:24026473
The cost of simplifying air travel when modeling disease spread.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin Lessler
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Air travel plays a key role in the spread of many pathogens. Modeling the long distance spread of infectious disease in these cases requires an air travel model. Highly detailed air transportation models can be over determined and computationally problematic. We compared the predictions of a simplified air transport model with those of a model of all routes and assessed the impact of differences on models of infectious disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using U.S. ticket data from 2007, we compared a simplified "pipe" model, in which individuals flow in and out of the air transport system based on the number of arrivals and departures from a given airport, to a fully saturated model where all routes are modeled individually. We also compared the pipe model to a "gravity" model where the probability of travel is scaled by physical distance; the gravity model did not differ significantly from the pipe model. The pipe model roughly approximated actual air travel, but tended to overestimate the number of trips between small airports and underestimate travel between major east and west coast airports. For most routes, the maximum number of false (or missed introductions of disease is small (<1 per day but for a few routes this rate is greatly underestimated by the pipe model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If our interest is in large scale regional and national effects of disease, the simplified pipe model may be adequate. If we are interested in specific effects of interventions on particular air routes or the time for the disease to reach a particular location, a more complex point-to-point model will be more accurate. For many problems a hybrid model that independently models some frequently traveled routes may be the best choice. Regardless of the model used, the effect of simplifications and sensitivity to errors in parameter estimation should be analyzed.
Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, David W.; Cornwell, John B.
2007-01-01
Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Non-universal spreading exponents in a catalytic reaction model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Andrade, Marcelo F; Figueiredo, W
2011-01-01
We investigated the dependence of the spreading critical exponents and the ultimate survival probability exponent on the initial configuration of a nonequilibrium catalytic reaction model. The model considers the competitive reactions between two different monomers, A and B, where we take into account the energy couplings between nearest neighbor monomers, and the adsorption energies, as well as the temperature T of the catalyst. For each value of T the model shows distinct absorbing states, with different concentrations of the two monomers. Employing an epidemic analysis, we established the behavior of the spreading exponents as we started the Monte Carlo simulations with different concentrations of the monomers. The exponents were determined as a function of the initial concentration ρ A, ini of A monomers. We have also considered initial configurations with correlations for a fixed concentration of A monomers. From the determination of three spreading exponents, and the ultimate survival probability exponent, we checked the validity of the generalized hyperscaling relation for a continuous set of initial states, random and correlated, which are dependent on the temperature of the catalyst
Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D' Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D
2008-09-04
Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.
Modelling Laccoliths: Fluid-Driven Fracturing in the Lab
Ball, T. V.; Neufeld, J. A.
2017-12-01
Current modelling of the formation of laccoliths neglects the necessity to fracture rock layers for propagation to occur [1]. In magmatic intrusions at depth the idea of fracture toughness is used to characterise fracturing, however an analogue for near surface intrusions has yet to be explored [2]. We propose an analytical model for laccolith emplacement that accounts for the energy required to fracture at the tip of an intrusion. For realistic physical parameters we find that a lag region exists between the fluid magma front and the crack tip where large negative pressures in the tip cause volatiles to exsolve from the magma. Crucially, the dynamics of this tip region controls the spreading due to the competition between viscous forces and fracture energy. We conduct a series of complementary experiments to investigate fluid-driven fracturing of adhered layers and confirm the existence of two regimes: viscosity dominant spreading, controlled by the pressure in the lag region, and fracture energy dominant spreading, controlled by the energy required to fracture layers. Our experiments provide the first observations, and evolution, of a vapour tip. These experiments and our simplified model provide insight into the key physical processes in near surface magmatic intrusions with applications to fluid-driven fracturing more generally. Michaut J. Geophys. Res. 116(B5), B05205. Bunger & Cruden J. Geophys. Res. 116(B2), B02203.
Numerical and physical modelling of oil spreading in broken ice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gjoesteen, Janne K. Oekland
2002-01-01
The present work focuses on oil spreading in broken ice and the content of this thesis falls into three categories: 1) The physical and numerical modelling of oil spreading in ice. 2) Ice models and parameters describing the ice cover. 3) Experiments on oil spreading in broken ice. A background study was carried out to investigate existing models for simulating oil in broken ice. Most of them describe motion of oil simply as a function of the ice motion and do not take advantage of the possibilities that recent ice models provide. We decided to choose another direction, starting from scratch with equations describing the flow of oil on top of a water surface. The equations were implemented numerically, including proper boundary conditions to account for the presence of physical restrictions in the form of ice floes in the simulation area. The implementation was designed to be able to apply data on ice motion calculated by an existing dynamic ice model. A first validation of the model was carried out using existing experimental data. As those data were obtained in a different setting, the recorded parameters and set-up of the experiment were not ideal for our purpose. However, we were able to conclude that our model behaviour was reasonable. We have carried out statistical analysis on meteorological data of wind speeds, temperatures, flow sizes and ice thickness to obtain probability distributions describing the parameters. Those data has been collected in the Pechora Sea. Wind and temperature had been recorded for a period of 30-40 years. For this region we also had available Argos satellite data from four buoys drifting in the ice in April-June 1998. The Argos data were carefully analysed to suggest probability distributions and return periods for certain speeds. (Indoor basin tests were carried out to obtain data on spreading of oil in broken ice. A set of 20 tests was conducted, each with different type of oil, ice concentration, slush concentration or ice
Numerical and physical modelling of oil spreading in broken ice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gjoesteen, Janne K. Oekland
2002-07-01
The present work focuses on oil spreading in broken ice and the content of this thesis falls into three categories: 1) The physical and numerical modelling of oil spreading in ice. 2) Ice models and parameters describing the ice cover. 3) Experiments on oil spreading in broken ice. A background study was carried out to investigate existing models for simulating oil in broken ice. Most of them describe motion of oil simply as a function of the ice motion and do not take advantage of the possibilities that recent ice models provide. We decided to choose another direction, starting from scratch with equations describing the flow of oil on top of a water surface. The equations were implemented numerically, including proper boundary conditions to account for the presence of physical restrictions in the form of ice floes in the simulation area. The implementation was designed to be able to apply data on ice motion calculated by an existing dynamic ice model. A first validation of the model was carried out using existing experimental data. As those data were obtained in a different setting, the recorded parameters and set-up of the experiment were not ideal for our purpose. However, we were able to conclude that our model behaviour was reasonable. We have carried out statistical analysis on meteorological data of wind speeds, temperatures, flow sizes and ice thickness to obtain probability distributions describing the parameters. Those data has been collected in the Pechora Sea. Wind and temperature had been recorded for a period of 30-40 years. For this region we also had available Argos satellite data from four buoys drifting in the ice in April-June 1998. The Argos data were carefully analysed to suggest probability distributions and return periods for certain speeds. (Indoor basin tests were carried out to obtain data on spreading of oil in broken ice. A set of 20 tests was conducted, each with different type of oil, ice concentration, slush concentration or ice
A mathematical model of the spread of the AIDS virus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hyman, J.M.; Stanley, E.A.
1987-01-01
A mathematical computer model of the spread of the AIDS epidemic in the US is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This model predicts the spreading of the HIV infection, and subsequent development of clinical AIDS in various population groups. These groups are chosen according to age, frequency and type of sexual contact, population density, and region of the country. Type of sexual contact includes not only the heterosexual, homosexual differentiation but also repeated contacts with such primary partners as spouses. In conjunction with the computer model, we are developing a database containing relevant information on the natural history of the viral infection, the prevalence of the infection and of clinical AIDS in the population, the distribution of people into sexual behavior groups as a function of age and information on interregional contacts. The effects of variable infectiousness and sexual activity during the long period from infection to disease are found to have a major impact on the predictions of the model. 24 refs., 5 figs.
Mesoscale Models of Fluid Dynamics
Boghosian, Bruce M.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.
During the last half century, enormous progress has been made in the field of computational materials modeling, to the extent that in many cases computational approaches are used in a predictive fashion. Despite this progress, modeling of general hydrodynamic behavior remains a challenging task. One of the main challenges stems from the fact that hydrodynamics manifests itself over a very wide range of length and time scales. On one end of the spectrum, one finds the fluid's "internal" scale characteristic of its molecular structure (in the absence of quantum effects, which we omit in this chapter). On the other end, the "outer" scale is set by the characteristic sizes of the problem's domain. The resulting scale separation or lack thereof as well as the existence of intermediate scales are key to determining the optimal approach. Successful treatments require a judicious choice of the level of description which is a delicate balancing act between the conflicting requirements of fidelity and manageable computational cost: a coarse description typically requires models for underlying processes occuring at smaller length and time scales; on the other hand, a fine-scale model will incur a significantly larger computational cost.
A model for multiseasonal spread of verticillium wilt of lettuce.
Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V
2014-09-01
Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a destructive disease in lettuce, and the pathogen is seedborne. Even though maximum seed infestation rates of lettuce seed lots, it is necessary to establish acceptable contamination thresholds to prevent introduction and establishment of the pathogen in lettuce production fields. However, introduction of inoculum into lettuce fields for experimental purposes to determine its long term effects is undesirable. Therefore, we constructed a simulation model to study the spread of Verticillium wilt following pathogen introduction from seed. The model consists of four components: the first for simulating infection of host plants, the second for simulating reproduction of microsclerotia on diseased plants, the third for simulating the survival of microsclerotia, and the fourth for simulating the dispersal of microsclerotia. The simulation results demonstrated that the inoculum density-disease incidence curve parameters and the dispersal gradients affect disease spread in the field. Although a steep dispersal gradient facilitated the establishment of the disease in a new field with a low inoculum density, a long-tail gradient allowed microsclerotia to be dispersed over greater distances, promoting the disease spread in fields with high inoculum density. The simulation results also revealed the importance of avoiding successive lettuce crops in the same field, reducing survival rate of microsclerotia between crops, and the need for breeding resistance against V. dahliae in lettuce cultivars to lower the number of microsclerotia formed on each diseased plant. The simulation results, however, suggested that, even with a low seed infestation rate, the pathogen would eventually become established if susceptible lettuce cultivars were grown consecutively in the same field for many years. A threshold for seed infestation can be established only when two of the three drivers of the disease-(i) low microsclerotia production per
Mathematical model for HIV spreads control program with ART treatment
Maimunah; Aldila, Dipo
2018-03-01
In this article, using a deterministic approach in a seven-dimensional nonlinear ordinary differential equation, we establish a mathematical model for the spread of HIV with an ART treatment intervention. In a simplified model, when no ART treatment is implemented, disease-free and the endemic equilibrium points were established analytically along with the basic reproduction number. The local stability criteria of disease-free equilibrium and the existing criteria of endemic equilibrium were analyzed. We find that endemic equilibrium exists when the basic reproduction number is larger than one. From the sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number of the complete model (with ART treatment), we find that the increased number of infected humans who follow the ART treatment program will reduce the basic reproduction number. We simulate this result also in the numerical experiment of the autonomous system to show how treatment intervention impacts the reduction of the infected population during the intervention time period.
Oscillations in epidemic models with spread of awareness.
Just, Winfried; Saldaña, Joan; Xin, Ying
2018-03-01
We study ODE models of epidemic spreading with a preventive behavioral response that is triggered by awareness of the infection. Previous studies of such models have mostly focused on the impact of the response on the initial growth of an outbreak and the existence and location of endemic equilibria. Here we study the question whether this type of response is sufficient to prevent future flare-ups from low endemic levels if awareness is assumed to decay over time. In the ODE context, such flare-ups would translate into sustained oscillations with significant amplitudes. Our results show that such oscillations are ruled out in Susceptible-Aware-Infectious-Susceptible models with a single compartment of aware hosts, but can occur if we consider two distinct compartments of aware hosts who differ in their willingness to alert other susceptible hosts.
Nanoscale modeling for ultrathin liquid films: Spreading and coupled layering
Phillips, David Michael
liquid PFPE. The experimental analogue of replenishment is the one-dimensional spreading analysis. PFPEs with functional endgroups demonstrated coupled molecular layering and dewetting phenomena during the spreading analysis, while PFPEs with nonfunctional endgroups did not. All of the PFPE thin films spread via a diffusive process and had diffusion coefficients that depended on the local film thickness. A theoretical analysis is presented here for both the governing equation and the disjoining pressure driving force for the PFPE thin film spreading. For PFPEs with non-functional endgroups, a reasonable analysis is performed on the diffusion coefficient for two classes of film: submonolayer and multilayer. The diffusion coefficient of PFPEs with functional endgroups are qualitatively linked to the gradient of the film disjoining pressure. To augment this theory, both lattice-based and off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations are conducted for PFPE film models. The lattice-based model shows the existence of a critical functional endgroup interaction strength. It is also used to study the break-up of molecular layers for a spreading film via a fractal analysis. The off-lattice model is used to calculate the anisotropic pressure tensor for the model PFPE thin film and subsequently the film disjoining pressure. The model also qualitatively analyzes of the self diffusion in the film.
Self-consistent modeling of plasma response to impurity spreading from intense localized source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koltunov, Mikhail
2012-07-01
Non-hydrogen impurities unavoidably exist in hot plasmas of present fusion devices. They enter it intrinsically, due to plasma interaction with the wall of vacuum vessel, as well as are seeded for various purposes deliberately. Normally, the spots where injected particles enter the plasma are much smaller than its total surface. Under such conditions one has to expect a significant modification of local plasma parameters through various physical mechanisms, which, in turn, affect the impurity spreading. Self-consistent modeling of interaction between impurity and plasma is, therefore, not possible with linear approaches. A model based on the fluid description of electrons, main and impurity ions, and taking into account the plasma quasi-neutrality, Coulomb collisions of background and impurity charged particles, radiation losses, particle transport to bounding surfaces, is elaborated in this work. To describe the impurity spreading and the plasma response self-consistently, fluid equations for the particle, momentum and energy balances of various plasma components are solved by reducing them to ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of several parameters characterizing the solution in principal details: the magnitudes of plasma density and plasma temperatures in the regions of impurity localization and the spatial scales of these regions. The results of calculations for plasma conditions typical in tokamak experiments with impurity injection are presented. A new mechanism for the condensation phenomenon and formation of cold dense plasma structures is proposed.
Spreafico, Filippo; Bongarzone, Italia; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Magni, Ruben; Taverna, Elena; De Bortoli, Maida; Ciniselli, Chiara M; Barzanò, Elena; Biassoni, Veronica; Luchini, Alessandra; Liotta, Lance A; Zhou, Weidong; Signore, Michele; Verderio, Paolo; Massimino, Maura
2017-07-11
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Candidate proteins were identified with Fisher's exact test and/or a univariate logistic regression model. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA), Western blot (WB), and ELISA were used in the training set and in an independent set of CFS samples (60 cases, 14 controls) to validate our discovery findings. Among the 558 non-redundant proteins identified by LC-MS/MS, 147 were missing from the CSF database at http://www.biosino.org. Fourteen of the 26 final top-candidate proteins were chosen for validation with WB, RPPA and ELISA methods. Six proteins (type 1 collagen, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor receptor α2, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4, neural proliferation and differentiation control protein-1) revealed the ability to discriminate metastatic cases from controls. Combining a unique dataset of CSFs from pediatric CNS tumors with a novel enabling nanotechnology led us to identify CSF proteins potentially related to metastatic status.
James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.
2014-08-01
The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ∼350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid δD values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 μM) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 μM). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed
Advances in fluid modeling and turbulence measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Akira; Ninokata, Hisashi; Tanaka, Nobukazu
2002-01-01
The context of this book consists of four fields: Environmental Fluid Mechanics; Industrial Fluid Mechanics; Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics; and Turbulence Measurements. Environmental Fluid Mechanics includes free surface flows in channels, rivers, seas, and estuaries. It also discusses wind engineering issues, ocean circulation model and dispersion problems in atmospheric, water and ground water environments. In Industrial Fluid Mechanics, fluid phenomena in energy exchanges, modeling of turbulent two- or multi-phase flows, swirling flows, flows in combustors, variable density flows and reacting flows, flows in turbo-machines, pumps and piping systems, and fluid-structure interaction are discussed. In Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, progress in modeling turbulent flows and heat/mass transfers, computational fluid dynamics/numerical techniques, parallel computing algorithms, applications of chaos/fractal theory in turbulence are reported. In Turbulence Measurements, experimental studies of turbulent flows, experimental and post-processing techniques, quantitative and qualitative flow visualization techniques are discussed. Separate abstracts were presented for 15 of the papers in this issue. The remaining 89 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
Hamiltonian closures in fluid models for plasmas
Tassi, Emanuele
2017-11-01
This article reviews recent activity on the Hamiltonian formulation of fluid models for plasmas in the non-dissipative limit, with emphasis on the relations between the fluid closures adopted for the different models and the Hamiltonian structures. The review focuses on results obtained during the last decade, but a few classical results are also described, in order to illustrate connections with the most recent developments. With the hope of making the review accessible not only to specialists in the field, an introduction to the mathematical tools applied in the Hamiltonian formalism for continuum models is provided. Subsequently, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of models based on the magnetohydrodynamics description, including those based on the adiabatic and double adiabatic closure. It is shown how Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems can be applied to impose the incompressibility closure on a magnetohydrodynamic model and how an extended version of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics, accounting for two-fluid effects, is amenable to a Hamiltonian formulation. Hamiltonian reduced fluid models, valid in the presence of a strong magnetic field, are also reviewed. In particular, reduced magnetohydrodynamics and models assuming cold ions and different closures for the electron fluid are discussed. Hamiltonian models relaxing the cold-ion assumption are then introduced. These include models where finite Larmor radius effects are added by means of the gyromap technique, and gyrofluid models. Numerical simulations of Hamiltonian reduced fluid models investigating the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection are illustrated. The last part of the review concerns recent results based on the derivation of closures preserving a Hamiltonian structure, based on the Hamiltonian structure of parent kinetic models. Identification of such closures for fluid models derived from kinetic systems based on the Vlasov and drift-kinetic equations are presented, and
Performance of fire behavior fuel models developed for the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model
Robert Ziel; W. Matt Jolly
2009-01-01
In 2005, 40 new fire behavior fuel models were published for use with the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model. These new models are intended to augment the original 13 developed in 1972 and 1976. As a compiled set of quantitative fuel descriptions that serve as input to the Rothermel model, the selected fire behavior fuel model has always been critical to the resulting...
Geometrical approach to fluid models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Schep, T.J.
1997-01-01
Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical notion of invariance is introduced in terms of Lie derivatives and a general procedure for the construction of local and integral fluid invariants is presented. The solutions of the equations for invariant fields can be written in terms of Lagrange variables. A generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism for finite-dimensional systems to continuous media is proposed. Analogously to finite-dimensional systems, Hamiltonian fluids are introduced as systems that annihilate an exact two-form. It is shown that Euler and ideal, charged fluids satisfy this local definition of a Hamiltonian structure. A new class of scalar invariants of Hamiltonian fluids is constructed that generalizes the invariants that are related with gauge transformations and with symmetries (Noether). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Studies on the population dynamics of a rumor-spreading model in online social networks
Dong, Suyalatu; Fan, Feng-Hua; Huang, Yong-Chang
2018-02-01
This paper sets up a rumor spreading model in online social networks based on the European fox rabies SIR model. The model considers the impact of changing number of online social network users, combines the transmission dynamics to set up a population dynamics of rumor spreading model in online social networks. Simulation is carried out on online social network, and results show that the new rumor spreading model is in accordance with the real propagation characteristics in online social networks.
Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model
Patricia L. Andrews
2012-01-01
Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling...
Development and validation of a physics-based urban fire spread model
HIMOTO, Keisuke; TANAKA, Takeyoshi
2008-01-01
A computational model for fire spread in a densely built urban area is developed. The model is distinct from existing models in that it explicitly describes fire spread phenomena with physics-based knowledge achieved in the field of fire safety engineering. In the model, urban fire is interpreted as an ensemble of multiple building fires; that is, the fire spread is simulated by predicting behaviors of individual building fires under the thermal influence of neighboring building fires. Adopte...
Effect of modelling slum populations on influenza spread in Delhi
Chen, Jiangzhuo; Chu, Shuyu; Chungbaek, Youngyun; Khan, Maleq; Kuhlman, Christopher; Marathe, Achla; Mortveit, Henning; Vullikanti, Anil; Xie, Dawen
2016-01-01
Objectives This research studies the impact of influenza epidemic in the slum and non-slum areas of Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, by taking proper account of slum demographics and residents’ activities, using a highly resolved social contact network of the 13.8 million residents of Delhi. Methods An SEIR model is used to simulate the spread of influenza on two different synthetic social contact networks of Delhi, one where slums and non-slums are treated the same in terms of their demographics and daily sets of activities and the other, where slum and non-slum regions have different attributes. Results Differences between the epidemic outcomes on the two networks are large. Time-to-peak infection is overestimated by several weeks, and the cumulative infection rate and peak infection rate are underestimated by 10–50%, when slum attributes are ignored. Conclusions Slum populations have a significant effect on influenza transmission in urban areas. Improper specification of slums in large urban regions results in underestimation of infections in the entire population and hence will lead to misguided interventions by policy planners. PMID:27687898
Modeling the spread of tuberculosis in semiclosed communities.
Herrera, Mauricio; Bosch, Paul; Nájera, Manuel; Aguilera, Ximena
2013-01-01
We address the problem of long-term dynamics of tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis (LTB) in semiclosed communities. These communities are congregate settings with the potential for sustained daily contact for weeks, months, and even years between their members. Basic examples of these communities are prisons, but certain urban/rural communities, some schools, among others could possibly fit well into this definition. These communities present a sort of ideal conditions for TB spread. In order to describe key relevant dynamics of the disease in these communities, we consider a five compartments SEIR model with five possible routes toward TB infection: primary infection after a contact with infected and infectious individuals (fast TB), endogenous reactivation after a period of latency (slow TB), relapse by natural causes after a cure, exogenous reinfection of latently infected, and exogenous reinfection of recovered individuals. We discuss the possible existence of multiple endemic equilibrium states and the role that the two types of exogenous reinfections in the long-term dynamics of the disease could play.
Modeling the Spread of Tuberculosis in Semiclosed Communities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Herrera
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We address the problem of long-term dynamics of tuberculosis (TB and latent tuberculosis (LTB in semiclosed communities. These communities are congregate settings with the potential for sustained daily contact for weeks, months, and even years between their members. Basic examples of these communities are prisons, but certain urban/rural communities, some schools, among others could possibly fit well into this definition. These communities present a sort of ideal conditions for TB spread. In order to describe key relevant dynamics of the disease in these communities, we consider a five compartments SEIR model with five possible routes toward TB infection: primary infection after a contact with infected and infectious individuals (fast TB, endogenous reactivation after a period of latency (slow TB, relapse by natural causes after a cure, exogenous reinfection of latently infected, and exogenous reinfection of recovered individuals. We discuss the possible existence of multiple endemic equilibrium states and the role that the two types of exogenous reinfections in the long-term dynamics of the disease could play.
Fluid Methods for Modeling Large, Heterogeneous Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Towsley, Don; Gong, Weibo; Hollot, Kris; Liu, Yong; Misra, Vishal
2005-01-01
.... The resulting fluid models were used to develop novel active queue management mechanisms resulting in more stable TCP performance and novel rate controllers for the purpose of providing minimum rate...
Rupture of spinal dermoid tumors with spread of fatty droplets in the cerebrospinal fluid pathways
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calabro, F. [Neuroradiology Section, T. M. A., Genoa (Italy); Capellini, C. [Neuroradiology Section, Ospedale Sant' Andrea, La Spezia (Italy); Jinkins, J.R. [Neuroimaging Research Department of Radiology, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)
2000-08-01
Cranial and spinal MRI was carried out at 0.5 or 1.5 T in five patients with spinal dermoid tumours. Free fatty material was appreciated within the normally communicating cerebrospinal fluid pathways in all five cases and in one case fat droplets were also observed within a dilated central canal of the spinal cord. While dissemination of lipid within the subarachnoid space and ventricles is easily understandable, the presence of lipid droplets within the central canal is more difficult to explain, since the central canal is only potential in the adult. When a dermoid tumor is suspected, we recommend MRI of the entire central nervous system, to detect possible leakage of fat from rupture of a cystic portion of the tumour. (orig.)
Rupture of spinal dermoid tumors with spread of fatty droplets in the cerebrospinal fluid pathways
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calabro, F.; Capellini, C.; Jinkins, J.R.
2000-01-01
Cranial and spinal MRI was carried out at 0.5 or 1.5 T in five patients with spinal dermoid tumours. Free fatty material was appreciated within the normally communicating cerebrospinal fluid pathways in all five cases and in one case fat droplets were also observed within a dilated central canal of the spinal cord. While dissemination of lipid within the subarachnoid space and ventricles is easily understandable, the presence of lipid droplets within the central canal is more difficult to explain, since the central canal is only potential in the adult. When a dermoid tumor is suspected, we recommend MRI of the entire central nervous system, to detect possible leakage of fat from rupture of a cystic portion of the tumour. (orig.)
Space-fractional model for the spreading of matter in heterogeneous porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krepysheva, N.; Neel, M.Ch.
2005-01-01
In very heterogeneous porous media (like the soil, or an aquifer, for instance), experimental results showed that mass transport sometimes does not obey Fourier's law. Continuous Time Random Walks in the form of L y Flights provide a small scale model for super diffusive spreading of a tracer plume, dissolved in a fluid, itself enclosed in a porous medium. In an infinite medium, the corresponding behavior of the concentration of solute is known to obey a variant of Fourier's law, with a Riesz-Feller operator in place of the Laplacian. Here we show that with some modifications the result extends to semi infinite media. A numerical method allowing for the simulation of fractional derivatives is adapted to semi infinite media, with special attention to convective terms, associated to a possibly non zero global trough flow. (authors)
Space-fractional model for the spreading of matter in heterogeneous porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krepysheva, N. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), UMRA Climat-Sol-Environnement, 84 - Avignon (France); Neel, M.Ch. [Universite d' Avignon, Faculte des Sciences, UMRA Climat-Sol-Environnement, 84 - Avignon (France)
2005-07-01
In very heterogeneous porous media (like the soil, or an aquifer, for instance), experimental results showed that mass transport sometimes does not obey Fourier's law. Continuous Time Random Walks in the form of L y Flights provide a small scale model for super diffusive spreading of a tracer plume, dissolved in a fluid, itself enclosed in a porous medium. In an infinite medium, the corresponding behavior of the concentration of solute is known to obey a variant of Fourier's law, with a Riesz-Feller operator in place of the Laplacian. Here we show that with some modifications the result extends to semi infinite media. A numerical method allowing for the simulation of fractional derivatives is adapted to semi infinite media, with special attention to convective terms, associated to a possibly non zero global trough flow. (authors)
Theoretical models for supercritical fluid extraction.
Huang, Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Han; Jiang, Wei-Juan
2012-08-10
For the proper design of supercritical fluid extraction processes, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the mass transfer mechanism of the extraction process and the appropriate mathematical representation. In this paper, the advances and applications of kinetic models for describing supercritical fluid extraction from various solid matrices have been presented. The theoretical models overviewed here include the hot ball diffusion, broken and intact cell, shrinking core and some relatively simple models. Mathematical representations of these models have been in detail interpreted as well as their assumptions, parameter identifications and application examples. Extraction process of the analyte solute from the solid matrix by means of supercritical fluid includes the dissolution of the analyte from the solid, the analyte diffusion in the matrix and its transport to the bulk supercritical fluid. Mechanisms involved in a mass transfer model are discussed in terms of external mass transfer resistance, internal mass transfer resistance, solute-solid interactions and axial dispersion. The correlations of the external mass transfer coefficient and axial dispersion coefficient with certain dimensionless numbers are also discussed. Among these models, the broken and intact cell model seems to be the most relevant mathematical model as it is able to provide realistic description of the plant material structure for better understanding the mass-transfer kinetics and thus it has been widely employed for modeling supercritical fluid extraction of natural matters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Duan
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.
Kandelman, A.; Nelson, D. J.
1977-01-01
Simplified mathematical model simulates large hydraulic systems on either analog or digital computers. Models of pumps, servoactuators, reservoirs, accumulators, and valves are connected generating systems containing six hundred elements.
A qualitative comparison of fire spread models incorporating wind and slope effects
David R. Weise; Gregory S. Biging
1997-01-01
Wind velocity and slope are two critical variables that affect wildland fire rate of spread. The effects of these variables on rate of spread are often combined in rate-of-spread models using vector addition. The various methods used to combine wind and slope effects have seldom been validated or compared due to differences in the models or to lack of data. In this...
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics A Mathematical Modeling Approach
Ajaev, Vladimir S
2012-01-01
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics: A Mathematical Modeling Approach provides an introduction to mathematical models of viscous flow used in rapidly developing fields of microfluidics and microscale heat transfer. The basic physical effects are first introduced in the context of simple configurations and their relative importance in typical microscale applications is discussed. Then,several configurations of importance to microfluidics, most notably thin films/droplets on substrates and confined bubbles, are discussed in detail. Topics from current research on electrokinetic phenomena, liquid flow near structured solid surfaces, evaporation/condensation, and surfactant phenomena are discussed in the later chapters. This book also: Discusses mathematical models in the context of actual applications such as electrowetting Includes unique material on fluid flow near structured surfaces and phase change phenomena Shows readers how to solve modeling problems related to microscale multiphase flows Interfacial Fluid Me...
Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vial C.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.
Two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn
2018-01-01
The hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM) has been successful in describing the optical properties of metallic nanostructures, but for semiconductors where several different kinds of charge carriers are present an extended theory is required. We present a two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors...
Vlasov fluid model with electron pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.
1975-11-01
The Vlasov-ion, fluid-electron model of Freidberg for studying the linear stability of hot-ion pinch configurations is here extended to include electron pressure. Within the framework of an adiabatic electron-gas picture, it is shown that this model is still amenable to the numerical methods described by Lewis and Freidberg
A Finsler geodesic spray paradigm for wildfire spread modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
2015-01-01
represents the local fire templates. The ‘paradigm’ part of the present proposal is thus concerned with the corresponding shift of attention from the actual fire-lines to consider instead the geodesic spray - the ‘fire-particles’ - which together, side by side, mold the fire-lines at each instant of time...... and thence eventually constitute the local and global structure of the wildfire spread....
SEIR Model of Rumor Spreading in Online Social Network with Varying Total Population Size
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Suyalatu; Deng Yan-Bin; Huang Yong-Chang
2017-01-01
Based on the infectious disease model with disease latency, this paper proposes a new model for the rumor spreading process in online social network. In this paper what we establish an SEIR rumor spreading model to describe the online social network with varying total number of users and user deactivation rate. We calculate the exact equilibrium points and reproduction number for this model. Furthermore, we perform the rumor spreading process in the online social network with increasing population size based on the original real world Facebook network. The simulation results indicate that the SEIR model of rumor spreading in online social network with changing total number of users can accurately reveal the inherent characteristics of rumor spreading process in online social network . (paper)
SEIR Model of Rumor Spreading in Online Social Network with Varying Total Population Size
Dong, Suyalatu; Deng, Yan-Bin; Huang, Yong-Chang
2017-10-01
Based on the infectious disease model with disease latency, this paper proposes a new model for the rumor spreading process in online social network. In this paper what we establish an SEIR rumor spreading model to describe the online social network with varying total number of users and user deactivation rate. We calculate the exact equilibrium points and reproduction number for this model. Furthermore, we perform the rumor spreading process in the online social network with increasing population size based on the original real world Facebook network. The simulation results indicate that the SEIR model of rumor spreading in online social network with changing total number of users can accurately reveal the inherent characteristics of rumor spreading process in online social network. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275017 and 11173028
Modelling control of epidemics spreading by long-range interactions.
Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam; Gilligan, Christopher A
2009-10-06
We have studied the spread of epidemics characterized by a mixture of local and non-local interactions. The infection spreads on a two-dimensional lattice with the fixed nearest neighbour connections. In addition, long-range dynamical links are formed by moving agents (vectors). Vectors perform random walks, with step length distributed according to a thick-tail distribution. Two distributions are considered in this paper, an alpha-stable distribution describing self-similar vector movement, yet characterized by an infinite variance and an exponential power characterized by a large but finite variance. Such long-range interactions are hard to track and make control of epidemics very difficult. We also allowed for cryptic infection, whereby an infected individual on the lattice can be infectious prior to showing any symptoms of infection or disease. To account for such cryptic spread, we considered a control strategy in which not only detected, i.e. symptomatic, individuals but also all individuals within a certain control neighbourhood are treated upon the detection of disease. We show that it is possible to eradicate the disease by using such purely local control measures, even in the presence of long-range jumps. In particular, we show that the success of local control and the choice of the optimal strategy depend in a non-trivial way on the dispersal patterns of the vectors. By characterizing these patterns using the stability index of the alpha-stable distribution to change the power-law behaviour or the exponent characterizing the decay of an exponential power distribution, we show that infection can be successfully contained using relatively small control neighbourhoods for two limiting cases for long-distance dispersal and for vectors that are much more limited in their dispersal range.
Fluid and hybrid models for streamers
Bonaventura, Zdeněk
2016-09-01
Streamers are contracted ionizing waves with self-generated field enhancement that propagate into a low-ionized medium exposed to high electric field leaving filamentary trails of plasma behind. The widely used model to study streamer dynamics is based on drift-diffusion equations for electrons and ions, assuming local field approximation, coupled with Poisson's equation. For problems where presence of energetic electrons become important a fluid approach needs to be extended by a particle model, accompanied also with Monte Carlo Collision technique, that takes care of motion of these electrons. A combined fluid-particle approach is used to study an influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. It is found that fluid-only model predicts substantially faster reignition dynamics compared to coupled fluid-particle model. Furthermore, a hybrid model can be created in which the population of electrons is divided in the energy space into two distinct groups: (1) low energy `bulk' electrons that are treated with fluid model, and (2) high energy `beam' electrons, followed as particles. The hybrid model is then capable not only to deal with streamer discharges in laboratory conditions, but also allows us to study electron acceleration in streamer zone of lighting leaders. There, the production of fast electrons from streamers is investigated, since these (runaway) electrons act as seeds for the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) mechanism, important for high-energy atmospheric physics phenomena. Results suggest that high energy electrons effect the streamer propagation, namely the velocity, the peak electric field, and thus also the production rate of runaway electrons. This work has been supported by the Czech Science Foundation research project 15-04023S.
Landau fluid models of collisionless magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snyder, P.B.; Hammett, G.W.; Dorland, W.
1997-01-01
A closed set of fluid moment equations including models of kinetic Landau damping is developed which describes the evolution of collisionless plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic parameter regime. The model is fully electromagnetic and describes the dynamics of both compressional and shear Alfven waves, as well as ion acoustic waves. The model allows for separate parallel and perpendicular pressures p parallel and p perpendicular , and, unlike previous models such as Chew-Goldberger-Low theory, correctly predicts the instability threshold for the mirror instability. Both a simple 3 + 1 moment model and a more accurate 4 + 2 moment model are developed, and both could be useful for numerical simulations of astrophysical and fusion plasmas
Malgarinos, Ilias; Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Marengo, Marco; Antonini, Carlo; Gavaises, Manolis
2014-10-01
In this study,a novel numerical implementation for the adhesion of liquid droplets impacting normally on solid dry surfaces is presented. The advantage of this new approach, compared to the majority of existing models, is that the dynamic contact angle forming during the surface wetting process is not inserted as a boundary condition, but is derived implicitly by the induced fluid flow characteristics (interface shape) and the adhesion physics of the gas-liquid-surface interface (triple line), starting only from the advancing and receding equilibrium contact angles. These angles are required in order to define the wetting properties of liquid phases when interacting with a solid surface. The physical model is implemented as a source term in the momentum equation of a Navier-Stokes CFD flow solver as an "adhesion-like" force which acts at the triple-phase contact line as a result of capillary interactions between the liquid drop and the solid substrate. The numerical simulations capture the liquid-air interface movement by considering the volume of fluid (VOF) method and utilizing an automatic local grid refinement technique in order to increase the accuracy of the predictions at the area of interest, and simultaneously minimize numerical diffusion of the interface. The proposed model is validated against previously reported experimental data of normal impingement of water droplets on dry surfaces at room temperature. A wide range of impact velocities, i.e. Weber numbers from as low as 0.2 up to 117, both for hydrophilic (θadv=10°-70°) and hydrophobic (θadv=105°-120°) surfaces, has been examined. Predictions include in addition to droplet spreading dynamics, the estimation of the dynamic contact angle; the latter is found in reasonable agreement against available experimental measurements. It is thus concluded that theimplementation of this model is an effective approach for overcoming the need of a pre-defined dynamic contact angle law, frequently adopted as
Modeling spreading of oil slicks based on random walk methods and Voronoi diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durgut, İsmail; Reed, Mark
2017-01-01
We introduce a methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram updated at each time step. The Voronoi cells scale the Gaussian random walk procedure representing the spreading process by individual particle stepping. The step length of stochastically moving particles is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process, establishing a relationship between the step length of diffusive spreading and the thickness of the slick at the particle locations. The Voronoi tessellation provides the areal extent of the slick particles and in turn the thicknesses of the slick and the diffusive-type spreading length for all particles. The algorithm successfully simulates the spreading process and results show very good agreement with the analytical solution. Moreover, the results are robust for a wide range of values for computational time step and total number of particles. - Highlights: • A methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram • An algorithm simulating the spreading of oil slick with the Voronoi diagram representation • The algorithm employs the Gaussian random walk method through individual particle stepping. • The diffusive spreading is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process. • Algorithm is computationally robust and successfully reproduces analytical solutions to the spreading process.
Using a network model to assess risk of forest pest spread via recreational travel
Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov; Robert A. Haack; Roger D. Magarey
2014-01-01
Long-distance dispersal pathways, which frequently relate to human activities, facilitate the spread of alien species. One pathway of concern in North America is the possible spread of forest pests in firewood carried by visitors to campgrounds or recreational facilities. We present a network model depicting the movement of campers and, by extension, potentially...
Modelling and mapping spread in pest risk analysis: a generic approach
Kehlenbeck, H.; Robinet, C.; Werf, van der W.; Kriticos, D.; Reynaud, P.; Baker, R.
2012-01-01
Assessing the likelihood and magnitude of spread is one of the cornerstones of pest risk analysis (PRA), and is usually based on qualitative expert judgment. This paper proposes a suite of simple ecological models to support risk assessors who also wish to estimate the rate and extent of spread,
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Kaare
that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters......The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel....... In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high predictive power...
AFDM: An Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelm, D.
1990-09-01
This volume describes the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) for topologies, flow regimes, and interfacial areas. The objective of these models is to provide values for the interfacial areas between all components existing in a computational cell. The interfacial areas are then used to evaluate the mass, energy, and momentum transfer between the components. A new approach has been undertaken in the development of a model to convect the interfacial areas of the discontinuous velocity fields in the three-velocity-field environment of AFDM. These interfacial areas are called convectible surface areas. The continuous and discontinuous components are chosen using volume fraction and levitation criteria. This establishes so-called topologies for which the convectible surface areas can be determined. These areas are functions of space and time. Solid particulates that are limited to being discontinuous within the bulk fluid are assumed to have a constant size. The convectible surface areas are subdivided to model contacts between two discontinuous components or discontinuous components and the structure. The models have been written for the flow inside of large pools. Therefore, the structure is tracked only as a boundary to the fluid volume without having a direct influence on velocity or volume fraction distribution by means of flow regimes or boundary layer models. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs
An agent-based computational model of the spread of tuberculosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Espíndola, Aquino L; Bauch, Chris T; Troca Cabella, Brenno C; Martinez, Alexandre Souto
2011-01-01
In this work we propose an alternative model of the spread of tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of drug resistance due to the treatment with antibiotics. We implement the simulations by an agent-based model computational approach where the spatial structure is taken into account. The spread of tuberculosis occurs according to probabilities defined by the interactions among individuals. The model was validated by reproducing results already known from the literature in which different treatment regimes yield the emergence of drug resistance. The different patterns of TB spread can be visualized at any time of the system evolution. The implementation details as well as some results of this alternative approach are discussed
Tectonic microplates in a wax model of sea-floor spreading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katz, Richard F; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2005-01-01
Rotating, growing microplates are observed in a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. Based on the wax observations, a theory for the nucleation of overlapping spreading centres, the precursors of tectonic microplates, is developed
Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids
Levenspiel, Octave
2012-01-01
A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel. In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel. However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more. The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems. Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data. First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel. Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question. Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures. In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful and harmless—in the...
A Comparison between Two Simulation Models for Spread of Foot-and-Mouth Disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders
2014-01-01
Two widely used simulation models of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were used in order to compare the models' predictions in term of disease spread, consequence, and the ranking of the applied control strategies, and to discuss the effect of the way disease spread is modeled on the predicted outcomes...... of each model. The DTU-DADS (version 0.100), and ISP (version 2.001.11) were used to simulate a hypothetical spread of FMD in Denmark. Actual herd type, movements, and location data in the period 1st October 2006 and 30th September 2007 was used. The models simulated the spread of FMD using 3 different...... areas and 1,000 in low density swine areas, and 1,000 sheep herds. Generally, DTU-DADS predicted larger, longer duration and costlier epidemics than ISP, except when epidemics started in cattle herds located in high density cattle areas. ISP supported suppressive vaccination rather than pre...
Epidemic spreading and global stability of an SIS model with an infective vector on complex networks
Kang, Huiyan; Fu, Xinchu
2015-10-01
In this paper, we present a new SIS model with delay on scale-free networks. The model is suitable to describe some epidemics which are not only transmitted by a vector but also spread between individuals by direct contacts. In view of the biological relevance and real spreading process, we introduce a delay to denote average incubation period of disease in a vector. By mathematical analysis, we obtain the epidemic threshold and prove the global stability of equilibria. The simulation shows the delay will effect the epidemic spreading. Finally, we investigate and compare two major immunization strategies, uniform immunization and targeted immunization.
The Rothermel surface fire spread model and associated developments: A comprehensive explanation
Patricia L. Andrews
2018-01-01
The Rothermel surface fire spread model, with some adjustments by Frank A. Albini in 1976, has been used in fire and fuels management systems since 1972. It is generally used with other models including fireline intensity and flame length. Fuel models are often used to define fuel input parameters. Dynamic fuel models use equations for live fuel curing. Models have...
Landslide Spreading, Impulse Water Waves and Modelling of the Vajont Rockslide
Crosta, Giovanni B.; Imposimato, Silvia; Roddeman, Dennis
2016-06-01
Landslides can occur in different environments and can interact with or fall into water reservoirs or open sea with different characteristics. The subaerial evolution and the transition from subaerial to subaqueous conditions can strongly control the landslide evolution and the generated impulse waves, and consequently the final hazard zonation. We intend to model the landslide spreading, the impact with the water surface and the generation of the impulse wave under different 2D and 3D conditions and settings. We verify the capabilities of a fully 2D and 3D FEM ALE approach to model and analyse near-field evolution. To this aim we validate the code against 2D laboratory experiments for different Froude number conditions (Fr = 1.4, 3.2). Then the Vajont rockslide (Fr = 0.26-0.75) and the consequent impulse wave are simulated in 2D and 3D. The sliding mass is simulated as an elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb material and the lake water as a fully inviscid low compressibility fluid. The rockslide model is validated against field observations, including the total duration, the profile and internal geometry of the final deposit, the maximum water run-up on the opposite valley flank and on the rockslide mass. 2D models are presented for both the case of a dry valley and that of the impounded lake. The set of fully 3D simulations are the first ones available and considering the rockslide evolution, propagation and interaction with the water reservoir. Advantages and disadvantages of the modelling approach are discussed.
Computational fluid dynamic modelling of cavitation
Deshpande, Manish; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.
1993-01-01
Models in sheet cavitation in cryogenic fluids are developed for use in Euler and Navier-Stokes codes. The models are based upon earlier potential-flow models but enable the cavity inception point, length, and shape to be determined as part of the computation. In the present paper, numerical solutions are compared with experimental measurements for both pressure distribution and cavity length. Comparisons between models are also presented. The CFD model provides a relatively simple modification to an existing code to enable cavitation performance predictions to be included. The analysis also has the added ability of incorporating thermodynamic effects of cryogenic fluids into the analysis. Extensions of the current two-dimensional steady state analysis to three-dimensions and/or time-dependent flows are, in principle, straightforward although geometrical issues become more complicated. Linearized models, however offer promise of providing effective cavitation modeling in three-dimensions. This analysis presents good potential for improved understanding of many phenomena associated with cavity flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya-Ting Tseng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Two solid pyrolysis models are employed in a concurrent-flow flame spread model to compare the flame structure and spreading characteristics. The first is a zeroth-order surface pyrolysis, and the second is a first-order in-depth pyrolysis. Comparisons are made for samples when the spread rate reaches a steady value and the flame reaches a constant length. The computed results show (1 the mass burning rate distributions at the solid surface are qualitatively different near the flame (pyrolysis base region, (2 the first-order pyrolysis model shows that the propagating flame leaves unburnt solid fuel, and (3 the flame length and spread rate dependence on sample thickness are different for the two cases.
Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800# Cao'an Road, ... was developed from a discretized fluid model known as the lattice gas automata ... of two immiscible fluids, several lattice Boltzmann (LB) models have been ...
Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Qin; Cheng, Jingjing; Chen, Yucheng; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Wei
2011-07-01
Rumor is an important form of social interaction, and its spreading has a significant impact on people’s lives. In the age of Web, people are using electronic media more frequently than ever before, and blog has become one of the main online social interactions. Therefore, it is essential to learn the evolution mechanism of rumor spreading on homogeneous network in consideration of the forgetting mechanism of spreaders. Here we study a rumor spreading model on an online social blogging platform called LiveJournal. In comparison with the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model, we provide a more detailed and realistic description of rumor spreading process with combination of forgetting mechanism and the SIR model of epidemics. A mathematical model has been presented and numerical solutions of the model were used to analyze the impact factors of rumor spreading, such as the average degree, forgetting rate and stifling rate. Our results show that there exist a threshold of the average degree of LiveJournal and above which the influence of rumor reaches saturation. Forgetting mechanism and stifling rate exert great influence on rumor spreading on online social network. The analysis results can guide people’s behaviors in view of the theoretical and practical aspects.
Error associated with model predictions of wildland fire rate of spread
Miguel G. Cruz; Martin E. Alexander
2015-01-01
How well can we expect to predict the spread rate of wildfires and prescribed fires? The degree of accuracy in model predictions of wildland fire behaviour characteristics are dependent on the model's applicability to a given situation, the validity of the model's relationships, and the reliability of the model input data (Alexander and Cruz 2013b#. We...
Spreading speed and travelling waves for a spatially discrete SIS epidemic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Kate Fang; Zhao Xiaoqiang
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of the asymptotic speed of spread and travelling waves for a spatially discrete SIS epidemic model. By appealing to the theory of spreading speeds and travelling waves for monotonic semiflows, we establish the existence of asymptotic speed of spread and show that it coincides with the minimal wave speed for monotonic travelling waves. This also gives an affirmative answer to an open problem presented by Rass and Radcliffe (2003 Spatial Deterministic Epidemics (Mathematical Surveys and Monographs vol 102) (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society)) in the case of discrete spatial habitat
Modelling the spread of Ebola virus with Atangana-Baleanu fractional operators
Koca, Ilknur
2018-03-01
The model of Ebola spread within a targeted population is extended to the concept of fractional differentiation and integration with non-local and non-singular fading memory introduced by Atangana and Baleanu. It is expected that the proposed model will show better approximation than the models established before. The existence and uniqueness of solutions for the spread of Ebola disease model is given via the Picard-Lindelof method. Finally, numerical solutions for the model are given by using different parameter values.
An agent-based computational model for tuberculosis spreading on age-structured populations
Graciani Rodrigues, C. C.; Espíndola, Aquino L.; Penna, T. J. P.
2015-06-01
In this work we present an agent-based computational model to study the spreading of the tuberculosis (TB) disease on age-structured populations. The model proposed is a merge of two previous models: an agent-based computational model for the spreading of tuberculosis and a bit-string model for biological aging. The combination of TB with the population aging, reproduces the coexistence of health states, as seen in real populations. In addition, the universal exponential behavior of mortalities curves is still preserved. Finally, the population distribution as function of age shows the prevalence of TB mostly in elders, for high efficacy treatments.
Global stability of a two-mediums rumor spreading model with media coverage
Huo, Liang'an; Wang, Li; Song, Guoxiang
2017-09-01
Rumor spreading is a typical form of social communication and plays a significant role in social life, and media coverage has a great influence on the spread of rumor. In this paper, we present a new model with two media coverage to investigate the impact of the different mediums on rumor spreading. Then, we calculate the equilibria of the model and construct the reproduction number ℜ0. And we prove the global asymptotic stability of equilibria by using Lyapunov functions. Finally, we can conclude that the transition rate of the ignorants between two mediums has a direct effect on the scale of spreaders, and different media coverage has significant effects on the dynamics behaviors of rumor spreading.
Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine.
Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2016-01-01
This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model integration is progressively moving towards 'digital patient' or 'virtual physiological human' representations. When combined with population-scale numerical models, these models have the potential to reduce the cost, time and risk associated with clinical trials. The adoption of CFD modelling signals a new era in cardiovascular medicine. While potentially highly beneficial, a number of academic and commercial groups are addressing the associated methodological, regulatory, education- and service-related challenges. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission
A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis.
Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J; Baker, Richard H A; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke
2012-01-01
Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice.
Numerical Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction with Rheologically Complex Fluids
Chen, Xingyuan
2014-01-01
In the present work the interaction between rheologically complex fluids and elastic solids is studied by means of numerical modeling. The investigated complex fluids are non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of this kind is frequently encountered in injection molding, food processing, pharmaceutical engineering and biomedicine. The investigation via experiments is costly, difficult or in some cases, even impossible. Therefore, research is increasingly aided...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Qiu; Hu, Zhengda
2016-01-01
For Gaussian beams with three different partially coherent models, including Gaussian-Schell model (GSM), Laguerre-Gaussian Schell-model (LGSM) and Bessel-Gaussian Schell-model (BGSM) beams propagating through a biological turbulent tissue, the expression of the spatial coherence radius of a spherical wave propagating in a turbulent biological tissue, and the average intensity and beam spreading for GSM, LGSM and BGSM beams are derived based on the fractal model of power spectrum of refractive-index variations in biological tissue. Effects of partially coherent model and parameters of biological turbulence on such beams are studied in numerical simulations. Our results reveal that the spreading of GSM beams is smaller than LGSM and BGSM beams on the same conditions, and the beam with larger source coherence width has smaller beam spreading than that with smaller coherence width. The results are useful for any applications involved light beam propagation through tissues, especially the cases where the average intensity and spreading properties of the light should be taken into account to evaluate the system performance and investigations in the structures of biological tissue. - Highlights: • Spatial coherence radius of a spherical wave propagating in a turbulent biological tissue is developed. • Expressions of average intensity and beam spreading for GSM, LGSM and BGSM beams in a turbulent biological tissue are derived. • The contrast for the three partially coherent model beams is shown in numerical simulations. • The results are useful for any applications involved light beam propagation through tissues.
A minimal model for multiple epidemics and immunity spreading.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Sneppen
Full Text Available Pathogens and parasites are ubiquitous in the living world, being limited only by availability of suitable hosts. The ability to transmit a particular disease depends on competing infections as well as on the status of host immunity. Multiple diseases compete for the same resource and their fate is coupled to each other. Such couplings have many facets, for example cross-immunization between related influenza strains, mutual inhibition by killing the host, or possible even a mutual catalytic effect if host immunity is impaired. We here introduce a minimal model for an unlimited number of unrelated pathogens whose interaction is simplified to simple mutual exclusion. The model incorporates an ongoing development of host immunity to past diseases, while leaving the system open for emergence of new diseases. The model exhibits a rich dynamical behavior with interacting infection waves, leaving broad trails of immunization in the host population. This obtained immunization pattern depends only on the system size and on the mutation rate that initiates new diseases.
A minimal model for multiple epidemics and immunity spreading.
Sneppen, Kim; Trusina, Ala; Jensen, Mogens H; Bornholdt, Stefan
2010-10-18
Pathogens and parasites are ubiquitous in the living world, being limited only by availability of suitable hosts. The ability to transmit a particular disease depends on competing infections as well as on the status of host immunity. Multiple diseases compete for the same resource and their fate is coupled to each other. Such couplings have many facets, for example cross-immunization between related influenza strains, mutual inhibition by killing the host, or possible even a mutual catalytic effect if host immunity is impaired. We here introduce a minimal model for an unlimited number of unrelated pathogens whose interaction is simplified to simple mutual exclusion. The model incorporates an ongoing development of host immunity to past diseases, while leaving the system open for emergence of new diseases. The model exhibits a rich dynamical behavior with interacting infection waves, leaving broad trails of immunization in the host population. This obtained immunization pattern depends only on the system size and on the mutation rate that initiates new diseases.
A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis
Robinet, C.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Werf, van der W.
2012-01-01
In the frame of the EU project PRATIQUE (KBBE-2007-212459 Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques) a suite of models was developed to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis. This dataset contains the model codes (R language) for the four models in the suite. Three
PREDICTION OF DENGUE FEVER EPIDEMIC SPREADING USING DYNAMICS TRANSMISSION VECTOR MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Retno Widyaningrum
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Increasing number of dengue cases in Surabaya shows that its city has high potential of dengue fever epidemic. Although some policies were designed by Surabaya Health Department, such as fogging and mosquito’s nest eradication, but these efforts still out of target because of inaccurate predictions. Ineffectiveness eradication of dengue fever epidemic is caused by lack of information and knowledge on environmental conditions in Surabaya. Developing spread and prediction system to minimize dengue fever epidemic is necessary to be conducted immediately. Spread and prediction system can improve eradication and prevention accuracy. The transmission dynamics vector simulation will be used as an approach to draw a complex system ofmosquito life cycle in which involve a lot offactors. Dynamics transmission model used to build model in mosquito model (oviposition rate and pre adult mosquito, infected and death cases in dengue fever. The model of mosquito and infected population can represent system. The output of this research is website of spread and prediction system of dengue fever epidemics to predict growth rate of Aedes Aegypti mosquito, infected, and death population because of dengue fever epidemics. The deviation of infected population is 0,519. The model of death cases in dengue fever is less precision with the deviation 1,229. Death cases model need improvement by adding some variables that influence to dengue fever death cases. Spread ofdengue fever prediction will help the government, health department to decide the best policies in minimizing the spread ofdengue fever epidemics.
D.R. Weise; E. Koo; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam
2011-01-01
Observed fire spread rates from 240 laboratory fires in horizontally-oriented single-species live fuel beds were compared to predictions from various implementations and modifications of the Rothermel rate of spread model and a physical fire spread model developed by Pagni and Koo. Packing ratio of the laboratory fuel beds was generally greater than that observed in...
Investigating models for associating fluids using spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Passos, Claudia Pereira
2005-01-01
on the way the parameters were obtained. The selection of appropriate association schemes is also investigated using spectroscopic data. For pure water a four-site scheme is shown to be the most appropriate scheme. In the case of pure alcohols, a three-site scheme is best for methanol; two- or three......Two equations of state (PC-SAFT and CPA) are used to predict the monomer fraction of pure associating fluids. The models each require five pure-component parameters usually obtained by fitting to experimental liquid density and vapor pressure data. Here we also incorporate monomer fractions...
Direct modeling for computational fluid dynamics
Xu, Kun
2015-06-01
All fluid dynamic equations are valid under their modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path and mean collision time scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) focuses on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and its aim is to get the accurate solution of these governing equations. Under such a CFD practice, it is hard to develop a unified scheme that covers flow physics from kinetic to hydrodynamic scales continuously because there is no such governing equation which could make a smooth transition from the Boltzmann to the NS modeling. The study of fluid dynamics needs to go beyond the traditional numerical partial differential equations. The emerging engineering applications, such as air-vehicle design for near-space flight and flow and heat transfer in micro-devices, do require further expansion of the concept of gas dynamics to a larger domain of physical reality, rather than the traditional distinguishable governing equations. At the current stage, the non-equilibrium flow physics has not yet been well explored or clearly understood due to the lack of appropriate tools. Unfortunately, under the current numerical PDE approach, it is hard to develop such a meaningful tool due to the absence of valid PDEs. In order to construct multiscale and multiphysics simulation methods similar to the modeling process of constructing the Boltzmann or the NS governing equations, the development of a numerical algorithm should be based on the first principle of physical modeling. In this paper, instead of following the traditional numerical PDE path, we introduce direct modeling as a principle for CFD algorithm development. Since all computations are conducted in a discretized space with limited cell resolution, the flow physics to be modeled has to be done in the mesh size and time step scales. Here, the CFD is more or less a direct
Modeling the effects of social impact on epidemic spreading in complex networks
Ni, Shunjiang; Weng, Wenguo; Zhang, Hui
2011-11-01
We investigate by mean-field analysis and extensive simulations the effects of social impact on epidemic spreading in various typical networks with two types of nodes: active nodes and passive nodes, of which the behavior patterns are modeled according to the social impact theory. In this study, nodes are not only the media to spread the virus, but also disseminate their opinions on the virus-whether there is a need for certain self-protection measures to be taken to reduce the risk of being infected. Our results indicate that the interaction between epidemic spreading and opinion dynamics can have significant influences on the spreading of infectious diseases and related applications, such as the implementation of prevention and control measures against the infectious diseases.
Electrorheological fluids modeling and mathematical theory
Růžička, Michael
2000-01-01
This is the first book to present a model, based on rational mechanics of electrorheological fluids, that takes into account the complex interactions between the electromagnetic fields and the moving liquid. Several constitutive relations for the Cauchy stress tensor are discussed. The main part of the book is devoted to a mathematical investigation of a model possessing shear-dependent viscosities, proving the existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions for the steady and the unsteady case. The PDS systems investigated possess so-called non-standard growth conditions. Existence results for elliptic systems with non-standard growth conditions and with a nontrivial nonlinear r.h.s. and the first ever results for parabolic systems with a non-standard growth conditions are given for the first time. Written for advanced graduate students, as well as for researchers in the field, the discussion of both the modeling and the mathematics is self-contained.
Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures
Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.
2014-01-01
The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures. PMID:24704874
AFDM: An Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohl, W.R.; Parker, F.R.; Wilhelm, D.; Goutagny, L.; Ninokata, H.
1990-09-01
AFDM, or the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model, is a computer code that investigates new approaches simulating the multiphase-flow fluid-dynamics aspects of severe accidents in fast reactors. The AFDM formalism starts with differential equations similar to those in the SIMMER-II code. These equations are modified to treat three velocity fields and supplemented with a variety of new models. The AFDM code has 12 topologies describing what material contacts are possible depending on the presence or absence of a given material in a computational cell, on the dominant liquid, and on the continuous phase. Single-phase, bubbly, churn-turbulent, cellular, and dispersed flow regimes are permitted for the pool situations modeled. Virtual mass terms are included for vapor in liquid-continuous flow. Interfacial areas between the continuous and discontinuous phases are convected to allow some tracking of phenomenological histories. Interfacial areas are also modified by models of nucleation, dynamic forces, turbulence, flashing, coalescence, and mass transfer. Heat transfer is generally treated using engineering correlations. Liquid-vapor phase transitions are handled with the nonequilibrium, heat-transfer-limited model, whereas melting and freezing processes are based on equilibrium considerations. Convection is treated using a fractional-step method of time integration, including a semi-implicit pressure iteration. A higher-order differencing option is provided to control numerical diffusion. The Los Alamos SESAME equation-of-state has been implemented using densities and temperatures as the independent variables. AFDM programming has vectorized all computational loops consistent with the objective of producing an exportable code. 24 refs., 4 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Wang
Full Text Available Fluid-structural coupling occurs when microcantilever sensors vibrate in a fluid. Due to the complexity of the mechanical characteristics of microcantilevers and lack of high-precision microscopic mechanical testing instruments, effective methods for studying the fluid-structural coupling of microcantilevers are lacking, especially for non-rectangular microcantilevers. Here, we report fluid-structure interactions (FSI of the cable-membrane structure via a macroscopic study. The simplified aeroelastic model was introduced into the microscopic field to establish a fluid-structure coupling vibration model for microcantilever sensors. We used the finite element method to solve the coupled FSI system. Based on the simplified aeroelastic model, simulation analysis of the effects of the air environment on the vibration of the commonly used rectangular microcantilever was also performed. The obtained results are consistent with the literature. The proposed model can also be applied to the auxiliary design of rectangular and non-rectangular sensors used in fluid environments.
Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases
Barrios, J.M.; Verstraeten, W.W.; Maes, P.; Aerts, J.; Farifteh, J.; Coppin, P.
2012-01-01
The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the
Comparing fire spread algorithms using equivalence testing and neutral landscape models
Brian R. Miranda; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jian Yang; Eric J. Gustafson
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a method to evaluate the degree to which a meta-model approximates spatial disturbance processes represented by a more detailed model across a range of landscape conditions, using neutral landscapes and equivalence testing. We illustrate this approach by comparing burn patterns produced by a relatively simple fire spread algorithm with those generated by...
Evaluating crown fire rate of spread predictions from physics-based models
C. M. Hoffman; J. Ziegler; J. Canfield; R. R. Linn; W. Mell; C. H. Sieg; F. Pimont
2015-01-01
Modeling the behavior of crown fires is challenging due to the complex set of coupled processes that drive the characteristics of a spreading wildfire and the large range of spatial and temporal scales over which these processes occur. Detailed physics-based modeling approaches such as FIRETEC and the Wildland Urban Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator (WFDS) simulate...
Modelling non-dust fluids in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christopherson, Adam J.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Malik, Karim A.
2013-01-01
Currently, most of the numerical simulations of structure formation use Newtonian gravity. When modelling pressureless dark matter, or 'dust', this approach gives the correct results for scales much smaller than the cosmological horizon, but for scenarios in which the fluid has pressure this is no longer the case. In this article, we present the correspondence of perturbations in Newtonian and cosmological perturbation theory, showing exact mathematical equivalence for pressureless matter, and giving the relativistic corrections for matter with pressure. As an example, we study the case of scalar field dark matter which features non-zero pressure perturbations. We discuss some problems which may arise when evolving the perturbations in this model with Newtonian numerical simulations and with CMB Boltzmann codes
Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faille I.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.
AFDM: An advanced fluid-dynamics model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henneges, G.; Kleinheins, S.
1994-01-01
This volume of the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) documents the modeling of the equation of state (EOS) in the code. The authors present an overview of the basic concepts underlying the thermodynamics modeling and resulting EOS, which is a set of relations between the thermodynamic properties of materials. The AFDM code allows for multiphase-multimaterial systems, which they explore in three phase models: two-material solid, two-material liquid, and three-material vapor. They describe and compare two ways of specifying the EOS of materials: (1) as simplified analytic expressions, or (2) as tables that precisely describe the properties of materials and their interactions for mechanical equilibrium. Either of the two EOS models implemented in AFDM can be selected by specifying the option when preprocessing the source code for compilation. Last, the authors determine thermophysical properties such as surface tension, thermal conductivities, and viscosities in the model for the intracell exchanges of AFDM. Specific notations, routines, EOS data, plots, test results, and corrections to the code are available in the appendices
Modelling the influence of human behaviour on the spread of infectious diseases: a review.
Funk, Sebastian; Salathé, Marcel; Jansen, Vincent A A
2010-09-06
Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour on the spread of diseases can be key to improving control efforts. While behavioural responses to the spread of a disease have often been reported anecdotally, there has been relatively little systematic investigation into how behavioural changes can affect disease dynamics. Mathematical models for the spread of infectious diseases are an important tool for investigating and quantifying such effects, not least because the spread of a disease among humans is not amenable to direct experimental study. Here, we review recent efforts to incorporate human behaviour into disease models, and propose that such models can be broadly classified according to the type and source of information which individuals are assumed to base their behaviour on, and according to the assumed effects of such behaviour. We highlight recent advances as well as gaps in our understanding of the interplay between infectious disease dynamics and human behaviour, and suggest what kind of data taking efforts would be helpful in filling these gaps.
Modelling indirect interactions during failure spreading in a project activity network.
Ellinas, Christos
2018-03-12
Spreading broadly refers to the notion of an entity propagating throughout a networked system via its interacting components. Evidence of its ubiquity and severity can be seen in a range of phenomena, from disease epidemics to financial systemic risk. In order to understand the dynamics of these critical phenomena, computational models map the probability of propagation as a function of direct exposure, typically in the form of pairwise interactions between components. By doing so, the important role of indirect interactions remains unexplored. In response, we develop a simple model that accounts for the effect of both direct and subsequent exposure, which we deploy in the novel context of failure propagation within a real-world engineering project. We show that subsequent exposure has a significant effect in key aspects, including the: (a) final spreading event size, (b) propagation rate, and (c) spreading event structure. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of 'hidden influentials' in large-scale spreading events, and evaluate the role of direct and subsequent exposure in their emergence. Given the evidence of the importance of subsequent exposure, our findings offer new insight on particular aspects that need to be included when modelling network dynamics in general, and spreading processes specifically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deque, M.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, CNRS/GAME, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Sanchez-Gomez, E. [Cerfacs/CNRS, SUC URA1875, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Goodess, C.M. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom); Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Lenderink, G. [KNMI, Postbus 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Christensen, O.B. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)
2012-03-15
Various combinations of thirteen regional climate models (RCM) and six general circulation models (GCM) were used in FP6-ENSEMBLES. The response to the SRES-A1B greenhouse gas concentration scenario over Europe, calculated as the difference between the 2021-2050 and the 1961-1990 means can be viewed as an expected value about which various uncertainties exist. Uncertainties are measured here by variance explained for temperature and precipitation changes over eight European sub-areas. Three sources of uncertainty can be evaluated from the ENSEMBLES database. Sampling uncertainty is due to the fact that the model climate is estimated as an average over a finite number of years (30) despite a non-negligible interannual variability. Regional model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs use different techniques to discretize the equations and to represent sub-grid effects. Global model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs have been driven by different GCMs. Two methods are presented to fill the many empty cells of the ENSEMBLES RCM x GCM matrix. The first one is based on the same approach as in FP5-PRUDENCE. The second one uses the concept of weather regimes to attempt to separate the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The variance of the climate response is analyzed with respect to the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The two filling methods agree that the main contributor to the spread is the choice of the GCM, except for summer precipitation where the choice of the RCM dominates the uncertainty. Of course the implication of the GCM to the spread varies with the region, being maximum in the South-western part of Europe, whereas the continental parts are more sensitive to the choice of the RCM. The third cause of spread is systematically the interannual variability. The total uncertainty about temperature is not large enough to mask the 2021-2050 response which shows a similar pattern to the one obtained for 2071-2100 in PRUDENCE. The uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buon, J.
1988-10-01
A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of isolated spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA and LEP, at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings
A metapopulation model for the spread of MRSA in correctional facilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc Beauparlant
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The spread of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in health-care settings has become increasingly difficult to control and has since been able to spread in the general community. The prevalence of MRSA within the general public has caused outbreaks in groups of people in close quarters such as military barracks, gyms, daycare centres and correctional facilities. Correctional facilities are of particular importance for spreading MRSA, as inmates are often in close proximity and have limited access to hygienic products and clean clothing. Although these conditions are ideal for spreading MRSA, a recent study has suggested that recurrent epidemics are caused by the influx of colonized or infected individuals into the correctional facility. In this paper, we further investigate the effects of community dynamics on the spread of MRSA within the correctional facility and determine whether recidivism has a significant effect on disease dynamics. Using a simplified hotspot model ignoring disease dynamics within the correctional facility, as well as two metapopulation models, we demonstrate that outbreaks in correctional facilities can be driven by community dynamics even when spread between inmates is restricted. We also show that disease dynamics within the correctional facility and their effect on the outlying community may be ignored due to the smaller size of the incarcerated population. This will allow construction of simpler models that consider the effects of many MRSA hotspots interacting with the general community. It is suspected that the cumulative effects of hotspots for MRSA would have a stronger feedback effect in other community settings. Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, hotspots, mathematical model, metapopulation model, Latin Hypercube Sampling
AIR INGRESS ANALYSIS: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC MODELS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; Hans Gougar; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang
2010-08-01
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have ranked an air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as important with regard to core safety. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor through the break, possibly causing oxidation of the in-the core and reflector graphite structure. Simple core and plant models indicate that, under certain circumstances, the oxidation may proceed at an elevated rate with additional heat generated from the oxidation reaction itself. Under postulated conditions of fluid flow and temperature, excessive degradation of the lower plenum graphite can lead to a loss of structural support. Excessive oxidation of core graphite can also lead to the release of fission products into the confinement, which could be detrimental to a reactor safety. Computational fluid dynamic model developed in this study will improve our understanding of this phenomenon. This paper presents two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD results for the quantitative assessment of the air ingress phenomena. A portion of results of the density-driven stratified flow in the inlet pipe will be compared with results of the experimental results.
Roques-Carmes, Thibault; Mathieu, Vincent; Gigante, Alexandra
2010-04-01
The dynamics of drop spreading of glycerol-water mixtures with and without surfactant on hydrophilic glass surfaces has been investigated. The influence of different factors, such as viscosity, drop volume and non-ionic alkyl (8-16) glucoside (Plantacare) surfactant concentration on the number and the nature of the spreading regimes is systematically investigated. More than 25 spreading experiments have been performed in order to obtain clear trends. The results confirm the existence of several spreading regimes for the duration of an experiment (200 s). For each regime, the radius can be expressed by a power law of the form R=Kt(n). Both n and K are necessary to identify the regime. The experimental data are compared with the analytical predictions of the combined theory of spreading. One of the main results of this study is that the nature of the regimes is strongly affected by the drop volume, the viscosity and the surfactant concentration. This behavior is not predicted by the theory. For drop volume less than or equal to 15 microL, a succession of two different regimes which depend on the viscosity and surfactant concentration are observed in the following order: a molecular-kinetic regime followed by a hydrodynamic regime (for high viscosity in the presence of surfactant) or a hydrodynamic regime and lastly a final asymptotic regime corresponding to a long relaxation time to equilibrium (for high viscosity in absence of surfactant and for low viscosity regardless of the presence of surfactant). The spreading follows quantitatively the predictions of the theory. Our results demonstrate that the theory is still valid for low viscosity liquids and in the presence of surfactant. The contact angle for which the crossover between molecular-kinetic regime and hydrodynamic regime occurs is thoroughly estimated since the theories do not allow the exact calculation of this value. Here for the first time, an empirical power law exponent (n=0.08+/-0.05) is proposed for
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis ...
Journal Article Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Four different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Despite the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways of the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. This greater deposition of spores in the upper airways in the human resulted in lower penetration and deposition in the tracheobronchial airways and the deep lung than that predict
Kwon, Sungchul; Kim, Yup
2013-01-01
We investigate epidemic spreading in annealed directed scale-free networks with the in-degree (k) distribution P(in)(k)~k(-γ(in)) and the out-degree (ℓ) distribution, P(out)(ℓ)~ℓ(-γ(out)). The correlation of each node on the networks is controlled by the probability r(0≤r≤1) in two different algorithms, the so-called k and ℓ algorithms. For r=1, the k algorithm gives =, whereas the ℓ algorithm gives =. For r=0, = for both algorithms. As the prototype of epidemic spreading, the susceptible-infected-susceptible model and contact process on the networks are analyzed using the heterogeneous mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The directedness of links and the correlation of the network are found to play important roles in the spreading, so that critical behaviors of both models are distinct from those on undirected scale-free networks.
Dependence of credit spread and macro-conditions based on an alterable structure model
2018-01-01
The fat-tail financial data and cyclical financial market makes it difficult for the fixed structure model based on Gaussian distribution to characterize the dynamics of corporate bonds spreads. Using a flexible structure model based on generalized error distribution, this paper focuses on the impact of macro-level factors on the spreads of corporate bonds in China. It is found that in China's corporate bonds market, macroeconomic conditions have obvious structural transformational effects on bonds spreads, and their structural features remain stable with the downgrade of bonds ratings. The impact of macroeconomic conditions on spreads is significant for different structures, and the differences between the structures increase as ratings decline. For different structures, the persistent characteristics of bonds spreads are obviously stronger than those of recursive ones, which suggest an obvious speculation in bonds market. It is also found that the structure switching of bonds with different ratings is not synchronous, which indicates the shift of investment between different grades of bonds. PMID:29723295
Dependence of credit spread and macro-conditions based on an alterable structure model.
Xie, Yun; Tian, Yixiang; Xiao, Zhuang; Zhou, Xiangyun
2018-01-01
The fat-tail financial data and cyclical financial market makes it difficult for the fixed structure model based on Gaussian distribution to characterize the dynamics of corporate bonds spreads. Using a flexible structure model based on generalized error distribution, this paper focuses on the impact of macro-level factors on the spreads of corporate bonds in China. It is found that in China's corporate bonds market, macroeconomic conditions have obvious structural transformational effects on bonds spreads, and their structural features remain stable with the downgrade of bonds ratings. The impact of macroeconomic conditions on spreads is significant for different structures, and the differences between the structures increase as ratings decline. For different structures, the persistent characteristics of bonds spreads are obviously stronger than those of recursive ones, which suggest an obvious speculation in bonds market. It is also found that the structure switching of bonds with different ratings is not synchronous, which indicates the shift of investment between different grades of bonds.
The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance.
Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang
2016-01-01
In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors' influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of consumer rights protection and the level of legal protection of consumer rights on the risk spread of food safety. This model contributes to the explicit investigation of the influence relationship among supply-demand factors, the regulation behavioral choice of government, the behavioral choice of food supply chain members and food safety risk spread. And this paper provides a new viewpoint for considering food safety risk spread in the food supply chain, which has a great reference for food safety management.
Evaluation of spatio-temporal Bayesian models for the spread of infectious diseases in oil palm.
Denis, Marie; Cochard, Benoît; Syahputra, Indra; de Franqueville, Hubert; Tisné, Sébastien
2018-02-01
In the field of epidemiology, studies are often focused on mapping diseases in relation to time and space. Hierarchical modeling is a common flexible and effective tool for modeling problems related to disease spread. In the context of oil palm plantations infected by the fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense, we propose and compare two spatio-temporal hierarchical Bayesian models addressing the lack of information on propagation modes and transmission vectors. We investigate two alternative process models to study the unobserved mechanism driving the infection process. The models help gain insight into the spatio-temporal dynamic of the infection by identifying a genetic component in the disease spread and by highlighting a spatial component acting at the end of the experiment. In this challenging context, we propose models that provide assumptions on the unobserved mechanism driving the infection process while making short-term predictions using ready-to-use software. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Going Multi-viral: Synthedemic Modelling of Internet-based Spreading Phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marily Nika
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Epidemics of a biological and technological nature pervade modern life. For centuries, scientific research focused on biological epidemics, with simple compartmental epidemiological models emerging as the dominant explanatory paradigm. Yet there has been limited translation of this effort to explain internet-based spreading phenomena. Indeed, single-epidemic models are inadequate to explain the multimodal nature of complex phenomena. In this paper we propose a novel paradigm for modelling internet-based spreading phenomena based on the composition of multiple compartmental epidemiological models. Our approach is inspired by Fourier analysis, but rather than trigonometric wave forms, our components are compartmental epidemiological models. We show results on simulated multiple epidemic data, swine flu data and BitTorrent downloads of a popular music artist. Our technique can characterise these multimodal data sets utilising a parsimonous number of subepidemic models.
Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling of Fluid-Induced Seismicity
Broccardo, M.; Mignan, A.; Wiemer, S.; Stojadinovic, B.; Giardini, D.
2017-11-01
In this study, we present a Bayesian hierarchical framework to model fluid-induced seismicity. The framework is based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with a fluid-induced seismicity rate proportional to the rate of injected fluid. The fluid-induced seismicity rate model depends upon a set of physically meaningful parameters and has been validated for six fluid-induced case studies. In line with the vision of hierarchical Bayesian modeling, the rate parameters are considered as random variables. We develop both the Bayesian inference and updating rules, which are used to develop a probabilistic forecasting model. We tested the Basel 2006 fluid-induced seismic case study to prove that the hierarchical Bayesian model offers a suitable framework to coherently encode both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability. Moreover, it provides a robust and consistent short-term seismic forecasting model suitable for online risk quantification and mitigation.
How Crime Spreads Through Imitation in Social Networks: A Simulation Model
Punzo, Valentina
In this chapter an agent-based model for investigating how crime spreads through social networks is presented. Some theoretical issues related to the sociological explanation of crime are tested through simulation. The agent-based simulation allows us to investigate the relative impact of some mechanisms of social influence on crime, within a set of controlled simulated experiments.
Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases
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Jean-Marie Aerts
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.
The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance
Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang
2016-01-01
In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors? influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of c...
Spread of Ebola disease with susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIhR) model
Azizah, Afina; Widyaningsih, Purnami; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi
2017-06-01
Ebola is a deadly infectious disease and has caused an epidemic on several countries in West Africa. Mathematical modeling to study the spread of Ebola disease has been developed, including through models susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR). Furthermore, susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIhR) model has been derived. The aims of this research are to derive SEIIhR model for Ebola disease, to determine the patterns of its spread, to determine the equilibrium point and stability of the equilibrium point using phase plane analysis, and also to apply the SEIIhR model on Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone in 2014. The SEIIhR model is a differential equation system. Pattern of ebola disease spread with SEIIhR model is solution of the differential equation system. The equilibrium point of SEIIhR model is unique and it is a disease-free equilibrium point that stable. Application of the model is based on the data Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. The free-disease equilibrium point (Se; Ee; Ie; Ihe; Re )=(5743865, 0, 0, 0, 0) is stable.
Spread of Ebola disease with susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIhR) model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azizah, Afina; Widyaningsih, Purnami; Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari
2017-01-01
Ebola is a deadly infectious disease and has caused an epidemic on several countries in West Africa. Mathematical modeling to study the spread of Ebola disease has been developed, including through models susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR). Furthermore, susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEII h R) model has been derived. The aims of this research are to derive SEII h R model for Ebola disease, to determine the patterns of its spread, to determine the equilibrium point and stability of the equilibrium point using phase plane analysis, and also to apply the SEII h R model on Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone in 2014. The SEII h R model is a differential equation system. Pattern of ebola disease spread with SEII h R model is solution of the differential equation system. The equilibrium point of SEII h R model is unique and it is a disease-free equilibrium point that stable. Application of the model is based on the data Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. The free-disease equilibrium point ( S e ; E e ; I e ; I he ; R e )=(5743865, 0, 0, 0, 0) is stable. (paper)
An interplay model for authorities' actions and rumor spreading in emergency event
Huo, Liang-an; Huang, Peiqing; Fang, Xing
2011-10-01
Rumor spreading influences how rational individuals assess risks and evaluate needs, especially, it affects authorities to make decisions in an emergency-affected environments. Conversely, authorities' response to emergency will induct public opinions as well. In this paper, we present a simple model to describe the interplay between rumor spreading and authorities' actions in emergency situation based on utility theory. By drawing from differential equations we found that it is possible to minimize negative social utility of rumor spreading in the control of situation. At the same time, authorities' proactive actions can improve rumor management in emergency situation and yield positive social utility. Finally, we outline strategies for authorities that can contribute to rumor management in an emergency event.
A Lagrangian particle model to predict the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus
Mayer, D.; Reiczigel, J.; Rubel, F.
Airborne spread of bioaerosols in the boundary layer over a complex terrain is simulated using a Lagrangian particle model, and applied to modelling the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Two case studies are made with study domains located in a hilly region in the northwest of the Styrian capital Graz, the second largest town in Austria. Mountainous terrain as well as inhomogeneous and time varying meteorological conditions prevent from application of so far used Gaussian dispersion models, while the proposed model can handle these realistically. In the model, trajectories of several thousands of particles are computed and the distribution of virus concentration near the ground is calculated. This allows to assess risk of infection areas with respect to animal species of interest, such as cattle, swine or sheep. Meteorological input data like wind field and other variables necessary to compute turbulence were taken from the new pre-operational version of the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model LMK ( Lokal-Modell-Kürzestfrist) running at the German weather service DWD ( Deutscher Wetterdienst). The LMK model provides meteorological parameters with a spatial resolution of about 2.8 km. To account for the spatial resolution of 400 m used by the Lagrangian particle model, the initial wind field is interpolated upon the finer grid by a mass consistent interpolation method. Case studies depict a significant influence of local wind systems on the spread of virus. Higher virus concentrations at the upwind side of the hills and marginal concentrations in the lee are well observable, as well as canalization effects by valleys. The study demonstrates that the Lagrangian particle model is an appropriate tool for risk assessment of airborne spread of virus by taking into account the realistic orographic and meteorological conditions.
Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies
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Dondorp Arjen M
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria-endemic countries are implementing a change in anti-malarial drug policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. The impact of different drug choices and implementation strategies is uncertain. Data from many epidemiological studies in different levels of malaria endemicity and in areas with the highest prevalence of drug resistance like borders of Thailand are certainly valuable. Formulating an appropriate dynamic data-driven model is a powerful predictive tool for exploring the impact of these strategies quantitatively. Methods A comprehensive model was constructed incorporating important epidemiological and biological factors of human, mosquito, parasite and treatment. The iterative process of developing the model, identifying data needed, and parameterization has been taken to strongly link the model to the empirical evidence. The model provides quantitative measures of outcomes, such as malaria prevalence/incidence and treatment failure, and illustrates the spread of resistance in low and high transmission settings. The model was used to evaluate different anti-malarial policy options focusing on ACT deployment. Results The model predicts robustly that in low transmission settings drug resistance spreads faster than in high transmission settings, and treatment failure is the main force driving the spread of drug resistance. In low transmission settings, ACT slows the spread of drug resistance to a partner drug, especially at high coverage rates. This effect decreases exponentially with increasing delay in deploying the ACT and decreasing rates of coverage. In the high transmission settings, however, drug resistance is driven by the proportion of the human population with a residual drug level, which gives resistant parasites some survival advantage. The spread of drug resistance could be slowed down by controlling presumptive drug use and avoiding the use of combination therapies containing drugs with
Generalized reduced fluid model with finite ion-gyroradius effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, C.T.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-04-01
Reduced fluid models have become important tools for studying the nonlinear dynamics of plasma in a large aspect-ratio tokamak. A self-consistent nonlinear reduced fluid model, with finite ion-gyroradius effects is presented. The model is distinctive in allowing for arbitrary beta and in satisfying an exact, relatively simple energy conservation law
Spreading Speed, Traveling Waves, and Minimal Domain Size in Impulsive Reaction–Diffusion Models
Lewis, Mark A.
2012-08-15
How growth, mortality, and dispersal in a species affect the species\\' spread and persistence constitutes a central problem in spatial ecology. We propose impulsive reaction-diffusion equation models for species with distinct reproductive and dispersal stages. These models can describe a seasonal birth pulse plus nonlinear mortality and dispersal throughout the year. Alternatively, they can describe seasonal harvesting, plus nonlinear birth and mortality as well as dispersal throughout the year. The population dynamics in the seasonal pulse is described by a discrete map that gives the density of the population at the end of a pulse as a possibly nonmonotone function of the density of the population at the beginning of the pulse. The dynamics in the dispersal stage is governed by a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation in a bounded or unbounded domain. We develop a spatially explicit theoretical framework that links species vital rates (mortality or fecundity) and dispersal characteristics with species\\' spreading speeds, traveling wave speeds, as well as minimal domain size for species persistence. We provide an explicit formula for the spreading speed in terms of model parameters, and show that the spreading speed can be characterized as the slowest speed of a class of traveling wave solutions. We also give an explicit formula for the minimal domain size using model parameters. Our results show how the diffusion coefficient, and the combination of discrete- and continuous-time growth and mortality determine the spread and persistence dynamics of the population in a wide variety of ecological scenarios. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the theoretical results. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Modeling the coupled return-spread high frequency dynamics of large tick assets
Curato, Gianbiagio; Lillo, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
Large tick assets, i.e. assets where one tick movement is a significant fraction of the price and bid-ask spread is almost always equal to one tick, display a dynamics in which price changes and spread are strongly coupled. We present an approach based on the hidden Markov model, also known in econometrics as the Markov switching model, for the dynamics of price changes, where the latent Markov process is described by the transitions between spreads. We then use a finite Markov mixture of logit regressions on past squared price changes to describe temporal dependencies in the dynamics of price changes. The model can thus be seen as a double chain Markov model. We show that the model describes the shape of the price change distribution at different time scales, volatility clustering, and the anomalous decrease of kurtosis. We calibrate our models based on Nasdaq stocks and we show that this model reproduces remarkably well the statistical properties of real data.
Model simulations of the drift and spread of the Exxon Valdez oil spill
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkatesh, S.
1990-01-01
In this paper the drift and spread of the Exxon-Valdez oil spill that occurred on March 24, 1989 are simulated using a modified version of the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service oil spill behavior model. The model simulations show that the movement of the oil out of Prince William Sound and beyond is sensitive to the wind/ocean currents taken into account is three to four times that with either wind or ocean currents only. While 12-day drift of the spill containing the higher concentrations of oil parcels is in very good agreement with observations, model simulations show the presence of oil further to the south, albeit in lower concentrations. The lateral spread of the oil is also very well simulated by the model
Practical guidelines for modelling post-entry spread in invasion ecology
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Hazel Parry
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this article we review a variety of methods to enable understanding and modelling the spread of a pest or pathogen post-entry. Building upon our experience of multidisciplinary research in this area, we propose practical guidelines and a framework for model development, to help with the application of mathematical modelling in the field of invasion ecology for post-entry spread. We evaluate the pros and cons of a range of methods, including references to examples of the methods in practice. We also show how issues of data deficiency and uncertainty can be addressed. The aim is to provide guidance to the reader on the most suitable elements to include in a model of post-entry dispersal in a risk assessment, under differing circumstances. We identify both the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and their application as part of a holistic, multidisciplinary approach to biosecurity research.
Tribodynamic Modeling of Digital Fluid Power Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per
. In fluid power motoring and pumping units, a significant problem is that loss mechanisms do not scale down with diminishing power throughput. Although machines can reach peak efficiencies above 95%, the actual efficiency during operation, which includes part-load situations, is much lower. The invention...... of digital fluid power displacement units has been able to address this problem. The main idea of the digital fluid power displacement technology is to disable individual chambers, by use of electrical actuated valves. A displacement chamber is disabled by keeping the valve, between the chamber and the low...... design methods and tools are important to the development of digital fluid power machines. The work presented in this dissertation is part of a research program focusing on the development of digital fluid power MW-motors for use in hydraulic drive train in wind turbines. As part of this development...
Analytical solution of a stochastic model of risk spreading with global coupling
Morita, Satoru; Yoshimura, Jin
2013-11-01
We study a stochastic matrix model to understand the mechanics of risk spreading (or bet hedging) by dispersion. Up to now, this model has been mostly dealt with numerically, except for the well-mixed case. Here, we present an analytical result that shows that optimal dispersion leads to Zipf's law. Moreover, we found that the arithmetic ensemble average of the total growth rate converges to the geometric one, because the sample size is finite.
Traveling waves and spreading speed on a lattice model with age structure
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Zongyi Wang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study a lattice differential model for a single species with distributed age-structure in an infinite patchy environment. Using method of approaches by Diekmann and Thieme, we develop a comparison principle and construct a suitable sub-solution to the given model, and show that there exists a spreading speed of the system which in fact coincides with the minimal wave speed.
The SIS Model of Epidemic Spreading in a Hierarchical Social Network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabowski, A.; Kosinski, R.A.
2005-01-01
The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a population with a hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions is described and investigated numerically. The SIS model with temporal immunity to a disease and a time of incubation is used. In our model spatial localization of individuals belonging to different social groups, effectiveness of different interpersonal interactions and the mobility of a contemporary community are taken into account. The structure of interpersonal connections is based on a scale-free network. The influence of the structure of the social network on typical relations characterizing the spreading process, like a range of epidemic and epidemic curves, is discussed. The probability that endemic state occurs is also calculated. Surprisingly it occurs, that less contagious diseases has greater chance to survive. The influence of preventive vaccinations on the spreading process is investigated and critical range of vaccinations that is sufficient for the suppression of an epidemic is calculated. Our results of numerical calculations are compared with the solutions of the master equation for the spreading process, and good agreement is found. (author)
Turing-like structures in a functional model of cortical spreading depression
Verisokin, A. Yu.; Verveyko, D. V.; Postnov, D. E.
2017-12-01
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) along with migraine waves and spreading depolarization events with stroke or injures are the front-line examples of extreme physiological behaviors of the brain cortex which manifest themselves via the onset and spreading of localized areas of neuronal hyperactivity followed by their depression. While much is known about the physiological pathways involved, the dynamical mechanisms of the formation and evolution of complex spatiotemporal patterns during CSD are still poorly understood, in spite of the number of modeling studies that have been already performed. Recently we have proposed a relatively simple mathematical model of cortical spreading depression which counts the effects of neurovascular coupling and cerebral blood flow redistribution during CSD. In the present study, we address the main dynamical consequences of newly included pathways, namely, the changes in the formation and propagation speed of the CSD front and the pattern formation features in two dimensions. Our most notable finding is that the combination of vascular-mediated spatial coupling with local regulatory mechanisms results in the formation of stationary Turing-like patterns during a CSD event.
Rumor Spreading Model with Immunization Strategy and Delay Time on Homogeneous Networks
Wang, Jing; Wang, Ya-Qi; Li, Ming
2017-12-01
In order to prevent and control the spread of rumors, the implementation of immunization strategies for ignorant individuals is very necessary, where the immunization usually means letting them learn the truth of rumors. Considering the facts that there is always a delay time between rumor spreading and implementing immunization, and that the truth of rumors can also be spread out, this paper constructs a novel susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model. The propagation dynamical behaviors of the SIR model on homogeneous networks are investigated by using the mean-field theory and the Monte Carlo method. Research shows that the greater the delay time, the worse the immune effect of the immunization strategy. It is also found that the spread of the truth can inhibit to some extent the propagation of rumors, and the trend will become more obvious with the increase of reliability of the truth. Moreover, under the influence of delay time, the existence of nodes’ identification force still slightly reduces the propagation degree of rumors. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402531, the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China under Grant Nos. 2014JQ8358, 2015JQ6231, and 2014JQ8307, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2015M582910, and the Basic Research Foundation of Engineering University of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Force under Grant Nos. WJY201419, WJY201605 and JLX201686
Modelling the wind-borne spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus between farms.
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Amos Ssematimba
Full Text Available A quantitative understanding of the spread of contaminated farm dust between locations is a prerequisite for obtaining much-needed insight into one of the possible mechanisms of disease spread between farms. Here, we develop a model to calculate the quantity of contaminated farm-dust particles deposited at various locations downwind of a source farm and apply the model to assess the possible contribution of the wind-borne route to the transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus (HPAI during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands. The model is obtained from a Gaussian Plume Model by incorporating the dust deposition process, pathogen decay, and a model for the infection process on exposed farms. Using poultry- and avian influenza-specific parameter values we calculate the distance-dependent probability of between-farm transmission by this route. A comparison between the transmission risk pattern predicted by the model and the pattern observed during the 2003 epidemic reveals that the wind-borne route alone is insufficient to explain the observations although it could contribute substantially to the spread over short distance ranges, for example, explaining 24% of the transmission over distances up to 25 km.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shen Min
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetrohelogical fluids (MRFs represent a class of smart materials whose rheological properties change in response to the magnetic field, which resulting in the drastic change of the acoustic impedance. This paper presents an acoustic propagation model that approximates a fluid-saturated porous medium as a fluid with a bulk modulus and effective density (EDFM to study the acoustic propagation in the MRF materials under magnetic field. The effective density fluid model derived from the Biot’s theory. Some minor changes to the theory had to be applied, modeling both fluid-like and solid-like state of the MRF material. The attenuation and velocity variation of the MRF are numerical calculated. The calculated results show that for the MRF material the attenuation and velocity predicted with this effective density fluid model are close agreement with the previous predictions by Biot’s theory. We demonstrate that for the MRF material acoustic prediction the effective density fluid model is an accurate alternative to full Biot’s theory and is much simpler to implement.
A random walk evolution model of wireless sensor networks and virus spreading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ya-Qi; Yang Xiao-Yuan
2013-01-01
In this paper, considering both cluster heads and sensor nodes, we propose a novel evolving a network model based on a random walk to study the fault tolerance decrease of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to node failure, and discuss the spreading dynamic behavior of viruses in the evolution model. A theoretical analysis shows that the WSN generated by such an evolution model not only has a strong fault tolerance, but also can dynamically balance the energy loss of the entire network. It is also found that although the increase of the density of cluster heads in the network reduces the network efficiency, it can effectively inhibit the spread of viruses. In addition, the heterogeneity of the network improves the network efficiency and enhances the virus prevalence. We confirm all the theoretical results with sufficient numerical simulations. (general)
Reliability and Efficiency of Generalized Rumor Spreading Model on Complex Social Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naimi, Yaghoob; Naimi, Mohammad
2013-01-01
We introduce the generalized rumor spreading model and investigate some properties of this model on different complex social networks. Despite pervious rumor models that both the spreader-spreader (SS) and the spreader-stifler (SR) interactions have the same rate α, we define α (1) and α (2) for SS and SR interactions, respectively. The effect of variation of α (1) and α (2) on the final density of stiflers is investigated. Furthermore, the influence of the topological structure of the network in rumor spreading is studied by analyzing the behavior of several global parameters such as reliability and efficiency. Our results show that while networks with homogeneous connectivity patterns reach a higher reliability, scale-free topologies need a less time to reach a steady state with respect the rumor. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen
2015-01-01
Switching valves experience opposing fluid forces due to movement of the moving member itself, as the surrounding fluid volume must move to accommodate the movement. This movement-induced fluid force may be divided into three main components; the added mass term, the viscous term and the socalled...... history term. For general valve geometries there are no simple solution to either of these terms. During development and design of such switching valves, it is therefore, common practice to use simple models to describe the opposing fluid forces, neglecting all but the viscous term which is determined...... based on shearing areas and venting channels. For fast acting valves the opposing fluid force may retard the valve performance significantly, if appropriate measures are not taken during the valve design. Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are available to simulate the total fluid...
A Stochastic Differential Equation Model for the Spread of HIV amongst People Who Inject Drugs
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Yanfeng Liang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce stochasticity into the deterministic differential equation model for the spread of HIV amongst people who inject drugs (PWIDs studied by Greenhalgh and Hay (1997. This was based on the original model constructed by Kaplan (1989 which analyses the behaviour of HIV/AIDS amongst a population of PWIDs. We derive a stochastic differential equation (SDE for the fraction of PWIDs who are infected with HIV at time. The stochasticity is introduced using the well-known standard technique of parameter perturbation. We first prove that the resulting SDE for the fraction of infected PWIDs has a unique solution in (0, 1 provided that some infected PWIDs are initially present and next construct the conditions required for extinction and persistence. Furthermore, we show that there exists a stationary distribution for the persistence case. Simulations using realistic parameter values are then constructed to illustrate and support our theoretical results. Our results provide new insight into the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs. The results show that the introduction of stochastic noise into a model for the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs can cause the disease to die out in scenarios where deterministic models predict disease persistence.
A Stochastic Differential Equation Model for the Spread of HIV amongst People Who Inject Drugs.
Liang, Yanfeng; Greenhalgh, David; Mao, Xuerong
2016-01-01
We introduce stochasticity into the deterministic differential equation model for the spread of HIV amongst people who inject drugs (PWIDs) studied by Greenhalgh and Hay (1997). This was based on the original model constructed by Kaplan (1989) which analyses the behaviour of HIV/AIDS amongst a population of PWIDs. We derive a stochastic differential equation (SDE) for the fraction of PWIDs who are infected with HIV at time. The stochasticity is introduced using the well-known standard technique of parameter perturbation. We first prove that the resulting SDE for the fraction of infected PWIDs has a unique solution in (0, 1) provided that some infected PWIDs are initially present and next construct the conditions required for extinction and persistence. Furthermore, we show that there exists a stationary distribution for the persistence case. Simulations using realistic parameter values are then constructed to illustrate and support our theoretical results. Our results provide new insight into the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs. The results show that the introduction of stochastic noise into a model for the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs can cause the disease to die out in scenarios where deterministic models predict disease persistence.
Dynamics of epidemic spreading model with drug-resistant variation on scale-free networks
Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Zhang, Wu; Dong, Jing
2018-03-01
Considering the influence of the virus' drug-resistant variation, a novel SIVRS (susceptible-infected-variant-recovered-susceptible) epidemic spreading model with variation characteristic on scale-free networks is proposed in this paper. By using the mean-field theory, the spreading dynamics of the model is analyzed in detail. Then, the basic reproductive number R0 and equilibriums are derived. Studies show that the existence of disease-free equilibrium is determined by the basic reproductive number R0. The relationships between the basic reproductive number R0, the variation characteristic and the topology of the underlying networks are studied in detail. Furthermore, our studies prove the global stability of the disease-free equilibrium, the permanence of epidemic and the global attractivity of endemic equilibrium. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the analytical results.
Modeling the spread of vector-borne diseases on bipartite networks.
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Donal Bisanzio
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distribution of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks on mice and lizards from two independent studies are well described by a scale-free distribution compatible with an asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. The commonly used negative binomial, instead, cannot describe the right tail of the empirical distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extreme aggregation of vectors on hosts, described by the power-law decay of the degree distribution, makes the epidemic threshold decrease with the size of the network and vanish asymptotically.
Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Sokolow, Susanne H.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino
2017-10-01
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic, water-related disease that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, causing severe and chronic consequences especially among children. Here we study the spatial spread of this disease within a network of connected villages in the endemic region of the Lower Basin of the Senegal River, in Senegal. The analysis is performed by means of a spatially explicit metapopulation model that couples local-scale eco-epidemiological dynamics with spatial mechanisms related to human mobility (estimated from anonymized mobile phone records), snail dispersal and hydrological transport of schistosome larvae along the main water bodies of the region. Results show that the model produces epidemiological patterns consistent with field observations, and point out the key role of spatial connectivity on the spread of the disease. These findings underline the importance of considering different transport pathways in order to elaborate disease control strategies that can be effective within a network of connected populations.
Modelling the effect of an alternative host population on the spread of citrus Huanglongbing
d'A. Vilamiu, Raphael G.; Ternes, Sonia; Laranjeira, Francisco F.; de C. Santos, Tâmara T.
2013-10-01
The objective of this work was to model the spread of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) considering the presence of a population of alternative hosts (Murraya paniculata). We developed a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delays in the latency and incubation phases of the disease in the plants and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of HLB in Brazil. The results of numerical simulations indicate that alternative hosts should not play a crucial role on HLB dynamics considering a typical scenario for the Recôncavo Baiano region in Brazil . Also, the current policy of removing symptomatic plants every three months should not be expected to significantly hinder HLB spread.
David R. Weise; Eunmo Koo; Xiangyang Zhou; Shankar Mahalingam; Frédéric Morandini; Jacques-Henri Balbi
2016-01-01
Fire behaviour data from 240 laboratory fires in high-density live chaparral fuel beds were compared with model predictions. Logistic regression was used to develop a model to predict fire spread success in the fuel beds and linear regression was used to predict rate of spread. Predictions from the Rothermel equation and three proposed changes as well as two physically...
Modeling and control of magnetorheological fluid dampers using neural networks
Wang, D. H.; Liao, W. H.
2005-02-01
Due to the inherent nonlinear nature of magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers, one of the challenging aspects for utilizing these devices to achieve high system performance is the development of accurate models and control algorithms that can take advantage of their unique characteristics. In this paper, the direct identification and inverse dynamic modeling for MR fluid dampers using feedforward and recurrent neural networks are studied. The trained direct identification neural network model can be used to predict the damping force of the MR fluid damper on line, on the basis of the dynamic responses across the MR fluid damper and the command voltage, and the inverse dynamic neural network model can be used to generate the command voltage according to the desired damping force through supervised learning. The architectures and the learning methods of the dynamic neural network models and inverse neural network models for MR fluid dampers are presented, and some simulation results are discussed. Finally, the trained neural network models are applied to predict and control the damping force of the MR fluid damper. Moreover, validation methods for the neural network models developed are proposed and used to evaluate their performance. Validation results with different data sets indicate that the proposed direct identification dynamic model using the recurrent neural network can be used to predict the damping force accurately and the inverse identification dynamic model using the recurrent neural network can act as a damper controller to generate the command voltage when the MR fluid damper is used in a semi-active mode.
Inderbitzen, K. E.; Wheat, C. G.; Baker, P. A.; Fisher, A. T.
2014-12-01
Currently, fluid circulation patterns and the evolution of rock/fluid compositions as circulation occurs in subseafloor hydrothermal systems are poorly constrained. Sedimented spreading centers provide a unique opportunity to study subsurface flow because sediment acts as an insulating blanket that traps heat from the cooling magma body and limits: (a) potential flow paths for seawater to recharge the aquifer in permeable upper basaltic basement and (b) points of altered fluid egress. This also allows for a range of thermal and geochemical gradients to exist near the sediment-water interface. Models of fluid circulation patterns in this type of hydrologic setting have been generated (eg. Stein and Fisher, 2001); however fluid chemistry datasets have not previously been used to test the model's viability. We address this issue by integrating the existing circulation model with fluid compositional data collected from sediment pore waters and high temperature hydrothermal vents located in Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Middle Valley hosts a variety of hydrologic regimes: including areas of fluid recharge (Site 855), active venting (Site 858/1036; Dead Dog vent field), recent venting (Site 856/1035; Bent Hill Massive Sulfide deposit) and a section of heavily sedimented basement located between recharge and discharge sites (Site 857). We will present new results based on thermal and geochemical data from the area of active venting (Sites 858 and 1036), that was collected during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 139 and 169 and a subsequent heat flow/gravity coring effort. These results illuminate fine scale controls on secondary recharge and fluid flow within the sediment section at Site 858/1036. The current status of high temperature vents in this area (based on observations made in July, 2014) will also be outlined.
Introduction to fluid model for RHIC heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muraya, Shin
2007-01-01
An introductory review of the fluid model which has been looked upon as the promising phenomenological model for the heavy ion scattering experiments at RHIC is presented here. Subjects are especially focused on the fundamental assumptions of the model and the decision process of the phenomenological parameters considering newcomers to hadron physics. Introduction of thermodynamical quantities, 1+1 dimension model, time-space evolution of fluid, correspondence of fluid to particles, initial condition, boundary condition and comparison of the equation of state of fluid model and that of hadron model are described. Limitation of fluid picture and the validity of the model are discussed finally. It is summarized that the present fluid model does not predict much about results in advance but gives interpretation after the event, nevertheless it reproduces much of the experimental results in natural form. It is expected that the parameter of the fluid model is to be used as the intermediate theory to relate experimental results with theory. (S. Funahashi)
A discrete force allocation algorithm for modelling wind turbines in computational fluid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Sørensen, Niels N.
2012-01-01
at the position of the wind turbine rotor to estimate correctly the power production and the rotor loading. The method proposed in this paper solves this issue by spreading the force on the direct neighbouring cells and applying an equivalent pressure jump at the cell faces. This can potentially open......This paper describes an algorithm for allocating discrete forces in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Discrete forces are useful in wind energy CFD. They are used as an approximation of the wind turbine blades’ action on the wind (actuator disc/line), to model forests and to model turbulent...
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-04-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus
Pandey, S. K.; Tripathi, Dharmendra
2011-01-01
This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis N...
Approximate Riemann solver for the two-fluid plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shumlak, U.; Loverich, J.
2003-01-01
An algorithm is presented for the simulation of plasma dynamics using the two-fluid plasma model. The two-fluid plasma model is more general than the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model often used for plasma dynamic simulations. The two-fluid equations are derived in divergence form and an approximate Riemann solver is developed to compute the fluxes of the electron and ion fluids at the computational cell interfaces and an upwind characteristic-based solver to compute the electromagnetic fields. The source terms that couple the fluids and fields are treated implicitly to relax the stiffness. The algorithm is validated with the coplanar Riemann problem, Langmuir plasma oscillations, and the electromagnetic shock problem that has been simulated with the MHD plasma model. A numerical dispersion relation is also presented that demonstrates agreement with analytical plasma waves
Parts of the Whole: Strategies for the Spread of Quantitative Literacy: What Models Can Tell Us
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorothy Wallace
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Two conceptual frameworks, one from graph theory and one from dynamical systems, have been offered as explanations for complex phenomena in biology and also as possible models for the spread of ideas. The two models are based on different assumptions and thus predict quite different outcomes for the fate of either biological species or ideas. We argue that, depending on the culture in which they exist, one can identify which model is more likely to reflect the survival of two competing ideas. Based on this argument we suggest how two strategies for embedding and normalizing quantitative literacy in a given institution are likely to succeed or fail.
A study of the spreading scheme for viral marketing based on a complex network model
Yang, Jianmei; Yao, Canzhong; Ma, Weicheng; Chen, Guanrong
2010-02-01
Buzzword-based viral marketing, known also as digital word-of-mouth marketing, is a marketing mode attached to some carriers on the Internet, which can rapidly copy marketing information at a low cost. Viral marketing actually uses a pre-existing social network where, however, the scale of the pre-existing network is believed to be so large and so random, so that its theoretical analysis is intractable and unmanageable. There are very few reports in the literature on how to design a spreading scheme for viral marketing on real social networks according to the traditional marketing theory or the relatively new network marketing theory. Complex network theory provides a new model for the study of large-scale complex systems, using the latest developments of graph theory and computing techniques. From this perspective, the present paper extends the complex network theory and modeling into the research of general viral marketing and develops a specific spreading scheme for viral marking and an approach to design the scheme based on a real complex network on the QQ instant messaging system. This approach is shown to be rather universal and can be further extended to the design of various spreading schemes for viral marketing based on different instant messaging systems.
Spreading dynamics of an e-commerce preferential information model on scale-free networks
Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei; Liu, Xiongding
2017-02-01
In order to study the influence of the preferential degree and the heterogeneity of underlying networks on the spread of preferential e-commerce information, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-beneficial model based on scale-free networks. The spreading dynamics of the preferential information are analyzed in detail using the mean-field theory. We determine the basic reproductive number and equilibria. The theoretical analysis indicates that the basic reproductive number depends mainly on the preferential degree and the topology of the underlying networks. We prove the global stability of the information-elimination equilibrium. The permanence of preferential information and the global attractivity of the information-prevailing equilibrium are also studied in detail. Some numerical simulations are presented to verify the theoretical results.
Analytical Solutions for Rumor Spreading Dynamical Model in a Social Network
Fallahpour, R.; Chakouvari, S.; Askari, H.
2015-03-01
In this paper, Laplace Adomian decomposition method is utilized for evaluating of spreading model of rumor. Firstly, a succinct review is constructed on the subject of using analytical methods such as Adomian decomposion method, Variational iteration method and Homotopy Analysis method for epidemic models and biomathematics. In continue a spreading model of rumor with consideration of forgetting mechanism is assumed and subsequently LADM is exerted for solving of it. By means of the aforementioned method, a general solution is achieved for this problem which can be readily employed for assessing of rumor model without exerting any computer program. In addition, obtained consequences for this problem are discussed for different cases and parameters. Furthermore, it is shown the method is so straightforward and fruitful for analyzing equations which have complicated terms same as rumor model. By employing numerical methods, it is revealed LADM is so powerful and accurate for eliciting solutions of this model. Eventually, it is concluded that this method is so appropriate for this problem and it can provide researchers a very powerful vehicle for scrutinizing rumor models in diverse kinds of social networks such as Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, LinkedIn and Tuitor.
Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model
M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)
2014-01-01
htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches
Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model
M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)
2013-01-01
htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an~overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a~connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches
Rotating fluid models in classical and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arvieu, R.; Troudet, T.
1979-01-01
To describe the behavior of high-spin nuclei it is necessary to refer back to the classical mechanics of fluids in rotation where some results are general enough to apply to the rotational nuclear fluid. It is then shown that the quantum model of rotational oscillator gives a simple classification of rotating configurations [fr
A General Model for Performance Evaluation in DS-CDMA Systems with Variable Spreading Factors
Chiaraluce, Franco; Gambi, Ennio; Righi, Giorgia
This paper extends previous analytical approaches for the study of CDMA systems to the relevant case of multipath environments where users can operate at different bit rates. This scenario is of interest for the Wideband CDMA strategy employed in UMTS, and the model permits the performance comparison of classic and more innovative spreading signals. The method is based on the characteristic function approach, that allows to model accurately the various kinds of interferences. Some numerical examples are given with reference to the ITU-R M. 1225 Recommendations, but the analysis could be extended to different channel descriptions.
Three-Factor Market-Timing Models with Fama and French's Spread Variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joanna Olbryś
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The traditional performance measurement literature has attempted to distinguish security selection, or stock-picking ability, from market-timing, or the ability to predict overall market returns. However, the literature finds that it is not easy to separate ability into such dichotomous categories. Some researchers have developed models that allow the decomposition of manager performance into market-timing and selectivity skills. The main goal of this paper is to present modified versions of classical market-timing models with Fama and French’s spread variables SMB and HML, in the case of Polish equity mutual funds. (original abstract
Atomistic Modeling of the Fluid-Solid Interface in Simple Fluids
Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas; Wang, Gerald
2017-11-01
Fluids can exhibit pronounced structuring effects near a solid boundary, typically manifested in a layered structure that has been extensively shown to directly affect transport across the interface. We present and discuss several results from molecular-mechanical modeling and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations aimed at characterizing the structure of the first fluid layer directly adjacent to the solid. We identify a new dimensionless group - termed the Wall number - which characterizes the degree of fluid layering, by comparing the competing effects of wall-fluid interaction and thermal energy. We find that in the layering regime, several key features of the first layer layer - including its distance from the solid, its width, and its areal density - can be described using mean-field-energy arguments, as well as asymptotic analysis of the Nernst-Planck equation. For dense fluids, the areal density and the width of the first layer can be related to the bulk fluid density using a simple scaling relation. MD simulations show that these results are broadly applicable and robust to the presence of a second confining solid boundary, different choices of wall structure and thermalization, strengths of fluid-solid interaction, and wall geometries.
Lattice Three-Species Models of the Spatial Spread of Rabies among FOXES
Benyoussef, A.; Boccara, N.; Chakib, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.
Lattice models describing the spatial spread of rabies among foxes are studied. In these models, the fox population is divided into three-species: susceptible (S), infected or incubating (I), and infectious or rabid (R). They are based on the fact that susceptible and incubating foxes are territorial while rabid foxes have lost their sense of direction and move erratically. Two different models are investigated: a one-dimensional coupled-map lattice model, and a two-dimensional automata network model. Both models take into account the short-range character of the infection process and the diffusive motion of rabid foxes. Numerical simulations show how the spatial distribution of rabies, and the speed of propagation of the epizootic front depend upon the carrying capacity of the environment and diffusion of rabid foxes out of their territory.
Explaining the level of credit spreads: Option-implied jump risk premia in a firm value model
Cremers, K.J.M.; Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.
2008-01-01
We study whether option-implied jump risk premia can explain the high observed level of credit spreads. We use a structural jump-diffusion firm value model to assess the level of credit spreads generated by option-implied jump risk premia. Prices and returns of equity index and individual options
Tuckwell, H C; Toubiana, L; Vibert, J F
2000-05-01
We extend a previous dynamical viral network model to include stochastic effects. The dynamical equations for the viral and immune effector densities within a host population of size n are bilinear, and the noise is white, additive, and Gaussian. The individuals are connected with an n x n transmission matrix, with terms which decay exponentially with distance. In a single individual, for the range of noise parameters considered, it is found that increasing the amplitude of the noise tends to decrease the maximum mean virion level, and slightly accelerate its attainment. Two different spatial dynamical models are employed to ascertain the effects of environmental stochasticity on viral spread. In the first model transmission is unrestricted and there is no threshold within individuals. This model has the advantage that it can be analyzed using a Fokker-Planck approach. The noise is found both to synchronize and uniformize the trajectories of the viral levels across the population of infected individuals, and thus to promote the epidemic spread of the virus. Quantitative measures of the speed of spread and overall amplitude of the epidemic are obtained as functions of the noise and virulence parameters. The mean amplitude increases steadily without threshold effects for a fixed value of the virulence as the noise amplitude sigma is increased, and there is no evidence of a stochastic resonance. However, the speed of transmission, both with respect to its mean and variance, undergoes rapid increases as sigma changes by relatively small amounts. In the second, more realistic, model, there is a threshold for infection and an upper limit to the transmission rate. There may be no spread of infection at all in the absence of noise. With increasing noise level and a low threshold, the mean maximum virion level grows quickly and shows a broad-based stochastic resonance effect. When the threshold within individuals is increased, the mean population virion level increases only
Fluorescent visualization of a spreading surfactant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fallest, David W; Lichtenberger, Adele M; Fox, Christopher J; Daniels, Karen E, E-mail: kdaniel@ncsu.ed [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)
2010-07-15
The spreading of surfactants on thin films is an industrially and medically important phenomenon, but the dynamics are highly nonlinear and visualization of the surfactant dynamics has been a long-standing experimental challenge. We perform the first quantitative, spatiotemporally resolved measurements of the spreading of an insoluble surfactant on a thin fluid layer. During the spreading process, we directly observe both the radial height profile of the spreading droplet and the spatial distribution of the fluorescently tagged surfactant. We find that the leading edge of a spreading circular layer of surfactant forms a Marangoni ridge in the underlying fluid, with a trough trailing the ridge as expected. However, several novel features are observed using the fluorescence technique, including a peak in the surfactant concentration that trails the leading edge, and a flat, monolayer-scale spreading film that differs from concentration profiles predicted by current models. Both the Marangoni ridge and the surfactant leading edge can be described to spread as R{approx}t{sup {delta}}. We find spreading exponents {delta}{sub H}{approx}0.30 and {delta}{sub {Gamma}}{approx}0.22 for the ridge peak and surfactant leading edge, respectively, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions of {delta}=1/4. In addition, we observe that the surfactant leading edge initially leads the peak of the Marangoni ridge, with the peak later catching up to the leading edge.
Reducing Spread in Climate Model Projections of a September Ice-Free Arctic
Liu, Jiping; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M.; Hu, Yongyun
2013-01-01
This paper addresses the specter of a September ice-free Arctic in the 21st century using newly available simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that large spread in the projected timing of the September ice-free Arctic in 30 CMIP5 models is associated at least as much with different atmospheric model components as with initial conditions. Here we reduce the spread in the timing of an ice-free state using two different approaches for the 30 CMIP5 models: (i) model selection based on the ability to reproduce the observed sea ice climatology and variability since 1979 and (ii) constrained estimation based on the strong and persistent relationship between present and future sea ice conditions. Results from the two approaches show good agreement. Under a high-emission scenario both approaches project that September ice extent will drop to approx. 1.7 million sq km in the mid 2040s and reach the ice-free state (defined as 1 million sq km) in 2054-2058. Under a medium-mitigation scenario, both approaches project a decrease to approx.1.7 million sq km in the early 2060s, followed by a leveling off in the ice extent.
Xie, Chengyu; Jia, Nan; Shi, Dongping; Lu, Hao
2017-10-01
In order to study the slurry diffusion law during grouting, Richards unsaturated-saturated model was introduced, the definition of the grouting model is clear, the Richards model control equation was established, And the BP neural network was introduced, the improved fluid-solid coupling model was constructed, Through the use of saturated - unsaturated seepage flow model, As well as the overflow boundary iterative solution of the mixed boundary conditions, the free surface is calculated. Engineering practice for an example, with the aid of multi - field coupling analysis software, the diffusion law of slurry was simulated numerically. The results show that the slurry diffusion rule is affected by grouting material, initial pressure and other factors. When the slurry starts, it flows in the cracks along the upper side of the grouting hole, when the pressure gradient is reduced to the critical pressure, that is, to the lower side of the flow, when the slurry diffusion stability, and ultimately its shape like an 8. The slurry is spread evenly from the overall point of view, from the grouting mouth toward the surrounding evenly spread, it gradually reaches saturation by non-saturation, and it is not a purely saturated flow, when the slurry spread and reach a saturated state, the diffusion time is the engineering grouting time.
Modelling fast spreading patterns of airborne infectious diseases using complex networks
Brenner, Frank; Marwan, Norbert; Hoffmann, Peter
2017-04-01
The pandemics of SARS (2002/2003) and H1N1 (2009) have impressively shown the potential of epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases in a world that is strongly connected. Global air travelling established an easy and fast opportunity for pathogens to migrate globally in only a few days. This made epidemiological prediction harder. By understanding this complex development and its link to climate change we can suggest actions to control a part of global human health affairs. In this study we combine the following data components to simulate the outbreak of an airborne infectious disease that is directly transmitted from human to human: em{Global Air Traffic Network (from openflights.org) with information on airports, airport location, direct flight connection, airplane type} em{Global population dataset (from SEDAC, NASA)} em{Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) compartmental model to simulate disease spreading in the vicinity of airports. A modified Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model to analyze the impact of the incubation period.} em{WATCH-Forcing-Data-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) climate data: temperature, specific humidity, surface air pressure, and water vapor pressure} These elements are implemented into a complex network. Nodes inside the network represent airports. Each single node is equipped with its own SIR/SEIR compartmental model with node specific attributes. Edges between those nodes represent direct flight connections that allow infected individuals to move between linked nodes. Therefore the interaction of the set of unique SIR models creates the model dynamics we will analyze. To better figure out the influence on climate change on disease spreading patterns, we focus on Influenza-like-Illnesses (ILI). The transmission rate of ILI has a dependency on climate parameters like humidity and temperature. Even small changes of environmental variables can trigger significant differences in the global outbreak behavior. Apart from the direct
On Equilibria of the Two-fluid Model in Magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frantzeskakis, Dimitri J.; Stratis, Ioannis G.; Yannacopoulos, Athanasios N.
2004-01-01
We show how the equilibria of the two-fluid model in magnetohydrodynamics can be described by the double curl equation and through the study of this equation we study some properties of these equilibria
Ódor, G; Odor, Geza; Menyhard, Nora
1998-01-01
The damage spreading (DS) transitions of two one-dimensional stochastic cellular automata suggested by Grassberger (A and B) and the kinetic Ising model of Menyhárd (NEKIM) have been investigated on the level of kinks and spins. On the level of spins the parity conservation is not satisfied and therefore studying these models provides a convenient tool to understand the dependence of DS properties on symmetries. For the model B the critical point and the DS transition point is well separated and directed percolation damage spreading transition universality was found for spin damage as well as for kink damage in spite of the conservation of damage variables modulo 2 in the latter case. For the A stochastic cellular automaton, and the NEKIM model the two transition points coincide with drastic effects on the damage of spin and kink variables showing different time dependent behaviours. While the kink DS transition is continuous and shows regular PC class universality, the spin damage exhibits a discontinuous p...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mani Francesco
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the prediction accuracy of an advanced deterministic propagation model in terms of channel depolarization and frequency selectivity for indoor wireless propagation. In addition to specular reflection and diffraction, the developed ray tracing tool considers penetration through dielectric blocks and/or diffuse scattering mechanisms. The sensitivity and prediction accuracy analysis is based on two measurement campaigns carried out in a warehouse and an office building. It is shown that the implementation of diffuse scattering into RT significantly increases the accuracy of the cross-polar discrimination prediction, whereas the delay-spread prediction is only marginally improved.
On a model of spatial spread of epidemics with long-distance travel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blyuss, Konstantin B.
2005-01-01
This Letter studies the dynamics of infectious diseases which are spread geographically through long-distance travel between two regions and subsequent local redistribution through a process of diffusion. A particular case of an equiproportionate travel is considered, and the model describes migration rather than short visits. We examine uniform and nonuniform steady states together with their linear stability. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the evolution of initial distribution of population towards its final stage, which is represented by uniform distribution of the total population among infected individuals
Yu, Alex; Jackson, Trachette; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Koenigsknecht, Mark; Wysocki, Jeffrey; Marciani, Luca; Amidon, Gordon L; Frances, Ann; Baker, Jason R; Hasler, William; Wen, Bo; Pai, Amit; Sun, Duxin
2017-11-01
Gastrointestinal (GI) fluid volume and its dynamic change are integral to study drug disintegration, dissolution, transit, and absorption. However, key questions regarding the local volume and its absorption, secretion, and transit remain unanswered. The dynamic fluid compartment absorption and transit (DFCAT) model is proposed to estimate in vivo GI volume and GI fluid transport based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantified fluid volume. The model was validated using GI local concentration of phenol red in human GI tract, which was directly measured by human GI intubation study after oral dosing of non-absorbable phenol red. The measured local GI concentration of phenol red ranged from 0.05 to 168 μg/mL (stomach), to 563 μg/mL (duodenum), to 202 μg/mL (proximal jejunum), and to 478 μg/mL (distal jejunum). The DFCAT model characterized observed MRI fluid volume and its dynamic changes from 275 to 46.5 mL in stomach (from 0 to 30 min) with mucus layer volume of 40 mL. The volumes of the 30 small intestine compartments were characterized by a max of 14.98 mL to a min of 0.26 mL (0-120 min) and a mucus layer volume of 5 mL per compartment. Regional fluid volumes over 0 to 120 min ranged from 5.6 to 20.38 mL in the proximal small intestine, 36.4 to 44.08 mL in distal small intestine, and from 42 to 64.46 mL in total small intestine. The DFCAT model can be applied to predict drug dissolution and absorption in the human GI tract with future improvements.
Efficiently Synchronized Spread-Spectrum Audio Watermarking with Improved Psychoacoustic Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing He
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an audio watermarking scheme which is based on an efficiently synchronized spread-spectrum technique and a new psychoacoustic model computed using the discrete wavelet packet transform. The psychoacoustic model takes advantage of the multiresolution analysis of a wavelet transform, which closely approximates the standard critical band partition. The goal of this model is to include an accurate time-frequency analysis and to calculate both the frequency and temporal masking thresholds directly in the wavelet domain. Experimental results show that this watermarking scheme can successfully embed watermarks into digital audio without introducing audible distortion. Several common watermark attacks were applied and the results indicate that the method is very robust to those attacks.
Spreading depolarizations increase delayed brain injury in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage
Hamming, Arend M.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; Rudrapatna, S. Umesh; Lanier, Christian; van Os, Hine J. A.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Ferrari, Michel D.; van der Toorn, Annette; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Stowe, Ann M.; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.
Spreading depolarizations may contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the effect of spreading depolarizations on brain lesion progression after subarachnoid hemorrhage has not yet been assessed directly. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that
A dynamic neutral fluid model for the PIC scheme
Wu, Alan; Lieberman, Michael; Verboncoeur, John
2010-11-01
Fluid diffusion is an important aspect of plasma simulation. A new dynamic model is implemented using the continuity and boundary equations in OOPD1, an object oriented one-dimensional particle-in-cell code developed at UC Berkeley. The model is described and compared with analytical methods given in [1]. A boundary absorption parameter can be adjusted from ideal absorption to ideal reflection. Simulations exhibit good agreement with analytic time dependent solutions for the two ideal cases, as well as steady state solutions for mixed cases. For the next step, fluid sources and sinks due to particle-particle or particle-fluid collisions within the simulation volume and to surface reactions resulting in emission or absorption of fluid species will be implemented. The resulting dynamic interaction between particle and fluid species will be an improvement to the static fluid in the existing code. As the final step in the development, diffusion for multiple fluid species will be implemented. [4pt] [1] M.A. Lieberman and A.J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 2005.
Fluid flow modeling in complex areas*, **
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poullet Pascal
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We show first results of 3D simulation of sea currents in a realistic context. We use the full Navier–Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluid. The problem is solved using a second order incremental projection method associated with the finite volume of the staggered (MAC scheme for the spatial discretization. After validation on classical cases, it is used in a numerical simulation of the Pointe à Pitre harbour area. The use of the fictious domain method permits us to take into account the complexity of bathymetric data and allows us to work with regular meshes and thus preserves the efficiency essential for a 3D code. Dans cette étude, nous présentons les premiers résultats de simulation d’un écoulement d’un fluide incompressible visqueux dans un contexte environnemental réel. L’approche utilisée utilise une méthode de domaines fictifs pour une prise en compte d’un domaine physique tridimensionnel très irrégulier. Le schéma numérique combine un schéma de projection incrémentale et des volumes finis utilisant des volumes de contrôle adaptés à un maillage décalé. Les tests de validation sont menés pour les cas tests de la cavité double entraînée ainsi que l’écoulement dans un canal avec un obstacle placé de manière asymmétrique.
A Simple Model to Rank Shellfish Farming Areas Based on the Risk of Disease Introduction and Spread.
Thrush, M A; Pearce, F M; Gubbins, M J; Oidtmann, B C; Peeler, E J
2017-08-01
The European Union Council Directive 2006/88/EC requires that risk-based surveillance (RBS) for listed aquatic animal diseases is applied to all aquaculture production businesses. The principle behind this is the efficient use of resources directed towards high-risk farm categories, animal types and geographic areas. To achieve this requirement, fish and shellfish farms must be ranked according to their risk of disease introduction and spread. We present a method to risk rank shellfish farming areas based on the risk of disease introduction and spread and demonstrate how the approach was applied in 45 shellfish farming areas in England and Wales. Ten parameters were used to inform the risk model, which were grouped into four risk themes based on related pathways for transmission of pathogens: (i) live animal movement, (ii) transmission via water, (iii) short distance mechanical spread (birds) and (iv) long distance mechanical spread (vessels). Weights (informed by expert knowledge) were applied both to individual parameters and to risk themes for introduction and spread to reflect their relative importance. A spreadsheet model was developed to determine quantitative scores for the risk of pathogen introduction and risk of pathogen spread for each shellfish farming area. These scores were used to independently rank areas for risk of introduction and for risk of spread. Thresholds were set to establish risk categories (low, medium and high) for introduction and spread based on risk scores. Risk categories for introduction and spread for each area were combined to provide overall risk categories to inform a risk-based surveillance programme directed at the area level. Applying the combined risk category designation framework for risk of introduction and spread suggested by European Commission guidance for risk-based surveillance, 4, 10 and 31 areas were classified as high, medium and low risk, respectively. © 2016 Crown copyright.
Using a network model to assess risk of forest pest spread via recreational travel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank H Koch
Full Text Available Long-distance dispersal pathways, which frequently relate to human activities, facilitate the spread of alien species. One pathway of concern in North America is the possible spread of forest pests in firewood carried by visitors to campgrounds or recreational facilities. We present a network model depicting the movement of campers and, by extension, potentially infested firewood. We constructed the model from US National Recreation Reservation Service data documenting more than seven million visitor reservations (including visitors from Canada at campgrounds nationwide. This bi-directional model can be used to identify likely origin and destination locations for a camper-transported pest. To support broad-scale decision making, we used the model to generate summary maps for 48 US states and seven Canadian provinces that depict the most likely origins of campers traveling from outside the target state or province. The maps generally showed one of two basic spatial patterns of out-of-state (or out-of-province origin risk. In the eastern United States, the riskiest out-of-state origin locations were usually found in a localized region restricted to portions of adjacent states. In the western United States, the riskiest out-of-state origin locations were typically associated with major urban areas located far from the state of interest. A few states and the Canadian provinces showed characteristics of both patterns. These model outputs can guide deployment of resources for surveillance, firewood inspections, or other activities. Significantly, the contrasting map patterns indicate that no single response strategy is appropriate for all states and provinces. If most out-of-state campers are traveling from distant areas, it may be effective to deploy resources at key points along major roads (e.g., interstate highways, since these locations could effectively represent bottlenecks of camper movement. If most campers are from nearby areas, they may
A computational model for doctoring fluid films in gravure printing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hariprasad, Daniel S., E-mail: dshari@unm.edu [Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Grau, Gerd [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1770 (United States); Schunk, P. Randall [Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0826 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto [Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States)
2016-04-07
The wiping, or doctoring, process in gravure printing presents a fundamental barrier to resolving the micron-sized features desired in printed electronics applications. This barrier starts with the residual fluid film left behind after wiping, and its importance grows as feature sizes are reduced, especially as the feature size approaches the thickness of the residual fluid film. In this work, various mechanical complexities are considered in a computational model developed to predict the residual fluid film thickness. Lubrication models alone are inadequate, and deformation of the doctor blade body together with elastohydrodynamic lubrication must be considered to make the model predictive of experimental trends. Moreover, model results demonstrate that the particular form of the wetted region of the blade has a significant impact on the model's ability to reproduce experimental measurements.
Gyro-Landau fluid model of tokamak core fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.; Hedrick, C.L.; Sidikman, K.L.; Lynch, V.E.; Drake, J.B.; Walker, D.W.
1992-01-01
Dissipative trapped electron modes (DTEM) may be one of the causes of deterioration of confinement in tokamak and stellatator plasmas. We have implemented a fluid model to study DTEM turbulence in slab geometry. The electron dynamics include in addition to the adiabatic part, a non-adiabatic piece modeled with an i-delta-type response. The ion dynamics include Landau damping and FLR corrections through Landau fluid approximate techniques and Pade approximants for Γ 0 (b)=I 0 (b)e -b . The model follows from the gyrokinetic equation. Evolution equations, which closely resemble those used in standard reduced MHD, are presented since these are better suited to non-linear calculations. The numerical results of radially resolved calculations will be discussed. A recently developed hybrid model, which consists of a gyrokinetic implementation for the ions using particles and the same description for the electron dynamics as in the fluid model, will also be presented
Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Heat Transfer in Fluid Network
Majumdar, Alok
2004-01-01
Fluid network modeling with conjugate heat transfer has many applications in Aerospace engineering. In modeling unsteady flow with heat transfer, it is important to know the variation of wall temperature in time and space to calculate heat transfer between solid to fluid. Since wall temperature is a function of flow, a coupled analysis of temperature of solid and fluid is necessary. In cryogenic applications, modeling of conjugate heat transfer is of great importance to correctly predict boil-off rate in propellant tanks and chill down of transfer lines. In TFAWS 2003, the present author delivered a paper to describe a general-purpose computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program). GFSSP calculates flow distribution in complex flow circuit for compressible/incompressible, with or without heat transfer or phase change in all real fluids or mixtures. The flow circuit constitutes of fluid nodes and branches. The mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes where as momentum conservation equations are solved at the branches. The proposed paper describes the extension of GFSSP to model conjugate heat transfer. The network also includes solid nodes and conductors in addition to fluid nodes and branches. The energy conservation equations for solid nodes solves to determine the temperatures of the solid nodes simultaneously with all conservation equations governing fluid flow. The numerical scheme accounts for conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer. The paper will also describe the applications of the code to predict chill down of cryogenic transfer line and boil-off rate of cryogenic propellant storage tank.
Local lattice-gas model for immiscible fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.; Doolen, G.D.; Eggert, K.; Grunau, D.; Loh, E.Y.
1991-01-01
We present a lattice-gas model for two-dimensional immiscible fluid flows with surface tension that uses strictly local collision rules. Instead of using a local total color flux as Somers and Rem [Physica D 47, 39 (1991)], we use local colored holes to be the memory of particles of the same color. Interactions between walls and fluids are included that produce arbitrary contact angles
A Modeling of Compressible Droplets in a Fluid
Boudin, Laurent; Desvilletter, Laurent; Motte, Renaud
2003-01-01
In this work, we are interested in a complex fluid-kinetic model that aims to take into account the compressibility of the droplets of the spray. The ambient fluid is described by Euler-like equations, in which the transfer of momentum and energy form the droplets is taken into account, while the spray is represented by a probability density function satisfying a Vlasov-like equation. Implicit terms crop up because of the compressibility of the droplets. After having derived...
Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion
Zeytounian, Radyadour K
1991-01-01
The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.
Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes were calculated. These constants reflect the hydrological regime of water bodies and characterize high-speed transfer of potassium in the upstream and downstream, and low transfer rate - in the middle stream. It is shown that the vast majority of potassium (70% is carried out of the system Kenty and enters the lake Srednee Kuito
Spread of neuronal degeneration in a dopaminergic, Lrrk-G2019S model of Parkinson disease
Hindle, Samantha J.; Elliott, Christopher J.H.
2013-01-01
Flies expressing the most common Parkinson disease (PD)-related mutation, LRRK2-G2019S, in their dopaminergic neurons show loss of visual function and degeneration of the retina, including mitochondrial abnormalities, apoptosis and autophagy. Since the photoreceptors that degenerate are not dopaminergic, this demonstrates nonautonomous degeneration, and a spread of pathology. This provides a model consistent with Braak’s hypothesis on progressive PD. The loss of visual function is specific for the G2019S mutation, implying the cause is its increased kinase activity, and is enhanced by increased neuronal activity. These data suggest novel explanations for the variability in animal models of PD. The specificity of visual loss to G2019S, coupled with the differences in neural firing rate, provide an explanation for the variability between people with PD in visual tests. PMID:23529190
Four-fluid model of PWR degraded cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dearing, J.F.
1985-01-01
This paper describes the new two-dimensional, four-fluid fluid dynamics and heat transfer (FLUIDS) module of the MELPROG code. MELPROG is designed to give an integrated, mechanistic treatment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) core meltdown accidents from accident initiation to vessel melt-through. The code has a modular data storage and transfer structure, with each module providing the others with boundary conditions at each computational time step. Thus the FLUIDS module receives mass and energy source terms from the fuel pin module, the structures module, and the debris bed module, and radiation energy source terms from the radiation module. MELPROG, which models the reactor vessel, is also designed to model the vessel as a component in the TRAC/PF1 networking solution of a PWR reactor coolant system (RCS). The coupling between TRAC and MELPROG is implicit in the fluid dynamics of the reactor coolant (liquid water and steam) allowing an accurate simulation of the coupling between the vessel and the rest of the RCS during an accident. This paper deals specifically with the numerical model of fluid dynamics and heat transfer within the reactor vessel, which allows a much more realistic simulation (with less restrictive assumptions on physical behavior) of the accident than has been possible before
Dynamic Modeling of ThermoFluid Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Munch
2003-01-01
The objective of the present study has been to developed dynamic models for two-phase flow in pipes (evaporation and condensation). Special attention has been given to modeling evaporators for refrigeration plant particular dry-expansion evaporators. Models of different complexity have been...... formulated. The different models deviate with respect to the detail¿s included and calculation time in connection with simulation. The models have been implemented in a new library named ThermoTwoPhase to the programming language Modelica. A test rig has been built with an evaporator instrumented in a way...
A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Pandey
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.
Laszlo Tisza and the two-fluid model of superfluidity
Balibar, Sébastien
2017-11-01
The "two-fluid model" of superfluidity was first introduced by Laszlo Tisza in 1938. On that year, Tisza published the principles of his model as a brief note in Nature and two articles in French in the Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, followed in 1940 by two other articles in French in the Journal de physique et le Radium. In 1941, the two-fluid model was reformulated by Lev Landau on a more rigorous basis. Successive experiments confirmed the revolutionary idea introduced by Tisza: superfluid helium is indeed a surprising mixture of two fluids with independent velocity fields. His prediction of the existence of heat waves, a consequence of his model, was also confirmed. Then, it took several decades for the superfluidity of liquid helium to be fully understood.
Extended two-fluid model for simulating magneto-rheological fluid flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivaram, A C
2011-01-01
The current practice of designing magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based devices is, to a large extent, based on simple phenomenological models like the Bingham model. Though useful for initial force or torque estimation and sizing, these models lack the capability to predict performance degradation due to changes in the particle volume fraction distribution. The present work demonstrates the use of the two-fluid model for predicting the particle volume fraction distribution inside a device in the absence of a field and proposes a novel modeling scheme which can simulate the fluid flow in the presence of a field. This modeling scheme can be used to (a) visualize flow patterns inside a device under various operating conditions, (b) predict the spatial distribution of particles inside a device after multiple operating cycles, (c) assist in estimating the extent of performance degradation due to non-uniform particle distribution and (d) enable testing of various design strategies to mitigate such performance issues using simulations. This is illustrated through numerical examples of a few case studies of typical MR device configurations
Physical modelling and the poroelastic model with application to fluid detection in a VTI medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Shengjie
2013-01-01
In this paper, both poroelasticity theory and pre-stack inversions have been combined to generate a flexible way to derive an effective fluid factor, which is then used to identify the presence of the hydrocarbon in weakly anisotropic VTI reservoirs. The effective fluid factor has been derived by using an approximate fluid substitution equation for anisotropic VTI media. The approximate equation provides a means of performing fluid substitution for elastic moduli along the vertical symmetry axis of a VTI medium with fewer elastic moduli. The effective fluid factor can be used to analyse the sensitivity of seismic attributes to fluid content. In order to examine the effectiveness of the effective fluid factor, an anisotropic physical model has been constructed. The rock properties of artificial sandstone used as a reservoir building material are properly selected by using an empirical model and Gassmann's equation. An effort is made to ensure the physical modelling data represent the 'true’ response of different fluid-filled sands. The fluid detection method is then applied to interpret the inverted seismic impedance obtained from physical modelling seismic data with some known gas-sands and wet-sands. The results shows that the interpretive resolution of seismic fluid detection has been dramatically improved by using the effective fluid factor. In addition, more information on lateral changes in fluid content can be distinguished. This study has demonstrated the potential of this method in detecting different fluid content in weakly anisotropic VTI reservoirs. (paper)
Generalized Roe's numerical scheme for a two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.
1993-01-01
This paper is devoted to a mathematical and numerical study of a six equation two-fluid model. We will prove that the model is strictly hyperbolic due to the inclusion of the virtual mass force term in the phasic momentum equations. The two-fluid model is naturally written under a nonconservative form. To solve the nonlinear Riemann problem for this nonconservative hyperbolic system, a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver, is used, based on a linearization of the nonconservative terms. A Godunov type numerical scheme is built, using this approximate Riemann solver. 10 refs., 5 figs,
Discrete modeling considerations in multiphase fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ransom, V.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1988-01-01
The modeling of multiphase flows play a fundamental role in light water reactor safety. The main ingredients in our discrete modeling Weltanschauung are the following considerations: (1) Any physical model must be cast into discrete form for a digital computer. (2) The usual approach of formulating models in differential form and then discretizing them is potentially hazardous. It may be preferable to formulate the model in discrete terms from the outset. (3) Computer time and storage constraints limit the resolution that can be employed in practical calculations. These limits effectively define the physical phenomena, length scales, and time scales which cannot be directly represented in the calculation and therefore must be modeled. This information should be injected into the model formulation process at an early stage. (4) Practical resolution limits are generally so coarse that traditional convergence and truncation-error analyses become irrelevant. (5) A discrete model constitutes a reduced description of a physical system, from which fine-scale details are eliminated. This elimination creates a statistical closure problem. Methods from statistical physics may therefore be useful in the formulation of discrete models. In the present paper we elaborate on these themes and illustrate them with simple examples. 48 refs
Flow modelling of a newtonian fluid by two regions- the region of pure fluid and porous region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da
1983-01-01
A model of flow with two regions is presented using mixture theory. One region contains only pure fluid and the other a mixture of fluid and porous rigid solid. Compatibility conditons on the pure fluid-mixture interface are carefully discussed. The theory is used to solve a problem of a flow induced by pressure gradient and helicoidal motion of an impermeable cylinder on two rings one of pure fluid and another of mixture. (Author) [pt
A gravity model for the spread of a pollinator-borne plant pathogen.
Ferrari, Matthew J; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Partain, Jessica L; Antonovics, Janis
2006-09-01
Many pathogens of plants are transmitted by arthropod vectors whose movement between individual hosts is influenced by foraging behavior. Insect foraging has been shown to depend on both the quality of hosts and the distances between hosts. Given the spatial distribution of host plants and individual variation in quality, vector foraging patterns may therefore produce predictable variation in exposure to pathogens. We develop a "gravity" model to describe the spatial spread of a vector-borne plant pathogen from underlying models of insect foraging in response to host quality using the pollinator-borne smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum as a case study. We fit the model to spatially explicit time series of M. violaceum transmission in replicate experimental plots of the white campion Silene latifolia. The gravity model provides a better fit than a mean field model or a model with only distance-dependent transmission. The results highlight the importance of active vector foraging in generating spatial patterns of disease incidence and for pathogen-mediated selection for floral traits.
Craniometric data supports demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture into Europe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron Pinhasi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of agriculture into Europe and the ancestry of the first European farmers have been subjects of debate and controversy among geneticists, archaeologists, linguists and anthropologists. Debates have centred on the extent to which the transition was associated with the active migration of people as opposed to the diffusion of cultural practices. Recent studies have shown that patterns of human cranial shape variation can be employed as a reliable proxy for the neutral genetic relationships of human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we employ measurements of Mesolithic (hunter-gatherers and Neolithic (farmers crania from Southwest Asia and Europe to test several alternative population dispersal and hunter-farmer gene-flow models. We base our alternative hypothetical models on a null evolutionary model of isolation-by-geographic and temporal distance. Partial Mantel tests were used to assess the congruence between craniometric distance and each of the geographic model matrices, while controlling for temporal distance. Our results demonstrate that the craniometric data fit a model of continuous dispersal of people (and their genes from Southwest Asia to Europe significantly better than a null model of cultural diffusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, this study does not support the assertion that farming in Europe solely involved the adoption of technologies and ideas from Southwest Asia by indigenous Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Moreover, the results highlight the utility of craniometric data for assessing patterns of past population dispersal and gene flow.
Craniometric data supports demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture into Europe.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Pinhasi, Ron
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: The spread of agriculture into Europe and the ancestry of the first European farmers have been subjects of debate and controversy among geneticists, archaeologists, linguists and anthropologists. Debates have centred on the extent to which the transition was associated with the active migration of people as opposed to the diffusion of cultural practices. Recent studies have shown that patterns of human cranial shape variation can be employed as a reliable proxy for the neutral genetic relationships of human populations. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we employ measurements of Mesolithic (hunter-gatherers) and Neolithic (farmers) crania from Southwest Asia and Europe to test several alternative population dispersal and hunter-farmer gene-flow models. We base our alternative hypothetical models on a null evolutionary model of isolation-by-geographic and temporal distance. Partial Mantel tests were used to assess the congruence between craniometric distance and each of the geographic model matrices, while controlling for temporal distance. Our results demonstrate that the craniometric data fit a model of continuous dispersal of people (and their genes) from Southwest Asia to Europe significantly better than a null model of cultural diffusion. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, this study does not support the assertion that farming in Europe solely involved the adoption of technologies and ideas from Southwest Asia by indigenous Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Moreover, the results highlight the utility of craniometric data for assessing patterns of past population dispersal and gene flow.
A mixed SIR-SIS model to contain a virus spreading through networks with two degrees
Essouifi, Mohamed; Achahbar, Abdelfattah
Due to the fact that the “nodes” and “links” of real networks are heterogeneous, to model computer viruses prevalence throughout the Internet, we borrow the idea of the reduced scale free network which was introduced recently. The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous deterministic two subchains of Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model into a mixed Susceptible-Infected-Recovered and Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIR-SIS) model to contain the computer virus spreading over networks with two degrees. Moreover, we develop its stochastic counterpart. Due to the high protection and security taken for hubs class, we suggest to treat it by using SIR epidemic model rather than the SIS one. The analytical study reveals that the proposed model admits a stable viral equilibrium. Thus, it is shown numerically that the mean dynamic behavior of the stochastic model is in agreement with the deterministic one. Unlike the infection densities i2 and i which both tend to a viral equilibrium for both approaches as in the previous study, i1 tends to the virus-free equilibrium. Furthermore, since a proportion of infectives are recovered, the global infection density i is minimized. Therefore, the permanent presence of viruses in the network due to the lower-degree nodes class. Many suggestions are put forward for containing viruses propagation and minimizing their damages.
Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios
. The background and main targets for this thesis are presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, a comprehensive review of the application of group contribution (GC) models such as various forms of UNIFAC and the so-called AFC (Atom and Fragment Contributions) correlation model for Pow (octanol-water partition...
Modelling Emission from Building Materials with Computational Fluid Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per
This paper presents a numerical model that by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is capable of dealing with both pollutant transport across the boundary layer and internal diffusion in the source without prior knowledge of which is the limiting process. The model provides the concentration...
Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl
2013-08-15
An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.
Simpson, C. C.; Sharples, J. J.; Evans, J. P.
2014-01-01
Fire channelling is a form of dynamic fire behaviour, during which a wildland fire spreads rapidly across a steep lee-facing slope in a direction transverse to the background winds, and is often accompanied by a downwind extension of the active flaming region and extreme pyro-convection. Recent work using the WRF-Fire coupled atmosphere-fire model has demonstrated that fire channelling can be characterised as vorticity-driven lateral fire spread (VDLS). In t...
Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Davis Sydnor; Jonathan Bossenbroek; Mark W. Schwartz; Mark W. Schwartz
2006-01-01
We model the susceptibility and potential spread of the organism across the eastern United States and especially through Michigan and Ohio using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. We are also developing a cell-based model for the potential spread of the organism. We have developed a web-based tool for public agencies and private individuals to enter the...
Phase Transitions of an Epidemic Spreading Model in Small-World Networks
Hua, Da-Yin; Gao, Ke
2011-06-01
We propose a modified susceptible-infected-refractory-susceptible (SIRS) model to investigate the global oscillations of the epidemic spreading in Watts—Strogatz (WS) small-world networks. It is found that when an individual immunity does not change or decays slowly in an immune period, the system can exhibit complex transition from an infecting stationary state to a large amplitude sustained oscillation or an absorbing state with no infection. When the immunity decays rapidly in the immune period, the transition to the global oscillation disappears and there is no oscillation. Furthermore, based on the spatio-temporal evolution patterns and the phase diagram, it is disclosed that a long immunity period takes an important role in the emergence of the global oscillation in small-world networks.
Ji, Shenggong; Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho; Hu, Yanqing
2017-07-01
Social networks constitute a new platform for information propagation, but its success is crucially dependent on the choice of spreaders who initiate the spreading of information. In this paper, we remove edges in a network at random and the network segments into isolated clusters. The most important nodes in each cluster then form a set of influential spreaders, such that news propagating from them would lead to extensive coverage and minimal redundancy. The method utilizes the similarities between the segmented networks before percolation and the coverage of information propagation in each social cluster to obtain a set of distributed and coordinated spreaders. Our tests of implementing the susceptible-infected-recovered model on Facebook and Enron email networks show that this method outperforms conventional centrality-based methods in terms of spreadability and coverage redundancy. The suggested way of identifying influential spreaders thus sheds light on a new paradigm of information propagation in social networks.
Modeling of Non-Isothermal Cryogenic Fluid Sloshing
Agui, Juan H.; Moder, Jeffrey P.
2015-01-01
A computational fluid dynamic model was used to simulate the thermal destratification in an upright self-pressurized cryostat approximately half-filled with liquid nitrogen and subjected to forced sinusoidal lateral shaking. A full three-dimensional computational grid was used to model the tank dynamics, fluid flow and thermodynamics using the ANSYS Fluent code. A non-inertial grid was used which required the addition of momentum and energy source terms to account for the inertial forces, energy transfer and wall reaction forces produced by the shaken tank. The kinetics-based Schrage mass transfer model provided the interfacial mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation at the sloshing interface. The dynamic behavior of the sloshing interface, its amplitude and transition to different wave modes, provided insight into the fluid process at the interface. The tank pressure evolution and temperature profiles compared relatively well with the shaken cryostat experimental test data provided by the Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales.
The Smo/Smo model: hedgehog-induced medulloblastoma with 90% incidence and leptomeningeal spread.
Hatton, Beryl A; Villavicencio, Elisabeth H; Tsuchiya, Karen D; Pritchard, Joel I; Ditzler, Sally; Pullar, Barbara; Hansen, Stacey; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Lee, Donghoon; Eberhart, Charles G; Hallahan, Andrew R; Olson, James M
2008-03-15
Toward the goal of generating a mouse medulloblastoma model with increased tumor incidence, we developed a homozygous version of our ND2:SmoA1 model. Medulloblastomas form in 94% of homozygous Smo/Smo mice by 2 months of age. Tumor formation is, thus, predictable by age, before the symptomatic appearance of larger lesions. This high incidence and early onset of tumors is ideal for preclinical studies because mice can be enrolled before symptom onset and with a greater latency period before late-stage disease. Smo/Smo tumors also display leptomeningeal dissemination of neoplastic cells to the brain and spine, which occurs in many human cases. Despite an extended proliferation of granule neuron precursors (GNP) in the postnatal external granular layer (EGL), the internal granular layer formed normally in Smo/Smo mice and tumor formation occurred only in localized foci on the superficial surface of the molecular layer. Thus, tumor formation is not simply the result of over proliferation of GNPs within the EGL. Moreover, Smo/Smo medulloblastomas were transplantable and serially passaged in vivo, demonstrating the aggressiveness of tumor cells and their transformation beyond a hyperplastic state. The Smo/Smo model is the first mouse medulloblastoma model to show leptomeningeal spread. The adherence to human pathology, high incidence, and early onset of tumors thus make Smo/Smo mice an efficient model for preclinical studies.
Frasca, Mattia; Sharkey, Kieran J
2016-06-21
Understanding the dynamics of spread of infectious diseases between individuals is essential for forecasting the evolution of an epidemic outbreak or for defining intervention policies. The problem is addressed by many approaches including stochastic and deterministic models formulated at diverse scales (individuals, populations) and different levels of detail. Here we consider discrete-time SIR (susceptible-infectious-removed) dynamics propagated on contact networks. We derive a novel set of 'discrete-time moment equations' for the probability of the system states at the level of individual nodes and pairs of nodes. These equations form a set which we close by introducing appropriate approximations of the joint probabilities appearing in them. For the example case of SIR processes, we formulate two types of model, one assuming statistical independence at the level of individuals and one at the level of pairs. From the pair-based model we then derive a model at the level of the population which captures the behavior of epidemics on homogeneous random networks. With respect to their continuous-time counterparts, the models include a larger number of possible transitions from one state to another and joint probabilities with a larger number of individuals. The approach is validated through numerical simulation over different network topologies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singleton, D.G.
1974-11-01
A recently proposed means of combining models of ionospheric F-layer peak electron density and irregularity incremental electron density (ΔN) so as to simulate the global occurrence probability of the frequency spreading component of spread-F is discussed. This procedure is then used to model experimental spread-F occurrence results. It is found possible to readily simulate the sunspot-maximum results, independently of season, with only small adjustments to the amplitudes of the empirical expressions used to ΔN in the several latitude regimes. However, at sunspot minimum and for each season, the ΔN model requires modification in the equatorial and mid-latitude regions of high irregularity incidence, before successful simulations of the spread-F data can be obtained. These modifications, which include a broadening of the equatorial region and a polewards shift to the mid-latitude region with decreasing sunspot number, are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the scintillation data base, from which the original ΔN model derives, is not sufficiently representative with regard to sunspot number and magnetic index. The use of the spread-F adaptation of the ΔN model, as well as its original scintillation version, to rectify these failings of the ΔN model are also discussed. (author)
Optimization of morphing flaps based on fluid structure interaction modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barlas, Athanasios; Akay, Busra
2018-01-01
This article describes the design optimization of morphing trailing edge flaps for wind turbines with ‘smart blades’. A high fidelity Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation framework is utilized, comprised of 2D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models....... A coupled aero-structural simulation of a 10% chordwise length morphing trailing edge flap for a 4 MW wind turbine rotor is carried out and response surfaces are produced with respect to the flap internal geometry design parameters for the design conditions. Surrogate model based optimization is applied...
A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow
Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel
2015-04-01
Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude
Two-fluid model for locomotion under self-confinement
Reigh, Shang Yik; Lauga, Eric
2017-09-01
The bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes ulcers in the stomach of humans by invading mucus layers protecting epithelial cells. It does so by chemically changing the rheological properties of the mucus from a high-viscosity gel to a low-viscosity solution in which it may self-propel. We develop a two-fluid model for this process of swimming under self-generated confinement. We solve exactly for the flow and the locomotion speed of a spherical swimmer located in a spherically symmetric system of two Newtonian fluids whose boundary moves with the swimmer. We also treat separately the special case of an immobile outer fluid. In all cases, we characterize the flow fields, their spatial decay, and the impact of both the viscosity ratio and the degree of confinement on the locomotion speed of the model swimmer. The spatial decay of the flow retains the same power-law decay as for locomotion in a single fluid but with a decreased magnitude. Independent of the assumption chosen to characterize the impact of confinement on the actuation applied by the swimmer, its locomotion speed always decreases with an increase in the degree of confinement. Our modeling results suggest that a low-viscosity region of at least six times the effective swimmer size is required to lead to swimming with speeds similar to locomotion in an infinite fluid, corresponding to a region of size above ≈25 μ m for Helicobacter pylori.
Thermal conductivity of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model.
Galliero, Guillaume; Boned, Christian
2009-12-01
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to estimate, analyze, and correlate the thermal conductivity of a fluid composed of short Lennard-Jones chains (up to 16 segments) over a large range of thermodynamic conditions. It is shown that the dilute gas contribution to the thermal conductivity decreases when the chain length increases for a given temperature. In dense states, simulation results indicate that the residual thermal conductivity of the monomer increases strongly with density, but is weakly dependent on the temperature. Compared to the monomer value, it has been noted that the residual thermal conductivity of the chain was slightly decreasing with its length. Using these results, an empirical relation, including a contribution due to the critical enhancement, is proposed to provide an accurate estimation of the thermal conductivity of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model (up to 16 segments) over the domain 0.8values of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model merge on the same "universal" curve when plotted as a function of the excess entropy. Furthermore, it is shown that the reduced configurational thermal conductivity of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model is approximately proportional to the reduced excess entropy for all fluid states and all chain lengths.
Conceptual models of microseismicity induced by fluid injection
Baro Urbea, J.; Lord-May, C.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Joern, D.
2017-12-01
Variations in the pore pressure due to fluid invasion are accountable for microseismic activity recorded in geothermal systems and during hydraulic fracturing operations. To capture this phenomenon on a conceptual level, invasion percolation models have been suggested to represent the flow network of fluids within a porous media and seismic activity is typically considered to be directly related to the expansion of the percolated area. Although such models reproduce scale-free frequency-magnitude distributions, the associated b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation do not align with observed data. Here, we propose an alternative conceptual invasion percolation model that decouples the fluid propagation from the microseismic events. Instead of a uniform pressure, the pressure is modeled to decay along the distance from the injection site. Wet fracture events are simulated with a stochastic spring block model exhibiting stick-slip dynamics as a result of the variations of the pore pressure. We show that the statistics of the stick-slip events are scale-free, but now the b-values depend on the level of heterogeneity in the local static friction coefficients. Thus, this model is able to reproduce the wide spectrum of b-values observed in field catalogs associated with fluid induced microseismicity. Moreover, the spatial distribution of microseismic events is also consistent with observations.
Computational model of cerebral blood flow redistribution during cortical spreading depression
Verisokin, Andrey Y.; Verveyko, Darya V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.
2016-04-01
In recent decades modelling studies on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and migraine waves successfully contributed to formation of modern view on these fundamental phenomena of brain physiology. However, due to the extreme complexity of object under study (brain cortex) and the diversity of involved physiological pathways, the development of new mathematical models of CSD is still a very relevant and challenging research problem. In our study we follow the functional modelling approach aimed to map the action of known physiological pathways to the specific nonlinear mechanisms that govern formation and evolution of CSD wave patterns. Specifically, we address the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) redistribution that is caused by excessive neuronal activity by means of neurovascular coupling and mediates a spatial pattern of oxygen and glucose delivery. This in turn changes the local metabolic status of neural tissue. To build the model we simplify the web of known cell-to-cell interactions within a neurovascular unit by selecting the most relevant ones, such as local neuron-induced elevation of extracellular potassium concentration and biphasic response of arteriole radius. We propose the lumped description of distance-dependent hemodynamic coupling that fits the most recent experimental findings.
Springer, Andrea; Kappeler, Peter M; Nunn, Charles L
2017-05-01
Social networks provide an established tool to implement heterogeneous contact structures in epidemiological models. Dynamic temporal changes in contact structure and ranging behaviour of wildlife may impact disease dynamics. A consensus has yet to emerge, however, concerning the conditions in which network dynamics impact model outcomes, as compared to static approximations that average contact rates over longer time periods. Furthermore, as many pathogens can be transmitted both environmentally and via close contact, it is important to investigate the relative influence of both transmission routes in real-world populations. Here, we use empirically derived networks from a population of wild primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), and simulated networks to investigate pathogen spread in dynamic vs. static social networks. First, we constructed a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model of Cryptosporidium spread in wild Verreaux's sifakas. We incorporated social and environmental transmission routes and parameterized the model for two different climatic seasons. Second, we used simulated networks and greater variation in epidemiological parameters to investigate the conditions in which dynamic networks produce larger outbreak sizes than static networks. We found that average outbreak size of Cryptosporidium infections in sifakas was larger when the disease was introduced in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by an increase in home range overlap towards the end of the dry season. Regardless of season, dynamic networks always produced larger average outbreak sizes than static networks. Larger outbreaks in dynamic models based on simulated networks occurred especially when the probability of transmission and recovery were low. Variation in tie strength in the dynamic networks also had a major impact on outbreak size, while network modularity had a weaker influence than epidemiological parameters that determine transmission and recovery
A fluid model for Helicobacter pylori
Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric
2015-11-01
Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.
Multiscale Modeling of Multiphase Fluid Flow
2016-08-01
was compared to the original equilibrium volume of the neat solvent as a measure of the solubility of carbon dioxide and ammonia in pure water and...temperature and two-temperature models has been used, in which either local thermal equilibrium ( LTE ) between PCM and foams was assumed, or the...solved in the simulations. 6.2.2 Direct Numerical Simulation of PCM in Foam Without the need for extra ad hoc assumptions such as LTE , direct
Experimental Evaluation of Equivalent-Fluid Models for Melamine Foam
Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.
2016-01-01
Melamine foam is a soft porous material commonly used in noise control applications. Many models exist to represent porous materials at various levels of fidelity. This work focuses on rigid frame equivalent fluid models, which represent the foam as a fluid with a complex speed of sound and density. There are several empirical models available to determine these frequency dependent parameters based on an estimate of the material flow resistivity. Alternatively, these properties can be experimentally educed using an impedance tube setup. Since vibroacoustic models are generally sensitive to these properties, this paper assesses the accuracy of several empirical models relative to impedance tube measurements collected with melamine foam samples. Diffuse field sound absorption measurements collected using large test articles in a laboratory are also compared with absorption predictions determined using model-based and measured foam properties. Melamine foam slabs of various thicknesses are considered.
Lattice Boltzmann model for three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow
Xie, Chiyu; Lei, Wenhai; Wang, Moran
2018-02-01
A lattice Boltzmann (LB) framework is developed for simulation of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flows in complex geometries. This model is based on a Rothman-Keller type model for immiscible multiphase flows which ensures mass conservation of each component in porous media even for a high density ratio. To account for the viscoelastic effects, the Maxwell constitutive relation is correctly introduced into the momentum equation, which leads to a modified lattice Boltzmann evolution equation for Maxwell fluids by removing the normal but excess viscous term. Our simulation tests indicate that this excess viscous term may induce significant errors. After three benchmark cases, the displacement processes of oil by dispersed polymer are studied as a typical example of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow. The results show that increasing either the polymer intrinsic viscosity or the elastic modulus will enhance the oil recovery.
Development of models of the magnetorheological fluid damper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kazakov, Yu.B., E-mail: elmash@em.ispu.ru; Morozov, N.A.; Nesterov, S.A., E-mail: sergeinesterov37@gmail.com
2017-06-01
The algorithm for analytical calculation of a power characteristic of magnetorheological (MR) dampers taking into account the rheological properties of MR fluid is considered. The nonlinear magnetorheological characteristics are represented by piecewise linear approximation to MR fluid areas with different viscosities. The extended calculated power characteristics of a MR damper are received and they coincide with actual results. The finite element model of a MR damper is developed; it allows carrying out the analysis of a MR damper taking into account the mutual influence of electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and thermal fields. The results of finite element simulation coincide with analytical solutions that allows using them for design development of a MR damper. - Highlights: • Division of a MR fluid rheological curve into two sections with different viscosities. • Algorithm for calculation of a power characteristic of MR dampers is proposed. • Finite element model of a MR damper is developed. • Results of finite element simulation coincide with analytical solutions.
A North American model to contain the spread of Aedes albopictus through tire legislation.
Novak, R J
1995-12-01
The introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the United States has been facilitated by used or waste tires. This species has not only caused considerable concern among public health officials but also highlighted that the growing accumulations of used tires are a serious solid waste problem and a challenge to the recycling industry. This paper illustrates how the State of Illinois addressed the public health and solid waste problems associated with waste tires, mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens. The goal of the State was to develop and implement through legislative process the Illinois Waste Tire Act. The purpose of the Waste Tire Act is: 1) to ensure that used and waste tires are collected for disposal and recycling, 2) to provide for the abatement of used and waste tire dumps and associated threats to public health, 3) to encourage the development of used and waste tire processing facilities and technologies, including energy recovery, and 4) to provide for research on vectors associated with used and waste tires, and the diseases they spread. The discussion will include key statutes from the Act and the model used to coordinate the effort of five different governmental agencies. An up-to-date presentation of vector-related research, mandated by the Act, ranging from applied investigations on mosquito control to more basic studies investigations on virus identification using molecular technology will be discussed. Finally a discussion of problems that have been encountered along with solutions dealing with legislative language, multidisciplined agency efforts and interactions with the general public are presented.
Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Sotero, Roberto C; Toussaint, Paule J; Evans, Alan C
2014-11-01
Misfolded proteins (MP) are a key component in aging and associated neurodegenerative disorders. For example, misfolded Amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau proteins are two neuropathogenic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Mechanisms underlying intra-brain MP propagation/deposition remain essentially uncharacterized. Here, is introduced an epidemic spreading model (ESM) for MP dynamics that considers propagation-like interactions between MP agents and the brain's clearance response across the structural connectome. The ESM reproduces advanced Aß deposition patterns in the human brain (explaining 46∼56% of the variance in regional Aß loads, in 733 subjects from the ADNI database). Furthermore, this model strongly supports a) the leading role of Aß clearance deficiency and early Aß onset age during Alzheimer's disease progression, b) that effective anatomical distance from Aß outbreak region explains regional Aß arrival time and Aß deposition likelihood, c) the multi-factorial impact of APOE e4 genotype, gender and educational level on lifetime intra-brain Aß propagation, and d) the modulatory impact of Aß propagation history on tau proteins concentrations, supporting the hypothesis of an interrelated pathway between Aß pathophysiology and tauopathy. To our knowledge, the ESM is the first computational model highlighting the direct link between structural brain networks, production/clearance of pathogenic proteins and associated intercellular transfer mechanisms, individual genetic/demographic properties and clinical states in health and disease. In sum, the proposed ESM constitutes a promising framework to clarify intra-brain region to region transference mechanisms associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasser Iturria-Medina
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Misfolded proteins (MP are a key component in aging and associated neurodegenerative disorders. For example, misfolded Amyloid-ß (Aß and tau proteins are two neuropathogenic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Mechanisms underlying intra-brain MP propagation/deposition remain essentially uncharacterized. Here, is introduced an epidemic spreading model (ESM for MP dynamics that considers propagation-like interactions between MP agents and the brain's clearance response across the structural connectome. The ESM reproduces advanced Aß deposition patterns in the human brain (explaining 46∼56% of the variance in regional Aß loads, in 733 subjects from the ADNI database. Furthermore, this model strongly supports a the leading role of Aß clearance deficiency and early Aß onset age during Alzheimer's disease progression, b that effective anatomical distance from Aß outbreak region explains regional Aß arrival time and Aß deposition likelihood, c the multi-factorial impact of APOE e4 genotype, gender and educational level on lifetime intra-brain Aß propagation, and d the modulatory impact of Aß propagation history on tau proteins concentrations, supporting the hypothesis of an interrelated pathway between Aß pathophysiology and tauopathy. To our knowledge, the ESM is the first computational model highlighting the direct link between structural brain networks, production/clearance of pathogenic proteins and associated intercellular transfer mechanisms, individual genetic/demographic properties and clinical states in health and disease. In sum, the proposed ESM constitutes a promising framework to clarify intra-brain region to region transference mechanisms associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders.
Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane
2016-06-01
Malaria is a critical infection caused by parasites which are spread to humans through mosquito bites. Approximately half of the world's population is in peril of getting infected by malaria. Mosquito-borne diseases have a standard behavior where they are transmitted in the same manner, only through vector mosquito. Taking this into account, a generic spatial-temporal model for transmission of multiple mosquito-borne diseases had been formulated. Our interest is to reproduce the actual cases of different mosquito-borne diseases using the generic model and then predict future cases so as to improve control and target measures competently. In this paper, we utilize notified weekly malaria cases in four districts in Sarawak, Malaysia, namely Kapit, Song, Belaga and Marudi. The actual cases for 36 weeks, which is from week 39 in 2012 to week 22 in 2013, are compared with simulations of the generic spatial-temporal transmission mosquito-borne diseases model. We observe that the simulation results display corresponding result to the actual malaria cases in the four districts.
Plasmon point spread functions: How do we model plasmon-mediated emission processes?
Willets, Katherine A.
2014-02-01
A major challenge with studying plasmon-mediated emission events is the small size of plasmonic nanoparticles relative to the wavelength of light. Objects smaller than roughly half the wavelength of light will appear as diffraction-limited spots in far-field optical images, presenting a significant experimental challenge for studying plasmonic processes on the nanoscale. Super-resolution imaging has recently been applied to plasmonic nanosystems and allows plasmon-mediated emission to be resolved on the order of ˜5 nm. In super-resolution imaging, a diffraction-limited spot is fit to some model function in order to calculate the position of the emission centroid, which represents the location of the emitter. However, the accuracy of the centroid position strongly depends on how well the fitting function describes the data. This Perspective discusses the commonly used two-dimensional Gaussian fitting function applied to super-resolution imaging of plasmon-mediated emission, then introduces an alternative model based on dipole point spread functions. The two fitting models are compared and contrasted for super-resolution imaging of nanoparticle scattering/luminescence, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and surface-enhanced fluorescence.
Landau fluid model for weakly nonlinear dispersive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.
2005-01-01
In may astrophysical plasmas such as the solar wind, the terrestrial magnetosphere, or in the interstellar medium at small enough scales, collisions are negligible. When interested in the large-scale dynamics, a hydrodynamic approach is advantageous not only because its numerical simulations is easier than of the full Vlasov-Maxwell equations, but also because it provides a deep understanding of cross-scale nonlinear couplings. It is thus of great interest to construct fluid models that extended the classical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to collisionless situations. Two ingredients need to be included in such a model to capture the main kinetic effects: finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and Landau damping, the only fluid-particle resonance that can affect large scales and can be modeled in a relatively simple way. The Modelization of Landau damping in a fluid formalism is hardly possible in the framework of a systematic asymptotic expansion and was addressed mainly by means of parameter fitting in a linearized setting. We introduced a similar Landau fluid model but, that has the advantage of taking dispersive effects into account. This model properly describes dispersive MHD waves in quasi-parallel propagation. Since, by construction, the system correctly reproduces their linear dynamics, appropriate tests should address the nonlinear regime. In a first case, we show analytically that the weakly nonlinear modulational dynamics of quasi-parallel propagating Alfven waves is well captured. As a second test we consider the parametric decay instability of parallel Alfven waves and show that numerical simulations of the dispersive Landau fluid model lead to results that closely match the outcome of hybrid simulations. (Author)
Multiscale modeling for fluid transport in nanosystems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jonathan W.; Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.
2013-09-01
Atomistic-scale behavior drives performance in many micro- and nano-fluidic systems, such as mircrofludic mixers and electrical energy storage devices. Bringing this information into the traditionally continuum models used for engineering analysis has proved challenging. This work describes one such approach to address this issue by developing atomistic-to-continuum multi scale and multi physics methods to enable molecular dynamics (MD) representations of atoms to incorporated into continuum simulations. Coupling is achieved by imposing constraints based on fluxes of conserved quantities between the two regions described by one of these models. The impact of electric fields and surface charges are also critical, hence, methodologies to extend finite-element (FE) MD electric field solvers have been derived to account for these effects. Finally, the continuum description can have inconsistencies with the coarse-grained MD dynamics, so FE equations based on MD statistics were derived to facilitate the multi scale coupling. Examples are shown relevant to nanofluidic systems, such as pore flow, Couette flow, and electric double layer.
Nigsch, Annette; Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony A; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Wieland, Barbara
2013-03-01
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral pig disease with high mortality and serious socio-economic consequences. Since ASF emerged in Georgia in 2007 the disease has spread to several neighbouring countries and cases have been detected in areas bordering the European Union (EU). It is uncertain how fast the virus would be able to spread within the unrestricted European trading area if it were introduced into the EU. This project therefore aimed to develop a model for the spread of ASF within and between the 27 Member States (MS) of the EU during the high risk period (HRP) and to identify MS during that period would most likely contribute to ASF spread ("super-spreaders") or MS that would most likely receive cases from other MS ("super-receivers"). A stochastic spatio-temporal state-transition model using simulated individual farm records was developed to assess silent ASF virus spread during different predefined HRPs of 10-60 days duration. Infection was seeded into farms of different pig production types in each of the 27 MS. Direct pig-to-pig transmission and indirect transmission routes (pig transport lorries and professional contacts) were considered the main pathways during the early stages of an epidemic. The model was parameterised using data collated from EUROSTAT, TRACES, a questionnaire sent to MS, and the scientific literature. Model outputs showed that virus circulation was generally limited to 1-2 infected premises per outbreak (95% IQR: 1-4; maximum: 10) with large breeder farms as index case resulting in most infected premises. Seven MS caused between-MS spread due to intra-Community trade during the first 10 days after seeding infection. For a HRP of 60 days from virus introduction, movements of infected pigs will originate at least once from 16 MS, with 6 MS spreading ASF in more than 10% of iterations. Two thirds of all intra-Community spread was linked to six trade links only. Denmark, the Netherlands, Lithuania and Latvia were identified
Sathyan, Dhanya; Anand, K. B.; Jose, Chinnu; Aravind, N. R.
2018-02-01
Super plasticizers(SPs) are added to the concrete to improve its workability with out changing the water cement ratio. Property of fresh concrete is mainly governed by the cement paste which depends on the dispersion of cement particle. Cement dispersive properties of the SP depends up on its dosage and the family. Mini slump spread diameter with different dosages and families of SP is taken as the measure of workability characteristic of cement paste chosen for measuring the rheological properties of cement paste. The main purpose of this study includes measure the dispersive ability of different families of SP by conducting minislump test and model the minislump spread diameter of the super plasticized Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC)paste using regularized least square (RLS) approach along with the application of Random kitchen sink (RKS) algorithm. For preparing test and training data for the model 287 different mixes were prepared in the laboratory at a water cement ratio of 0.37 using four locally available brand of Portland Pozzolona cement (PPC) and SP belonging to four different families. Water content, cement weight and amount of SP (by considering it as seven separate input based on their family and brand) were the input parameters and mini slump spread diameter was the output parameter for the model. The variation of predicted and measured values of spread diameters were compared and validated. From this study it was observed that, the model could effectively predict the minislump spread of cement paste
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Expressions for linearized perturbations in ideal-fluid cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratra, B.
1988-01-01
We present closed-form solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations (in synchronous gauge) that govern the evolution of inhomogeneities in homogeneous, spatially flat, ideal-fluid, cosmological models. These expressions, which are valid for irregularities on any scale, allow one to analytically interpolate between the known approximate solutions which are valid at early times and at late times
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of Blood Under Periodic Body Acceleration. ... The variation in body acceleration amplitude though affects the velocity profile in the capillary tubes, it has no effect on the leakback in the tubes. Leakback is mainly determined by the balance of the viscous drag and ...
Modeling fluid transport in 2d paper networks
Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Fereira Silva, Ademir; Esteves Ferreira, Matheus; Lopez Candela, William Fernando; Bryant, Peter William; Ohta, Ricardo Luis; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias Bernhard
2018-02-01
Paper-based microfluidic devices offer great potential as a low-cost platform to perform chemical and biochemical tests. Commercially available formats such as dipsticks and lateral-flow test devices are widely popular as they are easy to handle and produce fast and unambiguous results. While these simple devices lack precise control over the flow to enable integration of complex functionality for multi-step processes or the ability to multiplex several tests, intense research in this area is rapidly expanding the possibilities. Modeling and simulation is increasingly more instrumental in gaining insight into the underlying physics driving the processes inside the channels, however simulation of flow in paper-based microfluidic devices has barely been explored to aid in the optimum design and prototyping of these devices for precise control of the flow. In this paper, we implement a multiphase fluid flow model through porous media for the simulation of paper imbibition of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid such as when water, urine or serum is employed. The formulation incorporates mass and momentum conservation equations under Stokes flow conditions and results in two coupled Darcy's law equations for the pressures and saturations of the wetting and non-wetting phases, further simplified to the Richard's equation for the saturation of the wetting fluid, which is then solved using a Finite Element solver. The model tracks the wetting fluid front as it displaces the non-wetting fluid by computing the time-dependent saturation of the wetting fluid. We apply this to the study of liquid transport in two-dimensional paper networks and validate against experimental data concerning the wetting dynamics of paper layouts of varying geometries.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Bootsma, M. C. J.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.
In this study a mathematical model for the spread of ESBL resistant E.coli among patients in a hospital and the surrounding catchment population has been introduced and used to described prevalence data from the Netherlands. Several statistical methods have been applied to estimate the model...
The Applicability of Fluid Model to Electrical Breakdown and Glow Discharge Modeling in Argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stankov, M. N.; Marković, V. Lj.; Stamenković, S. N.; Jovanović, A. P.; Petković, M. D.
2015-01-01
The simple fluid model, an extended fluid model, and the fluid model with nonlocal ionization are applied for the calculations of static breakdown voltages, Paschen curves and current-voltage characteristics. The best agreement with the experimental data for the Paschen curve modeling is achieved by using the model with variable secondary electron yield. The modeling of current-voltage characteristics is performed for different inter-electrode distances and the results are compared with the experimental data. The fluid model with nonlocal ionization shows an excellent agreement for all inter-electrode distances, while the extended fluid model with variable electron transport coefficients agrees well with measurements at short inter-electrode distances when ionization by fast electrons can be neglected. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Fluid analog model for boundary effects in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, L. H.; Svaiter, N. F.
2009-01-01
Quantum fluctuations in the density of a fluid with a linear phonon dispersion relation are studied. In particular, we treat the changes in these fluctuations due to nonclassical states of phonons and to the presence of boundaries. These effects are analogous to similar effects in relativistic quantum field theory, and we argue that the case of the fluid is a useful analog model for effects in field theory. We further argue that the changes in the mean squared density are, in principle, observable by light scattering experiments.
A diagnostic model for equatorial spread F. 2. The effect of magnetic activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelley, M.C.; Maruyama, Takashi
1992-01-01
By using a numerical model the authors have studied electric field effects on the generation of equatorial spread F (ESF) in the postmidnight hours. Equatorial electric fields are zonally westward during late evening and postmidnight hours on normal days, while they sometimes reverse to eastward in magnetically disturbed days. The quiet time westward configuration and typical low altitude of the layer results in stable bottomside gradient or at most one with a very low generalized Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate. The model calculation shows that the growth rate becomes significant when the electric field reverses to eastward and may remain so even when the electric field disturbance weakens due to the upward altitude excursion of the layer. These results account for the correlation of ESF occurrence penetration of magnetospheric electric fields during such magnetic activity. The results also show the crucial role of layer height in the physics. They have calculated the growth rates for specific nights in which perturbation of electric fields and plumes were observed at Jicamarca. These case studies suggest that a quantitative requirement for the generation of plumes is that about 10 e-folding times of the linear instability growth occur. They also suggest that a statistical study using ionosonde data could be very valuable in a testing whether a local version of this quantitative measure of event intensity could be useful in predicting plume activity
Mathematical model use for evaluation of radioactivity spreading in nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubik, I.; Gladki, Eh.; Yanchik, O.
1976-01-01
On the basis of knowledges of radioactive products behaviour and their spreading in nuclear power plant under normal and accident conditions a KOMPLEX program is developed in the FORTRAN 4 language, permitting to calculate the activity in separate parts of the nuclear power plant with WWR type reactor. The COMPLEX program includes the following subprograms: AZ - PRIM - for estimating active products in fuel, coolant, on the surfaces of fuel element cans and the primary circuit. The subprogram permits to estimate the coolant activity at the expense of fission fragments for 4 different leakage mechanisms: due to diffusion, considerable fuel element damage, contamination of fuel element can surface and fuel washout by coolant; KOR - the program for estimating active corrosion products; ACT - the program for estimating the activity of activation products; CONT - the program for estimating the activity in the nuclear power plant premises (protection envelop) and ventilating pipe. The desciption of the above subprograms is given. For testing of the mathematical model applicability and the possibilities of the corresponding programs the checking calculations for operating parameters of nuclear power plant with WWR type reactor were carried out. The calculation results obtained have shown the applicability of the model suggested and the corresponding programes for nuclear power plant under normal operation and accident conditions [ru
Point spread function modeling and image restoration for cone-beam CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hua; Shi Yikai; Huang Kuidong; Xu Zhe
2015-01-01
X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CT) has such notable features as high efficiency and precision, and is widely used in the fields of medical imaging and industrial non-destructive testing, but the inherent imaging degradation reduces the quality of CT images. Aimed at the problems of projection image degradation and restoration in cone-beam CT, a point spread function (PSF) modeling method is proposed first. The general PSF model of cone-beam CT is established, and based on it, the PSF under arbitrary scanning conditions can be calculated directly for projection image restoration without the additional measurement, which greatly improved the application convenience of cone-beam CT. Secondly, a projection image restoration algorithm based on pre-filtering and pre-segmentation is proposed, which can make the edge contours in projection images and slice images clearer after restoration, and control the noise in the equivalent level to the original images. Finally, the experiments verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. (authors)
Bradshaw, Jonathan L; Luthy, Richard G
2017-10-17
Infrastructure systems that use stormwater and recycled water to augment groundwater recharge through spreading basins represent cost-effective opportunities to diversify urban water supplies. However, technical questions remain about how these types of managed aquifer recharge systems should be designed; furthermore, existing planning tools are insufficient for performing robust design comparisons. Addressing this need, we present a model for identifying the best-case design and operation schedule for systems that deliver recycled water to underutilized stormwater spreading basins. Resulting systems are optimal with respect to life cycle costs and water deliveries. Through a case study of Los Angeles, California, we illustrate how delivering recycled water to spreading basins could be optimally implemented. Results illustrate trade-offs between centralized and decentralized configurations. For example, while a centralized Hyperion system could deliver more recycled water to the Hansen Spreading Grounds, this system incurs approximately twice the conveyance cost of a decentralized Tillman system (mean of 44% vs 22% of unit life cycle costs). Compared to existing methods, our model allows for more comprehensive and precise analyses of cost, water volume, and energy trade-offs among different design scenarios. This model can inform decisions about spreading basin operation policies and the development of new water supplies.
Numerical Cerebrospinal System Modeling in Fluid-Structure Interaction.
Garnotel, Simon; Salmon, Stéphanie; Balédent, Olivier
2018-01-01
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume in the aqueduct is widely used to evaluate CSF dynamics disorders. In a healthy population, aqueduct stroke volume represents around 10% of the spinal stroke volume while intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume represents 90%. The amplitude of the CSF oscillations through the different compartments of the cerebrospinal system is a function of the geometry and the compliances of each compartment, but we suspect that it could also be impacted be the cardiac cycle frequency. To study this CSF distribution, we have developed a numerical model of the cerebrospinal system taking into account cerebral ventricles, intracranial subarachnoid spaces, spinal canal and brain tissue in fluid-structure interactions. A numerical fluid-structure interaction model is implemented using a finite-element method library to model the cerebrospinal system and its interaction with the brain based on fluid mechanics equations and linear elasticity equations coupled in a monolithic formulation. The model geometry, simplified in a first approach, is designed in accordance with realistic volume ratios of the different compartments: a thin tube is used to mimic the high flow resistance of the aqueduct. CSF velocity and pressure and brain displacements are obtained as simulation results, and CSF flow and stroke volume are calculated from these results. Simulation results show a significant variability of aqueduct stroke volume and intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume in the physiological range of cardiac frequencies. Fluid-structure interactions are numerous in the cerebrospinal system and difficult to understand in the rigid skull. The presented model highlights significant variations of stroke volumes under cardiac frequency variations only.
Assessment of fluid-to-fluid modelling of critical heat flux in horizontal 37-element bundle flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, S.K.
2006-01-01
Fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of critical heat flux (CHF) available in the literature were reviewed. The applicability of the fluid-to-fluid modelling laws was assessed using available data ranging from low to high mass fluxes in horizontal 37-element bundles simulating a CANDU fuel string. Correlations consisting of dimensionless similarity groups were derived using modelling fluid data (Freon-12) to predict water CHF data in horizontal 37-element bundles with uniform and non-uniform axial-heat flux distribution (AFD). The results showed that at mass fluxes higher than ∼4,000 kg/m 2 s (water equivalent value), the vertical fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of Ahmad (1973) and Katto (1979) predict water CHF in horizontal 37-element bundles with non-uniform AFD with average errors of 1.4% and 3.0% and RMS errors of 5.9% and 6.1%, respectively. The Francois and Berthoud (2003) fluid-to-fluid modelling law predicts CHF in non-uniformly heated 37-element bundles in the horizontal orientation with an average error of 0.6% and an RMS error of 10.4% over the available range of 2,000 to 6,200 kg/m 2 s. (author)
Model for the radionuclide measurement of ascitic fluid volumes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, W.D.; Davis, M.A.; Uren, R.F.; Wisotsky, T.; LaTegola, M.
1978-01-01
Technetium-99m phytate colloids formed in vitro and in vivo were examined as radioindicators for estimation of the volume of third-space fluid in an ovarian ascites model using C3HeB/FeJ mice. In double-label experiments, the accuracy of the colloids for dilution analysis was found to be equal or superior to that of I-125 HSA. Sampling times 3 to 5 min after intraperitoneal administration were found to produce the best volume estimates. Four needle-stopcock assemblies inserted sequentially into the quadrants of the peritoneal cavity were used for administration and sampling of the radioindicators. The stopcocks could be closed to prevent leakage of ascitic fluid during the procedure. In contrast to radiolabeled albumin, Tc-99m phytate colloids have clinical use for simultaneous imaging of radiotracer migration to assess potential occlusion of diaphragmatic lymphatics by neoplastic cells, and for dilution analysis to estimate volume of ascitic fluid
Fluid coupling in a discrete model of cochlear mechanics.
Elliott, Stephen J; Lineton, Ben; Ni, Guangjian
2011-09-01
A discrete model of cochlear mechanics is introduced that includes a full, three-dimensional, description of fluid coupling. This formulation allows the fluid coupling and basilar membrane dynamics to be analyzed separately and then coupled together with a simple piece of linear algebra. The fluid coupling is initially analyzed using a wavenumber formulation and is separated into one component due to one-dimensional fluid coupling and one comprising all the other contributions. Using the theory of acoustic waves in a duct, however, these two components of the pressure can also be associated with a far field, due to the plane wave, and a near field, due to the evanescent, higher order, modes. The near field components are then seen as one of a number of sources of additional longitudinal coupling in the cochlea. The effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry in the fluid chamber areas can also be taken into account, to predict both the pressure difference between the chambers and the mean pressure. This allows the calculation, for example, of the effect of a short cochlear implant on the coupled response of the cochlea. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Eight equation model for arbitrary shaped pipe conveying fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.
2006-01-01
Linear eight-equation system for two-way coupling of single-phase fluid transient and arbitrary shaped one-dimensional pipeline movement is described and discussed. The governing phenomenon described with this system is also known as Fluid-Structure Interaction. Standard Skalak's four-equation model for axial coupling was improved with additional four Timoshenko's beam equations for description of flexural displacements and rotations. In addition to the conventional eight-equation system that enables coupling of straight sections, the applied mathematical model was improved for description of the arbitrary shaped pipeline located in two-dimensional plane. The applied model was solved with second-order accurate numerical method that is based on Godounov's characteristic upwind schemes. The model was successfully used for simulation of the rod impact induced transient and conventional instantaneous valve closure induced transient in the tank-pipe-valve system. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidaka, M.; Fujii, T.; Sakai, T.
2015-01-01
A debris spreading analysis (DSA) module has been developed and improved. The module is used in the severe accident analysis code SAMPSON and it has models for 3-dimensional natural convection with simultaneous spreading, melting and solidification. The existing analysis method of the quasi-3D boundary transportation to simulate downward concrete erosion for evaluation of molten-core concrete interaction (MCCI) was improved to full-3D to solve, for instance, debris lateral erosion under concrete floors at the bottom of the sump pit. In the advanced MCCI model, buffer cells were defined in order to solve numerical problems in case of trammel formation. Mass, momentum, and the advection term of energy between the debris melt cells and the buffer cells are solved. On the other hand, only the heat transfer and thermal conduction are solved between the debris melt cells and the structure cells, and the crust cells and the structure cells. As a preliminary analysis, a validation calculation was performed for erosion that occurred in the core-concrete interaction (CCI-2) test in the OECD/MCCI program. Comparison between the calculation and the CCI-2 test results showed the analysis has the ability to simulate debris lateral erosion under concrete floors. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loredana Leo
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2 is an autosomal dominant form of migraine with aura that is caused by mutations of the α2-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, an isoform almost exclusively expressed in astrocytes in the adult brain. We generated the first FHM2 knock-in mouse model carrying the human W887R mutation in the Atp1a2 orthologous gene. Homozygous Atp1a2(R887/R887 mutants died just after birth, while heterozygous Atp1a2(+/R887 mice showed no apparent clinical phenotype. The mutant α2 Na,K-ATPase protein was barely detectable in the brain of homozygous mutants and strongly reduced in the brain of heterozygous mutants, likely as a consequence of endoplasmic reticulum retention and subsequent proteasomal degradation, as we demonstrate in transfected cells. In vivo analysis of cortical spreading depression (CSD, the phenomenon underlying migraine aura, revealed a decreased induction threshold and an increased velocity of propagation in the heterozygous FHM2 mouse. Since several lines of evidence involve a specific role of the glial α2 Na,K pump in active reuptake of glutamate from the synaptic cleft, we hypothesize that CSD facilitation in the FHM2 mouse model is sustained by inefficient glutamate clearance by astrocytes and consequent increased cortical excitatory neurotransmission. The demonstration that FHM2 and FHM1 mutations share the ability to facilitate induction and propagation of CSD in mouse models further support the role of CSD as a key migraine trigger.
Tilles, Paulo F C; Petrovskii, Sergei V
2016-07-01
Patterns of individual animal movement have been a focus of considerable attention recently. Of particular interest is a question how different macroscopic properties of animal dispersal result from the stochastic processes occurring on the microscale of the individual behavior. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive analytical study of a model where the animal changes the movement velocity as a result of its behavioral response to environmental stochasticity. The stochasticity is assumed to manifest itself through certain signals, and the animal modifies its velocity as a response to the signals. We consider two different cases, i.e. where the change in the velocity is or is not correlated to its current value. We show that in both cases the early, transient stage of the animal movement is super-diffusive, i.e. ballistic. The large-time asymptotic behavior appears to be diffusive in the uncorrelated case but super-ballistic in the correlated case. We also calculate analytically the dispersal kernel of the movement and show that, whilst it converge to a normal distribution in the large-time limit, it possesses a fatter tail during the transient stage, i.e. at early and intermediate time. Since the transients are known to be highly relevant in ecology, our findings may indicate that the fat tails and superdiffusive spread that are sometimes observed in the movement data may be a feature of the transitional dynamics rather than an inherent property of the animal movement.
Yang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qinghe; Hao, Linnan
2015-03-01
A water-fluid mud coupling model is developed based on the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate the fluid mud motion. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the overlying water column are solved using the original three-dimensional ocean model. A horizontal two-dimensional fluid mud model is integrated into the FVCOM model to simulate the underlying fluid mud flow. The fluid mud interacts with the water column through the sediment flux, current, and shear stress. The friction factor between the fluid mud and the bed, which is traditionally determined empirically, is derived with the assumption that the vertical distribution of shear stress below the yield surface of fluid mud is identical to that of uniform laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in the open channel. The model is validated by experimental data and reasonable agreement is found. Compared with numerical cases with fixed friction factors, the results simulated with the derived friction factor exhibit the best agreement with the experiment, which demonstrates the necessity of the derivation of the friction factor.
Damage spreading at the corner-filling transition in the two-dimensional Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubio Puzzo, M Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V
2007-01-01
The propagation of damage on the square Ising lattice with a corner geometry is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. By imposing free boundary conditions at which competing boundary magnetic fields ± h are applied, the system undergoes a filling transition at a temperature T f (h) lower than the Onsager critical temperature T C . The competing fields cause the formation of two magnetic domains with opposite orientation of the magnetization, separated by an interface that for T larger than T f (h) (but T C ) runs along the diagonal of the sample that connects the corners where the magnetic fields of different orientation meet. Also, for T f (h) this interface is localized either close to the corner where the magnetic field is positive or close to the opposite one, with the same probability. It is found that, just at T = T f (h), the damage initially propagates along the interface of the competing domains, according to a power law given by D(t) ∝ t η . The value obtained for the dynamic exponent (η* = 0.89(1)) is in agreement with that corresponding to the wetting transition in the slit geometry (Abraham model) given by η WT = 0.91(1). However, for later times the propagation crosses to a new regime such as η** = 0.40(2), which is due to the propagation of the damage into the bulk of the magnetic domains. This result can be understood as being due to the constraints imposed on the propagation of damage by the corner geometry of the system that cause healing at the corners where the interface is attached. The critical points for the damage-spreading transition (T D (h)) are evaluated by extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit by using a finite-size scaling approach. Considering error bars, an overlap between the filling and the damage-spreading transitions is found, such that T f (h) = T D (h). The probability distribution of the damage average position P(l 0 D ) and that of the interface between magnetic domains of different orientation P(l 0 ) are
Cardioplegia heat exchanger design modelling using computational fluid dynamics.
van Driel, M R
2000-11-01
A new cardioplegia heat exchanger has been developed by Sorin Biomedica. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. CFD optimization techniques have commonly been applied to velocity flow field analysis, but CFD analysis was also used in this study to predict the heat exchange performance of the design before prototype fabrication. The iterative results of the optimization and the actual heat exchange performance of the final configuration are presented in this paper. Based on the behaviour of this model, both the water and blood fluid flow paths of the heat exchanger were optimized. The simulation predicted superior heat exchange performance using an optimal amount of energy exchange surface area, reducing the total contact surface area, the device priming volume and the material costs. Experimental results confirm the empirical results predicted by the CFD analysis.
Cosmological effects of a class of fluid dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carturan, Daniela; Finelli, Fabio
2003-01-01
We study the impact of a generalized Chaplygin gas as a candidate for dark energy on density perturbations and on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The generalized Chaplygin gas is a fluid component with an exotic equation of state p=-A/ρ α (a polytropic gas with negative constant and exponent). Such a component interpolates in time between dust and a cosmological constant, with an intermediate behavior as p=A 1/(1+α) +αρ. Perturbations of this fluid are stable on small scales but behave in a very different way with respect to standard quintessence. Moreover, a generalized Chaplygin gas could also represent an archetypal example of the phenomenological unified models of dark energy and dark matter. The results presented here show how CMB anisotropies and density perturbations in this class of models differ from those of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant
Fluid mechanics and heat transfer advances in nonlinear dynamics modeling
Asli, Kaveh Hariri
2015-01-01
This valuable new book focuses on new methods and techniques in fluid mechanics and heat transfer in mechanical engineering. The book includes the research of the authors on the development of optimal mathematical models and also uses modern computer technology and mathematical methods for the analysis of nonlinear dynamic processes. It covers technologies applicable to both fluid mechanics and heat transfer problems, which include a combination of physical, mechanical, and thermal techniques. The authors develop a new method for the calculation of mathematical models by computer technology, using parametric modeling techniques and multiple analyses for mechanical system. The information in this book is intended to help reduce the risk of system damage or failure. Included are sidebar discussions, which contain information and facts about each subject area that help to emphasize important points to remember.
Mathematical Modelling of Fluid Flow in Cone and Cavitation Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milada KOZUBKOVÁ
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Problem of cavitation is the undesirable phenomena occuring in the fluid flow in many hydraulic application (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.. Therefore this is in the focus of interest using experimental and mathematical methods. Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience [1], [2], [4], following problem described as the water flow at the outlet from turbine blade wheel was solved. Primarily the problem is simplified into modelling of water flow in cone. Profiles of axial, radial and tangential velocity are defined on inlet zone. The value of pressure is defined on the outlet. Boundary conditions were defined by main investigator of the grant project – Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan’s Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. The value of air volume was insignificant. Cavitation was solved by Singhal model of cavitation.
A computer model for dispersed fluid-solid turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.H.; Tulig, T.J.
1985-01-01
A computer model is being developed to simulate two-phase turbulent flow phenomena in fluids containing finely dispersed solids. The model is based on a dual-continuum picture of the individual phases and an extension of a two-equation turbulence closure theory. The resulting set of nonlinear partial differential equations are solved using a finite difference procedure with special treatment to promote convergence. The model has been checked against a number of idealized flow problems with known solutions. The authors are currently comparing model predictions with measurements to determine a proper set of turbulence parameters needed for simulating two-phase turbulent flows
A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Sidikman, K.L.
1995-09-01
A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes is developed which focuses on an improved description of the ion dynamics. The model is simple enough to allow nonlinear calculations with many harmonics for the times necessary to reach saturation. The model is motivated by a discussion that starts with the gyro-kinetic equation and emphasizes the importance of simultaneously including particular features of magnetic drift resonance, shear, and Landau effects. To ensure that these features are simultaneously incorporated in a Landau fluid model with only two evolution equations, a new approach to determining the closure coefficients is employed. The effect of this technique is to reduce the matching of fluid and kinetic responses to a single variable, rather than two, and to allow focusing on essential features of the fluctuations in question, rather than features that are only important for other types of fluctuations. Radially resolved nonlinear calculations of this model, advanced in time to reach saturation, are presented to partially illustrate its intended use. These calculations have a large number of poloidal and toroidal harmonics to represent the nonlinear dynamics in a converged steady state which includes cascading of energy to both short and long wavelengths
Review and comparison of bi-fluid interpenetration mixing models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enaux, C.
2006-01-01
Today, there is a lot of bi-fluid models with two different speeds: Baer-Nunziato models; Godunov-Romensky models. coupled Euler's equations, and so on. In this report, one compares the most used models in the fields of physics and mathematics while basing this study on the literature. From the point of view of physics. for each model. one reviews: -) the type of mixture considered and modeling assumptions, -) the technique of construction, -) some properties like the respect of thermodynamical principles, the respect of the Galilean invariance principle, or the equilibrium conservation. From the point of view of mathematics, for each model, one looks at: -) the possibility of writing the equations in conservative form, -) hyperbolicity, -) the existence of a mathematical entropy. Finally, a unified review of the models is proposed. It is shown that under certain closing assumptions or for certain flow types. some of the models become equivalent. (author)
Modeling the long-term effects of introduced herbivores on the spread of an invasive tree
Zhang, Bo; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Rayamajhi, Min B.; Botkin, Daniel B.
2017-01-01
ContextMelaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (hereafter melaleuca) is an invasive tree from Australia that has spread over the freshwater ecosystems of southern Florida, displacing native vegetation, thus threatening native biodiversity. Suppression of melaleuca appears to be progressing through the introduction of insect species, the weevil, Oxiops vitiosa, and the psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae.ObjectiveTo improve understanding of the possible effects of herbivory on the landscape dynamics of melaleuca in native southern Florida plant communities.MethodsWe projected likely future changes in plant communities using the individual based modeling platform, JABOWA-II, by simulating successional processes occurring in two types of southern Florida habitat, cypress swamp and bay swamp, occupied by native species and melaleuca, with the impact of insect herbivores.ResultsComputer simulations show melaleuca invasion leads to decreases in density and basal area of native species, but herbivory would effectively control melaleuca to low levels, resulting in a recovery of native species. When herbivory was modeled on pure melaleuca stands, it was more effective in stands with initially larger-sized melaleuca. Although the simulated herbivory did not eliminate melaleuca, it decreased its presence dramatically in all cases, supporting the long-term effectiveness of herbivory in controlling melaleuca invasion.ConclusionsThe results provide three conclusions relevant to management: (1) The introduction of insect herbivory that has been applied to melaleuca appears sufficient to suppress melaleuca over the long term, (2) dominant native species may recover in about 50 years, and (3) regrowth of native species will further suppress melaleuca through competition.
Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauro Pietribiasi
Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.
R.K. Meentemeyer; N.J. Cunniffe; A.R. Cook; J.A.N. Filipe; R.D. Hunter; D.M. Rizzo; C.A. Gilligan
2011-01-01
The spread of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in natural environments poses substantial risks to biodiversity and ecosystem function. As EIDs and their impacts grow, landscape- to regional-scale models of disease dynamics are increasingly needed for quantitative prediction of epidemic outcomes and design of practicable strategies for control. Here we use spatio-...
C. Anand; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; S. McAllister; D. R. Weise
2017-01-01
A computational study was performed to improve our understanding of the ignition of live fuel in the forced ignition and flame spread test apparatus, a setup where the impact of the heating mode is investigated by subjecting the fuel to forced convection and radiation. An improvement was first made in the physics-based model WFDS where the fuel is treated as fixed...
Hara, T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.
2003-01-01
We consider spread-out models of self-avoiding walk, bond percolation, lattice trees and bond lattice animals on ${\\mathbb{Z}^d}$, having long finite-range connections, above their upper critical dimensions $d=4$ (self-avoiding walk), $d=6$ (percolation) and $d=8$ (trees and animals). The two-point
Propositions for a PDF model based on fluid particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.
1997-05-01
This paper describes theoretical propositions to model the acceleration of a fluid particle in a turbulent flow. Such a model is useful for the PDF approach to turbulent reactive flows as well as for the Lagrangian modelling of two-phase flows. The model developed here draws from ideas already put forward by Sawford but which are generalized to the case of non-homogeneous flows. The model is built so as to revert continuously to Pope's model, which uses a Langevin equation for particle velocities, when the Reynolds number becomes very high. The derivation is based on the technique of fast variable elimination. This technique allow a careful analysis of the relations between different levels of modelling. It also allows to address certain problems in a more rigorous way. In particular, application of this technique shows that models presently used can in principle simulate bubbly flows including the pressure-gradient and added-mass forces. (author)
Aland, Sebastian; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel
2012-10-01
Colloid particles that are partially wetted by two immiscible fluids can become confined to fluid-fluid interfaces. At sufficiently high volume fractions, the colloids may jam and the interface may crystallize. The fluids together with the interfacial colloids form an emulsion with interesting material properties and offer an important route to new soft materials. A promising approach to simulate these emulsions was presented in Aland et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 062103 (2011)], where a Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model for the macroscopic two-phase fluid system was combined with a surface phase-field-crystal model for the microscopic colloidal particles along the interface. Unfortunately this model leads to spurious velocities which require very fine spatial and temporal resolutions to accurately and stably simulate. In this paper we develop an improved Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard-surface phase-field-crystal model based on the principles of mass conservation and thermodynamic consistency. To validate our approach, we derive a sharp interface model and show agreement with the improved diffuse interface model. Using simple flow configurations, we show that the new model has much better properties and does not lead to spurious velocities. Finally, we demonstrate the solid-like behavior of the crystallized interface by simulating the fall of a solid ball through a colloid-laden multiphase fluid.
Yao, Yina; Li, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Rui
2017-10-01
It is quite important to clearly understand the dynamic and freezing process of water droplets impacting a cold substrate for the prevention of ice accretion. In this study, a three-dimensional model including an extended phase change method was developed on OpenFOAM platform to simulate the impact, spreading and freezing of a water droplet on a cooled solid substrate. Both normal and oblique impact conditions were studied numerically. The evolution of the droplet shape and dynamic characteristics such as area ratio and spread factor were compared between numerical and experimental results. Good agreements were obtained. The effects of Weber number and Ohnersorge number on the oblique impact and freezing process were investigated. A regime map which depicts the different responses of droplets as a function of normal Weber number and Ohnesorge number was obtained. Moreover, the impact, spreading and freezing behaviour of water droplets were analyzed in detail from the numerical results.
Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior
Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad
2005-01-01
This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.
Modelling of reactive fluid transport in deformable porous rocks
Yarushina, V. M.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.
2009-04-01
One outstanding challenge in geology today is the formulation of an understanding of the interaction between rocks and fluids. Advances in such knowledge are important for a broad range of geologic settings including partial melting and subsequent migration and emplacement of a melt into upper levels of the crust, or fluid flow during regional metamorphism and metasomatism. Rock-fluid interaction involves heat and mass transfer, deformation, hydrodynamic flow, and chemical reactions, thereby necessitating its consideration as a complex process coupling several simultaneous mechanisms. Deformation, chemical reactions, and fluid flow are coupled processes. Each affects the others. Special effort is required for accurate modelling of the porosity field through time. Mechanical compaction of porous rocks is usually treated under isothermal or isoentropic simplifying assumptions. However, joint consideration of both mechanical compaction and reactive porosity alteration requires somewhat greater than usual care about thermodynamic consistency. Here we consider the modelling of multi-component, multi-phase systems, which is fundamental to the study of fluid-rock interaction. Based on the conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy in the form adopted in the theory of mixtures, we derive a thermodynamically admissible closed system of equations describing the coupling of heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and fluid flow in a deformable solid matrix. Geological environments where reactive transport is important are located at different depths and accordingly have different rheologies. In the near surface, elastic or elastoplastic properties would dominate, whereas viscoplasticity would have a profound effect deeper in the lithosphere. Poorly understood rheologies of heterogeneous porous rocks are derived from well understood processes (i.e., elasticity, viscosity, plastic flow, fracturing, and their combinations) on the microscale by considering a
Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.
Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2010-09-24
We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model.
Computational fluid dynamics modelling of displacement natural ventilation.
Ji, Yingchun
2005-01-01
Natural ventilation is widely recognised as contributing towards low-energy building design. The requirement to reduce energy usage in new buildings has rejuvenated interest in natural ventilation. This thesis deals with computer modelling of natural displacement ventilation driven either by buoyancy or buoyancy combined with wind forces. Two benchmarks have been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to evaluate the accuracy with which CFD is able to mo...
Internal Stress in a Model Elasto-Plastic Fluid
Ooshida, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Ken
2004-01-01
Plastic materials can carry memory of past mechanical treatment in the form of internal stress. We introduce a natural definition of the vorticity of internal stress in a simple two-dimensional model of elasto-plastic fluids, which generates the internal stress. We demonstrate how the internal stress is induced under external loading, and how the presence of the internal stress modifies the plastic behavior.
Cellular-automata supercomputers for fluid-dynamics modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margolus, N.; Toffoli, T.; Vichniac, G.
1986-01-01
We report recent developments in the modeling of fluid dynamics, and give experimental results (including dynamical exponents) obtained using cellular automata machines. Because of their locality and uniformity, cellular automata lend themselves to an extremely efficient physical realization; with a suitable architecture, an amount of hardware resources comparable to that of a home computer can achieve (in the simulation of cellular automata) the performance of a conventional supercomputer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodríguez y Silva, F.; Guijarro, M.; Madrigal, J.; Jiménez, E.; Molina, J.R.; Hernando, C.; Vélez, R.; Vega, J.A.
2017-11-01
Aims of study: To conduct the first full-scale crown fire experiment carried out in a Mediterranean conifer stand in Spain; to use different data sources to assess crown fire initiation and spread models, and to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Area of study: The Sierra Morena mountains (Coordinates ETRS89 30N: X: 284793-285038; Y: 4218650-4218766), southern Spain, and the outdoor facilities of the Lourizán Forest Research Centre, northwestern Spain. Material and methods: The full-scale crown fire experiment was conducted in a young Pinus pinea stand. Field data were compared with data predicted using the most used crown fire spread models. A small-scale experiment was developed with Pinus pinaster trees to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Mass loss calorimeter tests were conducted with P. pinea needles to estimate residence time of the flame, which was used to validate the crown fire spread model. Main results: The commonly used crown fire models underestimated the crown fire spread rate observed in the full-scale experiment, but the proposed new integrated approach yielded better fits. Without wind-forced convection, tree crowns did not ignite until flames from an intense surface fire contacted tree foliage. Bench-scale tests based on radiation heat flux therefore offer a limited insight to full-scale phenomena. Research highlights: Existing crown fire behaviour models may underestimate the rate of spread of crown fires in many Mediterranean ecosystems. New bench-scale methods based on flame buoyancy and more crown field experiments allowing detailed measurements of fire behaviour are needed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodríguez y Silva, F.; Guijarro, M.; Madrigal, J.; Jiménez, E.; Molina, J.R.; Hernando, C.; Vélez, R.; Vega, J.A.
2017-01-01
Aims of study: To conduct the first full-scale crown fire experiment carried out in a Mediterranean conifer stand in Spain; to use different data sources to assess crown fire initiation and spread models, and to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Area of study: The Sierra Morena mountains (Coordinates ETRS89 30N: X: 284793-285038; Y: 4218650-4218766), southern Spain, and the outdoor facilities of the Lourizán Forest Research Centre, northwestern Spain. Material and methods: The full-scale crown fire experiment was conducted in a young Pinus pinea stand. Field data were compared with data predicted using the most used crown fire spread models. A small-scale experiment was developed with Pinus pinaster trees to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Mass loss calorimeter tests were conducted with P. pinea needles to estimate residence time of the flame, which was used to validate the crown fire spread model. Main results: The commonly used crown fire models underestimated the crown fire spread rate observed in the full-scale experiment, but the proposed new integrated approach yielded better fits. Without wind-forced convection, tree crowns did not ignite until flames from an intense surface fire contacted tree foliage. Bench-scale tests based on radiation heat flux therefore offer a limited insight to full-scale phenomena. Research highlights: Existing crown fire behaviour models may underestimate the rate of spread of crown fires in many Mediterranean ecosystems. New bench-scale methods based on flame buoyancy and more crown field experiments allowing detailed measurements of fire behaviour are needed.
Modeling the cometary environment using a fluid approach
Shou, Yinsi
Comets are believed to have preserved the building material of the early solar system and to hold clues to the origin of life on Earth. Abundant remote observations of comets by telescopes and the in-situ measurements by a handful of space missions reveal that the cometary environments are complicated by various physical and chemical processes among the neutral gases and dust grains released from comets, cometary ions, and the solar wind in the interplanetary space. Therefore, physics-based numerical models are in demand to interpret the observational data and to deepen our understanding of the cometary environment. In this thesis, three models using a fluid approach, which include important physical and chemical processes underlying the cometary environment, have been developed to study the plasma, neutral gas, and the dust grains, respectively. Although models based on the fluid approach have limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low gas density environment, they are computationally much more efficient than alternatives. In the simulations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at various heliocentric distances with a wide range of production rates, our multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model and multi-fluid cometary dust model have achieved comparable results to the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid in all collisional regimes. Therefore, our model is a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. Capable of accounting for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions in a self-consistent way, the multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model is a good tool to study the dynamics of the cometary coma with different production rates and heliocentric distances. The modeled H2O expansion speeds reproduce the general trend and the speed's nonlinear dependencies of production rate
Perfect fluid models in noncomoving observational spherical coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Mustapha
2004-01-01
We use null spherical (observational) coordinates to describe a class of inhomogeneous cosmological models. The proposed cosmological construction is based on the observer past null cone. A known difficulty in using inhomogeneous models is that the null geodesic equation is not integrable in general. Our choice of null coordinates solves the radial ingoing null geodesic by construction. Furthermore, we use an approach where the velocity field is uniquely calculated from the metric rather than put in by hand. Conveniently, this allows us to explore models in a noncomoving frame of reference. In this frame, we find that the velocity field has shear, acceleration, and expansion rate in general. We show that a comoving frame is not compatible with expanding perfect fluid models in the coordinates proposed and dust models are simply not possible. We describe the models in a noncomoving frame. We use the dust models in a noncomoving frame to outline a fitting procedure
Model identification methodology for fluid-based inerters
Liu, Xiaofu; Jiang, Jason Zheng; Titurus, Branislav; Harrison, Andrew
2018-06-01
Inerter is the mechanical dual of the capacitor via the force-current analogy. It has the property that the force across the terminals is proportional to their relative acceleration. Compared with flywheel-based inerters, fluid-based forms have advantages of improved durability, inherent damping and simplicity of design. In order to improve the understanding of the physical behaviour of this fluid-based device, especially caused by the hydraulic resistance and inertial effects in the external tube, this work proposes a comprehensive model identification methodology. Firstly, a modelling procedure is established, which allows the topological arrangement of the mechanical networks to be obtained by mapping the damping, inertance and stiffness effects directly to their respective hydraulic counterparts. Secondly, an experimental sequence is followed, which separates the identification of friction, stiffness and various damping effects. Furthermore, an experimental set-up is introduced, where two pressure gauges are used to accurately measure the pressure drop across the external tube. The theoretical models with improved confidence are obtained using the proposed methodology for a helical-tube fluid inerter prototype. The sources of remaining discrepancies are further analysed.
Fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanojevic, M; Duhovnik, J; Jelic, N; Kendl, A; Kuhn, S
2005-01-01
A fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent boundary plasma is presented. Turbulent transport corrections of the classical three-dimensional fluid transport equations, which can be used to study magnetic presheaths in various geometries, are derived by means of the ensemble averaging procedure from the statistical theory of plasma turbulence. Then, the magnetic presheath in front of an infinite plane surface is analysed in detail. The linearized planar magnetic presheath equations are applied to the plasma-presheath-magnetic-presheath boundary (i.e. the magnetic presheath edge), whereas the original non-linear planar magnetic presheath equations are used for the entire magnetic presheath, allowing for various sets of experimentally relevant free model parameters to be applied. Important new results of this study are, among others, new expressions for the fluid Bohm criterion at the Debye sheath edge and for the ion flux density perpendicular to the wall. These new results, which exhibit corrections due to the turbulent charged particle transport, can qualitatively explain the fact that whenever the angle between the magnetic field and the wall is very small (i.e. several degrees) or zero, electric currents, measured by Langmuir probes in the boundary regions of nuclear fusion devices and in various low-temperature plasmas, are anomalously enhanced in comparison with those expected or predicted by other theoretical models
Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yarbro, Stephen Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1996-11-01
Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.
Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena
Greenspan, H. P.
1982-01-01
The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.
Spherically symmetric Einstein-aether perfect fluid models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coley, Alan A.; Latta, Joey [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Leon, Genly [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Sandin, Patrik, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl, E-mail: patrik.sandin@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2015-12-01
We investigate spherically symmetric cosmological models in Einstein-aether theory with a tilted (non-comoving) perfect fluid source. We use a 1+3 frame formalism and adopt the comoving aether gauge to derive the evolution equations, which form a well-posed system of first order partial differential equations in two variables. We then introduce normalized variables. The formalism is particularly well-suited for numerical computations and the study of the qualitative properties of the models, which are also solutions of Horava gravity. We study the local stability of the equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical system corresponding to physically realistic inhomogeneous cosmological models and astrophysical objects with values for the parameters which are consistent with current constraints. In particular, we consider dust models in (β−) normalized variables and derive a reduced (closed) evolution system and we obtain the general evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs models using appropriate bounded normalized variables. We then analyse these models, with special emphasis on the future asymptotic behaviour for different values of the parameters. Finally, we investigate static models for a mixture of a (necessarily non-tilted) perfect fluid with a barotropic equations of state and a scalar field.
Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rokkam, Ram [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2012-01-01
Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.
Two-Fluid Mathematical Models for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sankar DS
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The pulsatile flow of blood through stenosed arteries is analyzed by assuming the blood as a two-fluid model with the suspension of all the erythrocytes in the core region as a non-Newtonian fluid and the plasma in the peripheral layer as a Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluid in the core region of the artery is assumed as a (i Herschel-Bulkley fluid and (ii Casson fluid. Perturbation method is used to solve the resulting system of non-linear partial differential equations. Expressions for various flow quantities are obtained for the two-fluid Casson model. Expressions of the flow quantities obtained by Sankar and Lee (2006 for the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model are used to get the data for comparison. It is found that the plug flow velocity and velocity distribution of the two-fluid Casson model are considerably higher than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. It is also observed that the pressure drop, plug core radius, wall shear stress and the resistance to flow are significantly very low for the two-fluid Casson model than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. Hence, the two-fluid Casson model would be more useful than the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model to analyze the blood flow through stenosed arteries.
Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L
2015-06-25
Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SPH modeling of fluid-solid interaction for dynamic failure analysis of fluid-filled thin shells
Caleyron, F.; Combescure, A.; Faucher, V.; Potapov, S.
2013-05-01
This work concerns the prediction of failure of a fluid-filled tank under impact loading, including the resulting fluid leakage. A water-filled steel cylinder associated with a piston is impacted by a mass falling at a prescribed velocity. The cylinder is closed at its base by an aluminum plate whose characteristics are allowed to vary. The impact on the piston creates a pressure wave in the fluid which is responsible for the deformation of the plate and, possibly, the propagation of cracks. The structural part of the problem is modeled using Mindlin-Reissner finite elements (FE) and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) shells. The modeling of the fluid is also based on an SPH formulation. The problem involves significant fluid-structure interactions (FSI) which are handled through a master-slave-based method and the pinballs method. Numerical results are compared to experimental data.
Modeling the worldwide spread of pandemic influenza: baseline case and containment interventions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vittoria Colizza
2007-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, which is now widespread in Southeast Asia and which diffused recently in some areas of the Balkans region and Western Europe, has raised a public alert toward the potential occurrence of a new severe influenza pandemic. Here we study the worldwide spread of a pandemic and its possible containment at a global level taking into account all available information on air travel. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied a metapopulation stochastic epidemic model on a global scale that considers airline travel flow data among urban areas. We provided a temporal and spatial evolution of the pandemic with a sensitivity analysis of different levels of infectiousness of the virus and initial outbreak conditions (both geographical and seasonal. For each spreading scenario we provided the timeline and the geographical impact of the pandemic in 3,100 urban areas, located in 220 different countries. We compared the baseline cases with different containment strategies, including travel restrictions and the therapeutic use of antiviral (AV drugs. We investigated the effect of the use of AV drugs in the event that therapeutic protocols can be carried out with maximal coverage for the populations in all countries. In view of the wide diversity of AV stockpiles in different regions of the world, we also studied scenarios in which only a limited number of countries are prepared (i.e., have considerable AV supplies. In particular, we compared different plans in which, on the one hand, only prepared and wealthy countries benefit from large AV resources, with, on the other hand, cooperative containment scenarios in which countries with large AV stockpiles make a small portion of their supplies available worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the inclusion of air transportation is crucial in the assessment of the occurrence probability of global outbreaks. The large-scale therapeutic usage of AV drugs in all hit
Free surface modelling with two-fluid model and reduced numerical diffusion of the interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strubelj, Luka; Tiselj, Izrok
2008-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The free surface flows are successfully modelled with one of existing free surface models, such as: level set method, volume of fluid method (with/without surface reconstruction), front tracking, two-fluid model (two momentum equations) with modified interphase force and others. The main disadvantage of two-fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows is numerical diffusion of the interface, which can be significantly reduced using the method presented in this paper. Several techniques for reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface have been implemented in the volume of fluid model and are based on modified numerical schemes for advection of volume fraction near the interface. The same approach could be used also for two-fluid method, but according to our experience more successful reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface can be achieved with conservative level set method. Within the conservative level set method, continuity equation for volume fraction is solved and after that the numerical diffusion of the interface is reduced in such a way that the thickness of the interface is kept constant during the simulation. Reduction of the interface diffusion can be also called interface sharpening. In present paper the two-fluid model with interface sharpening is validated on Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Under assumptions of isothermal and incompressible flow of two immiscible fluids, we simulated a system with the fluid of higher density located above the fluid of smaller density in two dimensions. Due to gravity in the system, fluid with higher density moves below the fluid with smaller density. Initial condition is not a flat interface between the fluids, but a sine wave with small amplitude, which develops into a mushroom-like structure. Mushroom-like structure in simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability later develops to small droplets as result of numerical dispersion of interface (interface sharpening
Fluid flow and heat transfer modeling for castings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domanus, H.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Sha, W.T.
1986-01-01
Casting is fundamental to manufacturing of many types of equipment and products. Although casting is a very old technology that has been in existence for hundreds of years, it remains a highly empirical technology, and production of new castings requires an expensive and time-consuming trial-and-error approach. In recent years, mathematical modeling of casting has received increasing attention; however, a majority of the modeling work has been in the area of heat transfer and solidification. Very little work has been done in modeling fluid flow of the liquid melt. This paper presents a model of fluid flow coupled with heat transfer of a liquid melt for casting processes. The model to be described in this paper is an extension of the COMMIX code and is capable of handling castings with any shape, size, and material. A feature of this model is the ability to track the liquid/gas interface and liquid/solid interface. The flow of liquid melt through the sprue and runners and into the mold cavity is calculated as well as three-dimensional temperature and velocity distributions of the liquid melt throughout the casting process. 14 refs., 13 figs
Fluid Dynamic Models for Bhattacharyya-Based Discriminant Analysis.
Noh, Yung-Kyun; Hamm, Jihun; Park, Frank Chongwoo; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Lee, Daniel D
2018-01-01
Classical discriminant analysis attempts to discover a low-dimensional subspace where class label information is maximally preserved under projection. Canonical methods for estimating the subspace optimize an information-theoretic criterion that measures the separation between the class-conditional distributions. Unfortunately, direct optimization of the information-theoretic criteria is generally non-convex and intractable in high-dimensional spaces. In this work, we propose a novel, tractable algorithm for discriminant analysis that considers the class-conditional densities as interacting fluids in the high-dimensional embedding space. We use the Bhattacharyya criterion as a potential function that generates forces between the interacting fluids, and derive a computationally tractable method for finding the low-dimensional subspace that optimally constrains the resulting fluid flow. We show that this model properly reduces to the optimal solution for homoscedastic data as well as for heteroscedastic Gaussian distributions with equal means. We also extend this model to discover optimal filters for discriminating Gaussian processes and provide experimental results and comparisons on a number of datasets.
Numerical modeling of a cryogenic fluid within a fuel tank
Greer, Donald S.
1994-01-01
The computational method developed to study the cryogenic fluid characteristics inside a fuel tank in a hypersonic aircraft is presented. The model simulates a rapid draining of the tank by modeling the ullage vapor and the cryogenic liquid with a moving interface. A mathematical transformation was developed and applied to the Navier-Stokes equations to account for the moving interface. The formulation of the numerical method is a transient hybrid explicit-implicit technique where the pressure term in the momentum equations is approximated to first order in time by combining the continuity equation with an ideal equation of state.
A numerical method for a transient two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Coq, G.; Libmann, M.
1978-01-01
The transient boiling two-phase flow is studied. In nuclear reactors, the driving conditions for the transient boiling are a pump power decay or/and an increase in heating power. The physical model adopted for the two-phase flow is the two fluid model with the assumption that the vapor remains at saturation. The numerical method for solving the thermohydraulics problems is a shooting method, this method is highly implicit. A particular problem exists at the boiling and condensation front. A computer code using this numerical method allow the calculation of a transient boiling initiated by a steady state for a PWR or for a LMFBR
Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.
1978-01-01
Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the 1 / 5 -scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena
Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics
Goldstein, Raymond E.
2015-01-01
In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.
Yin, Hang; Jin, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Fan, Yuguang; Qin, Liwu; Chen, Qinghong; Huang, Liya; Jia, Xiang; Liu, Lijie; Dai, Yuhong; Xiao, Ying
2018-03-01
The forest-fire not only brings great loss to natural resources, but also destructs the ecosystem and reduces the soil fertility, causing some natural disasters as soil erosion and debris flow. However, due to the lack of the prognosis for forest fire spreading trend in forest fire fighting, it is difficult to formulate rational and effective fire-fighting scheme. In the event of forest fire, achieving accurate judgment to the fire behavior would greatly improve the fire-fighting efficiency, and reduce heavy losses caused by fire. Researches on forest fire spread simulation can effectively reduce the loss of disasters. The present study focused on the simulation of "29 May 2012" wildfire in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain. Basic data were retrieved from the "29 May 2012" wildfire and field survey. A self-development forest fire behavior simulated program based on Rothermel Model was used in the simulation. Kappa coefficient and Sørensen index were employed to evaluate the simulation accuracy. The results showed that: The perimeter of simulated burned area was 4.66 km, the area was 56.47 hm2 and the overlapped burned area was 33.68 hm2, and the estimated rate of fire spread was 0.259 m/s. Between the simulated fire and actual fire, the Kappa coefficient was 0.7398 and the Sørensen co-efficient was 0.7419. This proved the application of Rothermel model to conduct fire behavior simulation in windthrow meadow was feasible. It can achieve the goal of forecasting for the spread behavior in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain. Thus, our self-development program based on the Rothermel model can provide a effective forecast of fire spread, which will facilitate the fire suppression work.
Modeling of marginal burning state of fire spread in live chaparral shrub fuel bed
X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D. Weise
2005-01-01
Prescribed burning in chaparral, currently used to manage wildland fuels and reduce wildfire hazard, is often conducted under marginal burning conditions. The relative importance of the fuel and environmental variables that determine fire spread success in chaparral fuels is not quantitatively understood. Based on extensive experimental study, a two-dimensional...
On the spread of changes in marine low cloud cover in climate model simulations of the 21st century
Qu, Xin; Hall, Alex; Klein, Stephen A.; Caldwell, Peter M.
2014-05-01
In 36 climate change simulations associated with phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), changes in marine low cloud cover (LCC) exhibit a large spread, and may be either positive or negative. Here we develop a heuristic model to understand the source of the spread. The model's premise is that simulated LCC changes can be interpreted as a linear combination of contributions from factors shaping the clouds' large-scale environment. We focus primarily on two factors—the strength of the inversion capping the atmospheric boundary layer (measured by the estimated inversion strength, EIS) and sea surface temperature (SST). For a given global model, the respective contributions of EIS and SST are computed. This is done by multiplying (1) the current-climate's sensitivity of LCC to EIS or SST variations, by (2) the climate-change signal in EIS or SST. The remaining LCC changes are then attributed to changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, and other environmental factors. The heuristic model is remarkably skillful. Its SST term dominates, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the intermodel variance of LCC changes in CMIP3 models, and about half in CMIP5 models. Of the two factors governing the SST term (the SST increase and the sensitivity of LCC to SST perturbations), the SST sensitivity drives the spread in the SST term and hence the spread in the overall LCC changes. This sensitivity varies a great deal from model to model and is strongly linked to the types of cloud and boundary layer parameterizations used in the models. EIS and SST sensitivities are also estimated using observational cloud and meteorological data. The observed sensitivities are generally consistent with the majority of models as well as expectations from prior research. Based on the observed sensitivities and the relative magnitudes of simulated EIS and SST changes (which we argue are also physically reasonable), the heuristic model predicts LCC
Modeling fluid-rock interaction at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.
1992-08-01
Volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada aie being assessed for their suitability as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Recent progress in modeling fluid-rock interactions, in particular the mineralogical and chemical changes that may accompany waste disposal at Yucca Mountain, will be reviewed in this publication. In Part 1 of this publication, ''Geochemical Modeling of Clinoptilolite-Water Interactions,'' solid-solution and cation-exchange models for the zeolite clinoptilolite are developed and compared to experimental and field observations. At Yucca Mountain, clinoptilolite which is found lining fractures and as a major component of zeolitized tuffs, is expected to play an important role in sequestering radionuclides that may escape from a potential nuclear waste repository. The solid-solution and ion-exchange models were evaluated by comparing predicted stabilities and exchangeable cation distributions of clinoptilolites with: (1) published binary exchange data; (2) compositions of coexisting clinoptilolites and formation waters at Yucca Mountain; (3) experimental sorption isotherms of Cs and Sr on zeolitized tuff, and (4) high temperature experimental data. Good agreement was found between predictions and expertmental data, especially for binary exchange and Cs and Sr sorption on clinoptilolite. Part 2 of this publication, ''Geochemical Simulation of Fluid-Rock Interactions at Yucca Mountain,'' describes preliminary numerical simulations of fluid-rock interactions at Yucca Mountain. The solid-solution model developed in the first part of the paper is used to evaluate the stability and composition of clinciptilolite and other minerals in the host rock under ambient conditions and after waste emplacement
Modelling of heat transfer to fluids at a supercritical pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuisheng, He
2014-01-01
A key feature of Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is that, by raising the pressure of the reactor coolant fluid above the critical value, a phase change crisis is avoided. However, the changes in water density as it flows through the core of an SCWR are actually much higher than in the current water-cooled reactors. In a typical design, the ratio of the density of water at the core inlet to that at exit is as high as 7:1. Other fluid properties also vary significantly, especially around the pseudo-critical temperature (at which the specific heat capacity peaks). As a result, turbulent flow and heat transfer behaviour in the core is extremely complex and under certain conditions, significant heat transfer deterioration can potentially occur. Consequently, understanding and being able to predict flow and heat transfer phenomena under normal steady operation conditions and in start-up and hypothetical fault conditions are fundamental to the design of SCWR. There have been intensive studies on flow and heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure recently and several excellent review papers have been published. In the talk, we will focus on some turbulence modelling issues encountered in CFD simulations. The talk will first discuss some flow and heat transfer issues related to fluids at supercritical pressures and their potential implications in SCWR, and some recent developments in the understanding and modelling techniques of such problems, which will be followed by an outlook for some future developments.Factors which have a major influence on the flow and will be discussed are buoyancy and flow acceleration due to thermal expansion (both are due to density variations but involve different mechanisms) and the nonuniformity of other fluid properties. In addition, laminar-turbulent flow transition coupled with buoyancy and flow acceleration plays an important role in heat transfer effectiveness and wall temperature in the entrance region but such
Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saurabh Singh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Poiseuille’s equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD of 13 (12%. Marshall’s hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD flow rate increase of only 19 (13%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD of 43 (17% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille’s equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions.
A Fluid Model for Performance Analysis in Cellular Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coupechoux Marceau
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new framework to study the performance of cellular networks using a fluid model and we derive from this model analytical formulas for interference, outage probability, and spatial outage probability. The key idea of the fluid model is to consider the discrete base station (BS entities as a continuum of transmitters that are spatially distributed in the network. This model allows us to obtain simple analytical expressions to reveal main characteristics of the network. In this paper, we focus on the downlink other-cell interference factor (OCIF, which is defined for a given user as the ratio of its outer cell received power to its inner cell received power. A closed-form formula of the OCIF is provided in this paper. From this formula, we are able to obtain the global outage probability as well as the spatial outage probability, which depends on the location of a mobile station (MS initiating a new call. Our analytical results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed in a traditional hexagonal network. Furthermore, we demonstrate an application of the outage probability related to cell breathing and densification of cellular networks.
Sarkar, N; Basu, A
2012-11-01
We construct a coarse-grained effective two-dimensional (2d hydrodynamic theory as a theoretical model for a coupled system of a fluid membrane and a thin layer of a polar active fluid in its ordered state that is anchored to the membrane. We show that such a system is prone to generic instabilities through the interplay of nonequilibrium drive, polar order and membrane fluctuation. We use our model equations to calculate diffusion coefficients of an inclusion in the membrane and show that their values depend strongly on the system size, in contrast to their equilibrium values. Our work extends the work of S. Sankararaman and S. Ramaswamy (Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 118107 (2009)) to a coupled system of a fluid membrane and an ordered active fluid layer. Our model is broadly inspired by and should be useful as a starting point for theoretical descriptions of the coupled dynamics of a cell membrane and a cortical actin layer anchored to it.
On the equivalence of continuum and lattice models for fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.
2000-01-01
It was demonstrated that finely discretized lattice models for fluids with particles interacting via Lennard-Jones or exponential-6 potentials have essentially identical thermodynamic and structural properties to their continuum counterparts. Grand canonical histogram reweighting Monte Carlo calculations were performed for systems with repulsion exponents between 11 and 22. Critical parameters were determined from mixed-field finite-size scaling methods. Numerical equivalence of lattice and continuous space models, within simulation uncertainties, was observed for lattices with ratio of particle diameter σ to grid spacing of 10. The lattice model calculations were more efficient computationally by factors between 10 and 20. It was also shown that Lennard-Jones and exponential-6 based models with identical critical properties can be constructed by appropriate choice of the repulsion exponent. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeNardis, Nadica Ivošević; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Ružić, Ivica; Pletikapić, Galja
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Kinetics of adhesion and spreading of the algal cell at a charged interface is explored. • Amperometric signals are analyzed using extended methodology and the reaction kinetics model. • The model reconstructs and quantifies individual states of the three-step adhesion process. • Adhesion kinetics of the algal cell is slower than that of its plasma membrane vesicle. • Slow spreading of organic film at the interface could be due to the attenuated effect of the potential. - Abstract: We study the kinetics of adhesion and spreading of an algal cell and its plasma membrane vesicle at the charged interface. A simple system of an isolated plasma membrane vesicle without internal content has been developed and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We extend the methodology based on the reaction kinetics model and empirical fitting for the analysis of amperometric signals, and demonstrate its validity and pertinence in a wide range of surface charge densities. Adhesion kinetics of the algal cell is slower than that of its plasma membrane vesicle. Isolated plasma membrane contributes about one quarter to the cell contact area. The model reconstructs and quantifies individual states of the three-step adhesion process of the algal cell and makes it possible to associate them with various features of amperometric signal. At the time of current amplitude, the ruptured state predominates and the cell spread contact area is larger than its initial area as well as the contact area of the plasma membrane vesicle. These results suggest that a major structural disruption of the cell membrane, collapse of cytoskeleton and leakage of intracellular material could appear close to the time of current amplitude. Further, slow kinetics of the organic film spreading at the interface to its maximal extent is considered as the rate determining step, which could be a consequence of the attenuated effect of potential at the modified interface, stronger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo O Jatulan
Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L. and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic.
Output-Feedback Control for Discrete-Time Spreading Models in Complex Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis A. Alarcón Ramos
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The problem of stabilizing the spreading process to a prescribed probability distribution over a complex network is considered, where the dynamics of the nodes in the network is given by discrete-time Markov-chain processes. Conditions for the positioning and identification of actuators and sensors are provided, and sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of the desired distribution are derived. Simulations results for a network of N = 10 6 corroborate our theoretical findings.
Time response model of ER fluids for precision control of motors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyanagi, Ken' ichi [Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu, Toyama (Japan)], E-mail: koyanagi@pu-toyama.ac.jp
2009-02-01
For improvement of control performance or new control demands of mechatronics devices using particle type ER fluids, it will be needed to further investigate a response time of the fluids. It is commonly said around 5-mili seconds, however, the formula structure of that delay has not been clear. This study aims to develop a functional damper (attenuators), that can control its viscous characteristics in real time using ER fluids as its working fluid. ER dampers are useful to accomplish high precision positioning not to prevent high speed movement of the motor. To realize the functional damper that can be manipulated according to situations or tasks, the modeling and control of ER fluids are necessary. This paper investigates time delay affects of ER fluids and makes an in-depth dynamic model of the fluid by utilizing simulation and experiment. The mathematical model has a dead-time and first ordered delays of the fluid and the high voltage amplifier for the fluid.
Gary Achtemeier
2012-01-01
A cellular automata fire model represents âelementsâ of fire by autonomous agents. A few simple algebraic expressions substituted for complex physical and meteorological processes and solved iteratively yield simulations for âsuper-diffusiveâ fire spread and coupled surface-layer (2-m) fireâatmosphere processes. Pressure anomalies, which are integrals of the thermal...
A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence
Liu, Jian-Guo; Lorz, Alexander
2011-01-01
We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence
Liu, Jian-Guo
2011-09-01
We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy
2012-04-01
This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given
Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Yan
Full Text Available Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.
Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.
Yan, Ying; Luo, Jing; Guo, Dan; Wen, Shizhu
2015-01-01
Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.
Two-fluid model stability, simulation and chaos
Bertodano, Martín López de; Clausse, Alejandro; Ransom, Victor H
2017-01-01
This book addresses the linear and nonlinear two-phase stability of the one-dimensional Two-Fluid Model (TFM) material waves and the numerical methods used to solve it. The TFM fluid dynamic stability is a problem that remains open since its inception more than forty years ago. The difficulty is formidable because it involves the combined challenges of two-phase topological structure and turbulence, both nonlinear phenomena. The one dimensional approach permits the separation of the former from the latter. The authors first analyze the kinematic and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with the simplified one-dimensional Fixed-Flux Model (FFM). They then analyze the density wave instability with the well-known Drift-Flux Model. They demonstrate that the Fixed-Flux and Drift-Flux assumptions are two complementary TFM simplifications that address two-phase local and global linear instabilities separately. Furthermore, they demonstrate with a well-posed FFM and a DFM two cases of nonlinear two-phase behavior that are ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamis, A.S.; Savage, S.G. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)
1985-07-01
Landslides and rockfalls that initiate on a steep slope eventually come to rest after flowing for some runout distance on a flat. Rockfalls of very large masses have been observed to exhibit unexpectedly long runout distances. This problem becomes more significant as the development of resources in mountain regions becomes more intensive. As early as 1881, Albert Heim observed and described the Elm rockfall of Switzerland (quoted by as HsU). This rockfall produced a debris which moved more than 2 Km along a nearly horizontal valley floor and one of its branches surged up the side of the valley to a height of 100 m. From the deposit of the Elm and the eyewitnesses Heim concluded that the debris behaved as a flowing fluid rather than sliding solids. Davies, among others, suggested that the excessive runout distance is volume dependent and the larger the volume of the debris, the longer the relative travel distance. A summary of the numerous hypotheses which have been proposed to explain this puzzling phenomena were also presented by Davies. However, none of these have been completely satisfactory or generally accepted. A simple model of the flow and spreading of a finite mass of cohesionless granular material down incline has been developed as a part of the present preliminary investigation into the mechanics of rockfalls. (author)
Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laux, Harald
1998-08-01
A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a
Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laux, Harald
1998-08-01
A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a finite volume method
Savini, L; Candeloro, L; Conte, A; De Massis, F; Giovannini, A
2017-01-01
Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is an important zoonosis that constitutes a serious hazard to public health. Prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. Livestock movement data represent a valuable source of information to understand the pattern of contacts between holdings, which may determine the inter-herds and intra-herd spread of the disease. The manuscript addresses the use of computational epidemic models rooted in the knowledge of cattle trade network to assess the probabilities of brucellosis spread and to design control strategies. Three different spread network-based models were proposed: the DFC (Disease Flow Centrality) model based only on temporal cattle network structure and unrelated to the epidemiological disease parameters; a deterministic SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model; a stochastic SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered) model in which epidemiological and demographic within-farm aspects were also modelled. Containment strategies based on farms centrality in the cattle network were tested and discussed. All three models started from the identification of the entire sub-network originated from an infected farm, up to the fifth order of contacts. Their performances were based on data collected in Sicily in the framework of the national eradication plan of brucellosis in 2009. Results show that the proposed methods improves the efficacy and efficiency of the tracing activities in comparison to the procedure currently adopted by the veterinary services in the brucellosis control, in Italy. An overall assessment shows that the SIR model is the most suitable for the practical needs of the veterinary services, being the one with the highest sensitivity and the shortest computation time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Neitzel
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Previous animal research suggests that the spread of pathological agents in Alzheimer’s disease (AD follows the direction of signaling pathways. Specifically, tau pathology has been suggested to propagate in an infection-like mode along axons, from transentorhinal cortices to medial temporal lobe cortices and consequently to other cortical regions, while amyloid-beta (Aβ pathology seems to spread in an activity-dependent manner among and from isocortical regions into limbic and then subcortical regions. These directed connectivity-based spread models, however, have not been tested directly in AD patients due to the lack of an in vivo method to identify directed connectivity in humans. Recently, a new method—metabolic connectivity mapping (MCM—has been developed and validated in healthy participants that uses simultaneous FDG-PET and resting-state fMRI data acquisition to identify directed intrinsic effective connectivity (EC. To this end, postsynaptic energy consumption (FDG-PET is used to identify regions with afferent input from other functionally connected brain regions (resting-state fMRI. Here, we discuss how this multi-modal imaging approach allows quantitative, whole-brain mapping of signaling direction in AD patients, thereby pointing out some of the advantages it offers compared to other EC methods (i.e., Granger causality, dynamic causal modeling, Bayesian networks. Most importantly, MCM provides the basis on which models of pathology spread, derived from animal studies, can be tested in AD patients. In particular, future work should investigate whether tau and Aβ in humans propagate along the trajectories of directed connectivity in order to advance our understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms causing disease progression.
Studying Validity of Single-Fluid Model in Inertial Confinement Fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Jian-Fa; Fan Zheng-Feng; Dai Zhen-Sheng; Ye Wen-Hua; Pei Wen-Bing; Zhu Shao-Ping
2014-01-01
The validity of single-fluid model in inertial confinement fusion simulations is studied by comparing the results of the multi- and single-fluid models. The multi-fluid model includes the effects of collision and interpenetration between fluid species. By simulating the collision of fluid species, steady-state shock propagation into the thin DT gas and expansion of hohlraum Au wall heated by lasers, the results show that the validity of single-fluid model is strongly dependent on the ratio of the characteristic length of the simulated system to the particle mean free path. When the characteristic length L is one order larger than the mean free path λ, the single-fluid model's results are found to be in good agreement with the multi-fluid model's simulations, and the modeling of single-fluid remains valid. If the value of L/λ is lower than 10, the interpenetration between fluid species is significant, and the single-fluid simulations show some unphysical results; while the multi-fluid model can describe well the interpenetration and mix phenomena, and give more reasonable results. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Modelling of fluid-solid interaction using two stand-alone codes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Grobler, Jan H
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A method is proposed for the modelling of fluid-solid interaction in applications where fluid forces dominate. Data are transferred between two stand-alone codes: a dedicated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code capable of free surface modelling...
Zweers, M. M.; Splint, L. J.; Krediet, R. T.; Struijk, D. G.
2001-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Hemoconcentration may influence peritoneal permeability parameters in anesthetized animals without fluid supplementation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluid supplementation on peritoneal permeability in an acute peritoneal dialysis model in
Fluid model of inductively coupled plasma etcher based on COMSOL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Jia; Ji Linhong; Zhu Yu; Shi Yixiang
2010-01-01
Fluid dynamic models are generally appropriate for the investigation of inductively coupled plasmas. A commercial ICP etcher filled with argon plasma is simulated in this study. The simulation is based on a multiphysical software, COMSOL(TM), which is a partial differential equation solver. Just as with other plasma fluid models, there are drift-diffusion approximations for ions, the quasi-neutrality assumption for electrons movements, reduced Maxwell equations for electromagnetic fields, electron energy equations for electron temperatures and the Navier-Stokes equation for neutral background gas. The two-dimensional distribution of plasma parameters are shown at 200 W of power and 1.33 Pa (10 mTorr) of pressure. Then the profile comparison of the electron number density and temperature with respect to power is illustrated. Finally we believe that there might be some disagreement between the predicted values and the real ones, and the reasons for this difference would be the Maxwellian eedf assumption and the lack of the cross sections of collisions and the reaction rates. (semiconductor physics)
Experiments and Modeling of G-Jitter Fluid Mechanics
Leslie, F. W.; Ramachandran, N.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
While there is a general understanding of the acceleration environment onboard an orbiting spacecraft, past research efforts in the modeling and analysis area have still not produced a general theory that predicts the effects of multi-spectral periodic accelerations on a general class of experiments nor have they produced scaling laws that a prospective experimenter can use to assess how an experiment might be affected by this acceleration environment. Furthermore, there are no actual flight experimental data that correlates heat or mass transport with measurements of the periodic acceleration environment. The present investigation approaches this problem with carefully conducted terrestrial experiments and rigorous numerical modeling for better understanding the effect of residual gravity and gentler on experiments. The approach is to use magnetic fluids that respond to an imposed magnetic field gradient in much the same way as fluid density responds to a gravitational field. By utilizing a programmable power source in conjunction with an electromagnet, both static and dynamic body forces can be simulated in lab experiments. The paper provides an overview of the technique and includes recent results from the experiments.
Chapman, Daniel S; Makra, László; Albertini, Roberto; Bonini, Maira; Páldy, Anna; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šikoparija, Branko; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Bullock, James M
2016-09-01
Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management. However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive. Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread. We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed. Simulations starting in 1950 accurately reproduced ragweed's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data. The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion. For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range. Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways. We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes (transport and release) with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion
Two-fluid model LES of a bubble column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brahma N Reddy Vanga; Martin A Lopez de Bertodano; Eckhard Krepper; Alexandr Zaruba; Horst-Michael Prasser
2005-01-01
The hydrodynamics of a rectangular bubble column operating in the dispersed bubbly regime has been numerically investigated using a two-fluid model Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Experimental data were obtained to validate the model. LES computational fluid dynamic calculations of the transient flow for the bubble column were performed to account for the turbulence in the liquid phase. The computational mesh is of the same scale as the bubble size. The sub grid-scale Reynolds stresses were calculated with the Smagorinsky model. Furthermore, the effect of the bubbles on the turbulence in the continuous phase was modeled using Sato's eddy viscosity model for bubble-induced turbulence. Mean quantities were computed by averaging over a time period that was longer than the dynamic time scales of the turbulence, in particular the void fraction and the average velocity of the bubbles. A systematic analysis of the effect of the interfacial momentum transfer terms on these quantities has been conducted. The bubble column was locally aerated using a sparger located in the center of the bottom plate. The experimental studies involve wire-mesh tomography measurements for void fraction and bubble size distributions and digital image processing of high speed camera images for estimation of bubble velocities, size distributions and flow patterns. Experiments were performed for various aspect ratios (height of water column to width ratio) and superficial gas velocities. It was found that the non-drag bubble forces play a very prominent role in the predicting the correct flow pattern and void fraction distributions. In the calculations, the lift force and the wall force were considered. A 'wall peak' in the time averaged void fraction distribution has been experimentally observed and this cannot be predicted without including these non-drag forces in the numerical calculations. In this paper, experimental data are compared with the results of the numerical simulations. (authors)
High-temperature spreading kinetics of metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauch, N.
2005-05-15
In this PhD work a drop transfer setup combined with high speed photography has been used to analyze the spreading of Ag on polished polycrystalline Mo and single crystalline Mo (110) and (100) substrates. The objective of this work was to unveil the basic phenomena controlling spreading in metal-metal systems. The observed spreading kinetics were compared with current theories of low and high temperature spreading such as a molecular kinetic model and a fluid flow model. Analyses of the data reveal that the molecular model does describe the fastest velocity data well for all the investigated systems. Therefore, the energy which is dissipated during the spreading process is a dissipation at the triple line rather than dissipation due to the viscosity in the liquid. A comparison of the determined free activation energy for wetting of {delta}G95{approx}145kJ/mol with literature values allows the statement that the rate determining step seems to be a surface diffusion of the Ag atoms along the triple line. In order to investigate possible ridge formation, due to local atomic diffusion of atoms of the substrate at the triple during the spreading process, grooving experiments of the polycrystalline Mo were performed to calculate the surface diffusities that will control ridge evolution. The analyses of this work showed that a ridge formation at the fastest reported wetting velocities was not possible if there is no initial perturbation for a ridge. If there was an initial perturbation for a ridge the ridge had to be much smaller than 1 nm in order to be able to move with the liquid font. Therefore ridge formation does not influence the spreading kinetics for the studied system and the chosen conditions. SEM, AFM and TEM investigations of the triple line showed that ridge formation does also not occur at the end of the wetting experiment when the drop is close to equilibrium and the wetting velocity is slow. (orig.)
Peristaltic Transport of a Rheological Fluid: Model for Movement of Food Bolus Through Esophagus
Misra, J. C.; Maiti, S.
2011-01-01
Fluid mechanical peristaltic transport through esophagus has been of concern in the paper. A mathematical model has been developed with an aim to study the peristaltic transport of a rheological fluid for arbitrary wave shapes and tube lengths. The Ostwald-de Waele power law of viscous fluid is considered here to depict the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid. The model is formulated and analyzed with the specific aim of exploring some important information concerning the movement of food bo...
Adiga, Abhijin; Chu, Shuyu; Eubank, Stephen; Kuhlman, Christopher J; Lewis, Bryan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav; Nordberg, Eric K; Swarup, Samarth; Vullikanti, Anil; Wilson, Mandy L
2018-01-01
Objectives This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. Methods We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified. In the second network, slum-specific demographics and activities are assigned to the individuals whose homes reside inside these zones. The main effects of integrating slums are that the network has more home-related contacts due to larger family sizes and more outside contacts due to more daily activities outside home. Various vaccination and social distancing interventions are applied to control the spread of influenza. Results Simulation-based results show that when slum attributes are ignored, the effectiveness of vaccination can be overestimated by 30%–55%, in terms of reducing the peak number of infections and the size of the epidemic, and in delaying the time to peak infection. The slum population sustains greater infection rates under all intervention scenarios in the network that treats slums differently. Vaccination strategy performs better than social distancing strategies in slums. Conclusions Unique characteristics of slums play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases. Modelling slums and estimating their impact on epidemics will help policy makers and regulators more accurately prioritise allocation of scarce medical resources and implement public health policies. PMID:29358419
Adiga, Abhijin; Chu, Shuyu; Eubank, Stephen; Kuhlman, Christopher J; Lewis, Bryan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav; Nordberg, Eric K; Swarup, Samarth; Vullikanti, Anil; Wilson, Mandy L
2018-01-21
This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified. In the second network, slum-specific demographics and activities are assigned to the individuals whose homes reside inside these zones. The main effects of integrating slums are that the network has more home-related contacts due to larger family sizes and more outside contacts due to more daily activities outside home. Various vaccination and social distancing interventions are applied to control the spread of influenza. Simulation-based results show that when slum attributes are ignored, the effectiveness of vaccination can be overestimated by 30%-55%, in terms of reducing the peak number of infections and the size of the epidemic, and in delaying the time to peak infection. The slum population sustains greater infection rates under all intervention scenarios in the network that treats slums differently. Vaccination strategy performs better than social distancing strategies in slums. Unique characteristics of slums play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases. Modelling slums and estimating their impact on epidemics will help policy makers and regulators more accurately prioritise allocation of scarce medical resources and implement public health policies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thorsten Frenzel
Full Text Available Tumor vasculature is critical for tumor growth, formation of distant metastases and efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy treatments. However, how the vasculature itself is affected during cancer treatment regarding to the metastatic behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hypofractionated radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy on vessel tree geometry and metastasis formation in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model to investigate the spread of malignant cells during different treatments modalities.The biological data gained during these experiments were fed into our previously developed computer model "Cancer and Treatment Simulation Tool" (CaTSiT to model the growth of the primary tumor, its metastatic deposit and also the influence on different therapies. Furthermore, we performed quantitative histology analyses to verify our predictions in xenograft mouse tumor model.According to the computer simulation the number of cells engrafting must vary considerably to explain the different weights of the primary tumor at the end of the experiment. Once a primary tumor is established, the fractal dimension of its vasculature correlates with the tumor size. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the tumor vasculature changes during treatment, indicating that the therapy affects the blood vessels' geometry. We corroborated these findings with a quantitative histological analysis showing that the blood vessel density is depleted during radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy. The CaTSiT computer model reveals that chemotherapy influences the tumor's therapeutic susceptibility and its metastatic spreading behavior.Using a system biological approach in combination with xenograft models and computer simulations revealed that the usage of chemotherapy and radiation therapy determines the spreading behavior by changing the blood vessel geometry of the primary tumor.
Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varzandeh, Farhad
properties like saturation pressures, densities at reservoir temperature and Stock TankviOil (STO) densities, while keeping the n-alkane limit of the correlations unchanged. Apart from applying this general approach to PC-SAFT, we have also shown that the approach can be applied to classical cubic models...... approach to characterizing reservoir fluids for any EoS. The approach consists in developing correlations of model parameters first with a database for well-defined components and then adjusting the correlations with a large PVT database. The adjustment is made to minimize the deviation in key PVT...... method to SRK and PR improved the saturation pressure calculation in comparisonto the original characterization method for SRK and PR. Using volume translationtogether with the new characterization approach for SRK and PR gives comparable results for density and STO density to that of original...
Development of bubble-induced turbulence model for advanced two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
A two-fluid model can simulate two-phase flow by computational cost less than detailed two-phase flow simulation method such as interface tracking method. The two-fluid model is therefore useful for thermal hydraulic analysis in the large-scale domain such as rod bundles. However, since the two-fluid model includes a lot of constitutive equations verified by use of experimental results, it has problems that the result of analyses depends on accuracy of the constitutive equations. To solve these problems, an advanced two-fluid model has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this model, interface tracking method is combined with two-fluid model to accurately predict large interface structure behavior. Liquid clusters and bubbles larger than a computational cell are calculated using the interface tracking method, and those smaller than the cell are simulated by the two-fluid model. The constitutive equations to evaluate the effects of small bubbles or droplets on two-phase flow are also required in the advanced two-fluid model, just as with the conventional two-fluid model. However, the dependency of small bubbles and droplets on two-phase flow characteristics is relatively small, and fewer experimental results are required to verify the characteristics of large interface structures. Turbulent dispersion force model is one of the most important constitutive equations for the advanced two-fluid model. The turbulent dispersion force model has been developed by many researchers for the conventional two-fluid model. However, existing models implicitly include the effects of large bubbles and the deformation of bubbles, and are unfortunately not applicable to the advanced two-fluid model. In the previous study, the authors suggested the turbulent dispersion force model based on the analogy of Brownian motion. And the authors improved the turbulent dispersion force model in consideration of bubble-induced turbulence to improve the analysis results for small
Comparison of kinetic and fluid neutral models for attached and detached state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furubayashi, M.; Hoshino, K.; Toma, M.; Hatayama, A.; Coster, D.; Schneider, R.; Bonnin, X.; Kawashima, H.; Asakura, N.; Suzuki, Y.
2009-01-01
Neutral behavior has an important role in the transport simulations of the edge plasma. Most of the edge plasma transport codes treat neutral particles by a simple fluid model or a kinetic model. The fluid model allows faster calculations. However, the applicability of the fluid model is limited. In this study, simulation results of JT-60U from kinetic neutral model and fluid neutral model are compared under the attached and detached state, using the 2D edge plasma code package, SOLPS5.0. In the SOL region, no significant differences are observed in the upstream plasma profiles between kinetic and fluid neutral models. However, in the divertor region, large differences are observed in plasma and neutral profiles. Therefore, further optimization of the fluid neutral model should be performed. Otherwise kinetic neutral model should be used to analyze the divertor region.
Blas, Nikki; David, Guido
2017-10-01
Rice tungro disease is described as a cancer due to its major impact on the livelihood of farmers and the difficulty of controlling it. Tungro is a semi-persistent virus transmitted by green leafhoppers called Nephotettix Virescens. In this paper, we presented a compartmental plant-vector model of the Nephotettix Virescens - rice plant interaction based on a system of ordinary differential equations to simulate the effects of roguing in controlling the spread of Tungro virus in a model rice field of susceptible rice variety (Taichung Native 1).
Hashima, A.; Matsu'Ura, M.
2006-12-01
We obtained the expressions for internal deformation fields due to a moment tensor in an elastic-viscoelastic layered holf-space. This unified formulation of internal deformation fields for shear faulting and crack opening enabled us to deal with the problem of tectonic deformation at a composite type of plate boundary zones. The tectonic deformation can be ascribed to mechanical interaction at plate boundaries, which make a closed circuit with the mode of relative plate motion changing from divergence to convergence through transcurrent motion. One of the rational ways to represent mechanical interaction at plate boundaries is specifying the increase rates of normal or tangential displacement discontinuity across plate interfaces. On the basis of such a basic idea we developed a 3-D simulation model for the nonlinear, coupled system of plate subduction and back-arc spreading in Mariana. Through numerical simulations we revealed the evolution process of back-arc spreading. At the first stage, steady plate subduction (shear faulting at a plate interface) gradually forms tensile stress fields in the back-arc region of the overriding plate. When the accumulated tensile stress reaches a critical level, back-arc spreading (crack opening) starts at a structurally weak portion of the overriding plate. The horizontal motion of the frontal part of the overriding plate due to back-arc spreading pushes out the plate boundary toward the oceanic plate. In steady-state plate subduction the shear stress acting on a plate interface must balance with the maximum frictional resistance (shear strength) of the plate interface. Therefore, the increase of shear stress at the plate interface leads to the increase of slip rate at the plate interface. The local increase of slip rate at the plate interface produces the additional tensile stress in the back-arc region. The increased tensile stress must be canceled out by the additional crack opening. Such a feedback mechanism between plate
BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling
Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.
2003-03-01
The area of turbulence has been covered by many books over the years. This has, of course, mainly been fluid turbulence, while the area of plasma turbulence has been treated much less. This book by Yoshizawa et al covers both plasma and fluid turbulence, in a way that does justice to both areas at the same time as cross-disciplinary aspects are illuminated. The book should be useful to physicists working in both areas partly because it examines fundamental aspects in a pedagogical way, partly because it is up to date and partly because of the cross-disciplinary aspects which enrich both areas. It is written as an advanced textbook. The reader should have previous knowledge of at least one of the areas and also some background in statistical physics. The book starts with the very important and highly up to date area of structure formation which is relevant both to fluids and plasmas. Here, pipe flow of fluids is treated as an introduction to the area, then follows discussion of the generation of magnetic fields by turbulent motion in stellar objects and stucture formation in plasmas confined by a magnetic field. Also the concept of bifurcation is introduced. This part builds up knowledge from the simple fluid case to the problems of magnetic confinement of plasmas in a very pedagogical way. It continues by introducing the fundamentals of fluid turbulence. This is done very systematically and concepts useful for industrial applications like the K-e method and several ways of heuristic modelling are introduced. Also the two dimensional vortex equation, which is also relevant to magnetized plasmas is introduced. In chapter 5 the statistical theory of turbulence is treated. It starts with a very nice and easy to understand example of renormalization of a simple nonlinear equation where the exact solution is known. It introduces the method of partial renormalization, Greens functions and the direct interaction approximation (DIA). The book then continues with an
Dynamic modeling of fluid power transmissions for wind turbines
Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.
2011-01-01
Fluid power transmission for wind turbines is quietly gaining more ground/interest. The principle of the various concepts presented so far is to convert aerodynamic torque of the rotor blades into a pressurized fluid flow by means of a positive displacement pump. At the other end of the fluid power
Multiscale modeling of fluid flow and mass transport
Masuoka, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Bijeljic, B.; Lin, Q.; Blunt, M. J.
2017-12-01
In recent years, there are some reports on a simulation of fluid flow in pore spaces of rocks using Navier-Stokes equations. These studies mostly adopt a X-ray CT to create 3-D numerical grids of the pores in micro-scale. However, results may be of low accuracy when the rock has a large pore size distribution, because pores, whose size is smaller than resolution of the X-ray CT may be neglected. We recently found out by tracer tests in a laboratory using a brine saturated Ryukyu limestone and inject fresh water that a decrease of chloride concentration took longer time. This phenomenon can be explained due to weak connectivity of the porous networks. Therefore, it is important to simulate entire pore spaces even those of very small sizes in which diffusion is dominant. We have developed a new methodology for multi-level modeling for pore scale fluid flow in porous media. The approach is to combine pore-scale analysis with Darcy-flow analysis using two types of X-ray CT images in different resolutions. Results of the numerical simulations showed a close match with the experimental results. The proposed methodology is an enhancement for analyzing mass transport and flow phenomena in rocks with complicated pore structure.
Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maikan; Lee, Hedok; Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Ratner, Vadim
2016-01-01
It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the `glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs [1,2]. It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly throu...
Bled, F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, E.
2011-01-01
Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Billaud, Y; Kaiss, A; Drissi, M; Pizzo, Y; Porterie, B; Zekri, N; Acem, Z; Collin, A; Boulet, P; Santoni, P-A; Bosseur, F
2012-01-01
This paper presents the latest developments and validation results of a hybrid model which combines a broad-scale stochastic small-world network model with a macroscopic deterministic approach, to simulate the effects of large fires burning in heterogeneous landscapes. In the extended version of the model, vegetation is depicted as an amorphous network of combustible cells, and both radiation and convection from the flaming zone are considered in the preheating process of unburned cells. Examples are given to illustrate small-world effects and fire behavior near the percolation threshold. The model is applied to a Mediterranean fire that occurred in Corsica in 2009 showing a good agreement in terms of rate of spread, and area and shape of the burn. A study, based on a fractional factorial plan, is conducted to evaluate the influence of variations of model parameters on fire propagation.
Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A
2002-03-15
The dispersion of the agglomerating fluid process involving colloids has been investigated at the mesoscale level by a discrete particle approach--the hybrid fluid-particle model (FPM). Dynamical processes occurring in the granulation of colloidal agglomerate in solvents are severely influenced by coupling between the dispersed microstructures and the global flow. On the mesoscale this coupling is further exacerbated by thermal fluctuations, particle-particle interactions between colloidal beds, and hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal beds and the solvent. Using the method of FPM, we have tackled the problem of dispersion of a colloidal slab being accelerated in a long box filled with a fluid. Our results show that the average size of the agglomerated fragments decreases with increasing shearing rate gamma, according to the power law A x gamma(k), where k is around 2. For larger values of gamma, the mean size of the agglomerate S(avg) increases slowly with gamma from the collisions between the aggregates and the longitudinal stretching induced by the flow. The proportionality constant A increases exponentially with the scaling factor of the attractive forces acting between the colloidal particles. The value of A shows a rather weak dependence on the solvent viscosity. But A increases proportionally with the scaling factor of the colloid-solvent dissipative interactions. Similar type of dependence can be found for the mixing induced by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities involving the colloidal agglomerate and the solvent. Three types of fragmentation structures can be identified, which are called rupture, erosion, and shatter. They generate very complex structures with multiresolution character. The aggregation of colloidal beds is formed by the collisions between aggregates, which are influenced by the flow or by the cohesive forces for small dispersion energies. These results may be applied to enhance our understanding concerning the nonlinear complex
Mathematical modeling for laminar flow of power law fluid in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Renato A.; Mesquita, Maximilian S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Engenharias e Computacao
2010-07-01
In this paper, the macroscopic equations for laminar power-law fluid flow is obtained for a porous medium starting from traditional equations (Navier-Stokes). Then, the volume averaging is applied in traditional transport equations with the power-law fluid model. This procedure leads to macroscopic transport equations set for non-Newtonian fluid. (author)
A Bingham-plastic model for fluid mud transport under waves and currents
Liu, Chun-rong; Wu, Bo; Huhe, Ao-de
2014-04-01
Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.
COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems
Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii
2014-05-01
Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the
Gálvez, Rosa; Musella, Vicenzo; Descalzo, Miguel A; Montoya, Ana; Checa, Rocío; Marino, Valentina; Martín, Oihane; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Miró, Guadalupe
2017-09-19
The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015. Bioclimatic zones, covering broad climate and vegetation ranges, were surveyed in relation to their size. The models builded were obtained by negative binomial regression of several environmental variables to show impacts on C. felis infestation prevalence: land cover, bioclimatic zone, mean summer and autumn temperature, mean summer rainfall, distance to urban settlement and normalized difference vegetation index. In the face of climate change, we also simulated the future distributions of C. felis for the global climate model (GCM) "GFDL-CM3" and for the representative concentration pathway RCP45, which predicts their spread in the country. Predictive models for current climate conditions indicated the widespread distribution of C. felis throughout Spain, mainly across the central northernmost zone of the mainland. Under predicted conditions of climate change, the risk of spread was slightly greater, especially in the north and central peninsula, than for the current situation. The data provided will be useful for local veterinarians to design effective strategies against flea infestation and the pathogens transmitted by these arthropods.
Revisited global drift fluid model for linear devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiser, Dirk
2012-01-01
The problem of energy conserving global drift fluid simulations is revisited. It is found that for the case of cylindrical plasmas in a homogenous magnetic field, a straightforward reformulation is possible avoiding simplifications leading to energetic inconsistencies. The particular new feature is the rigorous treatment of the polarisation drift by a generalization of the vorticity equation. The resulting set of model equations contains previous formulations as limiting cases and is suitable for efficient numerical techniques. Examples of applications on studies of plasma blobs and its impact on plasma target interaction are presented. The numerical studies focus on the appearance of plasma blobs and intermittent transport and its consequences on the release of sputtered target materials in the plasma. Intermittent expulsion of particles in radial direction can be observed and it is found that although the neutrals released from the target show strong fluctuations in their propagation into the plasma column, the overall effect on time averaged profiles is negligible for the conditions considered. In addition, the numerical simulations are utilised to perform an a-posteriori assessment of the magnitude of energetic inconsistencies in previously used simplified models. It is found that certain popular approximations, in particular by the use of simplified vorticity equations, do not significantly affect energetics. However, popular model simplifications with respect to parallel advection are found to provide significant deterioration of the model consistency.
Muñoz-Esparza, Domingo; Kosović, Branko; Jiménez, Pedro A.; Coen, Janice L.
2018-04-01
The level-set method is typically used to track and propagate the fire perimeter in wildland fire models. Herein, a high-order level-set method using fifth-order WENO scheme for the discretization of spatial derivatives and third-order explicit Runge-Kutta temporal integration is implemented within the Weather Research and Forecasting model wildland fire physics package, WRF-Fire. The algorithm includes solution of an additional partial differential equation for level-set reinitialization. The accuracy of the fire-front shape and rate of spread in uncoupled simulations is systematically analyzed. It is demonstrated that the common implementation used by level-set-based wildfire models yields to rate-of-spread errors in the range 10-35% for typical grid sizes (Δ = 12.5-100 m) and considerably underestimates fire area. Moreover, the amplitude of fire-front gradients in the presence of explicitly resolved turbulence features is systematically underestimated. In contrast, the new WRF-Fire algorithm results in rate-of-spread errors that are lower than 1% and that become nearly grid independent. Also, the underestimation of fire area at the sharp transition between the fire front and the lateral flanks is found to be reduced by a factor of ≈7. A hybrid-order level-set method with locally reduced artificial viscosity is proposed, which substantially alleviates the computational cost associated with high-order discretizations while preserving accuracy. Simulations of the Last Chance wildfire demonstrate additional benefits of high-order accurate level-set algorithms when dealing with complex fuel heterogeneities, enabling propagation across narrow fuel gaps and more accurate fire backing over the lee side of no fuel clusters.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Saltstone Vault 4 Vapor Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Si Young
2005-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns for vapor space inside the Saltstone Vault No.4 under different operating scenarios. The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations. A CFD model took three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the boundary conditions as provided by the customer. The present model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference baseline case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information
Numerical models for fluid-grains interactions: opportunities and limitations
Esteghamatian, Amir; Rahmani, Mona; Wachs, Anthony
2017-06-01
In the framework of a multi-scale approach, we develop numerical models for suspension flows. At the micro scale level, we perform particle-resolved numerical simulations using a Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain approach. At the meso scale level, we use a two-way Euler/Lagrange approach with a Gaussian filtering kernel to model fluid-solid momentum transfer. At both the micro and meso scale levels, particles are individually tracked in a Lagrangian way and all inter-particle collisions are computed by a Discrete Element/Soft-sphere method. The previous numerical models have been extended to handle particles of arbitrary shape (non-spherical, angular and even non-convex) as well as to treat heat and mass transfer. All simulation tools are fully-MPI parallel with standard domain decomposition and run on supercomputers with a satisfactory scalability on up to a few thousands of cores. The main asset of multi scale analysis is the ability to extend our comprehension of the dynamics of suspension flows based on the knowledge acquired from the high-fidelity micro scale simulations and to use that knowledge to improve the meso scale model. We illustrate how we can benefit from this strategy for a fluidized bed, where we introduce a stochastic drag force model derived from micro-scale simulations to recover the proper level of particle fluctuations. Conversely, we discuss the limitations of such modelling tools such as their limited ability to capture lubrication forces and boundary layers in highly inertial flows. We suggest ways to overcome these limitations in order to enhance further the capabilities of the numerical models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alina Żogała
2014-01-01
Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.
Sun, Ruiyu
It is possible due to present day computing power to produce a fluid dynamical physically-based numerical solution to wildfire behavior, at least in the research mode. This type of wildfire modeling affords a flexibility and produces details that are not available in either current operational wildfire behavior models or field experiments. However before using these models to study wildfire, validation is necessary, and model results need to be systematically and objectively analyzed and compared to real fires. Plume theory and data from the Meteotron experiment, which was specially designed to provide results from measurements for the theoretical study of a convective plume produced by a high heat source at the ground, are used here to evaluate the fire plume properties simulated by two numerical wildfire models, the Fire Dynamics Simulator or FDS, and the Clark coupled atmosphere-fire model. The study indicates that the FDS produces good agreement with the plume theory and the Meteotron results. The study also suggests that the coupled atmosphere-fire model, a less explicit and ideally less computationally demanding model than the FDS; can produce good agreement, but that the agreement is sensitive to the method of putting the energy released from the fire into the atmosphere. The WFDS (Wildfire and wildland-urban interface FDS), an extension of the FDS to the vegetative fuel, and the Australian grass fire experiments are used to evaluate and improve the UULES-wildfire coupled model. Despite the simple fire parameterization in the UULES-wildfire coupled model, the fireline is fairly well predicted in terms of both shape and location in the simulation of Australian grass fire experiment F19. Finally, the UULES-wildfire coupled model is used to examine how the turbulent flow in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) affects the growth of the grass fires. The model fires showed significant randomness in fire growth: Fire spread is not deterministic in the ABL, and a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2017-09-01
MELTSPREAD3 is a transient one-dimensional computer code that has been developed to predict the gravity-driven flow and freezing behavior of molten reactor core materials (corium) in containment geometries. Predictions can be made for corium flowing across surfaces under either dry or wet cavity conditions. The spreading surfaces that can be selected are steel, concrete, a user-specified material (e.g., a ceramic), or an arbitrary combination thereof. The corium can have a wide range of compositions of reactor core materials that includes distinct oxide phases (predominantly Zr, and steel oxides) plus metallic phases (predominantly Zr and steel). The code requires input that describes the containment geometry, melt “pour” conditions, and cavity atmospheric conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and cavity flooding information). For cases in which the cavity contains a preexisting water layer at the time of RPV failure, melt jet breakup and particle bed formation can be calculated mechanistically given the time-dependent melt pour conditions (input data) as well as the heatup and boiloff of water in the melt impingement zone (calculated). For core debris impacting either the containment floor or previously spread material, the code calculates the transient hydrodynamics and heat transfer which determine the spreading and freezing behavior of the melt. The code predicts conditions at the end of the spreading stage, including melt relocation distance, depth and material composition profiles, substrate ablation profile, and wall heatup. Code output can be used as input to other models such as CORQUENCH that evaluate long term core-concrete interaction behavior following the transient spreading stage. MELTSPREAD3 was originally developed to investigate BWR Mark I liner vulnerability, but has been substantially upgraded and applied to other reactor designs (e.g., the EPR), and more recently to the plant accidents at Fukushima Daiichi. The most recent round of
A fully dynamic magneto-rheological fluid damper model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Z; Christenson, R E
2012-01-01
Control devices can be used to dissipate the energy of a civil structure subjected to dynamic loading, thus reducing structural damage and preventing failure. Semiactive control devices have received significant attention in recent years. The magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is a promising type of semiactive device for civil structures due to its mechanical simplicity, inherent stability, high dynamic range, large temperature operating range, robust performance, and low power requirements. The MR damper is intrinsically nonlinear and rate-dependent, both as a function of the displacement across the MR damper and the command current being supplied to the MR damper. As such, to develop control algorithms that take maximum advantage of the unique features of the MR damper, accurate models must be developed to describe its behavior for both displacement and current. In this paper, a new MR damper model that includes a model of the pulse-width modulated (PWM) power amplifier providing current to the damper, a proposed model of the time varying inductance of the large-scale 200 kN MR dampers coils and surrounding MR fluid—a dynamic behavior that is not typically modeled—and a hyperbolic tangent model of the controllable force behavior of the MR damper is presented. Validation experimental tests are conducted with two 200 kN large-scale MR dampers located at the Smart Structures Technology Laboratory (SSTL) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Lehigh University Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. Comparison with experimental test results for both prescribed motion and current and real-time hybrid simulation of semiactive control of the MR damper shows that the proposed MR damper model can accurately predict the fully dynamic behavior of the large-scale 200 kN MR damper. (paper)
A fluid-mechanical model of elastocapillary coalescence
Singh, Kiran
2014-03-25
© 2014 Cambridge University Press. We present a fluid-mechanical model of the coalescence of a number of elastic objects due to surface tension. We consider an array of spring-block elements separated by thin liquid films, whose dynamics are modelled using lubrication theory. With this simplified model of elastocapillary coalescence, we present the results of numerical simulations for a large number of elements, N = O(10^{4}). A linear stability analysis shows that pairwise coalescence is always the most unstable mode of deformation. However, the numerical simulations show that the cluster sizes actually produced by coalescence from a small white-noise perturbation have a distribution that depends on the relative strength of surface tension and elasticity, as measured by an elastocapillary number K. Both the maximum cluster size and the mean cluster size scale like K^{-1/2} for small K. An analytical solution for the response of the system to a localized perturbation shows that such perturbations generate propagating disturbance fronts, which leave behind \\'frozen-in\\' clusters of a predictable size that also depends on K. A good quantitative comparison between the cluster-size statistics from noisy perturbations and this \\'frozen-in\\' cluster size suggests that propagating fronts may play a crucial role in the dynamics of coalescence.
Magnetic Electron Filtering by Fluid Models for the PEGASES Thruster
Leray, Gary; Chabert, Pascal; Lichtenberg, Allan; Lieberman, Michael
2009-10-01
The PEGASES thruster produces thrust by creating positive and negative ions, which are then accelerated. To accelerate both type of ions, electrons need to be filtered, which is achieved by applying a static magnetic field strong enough to magnetize the electrons but not the ions. A 1D fluid model with three species (electrons, positive and negative ions) and an analytical model are proposed to understand this process for an oxygen plasma with p = 10 mTorr and B0 = 300 G [1]. The resulting ion-ion plasma formation in the transverse direction (perpendicular to the magnetic field) is demonstrated. It is shown that an additional electron/positive ion loss term is required. The solutions are evaluated for two main parameters: the ionizing fraction at the plasma center (x = 0), ne0/ng, and the electronegativity ratio at the center, α0=nn0/ne0. The effect of geometry and magnetic field amplitude are also discussed. [4pt] [1] Leray G, Chabert P, Lichtenberg A J and Lieberman M A, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Plasma Modelling Cluster issue, to appear (2009)
Fluid-structure interactions models, analysis and finite elements
Richter, Thomas
2017-01-01
This book starts by introducing the fundamental concepts of mathematical continuum mechanics for fluids and solids and their coupling. Special attention is given to the derivation of variational formulations for the subproblems describing fluid- and solid-mechanics as well as the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem. Two monolithic formulations for fluid-structure interactions are described in detail: the well-established ALE formulation and the modern Fully Eulerian formulation, which can effectively deal with problems featuring large deformation and contact. Further, the book provides details on state-of-the-art discretization schemes for fluid- and solid-mechanics and considers the special needs of coupled problems with interface-tracking and interface-capturing techniques. Lastly, advanced topics like goal-oriented error estimation, multigrid solution and gradient-based optimization schemes are discussed in the context of fluid-structure interaction problems.
Numerical Modeling of Porous Structure of Biomaterial and Fluid Flowing Through Biomaterial
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
A Cellular Automata model of simulating body fluid flowing into porous bioceramic implants generated with stochastic methods is described, of which main parameters and evolvement rule are determined in terms of flow behavior of body fluid in porous biomaterials. The model is implemented by GUI( Graphical User Interface) program in MATLAB, and the results of numerical modeling show that the body fluid percolation is related to the size of pores and porosity.
An Ontology-Based Tourism Recommender System Based on Spreading Activation Model
Bahramian, Z.; Abbaspour, R. Ali
2015-12-01
A tourist has time and budget limitations; hence, he needs to select points of interest (POIs) optimally. Since the available information about POIs is overloading, it is difficult for a tourist to select the most appreciate ones considering preferences. In this paper, a new travel recommender system is proposed to overcome information overload problem. A recommender system (RS) evaluates the overwhelming number of POIs and provides personalized recommendations to users based on their preferences. A content-based recommendation system is proposed, which uses the information about the user's preferences and POIs and calculates a degree of similarity between them. It selects POIs, which have highest similarity with the user's preferences. The proposed content-based recommender system is enhanced using the ontological information about tourism domain to represent both the user profile and the recommendable POIs. The proposed ontology-based recommendation process is performed in three steps including: ontology-based content analyzer, ontology-based profile learner, and ontology-based filtering component. User's feedback adapts the user's preferences using Spreading Activation (SA) strategy. It shows the proposed recommender system is effective and improves the overall performance of the traditional content-based recommender systems.
AN ONTOLOGY-BASED TOURISM RECOMMENDER SYSTEM BASED ON SPREADING ACTIVATION MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Bahramian
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A tourist has time and budget limitations; hence, he needs to select points of interest (POIs optimally. Since the available information about POIs is overloading, it is difficult for a tourist to select the most appreciate ones considering preferences. In this paper, a new travel recommender system is proposed to overcome information overload problem. A recommender system (RS evaluates the overwhelming number of POIs and provides personalized recommendations to users based on their preferences. A content-based recommendation system is proposed, which uses the information about the user’s preferences and POIs and calculates a degree of similarity between them. It selects POIs, which have highest similarity with the user’s preferences. The proposed content-based recommender system is enhanced using the ontological information about tourism domain to represent both the user profile and the recommendable POIs. The proposed ontology-based recommendation process is performed in three steps including: ontology-based content analyzer, ontology-based profile learner, and ontology-based filtering component. User’s feedback adapts the user’s preferences using Spreading Activation (SA strategy. It shows the proposed recommender system is effective and improves the overall performance of the traditional content-based recommender systems.
Mathematical modeling of fluid and solute transport in peritoneal dialysis
Waniewski, Jacek
2001-01-01
Optimization of peritoneal dialysis schedule and dialysis fluid composition needs, among others, methods for quantitative assessment of fluid and solute transport. Furthermore, an integrative quantitative description of physiological processes within the tissue, which contribute to the net transfer of fluid and solutes, is necessary for interpretation of the data and for predictions of the outcome of possible intervention into the peritoneal transport system. The current pro...
Fluid-Structure Interaction in Continuum Models of Bacterial Biofilms
Hicks, Jared A.
Bacterial biofilms are aggregates of cells that adhere to nearly any solid-fluid interface. While many have harmful effects, such as industrial damage and nosocomial infections, certain biofilm species are now generating renewable energy as the fundamental components of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). In an MFC, bacteria consume organic waste and, as they respire, produce free electrons. To do so efficiently, the bacteria must operate at peak metabolic activity, and so require an ample supply of nutrients. But existing MFC systems face several nutrient delivery problems, including clogging and downstream depletion. Ameliorating these problems will require a better understanding of the interplay between structural development and the surrounding fluid flow. In addition to delivering nutrients that affect biofilm growth, the fluid also exerts stresses that cause erosion, detachment, and deformation. These structural changes, in turn, affect the flow and alter the nutrient distribution. To account for this feedback effect, I have developed a continuum model that couples the growth and deformation processes. My model augments an existing growth model with evolution equations derived from Morphoelasticity Theory, by showing that the growth tensor can be directly related to the biofilm velocity potential. This result helps overcome one of the major practical limitations of Morphoelasticity--there is no physical framework for specifying the growth tensor. Through further analysis of the growth tensor, I define the related adjugate and anisotropic growth tensors, which can be more meaningful measures of growth for some models. Under the assumption of small strain, I show that there exists a small correction to the biofilm growth velocity (the accommodation velocity) that represents the effect of the elastic response on the evolution of the biofilm shape. I derive a solvability condition for the accommodation velocity, and show that it leads to a novel evolution equation for
Coffman, Lan G; Burgos-Ojeda, Daniela; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen; Bai, Shoumei; Buckanovich, Ronald J
2016-09-01
Emerging evidence suggest that many high-grade serous "ovarian" cancers (HGSOC) start in the fallopian tube. Cancer cells are then recruited to the ovary and then spread diffusely through the abdomen. The mechanism of ovarian cancer spread was thought to be largely due to direct shedding of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity with vascular spread being of limited importance. Recent work challenges this dogma, suggesting hematogenous spread of ovarian cancer may play a larger role in ovarian cancer cell metastasis than previously thought. One reason the role of vascular spread of ovarian cancer has not been fully elucidated is the lack of easily accessible models of vascular ovarian cancer metastasis. Here, we present 3 metastatic models of ovarian cancer which confirm the ability of ovarian cancer to hematogenously spread. Strikingly, we observe a high rate of metastasis to the ovary with the development of ascites in these models. Interestingly, oophorectomy resulted in a complete loss of peritoneal metastases and ascites. Taken together, our data indicate that hematogenously disseminated HGSOC cells have a unique tropism for the ovary and that hematogenous spread in ovarian cancer may be more common than appreciated. Furthermore, our studies support a critical role for the ovary in promoting HGSOC cell metastasis to the abdomen. The models developed here represent important new tools to evaluate both the mechanism of cancer cell recruitment to the ovary and understand and target key steps in ovarian cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Advanced Fluid Reduced Order Models for Compressible Flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fike, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maddix, Danielle [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mussoni, Erin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Balajewicz, Maciej [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2017-09-01
This report summarizes fiscal year (FY) 2017 progress towards developing and implementing within the SPARC in-house finite volume flow solver advanced fluid reduced order models (ROMs) for compressible captive-carriage flow problems of interest to Sandia National Laboratories for the design and qualification of nuclear weapons components. The proposed projection-based model order reduction (MOR) approach, known as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Least- Squares Petrov-Galerkin (LSPG) method, can substantially reduce the CPU-time requirement for these simulations, thereby enabling advanced analyses such as uncertainty quantification and de- sign optimization. Following a description of the project objectives and FY17 targets, we overview briefly the POD/LSPG approach to model reduction implemented within SPARC . We then study the viability of these ROMs for long-time predictive simulations in the context of a two-dimensional viscous laminar cavity problem, and describe some FY17 enhancements to the proposed model reduction methodology that led to ROMs with improved predictive capabilities. Also described in this report are some FY17 efforts pursued in parallel to the primary objective of determining whether the ROMs in SPARC are viable for the targeted application. These include the implemen- tation and verification of some higher-order finite volume discretization methods within SPARC (towards using the code to study the viability of ROMs on three-dimensional cavity problems) and a novel structure-preserving constrained POD/LSPG formulation that can improve the accuracy of projection-based reduced order models. We conclude the report by summarizing the key takeaways from our FY17 findings, and providing some perspectives for future work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Kazachkov
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Important nuclear power safety problem in touch with modeling of melted corium jet spreading inside the coolant pool is considered in the paper. It appears by development of the passive protection systems against se-vere accidents. The non-linear mathematical developed model is presented for the jet under reactor vessel pool for one of the perspective passive protection systems and the results of its analysis and studies are given. The performed analysis and the results of the numerical simulation done on the base of the model have allowed estab-lishing the interesting behaviors of the system, which may be useful for the scientists, as well as the engineers-constructors of the passive protection systems against severe accidents.
Tao, Li; Zhu, Kun; Zhu, Jungao; Xu, Xiaohan; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wenjun; Lu, Haiyang; Zhao, Yanying; Lu, Yuanrong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xueqing
2017-07-07
With the development of laser technology, laser-driven proton acceleration provides a new method for proton tumor therapy. However, it has not been applied in practice because of the wide and decreasing energy spectrum of laser-accelerated proton beams. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to reconstruct the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) using laser-accelerated proton beams. Firstly, we present a modified weighting formula for protons of different energies. Secondly, a theoretical model for the reconstruction of SOBPs with laser-accelerated proton beams has been built. It can quickly calculate the number of laser shots needed for each energy interval of the laser-accelerated protons. Finally, we show the 2D reconstruction results of SOBPs for laser-accelerated proton beams and the ideal situation. The final results show that our analytical model can give an SOBP reconstruction scheme that can be used for actual tumor therapy.
Fluid model of dc glow discharge with nonlocal ionization source term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafatov, I R; Bogdanov, E A; Kudryavtsev, A A
2012-01-01
We developed and tested a simple hybrid model for a glow discharge, which incorporates nonlocal ionization by fast electrons into the fluid framework. Calculations have been performed for an argon gas. Comparison with the experimental data as well as with the hybrid (particle) and fluid modelling results demonstated good applicability of the proposed model.
Brenner, Frank; Marwan, Norbert; Hoffmann, Peter
2017-06-01
In this study we combined a wide range of data sets to simulate the outbreak of an airborne infectious disease that is directly transmitted from human to human. The basis is a complex network whose structures are inspired by global air traffic data (from openflights.org) containing information about airports, airport locations, direct flight connections and airplane types. Disease spreading inside every node is realized with a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) compartmental model. Disease transmission rates in our model are depending on the climate environment and therefore vary in time and from node to node. To implement the correlation between water vapor pressure and influenza transmission rate [J. Shaman, M. Kohn, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 3243 (2009)], we use global available climate reanalysis data (WATCH-Forcing-Data-ERA-Interim, WFDEI). During our sensitivity analysis we found that disease spreading dynamics are strongly depending on network properties, the climatic environment of the epidemic outbreak location, and the season during the year in which the outbreak is happening.
A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Kaare; Sumner, T.; Enøe, Claes
2016-01-01
In 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) was introduced to both Denmark (DK) and the United Kingdom (UK). For this reason, simulation models were built to predict scenarios for future incursions. The DK and UK models have a common description of within-herd dynamics, but differ greatly in their descriptio...... sensitivity to the level of vaccine uptake and has lower variability compared with a kernel-based model. However, a model using a transmission kernel requires less detailed data and is often faster....
Thermodynamic Property Model of Wide-Fluid Phase Propane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Made Astina
2007-05-01
Full Text Available A new thermodynamic property model for propane is expressed in form of the Helmholtz free energy function. It consists of eight terms of the ideal-gas part and eighteen terms of the residual part. Accurate experimental data of fluid properties and theoretical approach from the intermolecular potential were simultaneously considered in the development to insure accuracy and to improve reliability of the equation of state over wide range of pressures and temperatures. Based on the state range of experimental data used in the model development, the validity range is judged from the triple-point of 85.48 K to temperature of 450 K and pressure up to 60 MPa. The uncertainties with respect to different properties are estimated to be 0.03% in ideal-gas isobaric specific heat, 0.2% in liquid phase density, 0.3% in gaseous phase density 1% in specific heats, 0.1% in vapor-pressure except at very low temperatures, 0.05% in saturated-liquid density, 0.02% in speed of sound of the gaseous phase and 1% in speed of sound of the liquid phase.
Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, Stephane
2011-01-01
This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified
Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thibault Lemaire
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.
Woodcock, T E; Woodcock, T M
2012-03-01
I.V. fluid therapy does not result in the extracellular volume distribution expected from Starling's original model of semi-permeable capillaries subject to hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients within the extracellular fluid. Fluid therapy to support the circulation relies on applying a physiological paradigm that better explains clinical and research observations. The revised Starling equation based on recent research considers the contributions of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL), the endothelial basement membrane, and the extracellular matrix. The characteristics of capillaries in various tissues are reviewed and some clinical corollaries considered. The oncotic pressure difference across the EGL opposes, but does not reverse, the filtration rate (the 'no absorption' rule) and is an important feature of the revised paradigm and highlights the limitations of attempting to prevent or treat oedema by transfusing colloids. Filtered fluid returns to the circulation as lymph. The EGL excludes larger molecules and occupies a substantial volume of the intravascular space and therefore requires a new interpretation of dilution studies of blood volume and the speculation that protection or restoration of the EGL might be an important therapeutic goal. An explanation for the phenomenon of context sensitivity of fluid volume kinetics is offered, and the proposal that crystalloid resuscitation from low capillary pressures is rational. Any potential advantage of plasma or plasma substitutes over crystalloids for volume expansion only manifests itself at higher capillary pressures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pamella Akoth Ogada
Full Text Available Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant, as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.
Cellular-automation fluids: A model for flow in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothman, D.H.
1987-01-01
Because the intrinsic inhomogeneity of porous media makes the application of proper boundary conditions difficult, fluid flow through microgeometric models has typically been achieved with idealized arrays of geometrically simple pores, throats, and cracks. The author proposes here an attractive alternative, capable of freely and accurately modeling fluid flow in grossly irregular geometries. This new method numerically solves the Navier-Stokes equations using the cellular-automation fluid model introduced by Frisch, Hasslacher, and Pomeau. The cellular-automation fluid is extraordinarily simple - particles of unit mass traveling with unit velocity reside on a triangular lattice and obey elementary collisions rules - but capable of modeling much of the rich complexity of real fluid flow. The author shows how cellular-automation fluids are applied to the study of porous media. In particular, he discusses issues of scale on the cellular-automation lattice and present the results of 2-D simulations, including numerical estimation of permeability and verification of Darcy's law
Modeling cell-substrate de-adhesion dynamics under fluid shear
Maan, Renu; Rani, Garima; Menon, Gautam I.; Pullarkat, Pramod A.
2018-07-01
Changes in cell-substrate adhesion are believed to signal the onset of cancer metastasis, but such changes must be quantified against background levels of intrinsic heterogeneity between cells. Variations in cell-substrate adhesion strengths can be probed through biophysical measurements of cell detachment from substrates upon the application of an external force. Here, we investigate, theoretically and experimentally, the detachment of cells adhered to substrates when these cells are subjected to fluid shear. We present a theoretical framework within which we calculate the fraction of detached cells as a function of shear stress for fast ramps as well as the decay in this fraction at fixed shear stress as a function of time. Using HEK and 3T3 fibroblast cells as experimental model systems, we extract characteristic force scales for cell adhesion as well as characteristic detachment times. We estimate force-scales of ∼500 pN associated to a single focal contact, and characteristic time-scales of s representing cell-spread-area dependent mean first passage times to the detached state at intermediate values of the shear stress. Variations in adhesion across cell types are especially prominent when cell detachment is probed by applying a time-varying shear stress. These methods can be applied to characterizing changes in cell adhesion in a variety of contexts, including metastasis.
Ghosh, Sreya; Preza, Chrysanthe
2015-07-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) point spread function (PSF) model for wide-field fluorescence microscopy, suitable for imaging samples with variable refractive index (RI) in multilayered media, is presented. This PSF model is a key component for accurate 3-D image restoration of thick biological samples, such as lung tissue. Microscope- and specimen-derived parameters are combined with a rigorous vectorial formulation to obtain a new PSF model that accounts for additional aberrations due to specimen RI variability. Experimental evaluation and verification of the PSF model was accomplished using images from 175-nm fluorescent beads in a controlled test sample. Fundamental experimental validation of the advantage of using improved PSFs in depth-variant restoration was accomplished by restoring experimental data from beads (6 μm in diameter) mounted in a sample with RI variation. In the investigated study, improvement in restoration accuracy in the range of 18 to 35% was observed when PSFs from the proposed model were used over restoration using PSFs from an existing model. The new PSF model was further validated by showing that its prediction compares to an experimental PSF (determined from 175-nm beads located below a thick rat lung slice) with a 42% improved accuracy over the current PSF model prediction.
Invasion percolation of single component, multiphase fluids with lattice Boltzmann models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukop, M.C.; Or, Dani
2003-01-01
Application of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to invasion percolation of single component multiphase fluids in porous media offers an opportunity for more realistic modeling of the configurations and dynamics of liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interfaces. The complex geometry of connected paths in standard invasion percolation models arises solely from the spatial arrangement of simple elements on a lattice. In reality, fluid interfaces and connectivity in porous media are naturally controlled by the details of the pore geometry, its dynamic interaction with the fluid, and the ambient fluid potential. The multiphase LBM approach admits realistic pore geometry derived from imaging techniques and incorporation of realistic hydrodynamics into invasion percolation models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siming Tang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS coronavirus, a newly identified pathogen, causes severe pneumonia in humans. MERS is caused by a coronavirus known as MERS-CoV, which attacks the respiratory system. The recently defined receptor for MERS-CoV, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, is generally expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells and has been shown to be present on cultured human nonciliated bronchiolar epithelium cells. In this paper, a class of novel four-dimensional dynamic model describing the infection of MERS-CoV is given, and then global stability of the equilibria of the model is discussed. Our results show that the spread of MERS-CoV can also be controlled by decreasing the expression rate of DPP4.
Using a cellular model to explore human-facilitated spread of risk of EAB in Minnesota
Anantha Prasad; Louis Iverson; Matthew Peters; Steve. Matthews
2011-01-01
The Emerald Ash Borer has made inroads to Minnesota in the past two years, killing ash trees. We use our spatially explicit cell based model called EAB-SHIFT to calculate the risk of infestation owing to flight characteristics and short distance movement of the insect (insect flight model, IFM), and the human facilitated agents like roads, campgrounds etc. (insect ride...
Application of HEC-RAS water quality model to estimate contaminant spreading in small stream
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halaj, Peter; Bárek, Viliam; Halajová, Anna Báreková; Halajová, Denisa [Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra (Slovakia)
2013-07-01
The paper presents study of some aspects of HEC-RAS water quality model connected to simulation of contaminant transport in small stream. Authors mainly focused on one of the key tasks in process of pollutant transport modelling in streams - determination of the dispersion characteristics represented by longitudinal dispersion coefficient D. Different theoretical and empirical formulas have been proposed for D value determination and they have revealed that the coefficient is variable parameter that depends on hydraulic and morphometric characteristics of the stream reaches. Authors compare the results of several methods of coefficient D assessment, assuming experimental data obtained by tracer studies and compare them with results optimized by HEC-RAS water quality model. The analyses of tracer study and computation outputs allow us to outline the important aspects of longitudinal dispersion coefficient set up in process of the HEC-RAS model use. Key words: longitudinal dispersion coefficient, HEC-RAS, water quality modeling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enaux, C.
2007-11-01
The simulation of indirect laser implosion requires an accurate knowledge of the inter-penetration of the laser target materials turned into plasma. This work is devoted to the study of a multi-velocity multi-fluid model recently proposed by Scannapieco and Cheng (SC) to describe the inter-penetration of miscible fluids. In this document, we begin with presenting the SC model in the context of miscible fluids flow modelling. Afterwards, the mathematical analysis of the model is carried out (study of the hyperbolicity, existence of a strictly convex mathematical entropy, asymptotic analysis and diffusion limit). As a conclusion the problem is well set. Then, we focus on the problem of numerical resolution of systems of conservation laws with a relaxation source term, because SC model belongs to this class. The main difficulty of this task is to capture on a coarse grid the asymptotic behaviour of the system when the source term is stiff. The main contribution of this work lies in the proposition of a new technique, allowing us to construct a Lagrangian numerical flux taking into account the presence of the source term. This technique is applied first on the model-problem of a one-dimensional Euler system with friction, and then on the multi-fluid SC model. In both cases, we prove that the new scheme is asymptotic-preserving and entropic under a CFL-like condition. The two-dimensional extension of the scheme is done by using a standard alternate directions method. Some numerical results highlight the contribution of the new flux, compared with a standard Lagrange plus Remap scheme where the source term is processed using an operator splitting. (author)
Vortex dynamics in the two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thouless, D. J.; Geller, M. R.; Vinen, W. F.; Fortin, J.-Y.; Rhee, S. W.
2001-01-01
We have used two-fluid dynamics to study the discrepancy between the work of Thouless, Ao, and Niu (TAN) and that of Iordanskii. In TAN no transverse force on a vortex due to normal fluid flow was found, whereas the earlier work found a transverse force proportional to normal fluid velocity u n and normal fluid density ρ n . We have linearized the time-independent two-fluid equations about the exact solution for a vortex, and find three solutions that are important in the region far from the vortex. Uniform superfluid flow gives rise to the usual superfluid Magnus force. Uniform normal fluid flow gives rise to no forces in the linear region, but does not satisfy reasonable boundary conditions at short distances. A logarithmically increasing normal fluid flow gives a viscous force. As in classical hydrodynamics, and as in the early work of Hall and Vinen, this logarithmic increase must be cut off by nonlinear effects at large distances; this gives a viscous force proportional to u n /lnu n , and a transverse contribution that goes like u n /(lnu n ) 2 , even in the absence of an explicit Iordanskii force. In the limit u n ->0 the TAN result is obtained, but at nonzero u n there are important corrections that were not found in TAN. We argue that the Magnus force in a superfluid at nonzero temperature is an example of a topological relation for which finite-size corrections may be large
Chen, C. H.; Chien, S. W.; Ho, M. C.
2015-08-01
Cultural heritages and historical buildings are vulnerable against severe threats from fire. Since the 1970s, ten fire-spread events involving historic buildings have occurred in Taiwan, affecting a total of 132 nearby buildings. Developed under the influence of traditional Taiwanese culture, historic buildings in Taiwan are often built using non-fire resistant brick-wood structure and located in proximity to residential occupancies. Fire outbreak in these types of neighborhood will lead to severe damage of antiquities, leaving only unrecoverable historical imagery. This study is aimed to investigate the minimal safety distance required between a historical building and its surroundings in order to reduce the risk of external fire. This study is based on literature analysis and the fire spread model using a Fire Dynamics Simulator. The selected target is Jingmei Temple in Taipei City. This study explored local geography to identify patterns behind historical buildings distribution. In the past, risk reduction engineering for cultural heritages and historical buildings focused mainly on fire equipment and the available personnel with emergency response ability, and little attention was given to external fire risks and the affected damage. Through discussions on the required safety distance, this research provides guidelines for the following items: management of neighborhoods with historical buildings and consultation between the protection of cultural heritages and disaster prevention, reducing the frequency and extent of fire damages, and preserving cultural resource.
Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata
2007-01-01
The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.
Kantowski-Sachs Einstein-æther perfect fluid models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latta, Joey [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Leon, Genly [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad de Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Paliathanasis, Andronikos, E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: genly.leon@pucv.cl, E-mail: anpaliat@phys.uoa.gr [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)
2016-11-01
We investigate Kantowski-Sachs models in Einstein-æ ther theory with a perfect fluid source using the singularity analysis to prove the integrability of the field equations and dynamical system tools to study the evolution. We find an inflationary source at early times, and an inflationary sink at late times, for a wide region in the parameter space. The results by A.A. Coley, G. Leon, P. Sandin and J. Latta ( JCAP 12 (2015) 010), are then re-obtained as particular cases. Additionally, we select other values for the non-GR parameters which are consistent with current constraints, getting a very rich phenomenology. In particular, we find solutions with infinite shear, zero curvature, and infinite matter energy density in comparison with the Hubble scalar. We also have stiff-like future attractors, anisotropic late-time attractors, or both, in some special cases. Such results are developed analytically, and then verified by numerics. Finally, the physical interpretation of the new critical points is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Kang Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu
2009-07-01
Tube bundle structures within a Boiler or heat exchanger are laid the fluid-structure, thermal-structure and fluid-thermal-structure coupled boundary condition. In these complicated boundary conditions, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurs when fluid flow causes deformation of the structure. This deformation, in turn, changes the boundary conditions for the fluid flow. The structural analysis have been executed as follows. First of all, divide the fluid and structural analysis discipline, and then independently analyzed each other. However, the fluid dynamic force effect the behavior of the structure, and the vibration amplitude of the structure to fluid. FSI analysis model was separately created fluid and structure model, and then defined the fsi boundary condition, and simultaneously analyzed in one domain. The analysis results were compared with those of the experimental method for validating the analysis model. Flow-induced vibration test was executed with single rod configuration. The vibration amplitudes of a fuel rod were measured by the laser vibro-meter system in x and y-direction. The analyses results were not closely with the test data, but the trend was very similar with the test result. In fsi coupled analysis case, the turbulent model was very important with the reliability of the accuracy of the analysis model. Therefore, the analysis model will be needed to further study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Destrigneville, Christine
1991-01-01
The alteration processes occurring in the volcanics of Mururoa have been studied using petrological data on secondary minerals, chemical analyses of the interstitial fluids and isotopic analyses on both minerals and fluids. Chemical and isotopic exchanges were first modelled, then thermodynamical modeling characterized the chemical evolution during the alteration of the secondary assemblage and of the fluid. The main secondary sequences which have been observed in Mururoa volcanics result from the alteration occurring during the lavas setting. Two different processes have been evidenced. The first one is the deuteric alteration with the CO_2-rich magmatic fluid exsolved from the magma and trapped in the vesicles and the olivine microcracks of the lava intrusions. This alteration in a closed system is dominated by the solid phases when the CO_2 molar fraction in the fluid is higher than 0.25. The second process is the alteration of the lavas by seawater or a meteoric fluid. The basaltic flows present alteration assemblages composed of clay minerals and zeolites whose chemical composition has been forced by the fluid composition. Shallowness emissions of lavas result in completely argillized levels. The present interstitial fluids chemistry result from the percolation of seawater in the volcano. In the argillized levels the fluids have interacted with the clay minerals and their chemical compositions have been modified. The important chemical changes in the present interstitial fluids show that the present alteration in the volcano is higher than the fluids circulation. (author) [fr
Hamiltonian models for the Madelung fluid and generalized Langevin equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonnenmacher, T.F.
1985-01-01
We present a Hamiltonian formulation of some type of an 'electromagnetic' Madelung fluid leading to a fluid mechanics interpretation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and to a subsidary condition to be required in order to make the correspondence between Schroedinger's quantum mechanics and Madelung's fluid mechanics unique. Then we discuss some problems related with the Brownian oscillator. Our aim is to start out with a Hamiltonian for the composite system with surrounding heat bath) and to finally arrive at a stochastic differential equation with completely determined statistical properties. (orig./HSI)
Modelling the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the presence of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The model analysis shows that the disease-free equilibrium is always locally asymptotically stable and in such a case the basic reproductive number R01, the endemic equilibrium exists and the disease remains in the ...
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2016-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations
Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P
We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Espanol and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayaz Hyder
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Factors associated with the burden of influenza among vulnerable populations have mainly been identified using statistical methodologies. Complex simulation models provide mechanistic explanations, in terms of spatial heterogeneity and contact rates, while controlling other factors and may be used to better understand statistical patterns and, ultimately, design optimal population-level interventions. We extended a sophisticated simulation model, which was applied to forecast epidemics and validated for predictive ability, to identify mechanisms for the empirical relationship between social deprivation and the burden of influenza. Our modeled scenarios and associated epidemic metrics systematically assessed whether neighborhood composition and/or spatial arrangement could qualitatively replicate this empirical relationship. We further used the model to determine consequences of local-scale heterogeneities on larger scale disease spread. Our findings indicated that both neighborhood composition and spatial arrangement were critical to qualitatively match the empirical relationship of interest. Also, when social deprivation was fully included in the model, we observed lower age-based attack rates and greater delay in epidemic peak week in the most socially deprived neighborhoods. Insights from simulation models complement current understandings from statistical-based association studies. Additional insights from our study are: (1 heterogeneous spatial arrangement of neighborhoods is a necessary condition for simulating observed disparities in the burden of influenza and (2 unmeasured factors may lead to a better quantitative match between simulated and observed rate ratio in the burden of influenza between the most and least socially deprived populations.
D-string fluid in conifold, I: Topological gauge model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahl Laamara, R.; Drissi, L.B.; Saidi, E.H.
2006-01-01
Motivated by similarities between quantum Hall systems a la Susskind and aspects of topological string theory on conifold as well as results obtained in [E.H. Saidi, Topological SL(2) gauge theory on conifold and noncommutative geometry, hep-th/0601020], we study the dynamics of D-string fluids running in deformed conifold in presence of a strong and constant RR background B-field. We first introduce the basis of D-string system in fluid approximation and then derive the holomorphic noncommutative gauge invariant field action describing its dynamics in conifold. This study may be also viewed as embedding Susskind description for Laughlin liquid in type IIB string theory. FQH systems on real manifolds RxS 2 and S 3 are shown to be recovered by restricting conifold to its Lagrangian sub-manifolds. Aspects of quantum behaviour of the string fluid are discussed. ring fluid are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfelsoufi, Z.; Azrar, L.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a mathematical modeling of flutter and divergence analyses of fluid conveying pipes based on integral equation formulations is presented. Dynamic stability problems related to fluid pressure, velocity, tension, topography slope and viscoelastic supports and foundations are formulated. A methodological approach is presented and the required matrices, associated to the influencing fluid and pipe parameters, are explicitly given. Internal discretizations are used allowing to investigate the deformation, the bending moment, slope and shear force at internal points. Velocity–frequency, pressure-frequency and tension-frequency curves are analyzed for various fluid parameters and internal elastic supports. Critical values of divergence and flutter behaviors with respect to various fluid parameters are investigated. This model is general and allows the study of dynamic stability of tubes crossed by stationary and instationary fluid on various types of supports. Accurate predictions can be obtained and are of particular interest for a better performance and for an optimal safety of piping system installations. - Highlights: • Modeling the flutter and divergence of fluid conveying pipes based on RBF. • Dynamic analysis of a fluid conveying pipe with generalized boundary conditions. • Considered parameters fluid are the pressure, tension, slopes topography, velocity. • Internal support increase the critical velocity value. • This methodologies determine the fluid parameters effects.
Information spreading dynamics in hypernetworks
Suo, Qi; Guo, Jin-Li; Shen, Ai-Zhong
2018-04-01
Contact pattern and spreading strategy fundamentally influence the spread of information. Current mathematical methods largely assume that contacts between individuals are fixed by networks. In fact, individuals are affected by all his/her neighbors in different social relationships. Here, we develop a mathematical approach to depict the information spreading process in hypernetworks. Each individual is viewed as a node, and each social relationship containing the individual is viewed as a hyperedge. Based on SIS epidemic model, we construct two spreading models. One model is based on global transmission, corresponding to RP strategy. The other is based on local transmission, corresponding to CP strategy. These models can degenerate into complex network models with a special parameter. Thus hypernetwork models extend the traditional models and are more realistic. Further, we discuss the impact of parameters including structure parameters of hypernetwork, spreading rate, recovering rate as well as information seed on the models. Propagation time and density of informed nodes can reveal the overall trend of information dissemination. Comparing these two models, we find out that there is no spreading threshold in RP, while there exists a spreading threshold in CP. The RP strategy induces a broader and faster information spreading process under the same parameters.
A Viral Branching Model for Predicting the Spread of Electronic Word-of-Mouth
R.J.A. van der Lans (Ralf); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); J. Eliashberg (Jehoshua); B. Wierenga (Berend)
2009-01-01
textabstractIn a viral marketing campaign an organization develops a marketing message, and stimulates customers to forward this message to their contacts. Despite its increasing popularity, there are no models yet that help marketers to predict how many customers a viral marketing campaign will
A Social Structure Model for Evaluating the Effect of Response Measures on the Spread of Smallpox
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kress, Moshe
2004-01-01
... such as schools and offices, on the other hand. In this paper, we develop a dynamic two-level social interaction model where individuals move back and forth between home and daily meeting sites, possibly passing through a general meeting site...
A syringe-sharing model for the spread of HIV: application to Omsk, Western Siberia.
Artzrouni, Marc; Leonenko, Vasiliy N; Mara, Thierry A
2017-03-01
A system of two differential equations is used to model the transmission dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus between 'persons who inject drugs' (PWIDs) and their syringes. Our vector-borne disease model hinges on a metaphorical urn from which PWIDs draw syringes at random which may or may not be infected and may or may not result in one of the two agents becoming infected. The model's parameters are estimated with data mostly from the city of Omsk in Western Siberia. A linear trend in PWID prevalence in Omsk could only be fitted by considering a time-dependent version of the model captured through a secular decrease in the probability that PWIDs decide to share a syringe. A global sensitivity analysis is performed with 14 parameters considered random variables in order to assess their impact on average numbers infected over a 50-year projection. With obvious intervention implications the drug injection rate and the probability of syringe-cleansing are the only parameters whose coefficients of correlations with numbers of infected PWIDs and infected syringes have an absolute value close to or larger than 0.40. © The authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
An advanced model for spreading and evaporation of accidentally released hazardous liquids on land
Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Sterkenburg, R.P.; Wijnant-Timmerman, S.I.
2009-01-01
Pool evaporation modelling is an important element in consequence assessment of accidentally released hazardous liquids. The evaporation rate determines the amount of toxic or flammable gas released into the atmosphere and is an important factor for the size of a pool fire. In this paper a
An advanced model for spreading and evaporation of accidentally released hazardous liquids on land
Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Wijnant-Timmerman, S.L.
2008-01-01
Pool evaporation modelling is an important element in consequence assessment of accidentally released hazardous liquids. The evaporation rate determines the amount of toxic or flammable gas released into the atmosphere and is an important factor for the size of a pool fire. In this paper a
Statistical properties of three-dimensional two-fluid plasma model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qaisrani, M. Hasnain [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xia, ZhenWei [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zou, Dandan, E-mail: ddzou@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China)
2015-09-15
The nonlinear dynamics of incompressible non-dissipative two-fluid plasma model is investigated through classical Gibbs ensemble methods. Liouville's theorem of phase space for each wave number is proved, and the absolute equilibrium spectra for Galerkin truncated two-fluid model are calculated. In two-fluid theory, the equilibrium is built on the conservation of three quadratic invariants: the total energy and the self-helicities for ions and electrons fluid, respectively. The implications of statistic equilibrium spectra with arbitrary ratios of conserved invariants are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Zhou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.
Development of the tube bundle structure for fluid-structure interaction analysis model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae Yong
2010-02-01
Tube bundle structures within a Boiler or heat exchanger are laid the fluid-structure, thermal-structure and fluid-thermal-structure coupled boundary condition. In these complicated boundary conditions, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurs when fluid flow causes deformation of the structure. This deformation, in turn, changes the boundary conditions for the fluid flow. The structural analysis discipline, and then independently analyzed each other. However, the fluid dynamic force effect the behavior of the structure, and the vibration amplitude of the structure to fluid. FSI analysis model was separately created fluid and structure model, and then defined the fsi boundary condition, and simultaneously analyzed in one domain. The analysis results were compared with those of the experimental method for validating the analysis model. Flow-induced vibration test was executed with single rod configuration. The vibration amplitudes of a fuel rod were measured by the laser vibro-meter system in x and y-direction. The analyses results were not closely with the test data, but the trend was very similar with the test result. In fsi coupled analysis case, the turbulent model was very important with the reliability of the accuracy of the analysis model. Therefore, the analysis model will be needed to further study
A model for Huanglongbing spread between citrus plants including delay times and human intervention
Vilamiu, Raphael G. d'A.; Ternes, Sonia; Braga, Guilherme A.; Laranjeira, Francisco F.
2012-09-01
The objective of this work was to present a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delay in the disease's incubation phase in the plants, and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the most important HLB insect vector in Brazil. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the possible impacts of human detection efficiency of symptomatic plants, as well as the influence of a long incubation period of HLB in the plant.
Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow
Bultreys, Tom; Lin, Qingyang; Gao, Ying; Raeini, Ali Q.; AlRatrout, Ahmed; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.
2018-05-01
Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock's relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography. First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-imbibition experiments on a single sample. In these experiments, the exact fluid distributions were not fully repeatable on a pore-by-pore basis, while the global properties of the fluid distribution were. Then two fractional flow experiments were used to validate a quasistatic pore network model. The model correctly predicted the fluid present in more than 75% of pores and throats in drainage and imbibition. To quantify what this means for the relevant global properties of the fluid distribution, we compare the main flow paths and the connectivity across the different pore sizes in the modeled and experimental fluid distributions. These essential topology characteristics matched well for drainage simulations, but not for imbibition. This suggests that the pore-filling rules in the network model we used need to be improved to make reliable predictions of imbibition. The presented analysis illustrates the potential of our methodology to systematically and robustly test two-phase flow models to aid in model development and calibration.
Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: Results from a reputation-based model
Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Cuesta, José A.
2014-08-01
When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance.
Kim, Yup; Cho, Minsoo; Yook, Soon-Hyung
2011-10-01
We study the effects of the underlying topologies on a single feature perturbation imposed to the Axelrod model of consensus formation. From the numerical simulations we show that there are successive updates which are similar to avalanches in many self-organized criticality systems when a perturbation is imposed. We find that the distribution of avalanche size satisfies the finite-size scaling (FSS) ansatz on two-dimensional lattices and random networks. However, on scale-free networks with the degree exponent γ≤3 we show that the avalanche size distribution does not satisfy the FSS ansatz. The results indicate that the disordered configurations on two-dimensional lattices or on random networks are still stable against the perturbation in the limit N (network size) →∞. However, on scale-free networks with γ≤3 the perturbation always drives the disordered phase into an ordered phase. The possible relationship between the properties of phase transition of the Axelrod model and the avalanche distribution is also discussed.
A holistic model for the role of the axial melt lens at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges
MacLeod, C. J.; Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, J. C. J.
2016-12-01
Axial melt lenses (AML) are melt or crystal mush1 bodies located at the dyke-gabbro transition beneath intermediate- and fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs)2,3. Although it is generally thought that AMLs play a major role in the storage and differentiation of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB)1, the melt compositions within the AML and its role in the accretion of the lower crust are heavily debated4-6. Here we present the first comprehensive study of the AML horizon at a fast-spreading MOR (Hess Deep, equatorial Pacific Ocean). We show that plagioclase and pyroxene within the AML are much too evolved to be in equilibrium with MORB, with mean An (54.85) and Mg# (65.01) consistent with derivation from basaltic andesite to andesite melts (Mg# 43-26). We propose that, in between decadal eruptions, the AML is predominantly crystal mush and is fed by small volumes of evolved interstitial melts. Short-lived, focused injection of primitive melt leads to mixing of primitive melts with the extant highly fractionated melt, and triggers eruptions. This model reconciles the paradoxical compositional mismatch between the volcanic and plutonic records with the geophysical characteristics of the AML, the short residence times of Pacific MORB phenocrysts, and the incompatible trace element over-enrichments in MORB. 1Marjanović, M. et al., 2015. Distribution of melt along the East Pacific Rise from 9°30' to 10°N from an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) technique. Geophys. J. Int. 203. 2Detrick, R. S. et al., 1987. Multi-channel seismic imaging of a crustal magma chamber along the EPR. Nature 326. 3Sinton, J. M. & Detrick, R. S., 1992. Mid-ocean ridge magma chambers. J. Geophys. Res. 97. 4Coogan, L. A., Thompson, G. & MacLeod, C. J., 2002. A textural and geochemical investigation of high level gabbros from the Oman ophiolite: implications for the role of the axial magma chamber at fast-spreading ridges. Lithos 63. 5Pan, Y. & Batiza, R., 2002. Mid-ocean ridge magma
Dorjee, S; Poljak, Z; Revie, C W; Bridgland, J; McNab, B; Leger, E; Sanchez, J
2013-09-01
Increasing incidences of emerging and re-emerging diseases that are mostly zoonotic (e.g. severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza H5N1, pandemic influenza) has led to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to tackling these threats to public and animal health. Accordingly, a global movement of 'One-Health/One-Medicine' has been launched to foster collaborative efforts amongst animal and human health officials and researchers to address these problems. Historical evidence points to the fact that pandemics caused by influenza A viruses remain a major zoonotic threat to mankind. Recently, a range of mathematical and computer simulation modelling methods and tools have increasingly been applied to improve our understanding of disease transmission dynamics, contingency planning and to support policy decisions on disease outbreak management. This review provides an overview of methods, approaches and software used for modelling the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animals and humans, particularly those related to the animal-human interface. Modelling parameters used in these studies are summarized to provide references for future work. This review highlights the limited application of modelling research to influenza in animals and at the animal-human interface, in marked contrast to the large volume of its research in human populations. Although swine are widely recognized as a potential host for generating novel influenza viruses, and that some of these viruses, including pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, have been shown to be readily transmissible between humans and swine, only one study was found related to the modelling of influenza spread at the swine-human interface. Significant gaps in the knowledge of frequency of novel viral strains evolution in pigs, farm-level natural history of influenza infection, incidences of influenza transmission between farms and between swine and humans are clearly evident. Therefore, there is a need to direct
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Pichavant
2005-06-01
Full Text Available We present an empirical model of sulphur solubility that allows us to calculate f S2 if P, T, fO2 and the melt composition, including H2O and S, are known. The model is calibrated against three main experimental data bases consisting in both dry and hydrous silicate melts. Its prime goal is to calculate the f S2 of hydrous basalts that currently lack experimental constraints of their sulphur solubility behaviour. Application of the model to Stromboli, Vesuvius, Vulcano and Etna eruptive products shows that the primitive magmas found at these volcanoes record f S2 in the range 0.1-1 bar. In contrast, at all volcanoes the magmatic evolution is marked by dramatic variations in f S2 that spreads over up to 9 orders of magnitude. The f S2 can either increase during differentiation or decrease during decompression to shallow reservoirs, and seems to be related to closed versus open conduit conditions, respectively. The calculated f S2 shows that the Italian magmas are undersaturated in a FeS melt, except during closed conduit conditions, in which case differentiation may eventually reach conditions of sulphide melt saturation. The knowledge of f S2, fO2 and fH2O allows us to calculate the fluid phase composition coexisting with magmas at depth in the C-O-H-S system. Calculated fluids show a wide range in composition, with CO2 mole fractions of up to 0.97. Except at shallow levels, the fluid phase is generally dominated by CO2 and H2O species, the mole fractions of SO2 and H2S rarely exceeding 0.05 each. The comparison between calculated fluid compositions and volcanic gases shows that such an approach should provide constraints on both the depth and mode of degassing, as well as on the amount of free fluid in magma reservoirs. Under the assumption of a single step separation of the gas phase in a closed-system condition, the application to Stromboli and Etna suggests that the main reservoirs feeding the eruptions and persistent
Modeling of magnetorheological fluid in quasi-static squeeze flow mode
Horak, Wojciech
2018-06-01
This work presents a new nonlinear model to describe MR fluid behavior in the squeeze flow mode. The basis for deriving the model were the principles of continuum mechanics and the theory of tensor transformation. The analyzed case concerned quasi-static squeeze with a constant area, between two parallel plates with non-slip boundary conditions. The developed model takes into account the rheological properties or MR fluids as a viscoplastic material for which yield stress increases due to compression. The model also takes into account the formation of normal force in the MR fluid as a result of the magnetic field impact. Moreover, a new parameter has been introduced which characterizes the behavior of MR fluid subjected to compression. The proposed model has been experimentally validated and the obtained results suggest that the assumptions made in the model development are reasonable, as good model compatibility with the experiments was obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michaela Černíková
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of 0.25% w/w κ-carrageenan and ι‑carrageenan on viscoelastic properties of processed cheese were studied using model samples containing 40% w/w dry matter and 45 and 50% w/w fat in dry matter. Experimental samples of processed cheese were evaluated after 14 days of storage at the temperature of 6 ± 2 °C. Basic parameters of processed cheese samples under study (i.e. their dry matter content and pH were not different (P ≥ 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in values of storage modulus G´ [Pa], loss modulus G'' [Pa] and tangent of phase shift angle tan δ [-] for the reference frequency of 1 Hz between processed cheese with κ‑carrageenan applied in the form of powder and in the form of aqueous dispersion (P ≥ 0.05. The addition of 0.25% w/w κ‑carrageenan and ι‑carrageenan (in the powder form resulted in an increase in storage (G´ and loss (G'' moduli and a decrease in values of tan δ (P < 0.05. As compared with control (i.e. without added carrageenans, samples of processed cheese became firmer. Iota-carrageenan added in the powder form in concentration of 0.25% w/w showed a more intensive effect on the increase in firmness of processed cheese under study than κ‑carrageenan (P < 0.05.
Epidemiological models to control the spread of information in marine mammals.
Schakner, Zachary A; Buhnerkempe, Michael G; Tennis, Mathew J; Stansell, Robert J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Blumstein, Daniel T
2016-12-14
Socially transmitted wildlife behaviours that create human-wildlife conflict are an emerging problem for conservation efforts, but also provide a unique opportunity to apply principles of infectious disease control to wildlife management. As an example, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have learned to exploit concentrations of migratory adult salmonids below the fish ladders at Bonneville Dam, impeding endangered salmonid recovery. Proliferation of this foraging behaviour in the sea lion population has resulted in a controversial culling programme of individual sea lions at the dam, but the impact of such culling remains unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness of current and alternative culling strategies, we used network-based diffusion analysis on a long-term dataset to demonstrate that social transmission is implicated in the increase in dam-foraging behaviour and then studied different culling strategies within an epidemiological model of the behavioural transmission data. We show that current levels of lethal control have substantially reduced the rate of social transmission, but failed to effectively reduce overall sea lion recruitment. Earlier implementation of culling could have substantially reduced the extent of behavioural transmission and, ultimately, resulted in fewer animals being culled. Epidemiological analyses offer a promising tool to understand and control socially transmissible behaviours. © 2016 The Author(s).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asma Azizi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We create and analyze a mathematical model to understand the impact of condom-use and sexual behavior on the prevalence and spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs. STIs remain significant public health challenges globally with a high burden of some Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs in both developed and undeveloped countries. Although condom-use is known to reduce the transmission of STIs, there are a few quantitative population-based studies on the protective role of condom-use in reducing the incidence of STIs. The number of concurrent partners is correlated with their risk of being infectious by an STI such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. We develop a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS model that stratifies the population based on the number of concurrent partners. The model captures the multi-level heterogeneous mixing through a combination of biased (preferential and random (proportional mixing processes between individuals with distinct risk levels, and accounts for differences in condom-use in the low- and high-risk populations. We use sensitivity analysis to assess the relative impact of high-risk people using condom as a prophylactic intervention to reduce their chance of being infectious, or infecting others. The model predicts the STI prevalence as a function of the number of partners of an individual, and quantifies how this distribution of effective partners changes as a function of condom-use. Our results show that when the mixing is random, then increasing the condom-use in the high-risk population is more effective in reducing the prevalence than when many of the partners of high-risk people have high risk. The model quantifies how the risk of being infected increases for people who have more partners, and the need for high-risk people to consistently use condoms to reduce their risk of infection. Keywords: Mathematical modeling, Sexually transmitted infection (STI, Biased (preferential mixing, Random
Rotating cylindrically symmetric Kaluza-Klein fluid model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
theory the spacetime of the universe is expected to be five dimensional in the early stages of its evolution, the ... fluids in the context of general relativity received considerable attention. Krasinski ... Some specific solutions of physical relevance along with their features of physical .... where « is arbitrary constant of integration.
Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Tape Casting Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2011-01-01
The flow behavior of the fluid in the tape casting process is analyzed. A simple geometry is assumed for running the numerical calculations in ANSYS Fluent and the main parameters are expressed in non-dimensional form. The effect of different values for substrate velocity and pressure force...
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SELF-EXCITED VIBRATION OF PIPES CONTAINING MOBILE BOILING FLUID CLOTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yevgeniy Tolbatov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Numerical modeling dynamic behavior of a pipe containing inner nonhomogeneous flows of a boiling fluid has been carried out. The system vibrations at different values of the parameters of the flow nonhomogeneity and its velocity are observed. The possibility of forming stable and unstable flows depending on the character ofnonhomogeneity and the velocity of fluid clots has been found.
Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model
Reid, Daniel A. P.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Hemelrijk, C. K.; Padding, J.T.
2012-01-01
The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed
Compound waves in a higher order nonlinear model of thermoviscous fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønne Rasmussen, Anders; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri B.
2016-01-01
A generalized traveling wave ansatz is used to investigate compound shock waves in a higher order nonlinear model of a thermoviscous fluid. The fluid velocity potential is written as a traveling wave plus a linear function of space and time. The latter offers the possibility of predicting...
Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.
Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L
2009-01-01
A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.
Askarinejad, A.; Philia Boru Sitanggang, Anggi; Schenkeveld, Ferry; Lee, W.; Lee, J-S.; Kim, H-K.; kim, D-S.
The common practice in centrifuge modelling of dynamic processes is to use high-viscosity pore fluids to unify the time scaling factors for the generation and dissipation of pore pressures. This paper focuses on the effects of the density and viscosity of the pore fluid on the behaviour of an
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette
2017-01-01
Before an efficient control strategy for livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs can be decided upon, it is necessary to obtain a betterunderstanding of how LA-MRSA spreads and persists within a pig herd, once it is introduced.We here present a mechanistic...... stochastic discrete-event simulation model forspread of LA-MRSA within a farrow-to-finish sow herd to aid in this. The model was individual-based and included three different disease compartments: susceptible, intermittent or persistent shedder of MRSA. The model was used for studying transmission dynamics...... and within-farm prevalence after different introductions of LA-MRSA into a farm. The spread of LA-MRSA throughout the farm mainly followed the movement of pigs. After spread of LA-MRSA had reached equilibrium, the prevalence of LA-MRSA shedders was predicted to be highest in the farrowing unit, independent...
A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole
2013-01-01
The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osdal, Bard; Granli, John Reidar
1998-12-31
Seismic lithology and fluid phase prediction (LFP) is becoming an important part of seismic interpretation, and can contribute significantly to risk reduction prior to drilling. In this presentation there is focused on quantitative interpretation of the amplitudes in a 2-D dataset, with respect to presence of hydrocarbons. Different aspect of the working producer, like data quality (well data and seismic data), rock modelling and seismic modelling will be illustrated. In the present study only one well has been used for calibration and to investigate the seismic response for different fluid and lithology scenarios. The rock modelling included evaluation of seismic parameter effect for different fluid and porosities. 1 ref., 4 figs.
Slip of Spreading Viscoplastic Droplets.
Jalaal, Maziyar; Balmforth, Neil J; Stoeber, Boris
2015-11-10
The spreading of axisymmetric viscoplastic droplets extruded slowly on glass surfaces is studied experimentally using shadowgraphy and swept-field confocal microscopy. The microscopy furnishes vertical profiles of the radial velocity using particle image velocimetry (PIV) with neutrally buoyant tracers seeded in the fluid. Experiments were conducted for two complex fluids: aqueous solutions of Carbopol and xanthan gum. On untreated glass surfaces, PIV demonstrates that both fluids experience a significant amount of effective slip. The experiments were repeated on glass that had been treated to feature positive surface charges, thereby promoting adhesion between the negatively charged polymeric constituents of the fluids and the glass surface. The Carbopol and xanthan gum droplets spread more slowly on the treated surface and to a smaller radial distance. PIV demonstrated that this reduced spreading was associated with a substantial reduction in slip. For Carbopol, the effective slip could be eliminated entirely to within the precision of the PIV measurements; the reduction in slip was less effective for xanthan gum, with a weak slip velocity remaining noticeable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thembi Russell
Full Text Available We use archaeological data and spatial methods to reconstruct the dispersal of farming into areas of sub-Saharan Africa now occupied by Bantu language speakers, and introduce a new large-scale radiocarbon database and a new suite of spatial modelling techniques. We also introduce a method of estimating phylogeographic relationships from archaeologically-modelled dispersal maps, with results produced in a format that enables comparison with linguistic and genetic phylogenies. Several hypotheses are explored. The 'deep split' hypothesis suggests that an early-branching eastern Bantu stream spread around the northern boundary of the equatorial rainforest, but recent linguistic and genetic work tends not to support this. An alternative riverine/littoral hypothesis suggests that rivers and coastlines facilitated the migration of the first farmers/horticulturalists, with some extending this to include rivers through the rainforest as conduits to East Africa. More recently, research has shown that a grassland corridor opened through the rainforest at around 3000-2500 BP, and the possible effect of this on migrating populations is also explored. Our results indicate that rivers and coasts were important dispersal corridors, but do not resolve the debate about a 'Deep Split'. Future work should focus on improving the size, quality and geographical coverage of the archaeological (14C database; on augmenting the information base to establish descent relationships between archaeological sites and regions based on shared material cultural traits; and on refining the associated physical geographical reconstructions of changing land cover.
Hal E. Anderson
1969-01-01
Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...
Cosmological models described by a mixture of van der Waals fluid and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, G.M.
2003-01-01
The Universe is modeled as a binary mixture whose constituents are described by a van der Waals fluid and by a dark energy density. The dark energy density is considered either as quintessence or as the Chaplygin gas. The irreversible processes concerning the energy transfer between the van der Waals fluid and the gravitational field are taken into account. This model can simulate (a) an inflationary period where the acceleration grows exponentially and the van der Waals fluid behaves like an inflaton, (b) an accelerated period where the acceleration is positive but it decreases and tends to zero whereas the energy density of the van der Waals fluid decays, (c) a decelerated period which corresponds to a matter dominated period with a non-negative pressure, and (d) a present accelerated period where the dark energy density outweighs the energy density of the van der Waals fluid
Complex fluid network optimization and control integrative design based on nonlinear dynamic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sui, Jinxue; Yang, Li; Hu, Yunan
2016-01-01
In view of distribution according to complex fluid network’s needs, this paper proposed one optimization computation method of the nonlinear programming mathematical model based on genetic algorithm. The simulation result shows that the overall energy consumption of the optimized fluid network has a decrease obviously. The control model of the fluid network is established based on nonlinear dynamics. We design the control law based on feedback linearization, take the optimal value by genetic algorithm as the simulation data, can also solve the branch resistance under the optimal value. These resistances can provide technical support and reference for fluid network design and construction, so can realize complex fluid network optimization and control integration design.
Validation of Numerical Two-Fluid and Kinetic Plasma Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daniel Barnes
2011-03-25
This was a four year grant commencing October 1, 2003 and finishing September 30, 2007. The funding was primarily used to support the work of the Principal Investigator, who collaborated with Profs. Scott Parker and John Cary at U. Colorado, and with two students, N. Xiang and J. Cheng also of U. Colorado. The technical accomplishments of this grant can be found in the publications listed in the final Section here. The main accomplishments of the grant work were: (1) Development and implementation of time-implicit two-fluid simulation methods in collaboration with the NIMROD team; and (2) Development and testing of a new time-implicit delta-f, energy-conserving method The basic two-fluid method, with many improvements is used in present NIMROD calculations. The energy-conserving delta-f method is under continuing development under contract between Coronado Consulting, a New Mexico sole proprietorship and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Two-fluid model with droplet size distribution for condensing steam flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wróblewski, Włodzimierz; Dykas, Sławomir
2016-01-01
The process of energy conversion in the low pressure part of steam turbines may be improved using new and more accurate numerical models. The paper presents a description of a model intended for the condensing steam flow modelling. The model uses a standard condensation model. A physical and a numerical model of the mono- and polydispersed wet-steam flow are presented. The proposed two-fluid model solves separate flow governing equations for the compressible, inviscid vapour and liquid phase. The method of moments with a prescribed function is used for the reconstruction of the water droplet size distribution. The described model is presented for the liquid phase evolution in the flow through the de Laval nozzle. - Highlights: • Computational Fluid Dynamics. • Steam condensation in transonic flows through the Laval nozzles. • In-house CFD code – two-phase flow, two-fluid monodispersed and polydispersed model.
Wave propagation in fluids models and numerical techniques
Guinot, Vincent
2012-01-01
This second edition with four additional chapters presents the physical principles and solution techniques for transient propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The application domains vary including contaminant transport with or without sorption, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, pipe transients, open channel and shallow water flow, and compressible gas dynamics. The mathematical formulation is covered from the angle of conservation laws, with an emphasis on multidimensional problems and discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves. Finite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betchen, L.J.; Straatman, A.G.
2005-01-01
A mathematical and numerical model for the treatment of conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer problems in domains containing pure fluid, porous, and pure solid regions has been developed. The model is general and physically reasoned, and allows for local thermal non-equilibrium in the porous region. The model is developed for implementation on a simple collocated finite volume grid. Of particular novelty are the conditions implemented at the interfaces between porous regions, and those containing a pure solid or pure fluid. The model is validated by simulation of a three-dimensional porous plug problem for which experimental results are available. (author)
Cosmological models constructed by van der Waals fluid approximation and volumetric expansion
Samanta, G. C.; Myrzakulov, R.
The universe modeled with van der Waals fluid approximation, where the van der Waals fluid equation of state contains a single parameter ωv. Analytical solutions to the Einstein’s field equations are obtained by assuming the mean scale factor of the metric follows volumetric exponential and power-law expansions. The model describes a rapid expansion where the acceleration grows in an exponential way and the van der Waals fluid behaves like an inflation for an initial epoch of the universe. Also, the model describes that when time goes away the acceleration is positive, but it decreases to zero and the van der Waals fluid approximation behaves like a present accelerated phase of the universe. Finally, it is observed that the model contains a type-III future singularity for volumetric power-law expansion.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhai, Jianliang; Zhang, Tusheng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely used by NASA to optimize the design of propulsion systems. Current methods for CFD modeling rely on...
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhai, Jianliang, E-mail: zhaijl@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, School of Mathematical Sciences (China); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: Tusheng.Zhang@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
A Quality Function Deployment-Based Model for Cutting Fluid Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanika Prasad
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cutting fluid is applied for numerous reasons while machining a workpiece, like increasing tool life, minimizing workpiece thermal deformation, enhancing surface finish, flushing away chips from cutting surface, and so on. Hence, choosing a proper cutting fluid for a specific machining application becomes important for enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of a manufacturing process. Cutting fluid selection is a complex procedure as the decision depends on many complicated interactions, including work material’s machinability, rigorousness of operation, cutting tool material, metallurgical, chemical, and human compatibility, reliability and stability of fluid, and cost. In this paper, a decision making model is developed based on quality function deployment technique with a view to respond to the complex character of cutting fluid selection problem and facilitate judicious selection of cutting fluid from a comprehensive list of available alternatives. In the first example, HD-CUTSOL is recognized as the most suitable cutting fluid for drilling holes in titanium alloy with tungsten carbide tool and in the second example, for performing honing operation on stainless steel alloy with cubic boron nitride tool, CF5 emerges out as the best honing fluid. Implementation of this model would result in cost reduction through decreased manpower requirement, enhanced workforce efficiency, and efficient information exploitation.
Numerical Modelling of Three-Fluid Flow Using The Level-set Method
Li, Hongying; Lou, Jing; Shang, Zhi
2014-11-01
This work presents a numerical model for simulation of three-fluid flow involving two different moving interfaces. These interfaces are captured using the level-set method via two different level-set functions. A combined formulation with only one set of conservation equations for the whole physical domain, consisting of the three different immiscible fluids, is employed. Numerical solution is performed on a fixed mesh using the finite volume method. Surface tension effect is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force model. Validation of the present model is made against available results for stratified flow and rising bubble in a container with a free surface. Applications of the present model are demonstrated by a variety of three-fluid flow systems including (1) three-fluid stratified flow, (2) two-fluid stratified flow carrying the third fluid in the form of drops and (3) simultaneous rising and settling of two drops in a stationary third fluid. The work is supported by a Thematic and Strategic Research from A*STAR, Singapore (Ref. #: 1021640075).
Computational fluid-dynamic model of laser-induced breakdown in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dors, Ivan G.; Parigger, Christian G.
2003-01-01
Temperature and pressure profiles are computed by the use of a two-dimensional, axially symmetric, time-accurate computational fluid-dynamic model for nominal 10-ns optical breakdown laser pulses. The computational model includes a kinetics mechanism that implements plasma equilibrium kinetics in ionized regions and nonequilibrium, multistep, finite-rate reactions in nonionized regions. Fluid-physics phenomena following laser-induced breakdown are recorded with high-speed shadowgraph techniques. The predicted fluid phenomena are shown by direct comparison with experimental records to agree with the flow patterns that are characteristic of laser spark decay
Neubauer, Florian B; Sederberg, Audrey; MacLean, Jason N
2014-01-01
During the generalization of epileptic seizures, pathological activity in one brain area recruits distant brain structures into joint synchronous discharges. However, it remains unknown whether specific changes in local circuit activity are related to the aberrant recruitment of anatomically distant structures into epileptiform discharges. Further, it is not known whether aberrant areas recruit or entrain healthy ones into pathological activity. Here we study the dynamics of local circuit activity during the spread of epileptiform discharges in the zero-magnesium in vitro model of epilepsy. We employ high-speed multi-photon imaging in combination with dual whole-cell recordings in acute thalamocortical (TC) slices of the juvenile mouse to characterize the generalization of epileptic activity between neocortex and thalamus. We find that, although both structures are exposed to zero-magnesium, the initial onset of focal epileptiform discharge occurs in cortex. This suggests that local recurrent connectivity that is particularly prevalent in cortex is important for the initiation of seizure activity. Subsequent recruitment of thalamus into joint, generalized discharges is coincident with an increase in the coherence of local cortical circuit activity that itself does not depend on thalamus. Finally, the intensity of population discharges is positively correlated between both brain areas. This suggests that during and after seizure generalization not only the timing but also the amplitude of epileptiform discharges in thalamus is entrained by cortex. Together these results suggest a central role of neocortical activity for the onset and the structure of pathological recruitment of thalamus into joint synchronous epileptiform discharges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pino, Francisco; Roé, Nuria; Aguiar, Pablo; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec; Pavía, Javier
2015-01-01
Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pino, Francisco [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain and Servei de Física Mèdica i Protecció Radiològica, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08907 (Spain); Roé, Nuria [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain and Grupo de Imagen Molecular, Instituto de Investigacións Sanitarias de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Galicia 15782 (Spain); Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 08036, Spain and CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Pavía, Javier [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 080836 (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); and Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)
2015-02-15
Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery